Oleksandr Yu. Burov
Full Text Available This paper describes new and emerging technologies in education, learning environments and methods that have to satisfy lifelong learning, from school age to retirement, on the basis of the psychophysiological model of the cognitive abilities formation. It covers such topics as: evaluation of a human (accounting schoolchildren, youth and adults features abilities and individual propensities, individual trajectory of learning, adaptive learning strategy and design, recommendation on curriculum design, day-to-day support for individual’s learning, assessment of a human learning environment and performance, recommendation regards vocational retraining and/or further carrier etc.. The specific goal is to facilitate a broader understanding of the promise and pitfalls of these technologies and working (learning/teaching environments in global education/development settings, with special regard to the human as subject in the system and to the collaboration of humans and technical, didactic and organizational subsystems.
Lubchak, Vladimir; Kupenko, Olena; Kuzikov, Borys
E-learning students are generally heterogeneous and have different capabilities knowledge base and needs. The aim of the Sumy State University (SSU) e-learning system project is to cater to these individual needs by assembling individual learning path. This paper shows current situation with e-learning in Ukraine, state-of-art of development of…
Alharthi, Ahmed D.; Spichkova, Maria
Internationalization of the higher education has created the so-called borderless university, which provides better opportunities for learning and increases the human and social sustainability. eLearning systems are a special kind of software systems, developed to provide a platform for accessible teaching and learning, including also online access to learning materials and online support for learning and teaching. The aim of our current work is to extract, analyse, and combine the results fr...
Intan Soraya Rosdi
Full Text Available The knowledge-based economy of today heralds an era where the business environment is characterized by complex and ever-changing conditions, driven by rapid technological advancements. With knowledge regarded as the main competitive resource, continuous learning becomes critical to firms as they try to keep up with the latest technology and business practices. Moreover, knowledge resides within individual employees, and the challenge is to ensure that knowledge is acquired, applied, and shared to benefit the firm. The situation becomes more complex when it is established that there exists different human capital in firms at any one time, differentiated based on the types of knowledge they contribute to the firm. Further, scant literature exists on the relationship dynamics between the different human capital groups and their influences on individual learning. This paper aims to propose a potential system to manage interaction between the different human capital groups within firms, and its link to enhancing different types of individual learning and intellectual capital.
Full Text Available There are hopes that new learning technologies will help to transform university learning and teaching into a more engaging experience for twenty-first-century students. But since 2000 the changes in campus university teaching have been more limited than expected. I have drawn on ideas from organisational change management research to investigate why this is happening in one particular campus university context. My study examines the strategies of individual lecturers for adopting e-learning within their disciplinary, departmental and university work environments to develop a conceptual framework for analysing university learning and teaching as a complex adaptive system. This conceptual framework links the processes through which university teaching changes, the resulting forms of learning activity and the learning technologies used – all within the organisational context of the university. The framework suggests that systemic transformation of a university's learning and teaching requires coordinated change across activities that have traditionally been managed separately in campus universities. Without such coordination, established ways of organising learning and teaching will reassert themselves, as support staff and lecturers seek to optimise their own work locally. The conceptual framework could inform strategies for realising the full benefits of new learning technologies in other campus universities.
Liao, Peiwen; Yu, Chien; Yi, Chincheh
This study investigated the impact of contingent variables on the relationship between four predictors and employees' behavioral intention with e-learning. Seven hundred and twenty-two employees in online training and education were asked to answer questionnaires about their learning styles, perceptions of the quality of the proposed predictors and behavioral intention with e-learning systems. The results of analysis showed that three contingent variables, gender, job title and industry, significantly influenced the perceptions of predictors and employees' behavioral intention with the e-learning system. This study also found a statistically significant moderating effect of two contingent variables, gender, job title and industry, on the relationship between predictors and e-learning system behavioral intention. The results suggest that a serious consideration of contingent variables is crucial for improving e-learning system behavioral intention. The implications of these results for the management of e-learning systems are discussed.
Full Text Available While the need to adapt teaching to the needs of a student is generally acknowledged (see Corno and Snow, 1986, for a wide review of the literature, little is known about the impact of individual learner-differences on the quality of learning attained within computer-based learning environments (CBLEs. What evidence there is appears to support the notion that individual differences have implications for the degree of success or failure experienced by students (Ford and Ford, 1992 and by trainee end-users of software packages (Bostrom et al, 1990. The problem is to identify the way in which specific individual characteristics of a student interact with particular features of a CBLE, and how the interaction affects the quality of the resultant learning. Teaching in a CBLE is likely to require a subset of teaching strategies different from that subset appropriate to more traditional environments, and the use of a machine may elicit different behaviours from those normally arising in a classroom context.
Seidler, R D; Carson, R G
Here we provide an overview of findings and viewpoints on the mechanisms of sensorimotor learning presented at the 2016 Biomechanics and Neural Control of Movement (BANCOM) conference in Deer Creek, OH. This field has shown substantial growth in the past couple of decades. For example it is now well accepted that neural systems outside of primary motor pathways play a role in learning. Frontoparietal and anterior cingulate networks contribute to sensorimotor adaptation, reflecting strategic aspects of exploration and learning. Longer term training results in functional and morphological changes in primary motor and somatosensory cortices. Interestingly, re-engagement of strategic processes once a skill has become well learned may disrupt performance. Efforts to predict individual differences in learning rate have enhanced our understanding of the neural, behavioral, and genetic factors underlying skilled human performance. Access to genomic analyses has dramatically increased over the past several years. This has enhanced our understanding of cellular processes underlying the expression of human behavior, including involvement of various neurotransmitters, receptors, and enzymes. Surprisingly our field has been slow to adopt such approaches in studying neural control, although this work does require much larger sample sizes than are typically used to investigate skill learning. We advocate that individual differences approaches can lead to new insights into human sensorimotor performance. Moreover, a greater understanding of the factors underlying the wide range of performance capabilities seen across individuals can promote personalized medicine and refinement of rehabilitation strategies, which stand to be more effective than "one size fits all" treatments.
Full Text Available The MOPEM project includes two fixed scenarios that have been defined to convey the idea of "learning paths". Our aim in this paper is to demonstrate the contexts and conditions for flexible learning paths that can be tailored to meet individual needs. The concept of this kind of specialised path is to enable learners to individualise the learning process and to adjust it to their personal needs. We will outline the background and pro- vide examples to explain the concept of learning stations which we use in our four courses: Online Marketing, CRM Systems, Business Communications and Event Marketing. This idea of "freely" combining subject matter naturally leads to the ques- tion of multi-applicability for the learning blocks in various educational contexts. The answers to this question are interest- ing not only in terms of the feasibility of learning paths from a content and didactic point of view, but also with regard to the economic viability of E-Learning or Blended Learning Systems, which ultimately require technical implementation. In addition we will present some first thoughts on the design of a prototype "Content Pool". It would, however, only make sense to develop and implement this within the scope of a follow-up project.
Purpose: Since the end of the previous century social partners in different branches of industry have laid down measures to stimulate individual learning and competence development of workers in collective labour agreements. Special attention is given to stimulating learning demand among traditional non-participants to lifelong learning, such as…
Nakic, Jelena; Granic, Andrina; Glavinic, Vlado
This study brings an evidence-based review of user individual characteristics employed as sources of adaptation in recent adaptive learning systems. Twenty-two user individual characteristics were explored in a systematically designed search procedure, while 17 of them were identified as sources of adaptation in final selection. The content…
Full Text Available More than two decades of work in vision posits the existence of dual-learning systems of category learning. The reflective system uses working memory to develop and test rules for classifying in an explicit fashion, while the reflexive system operates by implicitly associating perception with actions that lead to reinforcement. Dual-learning systems models hypothesize that in learning natural categories, learners initially use the reflective system and, with practice, transfer control to the reflexive system. The role of reflective and reflexive systems in auditory category learning and more specifically in speech category learning has not been systematically examined. In this article we describe a neurobiologically-constrained dual-learning systems theoretical framework that is currently being developed in speech category learning and review recent applications of this framework. Using behavioral and computational modeling approaches, we provide evidence that speech category learning is predominantly mediated by the reflexive learning system. In one application, we explore the effects of normal aging on non-speech and speech category learning. We find an age related deficit in reflective-optimal but not reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Prominently, we find a large age-related deficit in speech learning. The computational modeling suggests that older adults are less likely to transition from simple, reflective, uni-dimensional rules to more complex, reflexive, multi-dimensional rules. In a second application we summarize a recent study examining auditory category learning in individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. We find a deficit in reflective-optimal and an enhancement in reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Interestingly, individuals with elevated depressive symptoms also show an advantage in learning speech categories. We end with a brief summary and description of a number of future directions.
A. A. Mitsel
Full Text Available In connection with the transition of the educational system to a competence-oriented approach, the problem of learning outcomes assessment and creating an individual learning trajectory of a student has become relevant. Its solution requires the application of modern information technologies. The third generation of Federal state educational standards of higher professional education (FSES HPE defines the requirements for the results of Mastering the basic educational programs (BEP. According to FSES HPE up to 50% of subjects have a variable character, i.e. depend on the choice of a student. It significantly influences on the results of developing various competencies. The problem of forming student’s learning trajectory is analyzed in general and the choice of an individual direction was studied in details. Various methods, models and algorithms of the student’s individual learning trajectory formation were described. The analysis of the model of educational process organization in terms of individual approach makes it possible to develop a decision support system (DSS. DSS is a set of interrelated programs and data used for analysis of situation, development of alternative solutions and selection of the most acceptable alternative. DSSs are often used when building individual learning path, because this task can be considered as a discrete multi-criteria problem, creating a significant burden on the decision maker. A new method of controlling the learning trajectory has been developed. The article discusses problem statement and solution of determining student’s optimal individual educational trajectory as a dynamic model of learning trajectory control, which uses score assessment to construct a sequence of studied subjects. A new model of management learning trajectory is based on dynamic models for tracking the reference trajectory. The task can be converted to an equivalent model of linear programming, for which a reliable solution
Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik
Technology enhanced learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test sociotechnical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of both individuals and organisations. It is therefore an application domain that generally covers technologies that support all forms of teaching and learning activities. Since information retrieval (in terms of searching for relevant learning resources to support teachers or learners) is a pivotal activity in TEL, the deployment of recommender systems has attracted increased interest. This brief attempts to provide an introduction to recommender systems for TEL settings, as well as to highlight their particularities compared to recommender systems for other application domains.
Full Text Available Learning is one of the most important aspects of children's behaviour. A new theory that emerged from evolutionary principles and information-processing models assumes learning to be run by two basic mechanisms: variability and selection. The theory is based on the underlying assumption that intra-individual variability of strategies that children use to solve a problem, is a core mechanism of learning change. This assumption was tested in the case of multiple classification (MC task. 30 6-year-old children were tested for intelligence, short-term memory, and MC. Procedure followed classical pre-test/learning/post-test scheme. Amount of learning was measured through percentage of correct answers before and after learning sessions, whereas intra-individual variability was assessed through children's explanations of their answers on MC problems. The results yielded intra-individual variability to explain learning changes beyond inter-individual differences in intelligence or short-term memory. Although the results rose some new questions to be considered in further research, the data supported the hypothesis of intra-individual variability as predictor of learning change.
Siu Loon Hoe
Organisational learning has over the years been subject of much study by scholars and managers. In the process, the organisational learning concept has been linked to many other knowledge concepts such as individual learning, learning organisation, and knowledge management. This paper draws from existing literature in organisational behaviour, human resource management, marketing, and information management, to further develop the conceptual links between organisational learning and these kno...
Gray, Michael; Peters, Jane; Fletcher, Mick; Kirk, Gordon
The impact of individual learning accounts (ILAs) on the success of learners in post-16 education sector in the United Kingdom was explored through an examination of available research on ILAs. The following were among the study's 12 messages for providers, the Department for Education and Skills, and the Individual Learning Account Centre: (1)…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to recognize the relationships between individual and organizational learning while considering team learning as a mediator of these relationships. The research object is a large Polish enterprise specializing in the production of cast-iron items. In order to test assumed research hypotheses, statistical analyses were conducted using the IBM SPSS Statistics Suite, version 20. The suite helped conduct correlation analyses concatenation, line regression analyses and mediation analyses using the PROCESS macro by Hayes and Preacher. The research results show a statistically significant relationship between individual learning and each of the five dimensions of organizational learning [clarity of purpose and mission; leadership commitment and empowerment; knowledge transfer; experimentation and rewards; and teamwork and group problem solving]. What is more, they prove that team learning is a mediator of a relationship between individual and organizational learning. Interestingly, only one full mediation has been observed while researching the mediative effect of team learning in relation to each out of the five dimensions of organizational learning. It occurred in relation to experimentation and rewards. In the remaining cases these were partial mediations.
The general aim is to promote the use of individual-based models (biological agent-based models) in teaching and learning contexts in life sciences and to make their progressive incorporation into academic curricula easier, complementing other existing modelling strategies more frequently used in the classroom. Modelling activities for the study of a predator-prey system for a mathematics classroom in the first year of an undergraduate program in biosystems engineering have been designed and implemented. These activities were designed to put two modelling approaches side by side, an individual-based model and a set of ordinary differential equations. In order to organize and display this, a system with wolves and sheep in a confined domain was considered and studied. With the teaching material elaborated and a computer to perform the numerical resolutions involved and the corresponding individual-based simulations, the students answered questions and completed exercises to achieve the learning goals set. Students' responses regarding the modelling of biological systems and these two distinct methodologies applied to the study of a predator-prey system were collected via questionnaires, open-ended queries and face-to-face dialogues. Taking into account the positive responses of the students when they were doing these activities, it was clear that using a discrete individual-based model to deal with a predator-prey system jointly with a set of ordinary differential equations enriches the understanding of the modelling process, adds new insights and opens novel perspectives of what can be done with computational models versus other models. The complementary views given by the two modelling approaches were very well assessed by students.
Thursfield, Denise; Smith, Vikki; Holden, Rick; Hamblett, John
Evaluation of the implementation of Individual Learning Accounts in Britain revealed five themes that may explain the program's lack of success: individualistic approach to adult education, conflict of individualism with partnership, ineffective targeting of low-skilled populations, lack of linkage with a lifelong commitment to learning, and…
Pamir, Evren; Szyszka, Paul; Scheiner, Ricarda; Nawrot, Martin P
Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3298 animals). We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response (CR) in learners, and the high stability of the CR during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24 h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.
Full Text Available Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3,298 animals. We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.
Full Text Available Visualization of data has recently gained great importance in education and use of infographics is regarded as an important tool in teaching mathematics since it presents information in a clear and abstract way. Therefore, use of infographics for helping individuals with mathematical learning difficulties has become an important research question. This study aims to provide an overview on the use of infographics in teaching mathematics to individuals with mathematical learning difficulties. This is a qualitative study in which document analysis was used the collect the data. Results provided information about the definition of infographics, effectiveness of using infographics in education and facilitative role of infographics in enhancing learning of individuals with mathematical learning difficulties, namely dyscalculia. Results were discussed with relevant literature and recommendations for further research and practices were also presented.
Kandel, Eric R.; Hawkins, Robert D.
Describes the biological basis of learning and individuality. Presents an overview of recent discoveries that suggest learning engages a simple set of rules that modify the strength of connection between neurons in the brain. The changes are cited as playing an important role in making each individual unique. (MCO)
Vasiliy M. Trembach
Full Text Available In the article issues of engineering intelligent tutoring systems of University with adaptation are considered. The article also dwells on some modern approaches to engineering of information systems. It shows the role of engineering e-learning devices (systems in system engineering. The article describes the basic principles of system engineering and these principles are expanded regarding to intelligent information systems. The structure of intelligent learning systems with adaptation of the individual learning environments based on services is represented in the article.
Noemí Martínez Caraballo
Full Text Available During the last two decades, there has been a profusion of articles dealing with the topics organizational learning and knowledge management, on the academic and managerial side. For this reason, the present paper is focused on further analysing these concepts. In particular, the purpose is studying the link between individual and organizational learning, taking into account the literature about knowledge management, and trying to establish the application field and the intersection of them. Finally, it is pursued to point out several managerial implications for the companies that must have in consideration that individual and organizational learning are two phenomena different but indissolubly united
Kumaran, Dharshan; Hassabis, Demis; McClelland, James L
We update complementary learning systems (CLS) theory, which holds that intelligent agents must possess two learning systems, instantiated in mammalians in neocortex and hippocampus. The first gradually acquires structured knowledge representations while the second quickly learns the specifics of individual experiences. We broaden the role of replay of hippocampal memories in the theory, noting that replay allows goal-dependent weighting of experience statistics. We also address recent challenges to the theory and extend it by showing that recurrent activation of hippocampal traces can support some forms of generalization and that neocortical learning can be rapid for information that is consistent with known structure. Finally, we note the relevance of the theory to the design of artificial intelligent agents, highlighting connections between neuroscience and machine learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stark-Inbar, Alit; Raza, Meher; Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B
In standard taxonomies, motor skills are typically treated as representative of implicit or procedural memory. We examined two emblematic tasks of implicit motor learning, sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning, asking whether individual differences in learning are correlated between these tasks, as well as how individual differences within each task are related to different performance variables. As a prerequisite, it was essential to establish the reliability of learning measures for each task. Participants were tested twice on a visuomotor adaptation task and on a sequence learning task, either the serial reaction time task or the alternating reaction time task. Learning was evident in all tasks at the group level and reliable at the individual level in visuomotor adaptation and the alternating reaction time task but not in the serial reaction time task. Performance variability was predictive of learning in both domains, yet the relationship was in the opposite direction for adaptation and sequence learning. For the former, faster learning was associated with lower variability, consistent with models of sensorimotor adaptation in which learning rates are sensitive to noise. For the latter, greater learning was associated with higher variability and slower reaction times, factors that may facilitate the spread of activation required to form predictive, sequential associations. Interestingly, learning measures of the different tasks were not correlated. Together, these results oppose a shared process for implicit learning in sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning and provide insight into the factors that account for individual differences in learning within each task domain. We investigated individual differences in the ability to implicitly learn motor skills. As a prerequisite, we assessed whether individual differences were reliable across test sessions. We found that two commonly used tasks of implicit learning, visuomotor adaptation and the
Schuetze, Hans G.
To answer the question "Financing what?" this article distinguishes several models of lifelong learning as well as a variety of lifelong learning activities. Several financing methods are briefly reviewed, however the principal focus is on Individual Learning Accounts (ILAs) which were seen by some analysts as a promising model for…
Hung, Yu Hsin; Lin, Chun Fu; Chang, Ray I.
In response to the rapid growth of information in recent decades, knowledge-based systems have become an essential tool for organizational learning. The application of electronic performance-support systems in learning activities has attracted considerable attention from researchers. Nevertheless, the vast, ever-increasing amount of information is…
Yarandi, Maryam; Tawil, Abdel-Rahman; Jahankhani, Hossein
This paper proposes an innovative ontological approach to design a personalised e-learning system which creates a tailored workflow for individual learner. Moreover, the learning content and sequencing logic is separated into content model and pedagogical model to increase the reusability and flexibility of the system.
Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J
Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.
Cheng, Bo; Wang, Minhong; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Kinshuk; Peng, Jun
Current endeavors to integrate competency-based learning approaches with e-learning systems designed for delivery of training to adult learners in the workplace are growing. However, academic efforts in examining learners' perceptions of, and reactions toward, this technology-delivered pedagogical innovation are limited. Drawing together…
Full Text Available Teori belajar merupakan hal yang sangat penting dalam Manajmen Pendidikan dan Pelatihan apabila ingin meraih hasil yang maksimal dalam proses transformasi pengetahuan. Adult Learning dan Ekspriental Learning Cycle salah satu teori yang paling masyhur di dalamnya. Dalam upaya meraih hasil yang maksimal juga perlu adanya pengetahuan tentang motivasi dan faktor-faktor dalam pengembangan individu, perubahan performanya, serta dinamika individu kelompok. Sehingga dengan pengetahuan yang dimilikiakan dengan mudah merealisasikan yang diinginkan. Kata kunci: Adult learning, expriental learning cycle, performance. Learning theory is very important in Management of Education and Training if you want to achieve the maximum results in the transformation process of knowledge. Adult Learning and Expriental Learning Cycle are the most famous theories within it. In the effort to achieve the maximum results also needs the knowledge about motivation, the factors in the development of individuals, the changes of performance, and the dynamics of individual groups. So with this knowledge you will easily realize the thing you desired. Keywords: Adult learning, expriental learning cycle, performance.
Full Text Available A web-based learning portal offering individualized learning was developed by utilizing rule-based knowledge representation and artificial intelligence techniques of expert systems in order to reduce the uncertainties of learning to minimum and to construct an intelligent tutoring system. This portal offers individualized learning content based on the individual’s level of cognitive knowledge. In order to determine the effects of the developed system on the student achievement, the system was tested in an 8-week-long study on the students of Software Engineering Department of Technology Faculty. The pretest-posttest control group experimental design was used in the study. The experimental group received education with Individualized Instruction Portal while the control group received education in traditional learning environment. Academic achievement test was used as the data collection tool. In order to test the research hypotheses, data obtained from the data collection tools were analysed in terms of frequency, percentages, and dependent-independent t-test with statistical software program. Based on the results, no significant differences were found between the groups in terms of the pretest. On the other hand, significant differences were found between experimental and control group in terms of the posttest. It was concluded that individualized learning portal had positive effect on the students’ learning when used in combination with traditional learning environment.
Zimmerer, Vitor C; Cowell, Patricia E; Varley, Rosemary A
One factor in syntactic impairment in aphasia might be damage to general structure processing systems. In such a case, deficits would be evident in the processing of syntactically structured non-linguistic information. To explore this hypothesis, we examined performances on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks in which the grammar was expressed in non-linguistic visual forms. In the first experiment, AGL behavior of four aphasic participants with severe syntactic impairment, five aphasic participants without syntactic impairment, and healthy controls was examined. Participants were trained on sequences of nonsense stimuli with the structure A(n)B(n). Data were analyzed at an individual level to identify different behavioral profiles and account for heterogeneity in aphasic as well as healthy groups. Healthy controls and patients without syntactic impairment were more likely to learn configurational (item order) than quantitative (counting) regularities. Quantitative regularities were only detected by individuals who also detected the configurational properties of the stimulus sequences. By contrast, two individuals with syntactic impairment learned quantitative regularities, but showed no sensitivity towards configurational structure. They also failed to detect configurational structure in a second experiment in which sequences were structured by the grammar A(+)B(+). We discuss the potential relationship between AGL and processing of word order as well as the potential of AGL in clinical practice. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Byrom, Nicola C
Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility in learning caused by external factors, there has been limited work considering how to model the influence of dispositional factors. This review looks at the range of individual differences in human associative learning that have been explored and the attempts to account for, and model, this flexibility. To fully understand human associative learning, further research needs to attend to the causes of variation in human learning.
Nicola C Byrom
Full Text Available Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility in learning caused by external factors, there has been limited work considering how to model the influence of dispositional factors. This review looks at the range of individual differences in human associative learning that have been explored and the attempts to account for, and model, this flexibility. To fully understand human associative learning, further research needs to attend to the causes of variation in human learning.
Kardan, Ahmad A.; Speily, Omid R. B.; Modaberi, Somayyeh
The majority of current web-based learning systems are closed learning environments where courses and learning materials are fixed, and the only dynamic aspect is the organization of the material that can be adapted to allow a relatively individualized learning environment. In this paper, we propose an evolving web-based learning system which can…
Poell, R.F.; van der Krogt, F.J.
Background A relatively new theoretical concept is proposed in this paper, namely, the individual learning path. Learning paths are created by individual employees and comprise a set of learning-relevant activities that are both coherent as a whole and meaningful to them. Objectives To explore the
Willis, Matt; Tucker, Eilish Marie; Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Glickman, Matthew R.; Fabian, Nathan
Military training utilizing serious games or virtual worlds potentially generate data that can be mined to better understand how trainees learn in experiential exercises. Few data mining approaches for deployed military training games exist. Opportunities exist to collect and analyze these data, as well as to construct a full-history learner model. Outcomes discussed in the present document include results from a quasi-experimental research study on military game-based experiential learning, the deployment of an online game for training evidence collection, and results from a proof-of-concept pilot study on the development of individualized training vectors. This Lab Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project leveraged products within projects, such as Titan (Network Grand Challenge), Real-Time Feedback and Evaluation System, (America's Army Adaptive Thinking and Leadership, DARWARS Ambush! NK), and Dynamic Bayesian Networks to investigate whether machine learning capabilities could perform real-time, in-game similarity vectors of learner performance, toward adaptation of content delivery, and quantitative measurement of experiential learning.
Gershman, Samuel J; Hartley, Catherine A
Using a laboratory analogue of learned fear (Pavlovian fear conditioning), we show that there is substantial heterogeneity across individuals in spontaneous recovery of fear following extinction training. We propose that this heterogeneity might stem from qualitative individual differences in the nature of extinction learning. Whereas some individuals tend to form a new memory during extinction, leaving their fear memory intact, others update the original threat association with new safety information, effectively unlearning the fear memory. We formalize this account in a computational model of fear learning and show that individuals who, according to the model, are more likely to form new extinction memories tend to show greater spontaneous recovery compared to individuals who appear to only update a single memory. This qualitative variation in fear and extinction learning may have important implications for understanding vulnerability and resilience to fear-related psychiatric disorders.
This article examines how individual differences (giftedness) interact with learning contexts (favorite versus least favorite courses) to influence learning processes and outcomes. The findings show that gifted and typically developing students differ solely in their expectancies for success and grades among a large variety of measures, including…
Colbaugh, Rich; Glass, Kristin
There is growing awareness that user-generated social media content contains valuable health-related information and is more convenient to collect than typical health data. For example, Twitter has been employed to predict aggregate-level outcomes, such as regional rates of diabetes and child poverty, and to identify individual cases of depression and food poisoning. Models which make aggregate-level inferences can be induced from aggregate data, and consequently are straightforward to build. In contrast, learning models that produce individual-level (IL) predictions, which are more informative, usually requires a large number of difficult-to-acquire labeled IL examples. This paper presents a new machine learning method which achieves the best of both worlds, enabling IL models to be learned from aggregate labels. The algorithm makes predictions by combining unsupervised feature extraction, aggregate-based modeling, and optimal integration of aggregate-level and IL information. Two case studies illustrate how to learn health-relevant IL prediction models using only aggregate labels, and show that these models perform as well as state-of-the-art models trained on hundreds or thousands of labeled individuals.
Borenstein, Elhanan; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi
Cumulative cultural change requires organisms that are capable of both exploratory individual learning and faithful social learning. In our model, an organism's phenotype is initially determined innately (by its genotypic value) or by social learning (copying a phenotype from the parental generation), and then may or may not be modified by individual learning (exploration around the initial phenotype). The environment alternates periodically between two states, each defined as a certain range of phenotypes that can survive. These states may overlap, in which case the same phenotype can survive in both states, or they may not. We find that a joint social and exploratory individual learning strategy-the strategy that supports cumulative culture-is likely to spread when the environmental states do not overlap. In particular, when the environmental states are contiguous and mutation is allowed among the genotypic values, this strategy will spread in either moderately or highly stable environments, depending on the exact nature of the individual learning applied. On the other hand, natural selection often favors a social learning strategy without exploration when the environmental states overlap. We find only partial support for the "consensus" view, which holds that individual learning, social learning, and innate determination of behavior will evolve at short, intermediate, and long environmental periodicities, respectively.
Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang
An adaptive learning system aims at providing instruction tailored to the current status of a learner, differing from the traditional classroom experience. The latest advances in technology make adaptive learning possible, which has the potential to provide students with high-quality learning benefit at a low cost. A key component of an adaptive learning system is a recommendation system, which recommends the next material (video lectures, practices, and so on, on different skills) to the learner, based on the psychometric assessment results and possibly other individual characteristics. An important question then follows: How should recommendations be made? To answer this question, a mathematical framework is proposed that characterizes the recommendation process as a Markov decision problem, for which decisions are made based on the current knowledge of the learner and that of the learning materials. In particular, two plain vanilla systems are introduced, for which the optimal recommendation at each stage can be obtained analytically.
Goh, Adeline Yuen Sze
In this paper, I address a perceived gap in the lifelong learning literature. There is very little research which addresses how learning should be construed, when individuals transition across a longitudinal span of their working life. This transition which could be viewed as a process of "becoming somebody", often oversimplifies the…
Jost, Jürgen; Li, Wei
We study the effects of learning by imitating others within the framework of an iterated game in which the members of two complementary populations interact via random pairing at each round. This allows us to compare both the fitness of different strategies within a population and the performance of populations in which members have access to different types of strategies. Previous studies reveal some emergent dynamics at the population level, when players learn individually. We here investigate a different mechanism in which players can choose between two different learning strategies, individual or social. Imitating behavior can spread within a mixed population, with the frequency of imitators varying over generation time. When compared to a pure population with solely individual learners, a mixed population with both individual and social learners can do better, independently of the precise learning scheme employed. We can then search for the best imitating strategy. Imitating the neighbor with the highest payoff turns out to be consistently superior. This is in agreement with findings in experimental and model studies that have been carried out in different settings.
This book mainly aims at solving the problems in both cooperative and competitive multi-agent systems (MASs), exploring aspects such as how agents can effectively learn to achieve the shared optimal solution based on their local information and how they can learn to increase their individual utility by exploiting the weakness of their opponents. The book describes fundamental and advanced techniques of how multi-agent systems can be engineered towards the goal of ensuring fairness, social optimality, and individual rationality; a wide range of further relevant topics are also covered both theoretically and experimentally. The book will be beneficial to researchers in the fields of multi-agent systems, game theory and artificial intelligence in general, as well as practitioners developing practical multi-agent systems.
Dao, Li Thuy; Napier, Nancy
This paper examines micro (individual-level) aspects of knowledge transfer and learning in international joint ventures in an emerging economy context. Learning by expatriate and local managers appears far more complex, mutually dependent, and significant to the knowledge transfer process than...... suggested in existing literature. Building upon conceptualizations of individual learning and cognitive – behavioural effects in an organisational context while drawing evidence from two cases of Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, we propose a model of individual-level knowledge transfer and learning...
Coutanche, Marc N; Koch, Griffin E
An approach to learning words known as "fast mapping" has been linked to unique neurobiological and behavioral markers in adult humans, including rapid lexical integration. However, the mechanisms supporting fast mapping are still not known. In this study, we sought to help change this by examining factors that modulate learning outcomes. In 90 subjects, we systematically manipulated the typicality of the items used to support fast mapping (foils), and quantified learners' inclination to employ semantic, episodic, and spatial memory through the Survey of Autobiographical Memory (SAM). We asked how these factors affect lexical competition and recognition performance, and then asked how foil typicality and lexical competition are related in an independent dataset. We find that both the typicality of fast mapping foils, and individual differences in how different memory systems are employed, influence lexical competition effects after fast mapping, but not after other learning approaches. Specifically, learning a word through fast mapping with an atypical foil led to lexical competition, while a typical foil led to lexical facilitation. This effect was particularly evident in individuals with a strong tendency to employ semantic memory. We further replicated the relationship between continuous foil atypicality and lexical competition in an independent dataset. These findings suggest that semantic properties of the foils that support fast mapping can influence the degree and nature of subsequent lexical integration. Further, the effects of foils differ based on an individual's tendency to draw-on the semantic memory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
To the best of our knowledge, the genetic foundations that guide human brain development have not changed fundamentally during the past 50,000 years. However, because of their cognitive potential, humans have changed the world tremendously in the past centuries. They have invented technical devices, institutions that regulate cooperation and competition, and symbol systems, such as script and mathematics, that serve as reasoning tools. The exceptional learning ability of humans allows newborns to adapt to the world they are born into; however, there are tremendous individual differences in learning ability among humans that become obvious in school at the latest. Cognitive psychology has developed models of memory and information processing that attempt to explain how humans learn (general perspective), while the variation among individuals (differential perspective) has been the focus of psychometric intelligence research. Although both lines of research have been proceeding independently, they increasingly converge, as both investigate the concepts of working memory and knowledge construction. This review begins with presenting state-of-the-art research on human information processing and its potential in academic learning. Then, a brief overview of the history of psychometric intelligence research is combined with presenting recent work on the role of intelligence in modern societies and on the nature-nurture debate. Finally, promising approaches to integrating the general and differential perspective will be discussed in the conclusion of this review.
Mitsel, A. A.; Cherniaeva, N. V.
The article discusses models, methods and algorithms of determining student's optimal individual educational trajectory. A new method of controlling the learning trajectory has been developed as a dynamic model of learning trajectory control, which uses score assessment to construct a sequence of studied subjects.
Web-based learning support system offers many benefits over traditional learning environments and has become very popular. The Web is a powerful environment for distributing information and delivering knowledge to an increasingly wide and diverse audience. Typical Web-based learning environments, such as Web-CT, Blackboard, include course content delivery tools, quiz modules, grade reporting systems, assignment submission components, etc. They are powerful integrated learning management systems (LMS) that support a number of activities performed by teachers and students during the learning process . However, students who study a course on the Internet tend to be more heterogeneously distributed than those found in a traditional classroom situation. In order to achieve optimal efficiency in a learning process, an individual learner needs his or her own personalized assistance. For a web-based open and dynamic learning environment, personalized support for learners becomes more important. This chapter demonstrates how to realize personalized learning support in dynamic and heterogeneous learning environments by utilizing Adaptive Web technologies. It focuses on course personalization in terms of contents and teaching materials that is according to each student's needs and capabilities. An example of using Rough Set to analyze student personal information to assist students with effective learning and predict student performance is presented.
Full Text Available This study aims to carry out a content analysis of the studies on language learning of gifted individuals and determine the trends in this field. Articles on language learning of gifted individuals published in the Scopus database were examined based on certain criteria including type of publication, year of publication, language, research discipline, countries of research, institutions of authors, key words, and resources. Data were analyzed with the content analysis method. Results showed that the number of studies on language learning of gifted individuals has increased throughout the years. Recommendations for further research and practices are provided.
Full Text Available Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US, some rats (sign-trackers come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS itself - a lever - more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in
Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Flagel, Shelly B.; Robinson, Terry E.; Khamassi, Mehdi
Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs) and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), some rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS) itself – a lever – more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in
Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Flagel, Shelly B; Robinson, Terry E; Khamassi, Mehdi
Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs) and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), some rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS) itself - a lever - more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in computational
Byrom, Nicola C.
Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility ...
Full Text Available Computational learning models are critical for understanding mechanisms of adaptive behavior. However, the two major current frameworks, reinforcement learning (RL and Bayesian learning, both have certain limitations. For example, many Bayesian models are agnostic of inter-individual variability and involve complicated integrals, making online learning difficult. Here, we introduce a generic hierarchical Bayesian framework for individual learning under multiple forms of uncertainty (e.g., environmental volatility and perceptual uncertainty. The model assumes Gaussian random walks of states at all but the first level, with the step size determined by the next higher level. The coupling between levels is controlled by parameters that shape the influence of uncertainty on learning in a subject-specific fashion. Using variational Bayes under a mean field approximation and a novel approximation to the posterior energy function, we derive trial-by-trial update equations which (i are analytical and extremely efficient, enabling real-time learning, (ii have a natural interpretation in terms of RL, and (iii contain parameters representing processes which play a key role in current theories of learning, e.g., precision-weighting of prediction error. These parameters allow for the expression of individual differences in learning and may relate to specific neuromodulatory mechanisms in the brain. Our model is very general: it can deal with both discrete and continuous states and equally accounts for deterministic and probabilistic relations between environmental events and perceptual states (i.e., situations with and without perceptual uncertainty. These properties are illustrated by simulations and analyses of empirical time series. Overall, our framework provides a novel foundation for understanding normal and pathological learning that contextualizes RL within a generic Bayesian scheme and thus connects it to principles of optimality from probability
Mathys, Christoph; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl J; Stephan, Klaas E
Computational learning models are critical for understanding mechanisms of adaptive behavior. However, the two major current frameworks, reinforcement learning (RL) and Bayesian learning, both have certain limitations. For example, many Bayesian models are agnostic of inter-individual variability and involve complicated integrals, making online learning difficult. Here, we introduce a generic hierarchical Bayesian framework for individual learning under multiple forms of uncertainty (e.g., environmental volatility and perceptual uncertainty). The model assumes Gaussian random walks of states at all but the first level, with the step size determined by the next highest level. The coupling between levels is controlled by parameters that shape the influence of uncertainty on learning in a subject-specific fashion. Using variational Bayes under a mean-field approximation and a novel approximation to the posterior energy function, we derive trial-by-trial update equations which (i) are analytical and extremely efficient, enabling real-time learning, (ii) have a natural interpretation in terms of RL, and (iii) contain parameters representing processes which play a key role in current theories of learning, e.g., precision-weighting of prediction error. These parameters allow for the expression of individual differences in learning and may relate to specific neuromodulatory mechanisms in the brain. Our model is very general: it can deal with both discrete and continuous states and equally accounts for deterministic and probabilistic relations between environmental events and perceptual states (i.e., situations with and without perceptual uncertainty). These properties are illustrated by simulations and analyses of empirical time series. Overall, our framework provides a novel foundation for understanding normal and pathological learning that contextualizes RL within a generic Bayesian scheme and thus connects it to principles of optimality from probability theory.
Full Text Available Conditioned inhibition (CI is demonstrated in classical conditioning when a stimulus is used to signal the omission of an otherwise expected outcome. This basic learning ability is involved in a wide range of normal behaviour - and thus its disruption could produce a correspondingly wide range of behavioural deficits. The present study employed a computer-based task to measure conditioned excitation and inhibition in the same discrimination procedure. Conditioned inhibition by summation test was clearly demonstrated. Additionally summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning (difference scores were calculated in order to explore how performance related to individual differences in a large sample of normal participants (n=176 following exclusion of those not meeting the basic learning criterion. The individual difference measures selected derive from two biologically-based personality theories, Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (1982 and Eysenck’s psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism theory (1991. Following the behavioural tasks, participants completed the behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system scales (BIS/BAS and the Eysenck personality questionnaire revised short scale (EPQ-RS. Analyses of the relationship between scores on each of the scales and summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning suggested that those with higher BAS (specifically the drive sub-scale and higher EPQ-RS neuroticism showed reduced levels of excitatory conditioning. Inhibitory conditioning was similarly attenuated in those with higher EPQ-RS neuroticism, as well as in those with higher BIS scores. Thus the findings are consistent with higher levels of neuroticism being accompanied by generally impaired associative learning, both inhibitory and excitatory. There was also evidence for some dissociation in the effects of behavioural activation and behavioural inhibition on excitatory and inhibitory learning respectively.
Wong, Patrick C M; Morgan-Short, Kara; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing
Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across different individuals of the same species. Increasingly, individual differences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals' genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individual differences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individual differences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine (DA)-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between DA-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Development of current society requires integration of information technology to every sector, including education. The idea of adaptive teaching in e-learning environment is based on paying attention and giving support to various learning styles. More effective, user friendly thus better quality education can be achieved through such an environment. Learning can be influenced by many factors. In the paper we deal with such factors as student’s personality and qualities – particularly learning style and motivation. In addition we want to prepare study materials and study environment which respects students’ differences. Adaptive e-learning means an automated way of teaching which adapts to different qualities of students which are characteristic for their learning styles. In the last few years we can see a gradual individualization of study not only in distance forms of study but also with full-time study students. Instructional supports, namely those of e-learning, should take this trend into account and adapt the educational processes to individual students’ qualities. The present learning management systems (LMS offers this possibility only to a very limited extent. This paper deals with a design of intelligent virtual tutor behavior, which would adapt its learning ability to both static and dynamically changing student’s qualities. Virtual tutor, in order to manage all that, has to have a sufficiently rich supply of different styles and forms of teaching, with enough information about styles of learning, kinds of memory and other student’s qualities. This paper describes a draft adaptive education model and the results of the first part of the solution – definition of learning styles, pilot testing on students and an outline of further research.
Gokaydin, Beria; Baglama, Basak; Uzunboylu, Huseyin
This study aims to carry out a content analysis of the studies on language learning of gifted individuals and determine the trends in this field. Articles on language learning of gifted individuals published in the Scopus database were examined based on certain criteria including type of publication, year of publication, language, research…
Slone, Lauren K; Sandhofer, Catherine M
The spacing effect refers to increased retention following learning instances that are spaced out in time compared with massed together in time. By one account, the advantages of spaced learning should be independent of task particulars and previous learning experiences given that spacing effects have been demonstrated in a variety of tasks across the lifespan. However, by another account, spaced learning should be affected by previous learning because past learning affects the memory and attention processes that form the crux of the spacing effect. The current study investigated whether individuals' learning histories affect the role of spacing in category learning. We examined the effect of spacing on 24 2- to 3.5-year-old children's learning of categories organized by properties to which children's previous learning experiences have biased them to attend (i.e., shape) and properties to which children are less biased to attend (i.e., texture and color). Spaced presentations led to significantly better learning of shape categories, but not of texture or color categories, compared with massed presentations. In addition, generalized estimating equations analyses revealed positive relations between the size of children's "shape-side" productive vocabularies and their shape category learning and between the size of children's "against-the-system" productive vocabularies and their texture category learning. These results suggest that children's attention to and memory for novel object categories are strongly related to their individual word-learning histories. Moreover, children's learned attentional biases affected the types of categories for which spacing facilitated learning. These findings highlight the importance of considering how learners' previous experiences may influence future learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Al-Dujaily, Amal; Kim, Jieun; Ryu, Hokyoung
A concern of computer-based learning system design is how to accommodate learners' individual differences during learning activities. Previous research suggests that adaptive e-learning systems can effectively address such individual differences and, consequently, they enable more directed tutoring via computer-assisted instruction. In this paper,…
Noemí Martínez Caraballo
During the last two decades, there has been a profusion of articles dealing with the topics organizational learning and knowledge management, on the academic and managerial side. For this reason, the present paper is focused on further analysing these concepts. In particular, the purpose is studying the link between individual and organizational learning, taking into account the literature about knowledge management, and trying to establish the application field and the intersection of them. ...
Suhoyo, Yoyo; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Emilia, Ova; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
BACKGROUND: Feedback is essential for workplace learning. Most papers in this field concern individual feedback. In collectivistic cultures, however, group feedback is common educational practice. This study was conducted to investigate the perceived learning value and characteristics of individual
Poell, Rob F; Van der Krogt, Ferd J
A relatively new theoretical concept is proposed in this paper, namely, the individual learning path. Learning paths are created by individual employees and comprise a set of learning-relevant activities that are both coherent as a whole and meaningful to them. To explore the empirical basis of this theoretical concept. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews. Two academic medical centers (university hospitals) and two general hospitals in the Netherlands. A total of 89 nurses were involved in the study. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed qualitatively; cluster analysis was then performed on quantified data from the interviews. Four types of learning path emerged, namely, the formal-external, self-directed, social-emotional, and information-oriented learning paths. The relatively new theoretical concept of an individual learning path can be observed in practice and a number of different learning-path types can be distinguished. Nurses were found to create their own learning paths, that is, select a theme that is relevant primarily to themselves, conduct a variety of learning activities around this theme, participate in social contexts that might help them, and mobilize learning facilities provided by their organization. These activities go way beyond the notion of employees as self-directed learners merely in a didactic sense (establishing learning goals, choosing the right learning activities for these goals, evaluating to what extent their goals have been met as a result). The findings can be interpreted as evidence of employees acting strategically when it comes to their professional development. Providers of continuing professional education/development need to take this into account. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K
We examined sequential learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia ( n = 12) and healthy age-matched participants ( n = 12) using an artificial grammar. Artificial grammar acquisition, 24-hour retention, and the potential benefits of additional training were examined by administering an artificial grammar judgment test (1) immediately following auditory exposure-based training, (2) one day after training, and (3) after a second training session on the second day. An untrained control group ( n = 12 healthy age-matched participants) completed the tests on the same time schedule. The trained healthy and aphasic groups showed greater sensitivity to the detection of grammatical items than the control group. No significant correlations between sequential learning and language abilities were observed among the aphasic participants. The results suggest that individuals with agrammatic aphasia show sequential learning, but the underlying processes involved in this learning may be different than for healthy adults.
Kristoffer Carl Aberg
Full Text Available Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning and avoid punishments (avoidance learning is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits.
Carl Aberg, Kristoffer; Doell, Kimberly C.; Schwartz, Sophie
Learning how to gain rewards (approach learning) and avoid punishments (avoidance learning) is fundamental for everyday life. While individual differences in approach and avoidance learning styles have been related to genetics and aging, the contribution of personality factors, such as traits, remains undetermined. Moreover, little is known about the computational mechanisms mediating differences in learning styles. Here, we used a probabilistic selection task with positive and negative feedbacks, in combination with computational modelling, to show that individuals displaying better approach (vs. avoidance) learning scored higher on measures of approach (vs. avoidance) trait motivation, but, paradoxically, also displayed reduced learning speed following positive (vs. negative) outcomes. These data suggest that learning different types of information depend on associated reward values and internal motivational drives, possibly determined by personality traits. PMID:27851807
Patzer, Yasmin; Pinkwart, Niels
At first sight there seem to be issues combining technical accessibility guidelines and educational needs when designing inclusive E-Learning. Furthermore Universal Design for Learning seems to contradict individualization. In this paper we address both issues with an inclusive E-Learning design for the LAYA system, which targets disabled and non-disabled learners.
Suhoyo, Yoyo; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Emilia, Ova; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Feedback is essential for workplace learning. Most papers in this field concern individual feedback. In collectivistic cultures, however, group feedback is common educational practice. This study was conducted to investigate the perceived learning value and characteristics of individual and group feedback in a collectivistic culture. During two weeks, on a daily basis, clerkship students (n = 215) from 12 clinical departments at Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, recorded individual and group feedback moments by using a structured form: the providers, focus and perceived learning value of feedback. Data were analysed with logistic regression and multilevel techniques. Students reported 2687 group and 1535 individual feedback moments. Group feedback more often focused on history taking, clinical judgment, patient management, patient counselling, and professional behaviour (OR ranging from 1.232, p cultures, group feedback may add to the array of educational measures that optimize student learning. Congruence between culture and type of feedback may be important for the effectiveness of feedback.
Latisma D, L.; Kurniawan, W.; Seprima, S.; Nirbayani, E. S.; Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.
The purpose of this study was to see which method are well used with the Chemistry Triangle-oriented learning media. This quasi experimental research involves first grade of senior high school students in six schools namely each two SMA N in Solok city, in Pasaman and two SMKN in Pariaman. The sampling technique was done by Cluster Random Sampling. Data were collected by test and analyzed by one-way anova and Kruskall Wallish test. The results showed that the high school students in Solok learning taught by cooperative method is better than the results of student learning taught by conventional and Individual methods, both for students who have high initial ability and low-ability. Research in SMK showed that the overall student learning outcomes taught by conventional method is better than the student learning outcomes taught by cooperative and individual methods. Student learning outcomes that have high initial ability taught by individual method is better than student learning outcomes that are taught by cooperative method and for students who have low initial ability, there is no difference in student learning outcomes taught by cooperative, individual and conventional methods. Learning in high school in Pasaman showed no significant difference in learning outcomes of the three methods undertaken.
The construct of "addiction memory" (AM) and its importance for relapse occurrence has been the subject of discussion for the past 30 years. Neurobiological findings from "social neuroscience" and biopsychological learning theory, in conjunction with construct-valid behavioral pharmacological animal models, can now also provide general confirmation of addiction memory as a pathomorphological correlate of addiction disorders. Under multifactorial influences, experience-driven neuronal learning and memory processes of emotional and cognitive processing patterns in the specific individual "set" and "setting" play an especially pivotal role in this connection. From a neuropsychological perspective, the episodic (biographical) memory, located at the highest hierarchical level, is of central importance for the formation of the AM in certain structural and functional areas of the brain and neuronal networks. Within this context, neuronal learning and conditioning processes take place more or less unconsciously and automatically in the preceding long-term-memory systems (in particular priming and perceptual memory). They then regulate the individually programmed addiction behavior implicitly and thus subsequently stand for facilitated recollection of corresponding, previously stored cues or context situations. This explains why it is so difficult to treat an addiction memory, which is embedded above all in the episodic memory, from the molecular carrier level via the neuronal pattern level through to the psychological meaning level, and has thus meanwhile become a component of personality.
Full Text Available The concept of learning has been increasingly gaining importance for individuals, businesses and communities in the age of information. On the other hand, developments in information and communication technologies take effect in the field of learning activities. With these technologies, barriers of time and space against the learning activities largely disappear and these technologies make it easier to carry out these activities more effectively. There remain a lot of questions regarding selection of learning management system (LMS to be used for the management of e-learning processes by all organizations conducing educational practices including universities, companies, non-profit organizations, etc. The main questions are as follows: Shall we choose open source LMS or commercial LMS? Can the selected LMS meet existing needs and future potential needs for the organization? What are the possibilities of technical support in the management of LMS? What kind of problems may be experienced in the use of LMS and how can these problems be solved? How much effective can officials in the organization be in the management of LMS? In this study, primarily e-learning and the concept of LMS will be discussed, and in the next section, as for answers to these questions, open source LMSs and centrally developed LMSs will be examined and their advantages and disadvantages relative to each other will be discussed.
Graf, Sabine; Kinshuk; Liu, Tzu-Chien
In learning management systems (LMSs), teachers have more difficulties to notice and know how individual students behave and learn in a course, compared to face-to-face education. Enabling teachers to know their students' learning styles and making students aware of their own learning styles increases teachers' and students' understanding about…
Yu. B. Popova
Full Text Available Using of information technologies and, in particular, learning management systems, increases opportunities of teachers and students in reaching their goals in education. Such systems provide learning content, help organize and monitor training, collect progress statistics and take into account the individual characteristics of each user. Currently, there is a huge inventory of both paid and free systems are physically located both on college servers and in the cloud, offering different features sets of different licensing scheme and the cost. This creates the problem of choosing the best system. This problem is partly due to the lack of comprehensive classification of such systems. Analysis of more than 30 of the most common now automated learning management systems has shown that a classification of such systems should be carried out according to certain criteria, under which the same type of system can be considered. As classification features offered by the author are: cost, functionality, modularity, keeping the customer’s requirements, the integration of content, the physical location of a system, adaptability training. Considering the learning management system within these classifications and taking into account the current trends of their development, it is possible to identify the main requirements to them: functionality, reliability, ease of use, low cost, support for SCORM standard or Tin Can API, modularity and adaptability. According to the requirements at the Software Department of FITR BNTU under the guidance of the author since 2009 take place the development, the use and continuous improvement of their own learning management system.
Andrade, J.; Ares, J.; Garcia, R.; Pazos, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Rodriguez-Paton, A.; Silva, A.
Failure can be a major driver for the advance of any engineering discipline and Software Engineering is no exception. But failures are useful only if lessons are learned from them. In this article we aim to make a strong defence of, and set the requirements for, lessons learned systems for safety-critical software. We also present a prototype lessons learned system that includes many of the features discussed here. We emphasize that, apart from individual organizations, lessons learned systems should target industrial sectors and even the Software Engineering community. We would like to encourage the Software Engineering community to use this kind of systems as another tool in the toolbox, which complements or enhances other approaches like, for example, standards and checklists
Andrade, J. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Ares, J. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Garcia, R. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Pazos, J. [Technical University of Madrid. Campus de Montegancedo, s/n. 28660, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Rodriguez, S. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Rodriguez-Paton, A. [Technical University of Madrid. Campus de Montegancedo, s/n. 28660, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Silva, A. [Technical University of Madrid. Campus de Montegancedo, s/n. 28660, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Failure can be a major driver for the advance of any engineering discipline and Software Engineering is no exception. But failures are useful only if lessons are learned from them. In this article we aim to make a strong defence of, and set the requirements for, lessons learned systems for safety-critical software. We also present a prototype lessons learned system that includes many of the features discussed here. We emphasize that, apart from individual organizations, lessons learned systems should target industrial sectors and even the Software Engineering community. We would like to encourage the Software Engineering community to use this kind of systems as another tool in the toolbox, which complements or enhances other approaches like, for example, standards and checklists.
Our aim is to ensure individualized learning that is fun, inspiring and innovative. We believe that when you enjoy, your brain will open up and learning will be easier and more effective. The methods use a non-linear learning environment based on self-contained learning objects which are pieced t...
The aim of this paper is to recognize the relationships between individual and organizational learning while considering team learning as a mediator of these relationships. The research object is a large Polish enterprise specializing in the production of cast-iron items. In order to test assumed research hypotheses, statistical analyses were conducted using the IBM SPSS Statistics Suite, version 20. The suite helped conduct correlation analyses concatenation, line regression analyses and med...
The development of computers and artificial intelligence theory allow their application in the field of education. Intelligent tutoring systems reflect student learning styles and adapt the curriculum according to their individual needs. The building of intelligent tutoring systems requires not only the creation of suitable software, but especially the search and application of the rules enabling ICT to individually adapt the curriculum. The main idea of this paper is to attempt to specify the rules for dividing the students to systematically working students and more practically or pragmatically inclined students. The paper shows that monitoring the work of students in e-learning environment, analysis of various approaches to educational materials and correspondence assignments show different results for the defined groups of students.
Shin, Won Sug; Kang, Minseok
This study investigates online students' acceptance of mobile learning and its influence on learning achievement using an information system success and extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Structural equation modeling was used to test the structure of individual, social, and systemic factors influencing mobile learning's acceptance, and…
Weiss, Jeremy; Kuusisto, Finn; Boyd, Kendrick; Liu, Jie; Page, David
Clinical studies model the average treatment effect (ATE), but apply this population-level effect to future individuals. Due to recent developments of machine learning algorithms with useful statistical guarantees, we argue instead for modeling the individualized treatment effect (ITE), which has better applicability to new patients. We compare ATE-estimation using randomized and observational analysis methods against ITE-estimation using machine learning, and describe how the ITE theoretically generalizes to new population distributions, whereas the ATE may not. On a synthetic data set of statin use and myocardial infarction (MI), we show that a learned ITE model improves true ITE estimation and outperforms the ATE. We additionally argue that ITE models should be learned with a consistent, nonparametric algorithm from unweighted examples and show experiments in favor of our argument using our synthetic data model and a real data set of D-penicillamine use for primary biliary cirrhosis.
Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Drachsler, Hendrik; Santos, Olga
As an area, Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test socio-technical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of individuals and organizations. Information retrieval is a pivotal activity in TEL and the deployment of recommender systems has attracted
Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C
Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the
Full Text Available Extreme climbing where participants perform while knowing that a simple mistake could result in death requires a skill set normally acquired in non-extreme environments. In the ecological dynamics approach to perception and action, skill acquisition involves a process where the existing repertoire of behavioral capabilities (or coordination repertoire of a learner are destabilized and re-organized through practice—this process can expand the individuals affordance boundaries allowing the individual to explore new environments. Change in coordination repertoire has been observed in bi-manual coordination and postural regulation tasks, where individuals begin practice using one mode of coordination before transitioning to another, more effective, coordination mode during practice. However, individuals may also improve through practice without qualitatively reorganizing movement system components—they do not find a new mode of coordination. To explain these individual differences during learning (i.e., whether or not a new action is discovered, a key candidate is the existing coordination repertoire present prior to practice. In this study, the learning dynamics of body configuration patterns organized with respect to an indoor climbing surface were observed and the existing repertoire of coordination evaluated prior to and after practice. Specifically, performance outcomes and movement patterns of eight beginners were observed across 42 trials of practice over a 7-week period. A pre- and post-test scanning procedure was used to determine existing patterns of movement coordination and the emergence of new movement patterns after the practice period. Data suggested the presence of different learning dynamics by examining trial-to-trial performance in terms of jerk (an indicator of climbing fluency, at the individual level of analysis. The different learning dynamics (identified qualitatively included: continuous improvement, sudden improvement
Deliyska, B.; Rozeva, A.
The learner model in an intelligent learning system (ILS) has to ensure the personalization (individualization) and the adaptability of e-learning in an online learner-centered environment. ILS is a distributed e-learning system whose modules can be independent and located in different nodes (servers) on the Web. This kind of e-learning is achieved through the resources of the Semantic Web and is designed and developed around a course, group of courses or specialty. An essential part of ILS is learner model database which contains structured data about learner profile and temporal status in the learning process of one or more courses. In the paper a learner model position in ILS is considered and a relational database is designed from learner's domain ontology. Multidimensional modeling agent for the source database is designed and resultant learner data cube is presented. Agent's modules are proposed with corresponding algorithms and procedures. Multidimensional (OLAP) analysis guidelines on the resultant learner module for designing dynamic learning strategy have been highlighted.
Describes the development of learning companion systems and their contributions to the class of social learning systems that integrate artificial intelligence agents and use machine learning to tutor and interact with students. Outlines initial social learning projects, their programming languages, and weakness. Future improvements will include…
McMurray, Sharon; Thompson, Ross
For many lower ability children, inclusion in the mainstream setting does not guarantee that that their individual needs will be met. With increased numbers of children with well-below average ability being placed in mainstream schools, it is imperative that teachers understand factors which impact on learning for this group of children. Current…
Matheus, Christopher J.; Hohensee, William E.
This paper presents an overview and analysis of learning in Artificial Neural Systems (ANS's). It begins with a general introduction to neural networks and connectionist approaches to information processing. The basis for learning in ANS's is then described, and compared with classical Machine learning. While similar in some ways, ANS learning deviates from tradition in its dependence on the modification of individual weights to bring about changes in a knowledge representation distributed across connections in a network. This unique form of learning is analyzed from two aspects: the selection of an appropriate network architecture for representing the problem, and the choice of a suitable learning rule capable of reproducing the desired function within the given network. The various network architectures are classified, and then identified with explicit restrictions on the types of functions they are capable of representing. The learning rules, i.e., algorithms that specify how the network weights are modified, are similarly taxonomized, and where possible, the limitations inherent to specific classes of rules are outlined.
Khaled Nasser ElSayed
Most of e-learning and m-learning systems are course-centric. These systems provided services that concentrated on course material and pedagogical. They did not take into account varieties of student levels, skills, interests or preferences. This paper provides a design of an approach for personalized and self-adapted agent-based learning systems for enhancing e-learning and mobile learning (m-learning) services to be learner-centric. It presents a modeling of goals of different learners of a...
Tamura, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ihara, Yasuo
A number of studies have investigated the roles played by individual and social learning in cultural phenomena and the relative advantages of the two learning strategies in variable environments. Because social learning involves the acquisition of behaviours from others, its utility depends on the availability of 'cultural models' exhibiting adaptive behaviours. This indicates that social networks play an essential role in the evolution of learning. However, possible effects of social structure on the evolution of learning have not been fully explored. Here, we develop a mathematical model to explore the evolutionary dynamics of learning strategies on social networks. We first derive the condition under which social learners (SLs) are selectively favoured over individual learners in a broad range of social network. We then obtain an analytical approximation of the long-term average frequency of SLs in homogeneous networks, from which we specify the condition, in terms of three relatedness measures, for social structure to facilitate the long-term evolution of social learning. Finally, we evaluate our approximation by Monte Carlo simulations in complete graphs, regular random graphs and scale-free networks. We formally show that whether social structure favours the evolution of social learning is determined by the relative magnitudes of two effects of social structure: localization in competition, by which competition between learning strategies is evaded, and localization in cultural transmission, which slows down the spread of adaptive traits. In addition, our estimates of the relatedness measures suggest that social structure disfavours the evolution of social learning when selection is weak. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Hedén, Lena; Ahlstrom, Linda
One major challenge in delivering lectures to large and diverse classes is the maintenance of a high standard of lecturing in order to engage students and increase their participation and involvement. The lecturer's assignment is to arrange and prepare the lecture before teaching, hence enabling students' enhanced learning. Individual response technology could encourage students' active learning and activate higher cognitive levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate individual response technology as a complement during lectures for students in higher education, in terms of the students' experiences of participation, engagement, and active learning. Also of interest was whether this technology can be considered a supportive technical system. Data were collected through a questionnaire where levels of each condition were reported on a numeric rating scale (0-10) at baseline and after the introduction of individual response technology. To get a broader perspective, two types of lectures (pediatric and statistical) were included, giving a total of four assessment times. The participants comprised 59 students in Bachelor of Nursing program at a Swedish metropolitan university. Overall, when individual response technology was used, students reported increased experience of engagement (n=82, mean 6.1 vs. n=65, mean 7.3, pactive learning (n=92, mean 7.3 vs. n=79, mean 8.2 plearning within the caring sciences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shroff, Ronnie H.; Vogel, Douglas R.
Research has established that individual student interest has a positive effect on learning and academic achievement. However, little is known about the impact of a blended learning approach on individual student interest and whether combinations of online and face-to-face learning activities significantly enhance student interest. This paper…
Nilsson, Mikael; ?stergren, Jan; Fors, Uno; Rickenlund, Anette; Jorfeldt, Lennart; Caidahl, Kenneth; Bolinder, Gunilla
Abstract Background The compressed curriculum in modern knowledge-intensive medicine demands useful tools to achieve approved learning aims in a limited space of time. Web-based learning can be used in different ways to enhance learning. Little is however known regarding its optimal utilisation. Our aim was to investigate if the individual learning styles of medical students influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting. Methods The programme, wi...
Tobler, Philippe N; Fletcher, Paul C; Bullmore, Edward T; Schultz, Wolfram
A basic tenet of microeconomics suggests that the subjective value of financial gains decreases with increasing assets of individuals ("marginal utility"). Using concepts from learning theory and microeconomics, we assessed the capacity of financial rewards to elicit behavioral and neuronal changes during reward-predictive learning in participants with different financial backgrounds. Behavioral learning speed during both acquisition and extinction correlated negatively with the assets of the participants, irrespective of education and age. Correspondingly, response changes in midbrain and striatum measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging were slower during both acquisition and extinction with increasing assets and income of the participants. By contrast, asymptotic magnitudes of behavioral and neuronal responses after learning were unrelated to personal finances. The inverse relationship of behavioral and neuronal learning speed with personal finances is compatible with the general concept of decreasing marginal utility with increasing wealth.
Examines learning and performance diagnosis, separately and in relation to each other, as they function in organization systems; explains the relationship between learning and performance diagnosis at the individual, process, and organizational levels using a three-level performance model; and discusses types of learning, including nonlearning,…
Full Text Available A large body studies into individual differences in second language learning has shown that success in second language learning is strongly affected by a set of relevant learner characteristics ranging from the age of onset to motivation, aptitude, and personality. Most studies have concentrated on a limited number of learner characteristics and have argued for the relative importance of some of these factors. Clearly, some learners are more successful than others, and it is tempting to try to find the factor or combination of factors that can crack the code to success. However, isolating one or several global individual characteristics can only give a partial explanation of success in second language learning. The limitation of this approach is that it only reflects on rather general personality characteristics of learners at one point in time, while both language development and the factors affecting it are instances of complex dynamic processes that develop over time. Factors that have been labelled as “individual differences” as well as the development of proficiency are characterized by nonlinear relationships in the time domain, due to which the rate of success cannot be simply deduced from a combination of factors. Moreover, in complex dynamic systems theory (CDST literature it has been argued that a generalization about the interaction of variables across individuals is not warranted when we acknowledge that language development is essentially an individual process (Molenaar, 2015. In this paper, the viability of these generalizations is investigated by exploring the L2 development over time for two identical twins in Taiwan who can be expected to be highly similar in all respects, from their environment to their level of English proficiency, to their exposure to English, and to their individual differences. In spite of the striking similarities between these learners, the development of their L2 English over time was very different
Zandi, Hamed; Kaivanpanah, Shiva; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad
Contract learning as an approach to individualizing education in the context of assessment for learning is relatively underexplored in English as a Foreign Language instruction. The present study used a mixed-methods design to investigate its efficacy to provide feedback to students and improve self-directed learning. Furthermore, it studied…
Doolittle, Peter E.; Mariano, Gina J.
The present study examined the effects of individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) on learning from an historical inquiry multimedia tutorial in stationary versus mobile learning environments using a portable digital media player (i.e., iPod). Students with low (n = 44) and high (n = 40) working memory capacity, as measured by the…
Ermawati Zulikhatin Nuroh
Full Text Available Cooperative Learning is a teaching arrangement that refers to small, heterogeneous groups of students working together to achieve a common goal (Kagan, 1994. This research is done to know the response of students used cooperative learning in reading comprehension. The data of this study analyzed qualitatively without applying statistical calculations. The subject of the study were the students of the first semester in Midwifery faculty of Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo . There researcher used one class which consist 29 students. The students gave the positive responses and dominantly agreed to the implementation of cooperative learning type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI in reading comprehension. From the questionnaire, the researcher concludes that are 40% students are agreed, 50% students strongly agree, and 10% less agree with cooperative learning type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI in reading comprehension. The conclusion is students respond well to cooperative learning model type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI to improve students' reading comprehension. This cooperative learning type Team Assisted Individualization (TAI can be the one of the model to teach reading comprehension.
Reviews British political party proposals for individual learning accounts, designed to give adults purchasing power for further education and training. Raises concerns about effects on existing employee development programs and other potential problems. (SK)
Full Text Available Nowadays, eLearning standards' support within eLearning systems is much discussed problem. In this problem domain especially the reference model SCORM must be considered. This de-facto standard is a package of common standards and specifications used for the standardization of eLearning activities as eLearning content preparation, using e-course, communication etc. Implementation of standards itself is a process with great difficulty and time requests. Interesting and considerable approach to this problem is dividing all the process into several standalone and isolated steps focused on the individual segments of standards. This concept, in the paper described as 4-tier model of eLearning standards’ implementation, principally based upon the SCORM model enables sequential implementation of support for standards of eLearning metadata, eLearning content and also communication and navigation in e-courses. This possibility leads to portability and independence of result e-content. Discuss concept is a framework for standardization within eLearning subsystem of University Information System at Mendel University in Brno.
Tagarelli, Kaitlyn M.; Ruiz, Simón; Vega, José Luis Moreno; Rebuschat, Patrick
Second language learning outcomes are highly variable, due to a variety of factors, including individual differences, exposure conditions, and linguistic complexity. However, exactly how these factors interact to influence language learning is unknown. This article examines the relationship between these three variables in language learners.…
Full Text Available New materials, use of sophisticated technologies and increased customer demands, in combination with growing competition among construction companies, have led to a high organizational boundaries. The results indicate that personal networks are the most common source of learning for all professions. While clients, architects, and designers also engage in reading and attending courses, site managers and workers are less engaged in these activities. Experimenting and organizing for learning appear to be underutilized strategies by all professions. This leads to the conclusion that attempts to increase learning have to address the differences in learning behaviours of the various groups. Further, focus on experimenting and organizing for learning is a possibility to change the learning behaviour from learning as a consequence of problems to learning for future improvement.degree of specialization. For successful integration of the different professional specialists, there is a need for shared learning between project co-workers. Based on twenty eight interviews in six different Swedish construction projects, this paper illustrates strategies for individual and shared learning, among different actors and across various
The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…
Devshi, Rajal; Shaw, Sarah; Elliott-King, Jordan; Hogervorst, Eef; Hiremath, Avinash; Velayudhan, Latha; Kumar, Satheesh; Baillon, Sarah; Bandelow, Stephan
A review of 23 studies investigating the prevalence of Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in the general and learning disability population and measures used to assess BPSD was carried out. BPSD are non-cognitive symptoms, which constitute as a major component of dementia regardless of its subtype Research has indicated that there is a high prevalence of BPSD in the general dementia population. There are limited studies, which investigate the prevalence of BPSD within individuals who have learning disabilities and dementia. Findings suggest BPSDs are present within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia. Future research should use updated tools for investigating the prevalence of BPSD within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia.
Magni, Massimo; Paolino, Chiara; Cappetta, Rossella; Proserpio, Luigi
Since organizations and educational institutions are moving toward a training approach which emphasizes the active involvement of participants, there is growing interest in understanding how individual engagement in the training experience affects practicing managers’ individual learning. We identify cognitive absorption as the construct that better describes the state of full engagement and immersion that new approaches in management training require of learners. While some research has emph...
The occurrence of organizational and interorganizational learning processes is not only the result of management endeavors. Industry structures and market related issues have substantial spill-over effects. The article reviews literature, and it establishes a learning model in which elements from...... organizational environments are included into a systematic conceptual framework. The model allows four types of learning to be identified: P-learning (professional/craft systems learning), T-learning (technology embedded learning), D-learning (dualistic learning systems, where part of the labor force is exclude...... from learning), and S-learning (learning in social networks or clans). The situation related to service industries illustrates the typology....
Won Sug Shin; Minseok Kang
This study investigates online students’ acceptance of mobile learning and its influence on learning achievement using an information system success and extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Structural equation modeling was used to test the structure of individual, social, and systemic factors influencing mobile learning’s acceptance, and how said acceptance influences learning satisfaction and achievement. Unlike earlier TAM-related research that did not provide a broad view of technol...
Kinchin, Ian M.; Baysan, Aylin; Cabot, Lyndon Bruce
The development of teaching in higher education towards a more learner-orientated model has been supported by the literature on individual learning differences and on learning styles in particular. This has contributed to the evolution of university pedagogy away from a medieval transmission model than runs counter to contemporary understanding of…
Mouri, Kousuke; Uosaki, Noriko; Ogata, Hiroaki
Seamless learning has been recognized as an effective learning approach across various dimensions including formal and informal learning contexts, individual and social learning, and physical world and cyberspace. With the emergence of seamless learning, the majority of the current research focuses on realizing a seamless learning environment at…
Dovgopoly, Alexander; Mercado, Eduardo
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical patterns of learning and generalization. We explored the possible impacts of autism-related neural abnormalities on perceptual category learning using a neural network model of visual cortical processing. When applied to experiments in which children or adults were trained to classify complex two-dimensional images, the model can account for atypical patterns of perceptual generalization. This is only possible, however, when individual differences in learning are taken into account. In particular, analyses performed with a self-organizing map suggested that individuals with high-functioning ASD show two distinct generalization patterns: one that is comparable to typical patterns, and a second in which there is almost no generalization. The model leads to novel predictions about how individuals will generalize when trained with simplified input sets and can explain why some researchers have failed to detect learning or generalization deficits in prior studies of category learning by individuals with autism. On the basis of these simulations, we propose that deficits in basic neural plasticity mechanisms may be sufficient to account for the atypical patterns of perceptual category learning and generalization associated with autism, but they do not account for why only a subset of individuals with autism would show such deficits. If variations in performance across subgroups reflect heterogeneous neural abnormalities, then future behavioral and neuroimaging studies of individuals with ASD will need to account for such disparities.
Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wenhao David
How organizations need to act in order to develop their learning capacities has always been a focal interest of research and practice in the workplace. In practice, an e-learning system is often utilized to foster professional development as it is capable of delivering information and knowledge to individuals across organizations. However, the…
A survey of 765 adult learners who funded education through the British government's Individual Learning Accounts showed the program brought in new lifelong learning participants, encouraged more demanding learning, and increased participation of underrepresented groups. Advice and guidance played an important role. (SK)
Full Text Available With increasing competitive pressures, companies are trying to improve the quality of their processes and the work quality of their. This fact has triggered the companies to improve their information systems. Having made some investments in IT systems, those companies look for ways to gain benefits from their investments. The benefit from IS investment arise when the use of information system (IS provides some positive impact to the organisation in terms of business impacts and individual impacts. Thus, investigating IS impact for individual user„s performance is very important. This study explores the effect of IS quality on individual benefits. The influence of six moderating variables related to knowledge enablers on the impact of IS quality on individual benefits was studied. The six moderating variables are: collaboration, trust, learning, centralisation, expertise, and formalisation. Data was collected using questionnaires distributed at two big private companies in Indonesia. Data processing was done with the help of SPSS software. After factor analysis, IS quality was split into two variables: Information quality and System and service quality. The study found that both the variables influence the perceived individual benefits significantly. The influence of information quality on individual benefit is positively moderated by expertise, learning, centralisation and formalisation. Finally, the influence of system and service quality on individual benefit is positively moderated by expertise and formalization.
Dewan, Jahangir; Chowdhury, Morshed; Batten, Lynn
This article presents a personal e-learning system architecture in the context of a social network environment. The main objective of a personal e-learning system is to develop individual skills on a specific subject and share resources with peers. The authors' system architecture defines the organisation and management of a personal learning…
Pakpahan, N. F. D. B.
All articles must contain an abstract. The research methodology is a subject in which the materials must be understood by the students who will take the thesis. Implementation of learning should create the conditions for active learning, interactive and effective are called Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) cooperative learning. The purpose of this study: 1) improving student learning outcomes at the course research methodology on TAI cooperative learning. 2) improvement of teaching activities. 3) improvement of learning activities. This study is a classroom action research conducted at the Department of Civil Engineering Universitas Negeri Surabaya. The research subjects were 30 students and lecturer of courses. Student results are complete in the first cycle by 20 students (67%) and did not complete 10 students (33%). In the second cycle students who complete being 26 students (87%) and did not complete 4 students (13%). There is an increase in learning outcomes by 20%. Results of teaching activities in the first cycle obtained the value of 3.15 with the criteria enough well. In the second cycle obtained the value of 4.22 with good criterion. The results of learning activities in the first cycle obtained the value of 3.05 with enough criterion. In the second cycle was obtained 3.95 with good criterion.
Thornton, Alex; Clutton-Brock, Tim
As in human societies, social learning may play an important role in shaping individual and group characteristics in other mammals. Here, we review research on non-primate mammals, concentrating on work at our long-term meerkat study site, where longitudinal data and field experiments have generated important insights into the role of social learning under natural conditions. Meerkats live under high predation pressure and occupy a difficult foraging niche. Accordingly, pups make extensive use of social information in learning to avoid predation and obtain food. Where individual learning is costly or opportunities are lacking, as in the acquisition of prey-handling skills, adults play an active role in promoting learning through teaching. Social learning can also cause information to spread through groups, but our data suggest that this does not necessarily result in homogeneous, group-wide traditions. Moreover, traditions are commonly eroded by individual learning. We suggest that traditions will only persist where there are high costs of deviating from the group norm or where skill development requires extensive time and effort. Persistent traditions could, theoretically, modify selection pressures and influence genetic evolution. Further empirical studies of social learning in natural populations are now urgently needed to substantiate theoretical claims.
Smolla, Marco; Gilman, R Tucker; Galla, Tobias; Shultz, Susanne
In nature, animals often ignore socially available information despite the multiple theoretical benefits of social learning over individual trial-and-error learning. Using information filtered by others is quicker, more efficient and less risky than randomly sampling the environment. To explain the mix of social and individual learning used by animals in nature, most models penalize the quality of socially derived information as either out of date, of poor fidelity or costly to acquire. Competition for limited resources, a fundamental evolutionary force, provides a compelling, yet hitherto overlooked, explanation for the evolution of mixed-learning strategies. We present a novel model of social learning that incorporates competition and demonstrates that (i) social learning is favoured when competition is weak, but (ii) if competition is strong social learning is favoured only when resource quality is highly variable and there is low environmental turnover. The frequency of social learning in our model always evolves until it reduces the mean foraging success of the population. The results of our model are consistent with empirical studies showing that individuals rely less on social information where resources vary little in quality and where there is high within-patch competition. Our model provides a framework for understanding the evolution of social learning, a prerequisite for human cumulative culture. © 2015 The Author(s).
Jong, Amos A. de, E-mail: email@example.com [Innovation Management, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Section of Environmental Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Piety R., E-mail: email@example.com [Organisational Psychology and Human Resource Development, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: Akolhoff@eia.nl [The Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Innovation and Environment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)
A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better
Jong, Amos A. de; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Runhaar, Piety R.; Kolhoff, Arend J.; Driessen, Peter P.J.
A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This ‘indirect’ learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, ‘indirect’ learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, ‘indirect’ learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information
Won Sug Shin
Full Text Available This study investigates online students’ acceptance of mobile learning and its influence on learning achievement using an information system success and extended technology acceptance model (TAM. Structural equation modeling was used to test the structure of individual, social, and systemic factors influencing mobile learning’s acceptance, and how said acceptance influences learning satisfaction and achievement. Unlike earlier TAM-related research that did not provide a broad view of technological acceptance and its impact on learning activities, the present study’s results highlight the relationship between behavioral intention/learning satisfaction and learning achievement. Additionally, this study tests the theoretical model of successful mobile learning by empirically accepting mobile learning management systems. The findings further imply that students at online universities have started to accept mobile technology as a new learning tool; consequently, its acceptance has influenced their learning achievement both directly and indirectly. These discoveries should facilitate a better understanding of students’ usage of mobile learning systems in higher education, and provide timely guidance for its development and implementation.
Stotz, Sarah; Lee, Jung Sun
The objective of this report was to describe the development process of an innovative smartphone-based electronic learning (eLearning) nutrition education program targeted to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education-eligible individuals, entitled Food eTalk. Lessons learned from the Food eTalk development process suggest that it is critical to include all key team members from the program's inception using effective inter-team communication systems, understand the unique resources needed, budget ample time for development, and employ an iterative development and evaluation model. These lessons have implications for researchers and funding agencies in developing an innovative evidence-based eLearning nutrition education program to an increasingly technology-savvy, low-income audience. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian
Purpose: To investigate how learning occurs in a systems development project, using a company developing wind turbine control systems in collaboration with customers as case. Design/methodology/approach: Dewey’s approach to learning is used, emphasising reciprocity between the individual...... learning processes and that the interchanges between materiality and systems developers block the learning processes due to a customer with imprecise demands and unclear system specifications. In the four cases discussed, learning does occur however. Research limitations/implications: A qualitative study...... focusing on individual systems developers gives limited insight into whether the learning processes found would occur in other systems development processes. Practical implications: Managers should ensure that constitutive means, such as specifications, are available, and that they are sufficiently...
Olsen, Jennifer K.; Belenky, Daniel M.; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol
Collaborative and individual instruction may support different types of knowledge. Optimal instruction for a subject domain may therefore need to combine these two modes of instruction. There has not been much research, however, on combining individual and collaborative learning with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). A first step is to expand…
Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M
A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success
Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C.M.
A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The “competition” (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest – ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success
Brooks, Patricia J; Kempe, Vera
In this study, we sought to identify cognitive predictors of individual differences in adult foreign-language learning and to test whether metalinguistic awareness mediated the observed relationships. Using a miniature language-learning paradigm, adults (N = 77) learned Russian vocabulary and grammar (gender agreement and case marking) over six 1-h sessions, completing tasks that encouraged attention to phrases without explicitly teaching grammatical rules. The participants' ability to describe the Russian gender and case-marking patterns mediated the effects of nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning on grammar learning and generalization. Hence, even under implicit-learning conditions, individual differences stemmed from explicit metalinguistic awareness of the underlying grammar, which, in turn, was linked to nonverbal intelligence and auditory sequence learning. Prior knowledge of languages with grammatical gender (predominantly Spanish) predicted learning of gender agreement. Transfer of knowledge of gender from other languages to Russian was not mediated by awareness, which suggests that transfer operates through an implicit process akin to structural priming.
Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Girardelli, Marta M; Mackay, Georgina R N; Merckelbach, Harald
The dual-representation model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Brewin, Gregory, Lipton, & Burgess, Psychological Review, 117, 210-232 2010) argues that intrusions occur when people fail to construct context-based representations during adverse experiences. The present study tested a specific prediction flowing from this model. In particular, we investigated whether the efficiency of temporal-lobe-based spatial configuration learning would account for individual differences in intrusive experiences and physiological reactivity in the laboratory. Participants (N = 82) completed the contextual cuing paradigm, which assesses spatial configuration learning that is believed to depend on associative encoding in the parahippocampus. They were then shown a trauma film. Afterward, startle responses were quantified during presentation of trauma reminder pictures versus unrelated neutral and emotional pictures. PTSD symptoms were recorded in the week following participation. Better configuration learning performance was associated with fewer perceptual intrusions, r = -.33, p .46) and had no direct effect on intrusion-related distress and overall PTSD symptoms, rs > -.12, ps > .29. However, configuration learning performance tended to be associated with reduced physiological responses to unrelated negative images, r = -.20, p = .07. Thus, while spatial configuration learning appears to be unrelated to affective responding to trauma reminders, our overall findings support the idea that the context-based memory system helps to reduce intrusions.
Zhang, Zhiyong; Davis, Hasker P; Salthouse, Timothy A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M
Latent growth models were applied to data on multitrial verbal and spatial learning tasks from two independent studies. Although significant individual differences in both initial level of performance and subsequent learning were found in both tasks, age differences were found only in mean initial level, and not in mean learning. In neither task was fluid or crystallized intelligence associated with learning. Although there were moderate correlations among the level parameters across the verbal and spatial tasks, the learning parameters were not significantly correlated with one another across task modalities. These results are inconsistent with the existence of a general (e.g., material-independent) learning ability.
Lawson, Janelle E; Cruz, Rebecca A; Knollman, Gregory A
Providing equal-status contact between those with and without disabilities can improve attitudes and reduce discrimination toward individuals with disabilities. This study investigated community service learning as a means by which to provide college students with equal-status contact with individuals with disabilities and increase their positive attitudes toward those with disabilities. A total of 166 college students in one university in the United States enrolled in an Introduction to Disability course received content on disability in society and participated in community service involving 20h of direct contact with individuals with disabilities. Findings indicated that college students who had prior contact with individuals with disabilities had more positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities than college students who did not have prior contact at the start of the course. For the college students who did not have any prior contact, their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities became significantly more positive at the end of the community service learning course. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Tikriti, Munther N.; Al-Aubidy, Kasim M.
E-learning, virtual learning and mixed reality techniques are now a global integral part of the academic and educational systems. They provide easier access to educational opportunities to a very wide spectrum of individuals to pursue their educational and qualification objectives. These modern techniques have the potentials to improve the quality…
Schmidt, B. June
Discusses a study which indicated that relationships exist between students' learning styles and their attitudes toward individualized, competency-based typewriting instruction, particularly for beginning students. (JOW)
The article argues that it is necessary to move e-learning beyond learning management systems and engage students in an active use of the web as a resource for their self-governed, problem-based and collaborative activities. The purpose of the article is to discuss the potential of social software...... to move e-learning beyond learning management systems. An approach to use of social software in support of a social constructivist approach to e-learning is presented, and it is argued that learning management systems do not support a social constructivist approach which emphasizes self-governed learning...... activities of students. The article suggests a limitation of the use of learning management systems to cover only administrative issues. Further, it is argued that students' self-governed learning processes are supported by providing students with personal tools and engaging them in different kinds of social...
Tao, Qian; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Luo, Yue-Jia; Li, Jian-Jun; Ting, Kin-Hung; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Wang, Jun; Lee, Tatia M C
Cross-modal learning requires the use of information from different sensory modalities. This study investigated how the prior visual experience of late blind individuals could modulate neural processes associated with learning of sound localization. Learning was realized by standardized training on sound localization processing, and experience was investigated by comparing brain activations elicited from a sound localization task in individuals with (late blind, LB) and without (early blind, EB) prior visual experience. After the training, EB showed decreased activation in the precuneus, which was functionally connected to a limbic-multisensory network. In contrast, LB showed the increased activation of the precuneus. A subgroup of LB participants who demonstrated higher visuospatial working memory capabilities (LB-HVM) exhibited an enhanced precuneus-lingual gyrus network. This differential connectivity suggests that visuospatial working memory due to the prior visual experience gained via LB-HVM enhanced learning of sound localization. Active visuospatial navigation processes could have occurred in LB-HVM compared to the retrieval of previously bound information from long-term memory for EB. The precuneus appears to play a crucial role in learning of sound localization, disregarding prior visual experience. Prior visual experience, however, could enhance cross-modal learning by extending binding to the integration of unprocessed information, mediated by the cognitive functions that these experiences develop.
Malayeri, Amin Daneshmand; Abdollahi, Jalal
One of the most applied learning in virtual spaces is using E-Learning systems. Some E-Learning methodologies has been introduced, but the main subject is the most positive feedback from E-Learning systems. In this paper, we introduce a new methodology of E-Learning systems entitle "Network Learning" with review of another aspects of E-Learning systems. Also, we present benefits and advantages of using these systems in educating and fast learning programs. Network Learning can be programmable...
It is important for teachers to know variables such as physical characteristics, intelligence, perception, gender, ability, learning styles, which are individual differences of the learners. An effective and productive learning-teaching process can be planned by considering these individual differences of the students. Since the learners' own…
Takemura, Akihiro; Iinuma, Masahiro; Kou, Hiroko; Harauchi, Hajime; Inamura, Kiyonari
We have constructed and are operating a multi-institutional radiotherapy database ROGAD (Radiation Oncology Greater Area Database) since 1992. One of it's purpose is 'to optimize individual radiotherapy plans'. We developed Radiation oncology learning system combined with ROGAD' which conforms to that purpose. Several medical doctors evaluated our system. According to those evaluations, we are now confident that our system is able to contribute to improvement of radiotherapy results. Our final target is to generate a good cyclic relationship among three components: radiotherapy results according to ''Radiation oncology learning system combined with ROGAD.'; The growth of ROGAD; and radiation oncology learning system. (author)
Nirme, Jens; Duff, Armin; Verschure, Paul F M J
The effects of stroke differ considerably in degree and symptoms for different patients. It has been shown that specific, individualized and varied therapy favors recovery. The Rehabilitation Gaming System (RGS) is a Virtual Reality (VR) based rehabilitation system designed following these principles. We have developed two algorithms to control the level of task difficulty that a user of the RGS is exposed to, as well as providing controlled variation in the therapy. In this paper, we compare the two algorithms by running numerical simulations and a study with healthy subjects. We show that both algorithms allow for individualization of the challenge level of the task. Further, the results reveal that the algorithm that iteratively learns a user model for each subject also allows a high variation of the task.
Full Text Available In a seminal paper written five decades ago, Cronbach discussed the two highly distinct approaches to scientific psychology: experimental and correlational. Today, although these two approaches are fruitfully implemented and embraced across some fields of psychology, this synergy is largely absent from other areas, such as in the study of learning and behavior. Both Tolman and Hull, in a rare case of agreement, stated that the correlational approach held little promise for the understanding of behavior. Interestingly, this dismissal of the study of individual differences was absent in the biologically-oriented branches of behavior analysis, namely, behavioral genetics and ethology. Here we propose that the distinction between causation and causes of variation (with its origins in the field of genetics reveal the potential value of the correlational approach in understanding the full complexity of learning and behavior. Although the experimental approach can illuminate the causal variables that modulate learning, the analysis of individual differences can elucidate how much and in which way variables interact to support variations in learning in complex natural environments. For example, understanding that a past experience with a stimulus influences its associability provides little insight into how individual predispositions interact to modulate this influence on associability. In this new light, we discuss examples from studies of individual differences in animals’ performance in the Morris Water Maze and from our own work on individual differences in general intelligence in mice. These studies illustrate that, opposed to what Underwood famously suggested, studies of individual differences can do much more to psychology than merely providing preliminary indications of cause-effect relationships.
Full Text Available This study established an elementary-school English e-learning system on the basis of theory-based motivation strategies, and verified the effectiveness of the motivation strategies through educational practice and the applicability of traditional motivation theories in e-learning environments. Six motivation strategies were deducted, two from each of the three psychological needs (Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness presupposed as preconditions that increase human motivation based on the Self-Determination Theory. Next, the e-learning system intended to increase intrinsic motivation for English learning was established based on the motivation strategies. Then, this system was used for year-long educational practice in 115 private educational institutes nationwide. Finally, a survey was conducted with 2,300 students to determine whether the e-learning system applying the motivation strategies satisfied the three psychological needs of elementary-school English learners, and whether it improved intrinsic motivation for English studies. Moreover, this study analysed the correlation among motivation strategies, three psychological needs, and five motivation groups. The results revealed that the motivation strategies applied to the e-learning system had a significant influence on the three psychological needs, and those needs had a significant influence on the five motivation groups. This proved the effectiveness of motivation strategies applied to the e-learning system. It was found that SDT, the traditional motivation theory that has been applied to face-to-face classes, is also effective in the e-learning environment. Finally, even in the e-learning environment focusing on individual learning, learners were found to value relationships with others, in addition to competence, which has been studied relatively often in the past. The significance of this study is that it established a theory-based e-learning system and that it is an empirical study
Mohd Yusof Munirah
Hsu, Jack Shih-Chieh; Huang, Hsieh-Hong; Linden, Lars P.
This study explores a de-bias function for a decision support systems (DSS) that is designed to help a user avoid confirmation bias by increasing the user's learning opportunities. Grounded upon the theory of mental models, the use of DSS is viewed as involving a learning process, whereby a user is directed to build mental models so as to reduce…
The general aim is to promote the use of individual-based models (biological agent-based models) in teaching and learning contexts in life sciences and to make their progressive incorporation into academic curricula easier, complementing other existing modelling strategies more frequently used in the classroom. Modelling activities for the study…
Musca, Gavril; Mihalache, Andrei; Musca, Elena
E-learning methods apply to most modern and various domains but also represent a great tool for the mechanical educational system where there are a lot of sustained efforts for its implementation. Using, administrating and maintaining an e-learning system for a certain field of study requires knowledge related to computation system's utilization but also the understanding the working mechanisms behind it that allows the system to be fully customized in order to be perfect fitted to the user's needs and requirements. A Moodle based test is evaluated from several points of views such as coherence clarity, concise content, information synthesis capacity and the presentation mode which makes the difference between clear or fuzzy graphical representations or terms. The authors appreciate that the ability of managing information in real time by the professor is a decisive decision in order to successfully implement an e-learning web platform. Updating information and structuring trainee's activities from thoroughgoing study up to their individual proposals for conceived applications leads to a better understanding and practical knowledge of theory.
Park, Kwi Hwa; Choi, Chang-Hyu; Jeon, Yang-Bin; Park, Kook-Yang; Park, Chul-Hyun
The purpose of this study was to examine medical students' perceptions of team-based learning (TBL) according to their individual characteristics: gender, team efficacy, interpersonal understanding, proactivity in problem solving, and academic ability. Thirty-eight second-year medical students who took an integrated cardiology course participated in this study; 28 were male and 10 were female. A questionnaire on individual characteristics and a questionnaire on the perception of TBL were administered, and the scores of individual characteristics were grouped into three: high, middle, and low. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. The TBL efficacy perception scale consisted of 3 factors: team skill, learning ability, and team learning. The group of male students and the group of students with high academic ability recognized the effect of TBL on improvements in learning ability more than females and those with low academic ability. The group of students with high team efficacy reported that TBL was effective with regard to team skill improvement. The group of students with high scores on interpersonal understanding and high proactive problem solving tended to perceive the TBL's effect on team skill improvement. Team efficacy and proactivity in problem solving had a positive effect on the perception of TBL. Medical students' perceptions of the effectiveness of TBL differ according to individual characteristics. The results of this study suggest that these individual characteristics should be considered in planning of team learning, such as TBL, to have a positive impact and stronger effects.
Delgado, Mauricio R; Dickerson, Kathryn C
The application of a neuroeconomic approach to the study of reward-related processes has provided significant insights in our understanding of human learning and decision making. Much of this research has focused primarily on the contributions of the corticostriatal circuitry, involved in trial-and-error reward learning. As a result, less consideration has been allotted to the potential influence of different neural mechanisms such as the hippocampus or to more common ways in human society in which information is acquired and utilized to reach a decision, such as through explicit instruction rather than trial-and-error learning. This review examines the individual contributions of multiple learning and memory neural systems and their interactions during human decision making in both normal and neuropsychiatric populations. Specifically, the anatomical and functional connectivity across multiple memory systems are highlighted to suggest that probing the role of the hippocampus and its interactions with the corticostriatal circuitry via the application of model-based neuroeconomic approaches may provide novel insights into neuropsychiatric populations that suffer from damage to one of these structures and as a consequence have deficits in learning, memory, or decision making. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Zhihong; Wen, Fuan; Li, Ping
Teaching listening and speaking in English in China has been given top priority on the post-secondary level. This has lead to the question of how learners develop communicative language ability (CLA) effectively in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environments. The authors demonstrate a self-developed language skill learning system with…
Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt
One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…
Takemura, Akihiro; Iinuma, Masahiro; Kou, Hiroko [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Harauchi, Hajime; Inamura, Kiyonari
We have constructed and are operating a multi-institutional radiotherapy database ROGAD (Radiation Oncology Greater Area Database) since 1992. One of it's purpose is 'to optimize individual radiotherapy plans'. We developed Radiation oncology learning system combined with ROGAD' which conforms to that purpose. Several medical doctors evaluated our system. According to those evaluations, we are now confident that our system is able to contribute to improvement of radiotherapy results. Our final target is to generate a good cyclic relationship among three components: radiotherapy results according to ''Radiation oncology learning system combined with ROGAD.'; The growth of ROGAD; and radiation oncology learning system. (author)
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual systems. 35.918 Section 35... Individual systems. (a) For references to individual systems, the following definitions apply: (1) Individual... a function of individual systems where cost-effective. (2) Principal residence. Normally the voting...
Hefny, Ahmed; Downey, Carlton; Gordon, Geoffrey J
Recently there has been substantial interest in spectral methods for learning dynamical systems. These methods are popular since they often offer a good tradeoff between computational and statistical efficiency. Unfortunately, they can be difficult to use and extend in practice: e.g., they can make it difficult to incorporate prior information such as sparsity or structure. To address this problem, we present a new view of dynamical system learning: we show how to learn dynamical systems by solving a sequence of ordinary supervised learning problems, thereby allowing users to incorporate prior knowledge via standard techniques such as L 1 regularization. Many existing spectral methods are special cases of this new framework, using linear regression as the supervised learner. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by showing examples where nonlinear regression or lasso let us learn better state representations than plain linear regression does; the correctness of these instances follows directly from our general analysis.
Lowie, Wander; van Dijk, Marijn; Chan, HuiPing; Verspoor, Marjolijn
A large body studies into individual differences in second language learning has shown that success in second language learning is strongly affected by a set of relevant learner characteristics ranging from the age of onset to motivation, aptitude, and personality. Most studies have concentrated on
Vivanti, G; Rogers, SJ
Individuals with autism have difficulties in social learning domains which typically involve mirror neuron system (MNS) activation. However, the precise role of the MNS in the development of autism and its relevance to treatment remain unclear. In this paper, we argue that three distinct aspects of social learning are critical for advancing knowledge in this area: (i) the mechanisms that allow for the implicit mapping of and learning from others' behaviour, (ii) the motivation to attend to an...
Cooper, Lynne P.; Nash, Rebecca L.; Phan, Tu-Anh T.; Bailey, Teresa R.
This paper describes the deployment of a knowledge system to support learning of organizational knowledge at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a US national research laboratory whose mission is planetary exploration and to 'do what no one has done before.' Data collected over 19 weeks of operation were used to assess system performance with respect to design considerations, participation, effectiveness of communication mechanisms, and individual-based learning. These results are discussed in the context of organizational learning research and implications for practice.
Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.
Full Text Available The contribution of cooperative learning (CL in promoting second and foreign language learning has been widely acknowledged. Little scholarly attention, however, has been given to revealing how this teaching method works and promotes learners’ improved communicative competence. This qualitative case study explores the important role that individual accountability in CL plays in giving English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners in Indonesia the opportunity to use the target language of English. While individual accountability is a principle of and one of the activities in CL, it is currently under studied, thus little is known about how it enhances EFL learning. This study aims to address this gap by conducting a constructivist grounded theory analysis on participant observation, in-depth interview, and document analysis data drawn from two secondary school EFL teachers, 77 students in the observed classrooms, and four focal students. The analysis shows that through individual accountability in CL, the EFL learners had opportunities to use the target language, which may have contributed to the attainment of communicative competence—the goal of the EFL instruction. More specifically, compared to the use of conventional group work in the observed classrooms, through the activities of individual accountability in CL, i.e., performances and peer interaction, the EFL learners had more opportunities to use spoken English. The present study recommends that teachers, especially those new to CL, follow the preset procedure of selected CL instructional strategies or structures in order to recognize the activities within individual accountability in CL and understand how these activities benefit students.
Bear, Anne A. Ghost
The learning needs for adults that result from the constant increase in technology are rooted in the adult learning concepts of (a) andragogy, (b) self-directed learning, (c) learning-how-to-learn, (d) real-life learning, and (e) learning strategies. This study described the learning strategies that adults use in learning to engage in an online…
Luo, Yi; Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes
This study examined how cultural background (collectivism vs. individualism) affects motor skill learning in a dyadic cooperative learning environment. The research context of this study was Nintendo™ Wii Tennis. Twenty college students from a Midwestern university participated in the study, among whom half were from an individualistic culture…
Jingree, Treena; Finlay, W M L
Over the last decade the UK Government has made proposals to empower individuals with learning disabilities. Strategies have been implemented to reduce institutionalisation and social segregation. Consequently, some learning disability services are being phased out and the focus of care has moved away from institutions and into the community and family domain. Focusing on discourse as a site for social action and identity construction, we used critical discursive psychology to examine focus group discussions between family carers about facilitating the independence of adult family members with learning disabilities. Unlike official UK Government and learning disability services' constructions of empowerment policy, we found that parents invoked empowerment talk: (1) as a resource to construct the facilitation of independence as an abstract, irresponsible, politically correct professional trend; (2) dilemmatically with meritocratic or practical arguments to undermine notions of facilitating choices; and (3) as a resource to construct new service developments as contrary to the preferences of people with learning disabilities. Parents also described individuals with learning disabilities as unable to cope, and drew stark contrasts between their practice and those of service-professionals when expressing concerns about empowerment. We discuss possible implications of such discourses and contrasts on opportunities for empowering individuals with learning disabilities. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Игорь Николаевич Макарьев
In this article the author dwells on the content and structure of the model of integration of system of distance learning to mathematics of senior pupils and traditional paradigm of education. This kind of integration is based on such principles as independence, individualization, flexibility, nonlinearity, openness. Specifics of the methodological support of distance mathematics learning are also analyzed. Particularly the author asserts that the system of distance mathematics learning can t...
Shepard, Michelle E; Sastre, Elizabeth A; Davidson, Mario A; Fleming, Amy E
Individualized Learning Plans (ILPs) are an effective tool for promoting self-directed learning among residents. However, no literature details ILP use among medical students. Fifty fourth-year sub-interns in pediatrics and internal medicine created ILPs, including a self-assessment of strengths and weaknesses based on ACGME core competencies and the setting of learning objectives. During weekly follow-up meetings with faculty mentors and peers, students discussed challenges and revised goals. Upon completion of the rotation, students completed a survey of Likert-scale questions addressing satisfaction with and perceived utility of ILP components. Students most often self-identified strengths in the areas of Professionalism and Interpersonal and Communication Skills and weaknesses in Patient Care and Systems-Based Practice. Eighty-two percent set at least one learning objective in an identified area of weakness. Students expressed high confidence in their abilities to create achievable learning objectives and to generate strategies to meet those objectives. Students agreed that discussions during group meetings were meaningful, and they identified the setting learning objectives and weekly meetings as the most important elements of the exercise. Fourth-year sub-interns reported that ILPs helped them to accomplish rotation goals, with the setting of learning objectives and weekly discussions being the most useful elements.
Lowie, Wander; van Dijk, Marijn; Chan, Huiping; Verspoor, Marjolijn
A large body studies into individual differences in second language learning has shown that success in second language learning is strongly affected by a set of relevant learner characteristics ranging from the age of onset to motivation, aptitude, and personality. Most studies have concentrated on a limited number of learner characteristics and…
Chen, Cheng-ping; Wang, Chang-Hwa
Studies have proven that merging hands-on and online learning can result in an enhanced experience in learning science. In contrast to traditional online learning, multiple in-classroom activities may be involved in an augmented-reality (AR)-embedded e-learning process and thus could reduce the effects of individual differences. Using a three-stage AR-embedded instructional process, we conducted an experiment to investigate the influences of individual differences on learning earth science phenomena of "day, night, and seasons" for junior highs. The mixed-methods sequential explanatory design was employed. In the quantitative phase, factors of learning styles and ICT competences were examined alongside with the overall learning achievement. Independent t tests and ANCOVAs were employed to achieve inferential statistics. The results showed that overall learning achievement was significant for the AR-embedded instruction. Nevertheless, neither of the two learner factors exhibited significant effect on learning achievement. In the qualitative phase, we analyzed student interview records, and a wide variation on student's preferred instructional stages were revealed. These findings could provide an alternative rationale for developing ICT-supported instruction, as our three-stage AR-embedded comprehensive e-learning scheme could enhance instruction adaptiveness to disperse the imparities of individual differences between learners.
Salleh, I. Mohd; Mat Rani, M.
This paper aims to discuss the effectiveness of the Learning Outcome Attainment Measurement System in assisting Outcome Based Education (OBE) for Aviation Engineering Higher Education in Malaysia. Direct assessments are discussed to show the implementation processes that become a key role in the successful outcome measurement system. A case study presented in this paper involves investigation on the implementation of the system in Aircraft Structure course for Bachelor in Aircraft Engineering Technology program in UniKL-MIAT. The data has been collected for five semesters, starting from July 2014 until July 2016. The study instruments used include the report generated in Learning Outcomes Measurements System (LOAMS) that contains information on the course learning outcomes (CLO) individual and course average performance reports. The report derived from LOAMS is analyzed and the data analysis has revealed that there is a positive significant correlation between the individual performance and the average performance reports. The results for analysis of variance has further revealed that there is a significant difference in OBE grade score among the report. Independent samples F-test results, on the other hand, indicate that the variances of the two populations are unequal.
Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari
Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…
Kim, Dong Won; Yao, Jingtao
The emergence of the Internet and Web technology makes it possible to implement the ideals of inquiry-based learning, in which students seek truth, information, or knowledge by questioning. Web-based learning support systems can provide a good framework for inquiry-based learning. This article presents a study on a Web-based learning support system called Online Treasure Hunt. The Web-based learning support system mainly consists of a teaching support subsystem, a learning support subsystem, and a treasure hunt game. The teaching support subsystem allows instructors to design their own inquiry-based learning environments. The learning support subsystem supports students' inquiry activities. The treasure hunt game enables students to investigate new knowledge, develop ideas, and review their findings. Online Treasure Hunt complies with a treasure hunt model. The treasure hunt model formalizes a general treasure hunt game to contain the learning strategies of inquiry-based learning. This Web-based learning support system empowered with the online-learning game and founded on the sound learning strategies furnishes students with the interactive and collaborative student-centered learning environment.
Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning
Full Text Available Este trabalho compara as experiências de sala de aula (ESA de duas universitárias na aprendizagem de língua inglesa. As ESA emergiram de entrevistas individuais, onde vídeos das aulas promoveram a reflexão. A análise revelou que experiências de natureza cognitiva, social ou afetiva influem diretamente no processo de aprendizagem e as que se referem ao contexto, à história, crenças e metas dos alunos influem indiretamente no mesmo. A singularidade de algumas experiências levou à sua categorização como ESA individuais (ESAI. Ao comparar as ESAI de duas informantes, a importância da análise sociocultural do processo de aprendizagem de sala de aula fica evidente. Concluiremos com uma defesa do valor da teoria sociocultural no estudo da aprendizagem de língua estrangeira em sala de aula e com a apresentação das implicações deste estudo para pesquisadores e professores. This paper compares the classroom experiences (CEs of two university students in their process of learning English as a foreign language (EFL. The CEs emerged from individual interviews, where classroom videos promoted reflection. The analysis revealed that cognitive, social and affective experiences directly influence the learning process and that those which refer to setting, learner’s personal background, beliefs and goal influence the learning process indirectly. The analysis also revealed the singularity of some of these CEs that led to their categorization as individual CEs (ICEs. When comparing the ICEs of the two participants, the importance of a sociocultural analysis of the classroom learning process becomes evident. We conclude with an analysis of the value of sociocultural theory in the study of classroom EFL learning and with the implications of this study for teachers and researchers.
Lommen, M.J.J.; Engelhard, I.M.; Sijbrandij, M.; van Hout, M.A.; Hermans, D.
In the aftermath of a traumatic event, many people suffer from psychological distress, but only a minority develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pre-trauma individual differences in fear conditioning, most notably reduced extinction learning, have been proposed as playing an important role
This article evaluates three early intervention approaches--applied behavior analysis, TEAACH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children), a structured classroom-based program, and relationship therapy/"floor time"--to identify which aspects of each approach complement individual learning styles…
Chen, C. M.
Personalized curriculum sequencing is an important research issue for web-based learning systems because no fixed learning paths will be appropriate for all learners. Therefore, many researchers focused on developing e-learning systems with personalized learning mechanisms to assist on-line web-based learning and adaptively provide learning paths…
With the dramatic rise of expert systems has come a renewed interest in the fuel that drives them-knowledge. For it is specialist knowledge which gives expert systems their power. But extracting knowledge from human experts in symbolic form has proved arduous and labour-intensive. So the idea of machine learning is enjoying a renaissance. Machine learning is any automatic improvement in the performance of a computer system over time, as a result of experience. Thus a learning algorithm seeks to do one or more of the following: cover a wider range of problems, deliver more accurate solutions, obtain answers more cheaply, and simplify codified knowledge. 6 references.
van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.
This study investigates how individual differences in 7- to 9-year-olds' curiosity relate to the inquiry-learning process and outcomes in environments differing in structure. The focus on curiosity as individual differences variable was motivated by the importance of curiosity in science education, and uncertainty being central to both the definition of curiosity and the inquiry-learning environment. Curiosity was assessed with the Underwater Exploration game (Jirout, J., & Klahr, D. (2012). Children's scientific curiosity: In search of an operational definition of an elusive concept. Developmental Review, 32, 125-160. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2012.04.002), and inquiry-based learning with the newly developed Scientific Discovery task, which focuses on the principle of designing informative experiments. Structure of the inquiry-learning environment was manipulated by explaining this principle or not. As intelligence relates to learning and possibly curiosity, it was taken into account. Results showed that children's curiosity was positively related to their knowledge acquisition, but not to their quality of exploration. For low intelligent children, environment structure positively affected their quality of exploration, but not their knowledge acquisition. There was no interaction between curiosity and environment structure. These results support the existence of two distinct inquiry-based learning processes - the designing of experiments, on the one hand, and the reflection on performed experiments, on the other - and link children's curiosity to the latter process.
The aim of the studies reported in this paper is to gain classroom based empirical evidence on the learning effectiveness of learning objects used in two types of study settings: Collaborative and individual. A total of 127 seventh and ninth grade students participated in the experiments. They were assigned into one of the study modes and worked…
. In this understanding, individuation becomes narrowly connected to learning. And since learning necessarily depends on what is already learned, the trajectory of learning-based individuation is necessarily indefinite and dependent on the concrete chance events and steps whereby the process has proceeded. Semiotic...... individuation is a historical process, and this fact explains why systems biology, as established by Ludwig van Bertalanffy, has not been capable of meeting the hope, expressed long ago by Ernst Cassirer, of bridging the mechanicist-vitalist gap in biology. Instead, a semiotic approach is called for. Human...... be defined by its uniqueness as a particular genetic combination, but must be instead be defined by its uniqueness as a temporal outcome of semiotic individuation. Accordingly, this doubletracked character of human semiotic individuation implies that it is cast as just one particular outcome...
Sahota, Michael; Leung, Betty; Dowdell, Stephanie; Velan, Gary M
Students in biomedical disciplines require understanding of normal and abnormal microscopic appearances of human tissues (histology and histopathology). For this purpose, practical classes in these disciplines typically use virtual microscopy, viewing digitised whole slide images in web browsers. To enhance engagement, tools have been developed to enable individual or collaborative annotation of whole slide images within web browsers. To date, there have been no studies that have critically compared the impact on learning of individual and collaborative annotations on whole slide images. Junior and senior students engaged in Pathology practical classes within Medical Science and Medicine programs participated in cross-over trials of individual and collaborative annotation activities. Students' understanding of microscopic morphology was compared using timed online quizzes, while students' perceptions of learning were evaluated using an online questionnaire. For senior medical students, collaborative annotation of whole slide images was superior for understanding key microscopic features when compared to individual annotation; whilst being at least equivalent to individual annotation for junior medical science students. Across cohorts, students agreed that the annotation activities provided a user-friendly learning environment that met their flexible learning needs, improved efficiency, provided useful feedback, and helped them to set learning priorities. Importantly, these activities were also perceived to enhance motivation and improve understanding. Collaborative annotation improves understanding of microscopic morphology for students with sufficient background understanding of the discipline. These findings have implications for the deployment of annotation activities in biomedical curricula, and potentially for postgraduate training in Anatomical Pathology.
Halbert, Caitlin; Kriebel, Richard; Cuzzolino, Robert; Coughlin, Patrick; Fresa-Dillon, Kerin
The benefit of online learning materials in medical education is not well defined. The study correlated certain self-identified learning styles with the use of self-selected online learning materials. First-year osteopathic medical students were given access to review and/or summary materials via an online course management system (CMS) while enrolled in a pre-clinical course. At the end of the course, students completed a self-assessment of learning style based on the Index of Learning Styles and a brief survey regarding their usage and perceived advantage of the online learning materials. Students who accessed the online materials earned equivalent grades to those who did not. However, the study found that students who described their learning styles as active, intuitive, global, and/or visual were more likely to use online educational resources than those who identified their learning style as reflective, sensing, sequential, and/or verbal. Identification of a student's learning style can help medical educators direct students to learning resources that best suit their individual needs.
Astuti, Puji; Lammers, Jayne C.
This article attempts to add to the literature supporting Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) by proposing the use of Cooperative Learning (CL), specifically focusing on the enactment of a key principle of CL, i.e., individual accountability. It illustrates how to train students on CL and its individual accountability work and demonstrates how…
Shute, Valerie J.
"Smithtown" is an intelligent computer program designed to enhance an individual's scientific inquiry skills as well as to provide an environment for learning principles of basic microeconomics. It was hypothesized that intelligent computer instruction on applying effective interrogative skills (e.g., changing one variable at a time…
Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos
The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering
Stahl, Stephen M; Davis, Richard L
Medical presentations can be enhanced by systematically collecting audience feedback. This is readily accomplished with polling systems, called audience response systems. Several systems are now available that are small, inexpensive, and can be readily integrated into standard powerpoint presentations without the need for a technician. Use of audience response systems has several advantages. These include improving attentiveness, increasing learning, polling anonymously, tracking individual and group responses, gauging audience understanding, adding interactivity and fun, and evaluating both participant learning and instructor teaching. Tips for how to write questions for audience response systems are also included.
Full Text Available Developmental learning disorders affect many children, impairing their experience in the classroom and hindering many aspects of their life. Once a bleak sentence associated with life-long difficulties, several learning disorders can now be successfully alleviated, directly benefiting from promising interventions. In this review, we focus on two of the most prevalent learning disorders, dyslexia and ADHD. Recent advances have refined our understanding of the specific neural networks that are altered in these disorders, yet questions remain regarding causal links between neural changes and behavioral improvements. After briefly reviewing the theoretical foundations of dyslexia and ADHD, we explore their distinct and shared characteristics, and discuss the comorbidity of the two disorders. We then examine current interventions, and consider the benefits of approaches that integrate remediation within other activities to encourage sustained motivation and improvements. Finally, we conclude with a reflection on the potential for remediation programs to be personalized by taking into account the specificities and demands of each individual. The effective remediation of learning disorders is critical to modern societies, especially considering the far-reaching ramifications of successful early interventions.
Liu, Ming-Tsung; Yu, Pao-Ta
A personalized e-learning service provides learning content to fit learners' individual differences. Learning achievements are influenced by cognitive as well as non-cognitive factors such as mood, motivation, interest, and personal styles. This paper proposes the Learning Caution Indexes (LCI) to detect aberrant learning patterns. The philosophy…
van Abswoude, Femke; Santos-Vieira, Beatriz; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of errors during practice on motor skill learning in young individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Minimizing errors has been validated in typically developing children and children with intellectual disabilities as a method for implicit learning, because it reduces working memory involvement during learning. The present study assessed whether a practice protocol that aims at minimizing errors can induce implicit learning in young individuals with CP as well. Accordingly, we hypothesized that reducing errors during practice would lead to enhanced learning and a decrease in the dependency of performance on working memory. Young individuals with CP practiced an aiming task following either an error-minimizing (N=20) or an error-strewn (N=18) practice protocol. Aiming accuracy was assessed in pre-, post- and retention test. Dual task performance was assessed to establish dependency on working memory. The two practice protocols did not invoke different amounts or types of learning in the participants with CP. Yet, participants improved aiming accuracy and showed stable motor performance after learning, irrespective of the protocol they followed. Across groups the number of errors made during practice was related to the amount of learning, and the degree of conscious monitoring of the movement. Only participants with relatively good working memory capacity and a poor initial performance showed a rudimentary form of (most likely, explicit) learning. These new findings on the effect of the amount of practice errors on motor learning in children of CP are important for designing interventions for children and adolescents with CP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Christou, Antonios I; Miall, R Chris; McNab, Fiona; Galea, Joseph M
The theoretical basis for the association between high working memory capacity (WMC) and enhanced visuomotor adaptation is unknown. Visuomotor adaptation involves interplay between explicit and implicit systems. We examined whether the positive association between adaptation and WMC is specific to the explicit component of adaptation. Experiment 1 replicated the positive correlation between WMC and adaptation, but revealed this was specific to the explicit component of adaptation, and apparently driven by a sub-group of participants who did not show any explicit adaptation in the correct direction. A negative correlation was observed between WMC and implicit learning. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that when the task restricted the development of an explicit strategy, high WMC was no longer associated with enhanced adaptation. This work reveals that the benefit of high WMC is specifically linked to an individual's capacity to use an explicit strategy. It also reveals an important contribution of individual differences in determining how adaptation is performed.
Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to deal with unpredictable environments. Could impaired performances on learning an unpredictable cue-criteria relationship in a laboratory task be associated with impaired learning of complex skills in a natural setting? We focused on a multiple-cue probability learning (MCPL laboratory task and on the natural setting of pilot training. We used data from three selection sessions and from the three corresponding selected pilot student classes of a national airline pilot selection and training system. First, applicants took an MCPL task at the selection stage (N=556; N=701; N=412. Then, pilot trainees selected from the applicant pools (N=44; N=60; N=28 followed the training for 2.5 to 3 yrs. Differences in final MCPL performance were associated with pilot training difficulties. Indeed, poor MCPL performers experienced almost twice as many pilot training difficulties as better MCPL performers (44.0% and 25.0%, respectively.
Guinand, B.; Topchy, A.; Page, K.S.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.; Punch, W.F.; Scribner, K.T.
Classification methods used in machine learning (e.g., artificial neural networks, decision trees, and k-nearest neighbor clustering) are rarely used with population genetic data. We compare different nonparametric machine learning techniques with parametric likelihood estimations commonly employed in population genetics for purposes of assigning individuals to their population of origin (“assignment tests”). Classifier accuracy was compared across simulated data sets representing different levels of population differentiation (low and high FST), number of loci surveyed (5 and 10), and allelic diversity (average of three or eight alleles per locus). Empirical data for the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) exhibiting levels of population differentiation comparable to those used in simulations were examined to further evaluate and compare classification methods. Classification error rates associated with artificial neural networks and likelihood estimators were lower for simulated data sets compared to k-nearest neighbor and decision tree classifiers over the entire range of parameters considered. Artificial neural networks only marginally outperformed the likelihood method for simulated data (0–2.8% lower error rates). The relative performance of each machine learning classifier improved relative likelihood estimators for empirical data sets, suggesting an ability to “learn” and utilize properties of empirical genotypic arrays intrinsic to each population. Likelihood-based estimation methods provide a more accessible option for reliable assignment of individuals to the population of origin due to the intricacies in development and evaluation of artificial neural networks. In recent years, characterization of highly polymorphic molecular markers such as mini- and microsatellites and development of novel methods of analysis have enabled researchers to extend investigations of ecological and evolutionary processes below the population level to the level of
Killingsworth, Stephen; Clark, Douglas; Adams, Deanne
Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of two explanation-based approaches for increasing learning in educational games. The first involves asking students to explain their answers (self-explanation) and the second involves providing correct explanations (explanatory feedback). This study (1) compared self-explanation and explanatory feedback features embedded into a game designed to teach Newtonian dynamics and (2) investigated relationships between learning and individual differenc...
Full Text Available Self-regulated learning has become an important construct in education research in the last few years. Selfregulated learning in its simple form is the learner’s ability to monitor and control the learning process. There is increasing research in the literature on how to support students become more self-regulated learners. However, the advancement in the information technology has led to paradigm changes in the design and development of educational content. The concept of learning object instructional technology has emerged as a result of this shift in educational technology paradigms. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated the potential educational effectiveness of a pedagogical framework based on the self-regulated learning theories to support the design of learning object systems to help computer science students. A prototype learning object system was developed based on the contemporary research on self-regulated learning. The system was educationally evaluated in a quasi-experimental study over two semesters in a core programming languages concepts course. The evaluation revealed that a learning object system that takes into consideration contemporary research on self-regulated learning can be an effective learning environment to support computer science education.
Full Text Available Individual Learner DifferencesIn Web-based Learning Environments:From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives Mustafa KOCPh.D Candidate Instructional TechnologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbana, IL - USA ABSTRACT Throughout the paper, the issues of individual differences in web-based learning, also known as online instruction, online training or distance education were examined and implications for designing distance education were discussed. Although the main purpose was to identify differences in learners’ characteristics such as cognitive, affective, physiological and social factors that affect learning in a web-enhanced environment, the questions of how the web could be used to reinforce learning, what kinds of development ideas, theories and models are currently being used to design and deliver online instruction, and finally what evidence for the effectiveness of using World Wide Web (WWW for learning and instruction has been reported, were also analyzed to extend theoretical and epistemogical understanding of web-based learning.
McGregor, Heather R; Gribble, Paul L
Action observation can facilitate the acquisition of novel motor skills; however, there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. Here we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in brain function or structure can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Subjects underwent an anatomical MRI scan and resting-state fMRI scans to assess preobservation gray matter volume and preobservation resting-state functional connectivity (FC), respectively. On the following day, subjects observed a video of a tutor adapting her reaches to a novel force field. After observation, subjects performed reaches in a force field as a behavioral assessment of gains in motor learning resulting from observation. We found that individual differences in resting-state FC, but not gray matter volume, predicted postobservation gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state FC between left primary somatosensory cortex and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, and primary somatosensory cortex and left superior parietal lobule was positively correlated with behavioral measures of postobservation motor learning. Sensory-motor resting-state FC can thus predict the extent to which observation will promote subsequent motor learning. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that individual differences in preobservation brain function can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state functional connectivity within a sensory-motor network may be used as a biomarker for the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. This kind of information may be useful if observation is to be used as a way to boost neuroplasticity and sensory-motor recovery for patients undergoing rehabilitation for diseases that impair movement such as stroke. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Nilsson, Mikael; Östergren, Jan; Fors, Uno; Rickenlund, Anette; Jorfeldt, Lennart; Caidahl, Kenneth; Bolinder, Gunilla
The compressed curriculum in modern knowledge-intensive medicine demands useful tools to achieve approved learning aims in a limited space of time. Web-based learning can be used in different ways to enhance learning. Little is however known regarding its optimal utilisation. Our aim was to investigate if the individual learning styles of medical students influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting. The programme, with three types of modules (learning content, self-assessment questions and interactive ECG interpretation training), was offered on a voluntary basis during a face to face ECG learning course for undergraduate medical students. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) and a general questionnaire including questions about computer and Internet usage, preferred future speciality and prior experience of E-learning were used to explore different factors related to the choice of using the programme or not. 93 (76%) out of 123 students answered the ILS instrument and 91 the general questionnaire. 55 students (59%) were defined as users of the web-based ECG-interpretation programme. Cronbach's alpha was analysed with coefficients above 0.7 in all of the four dimensions of ILS. There were no significant differences with regard to learning styles, as assessed by ILS, between the user and non-user groups; Active/Reflective; Visual/Verbal; Sensing/Intuitive; and Sequential/Global (p = 0.56-0.96). Neither did gender, prior experience of E-learning or preference for future speciality differ between groups. Among medical students, neither learning styles according to ILS, nor a number of other characteristics seem to influence the choice to use a web-based ECG programme. This finding was consistent also when the usage of the different modules in the programme were considered. Thus, the findings suggest that web-based learning may attract a broad variety of medical students.
Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan
Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. The model tested in this study posits that postmodern value orientations are positively related to procrastination and to a lack of daily routines concerning the performance of academic activities. In contrast, modern values are negatively related to procrastination and positively to learning routines. Academic procrastination, in-turn, should be associated with the tendency to prefer leisure activities to schoolwork in case of conflicts between these two life domains. Seven hundred and four students from 6th and 8th grade with a mean age of 13.5 years participated in the study. The sample included students from all tracks of the German educational system. Students completed a questionnaire containing two value prototypes as well as scales on learning routines and procrastination. Decisions in motivational conflicts were measured using two vignettes. Results from structural equation modelling supported the proposed model for the whole sample as well as for each school track. A planned course of the day can prevent procrastination and foster decisions for academic tasks in case of conflicts. Students' learning takes place within a societal context and reflects the values held in the respective culture.
Oschepkova, Elena; Vasinskaya, Irina; Sockoluck, Irina
In view of changing educational paradigm (adopting of two-tier system of higher education concept - undergraduate and graduate programs) a need of using of modern learning and information and communications technologies arises putting into practice learner-centered approaches in training of highly qualified specialists for extraction and processing of solid commercial minerals enterprises. In the unstable market demand situation and changeable institutional environment, from one side, and necessity of work balancing, supplying conditions and product quality when mining-and-geological parameters change, from the other side, mining enterprises have to introduce and develop the integrated management process of product and informative and logistic flows under united management system. One of the main limitations, which keeps down the developing process on Russian mining enterprises, is staff incompetence at all levels of logistic management. Under present-day conditions extraction and processing of solid commercial minerals enterprises need highly qualified specialists who can do self-directed researches, develop new and improve present arranging, planning and managing technologies of technical operation and commercial exploitation of transport and transportation and processing facilities based on logistics. Learner-centered approach and individualization of the learning process necessitate the designing of individual learning route (ILR), which can help the students to realize their professional facilities according to requirements for specialists for extraction and processing of solid commercial minerals enterprises.
Full Text Available Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity. The present study examined the role of individual differences in such discriminatory fear learning. We hypothesized that heightened trait anxiety would be related to a deficit in discriminatory fear learning. Participants gave US-expectancy ratings as an index for the threat value of individual CSs following blocking and protection-from-overshadowing training. The difference in threat value at test between the protected-from-overshadowing CS and the blocked CS was negatively correlated with scores on a self-report tension-stress scale that approximates facets of generalized anxiety disorder (DASS-S, but not with other individual difference variables. In addition, a behavioral test showed that only participants scoring high on the DASS-S avoided the protected-from-overshadowing CS. This observed deficit in discriminatory fear learning for participants with high levels of tension-stress might be an underlying mechanism for fear overgeneralization in diffuse anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder.
Wahyudin; Riza, L. S.; Putro, B. L.
E-learning as a learning activity conducted online by the students with the usual tools is favoured by students. The use of computer media in learning provides benefits that are not owned by other learning media that is the ability of computers to interact individually with students. But the weakness of many learning media is to assume that all students have a uniform ability, when in reality this is not the case. The concept of Intelligent Tutorial System (ITS) combined with cyberblog application can overcome the weaknesses in neglecting diversity. An Intelligent Tutorial System-based Cyberblog application (ITS) is a web-based interactive application program that implements artificial intelligence which can be used as a learning and evaluation media in the learning process. The use of ITS-based Cyberblog in learning is one of the alternative learning media that is interesting and able to help students in measuring ability in understanding the material. This research will be associated with the improvement of logical thinking ability (logical thinking) of students, especially in algorithm subjects.
Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa; Fischer, Kurt W.
Our goal is to establish a science of the individual, grounded in dynamic systems, and focused on the analysis of individual variability. Our argument is that individuals behave, learn, and develop in distinctive ways, showing patterns of variability that are not captured by models based on statistical averages. As such, any meaningful attempt to…
Full Text Available Purpose – This article presents the results of distance learning system analysis, i.e. the critical elements of the distance learning system. The critical points of distance learning are a part of distance education online environment interactivity/community process model. The most important is the fact that the critical point is associated with distance learning participants. Design/methodology/approach – Comparative review of articles and analysis of distance learning module. Findings – A modern man is a lifelong learner and distance learning is a way to be a modern person. The focus on a learner and feedback is the most important thing of learning distance system. Also, attention should be paid to the lecture-appropriate knowledge and ability to convey information. Distance system adaptation is the way to improve the learner’s learning outcomes. Research limitations/implications – Different learning disciplines and learning methods may have different critical points. Practical implications – The information of analysis could be important for both lecturers and students, who studies distance education systems. There are familiar critical points which may deteriorate the quality of learning. Originality/value – The study sought to develop remote systems for applications in order to improve the quality of knowledge. Keywords: distance learning, process model, critical points. Research type: review of literature and general overview.
Mitchell, D G V; Fine, C; Richell, R A; Newman, C; Lumsden, J; Blair, K S; Blair, R J R
Previous work has shown that individuals with psychopathy are impaired on some forms of associative learning, particularly stimulus-reinforcement learning (Blair et al., 2004; Newman & Kosson, 1986). Animal work suggests that the acquisition of stimulus-reinforcement associations requires the amygdala (Baxter & Murray, 2002). Individuals with psychopathy also show impoverished reversal learning (Mitchell, Colledge, Leonard, & Blair, 2002). Reversal learning is supported by the ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortex (Rolls, 2004). In this paper we present experiments investigating stimulus-reinforcement learning and relearning in patients with lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex or amygdala, and individuals with developmental psychopathy without known trauma. The results are interpreted with reference to current neurocognitive models of stimulus-reinforcement learning, relearning, and developmental psychopathy. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Chen, Cheng-ping; Wang, Chang-Hwa
Studies have proven that merging hands-on and online learning can result in an enhanced experience in learning science. In contrast to traditional online learning, multiple in-classroom activities may be involved in an augmented-reality (AR)-embedded e-learning process and thus could reduce the effects of individual differences. Using a…
Pengelolaan belajar yang dilakukan secara mandiri, memungkinkan siswa untuk belajar sesuai minat dan tanpa paksaan dari pihak lain sehingga akan berdampak positif terhadap prestasi belajar yang diraihnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan paket pelatihan kemandirian belajar dengan menggunakan strategi individual learning plan untuk siswa SMP. Pengembangan paket pelatihan ini menggunakan model penelitian pengembangan Borg & Gall (1983. Berdasarkan hasil penilaian ahli dan pengguna, paket pelatihan kemandirian belajar dengan menggunakan strategi individual learning plan untuk siswa SMP telah memenuhi kriteria kelayakan dan keberterimaan. Uji efektivitas kepada berbagai subjek yang berbeda perlu dilakukan pada penelitian selanjutnya sehingga kekurangan paket pelatihan yang dikembangkan dalam pelatihan ini bisa disempurnakan.
Sommer, Finn M.; Sprogøe, Jonas; Nygaard Andersen, Randi
In this empirical paper we explore experiences with organizing so called research workshops in a university of applied science. A research workshop is a action learning oriented didactical and educational format designed to be explorative, and the aim is for the participants to acquire research s...... skills and competencies. However, research workshops are also used strategically to facilitate organizational development. By way of organizational learning theory, we discuss research workshops as way to individual learning and organizational transformation.......In this empirical paper we explore experiences with organizing so called research workshops in a university of applied science. A research workshop is a action learning oriented didactical and educational format designed to be explorative, and the aim is for the participants to acquire research...
Proper management of dynamic systems (e.g. cooling systems of nuclear power plants or production and warehousing) is important to ensure public safety and economic success. So far, research has provided broad evidence for systematic shortcomings in individuals' control performance of dynamic systems. This research aims to investigate whether groups manifest synergy (Larson, 2010) and outperform individuals and if so, what processes lead to these performance advantages. In three experiments - including simulations of a nuclear power plant and a business setting - I compare the control performance of three-person-groups to the average individual performance and to nominal groups (N = 105 groups per experiment). The nominal group condition captures the statistical advantage of aggregated group judgements not due to social interaction. First, results show a superior performance of groups compared to individuals. Second, a meta-analysis across all three experiments shows interaction-based process gains in dynamic control tasks: Interacting groups outperform the average individual performance as well as the nominal group performance. Third, group interaction leads to stable individual improvements of group members that exceed practice effects. In sum, these results provide the first unequivocal evidence for interaction-based performance gains of groups in dynamic control tasks and imply that employers should rely on groups to provide opportunities for individual learning and to foster dynamic system control at its best.
Blair, R J R
In this paper it is proposed that important components of moral development and moral judgment rely on two forms of emotional learning: stimulus-reinforcement and response-outcome learning. Data in support of this position will be primarily drawn from work with individuals with the developmental condition of psychopathy as well as fMRI studies with healthy individuals. Individuals with psychopathy show impairment on moral judgment tasks and a pronounced increased risk for instrumental antisocial behavior. It will be argued that these impairments are developmental consequences of impaired stimulus-aversive conditioning on the basis of distress cue reinforcers and response-outcome learning in individuals with this disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Chan, Wai Meng; Kim, Dong-Ha
Research in cognitive psychology and second language learning has underlined the significance of learners' cognitive processes and individual preferences in language learning. Helping learners to be aware of these processes and preferences has in fact become an important methodological principle of language teaching. Advances in information and…
This dissertation is a presentation of a theoretical model of an intelligent Learning System (ILS). The approach view intelligent computer-based instruction on a curricular-level and educational-theory base, instead of the conventional instructional-only level. The ILS is divided into two components: (1) macro-level, curricular; and (2) micro-level (MAIS), instructional. The primary purpose of the ILS macro level is to establish the initial conditions of learning by considering individual difference variables within specification of the curriculum content domain. Second, the ILS macro-level will iteratively update the conditions of learning as the individual student progresses through the given curriculum. The term dynamic is used to describe the expert tutor that establishes and monitors the conditions of instruction between the ILS macro level and the micro level. As the student progresses through the instruction, appropriate information is sent back continuously to the macro level to constantly improve decision making for succeeding conditions of instruction.
Byrom, Nicola C; Murphy, Robin A
Though much work has studied how external factors, such as stimulus properties, influence generalization of associative strength, there has been limited exploration of the influence that internal dispositions may contribute to stimulus processing. Here we report 2 studies using a modified negative patterning discrimination to test the relationship between global processing and generalization. Global processing was associated with stronger negative patterning discrimination, indicative of limited generalization between distinct stimulus compounds and their constituent elements. In Experiment 2, participants pretrained to adopt global processing similarly showed strong negative patterning discrimination. These results demonstrate considerable individual difference in capacity to engage in negative patterning discrimination and suggest that the tendency toward global processing may be one factor explaining this variability. The need for models of learning to account for this variability in learning is discussed.
White, S.L.; Wagner, Tyler; Gowan, C.; Braithwaite, V.A.
While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation.
The aim of nursing education is to prepare students with critical thinking, high interests in profession and high proficiency in patient care. Cooperative learning promotes team work and encourages knowledge building upon discussion. It has been viewed as one of the most powerful learning methods. Technology has been considered an influential tool in teaching and learning. It assists students in gathering more information to solve the problems and master skills better. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of technology-based cooperative learning with technology-based individual learning in nursing students' critical thinking in catheterization knowledge gaining, error discovering, skill acquisitions, and overall scores. This study used a pretest-posttest experimental design. Ninety-eight students were assigned randomly to one of two groups. Questionnaires and tests were collected at baseline and after completion of intervention. The results of this study showed that there was no significant difference in related catheterization skill performance. However, the remaining variables differed greatly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS: This study's findings guide the researchers and instructors to use technology-based cooperative learning more appropriately. Future research should address the design of the course module and the availability of mobile devices to reach student-centered and learn on the move goals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strand, Pia; Edgren, Gudrun; Borna, Petter; Lindgren, Stefan; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Stalmeijer, Renée E
The role of workplace supervisors in the clinical education of medical students is currently under debate. However, few studies have addressed how supervisors conceptualize workplace learning and how conceptions relate to current sociocultural workplace learning theory. We explored physician conceptions of: (a) medical student learning in the clinical workplace and (b) how they contribute to student learning. The methodology included a combination of a qualitative, inductive (conventional) and deductive (directed) content analysis approach. The study triangulated two types of interview data from 4 focus group interviews and 34 individual interviews. A total of 55 physicians participated. Three overarching themes emerged from the data: learning as membership, learning as partnership and learning as ownership. The themes described how physician conceptions of learning and supervision were guided by the notions of learning-as-participation and learning-as-acquisition. The clinical workplace was either conceptualized as a context in which student learning is based on a learning curriculum, continuity of participation and partnerships with supervisors, or as a temporary source of knowledge within a teaching curriculum. The process of learning was shaped through the reciprocity between different factors in the workplace context and the agency of students and supervising physicians. A systems-thinking approach merged with the "co-participation" conceptual framework advocated by Billet proved to be useful for analyzing variations in conceptions. The findings suggest that mapping workplace supervisor conceptions of learning can be a valuable starting point for medical schools and educational developers working with changes in clinical educational and faculty development practices.
Kwon, So Young
Using a quasi-experimental design, the researcher investigated the comparative effects of individually-generated and collaboratively-generated computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. Qualitative data were analyzed to explain quantitative findings. One hundred sixty-one students (74 boys and 87 girls) in eight, seventh grade science classes at a middle school in Southeast Texas completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups, the researcher assigned the teacher's classes to one of the three experimental groups. The independent variable, group, consisted of three levels: 40 students in a control group, 59 students trained to individually generate concept maps on computers, and 62 students trained to collaboratively generate concept maps on computers. The dependent variables were science concept learning as demonstrated by comprehension test scores, and quality of concept maps created by students in experimental groups as demonstrated by rubric scores. Students in the experimental groups received concept mapping training and used their newly acquired concept mapping skills to individually or collaboratively construct computer-based concept maps during study time. The control group, the individually-generated concept mapping group, and the collaboratively-generated concept mapping group had equivalent learning experiences for 50 minutes during five days, excepting that students in a control group worked independently without concept mapping activities, students in the individual group worked individually to construct concept maps, and students in the collaborative group worked collaboratively to construct concept maps during their study time. Both collaboratively and individually generated computer-based concept mapping had a positive effect on seventh grade middle school science concept learning but neither strategy was more effective than the other. However
Steenbergen, B.; van der Kamp, J.; Verneau, M.M.N.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.
Purpose. Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may
Steenbergen, B.; Kamp, J. van der; Verneau, M.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.
PURPOSE: Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may
Steenbergen, B.; Kamp, J. van der; Verneau, M.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.W.
Purpose - Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may
System Dynamics (SD) is one of the subjects that were use in learning Automatic Control Systems in dynamic and control field. Mathematical modelling and solving skills of students for engineering systems are expecting outcomes of the course which can be further used to efficiently study control systems and mechanical vibration; however, the fundamental of the SD includes strong backgrounds in Dynamics and Differential Equations, which are appropriate to the students in governmental universities that have strong skills in Mathematics and Scientifics. For private universities, students are weak in the above subjects since they obtained high vocational certificate from Technical College or Polytechnic School, which emphasize the learning contents in practice. To enhance their learning for improving their backgrounds, this paper applies mind maps based problem based learning to relate the essential relations of mathematical and physical equations. With the advantages of mind maps, each student is assigned to design individual mind maps for self-leaning development after they attend the class and learn overall picture of each chapter from the class instructor. Four problems based mind maps learning are assigned to each student. Each assignment is evaluated via mid-term and final examinations, which are issued in terms of learning concepts and applications. In the method testing, thirty students are tested and evaluated via student learning backgrounds in the past. The result shows that well-design mind maps can improve learning performance based on outcome evaluation. Especially, mind maps can reduce time-consuming and reviewing for Mathematics and Physics in SD significantly.
Full Text Available Avoidance is considered as a central hallmark of all anxiety disorders. The acquisition and expression of avoidance which leads to the maintenance and exacerbation of pathological fear is closely linked to Pavlovian and operant conditioning processes. Changes in conditionability might represent a key feature of all anxiety disorders but the exact nature of these alterations might vary across different disorders. To date, no information is available on specific changes in conditionability for disorder-irrelevant stimuli in specific phobia (SP. The first aim of this study was to investigate changes in fear acquisition and extinction in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful participants by using the de novo fear conditioning paradigm. Secondly, we aimed to determine whether differences in the magnitude of context-dependent fear retrieval exist between spider-fearful and non-fearful individuals. Our findings point to an enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful individuals at both the physiological and subjective level. The enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals was neither mediated by increased state anxiety, depression, nor stress tension. Spider-fearful individuals displayed no changes in extinction learning and/or fear retrieval. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for context-dependent modulation of fear retrieval in either group. Here we provide first evidence that spider-fearful individuals show an enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant (de novo stimuli. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of fear acquisition and expression for the development and maintenance of maladaptive responses in the course of SP.
Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke
This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through...... a factor analysis three dimensions of national labour market systems (flexible security, passive security and job support) are defined. Using a multilevel logistic regression model that takes into account both characteristics of individuals and of national labour market systems it is shown...... that there is a significant positive correlation between flexible security and the prevalence of discretionary learning. On this basis we point to an extension of flexible security in Europe’s labour markets as an adequate response to the current crisis....
Kyndt, Eva; Vermeire, Eva; Cabus, Shana
Purpose: This paper aims to examine which organisational learning conditions and individual characteristics predict the learning outcomes nurses achieve through informal learning activities. There is specific relevance for the nursing profession because of the rapidly changing healthcare systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 203 nurses…
Schüpfer, G; Gfrörer, R; Schleppers, A
In only a few contexts is the need for substantial learning more pronounced than in health care. For a health care provider, the ability to learn is essential in a changing environment. Although individual humans are programmed to learn naturally, organisations are not. Learning that is limited to individual professions and traditional approaches to continuing medical education is not sufficient to bring about substantial changes in the learning capacity of an institution. Also, organisational learning is an important issue for anaesthesia departments. Future success of an organisation often depends on new capabilities and competencies. Organisational learning is the capacity or processes within an organisation to maintain or improve performance based on experience. Learning is seen as a system-level phenomenon as it stays in the organisation regardless of the players involved. Experience from other industries shows that learning strategies tend to focus on single loop learning, with relatively little double loop learning and virtually no meta-learning or non-learning. The emphasis on team delivery of health care reinforces the need for team learning. Learning organisations make learning an intrinsic part of their organisations and are a place where people continually learn how to learn together. Organisational learning practice can help to improve existing skills and competencies and to change outdated assumptions, procedures and structures. So far, learning theory has been ignored in medicine, due to a wide variety of complex political, economic, social, organisational culture and medical factors that prevent innovation and resist change. The organisational culture is central to every stage of the learning process. Learning organisations move beyond simple employee training into organisational problem solving, innovation and learning. Therefore, teamwork and leadership are necessary. Successful organisations change the competencies of individuals, the systems
Full Text Available Abstract Background The compressed curriculum in modern knowledge-intensive medicine demands useful tools to achieve approved learning aims in a limited space of time. Web-based learning can be used in different ways to enhance learning. Little is however known regarding its optimal utilisation. Our aim was to investigate if the individual learning styles of medical students influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting. Methods The programme, with three types of modules (learning content, self-assessment questions and interactive ECG interpretation training, was offered on a voluntary basis during a face to face ECG learning course for undergraduate medical students. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS and a general questionnaire including questions about computer and Internet usage, preferred future speciality and prior experience of E-learning were used to explore different factors related to the choice of using the programme or not. Results 93 (76% out of 123 students answered the ILS instrument and 91 the general questionnaire. 55 students (59% were defined as users of the web-based ECG-interpretation programme. Cronbach's alpha was analysed with coefficients above 0.7 in all of the four dimensions of ILS. There were no significant differences with regard to learning styles, as assessed by ILS, between the user and non-user groups; Active/Reflective; Visual/Verbal; Sensing/Intuitive; and Sequential/Global (p = 0.56-0.96. Neither did gender, prior experience of E-learning or preference for future speciality differ between groups. Conclusion Among medical students, neither learning styles according to ILS, nor a number of other characteristics seem to influence the choice to use a web-based ECG programme. This finding was consistent also when the usage of the different modules in the programme were considered. Thus, the findings suggest that web-based learning may attract a broad variety of medical
Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S.; Cerliani, Leonardo; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E.; Keysers, Christian
Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18)
Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette
Recent studies regard Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL) as providing a learning environment which fosters both individual and group creativity. This paper focuses on the question: In a PBL environment, how do students perceive the interplay between individual and group creativity? Empirica...
Chang, Li-Hung; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Andersen, George J; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo
One of the biggest questions in learning is how a system can resolve the plasticity and stability dilemma. Specifically, the learning system needs to have not only a high capability of learning new items (plasticity) but also a high stability to retain important items or processing in the system by preventing unimportant or irrelevant information from being learned. This dilemma should hold true for visual perceptual learning (VPL), which is defined as a long-term increase in performance on a visual task as a result of visual experience. Although it is well known that aging influences learning, the effect of aging on the stability and plasticity of the visual system is unclear. To address the question, we asked older and younger adults to perform a task while a task-irrelevant feature was merely exposed. We found that older individuals learned the task-irrelevant features that younger individuals did not learn, both the features that were sufficiently strong for younger individuals to suppress and the features that were too weak for younger individuals to learn. At the same time, there was no plasticity reduction in older individuals within the task tested. These results suggest that the older visual system is less stable to unimportant information than the younger visual system. A learning problem with older individuals may be due to a decrease in stability rather than a decrease in plasticity, at least in VPL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wahyu Dwi Kurniawan
Full Text Available This study aimed to develop learning media of pneumatic systems based on computer-assisted learning as an effort to improve the competence of students at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering UNESA. The development method referred to the 4D model design of Thiagarajan comprising the steps of: define, design, develop, and desseminate. The results showed that the expert validation average score included in both categories was 3.54, indicating the learning application acceptable. A limited test showed effective results, namely: (a Analysis of the data included in the category of learning was good (3.64, indicated by students’ enthusiasm in the learning process; (b Teaching learning activities were categorized as good, the students actively involved in learning, and the most dominant activity was doing tasks while discussing; (c Learning objectives were both achieved individually and classically; (d The students showed a positive response expressed by the students’ interest, excitement, and motivation to follow the learning process.
Nwaru, Bright I; Friedman, Charles; Halamka, John; Sheikh, Aziz
There is increasing international policy and clinical interest in developing learning health systems and delivering precision medicine, which it is hoped will help reduce variation in the quality and safety of care, improve efficiency, and lead to increasing the personalisation of healthcare. Although reliant on similar policies, informatics tools, and data science and implementation research capabilities, these two major initiatives have thus far largely progressed in parallel. In this opinion piece, we argue that they should be considered as complementary, synergistic initiatives whereby the creation of learning health systems infrastructure can support and catalyse the delivery of precision medicine that maximises the benefits and minimises the risks associated with treatments for individual patients. We illustrate this synergy by considering the example of treatments for asthma, which is now recognised as an umbrella term for a heterogeneous group of related conditions.
Rucker, Ryan; Downey, Steve
Research literature is flush with articles discussing how teachers use individual learning management systems. However, very few studies examine how faculty are affected as they move from one platform to another. This study addresses that gap and examines how faculty adapt their online teaching practices as they migrate systems. In doing so,…
Mohammed Amine Alimam
Full Text Available The use of modern educational technology methods has become an important area of research in order to support learning as well as collaboration. This is especially evident with the rise of internet and web 2.0 platforms that have transformed users’ role from mere content consumers to fully content consumers-producers. Furthermore, people engaged in collaborative learning capitalize on one another’s resources and skills, unlike individual learning. This paper proceeds with a categorization of the main tools and functions that characterize the personalization learning aspect, in order to discuss their trade-offs with collaborative learning systems. It proposes a framework of a personalized information research (IR within a collaborative learning system, incorporating the characterization of the research type carried by the query, as well as modeling and constructing semantic users’ profiles. We use the context of the user query into a prediction mechanism of the search type, based on a previous identification of users’ levels and interests. The paper is concluded by presenting experiment results, revealing that the use of the subject ontology extension approach satisfyingly contributes to improvement in the accuracy of system recommendations.
White, S L; Wagner, T; Gowan, C; Braithwaite, V A
While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Hung
Context-aware ubiquitous learning has been recognized as being a promising approach that enables students to interact with real-world learning targets with supports from the digital world. Several researchers have indicated the importance of providing learning guidance or hints to individual students during the context-aware ubiquitous learning…
Fournier, Marion; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Radel, Rémi
Instrumental learning occurs through both goal-directed and habit memory systems, which are supported by anatomically distinct brain systems. Interestingly, stress may promote habits at the expense of goal-directed performance, since stress before training in an instrumental task was found to cause individuals to carry on with the learned association in spite of a devalued outcome. These findings nevertheless left pending questions, and it has been difficult to determine which system is primarily affected by stress (an improved habit system, an impaired goal-directed system, or both) and at what point the stress acts (at the moment of learning by making more resistant habits, or after devaluation by making individuals less sensitive to change in the outcome value). The present study (N=72 participants, 63 males and 9 females) aimed to answer these questions with (i) an instrumental task that dissociates the two memory systems and (ii) three conditions of psychosocial stress exposure (Trier Social Stress Test): stress induced before learning, before devaluation, and not induced for the control group. The study confirms that exposure to psychosocial stress leads to habitual performance. Moreover, it provides new insight into this effect by locating its origin as an impairment in the capacity of the goal-directed system rather than a reinforcement in habit learning. These results are discussed in light of recent neurobiological models of stress and memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available It is known that the language classroom is the place where teachers and learners come together for interaction and students can learn English in natural settings. Group work is a teaching strategy at all levels of education and researchers have observed that group based assignments and discussions are a common feature of tertiary education. The effective use of group work in the language class can provide a valuable learning experience to students and give them the opportunity to practically experience the language exposure of the ideas presented and strengthen their learning. In this regard, this paper attempts to identify the efficiency of individual and group work teaching strategy of the students to excel at foreign language learning. Then, the paper aims to define the effect of individual and group work of students’ value participation in academic communication. Finally, the paper tries to determine the most effective methods for working in a group and individually with the help of the data obtained with the help of a purpose-designed questionnaire to assess their preference for different teaching methods.
Doyle, Louise; Kelliher, Felicity; Harrington, Denis
The aim of this paper is to review the relevant literature on organisational learning and offer a preliminary conceptual framework as a basis to explore how the multi-levels of individual learning and team learning interact in a public healthcare organisation. The organisational learning literature highlights a need for further understanding of…
Abswoude, F. van; Santos-Vieira, B.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of errors during practice on motor skill learning in young individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Minimizing errors has been validated in typically developing children and children with intellectual disabilities as a method for implicit learning,
Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Leigh, Eleanor
This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also…
Han, K. W.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.
A web-based learning management system (LMS) has been established to address the need of customized education and training of Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI. The LMS is designed to deal with various learning types (e.g. on-line, off-line and blended) and a practically comprehensive learning activity cycle (e.g. course preparation, registration, learning, and postlearning) as well as to be user-friendly. A test with an example course scenario on the established system has shown its satisfactory performance. This paper discusses details of the established webbased learning management system in terms of development approach and functions of the LMS
Psychophysiologic Response and Technology -Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leigh W. Jerome, Ph.D...NUMBER Transformative Learning : Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response and Technology - Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems 5b. GRANT NUMBER...project entitled “Transformative Learning : Patterns of Psychophysiologic Response in Technology Enabled Learning and Intervention Systems.” The
Galina A. Samigulina
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop an ontological model of multiagent smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people based on Java Agent Development Framework for obtaining high-quality engineering education in laboratories of join use on modern equipment.Materials and methods of research. In developing multi-agent smart-system of distance learning, using various agents based on cognitive, ontological, statistical and intellectual methods is important. It is more convenient to implement this task in the form of software using multi-agent approach and Java Agent Development Framework. The main advantages of the platform are stability of operation, clear interface, simplicity of creating agents and extensive user database. In multi-agent systems, the solution is obtained automatically as result of interaction of many independent, purposeful agents. Each agent can perform certain tasks and pursue specified goals. Intellectual multi-agent systems and practical applications in distance learning based on them are considered.Results. The structural diagram of functioning of smart system distance learning for visually impaired people using various agents based on the system approach and the multi-agent platform Java Agent Development Framework is developed. The complex approach of distance learning of visually impaired people for obtaining highquality engineering education in laboratories of joint use on modern equipment is offered.The ontological model of multi-agent smart-system with a detailed description of the functions of following agents is created: personal, manager, ontological, cognitive, statistical, intellectual, shared laboratory agent, health agent, assistant to the agent and state agent. These agents execute their individual functions and provide a quality environment for learning.Conclusion. Thus, the proposed smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people can significantly improve effectiveness and
George Nicola Sammour
Full Text Available A three layer e-learning course development model has been defined based on a conceptual model of learning content object. It starts by decomposing the learning content into small chunks which are initially placed in a hierarchic structure of units and blocks. The raw content components, being the atomic learning objects (ALO, were linked to the blocks and are structured in the database. We set forward a dynamic generation of LO's using re-usable e-learning raw materials or ALO’s In that view we need a LO authoring/ assembling system fitting the requirements of interoperability and reusability and starting from selecting the raw learning content from the learning materials content database. In practice authoring systems are used to develop e-learning courses. The company EDUWEST has developed an authoring system that is database based and will be SCORM compliant in the near future.
Yu, Chao; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui
Social norms such as social rules and conventions play a pivotal role in sustaining system order by regulating and controlling individual behaviors toward a global consensus in large-scale distributed systems. Systematic studies of efficient mechanisms that can facilitate the emergence of social norms enable us to build and design robust distributed systems, such as electronic institutions and norm-governed sensor networks. This paper studies the emergence of social norms via learning from repeated local interactions in networked multiagent systems. A collective learning framework, which imitates the opinion aggregation process in human decision making, is proposed to study the impact of agent local collective behaviors on the emergence of social norms in a number of different situations. In the framework, each agent interacts repeatedly with all of its neighbors. At each step, an agent first takes a best-response action toward each of its neighbors and then combines all of these actions into a final action using ensemble learning methods. Extensive experiments are carried out to evaluate the framework with respect to different network topologies, learning strategies, numbers of actions, influences of nonlearning agents, and so on. Experimental results reveal some significant insights into the manipulation and control of norm emergence in networked multiagent systems achieved through local collective behaviors.
Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Jingqi; Zhang, Yalin; Li, Bo; Cai, Dongsheng
Metabolic homeostasis is regulated by the brain, whether this regulation involves learning and memory of metabolic information remains unexplored. Here we use a calorie-based, taste-independent learning/memory paradigm to show that Drosophila form metabolic memories that help balancing food choice with caloric intake; however, this metabolic learning or memory is lost under chronic high-calorie feeding. We show that loss of individual learning/memory-regulating genes causes a metabolic learning defect, leading to elevated trehalose and lipids levels. Importantly, this function of metabolic learning requires not only the mushroom body but the hypothalamus-like pars intercerebralis, while NF-κB activation in the pars intercerebralis mimics chronic overnutrition in that it causes metabolic learning impairment and disorders. Finally, we evaluate this concept of metabolic learning/memory in mice, suggesting the hypothalamus is involved in a form of nutritional learning and memory, which is critical for determining resistance or susceptibility to obesity. In conclusion, our data indicate the brain, and potentially the hypothalamus, direct metabolic learning and the formation of memories, which contribute to the control of systemic metabolic homeostasis. PMID:25848677
The study investigates learning as knowledge-creation processes on individual and collective levels. The processes were examined in an ethnographic study, conducted in a metal industry company over a four-year period. The empirical study suggests that conflicts and crises experienced on individual level were some kind of incidental starting…
Barth-Cohen, Lauren A.; Wittmann, Michael C.
This article presents an empirical analysis of conceptual difficulties encountered and ways students made progress in learning at both individual and group levels in a classroom environment in which the students used an embodied modeling activity to make sense of a specific scientific scenario. The theoretical framework, coordination class theory,…
Walklet, Elaine; Davis, Sarah; Farrelly, Daniel; Muse, Kate
Student response systems (SRS) are hand-held devices or mobile phone polling systems which collate real-time, individual responses to on-screen questions. Previous research examining their role in higher education has highlighted both advantages and disadvantages of their use. This paper explores how different SRS influence the learning experience…
Traditional Learning Management Systems are installed on a single server where learning materials and user data are kept. To increase its performance, the Learning Management System can be installed on multiple servers; learning materials and user data could be distributed across these servers obtaining a Distributed Learning Management System. In this paper is proposed the prototype of a recommendation system based on association rules for Distributed Learning Management System. Information from LMS databases is analyzed using distributed data mining algorithms in order to extract the association rules. Then the extracted rules are used as inference rules to provide personalized recommendations. The quality of provided recommendations is improved because the rules used to make the inferences are more accurate, since these rules aggregate knowledge from all e-Learning systems included in Distributed Learning Management System.
Thornton, Alex; Clutton-Brock, Tim
As in human societies, social learning may play an important role in shaping individual and group characteristics in other mammals. Here, we review research on non-primate mammals, concentrating on work at our long-term meerkat study site, where longitudinal data and field experiments have generated important insights into the role of social learning under natural conditions. Meerkats live under high predation pressure and occupy a difficult foraging niche. Accordingly, pups make extensive us...
Pickering, James D; Joynes, Viktoria C T
The use of technology within education has now crossed the Rubicon; student expectations, the increasing availability of both hardware and software and the push to fully blended learning environments mean that educational institutions cannot afford to turn their backs on technology-enhanced learning (TEL). The ability to meaningfully evaluate the impact of TEL resources nevertheless remains problematic. This paper aims to establish a robust means of evaluating individual resources and meaningfully measure their impact upon learning within the context of the program in which they are used. Based upon the experience of developing and evaluating a range of mobile and desktop based TEL resources, this paper outlines a new four-stage evaluation process, taking into account learner satisfaction, learner gain, and the impact of a resource on both the individual and the institution in which it has been adapted. A new multi-level model of TEL resource evaluation is proposed, which includes a preliminary evaluation of need, learner satisfaction and gain, learner impact and institutional impact. Each of these levels are discussed in detail, and in relation to existing TEL evaluation frameworks. This paper details a holistic, meaningful evaluation model for individual TEL resources within the specific context in which they are used. It is proposed that this model is adopted to ensure that TEL resources are evaluated in a more meaningful and robust manner than is currently undertaken.
When we experience an error during a movement, we update our motor commands to partially correct for this error on the next trial. How does experience of error produce the improvement in the subsequent motor commands? During the course of an erroneous reaching movement, proprioceptive and visual sensory pathways not only sense the error, but also engage feedback mechanisms, resulting in corrective motor responses that continue until the hand arrives at its goal. One possibility is that this feedback response is co-opted by the learning system and used as a template to improve performance on the next attempt. Here we used electromyography (EMG) to compare neural correlates of learning and feedback to test the hypothesis that the feedback response to error acts as a template for learning. We designed a task in which mixtures of error-clamp and force-field perturbation trials were used to deconstruct EMG time courses into error-feedback and learning components. We observed that the error-feedback response was composed of excitation of some muscles, and inhibition of others, producing a complex activation/deactivation pattern during the reach. Despite this complexity, across muscles the learning response was consistently a scaled version of the error-feedback response, but shifted 125 ms earlier in time. Across people, individuals who produced a greater feedback response to error, also learned more from error. This suggests that the feedback response to error serves as a teaching signal for the brain. Individuals who learn faster have a better teacher in their feedback control system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our sensory organs transduce errors in behavior. To improve performance, we must generate better motor commands. How does the nervous system transform an error in sensory coordinates into better motor commands in muscle coordinates? Here we show that when an error occurs during a movement, the reflexes transform the sensory representation of error into motor
Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.
In this module the student will learn to apply the rules previously learned for series and parallel circuits to more complex circuits called series-parallel circuits, discover the utility of a common reference when making reference to voltage values, and learn how to obtain a required voltage from a voltage divider network. The module is divided…
Lu, Hsi-Peng; Chiou, Ming-Jen
This study investigated the impact of contingent variables on the relationship between four predictors and students' satisfaction with e-learning. Five hundred and twenty-two university students from 10 intact classes engaging in online instruction were asked to answer questionnaires about their learning styles, perceptions of the quality of the…
Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Leigh, Eleanor
This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also completed independent measures of the processing and storage operations involved in each working memory span task and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The results showed that despite an equivalent level of working memory span, the relative importance of the constraints on working memory differed between the groups. In addition, working memory span was not closely related to word recognition or sentence comprehension performance in the LD group. These results suggest that the working memory span performance of LD and TD individuals may reflect different working memory limitations and that individuals with generalized learning difficulties may approach cognitive tasks in a qualitatively different way from that of typically developing individuals.
Full Text Available Most e-Learning systems provide web-based learning so that students can access the same online courses via the Internet without adaptation, based on each student's profile and behavior. In an e-Learning system, one size does not fit all. Therefore, it is a challenge to make e-Learning systems that are suitably “adaptive”. The aim of adaptive e-Learning is to provide the students the appropriate content at the right time, means that the system is able to determine the knowledge level, keep track of usage, and arrange content automatically for each student for the best learning result. This study presents a proposed system which includes major adaptive features based on a student model. The proposed system is able to initialize the student model for determining the knowledge level of a student when the student registers for the course. After a student starts learning the lessons and doing many activities, the system can track information of the student until he/she takes a test. The student’s knowledge level, based on the test scores, is updated into the system for use in the adaptation process, which combines the student model with the domain model in order to deliver suitable course contents to the students. In this study, the proposed adaptive e-Learning system is implemented on an “Introduction to Java Programming Language” course, using LearnSquare software. After the system was tested, the results showed positive feedback towards the proposed system, especially in its adaptive capability.
This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system for technological experiments involving electronic circuit-construction and controlling robot motion that are necessary in the field of technology. The proposed system performs automated recognition of circuit images transmitted from individual learners and automatically supplies the learner with…
Flowerdew, John; Miller, Lindsay
This paper examines the issue of social structure and individual agency in language learning through the life histories of three young engineering graduates in Hong Kong. English is identified as an important form of cultural capital, which to a considerable extent determines the development of the three individuals, each of whom comes from a…
MacNeill, Heather; Telner, Deanna; Sparaggis-Agaliotis, Alexandra; Hanna, Elizabeth
Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) may facilitate continuing interprofessional education while overcoming barriers of time and place for busy health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences, advantages, and challenges of group versus individual online learning. Fifteen multidisciplinary health professionals participated in a 12-week online course on either diabetes or traumatic brain injury. This consisted of background e-modules and a longitudinal build-a-case exercise, done either individually or as a group. Focus group sessions exploring participants' experiences after course completion and at 4 months were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for recurring themes. Participant reflection homework and video-recorded group sessions were used for triangulation of results. Individual learners appreciated the flexibility and control, but experienced decreased motivation. Group learners appreciated the immediate feedback from their co-learners and felt social pressure to come to the weekly sessions prepared but expressed challenges in determining group goal-setting for the session. Both groups felt they learned about interprofessional roles; however, group learners described a richer learning experience and understanding of interprofessional roles through the online collaboration exercise. The intense resources necessary for interprofessional CSCL, including time, faculty development, and technological issues, are described. CSCL is a valuable educational strategy in online learning. While individual online learning may be better suited for short and simple educational interventions such as knowledge acquisition, CSCL seems to allow for richer and deeper learning in complex and interprofessional educational experiences. However, strategies, resources, and faculty development required to enhance CSCL need to be addressed carefully. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society
Full Text Available Learning is an understanding of how the human brain is wired to learning rather than to an approach or a system. It is one of the best and most frequent approaches for the 21st century learners. Micro learning is more interesting due to its way of teaching and learning the content in a small, very specific burst. Here the learners decide what and when to learn. Content, time, curriculum, form, process, mediality, and learning type are the dimensions of micro learning. Our paper will discuss about micro learning and about the micro-content management system. The study will reflect the views of different users, and will analyze the collected data. Finally, it will be concluded with its pros and cons.
Full Text Available Motor learning has been found to occur in the rehabilitation of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD. Through repetitive structured practice of motor tasks, individuals show improved performance, confirming that motor learning has probably taken place. Although a number of studies have been completed evaluating motor learning in people with PD, the sample sizes were small and the improvements were variable. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the ability of people with PD to learn motor tasks. Studies which measured movement time in upper extremity reaching tasks and met the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Results of the meta-analysis indicated that people with PD and neurologically healthy controls both demonstrated motor learning, characterized by a decrease in movement time during upper extremity movements. Movement time improvements were greater in the control group than in individuals with PD. These results support the findings that the practice of upper extremity reaching tasks is beneficial in reducing movement time in persons with PD and has important implications for rehabilitation.
Rick, Cathy; Kearns, Martha A; Thompson, Nancy A
The health care network and hospital system within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), provides employment to more than 56,000 nursing personnel and serves as clinical education site to countless other nursing and health professional students. Nurse administrators and educators are posed with the challenge of providing an environment in which each nurse is able to gain needed knowledge, learn new skills, and share and communicate this knowledge with other colleagues. The education of nurses improves the health status of veterans while also realizing individual professional enhancement. Regional and cultural diversity of the system present challenges to education, in both delivery and content. VHA's learning organizations, the Employee Education System and the Office of Special Projects, have maximized new technologies and information systems to provide innovative, virtual education opportunities, capitalizing on the benefits of informal and formal learning, thus moving VHA to the forefront in knowledge sharing and dissemination. The Virtual Learning Center, VA Knowledge Network, Learning Catalog, and VA Learning Online provide VHA's nurses with interactive, desktop virtual learning opportunities.
Haugen, Harald; Ask, Bodil; Bjørke, Sven Åke
School surveys and reports on integration of ICT in teaching and learning indicate that the technology is mainly used in traditional learning environments. Furthermore, the most frequently used software in the classrooms are general tools like word processors, presentation tools and Internet browsers. Recent attention among youngsters on social software / web 2.0, contemporary pedagogical approaches like social constructivism and long time experiences with system dynamics and simulations, seem to have a hard time being accepted by teachers and curriculum designers. How can teachers be trained to understand and apply these possibilities optimally that are now available in the classroom and online, on broadband connections and with high capacity computers? Some views on practices with the above-mentioned alternative approaches to learning are presented in this paper, focusing particularly on the options for online work and learning programmes. Here we have first hand experience with adult and mature academics, but also some background with other target groups.
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on transformers is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Six lessons are included in the module:…
Fabry, Götz; Giesler, Marianne
Adequate use of different learning strategies is one of the most important prerequisites of academic success. The actual use of learning strategies is the result of an interaction between individual and situational variables. Against this background we conducted a longitudinal study with first year medical students to investigate whether individuals show different patterns in their use of learning strategies and whether these patterns change during the first academic year. Medical students (N=175, 58% female) were surveyed three times in their first academic year regarding their use of learning strategies. A hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward) was conducted in order to identify groups of students with different patterns of learning strategies. We identified four different patterns in approaches to learning among novice medical students ("easy-going", "flexible", "problematic" and "hardworking" learners). Compared to their peers, the problematic learners had the worst final school grades. In addition changes in the use of learning strategies were identified, most of them occurred during the first term. Students start their academic studies with different patterns of learning strategies; the characteristics of these patterns change during the first academic year. Further research is necessary to better understand how individual and situational variables determine students' learning.
Rey-Lopez, Marta; Brusilovsky, Peter; Meccawy, Maram; Diaz-Redondo, Rebeca; Fernandez-Vilas, Ana; Ashman, Helen
Current e-learning standardization initiatives have put much effort into easing interoperability between systems and the reusability of contents. For this to be possible, one of the most relevant areas is the definition of a run-time environment, which allows Learning Management Systems to launch, track and communicate with learning objects.…
Nicholas Kipkurui Kiget; Professor G. Wanyembi; Anselemo Ikoha Peters
The use of e-learning systems has increased significantly in the recent times. E-learning systems are supplementing teaching and learning in universities globally. Kenyan universities have adopted e-learning technologies as means for delivering course content. However despite adoption of these systems, there are considerable challenges facing the usability of the systems. Lecturers and students have different perceptions in regard to the usability of e-learning systems. The aim of this study ...
Full Text Available Orientation: There is a growing body of research that indicates that personal factors such as collectivist value orientation play an important role in individuals’ preference for teamwork, and an individual’s propensity to work in a team is seen as a contributing factor in one’s personal learning. Research purpose: The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, the article aims to explore whether individual-level cultural values of power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity interact with individual collectivist values to influence teamwork orientation. Secondly, the study aims to examine the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning further exploring the role of perceived value congruence in this relationship. Motivation for the study: While an extensive amount of research has been conducted on teamwork orientation, the question of how individual cultural values influence formation of teamwork orientation is still largely unanswered. This lack is especially evident with regard to how the influence of collectivism on the development of positive attitudes towards teamwork is promoted or inhibited by other values such as power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity. Moreover, the current evidence about the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning and the role of personal and contextual factors in such a relationship is still scarce. Research design, approach and method: The study used a cross-sectional survey, with data collected from 120 business students engaged in project teams at a Norwegian university. All the hypothesised relationships were assessed using partial least square structural equation modelling technique. Main findings: The findings indicate that the link between collectivism–teamwork orientation is stronger for team members who scored high on uncertainty avoidance values and the relationship was weaker for team members who endorsed high
Macellini, S.; Maranesi, M.; Bonini, L.; Simone, L.; Rozzi, S.; Ferrari, P. F.; Fogassi, L.
Macaques can efficiently use several tools, but their capacity to discriminate the relevant physical features of a tool and the social factors contributing to their acquisition are still poorly explored. In a series of studies, we investigated macaques' ability to generalize the use of a stick as a tool to new objects having different physical features (study 1), or to new contexts, requiring them to adapt the previously learned motor strategy (study 2). We then assessed whether the observation of a skilled model might facilitate tool-use learning by naive observer monkeys (study 3). Results of study 1 and study 2 showed that monkeys trained to use a tool generalize this ability to tools of different shape and length, and learn to adapt their motor strategy to a new task. Study 3 demonstrated that observing a skilled model increases the observers' manipulations of a stick, thus facilitating the individual discovery of the relevant properties of this object as a tool. These findings support the view that in macaques, the motor system can be modified through tool use and that it has a limited capacity to adjust the learnt motor skills to a new context. Social factors, although important to facilitate the interaction with tools, are not crucial for tool-use learning. PMID:22106424
Full Text Available The paper presents individual differences, which are found in studies of information retrieval with emphasis on models of personality traits, cognitive and learning styles. It pays special attention to those models which are most often included in studies of information behaviour,information seeking,perceptions of IR systems, etc., but also brings forward some models which have not yet been included in such studies. Additionally, the relationship between different individual characteristics and individual’s chosen profession or academic area is discussed. In this context,the paper presents how investigation of individual differences can be useful in the design of IR systems.
Inventado, Paul Salvador; Scupelli, Peter; Heffernan, Cristina; Heffernan, Neil
Increasingly, computer-based learning systems are used by educators to facilitate learning. Evaluations of several math learning systems show that they result in significant student learning improvements. Feedback provision is one of the key features in math learning systems that contribute to its success. We have recently been uncovering feedback…
Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob
Due to the large amount of options offered by the vast number of adjustable parameters in modern digital hearing aids, it is becoming increasingly daunting—even for a fine-tuning professional—to perform parameter fine tuning to satisfactorily meet the preference of the hearing aid user. In addition......, the communication between the fine-tuning professional and the hearing aid user might muddle the task. In the present paper, an interactive system is proposed to ease and speed up fine tuning of hearing aids to suit the preference of the individual user. The system simultaneously makes the user conscious of his own...... preferences while the system itself learns the user’s preference. Since the learning is based on probabilistic modeling concepts, the system handles inconsistent user feedback efficiently. Experiments with hearing impaired subjects show that the system quickly discovers individual preferred hearing...
There is a prime necessity to make a distinction between "education" and "learning." Learning is a human instinct. Education is not. Education is about learning processes designed by adults for the young. In the past two centuries in the industrial era, education has developed into society-wide "school" systems. Young…
Goh, Adeline Yuen Sze
This article about workplace learning examines the learning of individuals in becoming a Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) teacher in Brunei. Drawing on research findings from a group of student teachers, it presents case study accounts of three individuals to illustrate the importance of social relationships in learning to become a VTE…
Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Gang; Yan, Jingqi; Zhang, Yalin; Li, Bo; Cai, Dongsheng
Metabolic homeostasis is regulated by the brain, but whether this regulation involves learning and memory of metabolic information remains unexplored. Here we use a calorie-based, taste-independent learning/memory paradigm to show that Drosophila form metabolic memories that help in balancing food choice with caloric intake; however, this metabolic learning or memory is lost under chronic high-calorie feeding. We show that loss of individual learning/memory-regulating genes causes a metabolic learning defect, leading to elevated trehalose and lipid levels. Importantly, this function of metabolic learning requires not only the mushroom body but also the hypothalamus-like pars intercerebralis, while NF-κB activation in the pars intercerebralis mimics chronic overnutrition in that it causes metabolic learning impairment and disorders. Finally, we evaluate this concept of metabolic learning/memory in mice, suggesting that the hypothalamus is involved in a form of nutritional learning and memory, which is critical for determining resistance or susceptibility to obesity. In conclusion, our data indicate that the brain, and potentially the hypothalamus, direct metabolic learning and the formation of memories, which contribute to the control of systemic metabolic homeostasis.
Roth, Gene L.
Information technologies are important tools for individual, team, and organizational learning. Developments in virtual reality and the Internet, performance support systems that increase the efficiency of individuals and groups, and other innovations have the potential to enhance the relationship between work and learning. (SK)
President's Task Force on Federal Training Technology, Washington, DC.
The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) evaluated the feasibility of individual learning accounts (ILAs) as an approach to workforce development. Thirteen federal agencies volunteered to participate in the initiative. Together, they conducted a total of 17 pilot tests. Some pilot tests included all employees in the agency. Others targeted…
Cen, Ling; Ruta, Dymitr; Powell, Leigh; Hirsch, Benjamin; Ng, Jason
The benefits of collaborative learning, although widely reported, lack the quantitative rigor and detailed insight into the dynamics of interactions within the group, while individual contributions and their impacts on group members and their collaborative work remain hidden behind joint group assessment. To bridge this gap we intend to address…
Ryu, Yeong Soon; Longman, Richard W.
In a previous paper, learning control algorithms were developed based on adaptive control ideas for linear time variant systems. The learning control methods were shown to have certain advantages over their adaptive control counterparts, such as the ability to produce zero tracking error in time varying systems, and the ability to eliminate repetitive disturbances. In recent years, certain adaptive control algorithms have been developed for multi-body dynamic systems such as robots, with global guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error for the nonlinear system euations. In this paper we study the relationship between such adaptive control methods designed for this specific class of nonlinear systems, and the learning control problem for such systems, seeking to converge to zero tracking error in following a specific command repeatedly, starting from the same initial conditions each time. The extension of these methods from the adaptive control problem to the learning control problem is seen to be trivial. The advantages and disadvantages of using learning control based on such adaptive control concepts for nonlinear systems, and the use of other currently available learning control algorithms are discussed.
Vivanti, Giacomo; Rogers, Sally J
Individuals with autism have difficulties in social learning domains which typically involve mirror neuron system (MNS) activation. However, the precise role of the MNS in the development of autism and its relevance to treatment remain unclear. In this paper, we argue that three distinct aspects of social learning are critical for advancing knowledge in this area: (i) the mechanisms that allow for the implicit mapping of and learning from others' behaviour, (ii) the motivation to attend to and model conspecifics and (iii) the flexible and selective use of social learning. These factors are key targets of the Early Start Denver Model, an autism treatment approach which emphasizes social imitation, dyadic engagement, verbal and non-verbal communication and affect sharing. Analysis of the developmental processes and treatment-related changes in these different aspects of social learning in autism can shed light on the nature of the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social learning and positive treatment outcomes in autism. This knowledge in turn may assist in developing more successful pedagogic approaches to autism spectrum disorder. Thus, intervention research can inform the debate on relations among neuropsychology of social learning, the role of the MNS, and educational practice in autism.
Vivanti, Giacomo; Rogers, Sally J.
Individuals with autism have difficulties in social learning domains which typically involve mirror neuron system (MNS) activation. However, the precise role of the MNS in the development of autism and its relevance to treatment remain unclear. In this paper, we argue that three distinct aspects of social learning are critical for advancing knowledge in this area: (i) the mechanisms that allow for the implicit mapping of and learning from others' behaviour, (ii) the motivation to attend to and model conspecifics and (iii) the flexible and selective use of social learning. These factors are key targets of the Early Start Denver Model, an autism treatment approach which emphasizes social imitation, dyadic engagement, verbal and non-verbal communication and affect sharing. Analysis of the developmental processes and treatment-related changes in these different aspects of social learning in autism can shed light on the nature of the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social learning and positive treatment outcomes in autism. This knowledge in turn may assist in developing more successful pedagogic approaches to autism spectrum disorder. Thus, intervention research can inform the debate on relations among neuropsychology of social learning, the role of the MNS, and educational practice in autism. PMID:24778379
Bos-Bonnie, Linda H A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Te Pas, Ellen; Kijser, Michael A; van Dijk, Nynke
Primary health-care professionals play an important role in the treatment and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). Continuing Medical Education (CME)-courses can influence the knowledge and behavior of health-care professionals concerning STI. We performed a prospective cohort study to evaluate if the individual and online e-learning program "The STI-consultation", which uses the Commitment-to-Change (CtC)-method, is able to improve the knowledge, attitude and behavior of Dutch General Practitioners (GPs), concerning the STI-consultation. This e-learning program is an individual, accredited, online CME-program, which is freely available for all GPs and GP-trainees in the Netherlands. In total 2192 participants completed the questionnaire before completing the e-learning program and 249 participants completed the follow-up questionnaire after completing the e-learning program. The effect of the program on their knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning the STI-consultation was evaluated. In total 193 participants formulated 601 learning points that matched the learning objectives of the program. The knowledge and attitude of the participants improved, which persisted up to two years after completing the program. Another 179 participants formulated a total of 261 intended changes concerning the sexual history taking, additional investigation and treatment of STI, 97.2% of these changes was partially or fully implemented in daily practice. Also, 114 participants formulated a total of 180 "unintended" changes in daily practice. These changes concerned the attitude of participants towards STI and the working conditions concerning the STI-consultation. The individual, online e-learning program "The STI-consultation", which uses the CtC-method, has a small but lasting, positive effect on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of GPs concerning the STI-consultation.
Sitar, Aleša Saša; Cerne, Matej; Aleksic, Darija; Mihelic, Katarina Katja
Business schools are in need of developing creative graduates. This article explores how creativity among business students can be stimulated. Because a considerable amount of knowledge is required for creative ideas to emerge, the learning process has a significant impact on creativity. This, in turn, indicates that learning style is important…
Schuetze, B.; Mildenberger, P.; Kaemmerer, M.
Purpose: Due to the possibility of using different kinds of visualization, e-learning has the advantage of allowing individualized learning. A check should be performed to determine whether the use of the web-based content management system ILIAS simplifies the writing and production of electronic learning modules in radiology. Materials and methods: Internet-based e-learning provides access to existing learning modules regardless of time and location, since fast Internet connections are readily available. Results: Web Content Management Systems (WCMS) are suitable platforms for imparting radiology-related information (visual abilities like the recognition of patterns as well as interdisciplinary specialized knowledge). The open source product ILIAS is a free WCMS. It is used by many universities and is accepted by both students and lecturers. Its modular and object-oriented software architecture makes it easy to adapt and enlarge the platform. The employment of e-learning standards such as LOM and SCORM within ILIAS makes it possible to reuse contents, even if the platform has to be changed. Conclusion: ILIAS renders it possible to provide students with texts, images, or files of any other kind within a learning context which is defined by the lecturer. Students can check their acquired knowledge via online testing and receive direct performance feedback. The significant interest that students have shown in ILIAS proves that e-learning can be a useful addition to conventional learning methods. (orig.)
Schütze, B; Mildenberger, P; Kämmerer, M
Due to the possibility of using different kinds of visualization, e-learning has the advantage of allowing individualized learning. A check should be performed to determine whether the use of the web-based content management system ILIAS simplifies the writing and production of electronic learning modules in radiology. Internet-based e-learning provides access to existing learning modules regardless of time and location, since fast Internet connections are readily available. Web Content Management Systems (WCMS) are suitable platforms for imparting radiology-related information (visual abilities like the recognition of patterns as well as interdisciplinary specialized knowledge). The open source product ILIAS is a free WCMS. It is used by many universities and is accepted by both students and lecturers. Its modular and object-oriented software architecture makes it easy to adapt and enlarge the platform. The employment of e-learning standards such as LOM and SCORM within ILIAS makes it possible to reuse contents, even if the platform has to be changed. ILIAS renders it possible to provide students with texts, images, or files of any other kind within a learning context which is defined by the lecturer. Students can check their acquired knowledge via online testing and receive direct performance feedback. The significant interest that students have shown in ILIAS proves that e-learning can be a useful addition to conventional learning methods.
Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.
In this module the student will learn the rules that govern the characteristics of parallel circuits; the relationships between voltage, current, resistance and power; and the results of common troubles in parallel circuits. The module is divided into four lessons: rules of voltage and current, rules for resistance and power, variational analysis,…
Ozdemir, Ali; Alaybeyoglu, Aysegul; Mulayim, Naciye; Uysal, Muhammed
In this study, an intelligent system which determines learning style of the students is developed to increase success in effective and easy learning. The importance of the proposed software system is to determine convenience degree of the student's learning style. Personal information form and Dunn Learning Style Preference Survey are used to…
Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred
to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using......Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....
Stender, Anthony S.; Newell, Ryan; Villarreal, Eduardo; Swearer, Dayne F.; Bianco, Elisabeth; Ringe, Emilie
Of the 6.7 million individuals in the United States who are visually impaired, 63% are unemployed, and 59% have not attained an education beyond a high school diploma. Providing a basic science education to children and adults with visual disabilities can be challenging because most scientific learning relies on visual demonstrations. Creating…
Full Text Available Questions of designing and a choice of technologies of creation of virtual laboratory for the distance learning system are considered. Distance learning system «Kherson Virtual University» is used as illustration.
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on parallel circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Four lessons are included in the…
The wide use of e-technologies represents a great opportunity for underserved segments of the population, especially with the aim of reintegrating excluded individuals back into society through education. This is particularly true for people with different types of disabilities who may have difficulties while attending traditional on-site learning programs that are typically based on printed learning resources. The creation and provision of accessible e-learning contents may therefore become ...
Cegielski, Casey G.; Hazen, Benjamin T.; Rainer, R. Kelly
The rich, interdisciplinary tradition of learning styles is markedly absent in information systems-related research. The current study applies the framework of learning styles to a common educational component of many of today's information systems curricula--object-oriented systems development--in an effort to answer the question as to whether…
Miguel, Jorge; Xhafa, Fatos
Intelligent Data Analysis for e-Learning: Enhancing Security and Trustworthiness in Online Learning Systems addresses information security within e-Learning based on trustworthiness assessment and prediction. Over the past decade, many learning management systems have appeared in the education market. Security in these systems is essential for protecting against unfair and dishonest conduct-most notably cheating-however, e-Learning services are often designed and implemented without considering security requirements. This book provides functional approaches of trustworthiness analysis, modeling, assessment, and prediction for stronger security and support in online learning, highlighting the security deficiencies found in most online collaborative learning systems. The book explores trustworthiness methodologies based on collective intelligence than can overcome these deficiencies. It examines trustworthiness analysis that utilizes the large amounts of data-learning activities generate. In addition, as proc...
Su, C-H.; Cheng, C-H.
This paper aims to investigate how a gamified learning approach influences science learning, achievement and motivation, through a context-aware mobile learning environment, and explains the effects on motivation and student learning. A series of gamified learning activities, based on MGLS (Mobile Gamification Learning System), was developed and…
Chen, Hsiu-Ju; Kao, Chia-Hung
E-learning systems, adopted by organisations for employee training to enhance employees' performance, are characterised by self-directed, autonomous learning. Learning motivation is then of importance in the design of e-learning practices in workplace. However, empirical study of the alignment of e-learning with individual learning needs and…
Manrique, Pedro D; Johnson, Neil F
Individual heterogeneity is a key characteristic of many real-world systems, from organisms to humans. However, its role in determining the system's collective dynamics is not well understood. Here we study how individual heterogeneity impacts the system network dynamics by comparing linking mechanisms that favor similar or dissimilar individuals. We find that this heterogeneity-based evolution drives an unconventional form of explosive network behavior, and it dictates how a polarized population moves toward consensus. Our model shows good agreement with data from both biological and social science domains. We conclude that individual heterogeneity likely plays a key role in the collective development of real-world networks and communities, and it cannot be ignored.
Manrique, Pedro D.; Johnson, Neil F.
Individual heterogeneity is a key characteristic of many real-world systems, from organisms to humans. However, its role in determining the system's collective dynamics is not well understood. Here we study how individual heterogeneity impacts the system network dynamics by comparing linking mechanisms that favor similar or dissimilar individuals. We find that this heterogeneity-based evolution drives an unconventional form of explosive network behavior, and it dictates how a polarized population moves toward consensus. Our model shows good agreement with data from both biological and social science domains. We conclude that individual heterogeneity likely plays a key role in the collective development of real-world networks and communities, and it cannot be ignored.
Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Morgan, Claire; Mello, Daniel
Motivated by the need to improve teaching and learning and by federal priorities reflected in requirements for grant programs such as Race to the Top and the Teacher Incentive Fund, many states are developing teacher evaluation systems that include measures of individual teachers' contributions to their students' learning growth. One way to…
Klašnja-Milićević, Aleksandra; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran; Jain, Lakhmi C
This monograph provides a comprehensive research review of intelligent techniques for personalisation of e-learning systems. Special emphasis is given to intelligent tutoring systems as a particular class of e-learning systems, which support and improve the learning and teaching of domain-specific knowledge. A new approach to perform effective personalization based on Semantic web technologies achieved in a tutoring system is presented. This approach incorporates a recommender system based on collaborative tagging techniques that adapts to the interests and level of students' knowledge. These innovations are important contributions of this monograph. Theoretical models and techniques are illustrated on a real personalised tutoring system for teaching Java programming language. The monograph is directed to, students and researchers interested in the e-learning and personalization techniques. .
Bempeni, Maria; Vamvakoussi, Xenia
We present the results of an in-depth qualitative study that examined ninth graders' conceptual and procedural knowledge of fractions as well as their approach to mathematics learning, in particular fraction learning. We traced individual differences, even extreme, in the way that students combine the two kinds of knowledge. We also provide…
Meijs, Celeste; Hurks, Petra P M; Wassenberg, Renske; Feron, Frans J M; Jolles, Jelle
This study examines inter-individual differences in how presentation modality affects verbal learning performance. Children aged 5 to 16 performed a verbal learning test within one of three presentation modalities: pictorial, auditory, or textual. The results indicated that a beneficial effect of
Full Text Available Human society, analyzed as a learning environment, presumes different languages in order to know, to understand or to develop it. This statement results as a default application of the cog-nitive domain in the educational scientific research, and it highlights a key feature: each essen-tial discovery was available for the entire language compatible society. E-Society is constructed as an application of E-Science in social services, and it is going to reveal a learning system for each application of the information technology developed for a compatible society. This article is proposed as a conceptual one focused on scientific research and the interrelationship be-tween the building blocks of research, defined as an engine for any designed learning system applied in the cognitive domain. In this approach, educational research become a learning sys-tem in e-Education. The purpose of this analysis is to configure the teacher assisted learning system and to expose its main principles which could be integrated in standard assisted instruc-tion applications, available in e-Classroom, supporting the design of specific didactic activities.
Duo, Sun; Ying, Zhou Cai
Lack of personalized learning is the key shortcoming of traditional e-Learning system. This paper analyzes the personal characters in e-Learning activity. In order to meet the personalized e-learning, a personalized e-learning system based on intelligent agent was proposed and realized in the paper. The structure of system, work process, the design of intelligent agent and the realization of intelligent agent were introduced in the paper. After the test use of the system by certain network school, we found that the system could improve the learner's initiative participation, which can provide learners with personalized knowledge service. Thus, we thought it might be a practical solution to realize self- learning and self-promotion in the lifelong education age.
Chipps, Jennifer; Kerr, Jane; Brysiewicz, Petra; Walters, Fiona
Learning management systems have been widely advocated for the support of distance learning. In low-resource settings, the uptake of these systems by students has been mixed. This study aimed to identify, through the use of the Technology Acceptance Model, the individual, organizational, and technological factors that could be influencing the use of learning management systems. A simple quantitative descriptive survey was conducted of nursing and health science students at a university in South Africa as part of their first exposure to a learning management system. A total of 274 respondents (56.7%) completed the survey questionnaire, made up of 213 nursing respondents (87.7%) and 61 health sciences respondents (25%). Overall, the respondents found the learning management system easy to use and useful for learning. There were significant differences between the two groups of respondents, with the respondents from health sciences being both younger and more computer literate. The nursing respondents, who received more support and orientations, reported finding the learning management system more useful. Recommendations are made for training and support to ensure uptake.
Lin, C.-C.; Guo, K.-H.; Lin, Y.-C.
This study aims at implementing a simple and effective remedial learning system. Based on fuzzy inference, a remedial learning material selection system is proposed for a digital logic course. Two learning concepts of the course have been used in the proposed system: number systems and combinational logic. We conducted an experiment to validate…
Kim, Sang Hee; Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Hackjin; Hamann, Stephan
In this functional neuroimaging study, we investigated neural activations during the process of learning to gain monetary rewards and to avoid monetary loss, and how these activations are modulated by individual differences in reward and punishment sensitivity. Healthy young volunteers performed a reinforcement learning task where they chose one of two fractal stimuli associated with monetary gain (reward trials) or avoidance of monetary loss (avoidance trials). Trait sensitivity to reward and punishment was assessed using the behavioral inhibition/activation scales (BIS/BAS). Functional neuroimaging results showed activation of the striatum during the anticipation and reception periods of reward trials. During avoidance trials, activation of the dorsal striatum and prefrontal regions was found. As expected, individual differences in reward sensitivity were positively associated with activation in the left and right ventral striatum during reward reception. Individual differences in sensitivity to punishment were negatively associated with activation in the left dorsal striatum during avoidance anticipation and also with activation in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex during receiving monetary loss. These results suggest that learning to attain reward and learning to avoid loss are dependent on separable sets of neural regions whose activity is modulated by trait sensitivity to reward or punishment. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Chang, Hui-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Feng; Hwang, Hsin-Ginn
E-learning is thought of as an innovative approach to enhance nurses' care service knowledge. Extensive research has provided rich information toward system development, courses design, and nurses' satisfaction with an e-learning system. However, a comprehensive view in understanding nursing e-learning system success is an important but less focused-on topic. The purpose of this research was to explore net benefits of nursing e-learning systems based on the updated DeLone and McLean's Information System Success Model. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to collected 208 valid nurses' responses from 21 of Taiwan's medium- and large-scale hospitals that have implemented nursing e-learning systems. The result confirms that the model is sufficient to explore the nurses' use of e-learning systems in terms of intention to use, user satisfaction, and net benefits. However, while the three exogenous quality factors (system quality, information quality, and service quality) were all found to be critical factors affecting user satisfaction, only information quality showed a direct effect on the intention to use. This study provides useful insights for evaluating nursing e-learning system qualities as well as an understanding of nurses' intentions and satisfaction related to performance benefits.
Moesby, Egon; W., Hans Henrik; Kørnøv, Lone
activity embedded as an integrated part of the project work. Students work in the solution phase of the project on an individual activity that is separately assessed. The results of these individual activities form the platform for students’ final work with the project as a team. They have to evaluate......In this paper, the authors describe a way to increase student learning through social constructed teamwork by adding an individual activity to the project work. This can be achieved not just by adding an individual activity outside or parallel to the project work, but by having the individual...... the individual solutions and find the one solution to work on in the final phases of the project. On top of that, it helps train students’ abilities to make evaluations among various solutions of which one is their own, thereby learning how to evaluate their personal solutions against another person’s solutions...
Manouselis, Nikos; Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga
Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Verbert, K., & Santos, C. S. (Eds.) (2010). Recommender System in Technology Enhanced Learning. Elsevier Procedia Computer Science: Volume 1, Issue 2. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL). September, 29-30,
Ennis, Catherine D.
Dynamical systems theory can increase our understanding of the constantly evolving learning process. Current research using experimental and interpretive paradigms focuses on describing the attractors and constraints stabilizing the educational process. Dynamical systems theory focuses attention on critical junctures in the learning process as…
Goh, Suzanne; Peterson, Bradley S
The aim of this article is to review neuroimaging studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that examine declarative, socio-emotional, and procedural learning and memory systems. We conducted a search of PubMed from 1996 to 2010 using the terms 'autism,''learning,''memory,' and 'neuroimaging.' We limited our review to studies correlating learning and memory function with neuroimaging features of the brain. The early literature supports the following preliminary hypotheses: (1) abnormalities of hippocampal subregions may contribute to autistic deficits in episodic and relational memory; (2) disturbances to an amygdala-based network (which may include the fusiform gyrus, superior temporal cortex, and mirror neuron system) may contribute to autistic deficits in socio-emotional learning and memory; and (3) abnormalities of the striatum may contribute to developmental dyspraxia in individuals with ASD. Characterizing the disturbances to learning and memory systems in ASD can inform our understanding of the neural bases of autistic behaviors and the phenotypic heterogeneity of ASD. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.
Tortorella, Richard A. W.; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing
Today people learn in many diverse locations and contexts, beyond the confines of classical brick and mortar classrooms. This trend is ever increasing, progressing hand-in-hand with the progress of technology. Context-aware learning systems are systems which adapt to the learner's context, providing tailored learning for a particular learning…
Full Text Available In an associative patterning task, some people seem to focus more on learning an overarching rule, whereas others seem to focus on acquiring specific relations between the stimuli and outcomes involved. Building on earlier work, we further investigated which cognitive factors are involved in feature- vs. rule-based learning and generalization. To this end, we measured participants' tendency to generalize according to the rule of opposites after training on negative and positive patterning problems (i.e., A+/B+/AB− and C−/D−/CD+, their tendency to attend to global aspects or local details of stimuli, their systemizing disposition and their score on the Raven intelligence test. Our results suggest that while intelligence might have some influence on patterning learning and generalization, visual processing style and systemizing disposition do not. We discuss our findings in the light of previous observations on patterning.
Full Text Available Blended learning became the most popular educational model that universities apply for teaching and learning. This model combines online and face-to-face learning environments, in order to enhance learning with implementation of new web technologies and tools in learning process. In this paper principles of DeLone and Mclean success model for information system are applied to Kano two-dimensional model, for categorizing quality attributes related to satisfaction of students with web based learning system used in blended learning model. Survey results are obtained among the students at “Mediterranean” University in Montenegro. The (dysfunctional dimensions of Kano model, including Kano basic matrix for assessment of the degree of students’ satisfaction level, have been considered in some more detail through corresponding numerical, graphical, and statistical analysis.
Gu, Peipei; Guo, Jiayang
With the continuing growth of multi-media learning resources, it is important to offer methods helping learners to explore and acquire relevant learning information effectively. As services that organize multi-media learning materials together to support programming learning, the digital case-based learning system is needed. In order to create a case-oriented e-learning system, this paper concentrates on the digital case study of multi-media resources and learning processes with an integrated framework. An integration of multi-media resources, testing and learning strategies recommendation as the learning unit is proposed in the digital case-based learning framework. The learning mechanism of learning guidance, multi-media materials learning and testing feedback is supported in our project. An improved personalized genetic algorithm which incorporates preference information and usage degree into the crossover and mutation process is proposed to assemble the personalized test sheet for each learner. A learning strategies recommendation solution is proposed to recommend learning strategies for learners to help them to learn. The experiments are conducted to prove that the proposed approaches are capable of constructing personalized sheets and the effectiveness of the framework.
Full Text Available With the continuing growth of multi-media learning resources, it is important to offer methods helping learners to explore and acquire relevant learning information effectively. As services that organize multi-media learning materials together to support programming learning, the digital case-based learning system is needed. In order to create a case-oriented e-learning system, this paper concentrates on the digital case study of multi-media resources and learning processes with an integrated framework. An integration of multi-media resources, testing and learning strategies recommendation as the learning unit is proposed in the digital case-based learning framework. The learning mechanism of learning guidance, multi-media materials learning and testing feedback is supported in our project. An improved personalized genetic algorithm which incorporates preference information and usage degree into the crossover and mutation process is proposed to assemble the personalized test sheet for each learner. A learning strategies recommendation solution is proposed to recommend learning strategies for learners to help them to learn. The experiments are conducted to prove that the proposed approaches are capable of constructing personalized sheets and the effectiveness of the framework.
Chen, C L Philip; Liu, Zhulin
Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes." The incremental learning algorithms are developed for fast remodeling in broad expansion without a retraining process if the network deems to be expanded. Two incremental learning algorithms are given for both the increment of the feature nodes (or filters in deep structure) and the increment of the enhancement nodes. The designed model and algorithms are very versatile for selecting a model rapidly. In addition, another incremental learning is developed for a system that has been modeled encounters a new incoming input. Specifically, the system can be remodeled in an incremental way without the entire retraining from the beginning. Satisfactory result for model reduction using singular value decomposition is conducted to simplify the final structure. Compared with existing deep neural networks, experimental results on the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology database and NYU NORB object recognition dataset benchmark data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed BLS.
Zaitseva, Larisa; Bule, Jekaterina; Makarov, Sergey
The paper describes component-based approach (CBA) for learning management system development. Learning object as components of e-learning courses and their metadata is considered. The architecture of learning management system based on CBA being developed in Riga Technical University, namely its architecture, elements and possibilities are…
Full Text Available When creating computer-assisted language learning software, it is necessary to use the potential of information technology in controlling the learning process fully. Modern intelligent tutoring systems help to make this process adaptive and personalized thanks to modeling the domain and students’ knowledge. The aim of the paper is to investigate possibilities for applying these methods in teaching Polish grammar in Ukraine taking into account its specifics. The article is concerned with the approaches of using student models in modern intelligent tutoring systems in order to provide personalized learning. A structure of the student model and a general working algorithm of the expert tutoring system of Polish grammar have been developed. The modeling of knowing and forgetting particular learning elements within the probabilistic (stochastic model has been studied, as well as the prognostication of future probabilities of students’ knowledge, taking into account their individual forgetting rates. The objective function of instruction quality with allowance for frequency of grammar rules within a certain amount of words being learned and their connections to another rules has been formulated. The problem of generating the next learning step taking into account the need for mastering previous, connected rules has been studied, as well as determining the optimal time period between the lessons depending on the current knowledge level.
Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Morgan, Claire; Mello, Daniel
Motivated by the need to improve teaching and learning and by federal priorities reflected in requirements for grant programs such as Race to the Top and the Teacher Incentive Fund, many states are developing teacher evaluation systems that include measures of individual teachers' contributions to their students' learning growth. One way to…
Rach, Stefanie; Ufer, Stefan; Heinze, Aiso
Constructive error handling is considered an important factor for individual learning processes. In a quasi-experimental study with Grades 6 to 9 students, we investigate effects on students' attitudes towards errors as learning opportunities in two conditions: an error-tolerant classroom culture, and the first condition along with additional…
Mann Hyung Hur
Full Text Available Our study explores the influence of e-learning on individual and collective empowerment by using data collected from e-learning class participants of Korea’s Cyber-Education Center. For the survey, a questionnaire was sent to each of the 41 central ministries’ education and training officers (ETO via email. The ETOs distributed the questionnaire to individuals in their ministries who have taken e-learning classes offered by the Cyber-Education Center during the first half of 2012. Out of more than 1,000 e-learning class attendees, 161 responded to the questionnaire survey. A set of multiple regression models was employed to explore significant predictors of government employees’ individual and collective empowerment in e-learning environments. Using existing literature on empowerment theories, a set of 16 questions was developed. A factor analysis was conducted to condense 16 individual variables into several large categories. Four factors including meaning, competence, self-determination, and collective empowerment were extracted from the 16 questions. The first three equations stood for individual empowerment and the last one for collective empowerment. Each of the four factors was utilized as a dependent variable in the multiple regression analysis. Each regression model uncovered its own set of variables that played a role in empowerment. The predictor variables of the meaning dimension were more widely split than those of the competence dimension or the self-determination dimension and collective empowerment. Only one independent variable—preference of e-learning class to offline class—was associated with all four dependent variables. However, modalities of e-learning activity, which were expected to be a significant predictor of empowerment, were not associated with any of the four dependent variables. In addition, lecture types of the e-learning class were also expected to be a significant predictor of empowerment but were only
Full Text Available Fragmented learning is that through the segmentation of learning content or learning time, make learners can use the fragmented time for learning fragmentated content, have the characteristics of time flexibility, learning targeted and high learning efficiency. Based on the fragmented learning ideas, combined with the teaching idea of micro class and interactive teaching, comprehensive utilization of flash animation design software, .NET development platform, VSTO technology, multimedia development technology and so on, design and develop a system integrated with learning, practice and examination of the Office software, which is not only conducive to the effective and personalized learning of students, but also conducive to the understanding the students’ situation of teachers, and liberate teachers from the heavy labor of mechanical, focus on promoting the formation of students’ knowledge system.
Nazir Ahmed Sangi
Full Text Available As developments in electronic technologies i.e. personal computers, laptops, tablets, mobiles and wearable devices, the way of learning is also changing. Therefore, utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT has great important role in schools and colleges. ICT is using by students, teachers and societies in District Swat, KP, Pakistan in the form of mobiles internet (for social contact and chat, computers internet (for knowledge exploration and entertainment and multimedia (for teaching and learning. One of the difficulties involved in rural areas’ students of District Swat is that they cannot join class rooms due to their poor livelihood condition and far away from schools and colleges. Especially most of the females of rural areas of Swat do not come to schools and colleges for their family tradition and culture. Various questions were examined in every aspect of educational technologies in this study. We surveyed 50 responded randomly at District Swat from different schools and colleges and discovered that the responded were generally positive and have great interest about e-learning in Swat. The use of proposed electronic system for the learning, the literacy rate will increase in rural areas and students will achieve their individual goals.
Isaias, P.; Spector, J.M.; Ifenthaler, D.; Sampson, D.G.
The volume consists of twenty-five chapters selected from among peer-reviewed papers presented at the CELDA (Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age) 2013 Conference held in Fort Worth, Texas, USA, in October 2013 and also from world class scholars in e-learning systems, environments and approaches. The following sub-topics are included: Exploratory Learning Technologies (Part I), e-Learning social web design (Part II), Learner communities through e-Learning implementations (Par...
This article examines the literature associated with social constructivism. It discusses whether social constructivism succeeds in reconciling individual cognition with social teaching and learning practices. After reviewing the meaning of individual cognition and social constructivism, two views--Piaget and Vygotsky's--accounting for learning…
Smith, Andrew C
Full Text Available Conference Proceedings Paul Cunningham and Miriam Cunningham (Eds) IIMC International Information Management Corporation, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-905824-24-3 An Intelligent Fractions Learning System: Implementation Andrew Cyrus SMITH1, Teemu H. LAINE2 1CSIR... to fractions. Our aim with the current research project is to extend the existing UFractions learning system to incorporate automatic data capturing. ?Intelligent UFractions? allows a teacher to remotely monitor the children?s progress during...
Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ohtsuki, Hisashi
Learning abilities are categorized into social (learning from others) and individual learning (learning on one's own). Despite the typically higher cost of individual learning, there are mechanisms that allow stable coexistence of both learning modes in a single population. In this paper, we investigate by means of mathematical modeling how the effect of spatial structure on evolutionary outcomes of pure social and individual learning strategies depends on the mechanisms for coexistence. We model a spatially structured population based on the infinite-island framework and consider three scenarios that differ in coexistence mechanisms. Using the inclusive-fitness method, we derive the equilibrium frequency of social learners and the genetic load of social learning (defined as average fecundity reduction caused by the presence of social learning) in terms of some summary statistics, such as relatedness, for each of the three scenarios and compare the results. This comparative analysis not only reconciles previous models that made contradictory predictions as to the effect of spatial structure on the equilibrium frequency of social learners but also derives a simple mathematical rule that determines the sign of the genetic load (i.e. whether or not social learning contributes to the mean fecundity of the population). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duo, Sun; Song, Lu Xue
In recent years, e-learning as a learning system is very popular. But the current e-learning systems cannot instruct students effectively since they do not consider the emotional state in the context of instruction. The emergence of the theory about "Affective computing" can solve this question. It can make the computer's intelligence no longer be a pure cognitive one. In this paper, we construct an emotional intelligent e-learning system based on "Affective computing". A dimensional model is put forward to recognize and analyze the student's emotion state and a virtual teacher's avatar is offered to regulate student's learning psychology with consideration of teaching style based on his personality trait. A "man-to-man" learning environment is built to simulate the traditional classroom's pedagogy in the system.
Räder, Sune Bernd Emil Werner; Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Butrymovich, Vitalij
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were (1) to explore the effectiveness of dyad practice compared with individual practice on a simulator for learning a complex clinical skill and (2) to explore medical students' perceptions of how and why dyad practice on a simulator contributes to learning...... a complex skill. METHOD: In 2011, the authors randomly assigned 84 medical students to either the dyad or the individual practice group to learn coronary angiography skills using instruction videos and a simulator. Two weeks later, participants each performed two video-recorded coronary angiographies...... of the two groups (mean±standard deviation, 68%±13% for individual versus 63%±16% for dyad practice; P=.18). Dyad practice participants noted that several key factors contributed to their learning: being equal-level novices, the quality of the cooperation between partners, observational learning and overt...
Full Text Available E-Learning has become an increasingly popular learning approach in higher Education institutions due to the rapid growth of Communication and Information Technology (CIT. In recent years, it has been integrated in many university programs and it is one of the new learning trends. But in many Indian Universities did not implement this novel technology in their Educational Systems. E-Learning is not intended to replace the traditional classroom setting, but to provide new opportunities and new virtual environment for interaction and communication between the students and teacher. E-Learning through Cloud is now becoming an interesting and very useful revolutionary technology in the field of education. E-Learning system usually requires huge amount of hardware and software resources. Due to the cost, many universities in India do not want to implement the E-Learning technology in their Educational system and they cannot afford such investments. Cloud Virtual Learning is the only solution for this problem. This paper presents the benefits of using cloud technology in E-Learning system, working mode, Services, Models. And also we discuss the cloud computing educational environment and how higher education may take advantage of clouds not only in terms of cost but also in terms of Security, flexibility, portability, efficiency and reliability. And also we present some educational clouds introduced by popular cloud providers.
Ziyad, Nigel; Cox, E. Lucien; Chouikha, Mohamed F.
This paper explains the use of a Stochastic Learning Automata (SLA) to control switching between three systems to produce the desired output response. The SLA learns the optimal choice of the damping ratio for each system to achieve a desired result. We show that the SLA can learn these states for the control of an unknown system with the proper choice of the error criteria. The results of using a single automaton are compared to using multiple automata.
Ekberg, Joakim; Ericson, Leni; Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Nordfeldt, Sam; Hanberger, Lena; Ludvigsson, Johnny
Self-directed learning denotes that the individual is in command of what should be learned and why it is important. In this study, guidelines for the design of Web 2.0 systems for supporting diabetic adolescents' every day learning needs are examined in light of theories about information behaviour and social learning. A Web 2.0 system was developed to support a community of practice and social learning structures were created to support building of relations between members on several levels in the community. The features of the system included access to participation in the culture of diabetes management practice, entry to information about the community and about what needs to be learned to be a full practitioner or respected member in the community, and free sharing of information, narratives and experience-based knowledge. After integration with the key elements derived from theories of information behaviour, a preliminary design guideline document was formulated.
Ramon Cabada Zatarain Cabada, M. L. Barron Estrada, L. Zepeda Sanchez, Guillermo Sandoval, J.M. Osorio Velazquez, J.E. Urias Barrientos
Full Text Available The identification of the best learning style in an Intelligent Tutoring System must be considered essential as part of thesuccess in the teaching process. In many implementations of automatic classifiers finding the right student learning styler e p r e s e n t s t h e h a r d e s t a s s i g n m e n t . T h e r e a s o n i s t h a t m o s t o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s w o r k u s i n g e x p e r t g r o u p s o r a s e t o fquestionnaires which define how the learning styles are assigned to students. This paper presents a novel approach forautomatic learning styles classification using a Kohonen network. The approach is used by an author tool for buildingIntelligent Tutoring Systems running under a Web 2.0 collaborative learning platform. The tutoring systems together withthe neural network can also be exported to mobile devices. We present different results to the approach working under theauthor tool.
Full Text Available Developing the capacity for individuals to learn effectively from their experiences is an important part of building the knowledge and skills in organizations to do good adaptive management. This paper reviews some of the research from cognitive psychology and phenomenography to present a way of thinking about learning to assist individuals to make better use of their personal experiences to develop understanding of environmental systems. We suggest that adaptive expertise (an individual's ability to deal flexibly with new situations is particularly relevant for environmental researchers and practitioners. To develop adaptive expertise, individuals need to: (1 vary and reflect on their experiences and become adept at seeking out and taking different perspectives; and (2 become proficient at making balanced judgements about how or if an experience will change their current perspective or working representation of a social, economic, and biophysical system by applying principles of "good thinking." Such principles include those that assist individuals to be open to the possibility of changing their current way of thinking (e.g., the disposition to be adventurous and those that reduce the likelihood of making erroneous interpretations (e.g., the disposition to be intellectually careful. An example of applying some of the principles to assist individuals develop their understanding of a dynamically complex wetland system (the Macquarie Marshes in Australia is provided. The broader implications of individual learning are also discussed in relation to organizational learning, the role of experiential knowledge for conservation, and for achieving greater awareness of the need for ecologically sustainable activity.
Jeong, Hwa-Young; Yi, Gangman
In recent years, traditional development techniques for e-learning systems have been changing to become more convenient and efficient. One new technology in the development of application systems includes both cloud and ubiquitous computing. Cloud computing can support learning system processes by using services while ubiquitous computing can provide system operation and management via a high performance technical process and network. In the cloud computing environment, a learning service application can provide a business module or process to the user via the internet. This research focuses on providing the learning material and processes of courses by learning units using the services in a ubiquitous computing environment. And we also investigate functions that support users' tailored materials according to their learning style. That is, we analyzed the user's data and their characteristics in accordance with their user experience. We subsequently applied the learning process to fit on their learning performance and preferences. Finally, we demonstrate how the proposed system outperforms learning effects to learners better than existing techniques.
Anatolii V. Bohdanov
Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of information support for building an individual educational path of a student. European Tools for Mobility, Tools for Quality, Tools for Transparency as well as Portals and Databases are analyzed. These tools may be useful for the development and following of an individual educational path. Principles and structure of open module-based portal for information support for building individual educational tracks are presented. Its core modules are described. It is recommended to integrate modules using LEARNING TOOLS INTEROPERABILITY specification. It is demonstrated how to connect modules «Knowledge area» and «Abilities definer».
Laird, John E.; Yager, Eric S.; Tuck, Christopher M.; Hucka, Michael
Robo-Soar is a high-level robot arm control system implemented in Soar. Robo-Soar learns to perform simple block manipulation tasks using advice from a human. Following learning, the system is able to perform similar tasks without external guidance. It can also learn to correct its knowledge, using its own problem solving in addition to outside guidance. Robo-Soar corrects its knowledge by accepting advice about relevance of features in its domain, using a unique integration of analytic and empirical learning techniques.
Mary M. Somerville
Full Text Available Objective – In response to unrelenting disruptions in academic publishing and higher education ecosystems, the Informed Systems approach supports evidence based professional activities to make decisions and take actions. This conceptual paper presents two core models, Informed Systems Leadership Model and Collaborative Evidence-Based Information Process Model, whereby co-workers learn to make informed decisions by identifying the decisions to be made and the information required for those decisions. This is accomplished through collaborative design and iterative evaluation of workplace systems, relationships, and practices. Over time, increasingly effective and efficient structures and processes for using information to learn further organizational renewal and advance nimble responsiveness amidst dynamically changing circumstances. Methods – The integrated Informed Systems approach to fostering persistent workplace inquiry has its genesis in three theories that together activate and enable robust information usage and organizational learning. The information- and learning-intensive theories of Peter Checkland in England, which advance systems design, stimulate participants’ appreciation during the design process of the potential for using information to learn. Within a co-designed environment, intentional social practices continue workplace learning, described by Christine Bruce in Australia as informed learning enacted through information experiences. In addition, in Japan, Ikujiro Nonaka’s theories foster information exchange processes and knowledge creation activities within and across organizational units. In combination, these theories promote the kind of learning made possible through evolving and transferable capacity to use information to learn through design and usage of collaborative communication systems with associated professional practices. Informed Systems therein draws from three antecedent theories to create an original
Edafe, Ovie; Brooks, William S; Laskar, Simone N; Benjamin, Miles W; Chan, Philip
This study examines the perceived impact of a novel clinical teaching method based on FAIR principles (feedback, activity, individuality and relevance) on students' learning on clinical placement. This was a qualitative research study. Participants were third year and final year medical students attached to one UK vascular firm over a four-year period (N=108). Students were asked to write a reflective essay on how FAIRness approach differs from previous clinical placement, and its advantages and disadvantages. Essays were thematically analysed and globally rated (positive, negative or neutral) by two independent researchers. Over 90% of essays reported positive experiences of feedback, activity, individuality and relevance model. The model provided multifaceted feedback; active participation; longitudinal improvement; relevance to stage of learning and future goals; structured teaching; professional development; safe learning environment; consultant involvement in teaching. Students perceived preparation for tutorials to be time intensive for tutors/students; a lack of teaching on medical sciences and direct observation of performance; more than once weekly sessions would be beneficial; some issues with peer and public feedback, relevance to upcoming exam and large group sizes. Students described negative experiences of "standard" clinical teaching. Progressive teaching programmes based on the FAIRness principles, feedback, activity, individuality and relevance, could be used as a model to improve current undergraduate clinical teaching.
Full Text Available The present research aims to establish and to design the development strategies for services in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs that activate in the tourism field of activity (hotels and other accommodation establishments, restaurants, passenger transport, travel agencies, cultural tourism agencies. Organizational learning is focused on the learning process in the organization which has direct influence on the goods and services produced. Learning activities, carried out individually, are not easily transferred at the organizational level. Moreover, in order to better highlight the weaknesses and the strengths of touristic services management approaches and to define recommendations, our research theme is developed as comparative study: similarities and differences within SMEs touristic services and learning organization practices in Romania and other European Union’s country members (the example of Spain was considered.
Nur Rokhimah Hanik, Anwari Adi Nugroho
Biology learning especially high plant system courses needs to be applied to active learning centered on the student (Active Learning In Higher Education) to enhance the students' learning activities so that the quality of learning for the better. Outdoor Learning is one of the active learning invites students to learn outside of the classroom by exploring the surrounding environment. This research aims to improve the students' learning activities in the course of high plant systems through t...
Full Text Available In recent years, traditional development techniques for e-learning systems have been changing to become more convenient and efficient. One new technology in the development of application systems includes both cloud and ubiquitous computing. Cloud computing can support learning system processes by using services while ubiquitous computing can provide system operation and management via a high performance technical process and network. In the cloud computing environment, a learning service application can provide a business module or process to the user via the internet. This research focuses on providing the learning material and processes of courses by learning units using the services in a ubiquitous computing environment. And we also investigate functions that support users’ tailored materials according to their learning style. That is, we analyzed the user’s data and their characteristics in accordance with their user experience. We subsequently applied the learning process to fit on their learning performance and preferences. Finally, we demonstrate how the proposed system outperforms learning effects to learners better than existing techniques.
Wernhuar Tarng; Weichian Tsai
The major purpose of this study is to use network and multimedia technologies to build a game-based learning system for junior high school students to apply in learning “World Geography" through the “role-playing" game approaches. This study first investigated the motivation and habits of junior high school students to use the Internet and online games, and then designed a game-based learning system according to situated and game-based learning theories. A teaching experiment was conducted to...
Sumadi; Degeng, I Nyoman S.; Sulthon; Waras
This research focused on effects of ability grouping in reciprocal teaching technique of collaborative learning on individual achievements dan social skills. The results research showed that (1) there are differences in individual achievement significantly between high group of homogeneous, middle group of homogeneous, low group of homogeneous,…
Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Kraus, Nina; Wong, Patrick C M
A challenge to learning words of a foreign language is encoding nonnative phonemes, a process typically attributed to cortical circuitry. Using multimodal imaging methods [functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) and auditory brain stem responses (ABR)], we examined the extent to which pretraining pitch encoding in the inferior colliculus (IC), a primary midbrain structure, related to individual variability in learning to successfully use nonnative pitch patterns to distinguish words in American English-speaking adults. fMRI-A indexed the efficiency of pitch representation localized to the IC, whereas ABR quantified midbrain pitch-related activity with millisecond precision. In line with neural "sharpening" models, we found that efficient IC pitch pattern representation (indexed by fMRI) related to superior neural representation of pitch patterns (indexed by ABR), and consequently more successful word learning following sound-to-meaning training. Our results establish a critical role for the IC in speech-sound representation, consistent with the established role for the IC in the representation of communication signals in other animal models.
Elkjær, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik
This chapter reviews the literature on organizational learning through the lens of a social learning perspective. We start with an individual learning perspective, before moving on to a social learning perspective with a particular focus upon pragmatism. The literature review covers the following...... four issues: the content of learning, the process of learning, the relation between individual and organization, and the concept of organization. An important separator between individual and social learning perspectives is the different emphasis on learning as acquisition of skills and knowledge......, versus learning as encompassing development of identities and socialization to organizational work and life. A pragmatist social learning perspective emphasizes both learning as acquisition through experience and inquiry, and learning as development of identities and socialization through individuals...
Full Text Available Actualizing instructional intercessions to suit learner contrasts has gotten extensive consideration. Among these individual contrast factors, the observational confirmation in regards to the academic benefit of learning styles has been addressed, yet the examination on the issue proceeds. Late improvements in web-based executions have driven researchers to re-examine the learning styles in adaptive tutoring frameworks. Adaptivity in intelligent tutoring systems is strongly influenced by the learning style of a learner. This study involved extensive document analysis of adaptive tutoring systems based on learning styles. Seventy-eight studies in literature from 2001 to 2016 were collected and classified under select parameters such as main focus, purpose, research types, methods, types and levels of participants, field/area of application, learner modelling, data gathering tools used and research findings. The current studies reveal that majority of the studies defined a framework or architecture of adaptive intelligent tutoring system (AITS while others focused on impact of AITS on learner satisfaction and academic outcomes. Currents trends, gaps in literature and ications were discussed.
Farmer, J. Doyne; Packard, Norman H.; Perelson, Alan S.
The immune system is capable of learning, memory, and pattern recognition. By employing genetic operators on a time scale fast enough to observe experimentally, the immune system is able to recognize novel shapes without preprogramming. Here we describe a dynamical model for the immune system that is based on the network hypothesis of Jerne, and is simple enough to simulate on a computer. This model has a strong similarity to an approach to learning and artificial intelligence introduced by Holland, called the classifier system. We demonstrate that simple versions of the classifier system can be cast as a nonlinear dynamical system, and explore the analogy between the immune and classifier systems in detail. Through this comparison we hope to gain insight into the way they perform specific tasks, and to suggest new approaches that might be of value in learning systems.
Hemayattalab, Rasool; Rostami, Leila Rashidi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of frequency of knowledge of results (KR) on the learning of dart in individuals with cerebral palsy type I. Twenty-four individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) between the ages of 5 and 17 were chosen for this study. They were put into 3 homogenous groups according to their records after 20…
Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for
Ford, James H; Robinson, James M; Wise, Meg E
NIATx200, a quality improvement collaborative, involved 201 substance abuse clinics. Each clinic was randomized to one of four implementation strategies: (a) interest circle calls, (b) learning sessions, (c) coach only or (d) a combination of all three. Each strategy was led by NIATx200 coaches who provided direct coaching or facilitated the interest circle and learning session interventions. Eligibility was limited to NIATx200 coaches (N = 18), and the executive sponsor/change leader of participating clinics (N = 389). Participants were invited to complete a modified Grasha Riechmann Student Learning Style Survey and Teaching Style Inventory. Principal components analysis determined participants' preferred learning and teaching styles. Responses were received from 17 (94.4 %) of the coaches. Seventy-two individuals were excluded from the initial sample of change leaders and executive sponsors (N = 389). Responses were received from 80 persons (25.2 %) of the contactable individuals. Six learning profiles for the executive sponsors and change leaders were identified: Collaborative/Competitive (N = 28, 36.4 %); Collaborative/Participatory (N = 19, 24.7 %); Collaborative only (N = 17, 22.1 %); Collaborative/Dependent (N = 6, 7.8 %); Independent (N = 3, 5.2 %); and Avoidant/Dependent (N = 3, 3.9 %). NIATx200 coaches relied primarily on one of four coaching profiles: Facilitator (N = 7, 41.2 %), Facilitator/Delegator (N = 6, 35.3 %), Facilitator/Personal Model (N = 3, 17.6 %) and Delegator (N = 1, 5.9 %). Coaches also supported their primary coaching profiles with one of eight different secondary coaching profiles. The study is one of the first to assess teaching and learning styles within a QIC. Results indicate that individual learners (change leaders and executive sponsors) and coaches utilize multiple approaches in the teaching and practice-based learning of quality improvement (QI) processes
Huang, Chung-Kai; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Zih-Cin; Wang, Cui; Lin, Chia-Jung
Due to the competitive and fast-changing nature of external business environments, university students should acquire knowledge of how to cooperate, share knowledge, and enhance team effectiveness and individual learning in the future workplace. Consequently, the redesign of business courses in higher education merits more discussion. Based on the…
Catmur, Caroline; Walsh, Vincent; Heyes, Cecilia
Cells in the "mirror system" fire not only when an individual performs an action but also when one observes the same action performed by another agent [1-4]. The mirror system, found in premotor and parietal cortices of human and monkey brains, is thought to provide the foundation for social understanding and to enable the development of theory of mind and language [5-9]. However, it is unclear how mirror neurons acquire their mirror properties -- how they derive the information necessary to match observed with executed actions . We address this by showing that it is possible to manipulate the selectivity of the human mirror system, and thereby make it operate as a countermirror system, by giving participants training to perform one action while observing another. Before this training, participants showed event-related muscle-specific responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation over motor cortex during observation of little- and index-finger movements [11-13]. After training, this normal mirror effect was reversed. These results indicate that the mirror properties of the mirror system are neither wholly innate  nor fixed once acquired; instead they develop through sensorimotor learning [15, 16]. Our findings indicate that the human mirror system is, to some extent, both a product and a process of social interaction.
Chen, Yingke; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre
deterministic Markov decision processes from data by actively guiding the selection of input actions. The algorithm is empirically analyzed by learning system models of slot machines, and it is demonstrated that the proposed active learning procedure can significantly reduce the amount of data required...... demanding process, and this shortcoming has motivated the development of algorithms for automatically learning system models from observed system behaviors. Recently, algorithms have been proposed for learning Markov decision process representations of reactive systems based on alternating sequences...... of input/output observations. While alleviating the problem of manually constructing a system model, the collection/generation of observed system behaviors can also prove demanding. Consequently we seek to minimize the amount of data required. In this paper we propose an algorithm for learning...
Kovatcheva , Eugenia; Nikolov , Roumen
This paper deals with issues related to the non-formal learning in vocational education, and the role of ICT for providing appropriate accreditation model in such education. The presented conclusions are based on the Leonardo da Vinci project LeoSPAN. The paper emphasises on the development of a model and a prototype of an adaptive eLearning system that ensures the pre-defined learner outcomes. One of the advantages of the eLearning system is the flexibility for people who upgrade and improve...
Back, David A; Behringer, Florian; Haberstroh, Nicole; Ehlers, Jan P; Sostmann, Kai; Peters, Harm
To investigate medical students´ utilization of and problems with a learning management system and its e-learning tools as well as their expectations on future developments. A single-center online survey has been carried out to investigate medical students´ (n = 505) usage and perception concerning the learning management system Blackboard, and provided e-learning tools. Data were collected with a standardized questionnaire consisting of 70 items and analyzed by quantitative and qualitative methods. The participants valued lecture notes (73.7%) and Wikipedia (74%) as their most important online sources for knowledge acquisition. Missing integration of e-learning into teaching was seen as the major pitfall (58.7%). The learning management system was mostly used for study information (68.3%), preparation of exams (63.3%) and lessons (54.5%). Clarity (98.3%), teaching-related contexts (92.5%) and easy use of e-learning offers (92.5%) were rated highest. Interactivity was most important in free-text comments (n = 123). It is desired that contents of a learning management system support an efficient learning. Interactivity of tools and their conceptual integration into face-to-face teaching are important for students. The learning management system was especially important for organizational purposes and the provision of learning materials. Teachers should be aware that free online sources such as Wikipedia enjoy a high approval as source of knowledge acquisition. This study provides an empirical basis for medical schools and teachers to improve their offerings in the field of digital learning for their students.
Full Text Available The majority of M-learning (Mobile learning applications available today are developed for the formal learning and education environment. These applications are characterized by the improvement in the interaction between learners and instructors to provide high interaction and flexibility to the learning process. M-learning is gaining increased recognition and adoption by different organizations. With the high number of M-learning applications available today, making the right decision about which, application to choose can be quite challenging. To date there is no complete and well defined set of system characteristics for such M-learning applications. This paper presents system quality characteristics for selecting M-learning applications based on the result of a systematic review conducted in this domain.
Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga C.; Manouselis, Nikos
This chapter presents an analysis of recommender systems in TechnologyEnhanced Learning along their 15 years existence (2000-2014). All recommender systems considered for the review aim to support educational stakeholders by personalising the learning process. In this meta-review 82 recommender
Full Text Available Since the personal computer usage and internet bandwidth are increasing, e-learning systems are also widely spreading. Although e-learning has some advantages in terms of information accessibility, time and place flexibility compared to the formal learning, it does not provide enough face-to-face interactivity between an educator and learners. In this study, we are proposing a hybrid information system, which is combining computer vision and machine learning technologies for visual and interactive e-learning systems. The proposed information system detects emotional states of the learners and gives feedback to an educator about their instant and weighted emotional states based on facial expressions. In this way, the educator will be aware of the general emotional state of the virtual classroom and the system will create a formal learning-like interactive environment. Herein, several classification algorithms were applied to learn instant emotional state and the best accuracy rates were obtained using kNN and SVM algorithms.
The organization of systems that learn from experience is examined, human beings and animals being prime examples of such systems. How is their information processing organized. They build an internal model of the world and base their actions on the model. The model is dynamic and predictive, and it includes the systems' own actions and their effects. In modeling such systems, a large pattern of features represents a moment of the system's experience. Some of the features are provided by the system's senses, some control the system's motors, and the rest have no immediate external significance. A sequence of such patterns then represents the system's experience over time. By storing such sequences appropriately in memory, the system builds a world model based on experience. In addition to the essential function of memory, fundamental roles are played by a sensory system that makes raw information about the world suitable for memory storage and by a motor system that affects the world. The relation of sensory and motor systems to the memory is discussed, together with how favorable actions can be learned and unfavorable actions can be avoided. Results in classical learning theory are explained in terms of the model, more advanced forms of learning are discussed, and the relevance of the model to the frame problem of robotics is examined.
Full Text Available E-learning which have various shapes such as blog, classroom learning which is facilitated the World Wide Web; a mix of online instruction and meeting the class known as additional models or hybrid; or the full online experience, where all assessment and instruction is done electronically. Object relationship of learning and constructivist educational philosophy and confirmed that online learning has the orientation which is basically a constructivist ideology, where the combination of some of the knowledge is an inquiry-oriented activities and authentic and also promote the progress of the construction of new knowledge. Description of the online learning system in theory and practice can be illustrated in a few examples that have been found in the research that has been done and found new discoveries obtained in the study, but not everything can be done because of several factors. Please note that the components in the online learning system can serve as a learning system which is very strong influence on learning in the class. The objective of this research is to a pedagogical critical review of online learning system in theory and practice that can be applied by teachers in the teaching process in the classroom. The results obtained in this study were teachers and students need extra effort to make online classes and virtual. Further research is needed on appropriate strategies in order to determine the next result is more useful. There some advices for any studies that discuss online learning system are done in certain areas, namely the use of electricity and other disciplines such as social and humanities.
There are hopes that new learning technologies will help to transform university learning and teaching into a more engaging experience for twenty-first-century students. But since 2000 the changes in campus university teaching have been more limited than expected. I have drawn on ideas from organisational change management research to investigate…
Reinforcement Learning (RL) methods are relatively new in the field of aerospace guidance, navigation, and control. This dissertation aims to exploit RL methods to improve the autonomy and online learning of aerospace systems with respect to the a priori unknown system and environment, dynamical
Full Text Available In the era of mobile internet, PC-end internet services can no long satisfy people’s demands, needs for App and services on mobile phones are more urgent than ever. With increasing social competition, the concept of lifelong learning becomes more and more popular and accepted, making full use of spare time to learn at any time and any place meets updating knowledge desires of modern people, Location Based System (LBS mobile learning system based on Android platform was created under such background. In this Paper, characteristics of mobile location technology and intelligent terminal were introduced and analyzed, mobile learning system which will fulfill personalized needs of mobile learners was designed and developed on basis of location information, mobile learning can be greatly promoted and new research ideas can be expanded for mobile learning.
Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga; Manouselis, Nikos
This chapter presents an analysis of recommender systems in Technology-Enhanced Learning along their 15 years existence (2000-2014). All recommender systems considered for the review aim to support educational stakeholders by personalising the learning process. In this meta-review 82 recommender systems from 35 different countries have been investigated and categorised according to a given classification framework. The reviewed systems have been classified into 7 clusters according to their c...
Brooks, William S.; Laskar, Simone N.; Benjamin, Miles W.; Chan, Philip
Objectives This study examines the perceived impact of a novel clinical teaching method based on FAIR principles (feedback, activity, individuality and relevance) on students’ learning on clinical placement. Methods This was a qualitative research study. Participants were third year and final year medical students attached to one UK vascular firm over a four-year period (N=108). Students were asked to write a reflective essay on how FAIRness approach differs from previous clinical placement, and its advantages and disadvantages. Essays were thematically analysed and globally rated (positive, negative or neutral) by two independent researchers. Results Over 90% of essays reported positive experiences of feedback, activity, individuality and relevance model. The model provided multifaceted feedback; active participation; longitudinal improvement; relevance to stage of learning and future goals; structured teaching; professional development; safe learning environment; consultant involvement in teaching. Students perceived preparation for tutorials to be time intensive for tutors/students; a lack of teaching on medical sciences and direct observation of performance; more than once weekly sessions would be beneficial; some issues with peer and public feedback, relevance to upcoming exam and large group sizes. Students described negative experiences of “standard” clinical teaching. Conclusions Progressive teaching programmes based on the FAIRness principles, feedback, activity, individuality and relevance, could be used as a model to improve current undergraduate clinical teaching. PMID:26995588
Reinforcement and Systemic Machine Learning for Decision Making There are always difficulties in making machines that learn from experience. Complete information is not always available-or it becomes available in bits and pieces over a period of time. With respect to systemic learning, there is a need to understand the impact of decisions and actions on a system over that period of time. This book takes a holistic approach to addressing that need and presents a new paradigm-creating new learning applications and, ultimately, more intelligent machines. The first book of its kind in this new an
Aparicio, M.; Bação, F.; Oliveira, T.
WOS:000383295100007 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) E-learning systems are enablers in the learning process, strengthening their importance as part of the educational strategy. Understanding the determinants of e-learning success is crucial for defining instructional strategies. Several authors have studied e-learning implementation and adoption, and various studies have addressed e-learning success from different perspectives. However, none of these studies have verified whether students' c...
Full Text Available In computer-assisted education, the continuous monitoring and assessment of the learner is crucial for the delivery of personalized education to be effective. In this paper, we present a pilot application of the Student Diagnosis, Assistance, Evaluation System based on Artificial Intelligence (StuDiAsE, an open learning system for unattended student diagnosis, assistance and evaluation based on artificial intelligence. The system demonstrated in this paper has been designed with engineering students in mind and is capable of monitoring their comprehension, assessing their prior knowledge, building individual learner profiles, providing personalized assistance and, finally, evaluating a learner's performance both quantitatively and qualitatively by means of artificial intelligence techniques. The architecture and user interface of the system are being exhibited, the results and feedback received from a pilot application of the system within a theoretical engineering course are being demonstrated and the outcomes are being discussed.
White, Meagan; Shellenbarger, Teresa
E-learning provides an alternative approach to traditional professional development activities. A learning management system may help nursing professional development practitioners deliver content more efficiently and effectively; however, careful consideration is needed during planning and implementation. This article provides essential information in the selection and use of a learning management system for professional development.
The steadily increasing degree of globalisation of enterprises implies development of many skills, among which the skills to learn are among the most important. Learning takes place at the individual level, but collective learning and organisational learning are also important. Learning styles of individuals are different and learning styles are…
Garber, Klaus; Ausserer, Oskar; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore
"New learning" is basically an individualized learning style. "New learning" starts by the individual itself. The individual is the basis for conditions, learning contents, rhythm, duration and intensity of the teaching. The appropriate slogan is: fetch the individual at his personal conditions.
Barker Scott, B.
This presentation outlines the process of learning in organizations. The learning cycle involves acquiring, applying, reflecting and generalizing. There are three levels of learning: organizational learning, team learning and individual learning. Organizational learning is learning that is embedded into the way we do things through process, norms, systems, structures, strategy etc. It concludes by suggesting that organization must generate ideas with impact and generalize ideas with impact
Lusk, Danielle L.; Evans, Amber D.; Jeffrey, Thomas R.; Palmer, Keith R.; Wikstrom, Chris S.; Doolittle, Peter E.
Research in multimedia learning lacks an emphasis on individual difference variables, such as working memory capacity (WMC). The effects of WMC and the segmentation of multimedia instruction were examined by assessing the recall and application of low (n = 66) and high (n = 67) working memory capacity students randomly assigned to either a…
Draper, Fiona; Oltean-Dumbrava, Crina; Kara-Zaitri, Chakib; Newbury, Brian
Empirical research on three commercial environmental vocational education and training programmes revealed distinct personal, teaching and work-based presage factors, which influenced individual learning and learning transfer to the workplace. The extent to which behaviour change and learning transfer occurred depended on a diverse range of…
Hou, Chun-Ju; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hu, Ling-Chen; Chuang, Chih-Chieh; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Shih
Pulmonary auscultation is a physical assessment skill learned by nursing students for examining the respiratory system. Generally, a sound simulator equipped mannequin is used to group teach auscultation techniques via classroom demonstration. However, nursing students cannot readily duplicate this learning environment for self-study. The advancement of electronic and digital signal processing technologies facilitates simulating this learning environment. This study aims to develop a computer-aided auscultation learning system for assisting teachers and nursing students in auscultation teaching and learning. This system provides teachers with signal recording and processing of lung sounds and immediate playback of lung sounds for students. A graphical user interface allows teachers to control the measuring device, draw lung sound waveforms, highlight lung sound segments of interest, and include descriptive text. Effects on learning lung sound auscultation were evaluated for verifying the feasibility of the system. Fifteen nursing students voluntarily participated in the repeated experiment. The results of a paired t test showed that auscultative abilities of the students were significantly improved by using the computer-aided auscultation learning system.
This book analyses the challenges of globalisation and uncertainty impacting on working and learning at individual, organisational and societal levels. Each of the contributions addresses two overall questions: How is working and learning affected by uncertainty and globalisation? And, in what ways...... do individuals, organisations, political actors and education systems respond to these challenges? Part 1 focuses on the micro level of working and learning for understanding the learning processes from an individual point of view by reflecting on learners’ needs and situations at work and in school......). Finally, Part 3 addresses the macro level of working and learning by analysing how to govern, structure and organise vocational, professional and adult education at the boundaries of work, education and policy making....
Su,Chung-Ho; Cheng, Ching-Hsue
The advancement of game-based learning has encouraged many related studies, such that students could better learn curriculum by 3-dimension virtual reality. To enhance software engineering learning, this paper develops a 3D game-based learning system to assist teaching and assess the students' motivation, satisfaction and learning achievement. A…
Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Fourteen: Parallel AC Resistive-Reactive Circuits. Study Booklet.
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on parallel alternating current resistive-reaction circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian…
Sanchez, Adolfo; Mejia, Andres
An action research approach called soft systems methodology (SSM) was used to foster organisational learning in a school regarding the role of the learning support department within the school and its relation with the normal teaching-learning activities. From an initial situation of lack of coordination as well as mutual misunderstanding and…
Psek, Wayne; Davis, F Daniel; Gerrity, Gloria; Stametz, Rebecca; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Henninger, Debra; Sellers, Dorothy; Darer, Jonathan
Healthcare leaders need operational strategies that support organizational learning for continued improvement and value generation. The learning health system (LHS) model may provide leaders with such strategies; however, little is known about leaders' perspectives on the value and application of system-wide operationalization of the LHS model. The objective of this project was to solicit and analyze senior health system leaders' perspectives on the LHS and learning activities in an integrated delivery system. A series of interviews were conducted with 41 system leaders from a broad range of clinical and administrative areas across an integrated delivery system. Leaders' responses were categorized into themes. Ten major themes emerged from our conversations with leaders. While leaders generally expressed support for the concept of the LHS and enhanced system-wide learning, their concerns and suggestions for operationalization where strongly aligned with their functional area and strategic goals. Our findings suggests that leaders tend to adopt a very pragmatic approach to learning. Leaders expressed a dichotomy between the operational imperative to execute operational objectives efficiently and the need for rigorous evaluation. Alignment of learning activities with system-wide strategic and operational priorities is important to gain leadership support and resources. Practical approaches to addressing opportunities and challenges identified in the themes are discussed. Continuous learning is an ongoing, multi-disciplinary function of a health care delivery system. Findings from this and other research may be used to inform and prioritize system-wide learning objectives and strategies which support reliable, high value care delivery.
Full Text Available This paper describes status checking system of home appliances based on machine learning, which can be applied to existing household appliances without networking function. Designed status checking system consists of sensor modules, a wireless communication module, cloud server, android application and a machine learning algorithm. The developed system applied to washing machine analyses and judges the four-kinds of appliance’s status such as staying, washing, rinsing and spin-drying. The measurements of sensor and transmission of sensing data are operated on an Arduino board and the data are transmitted to cloud server in real time. The collected data are parsed by an Android application and injected into the machine learning algorithm for learning the status of the appliances. The machine learning algorithm compares the stored learning data with collected real-time data from the appliances. Our results are expected to contribute as a base technology to design an automatic control system based on machine learning technology for household appliances in real-time.
Chorfi, Henda; Jemni, Mohamed
In today's information technology society, members are increasingly required to be up to date on new technologies, particularly for computers, regardless of their background social situation. In this context, our aim is to design and develop an adaptive hypermedia e-learning system, called PERSO (PERSOnalizing e-learning system), where learners…
Ifenthaler, Dirk; Schumacher, Clara
The purpose of this study was to investigate if students are prepared to release any personal data in order to inform learning analytics systems. Besides the well-documented benefits of learning analytics, serious concerns and challenges are associated with the application of these data driven systems. Most notably, empirical evidence regarding…
Mabila, Jabulisiwe; Gelderblom, Helene; Ssemugabi, Samuel
The internet gives individuals access to learning through online technologies. The prolific use of Learning Management Systems (LMSs) in higher education institutions makes Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills or e-skills very important. ICT skill levels have been positively related to students' effectiveness and efficiency in…
A. A. Salama
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review of different recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning systems. Future research will include our proposed our e-Learning system that utilizes Recommender System and Social Network. Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache in [21, 22, 23] and Salama et al. in [24-66].The purpose of this paper is to utilize a neutrosophic set to analyze social networks data conducted through learning activities.
Chitkara, Maribeth B; Satnick, Daniel; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Fleit, Howard; Go, Roderick A; Chandran, Latha
Residency programs have utilized Individualized Learning Plans (ILPs) to customize resident education while undergraduate medical education has not done so in a meaningful way. We discuss the use of ILPs within a fourth year medical school course to facilitate self-directed learning (SDL). At Stony Brook University School of Medicine, an ILP component was added to the Advanced Clinical Experience (ACE) course for fourth year students. Each completed an ILP outlining personal learning goals and strategies to achieve them. An adaptation of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Duncan T and McKeachie W, Educ Psych 40(2):117-128, 2005 and Cook DA et al., Med Ed 45:1230-1240, 2011) was used to measure success of ILPs in improving SDL. Qualitative data analysis was conducted on the ILPs and self-reflections. Forty-eight students participated. Two of the four SDL sub-domains identified on the MSLQ showed improvement; self-efficacy (p = .001) and self-regulation (p = .002). 'Medical Knowledge' was the competency most frequently identified as an area of concentration (90 %) and professionalism was selected least frequently (4 %). A higher percentage (83 %) of students who reported complete achievement of their ILP goals also reported feeling better prepared for entering residency. ILPs improve SDL strategies among medical students and may serve as useful tools to help shape future learning goals as they transition to residency training.
Chen, Gwo-Dong; Wei, Fu-Hsiang; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Lee, Jih-Hsien
Reading content of the Web is increasingly popular. When students read the same material, each student has a unique comprehension of the text and requires individual support from appropriate references. Most references in typical web learning systems are unorganized. Students are often required to disrupt their reading to locate references. This…
Yi, Han-Gyol; Maddox, W Todd; Mumford, Jeanette A; Chandrasekaran, Bharath
One of the most difficult category learning problems for humans is learning nonnative speech categories. While feedback-based category training can enhance speech learning, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated neural and computational mechanisms underlying feedback-dependent speech category learning in adults. Positive feedback activated a large corticostriatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, caudate, putamen, and the ventral striatum. Successful learning was contingent upon the activity of domain-general category learning systems: the fast-learning reflective system, involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that develops and tests explicit rules based on the feedback content, and the slow-learning reflexive system, involving the putamen in which the stimuli are implicitly associated with category responses based on the reward value in feedback. Computational modeling of response strategies revealed significant use of reflective strategies early in training and greater use of reflexive strategies later in training. Reflexive strategy use was associated with increased activation in the putamen. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the reflexive corticostriatal learning system as a function of response strategy and proficiency during speech category learning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kabassi, Katerina; Dragonas, Ioannis; Ntouzevits, Alexandra; Pomonis, Tzanetos; Papastathopoulos, Giorgos; Vozaitis, Yiannis
This paper focuses on the usage of a learning management system in an educational institution for higher education in Greece. More specifically, the paper examines the literature on the use of different learning management systems for blended learning in higher education in Greek Universities and Technological Educational Institutions and reviews the advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, the paper describes the usage of the Open eClass platform in a Technological Educational Institution, TEI of Ionian Islands, and the effort to improve the educational material by organizing it and adding video-lectures. The platform has been evaluated by the students of the TEI of Ionian Islands based on six dimensions: namely student, teacher, course, technology, system design, and environmental dimension. The results of this evaluation revealed that Open eClass has been successfully used for blended learning in the TEI of Ionian Islands. Despite the instructors' initial worries about students' lack of participation in their courses if their educational material was made available online and especially in video lectures; blended learning did not reduce physical presence of the students in the classroom. Instead it was only used as a supplementary tool that helps students to study further, watch missed lectures, etc.
Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive research study and results on the use of existing open-source Learning Management Systems, or LMS within the public and private universities of Cyprus. The most significant objective of this research is the identification of the different types of E-Learning, i.e. Computer-Based Training (CBT, Technology-Based Learning (TBL, and Web-Based Training (WBT within Cyprus universities. The paper identifies the benefits and limitations of the main learning approaches used in higher educational institutions, i.e. synchronous and asynchronous learning, investigates the open-source LMS used in the Cypriot universities and compares their features with regards to students’ preferences for a collaborative E-Learning environment. The required data for this research study were collected from undergraduate and graduate students, alumni, faculty members, and IT professionals who currently work and/or study at the public and private universities of Cyprus. The most noteworthy recommendation of this study is the clear indication that most of the undergraduate students that extensively use the specific E-Learning platform of their university do not have a clear picture of the differences between an LMS and a VLE. This gap has to be gradually diminished in order to make optimum use of the different features offered by the specific E-Learning platform.
Zeidan, Bassel; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin
The goal-directed navigational ability of animals is an essential prerequisite for them to survive. They can learn to navigate to a distal goal in a complex environment. During this long-distance navigation, they exploit environmental features, like landmarks, to guide them towards their goal. In...... hexapod robots. As a result, it allows the robots to successfully learn to navigate to distal goals in complex environments.......The goal-directed navigational ability of animals is an essential prerequisite for them to survive. They can learn to navigate to a distal goal in a complex environment. During this long-distance navigation, they exploit environmental features, like landmarks, to guide them towards their goal....... Inspired by this, we develop an adaptive landmark-based navigation system based on sequential reinforcement learning. In addition, correlation-based learning is also integrated into the system to improve learning performance. The proposed system has been applied to simulated simple wheeled and more complex...
Luo, Hong; Wu, Cheng; He, Qian; Wang, Shi-Yong; Ma, Xiu-Qiang; Wang, Ri; Li, Bing; He, Jia
Along with the advancement of information technology and the era of big data education, using learning process data to provide strategic decision-making in cultivating and improving medical students' self-learning ability has become a trend in educational research. Educator Abuwen Toffler said once, the illiterates in the future may not be the people not able to read and write, but not capable to know how to learn. Serving as educational institutions cultivating medical students' learning ability, colleges and universities should not only instruct specific professional knowledge and skills, but also develop medical students' self-learning ability. In this research, we built a teaching system which can help to restore medical students' self-learning processes and analyze their learning outcomes and behaviors. To evaluate the effectiveness of the system in supporting medical students' self-learning, an experiment was conducted in 116 medical students from two grades. The results indicated that problems in self-learning process through this system was consistent with problems raised from traditional classroom teaching. Moreover, the experimental group (using this system) acted better than control group (using traditional classroom teaching) to some extent. Thus, this system can not only help medical students to develop their self-learning ability, but also enhances the ability of teachers to target medical students' questions quickly, improving the efficiency of answering questions in class.
Tarn, J. H.; Kuo, L. T.; Juang, K. Y.; Lin, C. E.
It is known that an effective control system is the key condition for successful implementation of high-performance magnetic servo systems. Major issues to design such control systems are nonlinearity; unmodeled dynamics, such as secondary effects for copper resistance, stray fields, and saturation; and that disturbance rejection for the load effect reacts directly on the servo system without transmission elements. One typical approach to design control systems under these conditions is a special type of nonlinear feedback called gain scheduling. It accommodates linear regulators whose parameters are changed as a function of operating conditions in a preprogrammed way. In this paper, an on-line learning fuzzy control strategy is proposed. To inherit the wealth of linear control design, the relations between linear feedback and fuzzy logic controllers have been established. The exercise of engineering axioms of linear control design is thus transformed into tuning of appropriate fuzzy parameters. Furthermore, fuzzy logic control brings the domain of candidate control laws from linear into nonlinear, and brings new prospects into design of the local controllers. On the other hand, a self-learning scheme is utilized to automatically tune the fuzzy rule base. It is based on network learning infrastructure; statistical approximation to assign credit; animal learning method to update the reinforcement map with a fast learning rate; and temporal difference predictive scheme to optimize the control laws. Different from supervised and statistical unsupervised learning schemes, the proposed method learns on-line from past experience and information from the process and forms a rule base of an FLC system from randomly assigned initial control rules.
"Assessing the Value of E-Learning Systems" provides an extensive literature review pulling theories from the field of information systems, psychology and cognitive sciences, distance and online learning, as well as marketing and decision sciences. This book provides empirical evidence for the power of measuring value in the context of e-learning…
Clark, Dav; Ivry, Richard B
Motor learning is a ubiquitous feature of human competence. This review focuses on two particular classes of model tasks for studying skill acquisition. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is used to probe how people learn sequences of actions, while adaptation in the context of visuomotor or force field perturbations serves to illustrate how preexisting movements are recalibrated in novel environments. These tasks highlight important issues regarding the representational changes that occur during the course of motor learning. One important theme is that distinct mechanisms vary in their information processing costs during learning and performance. Fast learning processes may require few trials to produce large changes in performance but impose demands on cognitive resources. Slower processes are limited in their ability to integrate complex information but minimally demanding in terms of attention or processing resources. The representations derived from fast systems may be accessible to conscious processing and provide a relatively greater measure of flexibility, while the representations derived from slower systems are more inflexible and automatic in their behavior. In exploring these issues, we focus on how multiple neural systems may interact and compete during the acquisition and consolidation of new behaviors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is categorized under: Psychology > Motor Skill and Performance. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kahn, Charles E; Santos, Amadeu; Thao, Cheng; Rock, Jayson J; Nagy, Paul G; Ehlers, Kevin C
There is growing interest in bringing medical educational materials to the point of care. We sought to develop a system for just-in-time learning in radiology. A database of 34 learning modules was derived from previously published journal articles. Learning objectives were specified for each module, and multiple-choice test items were created. A web-based system-called TEMPO-was developed to allow radiologists to select and view the learning modules. Web services were used to exchange clinical context information between TEMPO and the simulated radiology work station. Preliminary evaluation was conducted using the System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire. TEMPO identified learning modules that were relevant to the age, sex, imaging modality, and body part or organ system of the patient being viewed by the radiologist on the simulated clinical work station. Users expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the system's design and user interface. TEMPO enables just-in-time learning in radiology, and can be extended to create a fully functional learning management system for point-of-care learning in radiology.
Nelson, Wayne A.
The rapid changes in our world precipitated by technology have created new problems and new challenges for education and training. A knowledge 'explosion' is occurring as our society moves toward a service oriented economy that relies on information as the major resource. Complex computer systems are beginning to dominate the workplace, causing alarming growth and change in many fields. The rapidly changing nature of the workplace, especially in fields related to information technology, requires that our knowledge be updated constantly. This characteristic of modern society poses seemingly unsolvable instructional problems involving coverage and obsolescence. The sheer amount of information to be learned is rapidly increasing, while at the same time some information becomes obsolete in light of new information. Education, therefore, must become a lifelong process that features learning of new material and skills as needed in relation to the job to be done. Because of the problems cited above, the current model of learning in advance may no longer be feasible in our high-technology world. In many cases, learning in advance is impossible because there are simply too many things to learn. In addition, learning in advance can be time consuming, and often results in decontextualized knowledge that does not readily transfer to the work environment. The large and growing discrepancy between the amount of potentially relevant knowledge available and the amount a person can know and remember makes learning on demand an important alternative to current instructional practices. Learning on demand takes place whenever an individual must learn something new in order to perform a task or make a decision. Learning on demand is a promising approach for addressing the problems of coverage and obsolescence because learning is contextualized and integrated into the task environment rather than being relegated to a separate phase that precedes work. Learning on demand allows learners
Abstract We present the experimental realization of an adaptive polymeric system displaying a ?learning behaviour?. The system consists on a statistically organized networks of memristive elements (memory-resitors) based on polyaniline. In a such network the path followed by the current increments its conductivity, a property which makes the system able to mimic Hebbian type learning and have application in hardware neural networks. After discussing the working principle of ...
Full Text Available In this paper we describe an adaptive web application E-school, where students can adjust some features according to their preferences and learning style. This e-learning environment enables monitoring students progress, total time students have spent in the system, their activity on the forums, the overall achievements in lessons learned, tests performed and solutions to given projects. Personalized assistance that teacher provides in a traditional classroom is not easy to implement. Students have regular contact with teachers using e-mail tools and conversation, so teacher get mentoring role for each student. The results of exploitation of the e-learning system show positive impact in acquiring the material and improvement of student’s achievements.
Bo Terje Kalsaas
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to contribute to creating a better understanding of the Last Planner System (LPS – which is associated with Lean Construction – in the light of the learning processes at the basis of knowledge development, and of change and innovation. Founded on a theoretical discussion, three research questions are asked, namely: In what ways can the LPS be expected to alter the learning arenas compared to conventional project management in construction; according to learning theory, what are the main challenges associated with implementing the LPS; and, finally, what kind of learning can be linked to an implemented LPS that functions as intended? The implementation of the LPS is shown to require substantial changes to the technical-organisational learning arena. In order for the implementation to be successful, the work identity has to alter on the individual level so that an overlap occurs with the new work practices prescribed by the LPS. The LPS has an inbuilt experiential learning cycle, and provides a good starting point for single-loop learning, as well as for simple forms of double-loop learning (“routinized learning capability”. However, it is argued that the LPS understood as experiential learning has clear limitations with regard to “evolutionary learning capability”. This is amplified by the context project organisation provides. In terms of theoretical implications, this article promotes an understanding of the planning process informed by the theory describing it as an experiential learning cycle. The conceptualisation which separates the LPS from conventional production control theory is critiqued. Finally, it is argued that an understanding of the LPS grounded in learning theory will improve the possibilities for successful implementation and maximise the learning effects.
Full Text Available Learning is the long process of transforming information as well as experience into knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviors. To make up the wide gap between the demand of increasing higher education and comparatively limited resources, more and more educational institutes are looking into instructional technology. Use of online resources not only reduces the cost of education but also meet the needs of society. Intelligent e-learning has become one of the important channels to reach out to students exceeding geographic boundaries. Besides this, the characteristics of e-learning have complicated the process of education, and have brought challenges to both instructors and students. This paper will focus on the discussion of different discipline of intelligent e-learning like scaffolding based e-learning, personalized e-learning, confidence based e-learning, intelligent tutoring system, etc. to illuminate the educational paradigm shift in intelligent e-learning system.
Deep learning has attracted huge attention due to its powerful representation capability. However, most of the studies on deep learning have been focused on visual analytics or language modeling and the capability of the deep learning in modeling dynamical systems is not well understood. In this study, we use a recurrent neural network to model noisy nonlinear dynamical systems. In particular, we use a long short-term memory (LSTM) network, which constructs internal nonlinear dynamics systems. We propose a cross-entropy loss with spatial ridge regularization to learn a non-stationary conditional probability distribution from a noisy nonlinear dynamical system. A Monte Carlo procedure to perform time-marching simulations by using the LSTM is presented. The behavior of the LSTM is studied by using noisy, forced Van der Pol oscillator and Ikeda equation.
Chin, Kai-Yi; Hong, Zeng-Wei; Huang, Yueh-Min; Shen, Wei-Wei; Lin, Jim-Min
The addition of animated pedagogical agents (APAs) in computer-assisted learning (CAL) systems could successfully enhance students' learning motivation and engagement in learning activities. Conventionally, the APA incorporated multimedia materials are constructed through the cooperation of teachers and software programmers. However, the thinking…
V. A. Uglev
personality -resource map allows a student to update the subject knowledge. Further, the paper offers mapping stages and their application specifics for tutorage.The specifics of tutor's support in computer-aided version have been analyzed separately. The learning automation is based on the intelligent computer-aided teaching systems. An agent model has been proposed to split the learning process roles in the structure of teaching system with selecting the tutor agent and describing the specifics of activities. Problematic aspects are also marked for a tutor agent to make decisions in a particular learning situation, and the possibility to apply the approach of cognitive visualization and mapping, such as cognitive maps of knowledge diagnosis, is noted.The cognitive maps of knowledge diagnosis are the result of completing the information generalization stage (an afferent synthesis by P. K. Anokhin in the logic of operating computer-aided teaching system to prepare (convert the information about the learning process into knowledge to simplify a complex expert analysis of the educational situation and develop an adequate response of system to the student's actions. The problems are given, which can be solved by the tutor agent using the cognitive maps of knowledge diagnosis. Further, the paper concerns the aggregative synthesis algorithm for individual course composition and versions of its visual presentation with the map. The structure of the cognitive map of knowledge diagnosis is discussed, in which the static and dynamic parts are distinguished. When storing a map and its visualization, the grouping knowledge effect is realized to form the semantic layers (cuts.The article conclusion notes that at the state-of-the-art stage of didactics development there is a raising extent of manufacturability and cognitive capability of not only the forms of the subject knowledge transfer, but also of the control process itself and teaching support. As a consequence, there is gradual development
Park, Joo Hyun; Son, Ji Young; Kim, Sun
The purpose of this study was to establish an e-learning system to support learning in medical education and identify solutions for improving the system. A learning management system (LMS) and computer-based test (CBT) system were established to support e-learning for medical students. A survey of 219 first- and second-grade medical students was administered. The questionnaire included 9 forced choice questions about the usability of system and 2 open-ended questions about necessary improvements to the system. The LMS consisted of a class management, class evaluation, and class attendance system. CBT consisted of a test management, item bank, and authoring tool system. The results of the survey showed a high level of satisfaction in all system usability items except for stability. Further, the advantages of the e-learning system were ensuring information accessibility, providing constant feedback, and designing an intuitive interface. Necessary improvements to the system were stability, user control, readability, and diverse device usage. Based on the findings, suggestions for developing an e-learning system to improve usability by medical students and support learning effectively are recommended.
Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.
This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual Learning…
Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papasalouros, Andreas
Learning Management Systems are sophisticated web-based applications that are being engineered today in increasing numbers by numerous institutions and companies that want to get involved in e-learning either for providing services to third parties, or for educating and training their own people.
Fazeli, Soude; Loni, Babak; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter
This study aims to develop a recommender system for social learning platforms that combine traditional learning management systems with commercial social networks like Facebook. We therefore take into account social interactions of users to make recommendations on learning resources. We propose to
Heindel, William C; Festa, Elena K; Ott, Brian R; Landy, Kelly M; Salmon, David P
Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that prototype learning may be mediated by at least two dissociable memory systems depending on the mode of acquisition, with A/Not-A prototype learning dependent upon a perceptual representation system located within posterior visual cortex and A/B prototype learning dependent upon a declarative memory system associated with medial temporal and frontal regions. The degree to which patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can acquire new categorical information may therefore critically depend upon the mode of acquisition. The present study examined A/Not-A and A/B prototype learning in AD patients using procedures that allowed direct comparison of learning across tasks. Despite impaired explicit recall of category features in all tasks, patients showed differential patterns of category acquisition across tasks. First, AD patients demonstrated impaired prototype induction along with intact exemplar classification under incidental A/Not-A conditions, suggesting that the loss of functional connectivity within visual cortical areas disrupted the integration processes supporting prototype induction within the perceptual representation system. Second, AD patients demonstrated intact prototype induction but impaired exemplar classification during A/B learning under observational conditions, suggesting that this form of prototype learning is dependent on a declarative memory system that is disrupted in AD. Third, the surprisingly intact classification of both prototypes and exemplars during A/B learning under trial-and-error feedback conditions suggests that AD patients shifted control from their deficient declarative memory system to a feedback-dependent procedural memory system when training conditions allowed. Taken together, these findings serve to not only increase our understanding of category learning in AD, but to also provide new insights into the ways in which different memory systems interact to support the acquisition of
Van Valen, David A; Kudo, Takamasa; Lane, Keara M; Macklin, Derek N; Quach, Nicolas T; DeFelice, Mialy M; Maayan, Inbal; Tanouchi, Yu; Ashley, Euan A; Covert, Markus W
Live-cell imaging has opened an exciting window into the role cellular heterogeneity plays in dynamic, living systems. A major critical challenge for this class of experiments is the problem of image segmentation, or determining which parts of a microscope image correspond to which individual cells. Current approaches require many hours of manual curation and depend on approaches that are difficult to share between labs. They are also unable to robustly segment the cytoplasms of mammalian cells. Here, we show that deep convolutional neural networks, a supervised machine learning method, can solve this challenge for multiple cell types across the domains of life. We demonstrate that this approach can robustly segment fluorescent images of cell nuclei as well as phase images of the cytoplasms of individual bacterial and mammalian cells from phase contrast images without the need for a fluorescent cytoplasmic marker. These networks also enable the simultaneous segmentation and identification of different mammalian cell types grown in co-culture. A quantitative comparison with prior methods demonstrates that convolutional neural networks have improved accuracy and lead to a significant reduction in curation time. We relay our experience in designing and optimizing deep convolutional neural networks for this task and outline several design rules that we found led to robust performance. We conclude that deep convolutional neural networks are an accurate method that require less curation time, are generalizable to a multiplicity of cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, and expand live-cell imaging capabilities to include multi-cell type systems.
A. S. Aleshchenko
Full Text Available The aim of the research is intelligent tutoring system for planning and development of individual learning programs for students. One of the important components of modern training programs is the individual practice programs that are formed from the first course and built up in the process of learning in the subsequent courses. Each individual practice program is formed on the basis of the Working program of practice for a specific group. At later practice stages planning and adjustment of the individual program are worked out for a particular student.The agent-oriented approach for the planning of individual learning programs is used for the formation of individual practice program. Agents of the intelligent learning systems are created according to the requirements of service-oriented architecture. To apply knowledge there used an integrated approach to represent knowledge.As a result of research, the authors propose the architecture of intelligent educational systems of the University Department, using the repository of learning objects, telecommunication systems and such agents as: the learner, the assessment of the student’s knowledge, the formation of individual programs for learning, the personal learning environment, the methodical support, the businesses. The authors demonstrate the possibility for the formation of individual practice programs using an agent of the methodical support.Application of the approaches and technologies which were considered in the article will allow to solve problems of the formation of individual practice programs. The use of such applications will extend the possibilities of intelligent tutoring systems of the University departments.
Full Text Available Currently, much attention is paid to the development of learning sour cream – a combination of traditional and distance (30-70% of training. Such training is sometimes called hybrid and referred to disruptive technologies. Purpose – to show that the use of systemic campaign in blended learning provides a high quality of education, and the technology can be devastating. The subject of the study – blended learning, object of study – Mixed learning process. The analysis results show that the combined training increases the motivation of students, qualification of teachers, personalized learning process. At the same time there are no reliable methods of assessing the quality of education and training standards. It is important that blended learning strategy to support the institutional goals and had an effective organizational model for support.
In this study, the researcher aimed to develop a mobile-assisted learning system and to investigate whether it could promote teenage learners' classical Chinese learning through the flipped classroom approach. The researcher first proposed the structure of the Cross-device Mobile-Assisted Classical Chinese (CMACC) system according to the pilot…
O. V. Lyaturinska
Full Text Available Introduction. Joining European educational space for Ukrainian medical higher education is a complex and multifaceted task that requires addressing many issues at the state level and in each university. Modern medical society more than anyone else needs professionals who are able to think creatively and independently. Newest technologies require young professionals in addition to getting education also acquire such qualities as self-reliance, confidence, responsibility, the ability to live and work in the new environment, be socially oriented. Therefore, individual work of future doctors is of great importance. Individual work is a means of students' learning activation and obligatory condition for the self-sufficiency formation in the following work. To be able to think independently is the most important professional quality that characterizes the ability of a future doctor to systematize, plan and make decisions on which health and sometimes the patient's life depend.[1, 3, 4, 5]. Object. The object of the educational process is the education of a competent person, future-oriented, able to solve common problems and tasks on the basis of acquired learning experiences and adequate assessment of the clinical situation. The lecturer should bring to a student’s mind knowledge and skills dependence from his motivation and personal contribution to the learning process, handling the thesis "no one can be taught, but everyone can learn". Students should have the skills of individual work, firm aspiration for continuous replenishment, renewal and knowledge improvement in the process of individual work. During individual work student must learn to distinguish cognitive task, to choose means of its resolving, to exercise self-control operations for literacy performance of tasks, to improve methods of the creative knowledge realization. Skills and knowledge formation of students’ individual work can occur not only at the conscious, but on an intuitive
Arnaudova, I.; Krypotos, A.M.; Effting, M.; Boddez, Y.; Kindt, M.; Beckers, T.
Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear-conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...
Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique
The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…
García, Antonio; García, Eva; de-Marcos, Luis; Martínez, José-Javier; Gutiérrez, José-María; Gutiérrez, José-Antonio; Barchino, Roberto; Otón, Salvador; Hilera, José-Ramón
This system comes up as a result of the increase of e-learning systems. It manages all relevant modules in this context, such as the association of digital rights with the contents (courses), management and payment processing on rights. There are three blocks:
Chrysafiadi, Konstantina; Virvou, Maria
In this paper a knowledge representation approach of an adaptive and/or personalized tutoring system is presented. The domain knowledge should be represented in a more realistic way in order to allow the adaptive and/or personalized tutoring system to deliver the learning material to each individual learner dynamically taking into account her/his learning needs and her/his different learning pace. To succeed this, the domain knowledge representation has to depict the possible increase or decrease of the learner's knowledge. Considering that the domain concepts that constitute the learning material are not independent from each other, the knowledge representation approach has to allow the system to recognize either the domain concepts that are already partly or completely known for a learner, or the domain concepts that s/he has forgotten, taking into account the learner's knowledge level of the related concepts. In other words, the system should be informed about the knowledge dependencies that exist among the domain concepts of the learning material, as well as the strength on impact of each domain concept on others. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) seem to be an ideal way for representing graphically this kind of information. The suggested knowledge representation approach has been implemented in an e-learning adaptive system for teaching computer programming. The particular system was used by the students of a postgraduate program in the field of Informatics in the University of Piraeus and was compared with a corresponding system, in which the domain knowledge was represented using the most common used technique of network of concepts. The results of the evaluation were very encouraging.
Wu, Zhaohui; Zheng, Nenggan; Zhang, Shaowu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Liqiang; Su, Lijuan
The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity. Here, we show how rule operations conducted by computing components contribute to a novel hybrid brain-computer system, i.e., ratbots, exhibit superior learning abilities in a maze learning task, even when their vision and whisker sensation were blocked. We anticipate that our study will encourage other researchers to investigate combinations of various rule operations and other artificial intelligence algorithms with the learning and memory processes of organic brains to develop more powerful cyborg intelligence systems. Our results potentially have profound implications for a variety of applications in intelligent systems and neural rehabilitation.
Wu, Zhaohui; Zheng, Nenggan; Zhang, Shaowu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Liqiang; Su, Lijuan
The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity. Here, we show how rule operations conducted by computing components contribute to a novel hybrid brain-computer system, i.e., ratbots, exhibit superior learning abilities in a maze learning task, even when their vision and whisker sensation were blocked. We anticipate that our study will encourage other researchers to investigate combinations of various rule operations and other artificial intelligence algorithms with the learning and memory processes of organic brains to develop more powerful cyborg intelligence systems. Our results potentially have profound implications for a variety of applications in intelligent systems and neural rehabilitation.
Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Kurihara, Yuriko; Yoshida, Shoko; Sakai, Nobue
Web-Learning system was developed to support the self-learning for national qualification examination and medical engineering practice by students. The results from small tests in various situations suggest that the unit-learning systems are more effective, especially for the early stage of their self learning. In addition, the answers of some questionnaire suggest that the students' motivation has a certain relation with the number of the questions in the system. That is, the less number of the questions, the easier they are worked out with a higher learning motivation by students. Thus, the system was extended to enable students to study various subjects and/or units by themselves. The system enables them to have learning effects more easily by the exercise during lectures. The effectiveness of the system was investigated on medical associated subjects installed in the system. The concerning questions of Medical engineering and Pathological histology are adequately divided into several groups, of which sixteen Web-Learning subsystems were well composed for their practical application. Our concerning various unit-learning systems were confirmed much useful for most students comparing with the case of the overall Web-Learning system.
This is a tutorial-driven and practical, but well-grounded book showcasing good Machine Learning practices. There will be an emphasis on using existing technologies instead of showing how to write your own implementations of algorithms. This book is a scenario-based, example-driven tutorial. By the end of the book you will have learnt critical aspects of Machine Learning Python projects and experienced the power of ML-based systems by actually working on them.This book primarily targets Python developers who want to learn about and build Machine Learning into their projects, or who want to pro
Chen Maoyin; Shang Yun; Zhou Donghua
Combining a shift method and the repetitive learning strategy, a repetitive learning controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. If nonlinear parts in chaotic systems satisfy Lipschitz condition, the proposed controller can be simplified into a simple proportional repetitive learning controller
Avogadro, Paolo; Calegari, Silvia; Dominoni, Matteo Alessandro
Purpose: A social learning management system (social LMS) is a tool which favors social interactions and allows scholastic institutions to supervise and guide the learning process. The inclusion of the social feature to a "normal" LMS leads to the creation of educational social networks (EduSN), where the students interact and learn. The…
Sari, Fatma; Purnamasari, Susan Dian
This study aims to determine behavioral intention in the use of e-learning system using models UTAUT. The phenomenon underlying the research is: It is not yet optimal use of e-learning by students information systems in the learning process, not yet optimal socialization of the existence of e-learning, so that is not maximized and yet utilization measurability of the impact of using e-learning for lecturers.This study is limited in its scope: analysis of the influence of performance expectanc...
Capuano, Nicola; Gaeta, Matteo; Marengo, Agostino; Miranda, Sergio; Orciuoli, Francesco; Ritrovato, Pierluigi
Intelligent e-learning systems have revolutionized online education by providing individualized and personalized instruction for each learner. Nevertheless, until now very few systems were able to leave academic laboratories and be integrated into real commercial products. One of these few exceptions is the Learning Intelligent Advisor (LIA)…
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The designing of instruction, when considered as a process, is the determination of instructional requirements of the learner and development of functional learning systems in order to meet these requirements. In fact, as a consequence of studies on the development of effective learning systems some instructional design theories have emerged. Among these theories the motivational design theory points out that instructional processes are required to be configured with the strategies which increases the attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction of the students for an instructional design which ensures the continuity of learning motivation. The studies indicate that the systems which are developed on the basis of mentioned strategies raise the attention of the student during instruction, develop a relevance to the students’ requirements, create a positive expectation for success and help having a satisfaction by reinforcing success. In this article, the empirical studies related with this subject and the suggestions for presenting more effective motivational instructional designs in distance learning are summarized.
Duan, Bing; Hosseini, Habib Mir M.; Ling, Keck Voon; Gay, Robert Kheng Leng
Internet-based learning systems, or e-learning, are widely available in institutes, universities, and industrial companies, hosting regular or continuous education programs. The dream of teaching and learning from anywhere and at anytime becomes a reality due to the construction of e-learning infrastructure. Traditional teaching materials and…
Full Text Available Introduction Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been used to modify cortical excitability and promote motor learning. Objective To systematically review published data to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals. Methods Randomized or quasi-randomized studies that evaluated the tDCS effects on motor learning were included and the risk of bias was examined by Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. The following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL with no language restriction. Results It was found 160 studies; after reading the title and abstract, 17 of those were selected, but just 4 were included. All studies involved healthy, right-handed adults. All studies assessed motor learning by the Jebsen Taylor Test or by the Serial Finger Tapping Task (SFTT. Almost all studies were randomized and all were blinding for participants. Some studies presented differences at SFTT protocol. Conclusion The result is insufficient to draw conclusions if tDCS influences the motor learning. Furthermore, there was significant heterogeneity of the stimulation parameters used. Further researches are needed to investigate the parameters that are more important for motor learning improvement and measure whether the effects are long-lasting or limited in time.
Sharma, Vinod; Simpson, Richard C; LoPresti, Edmund F; Schmeler, Mark
Nonambulatory, visually impaired individuals mostly rely on caregivers for their day-to-day mobility needs. The Drive-Safe System (DSS) is a modular, semiautonomous smart wheelchair system aimed at providing independent mobility to people with visual and mobility impairments. In this project, clinical evaluation of the DSS was performed in a controlled laboratory setting with individuals who have visual impairment but no mobility impairment. Their performance using DSS was compared with their performance using a standard cane for navigation assistance. Participants rated their subjective appraisal of the DSS by using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index inventory. DSS significantly reduced the number and severity of collisions compared with using a cane alone and without increasing the time required to complete the task. Users rated DSS favorably; they experienced less physical demand when using the DSS, but did not feel any difference in perceived effort, mental demand, and level of frustration when using the DSS alone or along with a cane in comparison with using a cane alone. These findings suggest that the DSS can be a safe, reliable, and easy-to-learn and operate independent mobility solution for visually impaired wheelchair users.
Full Text Available The E-Learning is becoming an effective approach for the improving of quality of learning. Many institutions are adopting this approach both to improve their traditional courses both to increase the potential audience. In the last period great attention is paid in the introduction of methodologies and techniques for the adaptation of learning process to the real needs of students. In this scenario the Adaptive Educational Hypermedia System can be an effective approach. Adaptive hypermedia is a promising area of research at the crossroads of hypermedia and adaptive systems. One of the most important fields where this approach can be applied is just the e-Learning. In this context the adaptive learning resources selection and sequencing is recognized as among one of the most interesting research questions. An Adaptive Educational Hypermedia System is composed by services for the management of the Knowledge Space, the definition of a User Model, the observation of student during his learning period and, as previously said, the adaptation of the learning path according to the real needs of the students. In particular the use of ontologyཿs formalism for the modeling of the ཿknowledge space related to the course can increase the sharable of learning objects among similar courses or better contextualize their role in the course. This paper addresses the design problem of an Adaptive hypermedia system by the definition of methodologies able to manage each its components, In particular an original user, learning contents, tracking strategies and adaptation model are developed. The proposed Adaptive Educational Hypermedia System has been integrated in an e-Learning platform and an experimental campaign has been conducted. In particular the proposed approach has been introduced in three different blended courses. A comparison with traditional approach has been described and the obtained results seem to be very promising.
Yalman, Murat; Basaran, Bülent; Gönen, Selahattin
Education is one of the biggest problems experienced by developing societies. Education is has an important place in individuals' lives since it allows them to prove themselves within their society and to maintain their future lives. Today, with the development of the Internet, education can be given via e-learning management systems designed on…
Schmoltz, J.; Blumer, A.; Noonan, J.; Shedd, D.; Twarog, J.
Managing each AHS vehicle and the AHS system as a whole is an extremely complex yndertaking. The authors have investigated and now report on Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches that can help. In particular, we focus on AI technologies known as Knowledge Based Systems (KBSs) and Learning Methods (LMs). Our primary purpose is to identify opportunities: we identify several problems in AHS and AI technologies that can solve them. Our secondary purpose is to examine in some detail a subset of these opportunities: we examine how KBSs and LMs can help in controlling the high level movements--e.g., keep in lane, change lanes, speed up, slow down--of an automated vehicle. This detailed examination includes the implementation of a prototype system having three primary components. The Tufts Automated Highway System Kit(TAHSK) discrete time micro-level traffic simulator is a generic AHS simulator. TAHSK interfaces with the Knowledge Based Controller (KBCon) knowledge based high level controller, which controls the high level actions of individual AHS vehicles. Finally, TAHSK also interfaces with a Reinforcement learning (RL) module that was used to explore the possibilities of RL techniques in an AHS environment.
Plass, Jan L.; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Homer, Bruce D.; Case, Jennifer; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Stein, Murphy; Perlin, Ken
The present research examined how mode of play in an educational mathematics video game impacts learning, performance, and motivation. The game was designed for the practice and automation of arithmetic skills to increase fluency and was adapted to allow for individual, competitive, or collaborative game play. Participants (N = 58) from urban…
The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.
Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Tse, Peter U
Useful information in the visual environment is often contained in specific conjunctions of visual features (e.g., color and shape). The ability to quickly and accurately process such conjunctions can be learned. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for such learning remain largely unknown. It has been suggested that some forms of visual learning might involve the dopaminergic neuromodulatory system (Roelfsema et al., 2010; Seitz and Watanabe, 2005), but this hypothesis has not yet been directly tested. Here we test the hypothesis that learning visual feature conjunctions involves the dopaminergic system, using functional neuroimaging, genetic assays, and behavioral testing techniques. We use a correlative approach to evaluate potential associations between individual differences in visual feature conjunction learning rate and individual differences in dopaminergic function as indexed by neuroimaging and genetic markers. We find a significant correlation between activity in the caudate nucleus (a component of the dopaminergic system connected to visual areas of the brain) and visual feature conjunction learning rate. Specifically, individuals who showed a larger difference in activity between positive and negative feedback on an unrelated cognitive task, indicative of a more reactive dopaminergic system, learned visual feature conjunctions more quickly than those who showed a smaller activity difference. This finding supports the hypothesis that the dopaminergic system is involved in visual learning, and suggests that visual feature conjunction learning could be closely related to associative learning. However, no significant, reliable correlations were found between feature conjunction learning and genotype or dopaminergic activity in any other regions of interest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Orosz, Gábor; Ashwin, Peter; Townley, Stuart
In this paper, we consider a learning strategy that allows one to transmit information between two coupled phase oscillator systems (called teaching and learning systems) via frequency adaptation. The dynamics of these systems can be modeled with reference to a number of partially synchronized cluster states and transitions between them. Forcing the teaching system by steady but spatially nonhomogeneous inputs produces cyclic sequences of transitions between the cluster states, that is, information about inputs is encoded via a "winnerless competition" process into spatio-temporal codes. The large variety of codes can be learned by the learning system that adapts its frequencies to those of the teaching system. We visualize the dynamics using "weighted order parameters (WOPs)" that are analogous to "local field potentials" in neural systems. Since spatio-temporal coding is a mechanism that appears in olfactory systems, the developed learning rules may help to extract information from these neural ensembles.
Ambos, E. L.; Havholm, K. G.; Malachowski, M.; Osborn, J.; Karukstis, K.
For more than seven years, the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR), the primary organization supporting programs, services, and advocacy for undergraduate research, has been working with support from the NSF's Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) to enhance, sustain, and institutionalize undergraduate research in diverse STEM disciplines and higher education settings. The Council on Undergraduate Research comprises more than 9000 individual and 670 institutional members within a divisional structure that includes geosciences, as well as 11 other thematic areas. Through its most recent grant: 'Transformational Learning through Undergraduate Research: Comprehensive Support for Faculty, Institutions, State Systems and Consortia' (NSF DUE CCLI III Award #09-20275), CUR has been collaborating with six higher education systems, each selected after a rigorous national application process in 2010 and 2011. These six systems, which collectively represent 79 individual institutions, are the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges (COPLAC), University of Wisconsin System (UWS), California State University System (CSU), City University of New York (CUNY), Great Lakes Colleges Association (GLCA), and Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE). The more than 350 participants of faculty and senior-level administrators from the six systems are engaged in shared multi-faceted and multi-year professional development experiences. Teams from each system attended customized institutes facilitated by CUR experts in 2011-2012, during which the teams developed specific action plans focused on institutionalizing undergraduate research on their campus and within their system. The systems were reconvened as a group a year after the first institute, to chart progress toward achieving their goals. Based on interviews and surveys with participants, campus teams are making substantial progress toward implementation of robust undergraduate research programs, and are making
Jiang, Yizhang; Wu, Dongrui; Deng, Zhaohong; Qian, Pengjiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guanjin; Chung, Fu-Lai; Choi, Kup-Sze; Wang, Shitong
Recognition of epileptic seizures from offline EEG signals is very important in clinical diagnosis of epilepsy. Compared with manual labeling of EEG signals by doctors, machine learning approaches can be faster and more consistent. However, the classification accuracy is usually not satisfactory for two main reasons: the distributions of the data used for training and testing may be different, and the amount of training data may not be enough. In addition, most machine learning approaches generate black-box models that are difficult to interpret. In this paper, we integrate transductive transfer learning, semi-supervised learning and TSK fuzzy system to tackle these three problems. More specifically, we use transfer learning to reduce the discrepancy in data distribution between the training and testing data, employ semi-supervised learning to use the unlabeled testing data to remedy the shortage of training data, and adopt TSK fuzzy system to increase model interpretability. Two learning algorithms are proposed to train the system. Our experimental results show that the proposed approaches can achieve better performance than many state-of-the-art seizure classification algorithms.
With the development of mobile devices and wireless technology, mobile technology has gradually infiltrated nursing practice courses to facilitate instruction. Mobile devices save manpower and reduce errors while enhancing nursing students' professional knowledge and skills. To achieve teaching objectives and address the drawbacks of traditional education, this study presents a mobile assistant learning system to help nursing students prepare health education materials. The proposed system is based on a project-based learning strategy to assist nursing students with internalizing professional knowledge and developing critical thinking skills. Experimental results show that the proposed mobile system and project-based learning strategy can promote learning effectiveness and efficiency. Most nursing students and nursing educators showed positive attitudes toward this mobile learning system and looked forward to using it again in related courses in the future.
Gifford, Christopher M.
This dissertation focuses on the collaboration of multiple heterogeneous, intelligent agents (hardware or software) which collaborate to learn a task and are capable of sharing knowledge. The concept of collaborative learning in multi-agent and multi-robot systems is largely under studied, and represents an area where further research is needed to…
de Mello Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira; Massetti, Thais; da Silva, Talita Dias; van der Kamp, John; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Leone, Claudio; Savelsbergh, Geert J P
With the growing accessibility of computer-assisted technology, rehabilitation programs for individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) increasingly use virtual reality environments to enhance motor practice. Thus, it is important to examine whether performance improvements in the virtual environment generalize to the natural environment. To examine this issue, we had 64 individuals, 32 of which were individuals with CP and 32 typically developing individuals, practice two coincidence-timing tasks. In the more tangible button-press task, the individuals were required to 'intercept' a falling virtual object at the moment it reached the interception point by pressing a key. In the more abstract, less tangible task, they were instructed to 'intercept' the virtual object by making a hand movement in a virtual environment. The results showed that individuals with CP timed less accurate than typically developing individuals, especially for the more abstract task in the virtual environment. The individuals with CP did-as did their typically developing peers-improve coincidence timing with practice on both tasks. Importantly, however, these improvements were specific to the practice environment; there was no transfer of learning. It is concluded that the implementation of virtual environments for motor rehabilitation in individuals with CP should not be taken for granted but needs to be considered carefully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan
Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…
This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system for learning electronic circuit making and programming a microcontroller to control a robot. The proposed e-Learning system comprises a virtual-circuit-making function for the construction of circuits with a versatile, Arduino microcontroller and an educational system that can simulate behaviors of…
Full Text Available First year accounting has generally been perceived as one of the more challenging first year business courses for university students. Various Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs have been proposed to attempt to enrich and enhance student learning, with these studies generally positioning students as learners alone. This paper uses an educational case study approach and examines the implementation of the IGCRA (individual, group, classroom reflective action technique, a Classroom Assessment Technique, on first year accounting students’ learning performance. Building on theoretical frameworks in the areas of cognitive learning, social development, and dialogical learning, the technique uses reports to promote reflection on both learning and teaching. IGCRA was found to promote feedback on the effectiveness of student, as well as teacher satisfaction. Moreover, the results indicated formative feedback can assist to improve the learning and learning environment for a large group of first year accounting students. Clear guidelines for its implementation are provided in the paper.
Hinojosa, J.; Nefti, S.; Kaymak, U.
Reinforcement learning (RL) is a valuable learning method when the systems require a selection of control actions whose consequences emerge over long periods for which input-output data are not available. In most combinations of fuzzy systems and RL, the environment is considered to be
Chang, Yi-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Kai; Fang, Rong-Jyue; Lu, You-Te
A situated Chinese cultural festival learning system based on motion sensing is developed in this study. The primary design principle is to create a highly interactive learning environment, allowing learners to interact with Kinect through natural gestures in the designed learning situation to achieve efficient learning. The system has the…
M. Yu. Kataev
organization and management of the learning process in a higher educational institution. The factors that affect the level of student knowledge obtained during training are shown. On this basis, the determining factors in assessing the level of knowledge are highlighted. It is offered to build the managing of individual training at any time interval on the basis of a calculation of the generalized criterion which consists of students’ current progress, their activity and time spent for training.The block structure of the automated program system of continuous monitoring of achievements of each student is described. All functional blocks of system are interconnected with educational process. The main advantage of this system is that students have continuous access to materials about own individual achievements and mistakes; from passive consumers of information they turn into active members of the education, and thus, they can achieve bigger effectiveness of personal vocational training. It is pointed out that information base of such system has to be available not only to students and teachers, but also future employers of university graduates.Practical significance. The concept of automated system for education results monitoring and technique of processing of collected material presented in the article are based on a simple and obvious circumstance: a student with high progress spends more time on training and leads active lifestyle in comparison with fellow students; therefore, that student with high probability will be more successful in the chosen profession. Thus, for ease of use, complete, fully detailed and digitized information on individual educational achievements of future expert is necessary not only for effective management of educational process in higher education institutions, but also for employers interested in well-prepared, qualified and hard-working staff intended to take responsibility for labour duties.
Hartog, R.J.M.; Schaaf, van der, H.; Kassahun, A.
Most well-known Learning Management Systems (LMS) are based on a paradigm of learning objects to be uploaded into the system. Most formulations of this paradigm implicitly assume that the learning objects are self contained learning objects such as FLASH objects or JAVA applets or presentational learning objects such as slide presentations. These are typically client side objects. However, a demand for learning support that activates the student can often be satisfied better with a server app...
Department of Transportation — DOT's electronic Learning Management System (eLMS) is a state-of-the-art web-based system that meets the needs of training administrators, learners, and managers and...
Alshare, Khaled A.; Freeze, Ronald D.; Lane, Peggy L.; Wen, H. Joseph
Success in an online learning environment is tied to both human and system factors. This study illuminates the unique contributions of human factors (comfort with online learning, self-management of learning, and perceived Web self-efficacy) to online learning system success, which is measured in terms of usage and satisfaction. The research model…
Watson, Stuart K; Vale, Gillian L; Hopper, Lydia M; Dean, Lewis G; Kendal, Rachel L; Price, Elizabeth E; Wood, Lara A; Davis, Sarah J; Schapiro, Steven J; Lambeth, Susan P; Whiten, Andrew
Studies of transmission biases in social learning have greatly informed our understanding of how behaviour patterns may diffuse through animal populations, yet within-species inter-individual variation in social information use has received little attention and remains poorly understood. We have addressed this question by examining individual performances across multiple experiments with the same population of primates. We compiled a dataset spanning 16 social learning studies (26 experimental conditions) carried out at the same study site over a 12-year period, incorporating a total of 167 chimpanzees. We applied a binary scoring system to code each participant's performance in each study according to whether they demonstrated evidence of using social information from conspecifics to solve the experimental task or not (Social Information Score-'SIS'). Bayesian binomial mixed effects models were then used to estimate the extent to which individual differences influenced SIS, together with any effects of sex, rearing history, age, prior involvement in research and task type on SIS. An estimate of repeatability found that approximately half of the variance in SIS was accounted for by individual identity, indicating that individual differences play a critical role in the social learning behaviour of chimpanzees. According to the model that best fit the data, females were, depending on their rearing history, 15-24% more likely to use social information to solve experimental tasks than males. However, there was no strong evidence of an effect of age or research experience, and pedigree records indicated that SIS was not a strongly heritable trait. Our study offers a novel, transferable method for the study of individual differences in social learning.
Rasner, P I; Pushkar', D Iu; Kolontarev, K B; Kotenkov, D V
The appearance of new surgical technique always requires evaluation of its effectiveness and ease of acquisition. A comparative study of the results of the first three series of successive robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) performed on at time by three surgeons, was conducted. The series consisted of 40 procedures, and were divided into 4 groups of 10 operations for the analysis. When comparing data, statistically significant improvement of intra- and postoperative performance in each series was revealed, with increase in the number of operations performed, and in each subsequent series compared with the preceding one. We recommend to perform the planned conversion at the first operation. In our study, previous laparoscopic experience did not provide any significant advantages in the acquisition of robot-assisted technology. To characterize the individual learning curve, we recommend the use of the number of operations that the surgeon looked in the life-surgery regimen and/or in which he participated as an assistant before his own surgical activity, as well as the indicator "technical defect". In addition to the term "individual learning curve", we propose to introduce the terms "surgeon's individual training phase", and "clinic's learning curve".
Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module Five: Relationships of Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Study Booklet.
Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.
This individualized learning module on the relationships of current, voltage, and resistance is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptaticn to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting.…
Full Text Available In a client-server mobile learning system, client mobile software must run on the mobile phone to acquire, package, and send student’s interaction data via the mobile communications network to the connected mobile application server. The server will receive and process the client data in order to offer appropriate content and learning activities. To develop the mobile learning systems there are a number of very important issues that must be addressed. Mobile phones have scarce computing resources. They consist of heterogeneous devices and use various mobile operating systems, they have limitations with their user/device interaction capabilities, high data communications cost, and must provide for device mobility and portability. In this paper we propose five principles for designing Client mobile learning software. A location-based adaptive mobile learning system is presented as a proof of concept to demonstrate the applicability of these design principles.
Diez, David; Malizia, Alessio; Aedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Paloma; Fernandez, Camino; Dodero, Juan-Manuel
The basic idea of service-oriented learning is that a learning environment should be conceived as a set of independent units of learning packaged as learning services. The design, development and deployment of a learning system based on integrating different learning services needs both a technological platform to support the system as well as a…
Sung, Y.-T.; Hou, H.-T.; Liu, C.-K.; Chang, K.-E.
Mobile devices have been increasingly utilized in informal learning because of their high degree of portability; mobile guide systems (or electronic guidebooks) have also been adopted in museum learning, including those that combine learning strategies and the general audio-visual guide systems. To gain a deeper understanding of the features and…
Deperlioglu, Omer; Sarpkaya, Yilmaz; Ergun, Ertugrul
In today's world, Web-Based Distance Education Systems have a great importance. Web-based Distance Education Systems are usually known as Learning Management Systems (LMS). In this article, a database design, which was developed to create an educational institution as a Learning Management System, is described. In this sense, developed Learning…
Stapleton, Deborah Leah
My project examined if individuals can grow spiritually when Christian Education is taught through online interactive distance learning. Jesus' comment--in Matthew 8:5-13--regarding the astonishing faith of the centurion who asked Jesus to heal his servant from a distance was used for my Biblical Foundation. The centurion stated that Jesus did not…
Although organizational learning occurs through individuals, it would be a mistake to conclude that organizational learning is nothing but the cumulative result of their members' learning. Organizations do not have brains, but they have cognitive systems and memories. A device cited in this literature as an important tool for organizational…
John Tarus; Zhendong Niu; Bakhti Khadidja
In recent years, e-learning recommender systems has attracted great attention as a solution towards addressing the problem of information overload in e-learning environments and providing relevant recommendations to online learners. E-learning recommenders continue to play an increasing educational role in aiding learners to find appropriate learning materials to support the achievement of their learning goals. Although general recommender systems have recorded significant success in solving ...
El Mhouti, Abderrahim; Nasseh, Azeddine; Erradi, Mohamed; Vasquèz, José Marfa
Today, the implication of Web 2.0 technologies in e-learning allows envisaging new teaching and learning forms, advocating an important place to the collaboration and social interaction. However, in e-learning systems, learn in a collaborative way is not always so easy because one of the difficulties when arranging e-learning courses can be that…
Lavbic, Dejan; Matek, Tadej; Zrnec, Aljaž
Today's software industry requires individuals who are proficient in as many programming languages as possible. Structured query language (SQL), as an adopted standard, is no exception, as it is the most widely used query language to retrieve and manipulate data. However, the process of learning SQL turns out to be challenging. The need for a…
Fogg, J. L.; Howell, C. A.; Smith, J. H.; Vining, G. E.
An individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system for rods carried on a tray which moves along a materials handling conveyor. At a first tray position on the conveyor, a lifting device raises the rods off the tray and places them on an overhead ramp. A loading mechanism conveys the rods singly from the overhead ramp onto an overhead scale for individual weighing. When the tray is at a second position on the conveyor, a transfer apparatus transports each weighed rod from the scale back onto the tray
An E-learning system based on a multi-agent (MAS) architecture combined with the Dynamic Content Manager (DCM) model of E-learning, is presented. We discuss the benefits of using such a multi-agent architecture. Finally, the MAS architecture is compared with a pure service-oriented architecture (SOA). This MAS architecture may also be used within…
Araya, A A
Intelligent systems should possess two fundamental capabilities: problem solving and learning. Problem solving capabilities allow an intelligent system to cope with problems in a given domain. Learning capabilities make possible for an intelligent system to improve the solution to the problems within its current reach or to cope with new problems. This paper examines research in artificial intelligence from the perspective of learning with the purpose of: 1) developing and understanding of the problem of learning from the AI point of view, and II) characterizing the current state of the art on learning in AI. 35 references.
Chung, Mi-Lee Ahn
The purpose of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences of individual and small group preservice teachers' interactions with a hypermedia case. Preservice teachers' interactions with a hypermedia case were defined in terms of their (1) goals and perception of accomplishments of the goals, (2) use of features of the hypermedia case, and (3) types of questions and conflicts raised. Two individuals and two small groups of three preservice teachers participated by interacting with the hypermedia case which was developed to illustrate conceptual change science teaching in an elementary classroom. Most of the previous studies in this area have addressed large group use of hypermedia cases, and this study attempted to address the gap in the literature related to different social contexts, individuals and small groups, from the constructivist perspective. The assumptions of symbolic interactionism guided data collection from think-alouds and interviews. These multiple sources of data were used to understand the participants' construction of knowledge; data were analyzed and interpreted by a process of analytic induction. The major assertion was that the preservice teachers perceived the hypermedia case to be like a tool to link theory and practice of teaching. Three sub-assertions, and several supporting categories, also emerged from the data. These findings indicated that group learning experiences with the hypermedia case were more valuable than those of individuals. In general, preservice teachers benefited from learning how to teach with the hypermedia case in both settings. However, the individuals were not as satisfied as those in small groups, and the members of small groups interacted more actively with the hypermedia case as well as with the peers. The results of this study suggest that effective use of hypermedia cases takes place in a community of learners where the learners share the context and can draw upon the resources afforded by the
Some individuals more readily develop learned helplessness in the classroom, so it is necessary for the educational system to acknowledge it and develop teaching methods to prevent it. Creating awareness among educators of this condition could greatly decrease its occurrence. Children who have a high risk of developing learned helplessness,…
learning style theories (e.g., Kolb , 1984) are often enthusiastic devotees. There is a thriving industry publishing learning -styles instruments and...and understanding (pp. 31–64). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Kolb , D. A. (1984). Experiential learning : experience as the source of learning and...opportunities to have control over their learning experience than traditional classroom instruction (Sitzmann et al., 2006), using self-regulation theories
Full Text Available Our nervous system continuously combines new information from our senses with information it has acquired throughout life. Numerous studies have found that human subjects manage this by integrating their observations with their previous experience (priors in a way that is close to the statistical optimum. However, little is known about the way the nervous system acquires or learns priors. Here we present results from experiments where the underlying distribution of target locations in an estimation task was switched, manipulating the prior subjects should use. Our experimental design allowed us to measure a subject's evolving prior while they learned. We confirm that through extensive practice subjects learn the correct prior for the task. We found that subjects can rapidly learn the mean of a new prior while the variance is learned more slowly and with a variable learning rate. In addition, we found that a Bayesian inference model could predict the time course of the observed learning while offering an intuitive explanation for the findings. The evidence suggests the nervous system continuously updates its priors to enable efficient behavior.
Adaptive social learning strategies in temporally and spatially varying environments : how temporal vs. spatial variation, number of cultural traits, and costs of learning influence the evolution of conformist-biased transmission, payoff-biased transmission, and individual learning.
Nakahashi, Wataru; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Henrich, Joseph
Long before the origins of agriculture human ancestors had expanded across the globe into an immense variety of environments, from Australian deserts to Siberian tundra. Survival in these environments did not principally depend on genetic adaptations, but instead on evolved learning strategies that permitted the assembly of locally adaptive behavioral repertoires. To develop hypotheses about these learning strategies, we have modeled the evolution of learning strategies to assess what conditions and constraints favor which kinds of strategies. To build on prior work, we focus on clarifying how spatial variability, temporal variability, and the number of cultural traits influence the evolution of four types of strategies: (1) individual learning, (2) unbiased social learning, (3) payoff-biased social learning, and (4) conformist transmission. Using a combination of analytic and simulation methods, we show that spatial-but not temporal-variation strongly favors the emergence of conformist transmission. This effect intensifies when migration rates are relatively high and individual learning is costly. We also show that increasing the number of cultural traits above two favors the evolution of conformist transmission, which suggests that the assumption of only two traits in many models has been conservative. We close by discussing how (1) spatial variability represents only one way of introducing the low-level, nonadaptive phenotypic trait variation that so favors conformist transmission, the other obvious way being learning errors, and (2) our findings apply to the evolution of conformist transmission in social interactions. Throughout we emphasize how our models generate empirical predictions suitable for laboratory testing.
Shimada, Atsushi; Konomi, Shin'ichi
A new lecture supporting system based on real-time learning analytics is proposed. Our target is on-site classrooms where teachers give their lectures, and a lot of students listen to teachers' explanation, conduct exercises etc. We utilize not only an e-Learning system, but also an e-Book system to collect real-time learning activities during the…
Salomons, Tim V; Moayedi, Massieh; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Goldberg, Michael B; Freeman, Bruce V; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Davis, Karen D
Learned helplessness is a maladaptive response to uncontrollable stress characterized by impaired motor escape responses, reduced motivation and learning deficits. There are important individual differences in the likelihood of becoming helpless following exposure to uncontrollable stress but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these individual differences. Here we used structural MRI to measure gray and white matter in individuals with chronic pain, a population at high risk for helplessness due to prolonged exposure to a poorly controlled stressor (pain). Given that self-reported helplessness is predictive of treatment outcomes in chronic pain, understanding such differences might provide valuable clinical insight. We found that the magnitude of self-reported helplessness correlated with cortical thickness in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and midcingulate cortex, regions implicated in cognitive aspects of motor behavior. We then examined the white matter connectivity of these regions and found that fractional anisotropy of connected white matter tracts along the corticospinal tract was associated with helplessness and mediated the relationship between SMA cortical thickness and helplessness. These data provide novel evidence that links individual differences in the motor output pathway with perceived helplessness over a chronic and poorly controlled stressor. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Sound symbolism is increasingly understood as involving iconicity, or perceptual analogies and cross-modal correspondences between form and meaning, but the search for its functional and neural correlates is ongoing. Here we study how people learn sound-symbolic words, using behavioural, electrophysiological and individual difference measures. Dutch participants learned Japanese ideophones —lexical sound- symbolic words— with a translation of either the real meaning (in which form and meaning show cross-modal correspondences or the opposite meaning (in which form and meaning show cross-modal clashes. Participants were significantly better at identifying the words they learned in the real condition, correctly remembering the real word pairing 86.7% of the time, but the opposite word pairing only 71.3% of the time. Analysing event-related potentials (ERPs during the test round showed that ideophones in the real condition elicited a greater P3 component and late positive complex than ideophones in the opposite condition. In a subsequent forced choice task, participants were asked to guess the real translation from two alternatives. They did this with 73.0% accuracy, well above chance level even for words they had encountered in the opposite condition, showing that people are generally sensitive to the sound-symbolic cues in ideophones. Individual difference measures showed that the ERP effect in the test round of the learning task was greater for participants who were more sensitive to sound symbolism in the forced choice task. The main driver of the difference was a lower amplitude of the P3 component in response to ideophones in the opposite condition, suggesting that people who are more sensitive to sound symbolism may have more difficulty to suppress conflicting cross-modal information. The findings provide new evidence that cross-modal correspondences between sound and meaning facilitate word learning, while cross-modal clashes make word
Popeanga Vasile Nicolae
Full Text Available E-learning is learning based on information technologies, and particularly based on the Interne educational system has a lot of advantages, such as flexibility, availability, time and resources savings and it respects the individual learning rhythm of eac
Zheng, Xiang-wei; Ma, Hong-wei; Li, Yan
With the rapid development of Internet, e-learning has become a new teaching and learning mode. However, lots of e-learning systems deployed on Internet are just electronic learning materials with very limited interactivity and diagnostic capability. This paper presents an integrated e-learning environment named iCLSR. Firstly, iCLSR provides an…
Mullins, C Daniel; Wingate, La'Marcus T; Edwards, Hillary A; Tofade, Toyin; Wutoh, Anthony
The learning healthcare system (LHS) model framework has three core, foundational components. These include an infrastructure for health-related data capture, care improvement targets and a supportive policy environment. Despite progress in advancing and implementing LHS approaches, low levels of participation from patients and the public have hampered the transformational potential of the LHS model. An enhanced vision of a community-engaged LHS redesign would focus on the provision of health care from the patient and community perspective to complement the healthcare system as the entity that provides the environment for care. Addressing the LHS framework implementation challenges and utilizing community levers are requisite components of a learning health care community model, version two of the LHS archetype.
Geary, David C
Children's quantitative competencies upon entry into school can have lifelong consequences. Children who start behind generally stay behind, and mathematical skills at school completion influence employment prospects and wages in adulthood. I review the current debate over whether early quantitative learning is supported by (a) an inherent system for representing approximate magnitudes, (b) an attentional-control system that enables explicit processing of quantitative symbols, such as Arabic numerals, or (c) the logical problem-solving abilities that facilitate learning of the relations among numerals. Studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities and difficulties have suggested that each of these competencies may be involved, but to different degrees and at different points in the learning process. Clarifying how and when these competencies facilitate early quantitative learning and developing interventions to address their impact on children have the potential to yield substantial benefits for individuals and for society.
Fogg, J.L.; Smith, J.H.; Vining, G.E.; Howell, C.A.
An individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system for rods carried on a tray which moves along a materials handling conveyor is discussed. At a first tray position on the conveyor, a lifting device raises the rods off the tray and places them on an overhead ramp. A loading mechanism conveys the rods singly from the overhead ramp onto an overhead scale for individual weighing. When the tray is at a second position on the conveyor, a transfer apparatus transports each weighed rod from the scale back onto the tray
Full Text Available A salient feature of human motor skill learning is the ability to exploitsimilarities across related tasks.In biological motor control, it has been hypothesized that muscle synergies,coherent activations of groups of muscles, allow for exploiting shared knowledge.Recent studies have shown that a rich set of complex motor skills can be generated bya combination of a small number of muscle synergies.In robotics, dynamic movement primitives are commonlyused for motor skill learning. This machine learning approach implements a stable attractor systemthat facilitates learning and it can be used in high-dimensional continuous spaces. However, it does not allow for reusing shared knowledge, i.e. for each task an individual set of parameters has to be learned.We propose a novel movement primitive representationthat employs parametrized basis functions, which combines the benefits of muscle synergiesand dynamic movement primitives. For each task asuperposition of synergies modulates a stable attractor system.This approach leads to a compact representation of multiple motor skills andat the same time enables efficient learning in high-dimensional continuous systems.The movement representation supports discrete and rhythmic movements andin particular includes the dynamic movement primitive approach as a special case.We demonstrate the feasibility of the movement representation in three multi-task learning simulated scenarios.First, the characteristics of the proposed representation are illustrated in a point-mass task.Second, in complex humanoid walking experiments,multiple walking patterns with different step heights are learned robustly and efficiently.Finally, in a multi-directional reaching task simulated with a musculoskeletal modelof the human arm, we show how the proposed movement primitives can be used tolearn appropriate muscle excitation patterns and to generalize effectively to new reaching skills.
Al-Juda, Mefleh Qublan B.
This study evaluates the experiences and perceptions of students regarding e-learning systems and their preparedness for e-learning. It also investigates the overall perceptions of students regarding e-learning and the factors influencing students' attitudes towards e-learning. The study uses convenience sampling in which students of the Education…
Heindel, William C.; Festa, Elena K.; Ott, Brian R.; Landy, Kelly M.; Salmon, David P.
Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that prototype learning may be mediated by at least two dissociable memory systems depending on the mode of acquisition, with A/Not-A prototype learning dependent upon a perceptual representation system located within posterior visual cortex and A/B prototype learning dependent upon a declarative memory system associated with medial temporal and frontal regions. The degree to which patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can acquire new categorical information may therefore critically depend upon the mode of acquisition. The present study examined A/Not-A and A/B prototype learning in AD patients using procedures that allowed direct comparison of learning across tasks. Despite impaired explicit recall of category features in all tasks, patients showed differential patterns of category acquisition across tasks. First, AD patients demonstrated impaired prototype induction along with intact exemplar classification under incidental A/Not-A conditions, suggesting that the loss of functional connectivity within visual cortical areas disrupted the integration processes supporting prototype induction within the perceptual representation system. Second, AD patients demonstrated intact prototype induction but impaired exemplar classification during A/B learning under observational conditions, suggesting that this form of prototype learning is dependent on a declarative memory system that is disrupted in AD. Third, the surprisingly intact classification of both prototypes and exemplars during A/B learning under trial-and-error feedback conditions suggests that AD patients shifted control from their deficient declarative memory system to a feedback-dependent procedural memory system when training conditions allowed. Taken together, these findings serve to not only increase our understanding of category learning in AD, but to also provide new insights into the ways in which different memory systems interact to support the acquisition of
Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi
Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…
Full Text Available Background & aims This study investigated the perceptions of educational professionals in regard to the effectiveness of visual communication systems and their applications as a functional communication intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Methods One hundred and one individuals from diverse educational backgrounds, school districts, educational services, and various states were surveyed for this study. All participants in this study served individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a clinical and/or school setting. Results The study found that aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC systems were widely utilized, and participants perceived these systems as the most effective for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. It also found that the use of low level tech aided augmentative communication systems such as Picture Exchange System and high level tech systems such as voice output systems that were strictly computer based, were dependent on the individual's abilities and needs. Finally, the study found that the use of photography and photo journaling techniques had positive outcomes for individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and other students in the learning environment. Conclusions The results revealed that the overall consensus of educational professionals that serve individuals with ASD agreed that aided AAC systems were more effective methods to foster and enhance functional communication. In terms of effectiveness of the level of technology utilized within the system, it depends on the needs and abilities of the individual with ASD. Participants, however, did agree that photography and photo journaling techniques may provide positive attributes to all students and not only those diagnosed with ASD. Implications The ability to modify or alter the ways in which AAC systems are created and implemented may address the need to individualize the systems in terms of the needs and
Lovett, Trevor William
This investigation explores factors that contributed to the disparate learning identities of two white baby-boomer brothers from the same working-class family. The research, part of a broader phenomenological study into the influences of working-class masculinities and schooling offers an insight into the individual family members' differential…
von Müller, Lutz
Full Text Available [english] Evolution of case-based teaching (CBT is influenced by student’s specifications and also by improvement of computer-based e-learning systems. In the present single center study of the University of Saarland Medical Center the medical students in the third year compared two case-based e-learning systems. CAMPUS-Classic-Player is an open system with almost unrestricted decision trees whereas the CAMPUS-Card-Player represents an educational structured e-learning platform. Learning from patients and also learning from students will be introduced as our pivotal principle for development of new e-learning strategies.A significantly better evaluation was found for the more structured CAMPUS-Card-Player with respect to profile, clarity, didactics, learning effects, and relevance for exam preparation. The student’s intentions for CBT were clearly focused on usability for preparation of future exams which can be better achieved by the help of more structured e-learning systems. The time to process and answer the cases was about for both players. We therefore propose that the time schedule for most users is limited per case irrespective of the complexity of decision trees, cases or e-learning systems. This remains to be mentioned for the design of future cases. [german] Die Weiterentwicklung von fallbasiertem Lernen wird durch die Anregungen der Studierenden („user“ und durch neue technische Entwicklungen und Möglichkeiten von e-Learning-Systemen bestimmt. In dieser prospektiven monozentrischen Studie am Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes wurde von Studierenden des 1. und 2. klinischen Semesters Medizin eine offene (CAMPUS-Classic-Player und ein strukturierte e-Learning-Plattform (CAMPUS-Card-Player für die Darstellung elektronischer Fallbeispiele verglichen und bewertet. Signifikant besser evaluiert wurde der CAMPUS-Card-Player in Bezug auf Form, Übersichtlichkeit, Zusatzmaterialien, Didaktik, Lerneffekt, Prüfungsrelevanz und
Zinck Pedersen, Kirstine
pragmatism, situated learning theory and science and technology studies, the paper contrasts the notion of ‘systemic’ learning expressed by the safety policy program with notions of learning as a socio-materially situated practice. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2010 in a Danish university hospital, I...... propose that learning, and more specifically learning from critical incidents, should be understood as a practical and experience-based activity as well as an equally individual and social achievement, which is always formed in relation to the specificities of the concrete situation. Parting from......The key trope of patient safety policy is learning. With the motto of going from ‘a culture of blame to a learning culture’, the safety program introduces a ‘systemic perspective’ to facilitate openness and willingness to talk about failures, hereby making failures into a system property. Within...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Is Hosting a Series of Informational Webinars for Individuals and Organizations To Learn About the Proposed NOAA Climate Service AGENCY: Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...
Dubravka Mandušić; Lucija Blašković
Today`s technology supported and accelerated learning time requires constant and continuous acquisition of new knowledge. On the other hand, it does not leave enough time for additional education. Increasing number of E-learning systems, withdraws a need for precise evaluation of functionality that those systems provide; so they could be reciprocally compared. While implementing new systems for electronic learning, it is very important to pre-evaluate existing systems in order to ...
Quadrado, Virgínia Helena; Silva, Talita Dias da; Favero, Francis Meire; Tonks, James; Massetti, Thais; Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira de Mello
To examine whether performance improvements in the virtual environment generalize to the natural environment. we had 64 individuals, 32 of which were individuals with DMD and 32 were typically developing individuals. The groups practiced two coincidence timing tasks. In the more tangible button-press task, the individuals were required to 'intercept' a falling virtual object at the moment it reached the interception point by pressing a key on the computer. In the more abstract task, they were instructed to 'intercept' the virtual object by making a hand movement in a virtual environment using a webcam. For individuals with DMD, conducting a coincidence timing task in a virtual environment facilitated transfer to the real environment. However, we emphasize that a task practiced in a virtual environment should have higher rates of difficulties than a task practiced in a real environment. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Virtual environments can be used to promote improved performance in ?real-world? environments. Virtual environments offer the opportunity to create paradigms similar ?real-life? tasks, however task complexity and difficulty levels can be manipulated, graded and enhanced to increase likelihood of success in transfer of learning and performance. Individuals with DMD, in particular, showed immediate performance benefits after using virtual reality.
Retalis, Symeon; Georgiakakis, Petros; Dimitriadis, Yannis
Design pattern creation, especially in the e-learning domain, is a highly complex process that has not been sufficiently studied and formalized. In this paper, we propose a systematic pattern development cycle, whose most important aspects focus on reverse engineering of existing systems in order to elicit features that are cross-validated through the use of appropriate, authentic scenarios. However, an iterative pattern process is proposed that takes advantage of multiple data sources, thus emphasizing a holistic view of the teaching learning processes. The proposed schema of pattern mining has been extensively validated for Asynchronous Network Supported Collaborative Learning (ANSCL) systems, as well as for other types of tools in a variety of scenarios, with promising results.
Nawroth, Christian; Prentice, Pamela M; McElligott, Alan G
Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk-reward trade-offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits ('exploration' and 'sociability') of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent across time and context. Less explorative goats performed better in a non-associative cognitive task, in which subjects had to follow the trajectory of a hidden object (i.e. testing their ability for object permanence). We also found that less sociable subjects performed better compared to more sociable goats in a visual discrimination task. Good visual learning performance was associated with a preference for feature cues, indicating personality-dependent learning strategies in goats. Our results suggest that personality traits predict the outcome in visual discrimination and non-associative cognitive tasks in goats and that impaired performance in a visual discrimination tasks does not necessarily imply impaired learning capacities, but rather can be explained by a varying preference for feature cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yilmaz, Ayse; Dyer, Adrian G; Rössler, Wolfgang; Spaethe, Johannes
Ants are a well-characterized insect model for the study of visual learning and orientation, but the extent to which colour vision is involved in these tasks remains unknown. We investigated the colour preference, learning and memory retention of Camponotus blandus foragers under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results show that C. blandus foragers exhibit a strong innate preference for ultraviolet (UV, 365 nm) over blue (450 nm) and green (528 nm) wavelengths. The ants can learn to discriminate 365 nm from either 528 nm or 450 nm, independent of intensity changes. However, they fail to discriminate between 450 nm and 528 nm. Modelling of putative colour spaces involving different numbers of photoreceptor types revealed that colour discrimination performance of individual ants is best explained by dichromacy, comprising a short-wavelength (UV) receptor with peak sensitivity at about 360 nm, and a long-wavelength receptor with peak sensitivity between 470 nm and 560 nm. Foragers trained to discriminate blue or green from UV light are able to retain the learned colour information in an early mid-term (e-MTM), late mid-term (l-MTM), early long-term (e-LTM) and late long-term (l-LTM) memory from where it can be retrieved after 1 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days after training, indicating that colour learning may induce different memory phases in ants. Overall, our results show that ants can use chromatic information in a way that should promote efficient foraging in complex natural environments. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K.
Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present…
Jang Ho Lee
Full Text Available In recent years, mobile and ubiquitous computing has emerged in our daily lives, and extensive studies have been conducted in various areas using smart devices, such as tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, smart refrigerators, and smart media devices, in order to realize this computing technology. Especially, the integration of mobile networking technology and intelligent mobile devices has made it possible to develop the advanced mobile distance learning system that supports portable smart devices such as smartphones and tablets for the future IT environment. We present a synchronous mobile learning system that enables both instructor and student to participate in distance learning with their tablets. When an instructor gives a lecture using a tablet with front-face camera by bringing up slides and making annotations on them, students in the distance can watch the instructor and those slides with annotation on their own tablets in real time. A student can also ask a question or have a discussion together using the text chat feature of the system during a learning session. We also show the user evaluation of the system. A user survey shows that about 67% are in favor of the prototype of the system.
Shariff, Sya Azmeela Binti
Promoting active learning among students may result in greater learning and more positive attitudes in university-level large lecture classes. One way of promoting active learning in large lecture classes is via the use of a think-pair-share instructional strategy, which combines student participation in class discussions via clicker technology…