Sample records for individual evaluation test

  1. Individual susceptibility to UV and ionizing radiations: DNA repair evaluated by the comets test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alapetite, C.


    Some patients having a cancer treated by radiotherapy can suffer from an hypersensitivity with respect to UV and ionizing radiations which corresponds to an inter-individual variability of the response to the geno-toxic stress induced by radiations. A predictive approach of this risk has been developed which shows the interest of an analysis of the individual capacities of repair of DNA radio-lesions. This approach uses the alkaline comets test. The application of this test to the patients' lymphocytes shows a high percentage of severe reactions of normal tissues after the radiotherapy course with a high residual level of broken DNA strands which gives evidence for a repair defect. The retrospective application of this test to breast cancers with radiotherapy complications without any genetical predisposition has permitted to validate this test in order to use it as a predictive diagnosis of the individual susceptibility of patients with respect to radiotherapy. (J.S.)

  2. Evaluation of performance of electronic dosimeters for individual monitoring: tests in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, W.J.; Khoury, H.J.; Barros, V.S.M. de; Medeiros, R.B.


    Electronic dosimeters based on direct ion storage technology are being widely used in many countries for individual monitoring in many applications of ionizing radiation. However, their use as routine dosimeter has been established in a few countries due to lack of accreditation or intercomparison programs. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of two direct íon storage dosimeters model available in the international market: the Miriom-Instadose-1 and RADOS DIS-1 to be eventually accepted for individual monitoring in Brazil. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Serial High Sensitivity Troponin T Levels in Individuals Without Overt Coronary Heart Disease Following Exercise Stress Testing. (United States)

    Saad, Yousef M E; Idris, Hanan; Shugman, Ibrahim M; Kadappu, Krishna K; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Thomas, Liza; Mussap, Christian; Leung, Dominic Y C; Juergens, Craig P; French, John K


    Detectable levels of high sensitivity (cardiac) troponin T (HsTnT), occur in the majority of patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), and often in 'healthy' individuals. Extreme physical activity may lead to marked elevations in creatine kinase MB and TnT levels. However, whether HsTnT elevations occur commonly after exercise stress testing (EST), and if so, whether this has clinical significance, needs clarification. To determine whether HsTnT levels become elevated after EST (Bruce protocol) to ≥95% of predicted maximum heart rate in presumed healthy subjects without overt CHD, we assayed HsTnT levels for ∼5h post-EST in 105 subjects (median age 37 years). Pre-EST HsTnT levels 14 ng/L, with troponin elevation occurring at least three hours post-EST. Additionally, a detectable ≥ 50% increase in HsTnT levels (4.9→9ng/L) occurred in 28 (27%) of subjects who during EST achieved ≥ 95% of their predicted target heart rate. The median age of the subjects with HsTnT elevations to > 14ng/L post-EST was higher than those without such elevation (42 and 36 years respectively; p=0.038). At a median follow-up of 13 months no adverse events were recorded. The current study demonstrates that detectable elevations occur in HsTnT post-EST in 'healthy' subjects without overt CHD. Future studies should evaluate the clinical significance of detectable elevations in post-EST HsTnT with long-term follow-up for adverse cardiac events. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Evaluation of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test for Use in States' Child Outcomes Measurement Systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (United States)

    Elbaum, Batya; Gattamorta, Karina A.; Penfield, Randall D.


    This study evaluated the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition, Screening Test (BDI-2 ST) for use in states' child outcomes accountability systems under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Complete Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-2), assessment data were obtained for 142 children, ages 2 to 62 months, who…

  5. Functional Gait Assessment and Balance Evaluation System Test: Reliability, Validity, Sensitivity, and Specificity for Identifying Individuals With Parkinson Disease Who Fall (United States)

    Leddy, Abigail L.; Crowner, Beth E.


    Background Gait impairments, balance impairments, and falls are prevalent in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). Although the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) can be considered the reference standard for the determination of fall risk, it has a noted ceiling effect. Development of ceiling-free measures that can assess balance and are good at discriminating “fallers” from “nonfallers” is needed. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) and the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) with the BBS among individuals with PD and evaluate the tests' reliability, validity, and discriminatory sensitivity and specificity for fallers versus nonfallers. Design This was an observational study of community-dwelling individuals with idiopathic PD. Methods The BBS, FGA, and BESTest were administered to 80 individuals with PD. Interrater reliability (n=15) was assessed by 3 raters. Test-retest reliability was based on 2 tests of participants (n=24), 2 weeks apart. Intraclass correlation coefficients (2,1) were used to calculate reliability, and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess validity. Cutoff points, sensitivity, and specificity were based on receiver operating characteristic plots. Results Test-retest reliability was .80 for the BBS, .91 for the FGA, and .88 for the BESTest. Interrater reliability was greater than .93 for all 3 tests. The FGA and BESTest were correlated with the BBS (r=.78 and r=.87, respectively). Cutoff scores to identify fallers were 47/56 for the BBS, 15/30 for the FGA, and 69% for the BESTest. The overall accuracy (area under the curve) for the BBS, FGA, and BESTest was .79, .80, and .85, respectively. Limitations Fall reports were retrospective. Conclusion Both the FGA and the BESTest have reliability and validity for assessing balance in individuals with PD. The BESTest is most sensitive for identifying fallers. PMID:21071506

  6. Is the Cloze Procedure Appropriate to Evaluate Health Literacy in Older Individuals? Age Effects in the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Ownby


    Full Text Available Health literacy has received increasing attention because of its importance for older individuals’ health, as studies have shown a close relation between older individuals’ health literacy and their health. Research also suggests that older individuals have low levels of health literacy, but this finding is variable and may depend on which health literacy test is used. Older individuals assessed with the Test of Functional Health Literacy (TOFHLA score lower than younger individuals, but a previous study suggested that this may result from age-related differential item functioning (DIF on the TOFHLA. The study reported here assessed age-related DIF in a sample of community-dwelling volunteers. Twenty-two percent of items were differentially more difficult for older individuals independent of their overall ability, and when these items were eliminated from the total score, age differences were no longer found. Performance on a working memory task predicted older but not younger individuals’ performance on the age-related items. At least part of older individuals’ apparent deficits in health literacy when assessed by the TOFHLA may be related to DIF on its items. The TOFHLA, and any measure that employs the cloze procedure to evaluate reading comprehension, should be used cautiously in older individuals.

  7. Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals. (United States)

    Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka


    Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.

  8. Test Reliability at the Individual Level (United States)

    Hu, Yueqin; Nesselroade, John R.; Erbacher, Monica K.; Boker, Steven M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Klump, Kelly


    Reliability has a long history as one of the key psychometric properties of a test. However, a given test might not measure people equally reliably. Test scores from some individuals may have considerably greater error than others. This study proposed two approaches using intraindividual variation to estimate test reliability for each person. A simulation study suggested that the parallel tests approach and the structural equation modeling approach recovered the simulated reliability coefficients. Then in an empirical study, where forty-five females were measured daily on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) for 45 consecutive days, separate estimates of reliability were generated for each person. Results showed that reliability estimates of the PANAS varied substantially from person to person. The methods provided in this article apply to tests measuring changeable attributes and require repeated measures across time on each individual. This article also provides a set of parallel forms of PANAS. PMID:28936107

  9. Operational Test and Evaluation Manual (United States)


    effectiveness. Simpler models are better than complicated models. The urge to overpopulate a model with an abundance of parameters should in MCOTEA test and evaluation, MCOTEA is the M&S User. Subject Matter Expert (SME) An individual who, by virtue of education , training, or...Expert : An individual who, by virtue of education , training, or experience, has expertise in a particular technical or operational discipline, system

  10. Knowledge Testing and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša E. Jelenc


    Full Text Available In the paper Jelenc presents the pro­ ject entitled Knowledge Testing and Evaluation (hereafter: NTE. She believes in the importance of the project: many adults want to formally prove and evaluate their knowledge acquired outside formal educational institutions. Jelenc suggests that NTE should be carried out in multiple phases. Initially, standards for measuring knowledge and skills, and evaluation methods should be developed. The actual knowledge would be evaluated in the form of exhaustive interviews conducted by specially trained counsellors. Jelenc specifically defines the process of realisation and particular phases of NTE.

  11. Ada Test and Evaluation. (United States)


    Lady Lovelace , the daughter of the poet, Lord Byron. Ada was Charles Babbage’s programmer, Babbage being the inventor of the first mechanical...34 O-07 0 ARFOCERIGTAEOAUIAL LABS RIGHTPATTERSON AFB OH F/G 9/2 ADA TEST AND EVALUATION.(U) MAY BO A J SCARPELLI UNCLASSIFIED AFWAL-TR-BO-1024 NL E...llEllllEIlE III HA i28 5__ BIH~~ ~ 2 __I.,11 LZ AFAL-TR-80-1024 Ada TEST AND EVALUATION Alfred J. Scarpelli System Technology Branch Systen Avionics

  12. Evaluating software testing strategies (United States)

    Selby, R. W., Jr.; Basili, V. R.; Page, J.; Mcgarry, F. E.


    The strategies of code reading, functional testing, and structural testing are compared in three aspects of software testing: fault detection effectiveness, fault detection cost, and classes of faults detected. The major results are the following: (1) Code readers detected more faults than did those using the other techniques, while functional tester detected more faults than did structural testers; (2) Code readers had a higher fault detection rate than did those using the other methods, while there was no difference between functional testers and structural testers; (3) Subjects testing the abstract data type detected the most faults and had the highest fault detection rate, while individuals testing the database maintainer found the fewest faults and spent the most effort testing; (4) Subjects of intermediate and junior expertise were not different in number or percentage of faults found, fault detection rate, or fault detection effort; (5) subjects of advanced expertise found a greater number of faults than did the others, found a greater percentage of faults than did just those of junior expertise, and were not different from the others in either fault detection rate or effort; and (6) Code readers and functional testers both detected more omission faults and more control faults than did structural testers, while code readers detected more interface faults than did those using the other methods.

  13. Clients' Preferences for Small Groups vs. Individual Testing. (United States)

    Backman, Margaret E.; And Others

    Test takers' preferences for group versus individual administration of the Micro-TOWER System of Vocational Evaluation are reported. The system was administered to 211 clients at a vocational rehabilitation center, and consisted of work samples measuring the following job skills: record checking, filing, lamp assembly, message-taking, zip coding,…

  14. Teste de condutividade elétrica individual na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de café (Coffea arabica L. Individual electrical conductivity test for evaluation of the physiological quality of coffee seeds (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Souza Cabral Costa


    Full Text Available O teste de condutividade elétrica é usado para medir os exsudatos das sementes, que certamente refletem a integridade do sistema de membranas. O teste é rápido e de operação simples, mas a metodologia necessita ser testada para cada espécie individualmente para obter uma melhor precisão e exatidão dos resultados. Este trabalho foi conduzido visando determinar o ponto de partição na realização do teste de condutividade elétrica em sementes de café. Dez lotes de sementes de Coffea arabica sem pergaminho, cultivar Acaiá foram usados nesse estudo. Para a avaliação do ponto de partição as sementes foram embebidas por 96 horas e submetidas ao teste de germinação, correlacionando os valores de condutividade observados com os valores obtidos no teste de germinação. O ponto de partição é de 120,5µ, considerando 70% de germinação.The conductivity test is used to measure the leaches from the seeds, which certaintily reflect the membrane system integrity. The test is rapid and it is of simple operation, but the methodology needs to be tested for each individual species in order to reach a better precision and accuracy. This work was conducted to determinate the partition point for the realization of electrical conductivity test in coffee seeds. Ten seed lots of Coffea arabica, cultivar Acaiá, without parchment, were used in this study. For the evaluation of the partition point, seeds were imbibed for 96 hours and submitted to the germination test, with the correlation between the conductivity values and those obtained in the germination test being evaluated. The partition point is 120,5µ, considering 70% of germination.

  15. Days on radiosensitivity: individual variability and predictive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The radiosensitivity is a part of usual clinical observations. It is already included in the therapy protocols. however, some questions stay on its individual variability and on the difficulty to evaluate it. The point will be stocked on its origin and its usefulness in predictive medicine. Through examples on the use of predictive tests and ethical and legal questions that they raise, concrete cases will be presented by specialists such radio biologists, geneticists, immunologists, jurists and occupational physicians. (N.C.)

  16. Maintenance proficiency evaluation test bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Loran


    The Maintenance Proficiency Evaluation Test Bank (MPETB) is an Electric Power Research Institute- (EPRJ-) operated, utility-sponsored means of developing, maintaining, and disseminating secure, high-quality written and performance maintenance proficiency tests. EPRTs charter is to ensure that all tests and test items that go into the Test Bank have been validated, screened for reliability, and evaluated to high standards of psychometric excellence. Proficiency tests of maintenance personnel.(mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control [I and C] technicians) are most often used to determine if an experienced employee is capable of performing maintenance tasks without further training. Such tests provide objective evidence for decisions to exempt an employee from what, for the employee, is unnecessary training. This leads to considerable savings in training costs and increased productivity because supervisors can assign personnel to tasks at which their competence is proven. The ultimate objective of proficiency evaluation is to ensure that qualified maintenance personnel are available to meet the maintenance requirements of the plant Numerous task-specific MPE tests (both written and performance) have been developed and validated using the EPRI MPE methodology by the utilities participating in the MPETB project A task-specific MPE consists of a multiple-choice written examination and a multi-step performance evaluation that can be used to assess an individual's present knowledge and skill level for a given maintenance task. The MPETB contains MPEs and test items for the mechanical, electrical, and I and C classifications that are readily available to participating utilities. Presently, utilities are placing emphasis on developing MPEs to evaluate outage-related maintenance tasks that demonstrate the competency and qualifications of plant and contractor personnel before the start of outage work. Utilities are also using the MPE methodology and process to

  17. Evaluation of intra-individual test–re-test variability of uroflowmetry in healthy women and women suffering from stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunacek, Libor; Gärtner, Marcel; Krhut, Jan


    -individual difference in any of the recorded parameters was identified among the three UFM recordings in groups A, C, and D. The intra-individual variability of the following parameters reached statistical significance in patients suffering from stress urinary incontinence (group B): Qmax (p = 0.0016), Qave (p = 0.0005......), and cQave (p = 0.0389). A significant difference was only observed in comparison between the first and second consecutive recordings. Conclusions: This study provides evidence supporting the high yield and good intra-individual reproducibility of UFM....... incontinence were enrolled in the study. Thirty-five women suffered from stress urinary incontinence (group B), 35 women suffered from mixed urinary incontinence (group C), and 35 women with overactive bladder both dry and wet (group D). All participants were asked to perform UFM measurement three times...

  18. Molecular prognostic testing and individualized patient care in uveal melanoma. (United States)

    Harbour, J William


    To critically assess the status of molecular prognostic testing and its use for individualized patient care in uveal melanoma. Perspective, literature review, evidence assessment, and commentary. Evaluation of selected articles from the literature and the authors' clinical and laboratory studies. The most accurate molecular tests for predicting metastatic death in patients with uveal melanoma currently involve automated techniques for assessing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) copy number alterations and gene expression profiling. Most tests reported in the literature to date do not provide adequate scientific and statistical validation to be used outside of an ethically supervised investigational environment. Many cytogenetic and molecular prognostic tests for uveal melanoma have been reported, yet few have reached the standards required for routine clinical testing. Clinicians must understand the statistical and scientific limitations of the tests they are using, and appropriate ethical oversight is essential until such time that validated testing instruments are available that are performed in a standardized clinical testing environment. Well-controlled prospective studies are necessary to identify the most accurate, widely accessible, and affordable tests for routine clinical use.

  19. Individual class evaluation and effective teaching characteristics in integrated curricula. (United States)

    Hwang, Jung Eun; Kim, Na Jin; Song, Meiying; Cui, Yinji; Kim, Eun Ju; Park, In Ae; Lee, Hye In; Gong, Hye Jin; Kim, Su Young


    In an integrated curriculum, multiple instructors take part in a course in the form of team teaching. Accordingly, medical schools strive to manage each course run by numerous instructors. As part of the curriculum management, course evaluation is conducted, but a single, retrospective course evaluation does not comprehensively capture student perception of classes by different instructors. This study aimed to demonstrate the need for individual class evaluation, and further to identify teaching characteristics that instructors need to keep in mind when preparing classes. From 2014 to 2015, students at one medical school left comments on evaluation forms after each class. Courses were also assessed after each course. Their comments were categorized by connotation (positive or negative) and by subject. Within each subject category, test scores were compared between positively and negatively mentioned classes. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed to test group differences in scores. The same method was applied to the course evaluation data. Test results for course evaluation showed group difference only in the practice/participation category. However, test results for individual class evaluation showed group differences in six categories: difficulty, main points, attitude, media/contents, interest, and materials. That is, the test scores of classes positively mentioned in six domains were significantly higher than those of negatively mentioned classes. It was proved that individual class evaluation is needed to manage multi-instructor courses in integrated curricula of medical schools. Based on the students' extensive feedback, we identified teaching characteristics statistically related to academic achievement. School authorities can utilize these findings to encourage instructors to develop effective teaching characteristics in class preparation.

  20. Fracture evaluation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.C.


    In this report period, efforts have concentrated on defining the requirements for shallow-flaw beam testing. Analyses have been made to envelope the significant parameters for both deep- and shallow-flaw beams for three-point loading; that is, load to initiation of a frangible flaw, load to plastic collapse, LLD, and CMOD. An assessment was made of facilities capable of performing the tests identified by the parametric analyses discussed above. Two testing machines were identified for performing the scoped test series, the first a 550-kip Instron machine assigned to the Pressure Vessel Technology Section located in Building 9204-1 at the Y-12 Plant and the second a 220-kip MTS machine assigned to a mechanical testing group located at the K-25 Site. An existing bend test fixture previously used in the HSST clad plate test series is being modified for use in testing beams under other sponsorship but will be available for shared usage with the HSST shallow-flaw beam testing activities. To prevent the shared usage from having an adverse impact on the logistics of the HSST Program, the decision was made to procure a bend test fixture tailored specifically to serve the shallow flaw beam test series. A specification was prepared and procurement initiated. A survey is in progress for determining sources and costs of displacement-measuring instrumentation from both foreign and domestic sources. It appears that existing direct current displacement transducers available to the HSST Program may be adequate for the LLD measurements. These devices will be employed in the shakedown tests that are planned. A safety and environmental survey assessment for the beam testing conforming to the revised DOE rules has been prepared and approved

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test and MiniBESTest in the elderly and individuals with Parkinson's disease: application of the Rasch model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica C. Maia


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Older adults and individuals with neurological problems such as Parkinson's disease (PD exhibit balance deficits that might impair their mobility and independence. The assessment of balance must be useful in identifying the presence of instability and orient interventions. OBJECTIVE: To translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest and MiniBESTest to Brazilian Portuguese and analyze its psychometric properties. METHOD: The tests were translated and adapted to Portuguese according to a standard method and then subjected to a test-retest reliability assessment (10 older adults; 10 individuals with PD. The psychometric properties were assessed by the Rasch model (35 older adults; 35 individuals with PD. RESULTS: The reliability coefficient of the tests relative to the items and subjects varied from 0.91 and 0.98, which is indicative of the stability and reproducibility of the measures. In the BESTest, the person (4.19 and item (5.36 separation index established six balance ability levels and seven levels of difficulty, respectively. In the MiniBESTest, the person (3.16 and item (6.41 separation index established four balance ability levels and nine levels of difficulty, respectively. Two items in the BESTest did not fit with the model expectations, but the construct validity was not compromised. No item in the MiniBESTest was erratic. CONCLUSIONS: The results corroborate the diagnostic and screening functions of the BESTest and MiniBESTest, respectively, and indicate that the Brazilian versions exhibit adequate reliability, construct validity, response stability, and capacity to distinguish among various balance ability levels in older adults and individuals with PD.

  2. N-Back auditory test performance in normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The working memory construct refers to the capacity to maintain information for a limited time. Objectives: To devise stimuli and adapt the 5-back test and to verify the effect of age in normal Brazilian individuals. Methods: 31 healthy adults (15 young adults and 16 older adults were evaluated by batteries of auditory stimuli to verify the inter-group differences (age effect in working memory span, total correct answers and intrusions, and the intra-group effect of type of stimulus. Results: There was no intra-group stimulus effect. Individuals from both groups processed di and tri-syllables similarly. No difference between groups (no age effect was observed for any N-Back parameters: total score, span, number of intrusions, in either di or tri-syllable presentation. Conclusion: the processing capacity of 5 elements in phonological working memory was not affected by age.

  3. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel


    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  4. The picture test of separation and individuation - preliminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc


    Full Text Available Authors introduce a new instrument, which they developed for measuring separation and individuation process and attachment in adolescence and adulthood. The Picture Test of Separation and Individuation (PTSI is a semi–projective test. It consists of various pictures, which represent relationships with significant others. PTSI is divided into three subtests: Relationship with Mother, Relationship with Father and Attachment. In a preliminary research on a sample of college and university students authors studied basic properties of the test. The results of the research indicate that PTSI is consistent with theoretical background, has good sensitivity and is economical. The Picture Test of Separation and Individuation enables quick but complex insight into individual's relationships with significant others as well as into his/her stage of separation and individuation process. Considering satisfying results of pilot study, authors suggest further research for validation of the test.

  5. Days on radiosensitivity: individual variability and predictive tests; Radiosensibilite: variabilite individuelle et tests predictifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The radiosensitivity is a part of usual clinical observations. It is already included in the therapy protocols. however, some questions stay on its individual variability and on the difficulty to evaluate it. The point will be stocked on its origin and its usefulness in predictive medicine. Through examples on the use of predictive tests and ethical and legal questions that they raise, concrete cases will be presented by specialists such radio biologists, geneticists, immunologists, jurists and occupational physicians. (N.C.)

  6. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)


    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  7. Testing of the structural evaluation test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Bobbe, J.G.


    In the evaluation of the safety of radioactive material transportation it is important to consider the response of Type B packages to environments more severe than that prescribed by the hypothetical accident sequence in Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations (NRC 1995). The impact event in this sequence is a 9-meter drop onto an essentially unyielding target, resulting in an impact velocity of 13.4 m/s. The behavior of 9 packages when subjected to impacts more severe than this is not well known. It is the purpose of this program to evaluate the structural response of a test package to these environments. Several types of structural response are considered. Of primary importance is the behavior of the package containment boundary, including the bolted closure and 0-rings. Other areas of concern are loss of shielding capability due to lead slump and the deceleration loading of package contents, that may cause damage to them. This type of information is essential for conducting accurate risk assessments on the transportation of radioactive materials. Currently very conservative estimates of the loss of package protection are used in these assessments. This paper will summarize the results of a regulatory impact test and three extra-regulatory impact tests on a sample package

  8. Evaluation of Daily Living Activities of the Individuals with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Gümüş


    Full Text Available Objective: Osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most commonly seen joint diseases and chronic diseases. This research was conducted in order to evaluate daily living activities of the individuals who were diagnosed as OA. Materials and Methods: It is a descriptive research in which 200 individuals who were diagnosed as OA participated. A questionnaire form including personal descriptive information and patient’s knowledge about the disease, Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLs and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADLs were used as data collection tools. Data were statistically analyzed with descriptive statistics (numbers, means, standard deviation, median, percentages, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, Shapiro-Wilk Test, Kruskal-Wallis Variance Analysis, MannWhitney U Test, Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient and Spearman’s Correlation Analysis. Results: 95.0% and 71.0% of the individuals told that they were independent while performing ADLs and IADLs, respectively. It was found that individuals who were female, at 77-89 years old, single, illiterate, housewife, had a low income level, had the disease for more than 15 years, had joint deformity and with an accompanying disease with OA or had an idea that OA affected ADLs had lower ADLs score than other groups (p<0.05. Individuals who were single, at 77-89 years old, illiterate, had joint deformity or who defined that OA affected ADLs and who received help while performing ADLs had lower ADLs score than other groups (p<0.05. Conclusions: It was concluded that individuals with OA should be helped, they should be supported in OA adaptation and the negative effects of the disease should be controlled. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2014;20: 117-24

  9. Monitored Geologic Repository Test Evaluation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.B. Skorska


    The Monitored Geologic Repository test & evaluation program will specify tests, demonstrations, examinations, and analyses, and describe procedures to conduct and document testing necessary to verify meeting Monitored Geologic Repository requirements for a safe and effective geologic repository for radioactive waste. This test program will provide assurance that the repository is performing as designed, and that the barriers perform as expected; it will also develop supporting documentation to support the licensing process and to demonstrate compliance with codes, standards, and regulations. This comprehensive program addresses all aspects of verification from the development of test requirements to the performance of tests and reporting of the test results. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test & Evaluation Plan'' provides a detailed description of the test program approach necessary to achieve the above test program objectives. This test plan incorporates a set of test phases focused on ensuring repository safety and operational readiness and implements a project-wide integrated product management team approach to facilitate test program planning, analysis, and implementation. The following sections provide a description of the individual test phases, the methodology for test program planning and analyses, and the management approach for implementing these activities.

  10. An evaluation of the somatosensory profile of hemiparetic individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Mota


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the somatosensory profile of 18 hemiparetic spastic victims of stroke with and without blocking vision. Maximal isometric contraction test was used for flexor and extensor muscles of the hip and knee, and flexor plantar muscles. The number of cycles per minute on stationary bike was also measured with eyes opened and closed. Significant differences were found suggesting the existence of miscommunication between sensory-motor neural mechanisms responsible for voluntary motor actions in these individuals.

  11. Evaluering er andet end test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Poul


    samtale og iagttagelse i undervisningen vurderes meget højt og betydeligt højere end de nationale test. De former for evaluering, der tillægges størst betydning, indebærer dialog. Resultaterne viser derudover tydelige forskelle afhængig af skolekulturen på den enkelte skole....

  12. Evaluation of Some Allergic Mediators in Elderly Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, M.M.; Michael, M.I.


    Aging is a physiological process characterized by decreasing adaptation of the individual and accentuation of certain mechanisms e.g. arteriosclerotic plaque formation, oxidative stress and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate immuno senescence on some allergic mediators in healthy individuals. Twenty-four male volunteers arranged into three groups according to their age were participated in this study. After their permission, personal and family history, full clinical examination and several laboratory confirmatory tests were determined to assure their healthy condition. Forty-eight h later another blood specimen was withdrawn where, complete blood picture, total immunoglobulin E (IgE), interleukin-4 (IL4), interleukin-5 (IL5) and γ-interferon (γ-INF) were estimated. Regarding the allergic mediators estimated in the present study, the third geriatric group had relative eosinophilia, positive correlation between IgE and γ-INF and high significant decrease in IgE and IL5. These results led to the conclusion that the immuno senescence in this group of individuals did not lead to any allergic related conditions and the impairment of functions associated with aged immune response most probably had no role on the prevalence of allergic disease in elderly individuals.

  13. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan (United States)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence


    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  14. Analysis of Individual "Test Of Astronomy STandards" (TOAST) Item Responses (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon Price; Stork, Debra J.


    The development of valid and reliable strategies to efficiently determine the knowledge landscape of introductory astronomy college students is an effort of great interest to the astronomy education community. This study examines individual item response rates from a widely used conceptual understanding survey, the Test Of Astronomy Standards…

  15. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.


    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  16. Individual model evaluation and probabilistic weighting of models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.


    This note stresses the importance of trying to assess the accuracy of each model individually. Putting a Bayesian probability distribution on a population of models faces conceptual and practical complications, and apparently can come only after the work of evaluating the individual models. Moreover, the primary issue is open-quotes How good is this modelclose quotes? Therefore, the individual evaluations are first in both chronology and importance. They are not easy, but some ideas are given here on how to perform them

  17. Evaluating the RELM Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Sachs


    Full Text Available We consider implications of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM test results with regard to earthquake forecasting. Prospective forecasts were solicited for M≥4.95 earthquakes in California during the period 2006–2010. During this period 31 earthquakes occurred in the test region with M≥4.95. We consider five forecasts that were submitted for the test. We compare the forecasts utilizing forecast verification methodology developed in the atmospheric sciences, specifically for tornadoes. We utilize a “skill score” based on the forecast scores λfi of occurrence of the test earthquakes. A perfect forecast would have λfi=1, and a random (no skill forecast would have λfi=2.86×10-3. The best forecasts (largest value of λfi for the 31 earthquakes had values of λfi=1.24×10-1 to λfi=5.49×10-3. The best mean forecast for all earthquakes was λ̅f=2.84×10-2. The best forecasts are about an order of magnitude better than random forecasts. We discuss the earthquakes, the forecasts, and alternative methods of evaluation of the performance of RELM forecasts. We also discuss the relative merits of alarm-based versus probability-based forecasts.

  18. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies. (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J


    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  19. [Vestibular testing abnormalities in individuals with motion sickness]. (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Ou, Yongkang; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Yiqing


    To evaluate the vestibular function of motion sickness. VNG, which tests the vestibular function of horizontal semicircular canal, and CPT, which tests vestibulospinal reflex and judge proprioceptive, visual and vestibular status, were performed in 30 motion sickness patients and 20 healthy volunteers (control group). Graybiel score was recorded at the same time. Two groups' Graybiel score (12.67 +/- 11.78 vs 2.10 +/- 6.23; rank test P<0.05), caloric test labyrinth value [(19.02 +/- 8.59) degrees/s vs (13.58 +/- 5.25) degrees/s; t test P<0.05], caloric test labyrinth value of three patients in motion sickness group exceeded 75 degrees/s. In computerized posturography testing (CPT), motion sickness patients were central type (66.7%) and disperse type (23.3%); all of control group were central type. There was statistical significance in two groups' CTP area, and motion sickness group was obviously higher than control group. While stimulating vestibulum in CPT, there was abnormality (35%-50%) in motion sickness group and none in control group. Generally evaluating CPT, there was only 2 proprioceptive hypofunction, 3 visual hypofunction, and no vestibular hypofunction, but none hypofunction in control group. Motion sickness patients have high vestibular susceptible, some with vestibular hyperfunction. In posturography, a large number of motion sickness patients are central type but no vestibular hypofunction, but it is hard to keep balance when stimulating vestibulum.

  20. Physicians' subjectivity in evaluating oxytocin challenge tests. (United States)

    Peck, T M


    Five physicians subspecializing in maternal-fetal medicine individually evaluated 50 oxytocin challenge tests (OCTs), of which 33 were originally read as positive. There was considerable disagreement among the study physicians (SPs) such that 2 SPs would agree, on the average, only 52% of the time on any one OCT. The SPs were also asked to evaluate fetal heart rate (FHR) reactivity patterns, if present. Again, there was great disagreement. When the majority (3 of 5 or more) of SPs agreed on the OCT result and/or reactivity, there was reasonable correlation with neonatal outcome, indicating the validity of the physiologic premise of the test. In particular, the presence or absence of FHR accelerations with fetal motion, regardless of the OCT reading, correlated extremely well with eventual neonatal outcome. This indicates that the most significant variable in antepartum FHR monitoring is the FHR acceleration pattern.

  1. Acoustic displacement triangle based on the individual element test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Correa

    Full Text Available A three node -displacement based- acoustic element is developed. In order to avoid spurious rotational modes, a higher order stiffness is introduced. This higher order stiffness is developed from an incompatible strain field which computes element volume changes under nodal rotational displacements fields. The higher order strain resulting from the incompatible strain field satisfies the Individual Element Test (IET requirements without affecting convergence. The higher order stiffness is modulated, element by element, with a factor. As a result, the displacement based formulation presented on this paper is capable of placing the spurious rotational modes above the range of the physical compressional modes that can be accurately calculated by the mesh.

  2. External exposure estimates for individuals near the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.W.; Smale, R.F.


    Individuals living near the Nevada Test Site were exposed to both beta and gamma radiations from fission products and activation products resulting from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. These exposures were functions of the amount of material deposited, the time of arrival of the debris, and the amount of shielding afforded by structures. Results are presented for each of nine generic life styles. These are representative of the living patterns of the people residing in the area. For each event at each location for which data exist, a representative of each life style was closely followed for a period of thirty days. The results of these detailed calculations are then extrapolated to the present. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Inter- and intra-tester reliability of sensibility testing in healthy individuals. (United States)

    Bulut, Tugrul; Tahta, Mesut; Sener, Ufuk; Sener, Muhittin


    Static two-point discrimination (S2PD) and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM) tests are the most widely used tests for evaluation of sensory deterioration. It is a necessity to know the inter- and intra-tester reliability of these tests to determine the suitability of method. Another important point in evaluation of sensory deterioration is whether or not there is a reference point which can be compared with the test results. So, it is important to know the reliability of sensory evaluation tests on the healthy extremities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-tester reliability of the S2PD and SWM tests applied to the fingers of healthy individuals. One hundred and sixty three healthy fingers from 83 individuals were included into the study. An experienced orthopaedic surgeon and a physiotherapist examined all the individuals separately. The reliability of the S2PD test was found to be little and low. The reliability of the SWM test was determined as low and moderate. The reproducibility scores of both tests were at a poor level. Therefore, in the evaluation of states with sensory deterioration, the use of the healthy contralateral extremities as a standard reference point could be considered unreliable. Prognosis, grading or follow-up of treatment should not be made according to the results of the S2PD and SWM tests only. It would be more correct to use these tests as a diagnostic tool rather than quantitative follow-up for neurological function in pathological conditions.

  4. The Evaluator Effect in Usability Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.


    Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four...... videotaped usability test sessions. Only 20% of the 93 unique problems were detected by all four evaluators and 46% were detected by only a single evaluator. Severe problems were detected more often by all four evaluators (41%) and less often by only one evaluator (22%) but a substantial evaluator effect...

  5. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.


    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach

  6. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' TOOLE, S.M.


    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  7. Assessment of Dementia in Individuals with Dual Sensory Loss: Application of a Tactile Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bruhn


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Individuals with dual sensory loss (DSL are more likely to experience cognitive decline with age than individuals without sensory loss. Other studies have pointed to the challenges in assessing cognitive abilities in individuals with DSL, as most existing instruments rely on use of vision and hearing. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Tactile Test Battery (TTB for cognitive assessment in individuals with DSL. Method: Twenty elderly individuals with DSL, 20 with diagnosed dementia, and 20 without dementia or DSL (controls completed the following tactile tests developed for the present study: Spatial learning, Spatial recall, Tactile form board, Clock reading, and Naming. The participants with dementia and controls also completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results: Overall, participants with dementia performed significantly worse on the tactile tests than participants with DSL and control participants. No significant differences on the tactile tests were found between participants with DSL and controls. The TTB and MMSE scores correlated significantly. Conclusion: The findings from this study of applying tactile tests for cognitive examination in individuals with DSL are promising. They indicate that symptoms of dementia can be differentiated from symptoms related to DSL.

  8. Emotion perception and empathy: An individual differences test of relations. (United States)

    Olderbak, Sally; Wilhelm, Oliver


    Numerous theories posit a positive relation between perceiving emotion expressed in the face of a stranger (emotion perception) and feeling or cognitively understanding the emotion of that person (affective and cognitive empathy, respectively). However, when relating individual differences in emotion perception with individual differences in affective or cognitive empathy, effect sizes are contradictory, but often not significantly different from zero. Based on 4 studies (study ns range from 97 to 486 persons; n total = 958) that differ from one another on many design and sample characteristics, applying advanced modeling techniques to control for measurement error, we estimate relations between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and emotion perception. Relations are tested separately for each of the 6 basic emotions (an emotion-specific model) as well as across all emotions (an emotion-general model). Reflecting the literature, effect sizes and statistical significance with an emotion-general model vary across the individual studies (rs range from -.001 to .24 for emotion perception with affective empathy and -.01 to .39 for emotion perception with cognitive empathy), with a meta-analysis of these results indicating emotion perception is weakly related with affective (r = .13, p = .003) and cognitive empathy (r = .13, p = .05). Relations are not strengthened in an emotion-specific model. We argue that the weak effect sizes and inconsistency across studies reflects a neglected distinction of measurement approach-specifically, empathy is assessed as typical behavior and emotion perception is assessed as maximal effort-and conclude with considerations regarding the measurement of each construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Problems in the context evaluation of individualized courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, T.; van der Meer, A.W.J.


    From 1970 to 1974 an Individualized Study System (ISS) for mathematics courses for first year engineering students was developed. Because of changes in the curriculum, new courses had to be developed from August 1974. The context evaluation of these new courses (ISS-calculus) consisted mainly of the

  10. Repeat HIV Testing and Incident Rates among Individuals Attending Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinics in Wuxi, China: A Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Meng, Xiao Jun; Grulich, Andrew; Wang, Xu Wen; Yin, Han Lu; Gu, Jing; Zhang, Xuan; Gu, Jing; Zou, Hua Chun


    We aimed to elucidate the rates of repeat HIV testing and incident HIV diagnosis, and baseline CD4+ T cell count among individuals attending HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clinics in Wuxi, China. A repeat HIV testing within 12 months was recorded if individuals had their first test with negative results, during 2013-2014 and retested within 12 months. An incident HIV diagnosis was recorded if individuals had their first test with negative results, during 2013-2015 and had a subsequent positive result at any point by the end of 2015. Data on HIV testing and diagnosis among individuals attending 32 VCT clinics from 2013 to 2015 and HIV diagnosis from other clinical services in Wuxi, China, were retrieved. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze factors associated with repeat HIV testing. Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with incident HIV diagnosis. From 2013 to 2014, 11,504 individuals tested HIV negative at their first recorded test, with 655 (5.7%) retesting within 12 months. Higher repeat HIV testing within 12 months was associated with male gender [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-2.2], risk behaviors [commercial heterosexual behaviors (aOR = 1.4, CI: 1.1-1.6), male-male sexual behaviors (aOR = 3.7, CI: 2.7-4.9)], injection drug use (aOR = 9.9, CI: 6.5-15.1), and having taken HIV tests previously (aOR = 2.0, CI: 1.6-2.4). From 2013 to 2015, 1,088 individuals tested negative on HIV test at their visit and at ⋝ 2 subsequent tests; of them 30 had incident HIV diagnosis. The overall rate of incident HIV diagnosis among all VCT individuals was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.1) per 100 person-years. Incident HIV diagnosis was associated with male gender [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 8.5, 95% CI: 1.9-38.1], attending hospital-based VCT clinics (aHR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.1-58.3), and male-male sexual behavior (aHR = 8.4, 95% CI: 1.5-46.7). Individuals diagnosed at VCT clinics had higher CD4+ T

  11. Evaluation of the World Health Organisation' antibody-testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the World Health Organisation. (WHO) antibody testing strategy for the individual patient diagnosis of HIV infection (strategy Ill). Design. Evaluation of a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELlSAs) for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. The WHO strategy.

  12. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  13. Test and Evaluation Management Guide, Fifth Edition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claxton, John D; Cavoli, Christina; Johnson, Collie


    This January 2005 update to the Defense Acquisition University's "Test and Evaluation Management Guide" includes updates from the Military Services, Defense Agencies, and other organizations, as well...

  14. Joint Test and Evaluation Procedures Manual. (United States)


    discipline needed to keep individual staff members from the natural tendency to procrastinate when the test is still a "long way off." Fourth, they...concept is not fully developed, it embodies useful notions. In adaptive testing, change is planned for in advance. Specifically, the test matrix matrix can be modified, as appropriate, early during the test sequence to provide more useful data for the final analysis of the system undergoing

  15. The role of test-retest reliability in measuring individual and group differences in executive functioning. (United States)

    Paap, Kenneth R; Sawi, Oliver


    Studies testing for individual or group differences in executive functioning can be compromised by unknown test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliabilities across an interval of about one week were obtained from performance in the antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching tasks. There is a general trade-off between the greater reliability of single mean RT measures, and the greater process purity of measures based on contrasts between mean RTs in two conditions. The individual differences in RT model recently developed by Miller and Ulrich was used to evaluate the trade-off. Test-retest reliability was statistically significant for 11 of the 12 measures, but was of moderate size, at best, for the difference scores. The test-retest reliabilities for the Simon and flanker interference scores were lower than those for switching costs. Standard practice evaluates the reliability of executive-functioning measures using split-half methods based on data obtained in a single day. Our test-retest measures of reliability are lower, especially for difference scores. These reliability measures must also take into account possible day effects that classical test theory assumes do not occur. Measures based on single mean RTs tend to have acceptable levels of reliability and convergent validity, but are "impure" measures of specific executive functions. The individual differences in RT model shows that the impurity problem is worse than typically assumed. However, the "purer" measures based on difference scores have low convergent validity that is partly caused by deficiencies in test-retest reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Proposal and validation of a clinical trunk control test in individuals with spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Quinzaños, J; Villa, A R; Flores, A A; Pérez, R


    One of the problems that arise in spinal cord injury (SCI) is alteration in trunk control. Despite the need for standardized scales, these do not exist for evaluating trunk control in SCI. To propose and validate a trunk control test in individuals with SCI. National Institute of Rehabilitation, Mexico. The test was developed and later evaluated for reliability and criteria, content, and construct validity. We carried out 531 tests on 177 patients and found high inter- and intra-rater reliability. In terms of criterion validity, analysis of variance demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the test score of patients with adequate or inadequate trunk control according to the assessment of a group of experts. A receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted for optimizing the instrument's cutoff point, which was determined at 13 points, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 92.2%. With regard to construct validity, the correlation between the proposed test and the spinal cord independence measure (SCIM) was 0.873 (P=0.001) and that with the evolution time was 0.437 (P=0.001). For testing the hypothesis with qualitative variables, the Kruskal-Wallis test was performed, which resulted in a statistically significant difference between the scores in the proposed scale of each group defined by these variables. It was proven experimentally that the proposed trunk control test is valid and reliable. Furthermore, the test can be used for all patients with SCI despite the type and level of injury.

  17. Role of diagnostic tests in esophageal evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, B.D.; Pope, C.E. II


    In the evaluation of esophageal disease, the appropriate question must be asked before the correct tests can be selected. Reflux can be demonstrated by radiologic methods, pH testing or radioisotopic techniques. Esophageal mucosal damage is best evaluated by x-ray, endoscopy, or biopsy. Chest pain is demonstrated by acid infusion or by manometry. Two algorithms are presented for the evaluation of chest pain and reflux symptoms

  18. Individual Charts and Additional Tests for Changes in Spread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, A.; Wieringa, J.E.


    Abstract A number of authors have indicated that it is not a good idea to use the MR-chart with an individuals chart to detect shifts in the spread. However, the combination of these charts is still used in practice and even presented as `best practice' in some cases. In addition, some more recent

  19. Individuals charts and additional tests for changes in spread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, A.; Wieringa, J.E.

    A number of authors have indicated that it is not a good idea to use the moving range chart (MR-chart) with all individuals chart to detect shifts in the spread. However, the combination of these charts is still used in practice and even presented as 'best practice' in some cases. In addition, some

  20. Fragrance allergy could be missed without patch testing with 26 individual fragrance allergens. (United States)

    Vejanurug, Patnapa; Tresukosol, Poohglin; Sajjachareonpong, Praneet; Puangpet, Pailin


    In 2003, the EU Cosmetics Directive stated that 26 fragrance substances must be listed on the cosmetic product ingredient labels. Not all of these 26 fragrance substances are detected by the usual screening markers comprising fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, and Myroxylon pereirae. To evaluate the usefulness of testing with the 26 individual fragrance substances in addition to the standard fragrance screening markers. Three hundred and twelve consecutive patients were patch tested with our baseline series and the 26 specific fragrance substances required to be declared on cosmetic product ingredient labels in accordance with the EU Cosmetics Directive. Positive reactions to at least either one of the 26 individual fragrance substances or the usual fragrance screening markers were seen in 84 of 312 patients (26.9%). Fifteen of these 84 patients (17.8%) reacted negatively to the fragrance screening markers. The most common individual fragrance allergens were cinnamyl alcohol (11.2%), cinnamal (9%), and hydroxycitronellal (3.8%). Sixty-two of 312 patients (19.8%) had at least one positive reaction to the fragrance screening markers. Additional patch testing with the 26 individual fragrance allergens, or with the commonest fragrance allergens identified within these 26, should be performed to optimize the detection of fragrance allergy. Cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamal are important fragrance allergens in Thailand. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Risk effectiveness evaluation of surveillance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Martorell, S.; Vesely, W.E.


    To address the concerns about nuclear power plant surveillance tests, i.e., their adverse safety impact due to negative effects and too burdensome requirements, it is necessary to evaluate the safety significance or risk effectiveness of such tests explicitly considering both negative and positive effects. This paper defines the negative effects of surveillance testing from a risk perspective, and then presents a methodology to quantify the negative risk impact, i.e., the risk penalty or risk increase caused by the test. The method focuses on two important kinds of negative effects, namely, test-caused transients and test-caused equipment degradations. The concepts and quantitative methods for the risk evaluation can be used in the decision-making process to establish the safety significance of the tests and to screen the plant-specific surveillance test requirements. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Develop and Implement Operational Ground Testing Protocols to Individualize Astronaut Sleep Medication Efficacy and Individual Effects (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The study protocol was successfully pilot tested with N=7 subjects (6 NASA flight surgeons and 1 Behavioral Health and Performance element Operations professional)...

  3. The Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky


    Full Text Available Diagnostic tests should receive method- and use-effectiveness evaluations. Method-effectiveness evaluations determine sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for new tests. Use-effectiveness evaluations determine how practical or convenient a new test will be in a specific setting and may not be performed in a formal way in North American laboratories. To perform a clinical method evaluation of diagnostic tests, a good relationship between laboratory and clinical personnel is essential. Studies are usually conducted separately on populations of men and women, and should include sampling from different prevalence groups. Test performance comparisons may be made on a single specimen type or on more than one specimen from the same patient, which allows for the expansion of a reference standard and includes the ability of a particular assay, performed on a specimen type to diagnose an infected individual. The following components of the evaluation should be standardized and carefully followed: specimen identification; collection; transportation; processing; quality control; reading; proficiency testing; confirmatory testing; discordant analysis -- sensitivity, specificity and predictive value calculations; and record keeping. Methods are available to determine whether sample results are true or false positives or negatives. Use-effectiveness evaluations might determine the stability or durability of supplies and equipment; the logistics of shipping, receiving and storing supplies; the clarity and completeness of test instructions; the time and effort required to process and read results; the subjectivity factors in interpretation and reporting; and the costs. These determinations are usually more apparent for commercial assays than for homemade tests.

  4. Evaluation of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Infection of individual is through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. This study evaluated the performance of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in diagnosing malaria. A total of 400 clinically suspected malaria ...

  5. Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John


    The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

  6. Evaluating a Bayesian approach to improve accuracy of individual photographic identification methods using ecological distribution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stafford


    Full Text Available Photographic identification of individual organisms can be possible from natural body markings. Data from photo-ID can be used to estimate important ecological and conservation metrics such as population sizes, home ranges or territories. However, poor quality photographs or less well-studied individuals can result in a non-unique ID, potentially confounding several similar looking individuals. Here we present a Bayesian approach that uses known data about previous sightings of individuals at specific sites as priors to help assess the problems of obtaining a non-unique ID. Using a simulation of individuals with different confidence of correct ID we evaluate the accuracy of Bayesian modified (posterior probabilities. However, in most cases, the accuracy of identification decreases. Although this technique is unsuccessful, it does demonstrate the importance of computer simulations in testing such hypotheses in ecology.

  7. Direct, Operational Field Test Evaluation, Institutional Issues (United States)



  8. Logistics Test and Evaluation: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... A vigorous logistics test and evaluation process is essential to ferret out these potential problems, and make sure that when fielded a system is supportable, maintainable, safe, survivable, and transportable...

  9. Evaluation of attitudes of university students for handicapped individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Zekiye


    Full Text Available Education has an important role in humans’ behaviours. Undergraduate education has headed among factors that influence maturation period before vocational lifes of individuals. The purpose of this study is to determine whether attitudes of university students for handicapped individuals differ according to some variables. This study which was carried out in screening model was done with 1167 people including 646 females 521 males who maintain their education at faculties taking initial teacher training in 2016 spring term at Yuzuncu Yil University. As data collection tool, Attitude Scale for Being Educated of Handicapped Individuals and Personal Information Form, which was developed by Kosterilioglu [12], was used. As statistical method, Duncan’s multiple range test was used in determining different groups following one-wat analysis of variance. Among these variables, pearson coefficients of correlation were calculated separately in groups in determining relation. In determining relationship between groups and categorical variables , chi square test was used. In calculations, value of p was taken as 0,05 and SPSS statistic program was used for calculations. While point average of attitudes of male students , who maintain their educations at Yuzuncu Yil University, for handicapped people was ascertained as 54.27±23.54, point average of attitudes of female students was determined as 55.86±26.34. A significant difference between male and female students according to gender variable was not seen in attitudes for being educated of handicapped individuals (P>0,05. It was observed that attitudes for being educated of handicapped individuals in starting and end of undergraduate term were higher than intermediate classes (P<0,01. Although a significant difference in kind of high schools from which students graduated was not seen, attitudes of graduates from science and sport high schools were found higher than graduates from other high schools

  10. A structured approach to individual plant evaluation and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopp, G.T.


    The current requirements for the performance of individual plant evaluations (IPE's) include the derivation of accident management insights as and if they occur in the course of finalizing an IPE. The development of formal, structured accident management programs is, however, explicitly excluded from current IPE requirements. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is following the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) efforts to establish the framework(s) for accident management program development and plants to issue requirements on such development at a later date. The Commonwealth Edison program consists of comprehensive level 2 PRA's which address the requirements for IPE's and which go beyond those requirements. From the start of the IPE efforts, it was firmly held, within Edison, that the best way to fully and economically extract a viable accident management program from an IPE was to integrate the two efforts from the start and include the accident management program development as a required IPE product

  11. Language screening for preschool children: Individual or group testing?


    Olujić, Marina; Kuvač Kraljević, Jelena; Hržica, Gordana; Srebačić, Ivana; Matić, Ana; Kologranić Belić, Lana; Padovan, Nevena; Peretić, Maja


    Early language development is a complex process that occurs alongside a number of other processes, including physical and cognitive development and socialization. The complexity of childhood as a developmental period can contribute to various deviations from the established norms in language development. The use of screening tests is a standard procedure in the early detection of clinical problems, including difficulties in language development. At present, there are no standardized instrumen...

  12. The Operational Testing Effectiveness Evaluation Method (United States)


    objective evaluation method. 3 CHAPTER TWO HISTORICAL OT&E: A RESTLESS SEARCH We regard the creation of the testing and eva ]uation group as of the utmost...supervise it? Tracing the organiza- tional development of operational testing leads through a bewildering maze of command and staff structures. This chapter

  13. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.


    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment

  14. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.


    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

  15. Core Self-Evaluations and Individual Strategies of Coping with Unemployment among Displaced Spanish Workers. (United States)

    Virkes, Tihana; Maslić Seršić, Darja; Lopez-Zafra, Esther


    Unemployment has negative but also positive effects on mental health and general well-being depending on which coping strategies the individual use. Our aim was to determine the contribution of core self-evaluations in explaining the coping strategies of job search and job devaluation, as well as to test the potential moderation effect of job search and mediation effect of job devaluation on the relationship between self core-evaluations and both positive and negative experience of unemployment. One hundred seventy-eight individuals who lost their jobs involuntarily for a longer period than one month completed a questionnaire while attending to employment office. Results show that there is a significant relation between core-self evaluations and job devaluation (.37**). Furthermore, core-self evaluations were positively related to positive experience of unemployment (r = .31; p core evaluations predicted both coping with unemployment strategies (job devaluation; β = .26; p core self-evaluations and experience of unemployment. But, individuals with a longer duration of the current period of unemployment and higher core self-evaluations had a more positive experience of unemployment, and job devaluation partially mediated this relation (SE = .002; p = .038). These results imply that programs interventions should include the improvement of core self-evaluations and the positive experience of unemployed people.

  16. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J


    carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under physiological...... circumstances, and it may be used for studies in children and for field studies. Compared to classical tolerance tests the hydrogen breath test is more sensitive. It is concluded that the hydrogen breath test is a useful tool for investigations of dietary carbohydrates....

  17. Testing of outstanding individuals of Thlaspi caerulescens for cadmium phytoextraction. (United States)

    Schwartz, Christophe; Sirguey, Catherine; Peronny, Sylvie; Reeves, Roger D; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Morel, Jean Louis


    Thlaspi caerulescens is known to hyperaccumulate high quantities of Cd with Cd concentrations up to 3000 mg kg(-1) in some populations from south of France. However, within these populations, the Cd concentrations can vary widely from plant to plant in a way that appears to be not entirely due to variations in soil Cd. The aim of this work was to investigate the variability in the Cd uptake ability of individual plants within a population and among seedlings grown from seeds from a single plant. Ten populations of T. caerulescens plants were selected from four locations (V: Viviez; SF: Saint Félix-de-Pallières; LB: Le Bleymard; CMA: Col du Mas de l'Air) depending of the extent and soil homogeneity of the site. One population from CMA consisted of the progeny of a single maternal plant. Hundred plants of each population were grown for three months in the same homogeneous and lightly Cd-polluted soil (about 20 mg total Cd kg(-1) dry soil). Cadmium uptake behavior of the plants was monitored by labeling the soil with 109Cd. To allow partial plant destruction, radioanalysis was performed on the largest leaf of each plant as an indicator of the total Cd concentration in plant shoots. Results showed significant differences in biomass production and Cd uptake by T. caerulescens between sites and between populations within sites. We observed a wide intra-population variation in biomass, Cd concentration and total Cd uptake. For these properties, 1 to 5 percents of the plants in each population varied by more than a factor of two from the mean values. The mean Cd uptake by the single-plant population from CMA was more than 40% higher than for the population at large. T. caerulescens would respond to traditional selection methods, which would significantly improve the phytoextraction of Cd.

  18. Comparison of classical test theory and item response theory in individual change assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabrayilov, R.; Emons, W.H.M.; Sijtsma, K.


    Clinical psychologists are advised to assess clinical and statistical significance when assessing change in individual patients. Individual change assessment can be conducted using either the methodologies of classical test theory (CTT) or item response theory (IRT). Researchers have been optimistic

  19. Comparison of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory in Individual Change Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabrayilov, Ruslan; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas


    Clinical psychologists are advised to assess clinical and statistical significance when assessing change in individual patients. Individual change assessment can be conducted using either the methodologies of classical test theory (CTT) or item response theory (IRT). Researchers have been optimistic

  20. Proficiency Testing for Evaluating Aerospace Materials Test Anomalies (United States)

    Hirsch, D.; Motto, S.; Peyton, S.; Beeson, H.


    ASTM G 86 and ASTM G 74 are commonly used to evaluate materials susceptibility to ignition in liquid and gaseous oxygen systems. However, the methods have been known for their lack of repeatability. The inherent problems identified with the test logic would either not allow precise identification or the magnitude of problems related to running the tests, such as lack of consistency of systems performance, lack of adherence to procedures, etc. Excessive variability leads to increasing instances of accepting the null hypothesis erroneously, and so to the false logical deduction that problems are nonexistent when they really do exist. This paper attempts to develop and recommend an approach that could lead to increased accuracy in problem diagnostics by using the 50% reactivity point, which has been shown to be more repeatable. The initial tests conducted indicate that PTFE and Viton A (for pneumatic impact) and Buna S (for mechanical impact) would be good choices for additional testing and consideration for inter-laboratory evaluations. The approach presented could also be used to evaluate variable effects with increased confidence and tolerance optimization.


    Sharma, Susmeeta T


    Cushing syndrome (CS) is caused by chronic exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Early recognition and treatment of hypercortisolemia can lead to decreased morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of CS and thereafter, establishing the cause can often be difficult, especially in patients with mild and cyclic hypercortisolism. Surgical excision of the cause of excess glucocorticoids is the optimal treatment for CS. Medical therapy (steroidogenesis inhibitors, medications that decrease adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] levels or glucocorticoid antagonists) and pituitary radiotherapy may be needed as adjunctive treatment modalities in patients with residual, recurrent or metastatic disease, in preparation for surgery, or when surgery is contraindicated. A multidisciplinary team approach, individualized treatment plan and long-term follow-up are important for optimal management of hypercortisolemia and the comorbidities associated with CS. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone; BIPSS = bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling; CBG = corticosteroid-binding globulin; CD = Cushing disease; CRH = corticotropin-releasing hormone; CS = Cushing syndrome; Dex = dexamethasone; DST = dexamethasone suppression test; EAS = ectopic ACTH syndrome; FDA = U.S. Food & Drug Administration; HDDST = high-dose DST; IPS/P = inferior petrosal sinus to peripheral; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; NET = neuroendocrine tumor; PET = positron emission tomography; UFC = urinary free cortisol.

  2. The advanced test reactor strategic evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.


    Since the Chernobly accident, the safety of test reactors and irradiation facilities has been critically evaluated from the public's point of view. A systematic evaluation of all safety, environmental, and operational issues must be made in an integrated manner to prioritize actions to maximize benefits while minimizing costs. Such a proactive program has been initiated at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This program, called the Strategic Evaluation Program (STEP), is being conducted for the ATR to provide integrated safety and operational reviews of the reactor against the standards applied to licensed commercial power reactors. This has taken into consideration the lessons learned by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) and the follow-on effort known as the Integrated Safety Assessment Program (ISAP). The SEP was initiated by the NRC to review the designs of older operating nuclear power plants to confirm and document their safety. The ATR STEP objectives are discussed

  3. The Changing Age of Individuals Seeking Presymptomatic Genetic Testing for Huntington Disease. (United States)

    Holman, Melissa A; Quillin, John; York, Timothy P; Testa, Claudia M; Rosen, Ami R; Norris, Virginia W


    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Presymptomatic genetic testing allows at-risk individuals to clarify their risk status. Understanding the characteristics and motivations of individuals seeking HD presymptomatic genetic testing better equips genetic counselors and other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive and personalized care. The aims of this study were to (1) determine whether the average age when individuals seek presymptomatic HD genetic testing has decreased over time, (2) assess motivations for seeking testing, (3) explore whether there is a relationship between age and motivations, and (4) explore genetic counselors' perceptions of the shift in age. Data from the US HD testing centers (N = 4) were analyzed. A small but statistically significant decrease in age of individuals seeking presymptomatic testing was observed (p = 0.045). HD community members (N = 77) were surveyed regarding presymptomatic testing motivations. Younger individuals were more likely than older individuals to cite "To learn whether or not you would develop HD" and "To make choices about further education or a career" compared to older individuals (p age of testing. All of these respondents had provided HD testing for ten or more years and anecdotally believed the age at testing has decreased over time. Study results help providers personalize counseling based on patient's age and serve as a starting point for more research into the relationship between age at testing and motivations for testing.

  4. Accuracy of individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis of gambiense sleeping sickness in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jamonneau


    Full Text Available Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa.SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p ≤ 0.0003 to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7-99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%.The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance.

  5. Preparing Individuals to Communicate Genetic Test Results to Their Relatives: Report of a Randomized Control Trial (United States)

    Montgomery, Susan V.; Barsevick, Andrea M.; Egleston, Brian L.; Bingler, Ruth; Ruth, Karen; Miller, Suzanne M.; Malick, John; Cescon, Terrence P.; Daly, Mary B.


    Background This study reports a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of an intervention to prepare individuals to communicate BRCA1/BRCA2 results to family members. Methods Women aged 18 years and older, who had genetic testing, and who had adult first-degree relatives (FDRs), were randomly assigned to a communication skills-building intervention or a wellness control session. Primary outcomes were the percentage of probands sharing test results, and the level of distress associated with sharing. The ability of the Theory of Planned Behavior variables to predict the outcomes was explored. Results Four hundred twenty-two women were enrolled in the study, 219 (intervention) and 203 (control). Data from 137 in the intervention group and 112 in the control group were analyzed. Two hundred forty-nine probands shared test results with 838 relatives (80.1%). There were no significant differences between study groups in the primary outcomes. Combining data from both arms revealed that perceived control and specific social influence were associated with sharing. Probands were more likely to share genetic test results with their children, female relatives and relatives who they perceived had a favorable opinion about learning the results. Conclusion The communication skills intervention did not impact sharing of test results. The proband’s perception of her relative’s opinion of genetic testing and her sense of control in relaying this information influenced sharing. Communication of test results is selective, with male relatives and parents less likely to be informed. Impact Prevalent psychosocial factors play a role in the communication of genetic test results within families. PMID:23420550

  6. Individuality evaluation for paper based artifact-metrics using transmitted light image (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Manabu; Tanaka, Junichi; Furuie, Makoto; Hirabayashi, Masashi; Matsumoto, Tsutomu


    Artifact-metrics is an automated method of authenticating artifacts based on a measurable intrinsic characteristic. Intrinsic characters, such as microscopic random-patterns made during the manufacturing process, are very difficult to copy. A transmitted light image of the distribution can be used for artifact-metrics, since the fiber distribution of paper is random. Little is known about the individuality of the transmitted light image although it is an important requirement for intrinsic characteristic artifact-metrics. Measuring individuality requires that the intrinsic characteristic of each artifact significantly differs, so having sufficient individuality can make an artifact-metric system highly resistant to brute force attack. Here we investigate the influence of paper category, matching size of sample, and image-resolution on the individuality of a transmitted light image of paper through a matching test using those images. More concretely, we evaluate FMR/FNMR curves by calculating similarity scores with matches using correlation coefficients between pairs of scanner input images, and the individuality of paper by way of estimated EER with probabilistic measure through a matching method based on line segments, which can localize the influence of rotation gaps of a sample in the case of large matching size. As a result, we found that the transmitted light image of paper has a sufficient individuality.

  7. Predicting the probability of falls in community-dwelling elderly individuals using the trail-walking test. (United States)

    Yamada, Minoru; Ichihashi, Noriaki


    Falling is a common problem in the fast-growing elderly population. Multitasking or engaging in two or more activities at the same time is common in daily living. To determine the usefulness of the trail-walking test (TWT) for predicting a fall in community-dwelling elderly individuals. This was a prospective study in which the TWT was used to evaluate the risk of falling among a group of community-dwelling elderly individuals (n = 171) with a mean age of 80.5 ± 5.6 years. The following tests were conducted: TWT, trail-making test (TMT), timed-up-and-go test (TUG), functional reach (FR) test, one-leg standing (OLS) test, and 10-m walking time test. Test-retest reliability was assessed by repeating the TWT within 2 weeks of the first trial, and there was a 1-year follow-up. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to analyze whether the TWT, TMT, TUG, FR, OLS, or 10-m walking tests predicted falling. The test-retest reliability of TWT was high (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.945, p test of those evaluated for assessing the risk of fall among our elderly cohort.

  8. Individual performance evaluation of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN): a meta-evaluative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Leonardo Ferreira


    The present study is a summative meta-evaluation that had as objective to evaluate the quality of the process of evaluation of individual performance of the servers of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy, being guided by the scientific curiosity to know to what extent the evaluation of performance the National Commission for Nuclear Energy meets the quality standards disseminated by the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. The methodology chosen to be used was based on the management approach and had as a guiding principle of the study the elaboration of a framework of criteria considering the aforementioned standards. The criteria established in the criteria framework guided the preparation of the items of the questionnaire sent to the National Commission of Nuclear Energy servers. In addition to the questionnaire, the observation of this author was considered in the context where the phenomenon occurred, which allowed a better reflective analysis of the data collected by the questionnaire. Regarding the results, it can be inferred that the performance evaluation developed at the National Commission of Nuclear Energy can be considered of quality, highlighting the servers' trust for the data, the communication process of the program stages, the credibility of the evaluators, the process of negotiation of goals and adaptability of the instrument over the course of the cycle. However, there are some opportunities for improvement, considering the relevance of evaluation as a tool to improve the performance of the autarchy's servers. Among the points that need to be improved is that there is currently a lack of knowledge about the legal basis and justification of the process of evaluation process by the servers and the lack of clarity regarding the content of the final evaluation report. Among the recommendations of this study, one can consider as the most relevant the need to: disseminate the results of this meta-evaluation to the

  9. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D Chase

    Full Text Available The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders. Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  10. [Analysis of 14 individuals who requested predictive genetic testing for hereditary neuromuscular diseases]. (United States)

    Yoshida, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mariko; Kubota, Takeo; Kawame, Hiroshi; Amano, Naoji; Ikeda, Shu-ichi; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu


    Predictive genetic testing for hereditary neuromuscular diseases is a delicate issue for individuals at risk and their families, as well as for medical staff because these diseases are often late-onset and intractable. Therefore careful pre- and post-test genetic counseling and psychosocial support should be provided along with such genetic testing. The Division of Clinical and Molecular Genetics was established at our hospital in May 1996 to provide skilled professional genetic counseling. Since its establishment, 14 individuals have visited our clinic to request predictive genetic testing for hereditary neuromuscular diseases (4 for myotonic dystrophy, 6 for spinocerebellar ataxia, 3 for Huntington's disease, and 1 for Alzheimer's disease). The main reasons for considering testing were to remove uncertainty about the genetic status and to plan for the future. Nine of 14 individuals requested testing for making decisions about a forthcoming marriage or pregnancy (family planning). Other reasons raised by the individuals included career or financial planning, planning for their own health care, and knowing the risk for their children. At the first genetic counseling session, all of the individuals expressed hopes of not being a gene carrier and of escaping from fear of disease, and seemed not to be mentally well prepared for an increased-risk result. To date, 7 of the 14 individuals have received genetic testing and only one, who underwent predictive genetic testing for spinocerebellar ataxia, was given an increased-risk result. The seven individuals including the one with an increased-risk result, have coped well with their new knowledge about their genetic status after the testing results were disclosed. None of them has expressed regret. In pre-test genetic counseling sessions, we consider it quite important not only to determine the psychological status of the individual, but also to make the individual try to anticipate the changes in his/her life upon

  11. Planning and Logistics Issues raised by the Individual System Tests during the Installation of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, S; Foraz, K; Rodríguez-Mateos, F


    The running of individual system tests has to fit within tight constraints of the LHC installation planning and of CERN's accelerator activity in general. For instance, the short circuit tests of the power converters that are performed in-situ restrict the possibility to work in neighbouring areas; much in the same way, the cold tests of the cryogenic distribution line involve safety access restrictions that are not compatible with the transport and installation of cryo-magnets or interconnect activities in the sector considered. Still, these individual system tests correspond to milestones that are required to insure that we can continue with the installation of machine elements. This paper reviews the conditions required to perform the individual system tests and describe how the general LHC installation planning is organised to allocate periods for these tests.

  12. Applying and Individual-Based Model to Simultaneously Evaluate Net Ecosystem Production and Tree Diameter Increment (United States)

    Fang, F. J.


    Reconciling observations at fundamentally different scales is central in understanding the global carbon cycle. This study investigates a model-based melding of forest inventory data, remote-sensing data and micrometeorological-station data ("flux towers" estimating forest heat, CO2 and H2O fluxes). The individual tree-based model FORCCHN was used to evaluate the tree DBH increment and forest carbon fluxes. These are the first simultaneous simulations of the forest carbon budgets from flux towers and individual-tree growth estimates of forest carbon budgets using the continuous forest inventory data — under circumstances in which both predictions can be tested. Along with the global implications of such findings, this also improves the capacity for forest sustainable management and the comprehensive understanding of forest ecosystems. In forest ecology, diameter at breast height (DBH) of a tree significantly determines an individual tree's cross-sectional sapwood area, its biomass and carbon storage. Evaluation the annual DBH increment (ΔDBH) of an individual tree is central to understanding tree growth and forest ecology. Ecosystem Carbon flux is a consequence of key ecosystem processes in the forest-ecosystem carbon cycle, Gross and Net Primary Production (GPP and NPP, respectively) and Net Ecosystem Respiration (NEP). All of these closely relate with tree DBH changes and tree death. Despite advances in evaluating forest carbon fluxes with flux towers and forest inventories for individual tree ΔDBH, few current ecological models can simultaneously quantify and predict the tree ΔDBH and forest carbon flux.

  13. Evaluation of a New and Rapid Serologic Test for Detecting Brucellosis: Brucella Coombs Gel Test. (United States)

    Hanci, Hayrunisa; Igan, Hakan; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah


    Many serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. A new serological method is identified as Brucella Coombs gel test based on the principle of centrifugation gel system similar to the gel system used in blood group determination. In this system, if Brucella antibodies were present in the serum, antigen and antibody would remain as a pink complex on the gel. Otherwise, the pink Brucella antigens would precipitate at the bottom of the gel card system. In this study, we aimed to compare the Brucella Coombs gel test, a new, rapid screen and titration method for detection of non-agglutinating IgG with the Brucella Coombs test. For this study, a total of 88 serum samples were obtained from 45 healthy persons and 43 individuals who had clinical signs and symptoms of brucellosis. For each specimen, Rose Bengal test, standard agglutination test, Coombs test and Brucella Coombs gel test were carried out. Sensitivity and specificity of Brucella Coombs gel test were found as 100.0 and 82.2%, respectively. Brucella Coombs gel test can be used as a screening test with high sensitivity. By the help of pink Brucella antigen precipitation, the tests' evaluation is simple and objective. In addition, determination of Brucella antibody by rapid titration offers another important advantage.

  14. Aseismic structure evaluation tests on storage pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Seiichi; Fuke, Hikaru; Shimosaka, Shigeru; Kitamura, Katsuhide; Zako, Masaru.


    To evaluate the aseismic structural property of a storage pit for vitrified radioactive waste canisters, a full-scale model of the storage pit and canisters filled with dummy vitrified waste were subjected to seismic tests on the shaking table owned by the National Research Center for Disaster Prevention. Three storage pits were tested, all measuring 558.8 mm in diameterx6765 mm in height, of Sch. 40 structural steel plate but with longitudinal internal ribs of different sizes to leave different clearances between the pit and the canister. The dummy canisters, each measuring 430 mm in diameterx1345 mm in height and weighting 480 kg, were piled five high in the pit. The table was shaken in horizontal direction, applying as exciting wave (a) wave pulse, (b) sinusoidal waves in frequency sweep, (c) continuous single-frequency wave and (d) reproduced actual seismic waves. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max


    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient testing. This study addresses this issue by evaluating medical mycology OPT and comparing its fungal specimen identification error rates to those obtained in a covert (blinded) proficiency testing (CPT) program. Identifications from 188 laboratories participating in the New York State mycology OPT from 1982 to 1994 were compared with the identifications of the same fungi recovered from patient specimens in 1989 and 1994 as part of the routine procedures of 88 of these laboratories. The consistency in the identification of OPT specimens was sufficient to make accurate predictions of OPT error rates. However, while the error rates in OPT and CPT were similar for Candida albicans, significantly higher error rates were found in CPT for Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and other common pathogenic fungi. These differences may, in part, be due to OPT’s use of ideal organism representatives cultured under optimum growth conditions. This difference, as well as the organism-dependent error rate differences, reflects the limitations of OPT as a means of assessing the quality of routine laboratory performance in medical mycology. PMID:10364601

  16. Evaluation of frequency of positive exercise-induced bronchospasm between swimmers and sedentary individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laricy Martins da Mata

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Despite the prevalence of prescribed asthma, there is uncertainty about the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB. Objective: Compare the frequency of EIB between swimmers and sedentary individuals, and observe heart rate variability during bronchial activity. Methods: In total, 18 swimmers (group 1 and 18 sedentary individuals (group 2 were included. The participants rested for 30 minutes for evaluation of HRV. Blood pressure (PA, respiratory rate (RR, and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 were measured. The volunteers remained seated for the spirometry test (maneuver of forced vital capacity - FVC. This was repeated 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the exercise test. The statistical analysis used the Student t, Mann Whitney, and Shapiro-Wilks tests. The significance level was p <0.05. Results: The spirometry findings showed 3 sedentary individuals and 10 swimmers with obstructive ventilatory disorder (OVD. Only 2 of the sedentary and none of the swimmer group demonstrated positive bronchial provocation. A key criterion for diagnosing OVD, the relationship between forced expiratory volume in one second and FVC (FEV1/FVC, was statistically lower in the swimmer group. The measures of the root mean square of the successive differences between adjacent normal RR intervals, in a time interval (RMSSD, and the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals recorded in a time interval (SDNN were significantly higher among the athletes. Conclusion: The bronchial provocation test identified a higher prevalence of bronchospasm among sedentary individuals. However, there was a reduction in the FEV1/FVC ratio and higher HRV in the group of swimmers.

  17. A Second Year Evaluation of Individualized Prescribed Instruction (IPI). (United States)

    Bailek, Hilton M.; Castro, Barbra

    This evaluation report of IPI in its second year concentrates on three main points: student attitudes towards IPI, teacher and student classroom activity and interaction, and student achievement during the school year. An account of overall impressions concludes the report which does not attempt to formalize any conclusions. It stresses, however,…

  18. Cross-National Logo Evaluation Analysis: An Individual Level Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. van der Lans (Ralf); J.A. Cote (Joseph); C.A. Cole (Catherine); S.M. Leong (Siew Meng); A. Smidts (Ale); P.W. Henderson (Pamela); C. Bluemelhuber (Christian); P.A. Bottomley (Paul); J.R. Doyle (John); A.S. Fedorikhin (Alexander); M. Janakiraman (M.); B. Ramaseshan (Balasubramanian); B.H. Schmitt (Bernd)


    textabstractThe universality of design perception and response is tested using data collected from ten countries: Argentina, Australia, China, Germany, Great Britain, India, the Netherlands, Russia, Singapore, and the United States. A Bayesian, finite-mixture, structural-equation model is developed

  19. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hoble


    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  20. Normative values for the Timed 'Up and Go' test in children and adolescents and validation for individuals with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Nicolini-Panisson, Renata D'Agostini; Donadio, Márcio V F


    To determine normative values for the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in typically developing children and adolescents and to validate its use in individuals with Down syndrome. Participants in this cross-sectional study were South Brazilian schoolchildren aged 3 to 18 years. In phase 1, 459 typically developing individuals (227 males, 232 females; mean age 10 y 8 mo (SD 4 y 4 mo) were included; and in phase 2, 40 individuals with Down syndrome (16 males, 24 females; mean age 10 y 6 mo (SD 4 y 4 mo). Anthropometric measurements, real leg length, TUG test scores, and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) scores were evaluated. The association between the TUG test and possible predictive variables was analyzed. In phase 1, the mean time to perform the TUG test was 5.61 seconds (SD 1.06). Values were stratified in age groups that served as normative data for both sexes. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted and the best variables to predict TUG scores were age and weight. The best model obtained presented an R(2) of 0.25 and a standard error of the estimate of 0.92. Excellent intrasession reliability in the three tests performed (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.93, 0.94, and 0.95) and between the sessions (both with an ICC of 0.95) was demonstrated. In phase 2, the test also showed excellent reproducibility (ICC=0.82 between the two tests performed). The performance time was significantly longer (pnormative values for the TUG test and shows that TUG scores can be predicted as a function of age and weight in typically developing individuals. The test can also be used for assessment of functional mobility in individuals with Down syndrome. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Test and Validation of a Smart Exercise Bike for Motor Rehabilitation in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease (United States)

    Mohammadi-Abdar, Hassan; Ridgel, Angela L.; Discenzo, Fred M.; Phillips, Robert; Walter, Benjamin L.; Loparo, Kenneth A.


    To assess and validate the Smart Exercise Bike designed for Parkinson's Disease (PD) rehabilitation, forty-seven individuals with PD were randomly assigned to either the static or dynamic cycling group, and completed three sessions of exercise. Heart rate, cadence and power data were captured and recorded for each patient during exercise. Motor function for each subject was assessed with the UPDRS Motor III test before and after the three exercise sessions to evaluate the effect of exercise on functional abilities. Individuals who completed three sessions of dynamic cycling showed an average of 13.8% improvement in the UPDRS, while individuals in the static cycling group worsened by 1.6% in UPDRS. To distinguish the static and dynamic cycling groups by biomechanical and physiological features, the complexity of the recorded signals (cadence, power, and heart rate) was examined using approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SaEn) and spectral entropy (SpEn) as measures of variability. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model was used to relate these features to changes in motor function as measured by the UPDRS Motor III scale. Pattern variability in cadence was greater in the dynamic group when compared to the static group. In contrast, variability in power was greater for the static group. UPDRS Motor III scores predicted from the pattern variability data were correlated to measured scores in both groups. These results support our previous study which explained how variability analysis results for biomechanical and physiological parameters of exercise can be used to predict improvements in motor function. PMID:27046905

  2. Quantitative evaluation of risks for individuals in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, T.A.; Tateno, Yukio; Hashizume, Tadashi


    A method to estimate quantitatively risks of individual patients due to exposure to diagnostic radiation (carcinogenetic and genetic effects of radiation) was proposed on the basis of ICRP-26. Carcinogenetic effect of radiation was calculated by multiplying mean dose equivalent for each organ per each radiological examination by shortening of average life-expectancy which was calculated from incidence of fetal carcinoma of each organ, latent period of carcinoma, and incidence period of carcinoma. Genetic effect of radiation was calculated by multiplying mean dose equivalent for gonad per each radiological examination by incidence of genetically severe radiation damages due to parent's exposure and child expectancy rate. Three examples were shown on calculations of risks in the photofluorographic examinations of the stomach and chest, and mammography. The same method of calculation could be applied to the in-vivo nuclear medicine examinations. Further investigation was required to calculate the risks quantitatively for various types of diagnostic procedures using radiation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. The diagnostic testing as means of exposure of students' individual peculiarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Михайловна Жаворонкова


    Full Text Available In this article they offer a test methodology of the investigation of students' intellectual and creative abilities. There is a test of different types of tasks verbal not verbal and numerical. A strong attention is paid to the necessity to take into consideration all the individual peculiarities during the learning process.

  4. Evaluating Genetic Counseling for Family Members of Individuals With Schizophrenia in the Molecular Age (United States)

    Bassett, Anne S.


    Background: Myths and concerns about the extent and meaning of genetic risk in schizophrenia may contribute to significant stigma and burden for families. Genetic counseling has long been proposed to be a potentially informative and therapeutic intervention for schizophrenia. Surprisingly, however, available data are limited. We evaluated a contemporary genetic counseling protocol for use in a community mental health-care setting by non–genetics professionals. Methods: We used a pre-post study design with longitudinal follow-up to assess the impact of genetic counseling on family members of individuals with schizophrenia, where molecular testing had revealed no known clinically relevant genetic risk variant. We assessed the outcome using multiple measures, including standard items and scales used to evaluate genetic counseling for other complex diseases. Results: Of the 122 family members approached, 78 (63.9%) actively expressed an interest in the study. Participants (n = 52) on average overestimated the risk of familial recurrence at baseline, and demonstrated a significant improvement in this estimate postintervention (P genetic counseling was high (96.1%). Conclusions: These results provide initial evidence of the efficacy of schizophrenia genetic counseling for families, even in the absence of individually relevant genetic test results or professional genetics services. The findings support the integration of contemporary genetic counseling for families into the general management of schizophrenia in the community. PMID:23104866

  5. Laser doppler flowmetry evaluation as a pulpal vitality test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduardo, Flavia Tavares de Oliveira de Paula


    The more frequently used pulp vitality tests (PVTs) are the thermal (cold and heat) and the electrical stimulus. These tests are, however, subjective, depending on the sensitivity threshold of each individual, and usually fail when immature or recently traumatised teeth are tested. The laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) have been suggested as a PVT, by evaluating the pulp measured flow (F). The measured quantity F, used to discriminate healthy and non-vital teeth, is sensitive to factors hardly controlled or predictable, such as the LDFs and probe response differences, and the flow variations among individuals. It was suggested recently a new discriminator, F(%), less sensitive to such factors. The PVTs performances for F (%) and F as discriminators, however, were not known. The present study aimed to evaluate the PVTs' performances using the quantities F(%) and F (dif) as discriminators, both derived from F, and to compare, qualitatively and quantitatively, their performances to that obtained by using F. The quantities F(%) and F(dif) are, respectively, the ratio and the difference of the flow from the interrogated tooth and its healthy homologous, being F(dif) a proposed new discriminator. The obtained confidence intervals (95% of significance) of the areas under ROC curves were from 0,964 to 1,000 for F (%); from 0,959 to 1,000 for F (dif) and; from 0,584 to 0,951 for F; showing that F(%) and F (dif) are more reliable discriminators then F. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vona Mate


    Full Text Available One of the reasons why people get degree and participate in organized education is that they want to raise their human capital or signal their inner abilities to future employers by sorting themselves out. In both cases they can expect return to their investment, because they can expect higher life-time earnings than those who do not have degree. In this paper we will refer this activity as higher education investment or education investment. In this paper the investment of the state into educating their citizens will not be considered. The question of this paper will develop the findings of Vona (2014. I suggested to introduce modern risk measures because individual risk-taking became a serious question. It was considered that modern risk measures can help to solve some issues with the relation of investment and risk. However before applying some measures from a different field of science, namely investment finance and financial mathematics, to another, economics of education, there must be a very careful consideration, because there are debate over these measures applicability even on their field of science. Value at Risk is not coherent and Expected Shortfall is only one of a great deal of possible tail loss measures. For this reason it will be discussed in detail how should we should adopt the measures, what kind of data is necessary for calculating this risk measures and what kind of new insight they can bring. With the aid of a numerical example it will be shown that with expected shortfall measure we can reflect some large losses, and potential high value of diversification. We show the value at risk based measure is not coherent and this means it points out something different in this environment. It is can be an indicator of loss in opportunities for high end returns.

  7. Evaluation of the lipid profile between individuals with hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Tita Nogueira


    Full Text Available Metabolic profiles correlate with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and are prognostic for the viral response. However, little is known about the association between lipid profiles and viral load in chronic patients carrying HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the viremia and viral genotype on lipid metabolism by observing the variations in serum lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B, to assess whether HCV predisposes individuals to lipid imbalance and favors the appearance of vascular complications. A sample group of 150 chronic HCV patients with viral genotypes 1, 2 or 3 and a control group of 20 healthy adults (10 men and 10 women, all aged from 20 to 50 years were studied. The serum lipid profile of the chronic patients was analyzed and compared to that of the control group. The highdensity lipoprotein (HDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglyceride levels of the sample group were lower than those of the control group, while the low-density lipoprotein (LDL and apolipoprotein B levels of the patients were higher. These differences were more significant in patients carrying genotype 3a. There was a positive correlation between the viremia and the changes in apolipoprotein B levels in patients carrying genotype 1b. It was inferred that the risk of developing vascular complications raised in HCV patients. As 90% of LDL protein is composed of apolipoprotein B, the plasmatic concentration of the latter indicates the number of potentially atherogenic particles. Therefore, the lipid profile monitoring may aid in the diagnosis of hepatic infection severity and equally act as a good prognostic marker.

  8. Predicting the probability of falls in community-dwelling elderly individuals using the trail-walking test


    Yamada, Minoru; Ichihashi, Noriaki


    Background Falling is a common problem in the fast-growing elderly population. Multitasking or engaging in two or more activities at the same time is common in daily living. Objective To determine the usefulness of the trail-walking test (TWT) for predicting a fall in community-dwelling elderly individuals. Methods This was a prospective study in which the TWT was used to evaluate the risk of falling among a group of community-dwelling elderly individuals (n = 171) with a mean age of 80.5 ± 5...

  9. Electromyographic evaluation of mastication and swallowing in elderly individuals with mandibular fixed implant-supported prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giédre Berretin-Felix


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of implant-supported oral rehabilitation in the mandible on the electromyographic activity during mastication and swallowing in edentulous elderly individuals. Fifteen patients aged more than 60 years were evaluated, being 10 females and 5 males. All patients were edentulous, wore removable complete dentures on both dental arches, and had the mandibular dentures replaced by implant-supported prostheses. All patients were submitted to electromyographic evaluation of the masseter, superior orbicularis oris muscles, and the submental muscles, before surgery and 3, 6 and 18 months postoperatively, using foods of different textures. The results obtained at the different periods were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. Statistical analysis showed that only the masseter muscle had a significant loss in electromyographic activity (p<0.001, with a tendency of similar response for the submental muscles. Moreover, there was an increase in the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during rubber chewing after treatment, yet without statistically significant difference. Mandibular fixed implant-supported prostheses in elderly individuals revealed a decrease in electromyographic amplitude for the masseter muscles during swallowing, which may indicate adaptation to new conditions of stability provided by fixation of the complete denture in the mandibular arch.

  10. Increased retest reactivity by both patch and use test with methyldibromoglutaronitrile in sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil


    -exposure by both a patch test challenge and a use test with a liquid soap preserved with MDBGN. MDBGN dermatitis was elicited on the back and arms of sensitized individuals. One month later the previously eczematous areas were challenged with MDBGN. On the back, the test sites were patch-tested with a serial...... dilution of MDBGN and a use test was performed on the arms with an MDBGN-containing soap. A statistically significant increased response was seen on the areas with previous dermatitis on the back. Eight of the nine patients who developed dermatitis on the arms from the MDBGN-containing soap had...

  11. Weapon Simulator Test Methodology Investigation: Comparison of Live Fire and Weapon Simulator Test Methodologies and the Effects of Clothing and Individual Equipment on Marksmanship (United States)


    SHOOTING PERFORMANCE BASE LINES REACTION TIME DATA COLLECTION CIE(CLOTHING AND INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT) U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research...Ranger Regiment and two Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) Contractors as Representative Soldiers ( CARS ) served as TPs in the evaluation, which took place at...added. This target required each participant to shoot two series of five shots in the following conditions (this target mimicked one of the

  12. Concurrent Validity and Clinical Usefulness of Several Individually Administered Tests of Children's Social-Emotional Cognition (United States)

    McKown, Clark


    In this study, the validity of 5 tests of children's social-emotional cognition, defined as their encoding, memory, and interpretation of social information, was tested. Participants were 126 clinic-referred children between the ages of 5 and 17. All 5 tests were evaluated in terms of their (a) concurrent validity, (b) incremental validity, and…

  13. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix - reactivity to the individual constituents and chemical detection in relevant cosmetic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh C; Pirker, Claudia


    reactions in 36% of patients reacting to 14% FM II and 37.1% to 28% FM II. 5/11 patients developed a positive ROAT after a median of 7 days (range 2-10). The 5 patients with a doubtful or negative reaction to 28% FM II were all ROAT negative except 1. There were 7 patients with a certain fragrance history...... patch test positive to Lyral, citral and AHCA. In conclusion, patients with a certain fragrance history and a negative reaction to FM I can be identified by FM II. Testing with individual constituents is positive in about 50% of cases reacting to either 14% or 28% FM II.......A new fragrance mix (FM II), with 6 frequently used chemicals not present in the currently used fragrance mix (FM I), was evaluated in 6 dermatological centres in Europe, as previously reported. In this publication, test results with the individual constituents and after repeated open application...

  14. Evaluation of field test equipment for halide and DOP testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.L.; Kovach, J.L.


    The Nucon Testing Services Department, field testing at power reactor sites, has performed tests using R-11, R-12, and R-112 in conjunction with gas chromatographs and direct reading halide detectors. The field operational experience with these detector systems, thus sensitivity, precision, and manner of field calibration, are presented. Laboratory experiments regarding 3 H-tagged methyl iodide for in place leak testing of adsorber systems indicate a low hazard, high reliability process for leak testing in facilities where atmospheric cross contamination occurs. (U.S.)

  15. Tuberculin testing of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: relationship with peripheral T-cell counts and active tuberculosis. (United States)

    de Souza, Lenice do Rosário; Galvão, Marli Therezinha Gimenez; Machado, Jussara Marcondes; Meira, Domingos Alves; Cunha, Karlla


    To evaluate tuberculin test results and relate them to the presence or absence of active tuberculosis, as well as to CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts. The charts of 802 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated between August of 1985 and March of 2003 were reviewed. Of the 185 patients submitted to tuberculin tests (23.1%), 107 (57.8%) were male, and 78 (42.2%) were female. Patients were divided into two study groups: tuberculin test reactors (n = 28); and tuberculin test non-reactors (n = 157). Among the reactors, the mean age was 30.60 years, with a standard deviation of 6.62 years, compared with 34.45 years, with a standard deviation of 10.32 years, among the non-reactors. Most of the individuals tested presented only a mild response to the tuberculin test. We found that, at the time of the test, the percentage of individuals with active tuberculosis was greater in the reactor group than in the non-reactor group. During the test period, 10 reactor group patients and 11 non-reactor group patients presented some clinical form of active tuberculosis. In addition, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were lower than 200 cells/mm(3) in 6 reactor group patients and in 8 non-reactor group patients. Indurations greater than 5 mm were unrelated to higher absolute CD4+ T-cell counts.

  16. Efficient Regression Testing Based on Test History: An Industrial Evaluation


    Ekelund, Edward Dunn; Engström, Emelie


    Due to changes in the development practices at Axis Communications, towards continuous integration, faster regression testing feedback is needed. The current automated regression test suite takes approximately seven hours to run which prevents developers from integrating code changes several times a day as preferred. Therefore we want to implement a highly selective yet accurate regression testing strategy. Traditional code coverage based techniques are not applicable due to the size and comp...

  17. Audiologic and otoacoustic emission evaluation in individuals exposed to noise and plaguecides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morini, Renata Graziele


    Full Text Available Introduction: The noise induced hearing loss (NIHL has been studied for many years and today the specialized literature also studies the synergic action of chemicals. Objective: To research the audiologic findings and DPOAE in workers exposed to occupational noise and plaguecides and to compare them with data obtained in individuals without exposure to these harmful elements. Method: 51 individuals were evaluated (102 ears, divided into three groups. Group I was composed by 17 workers with exposure to noise and plaguecides, all with neurosensorial auditory loss; group II was composed by 17 workers with exposure to noise and plaguecides with audiometric thresholds within normality standards (up to 25 dBNA and group III by 17 healthy individuals without auditory alterations and without exposure to noise and plaguecides, control group. Results: In the audiologic anamnesis, as for groups I and II, we observed that the main auditory complaints presented by the workers were those of recruitment (29.5%, tinnitus (26.5%, allergy (23.5% and arterial hypertension (12%. The findings of the audiometry appointed that the research's individuals did not present with auditory losses in the frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 and 2 kHz, the losses occurred in the frequencies of 3 and 8 kHz. As for the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs, we observed that the individuals in group III had a major incidence of responses when compared to those of groups I and II. Conclusion: The results analysis allowed us to conclude that the DPOAE test represents an important tool for follow up and prevention of NIHL.

  18. Repeated mobility testing for later artificial visual function evaluation (United States)

    Velikay-Parel, M.; Ivastinovic, D.; Koch, M.; Hornig, R.; Dagnelie, G.; Richard, G.; Langmann, A.


    The study investigates the utility of a newly designed mobility test for repeated testing of visual function in patients with severe visual impairment and future application in evaluating functional progress in patients with artificial vision. Ten subjects divided into three groups based on visual acuity (VA) ranging from light perception to 20/200 and reduced visual field (VF) were included in the study. The mobility test consisted of using a set of four different but structurally similar and relatively short mazes having a constant number of obstacles of various sizes. The subjects, divided into three groups by acuity, passed through each course several times. In general, the patients with better VA had a larger extent of VF. Average speed and number of contacts were recorded as measures of performance. The average passing times of the groups through the courses were significantly different (p = 0.03), which was influenced by VA and VF. There was no significant difference in average number of contacts between the groups (p = 0.15). The mobility test proved to be appropriate for gaining statistically relevant results in repeated individual testing of patients with severe vision impairment. Results show promise for use this mobility test as a tool for assessing visual function of patients undergoing implantation of a visual prosthesis for artificial vision.

  19. The Metabolic Syndrome Predicts Longitudinal Changes in Clock Drawing Test Performance in Older Nondemented Hypertensive Individuals. (United States)

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Chiriac, Iulia Maria; Andreozzi, Paola; Ettorre, Evaristo


    The present study evaluated the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as independent predictor of 1-year longitudinal changes in cognitive function. 104 stroke- and dementia-free older hypertensive subjects were studied. MetS was defined by NCEP ATP-III criteria. Cognitive function was assessed by the Clock Drawing Test (CDT); 1-year changes in cognitive function were expressed as annual changes in CDT performance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging studies (1.5T) were performed. Participants with MetS exhibited greater cognitive decline than those without (-1.78 ± 1.47 versus -0.74 ± 1.44 CDT points, t = 3.348, df = 102, p < 0.001). MetS predicted cognitive decline (β = -0.327, t = -3.059, df = 96, p = 0.003) independently of its components, age, baseline cognition, neuroimaging findings, blood pressure levels, and duration of hypertension. With the exception of systolic blood pressure, none of the individual components of MetS explained 1-year changes in CDT performance. MetS as an entity predicted accelerated 1-year decline in cognitive function, assessed by CDT, in a sample of older hypertensive subjects. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Unilateral Arm Crank Exercise Test for Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Individuals with Hemiparetic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Oyake


    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness assessment with leg cycle exercise testing may be influenced by motor impairments in the paretic lower extremity. Hence, this study examined the usefulness of a unilateral arm crank exercise test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with stroke, including sixteen individuals with hemiparetic stroke (mean ± SD age, 56.4±7.5 years and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Participants performed the unilateral arm crank and leg cycle exercise tests to measure oxygen consumption (V˙O2 and heart rate at peak exercise. The V˙O2 at peak exercise during the unilateral arm crank exercise test was significantly lower in the stroke group than in the control group (p<0.001. In the stroke group, the heart rate at peak exercise during the unilateral arm crank exercise test did not significantly correlate with the Brunnstrom recovery stages of the lower extremity (p=0.137, whereas there was a significant correlation during the leg cycle exercise test (rho = 0.775, p<0.001. The unilateral arm crank exercise test can detect the deterioration of cardiorespiratory fitness independently of lower extremity motor impairment severity in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. This study is registered with UMIN000014733.

  1. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  2. 49 CFR 199.235 - Required evaluation and testing. (United States)


    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.235 Required evaluation and testing. No operator shall...

  3. Robustness in NAA evaluated by the Youden and Steiner test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedregal, P.; Torres, B.; Ubillus, M.; Mendoza, P.; Montoya, E.


    The chemistry laboratory at the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) has carried out a validation method for the samples of siliceous composition. At least seven variables affecting the robustness of the results were initially identified, which may interact simultaneously or individually. Conventional evaluation hereof would imply a massive number of analyses and a far more effective approach for assessment of the robustness for these effects was found in the Youden-Steiner test, which provides the necessary information by only eight analyses for each sample type. Three reference materials were used for evaluating the effects of variations in sample mass, irradiation duration, standard mass, neutron flux, decay time, counting time and counting distance. (author)

  4. Filtration: Novel Absorber Evaluation Club aims at standardized testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In the past few years a number of novel absorber materials, both organic and inorganic, have appeared on the market - some claiming to achieve very large decontamination factors for metal ions, including those having radioactive isotopes. Several of these materials have been tested by individual companies in the nuclear industry and some have shown promise as decontaminants for radioactive waste streams. Unfortunately, the results obtained for the treatment of a particular waste stream cannot be applied directly to the many and diverse waste streams generated throughout the nuclear industry. A unified and standardized testing programme making use of available expertise is necessary to provide a fair and meaningful comparison. In November 1988, representatives of the United Kingdom nuclear industry agreed to form the Novel Absorber Evaluation Club to assess absorber materials and to undertake the necessary work to identify the extent and rate of adsorption of radionuclides by such materials from a set of typical reference waste streams. (author)

  5. Thyroid Function Tests in the Reference Range and Fracture: Individual Participant Analysis of Prospective Cohorts. (United States)

    Aubert, Carole E; Floriani, Carmen; Bauer, Douglas C; da Costa, Bruno R; Segna, Daniel; Blum, Manuel R; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Fink, Howard A; Cappola, Anne R; Syrogiannouli, Lamprini; Peeters, Robin P; Åsvold, Bjørn O; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Luben, Robert N; Bremner, Alexandra P; Gogakos, Apostolos; Eastell, Richard; Kearney, Patricia M; Hoff, Mari; Le Blanc, Erin; Ceresini, Graziano; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Langhammer, Arnulf; Stott, David J; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Williams, Graham R; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Walsh, John P; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas


    Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased fracture risk, but it is not clear if lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and higher free thyroxine (FT4) in euthyroid individuals are associated with fracture risk. To evaluate the association of TSH and FT4 with incident fractures in euthyroid individuals. Individual participant data analysis. Thirteen prospective cohort studies with baseline examinations between 1981 and 2002. Adults with baseline TSH 0.45 to 4.49 mIU/L. Primary outcome was incident hip fracture. Secondary outcomes were any, nonvertebral, and vertebral fractures. Results were presented as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) adjusted for age and sex. For clinical relevance, we studied TSH according to five categories: 0.45 to 0.99 mIU/L; 1.00 to 1.49 mIU/L; 1.50 to 2.49 mIU/L; 2.50 to 3.49 mIU/L; and 3.50 to 4.49 mIU/L (reference). FT4 was assessed as study-specific standard deviation increase, because assays varied between cohorts. During 659,059 person-years, 2,565 out of 56,835 participants had hip fracture (4.5%; 12 studies with data on hip fracture). The pooled adjusted HR (95% CI) for hip fracture was 1.25 (1.05 to 1.49) for TSH 0.45 to 0.99 mIU/L, 1.19 (1.01 to 1.41) for TSH 1.00 to 1.49 mIU/L, 1.09 (0.93 to 1.28) for TSH 1.50 to 2.49 mIU/L, and 1.12 (0.94 to 1.33) for TSH 2.50 to 3.49 mIU/L (P for trend = 0.004). Hip fracture was also associated with FT4 [HR (95% CI) 1.22 (1.11 to 1.35) per one standard deviation increase in FT4]. FT4 only was associated with any and nonvertebral fractures. Results remained similar in sensitivity analyses. Among euthyroid adults, lower TSH and higher FT4 are associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. These findings may help refine the definition of optimal ranges of thyroid function tests. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  6. Individual- and contextual-level factors associated with client-initiated HIV testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Renata dos Santos Barros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background: Knowing the reasons for seeking HIV testing is central for HIV prevention. Despite the availability of free HIV counseling and testing in Brazil, coverage remains lacking. Methods: Survey of 4,760 respondents from urban areas was analyzed. Individual-level variables included sociodemographic characteristics; sexual and reproductive health; HIV/AIDS treatment knowledge and beliefs; being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS; and holding discriminatory ideas about people living with HIV. Contextual-level variables included the Human Development Index (HDI of the municipality; prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and availability of local HIV counseling and testing (CT services. The dependent variable was client-initiated testing. Multilevel Poisson regression models with random intercepts were used to assess associated factors. Results: Common individual-level variables among men and women included being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS and age; whereas discordant variables included those related to sexual and reproductive health and experiencing sexual violence. Among contextual-level factors, availability of CT services was variable associated with client-initiated testing among women only. The contextual-level variable “HDI of the municipality” was associated with client-initiated testing among women. Conclusion: Thus, marked gender differences in HIV testing were found, with a lack of HIV testing among married women and heterosexual men, groups that do not spontaneously seek testing.

  7. Individual electrical conductivity test for the assessment of soybean seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Matheus Mattioni


    Full Text Available Soybean seed quality is affected by many factors, which may occur during the production, processing, and storage phases. To ensure the quality of seeds, the adoption of fast and efficient methods to estimate seed viability in quality control programs is important. This study aimed to determine a partition point of the individual electrical conductivity test to predict soybean seed germination. Three lots each of five different soybean cultivars (Fundacep 57 RR, BMX Potência RR, BMX Força RR, BMX Turbo RR, and Nidera 7321 RG were used. Seed quality was assessed through the mass of 1,000 seeds (MTS, moisture content (MC, germination test (G, bulk electrical conductivity (BEC, individual electrical conductivity (IEC, accelerated ageing (AA, and field seedling emergence (FSE. To determine a partition point in the IEC test for predicting germination, seeds were subjected to the germination test in the same position used for the IEC test. The accuracy of the partition point was tested by comparing predicted germination with the standard germination test. The partition point obtained for normal seeds was 130 ?S .cm-1.seed-1. The IEC test, however, had limitations in predicting soybean seed germination. The data for predicted germination were different from those obtained by the standard test, because the characteristics of each lot led to differences in the electrical conductivity values.

  8. A pilot study on screening blood donors with individual-donation nucleic acid testing in China (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Wu, Yaling; Zhu, Hong; Li, Gan; Lv, Mengen; Wu, Daxiao; Li, Xiaotao; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun


    Background Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) is not yet obligatory in China for blood donor screening and the risk of enzyme immunoassay (EIA)-negative, NAT-reactive donations in Chinese blood donors has rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to screen a population of Chinese blood donors using a triplex individual-donation (ID)-NAT assay and assess the safety benefits of implementing NAT. Materials and methods Between 1st August, 2010 and 31st December, 2011 all donations at a Chinese blood centre were screened individually using the Procleix® Ultrio® assay, a multiplex NAT assay for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) RNA. All donations were also screened for HBsAg, anti-HIV and anti-HCV using two different EIA for each marker. Samples with discordant results between NAT and EIA were further tested with an alternative NAT assay (Cobas® TaqMan®). Potential yield cases (serologically negative/NAT-reactive donors) were further evaluated when possible. Results During the study period a total of 178,447 donations were screened by NAT and EIA, among which 169 HBV NAT yield cases (0.095%) were detected. No N AT yield cases were found for HIV-1 or HCV. For the HBV NAT yield cases, follow-up results showed that 11 (6.51%) were probable or confirmed HBV window period infections, 5 (2.96%) were chronic HBV carriers and 153 (90.53%) were probable or confirmed occult HBV infections. There was a statistically significant difference between the NAT-positive rates for first-time vs repeat donations (0.472% vs 0.146%, respectively; P<0.001). Discussion Our data demonstrate that the potential HBV yield rate was 1:1,056 for blood donations in the Zhejiang province of China. Implementation of NAT will provide a significant increment in safety relative to serological screening alone. PMID:24333061

  9. Evaluation of interrupter resistance in methacholine challenge testing in children. (United States)

    Koopman, Marije; Brackel, Hein J L; Vaessen-Verberne, Anja A P H; Hop, Wim C; van der Ent, Cornelis K


    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a key feature of asthma and is assessed using bronchial provocation tests. The primary outcome in such tests (a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1)) is difficult to measure in young patients. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the interrupter resistance (Rint ) technique, which does not require active patient participation, by comparing it to the primary outcome measure. Methacholine challenge tests were performed in children with a history of moderate asthma and BHR. Mean and individual changes in Rint and FEV1 were studied. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to describe sensitivity and specificity of Rint . Seventy-three children (median age: 9.2 years; range: 6.3-13.4 years) participated. There was a significant (P changes of Rint showed large fluctuations. There was great overlap in change of Rint between children who did and did not reach the FEV1 endpoint. A ROC curve showed an area under the curve of 0.65. Because of low sensitivity and specificity, the use of Rint to diagnose BHR in individual patients seems limited. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Validation of the virtual-reality prospective memory test (Hong Kong Chinese version) for individuals with first-episode schizophrenia. (United States)

    Man, David W K; Ganesan, Balasankar; Yip, Calvin C K; Lee, Christina O P; Tsang, Sarah Y L; Yu, Pan W P; Young, Janice G E; Shum, David H K


    This study was performed to examine the psychometric properties of a Virtual-Reality Prospective Memory Test (Hong Kong Chinese version; VRPMT-CV). The VRPMT was administered to 44 individuals with first-episode schizophrenia. The test was administered again 2 weeks later to establish test-retest reliability. The concurrent validity of the VRPMT was evaluated by examining the correlations between the VRPMT score and the score on the Chinese version of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT-CV). The performance of individuals with schizophrenia on the VRPMT was also compared with that of 42 healthy control subjects to examine the test's sensitivity and specificity. The intraclass correlation for test-retest reliability of the total VRPMT-CV score was 0.78 (p = .005). A significant correlation was found between the total VRPMT-CV score and the total CAMPROMPT-CV score (r = 0.90; p schizophrenia. The VRPMT-CV is an assessment of prospective memory that has good construct validity, test-retest reliability, sensitivity and specificity in the context of first-episode schizophrenia.

  11. Evaluation of Commercially Available Cyanide Test Kits against Various Matrices (United States)


    and Visocolor ECO test kits (Macherey-Nagel; Düren, Germany); eXact test strips ( Industrial Test Systems; Rock Hill, SC); and MQuant test strips...further evaluation in a second phase of testing. Cyantesmo paper was tested against 15 matrices, including baking soda , boric acid, brewer’s yeast...INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Commercially available test kits were evaluated in a two-phase process . In Phase I, a market survey was performed, and five

  12. Uptake of HIV testing in Burkina Faso: an assessment of individual and community-level determinants. (United States)

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Jean, Kévin; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu


    Previous studies have highlighted a range of individual determinants associated with HIV testing but few have assessed the role of contextual factors. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of both individual and community-level determinants of HIV testing uptake in Burkina Faso. Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, the determinants of lifetime HIV testing were examined for sexually active women (n = 14,656) and men (n = 5680) using modified Poisson regression models. One third of women (36%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33-37%) reported having ever been tested for HIV compared to a quarter of men (26%; 95% CI: 24-27%). For both genders, age, education, religious affiliation, household wealth, employment, media exposure, sexual behaviors, and HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. After adjustment, women living in communities where the following characteristics were higher than the median were more likely to report uptake of HIV testing: knowledge of where to access testing (Prevalence Ratio [PR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.34-1.48), willing to buy food from an infected vendor (PR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.31-3.24), highest wealth quintiles (PR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.10-1.27), not working year-round (PR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84-0.96), and high media exposure (PR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.19). Men living in communities where the proportion of respondents were more educated (PR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41) than the median were more likely to be tested. This study shed light on potential mechanisms through which HIV testing could be increased in Burkina Faso. Both individual and contextual factors should be considered to design effective strategies for scaling-up HIV testing.

  13. Experience using individually supplied heater rods in critical power testing of advanced BWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majed, M.; Morback, G.; Wiman, P. [ABB Atom AB, Vasteras (Sweden)] [and others


    The ABB Atom FRIGG loop located in Vasteras Sweden has during the last six years given a large experience of critical power measurements for BWR fuel designs using indirectly heated rods with individual power supply. The loop was built in the sixties and designed for maximum 100 bar pressure. Testing up to the mid eighties was performed with directly heated rods using a 9 MW, 80 kA power supply. Providing test data to develop critical power correlations for BWR fuel assemblies requires testing with many radial power distributions over the full range of hydraulic conditions. Indirectly heated rods give large advantages for the testing procedure, particularly convenient for variation of individual rod power. A test method being used at Stern Laboratories (formerly Westinghouse Canada) since the early sixties, allows one fuel assembly to simulate all required radial power distributions. This technique requires reliable indirectly heated rods with independently controlled power supplies and uses insulated electric fuel rod simulators with built-in instrumentation. The FRIGG loop was adapted to this system in 1987. A 4MW power supply with 10 individual units was then installed, and has since been used for testing 24 and 25 rod bundles simulating one subbundle of SVEA-96/100 type fuel assemblies. The experience with the system is very good, as being presented, and it is selected also for a planned upgrading of the facility to 15 MW.

  14. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have... PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who... other entity relies on drug and alcohol tests that were conducted before the individual applied for...

  15. Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT) performance of individuals with central auditory processing disorders from 5 to 25 years of age. (United States)

    Dias, Karin Ziliotto; Jutras, Benoît; Acrani, Isabela Olszanski; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo


    other reduced capacities might influence their performance. Also, Random Gap Detection Test assesses a specific auditory ability, different than the one evaluated with the other auditory tests. Finally, it is suggested to test individuals at only one frequency of the Random Gap Detection Test because results provide similar information than when assessing them on all subtests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia (United States)

    del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

  17. "Individualized Science" Field Test Findings and Recommendations, the Hooke Unit. Appendix A. (United States)

    Loue, William E., III

    This informal report contains the findings and recommendations resulting from the field test of the Hooke Unit of the "Individualized Science" program. Data were collected from three schools. Because of an unusual number of weaknesses ranging from formal inconsistencies to manipulative deficiencies, it was concluded that the Hooke Unit is somewhat…

  18. Development, Field Test, and Refinement of Performance Training Programs in Armor Advanced Individual Training. Final Report. (United States)

    Young, Douglas L.; Taylor, John E.

    Performance-oriented instruction was developed, field tested, and refined in two Advanced Individual Training (AIT) programs--Armor Reconnaissance Specialist (MOS 11D) and Armor Crewman (MOS 11E). Tasks for both MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) were inventoried and the inventories were reduced by eliminating those tasks which are not required…

  19. Test-Retest Reproducibility of Two Short-Form Balance Measures Used in Individuals with Stroke (United States)

    Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Jau-Hong; Lo, Sing-Kai


    The aim of this study is to determine the test-retest reproducibility of the seven-item Short-Form Berg Balance Scale (SFBBS) and the five-item Short-Form Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SFPASS) in individuals with chronic stroke. Fifty-two chronic stroke patients from two rehabilitation departments were included in the study. Both…

  20. Technical Note: Evaluation of individual ultraviolet radiation dosimeter sensitivity and specificity for assessing shade use. (United States)

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L


    The effects of solar or UV radiation on livestock are often evaluated in research focused on heat stress, dermatological conditions, and other topics, with radiation measurements recorded by instrumentation at a field or local weather station for a general geographical location. Individual sensors would be valuable for quantifying an individual animal's exposure, especially as they move about in a heterogeneous environment. Individual commercially available UV dosimeters were evaluated for specificity and sensitivity and found to be potentially valuable research tools for assessing and comparing the UV radiation exposure of individual animals.

  1. Evaluating cognition in individuals with Huntington disease: Neuro-QoL cognitive functioning measures. (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Goodnight, Siera; Downing, Nancy R; Ready, Rebecca E; Paulsen, Jane S; Kratz, Anna L; Stout, Julie C; McCormack, Michael K; Cella, David; Ross, Christopher; Russell, Jenna; Carlozzi, Noelle E


    Cognitive functioning impacts health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for individuals with Huntington disease (HD). The Neuro-QoL includes two patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of cognition-Executive Function (EF) and General Concerns (GC). These measures have not previously been validated for use in HD. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Neuro-QoL Cognitive Function measures for use in HD. Five hundred ten individuals with prodromal or manifest HD completed the Neuro-QoL Cognition measures, two other PRO measures of HRQOL (WHODAS 2.0 and EQ5D), and a depression measure (PROMIS Depression). Measures of functioning The Total Functional Capacity and behavior (Problem Behaviors Assessment) were completed by clinician interview. Objective measures of cognition were obtained using clinician-administered Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the Stroop Test (Word, Color, and Interference). Self-rated, clinician-rated, and objective composite scores were developed. We examined the Neuro-QoL measures for reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and known-groups validity. Excellent reliabilities (Cronbach's alphas ≥ 0.94) were found. Convergent validity was supported, with strong relationships between self-reported measures of cognition. Discriminant validity was supported by less robust correlations between self-reported cognition and other constructs. Prodromal participants reported fewer cognitive problems than manifest groups, and early-stage HD participants reported fewer problems than late-stage HD participants. The Neuro-QoL Cognition measures provide reliable and valid assessments of self-reported cognitive functioning for individuals with HD. Findings support the utility of these measures for assessing self-reported cognition.

  2. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovich, J R


    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  3. Validity of the shuttle walk test as a functional assessment of walking ability in individuals with polyneuropathy. (United States)

    Erdmann, Peter G; Teunissen, Laurien L; van den Berg, Leonard H; Notermans, Nicolette C; Schröder, Carin D; Bongers, Bart C; van Meeteren, Nico L U


    This study assessed the validity of the shuttle walk test (SWT) to evaluate walking ability in patients with polyneuropathy. Forty-one patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) and 49 patients with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) performed both the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and the SWT. Face validity was assessed by evaluating whether patients considered both tests to reflect their walking ability (Likert scale: 1 = not at all, 10 = very well). Concurrent validity was determined by Spearman rank-correlation analyses performed on the outcomes of both tests. Mean (SD) scores for how well the 10MWT and SWT reflected daily walking ability were 6.8 (1.3) and 7.4 (1.6) (p = 0.117) in patients with CIAP and 6.9 (1.2) and 7.9 (1.0) (p = 0.001) in patients with MMN, respectively. Correlation scores between both tests ranged from -0.70 to -0.82, except for 18 patients with MMN with a "normal" walking speed at the 10MWT (-0.21). The SWT seems a valid instrument for assessing walking ability in individuals with CIAP and MMN. Moreover, the SWT seems to be useful for investigating the symptoms elicited by walking long distances and may be more sensitive to changes when compared to the 10MWT. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients with polyneuropathy mainly experience problems when walking long distances. The 10-meter walk test does not possess sufficient psychometrics to diagnose walking abilities in these circumstances. The shuttle walk test is a valid instrument for assessing walking ability in individuals with polyneuropathy and might be the preferred instrument of choice when compared to the 10-meter walk test.

  4. Sex-Dependent Individual Differences and the Correlational Relationship Between Proprioceptive and Verbal Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liutsko Liudmila


    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between proprioceptive and verbal tests on personality in both sexes separately due to existing proprioceptive differences in fine motor behavior between men and women in our previous studies [1, 2, 3]. Material and methods. 114 middle-aged participants from Belarus completed verbal tests (personality: Eysenck's EPQ, Big Five in Hromov's Russian adaptation, and Rosenberg's Self-esteem together with Proprioceptive Diagnostics of Temperament and Character (by Tous. Complementary information, such as tests of time perception, was collected and used in correlative and ANOVA analyses with the use of SPSS v.19. Results. The relationship between proprioceptive variables in personality and individual differences, time perception and the results of verbal tests were determined for each sex subgroup and discussed. ANOVA results reflected the corresponding differences and similarities between men and women in the variables of each test. Time perception was found to be significantly correlated to all five dimensions of the Big Five Test in both sexes, and both had a significant relationship to the same variables of the DP-TC test. Conclusions. Time perception can be used as an indirect indicator of personality. Existing individual and personality differences should be taken into account in coaching and education to obtain more effective results.

  5. Attitudes toward prenatal genetic testing for Treacher Collins syndrome among affected individuals and families. (United States)

    Wu, Rebecca L; Lawson, Cathleen S; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Sanderson, Saskia C


    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a craniofacial syndrome that is both phenotypically variable and heterogeneous, caused by mutations in the TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D genes. We examined attitudes towards TCS prenatal genetic testing among affected families using a telephone questionnaire. Participants were 31 affected adults and relatives recruited primarily through families cared for in the mid-Atlantic region. Nineteen participants (65%) reported that they would take a TCS prenatal genetic test which could not predict degree of disease severity. Interest in TCS genetic testing was associated with higher income, higher concern about having a child with TCS, lower religiosity, lower concern about genetic testing procedures, and having a sporadic rather than familial mutation. Over half reported that their decision to have TCS genetic testing would be influenced a great deal by their desire to relieve anxiety and attitudes toward abortion. Ten participants (32%) reported that they would be likely to end the pregnancy upon receiving a positive test result; this was lower amongst TCS affected individuals and higher amongst participants with children with TCS. Genetics healthcare providers need to be aware of affected individuals' and families' attitudes and interest in prenatal genetic testing for TCS, and the possible implications for other craniofacial disorders, so that patients' information needs can be met. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Using eye tracking to test for individual differences in attention to attractive faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eValuch


    Full Text Available We assessed individual differences in visual attention toward faces in relation to their attractiveness via saccadic reaction times (SRTs. Motivated by the aim to understand individual differences in attention to faces, we tested three hypotheses: (a Attractive faces hold or capture attention more effectively than less attractive faces; (b men show a stronger bias toward attractive opposite-sex faces than women; and (c blue-eyed men show a stronger bias toward blue-eyed than brown-eyed feminine faces. The latter test was included because prior research suggested a high effect size. Our data supported hypotheses (a and (b but not (c. By conducting separate tests for disengagement of attention and attention capture, we found that individual differences exist at distinct stages of attentional processing but these differences are of varying robustness and importance. In our conclusion, we also advocate the use of linear mixed effects models as the most appropriate statistical approach toward studying inter-individual differences in visual attention with naturalistic stimuli.

  7. Individual muscle control using an exoskeleton robot for muscle function testing. (United States)

    Ueda, Jun; Ming, Ding; Krishnamoorthy, Vijaya; Shinohara, Minoru; Ogasawara, Tsukasa


    Healthy individuals modulate muscle activation patterns according to their intended movement and external environment. Persons with neurological disorders (e.g., stroke and spinal cord injury), however, have problems in movement control due primarily to their inability to modulate their muscle activation pattern in an appropriate manner. A functionality test at the level of individual muscles that investigates the activity of a muscle of interest on various motor tasks may enable muscle-level force grading. To date there is no extant work that focuses on the application of exoskeleton robots to induce specific muscle activation in a systematic manner. This paper proposes a new method, named "individual muscle-force control" using a wearable robot (an exoskeleton robot, or a power-assisting device) to obtain a wider variety of muscle activity data than standard motor tasks, e.g., pushing a handle by hand. A computational algorithm systematically computes control commands to a wearable robot so that a desired muscle activation pattern for target muscle forces is induced. It also computes an adequate amount and direction of a force that a subject needs to exert against a handle by his/her hand. This individual muscle control method enables users (e.g., therapists) to efficiently conduct neuromuscular function tests on target muscles by arbitrarily inducing muscle activation patterns. This paper presents a basic concept, mathematical formulation, and solution of the individual muscle-force control and its implementation to a muscle control system with an exoskeleton-type robot for upper extremity. Simulation and experimental results in healthy individuals justify the use of an exoskeleton robot for future muscle function testing in terms of the variety of muscle activity data.

  8. Assessing bias against overweight individuals among nursing and psychology students: an implicit association test. (United States)

    Waller, Tabitha; Lampman, Claudia; Lupfer-Johnson, Gwen


    To determine the implicit or unconscious attitudes of Nursing and Psychology majors towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. Obesity is a leading health concern today, which impacts both physical and psychological health. Overweight individuals confront social biases in many aspects of their lives including health care. Examining the views of Nursing and Psychology students may reveal implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals that may lead to prejudiced behaviours. A mixed design experiment with one between-subjects variable (student major: Nursing or Psychology) and one within-subjects variable (condition: congruent or incongruent) was used to assess implicit attitudes in two convenience samples of Nursing and Psychology students. A computerised implicit association test was used to determine implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. A total of 90 students from Nursing (n= 45) and Psychology (n = 45) were recruited to complete an implicit association test. Reaction times in milliseconds between the congruent trials (stereotype consistent) and incongruent trials (stereotype inconsistent) were compared with determine adherence to social stereotypes or weight bias. A statistically significant implicit bias towards overweight individuals was detected in both subject groups and in both target settings (medical vs. non-medical). Stronger weight bias was found when the stimulus targets were female than male. Findings from this study expand understanding of the implicit attitudes and social biases of Nursing and Psychology students. The views held by these future healthcare professionals may negatively impact patient care. Providing education and support to overweight individuals is central to Nursing practice in a society struggling to manage obesity. Negative stereotypes or beliefs about these individuals may result in poor patient care. Therefore, nurses and other healthcare professionals

  9. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix - reactivity to the individual constituents and chemical detection in relevant cosmetic products. (United States)

    Frosch, Peter J; Rastogi, Suresh C; Pirker, Claudia; Brinkmeier, Thomas; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Goossens, An; White, Ian R; Uter, Wolfgang; Arnau, Elena Giménez; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menne, Torkil


    A new fragrance mix (FM II), with 6 frequently used chemicals not present in the currently used fragrance mix (FM I), was evaluated in 6 dermatological centres in Europe, as previously reported. In this publication, test results with the individual constituents and after repeated open application test (ROAT) of FM II are described. Furthermore, cosmetic products which had caused a contact dermatitis in patients were analysed for the presence of the individual constituents. In 1701 patients, the individual constituents of the medium (14%) and the highest (28%) concentration of FM II were simultaneously applied with the new mix at 3 concentrations (break-down testing for the lowest concentration of FM II (2.8%) was performed only if the mix was positive). ROAT was performed with the concentration of the FM II which had produced a positive or doubtful (+ or ?+) patch test reaction. Patients' products were analysed for the 6 target compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 50 patients (2.9%) showed a positive reaction to 14% FM II and 70 patients (4.1%) to 28% FM II. 24/50 (48%) produced a positive reaction to 1 or more of the individual constituents of 14% FM II and 38/70 (54.3%) to 28% FM II, respectively. If doubtful reactions to individual constituents are included, the break-down testing was positive in 74% and 70%, respectively. Patients with a positive reaction to 14% FM II showed a higher rate of reactions to the individual constituent of the 28% FM II: 36/50 (72%). Positive reactions to individual constituents in patients negative to FM II were exceedingly rare. If doubtful reactions are regarded as negative, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the medium concentration of FM II towards at least 1 individual constituent was 92.3% (exact 95% confidence interval 74.9-99.1%), 98.4% (97.7-99.0%), 48% (33.7-62.6%) and 99.9% (99.6-"100.0%), respectively. For the high concentration, the figures

  10. National Test and Evaluation Conference (26th) (United States)


    logistics systems that support virtually every system in the inventory, as well as the individual commodities that our war-fighters need around the world...45%, shortages of rice, wheat & maize … triple digit oil prices … 450M face severe water shortage Arctic sea ice melted by 2040 … Desertification

  11. Evaluating Metal Probe Meters for Soil Testing. (United States)

    Hershey, David R.


    Inexpensive metal probe meters that are sold by garden stores can be evaluated by students for their accuracy in measuring soil pH, moisture, fertility, and salinity. The author concludes that the meters are inaccurate and cannot be calibrated in standard units. However, the student evaluations are useful in learning the methods of soil analysis…

  12. Evaluation of intravenous fluorescein in intradermal allergy testing in psittacines. (United States)

    Nett, Claudia S; Hosgood, Giselle; Heatley, J Jill; Foil, Carol S; Tully, Thomas N


    This study was designed to improve the clinical feasibility of intradermal skin testing of psittacine birds using intravenous fluorescein stain. Twenty-five healthy, anaesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were injected intravenously with 10 mg kg-1 fluorescein-sodium 1% followed by intradermal injections of 0.02 mL phosphate-buffered saline, histamine phosphate (1:100,000 w/v) and codeine phosphate (1:100,000 w/v) at the sternal apteria. Wheal diameters of reaction sites were measured grossly and under illumination with a Wood's lamp after 5 and 10 min. Fluorescence-enhanced injection sites were scored between 0 and 2, with 0 equivalent to normal skin and 2 equivalent to a plucked feather follicle. The presence of a fluorescent halo around intradermal injections was also recorded. Under Wood's light illumination at 10 min, histamine and saline were evaluated as positive and negative controls, respectively, based on a positive test having a halo and a score of 2. Sensitivity and specificity were each 76% for halo, 84 and 42% for score and 64 and 77% for combination of score and halo, respectively. Further, mean histamine reactions were significantly larger than codeine phosphate and saline (8.8 +/- 0.4 mm; 7.2 +/- 0.3 mm; 5.9 +/- 0.6 mm); however, this finding was not consistent in individual birds. Wheal size, halo presence and score were affected by site location independent from the injected compound. Intravenous fluorescein improved the readability of avian skin tests; however, the compounds tested raised inconsistent reactions in wheal size, score or halo presence. The compound-independent site effect raises concern on the validity of avian skin testing and warrants investigation of other techniques such as in vitro allergy testing. Based on our findings, intradermal allergy testing in psittacines with or without fluorescein is unreliable and cannot be recommended for practical clinical use.

  13. "It Can Promote an Existential Crisis": Factors Influencing Pap Test Acceptability and Utilization Among Transmasculine Individuals. (United States)

    Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Agénor, Madina; Bernstein, Ida M; McDowell, Michal; Alizaga, Natalie M; Reisner, Sari L; Pardee, Dana J; Potter, Jennifer


    Transmasculine (i.e., female-to-male transgender) individuals have lower rates of cervical cancer screening than nontransgender women and often report negative experiences with the Pap test. Deciding to undergo screening and the test experience itself are characterized by the following processes: negotiating identity as the patient, provider, and insurance company wrestle with the degree of (in)congruence between a patient's masculine gender identity and their conception of the Pap test as feminine; bargaining for health as a Pap test may be required to obtain medical transition services or avoid undesired health outcomes; withstanding acute challenges during the Pap test to body, identity, and privacy; or reframing challenges as affirmation. The degree of distress triggered by the Pap test varied from "routine" to traumatic. Participants affirmed that a trusted, trans-competent health care provider could significantly reduce barriers to regular and satisfactory cervical cancer screening. Data are from 32 in-depth interviews conducted in Boston, Massachusetts, with transmasculine individuals; a modified grounded theory approach informed the analysis.

  14. Long-term evaluation of individualized marketing programs for travel demand management (United States)


    This research examines the use of individualized marketing as a transportation demand : management (TDM) strategy, using the City of Portlands SmartTrips program. This research : project has two specific aims: (1) to evaluate whether the benefits ...

  15. Applied Warfighter Ergonomics: A Research Method for Evaluating Military Individual Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takagi, Koichi


    The objective of this research effort is to design and implement a laboratory and establish a research method focused on scientific evaluation of human factors considerations for military individual...

  16. Evaluation of a standard artificial flower design to feed individual bees known amounts of pesticides


    Ladurner, Edith; Bosch, Jordi; P. Kemp, William; Maini, Stefano


    International audience; We investigated the possibility of feeding individual bees known amounts of pesticides on a standard artificial flower with or without scent. We tested experienced and naive (without foraging experience) Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata females, and experienced Apis mellifera foragers, and trained (exposed to the artificial flower for 24 h) and untrained individuals of the three species. We also fed untrained individuals of all three species with feeding units ma...

  17. Cold test for bean seed vigor evaluation


    Miguel, Marcelo Hissnauer; Cicero, Silvio Moure


    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o comportamento de sementes de feijão submetidas a diferentes metodologias do teste de frio, comparativamente a outros testes de vigor tradicionalmente utilizados na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica dessas sementes. As metodologias do teste de frio utilizadas foram: caixa plástica com terra, rolo de papel com terra e rolo de papel sem terra, nas temperaturas de 10ºC e de 15ºC e períodos de exposição, de três, cinco e sete dias. Paralelamente fo...

  18. The effects of culture on WASI test performance in ethnically diverse individuals. (United States)

    Razani, Jill; Murcia, German; Tabares, Jose; Wong, Jennifer


    The objective of this study was to examine differences between fluent English-speaking ethnically diverse (ED) individuals (from Hispanic, Asian, and Middle-Eastern descent) and monolingual English-speaking Anglo-Americans (MEAA) on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). A sample of 86 (50 ED and 36 MEAA) healthy individuals participated. The results revealed that the MEAA group outperformed the ED group on the verbal (i.e., Vocabulary and Similarities), but not the nonverbal (i.e., Block Design and Matrix Reasoning) subtests. Various cultural factors such as the level of acculturation and the degree to which the English language was used correlated with verbal skills. Number of years the education was obtained outide of the US was an important predictor of verbal and some nonverbal performance in the ED group. The findings from this study underscore the importance of taking cultural factors, particularly level of acculturation, into account when interpreting test scores of ED individuals.

  19. Test report : alternative fuels propulsion durability evaluation (United States)


    This document, prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (Honeywell), contains the final : test report (public version) for the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation : Administration (USDOT/FAA) Alternative Fuels Propulsion Engine Dur...

  20. SDU6 Interior Liner Testing & Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Two liner materials (Marseal® M-3500 and REMA Chemoline® 4CN) proposed for use as a liner inside the Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6) were subjected to specific ASTM tests (tensile and lap-shear) after immersion in 50% and 100% simulant solutions for 1000 hours at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Both liner materials exhibited good resistance to the simulant chemistry, at least based on the tests performed and the test duration/conditions imposed. In lap-shear tests, both materials failed in the base material rather than peeling apart, confirming good adhesion. The REMA 4CN bromobutyl elastomer showed superior bonding characteristics and absence of warping or delamination at the conditions tested. The Marseal M-3500 material (PVC/EVA blend with polyester reinforcement) exhibited deformation and debonding in some locations. The cause of the deformation and delamination observed in the Marseal M-3500 material is not fully known, but possibly attributed to thermomechanical stress at immersion temperatures, and the thermoplastic nature of the material. The immersion temperature (68 °C) is slightly greater than the maximum use temperature limit quoted for the Marseal M- 3500 liner (65 °C), though the basis for the service limit is unknown. The testing performed was limited in scope and only for these two liner materials. These tests were primarily performed to screen for severe incompatibility or short-term degradation in Saltstone bleedwater simulants at bounding solution temperatures. Additional testing is recommended to assess long-term performance and the overall service life of the liner.

  1. Uptake of HIV testing in Burkina Faso: an assessment of individual and community-level determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fati Kirakoya-Samadoulougou


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have highlighted a range of individual determinants associated with HIV testing but few have assessed the role of contextual factors. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of both individual and community-level determinants of HIV testing uptake in Burkina Faso. Methods Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey, the determinants of lifetime HIV testing were examined for sexually active women (n = 14,656 and men (n = 5680 using modified Poisson regression models. Results One third of women (36%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 33–37% reported having ever been tested for HIV compared to a quarter of men (26%; 95% CI: 24–27%. For both genders, age, education, religious affiliation, household wealth, employment, media exposure, sexual behaviors, and HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. After adjustment, women living in communities where the following characteristics were higher than the median were more likely to report uptake of HIV testing: knowledge of where to access testing (Prevalence Ratio [PR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.34–1.48, willing to buy food from an infected vendor (PR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.31–3.24, highest wealth quintiles (PR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.10–1.27, not working year-round (PR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84–0.96, and high media exposure (PR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03–1.19. Men living in communities where the proportion of respondents were more educated (PR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07–1.41 than the median were more likely to be tested. Conclusions This study shed light on potential mechanisms through which HIV testing could be increased in Burkina Faso. Both individual and contextual factors should be considered to design effective strategies for scaling-up HIV testing.

  2. Performance evaluation of aluminium test piece against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image processing with Catphan 700 uses the automated Quality Assurance software restricted to only Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine images. For this reason, an aluminium (Al) test piece device was fabricated for image processing in different image format for spatial resolution measurement.

  3. Testing and evaluation of eight decontamination chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R.


    This report covers experimental work comparing eight different decontamination chemicals. Seven of these chemicals have some novelty, or are not currently in use at the ICPP. The eighth is a common ICPP decontamination reagent used as a baseline for effective comparison. Decontamination factors, waste generation values, and corrosion rates are tabulated for these chemicals. Recommendations are given for effective methods of non-sodium or low-sodium decontamination chemicals. The two most effective chemical for decontamination found in these test were a dilute hydrofluoric and nitric acid (HF/HNO{sub 3}) mixture and a fluoroboric acid solution. The fluoroboric acid solution (1 molar) was by far the most effective decontamination reagent, but suffered the problem of generating significant final calcine volume. The HF/HNO{sub 3} solution performed a very good decontamination of the SIMCON coupons while generating only small amounts of calcine volume. Concentration variables were also tested, and optimized for these two solutions. Several oxidation/reduction decon chemical systems were also tested. These systems were similar to the TURCO 4502 and TURCO 4521 solutions used for general decontamination at the ICPP. A low sodium alternative, nitric acid/potassium permanganate, to the ``high sodium`` TURCO 4502 was tested extensively, optimized and recommended for general ICPP use. A reductive chemical solution, oxalic acid/nitric acid was also shown to have significant advantages.

  4. Costs and benefits of individuals conceived after IVF: a net tax evaluation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, L. M.; Connolly, M.; Huisman, B.; Postma, M. J.; Hompes, P. G. A.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.


    This study evaluated the lifetime future net tax revenues from individuals conceived after IVF relative to those naturally conceived. A model based on the method of generational accounting was developed to evaluate investments in IVF. Calculations were based on average investments paid and received

  5. Costs and benefits of individuals conceived after IVF : a net tax evaluation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, L. M.; Connolly, M.; Huisman, B.; Postma, M. J.; Hompes, P. G. A.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.

    This study evaluated the lifetime future net tax revenues from individuals conceived after IVF relative to those naturally conceived. A model based on the method of generational accounting was developed to evaluate investments in IVF. Calculations were based on average investments paid and received

  6. Preappointment testing for BRAF/KIT mutation in advanced melanoma: a model in molecular data delivery for individualized medicine. (United States)

    Mounajjed, Taofic; Brown, Char L; Stern, Therese K; Bjorheim, Annette M; Bridgeman, Andrew J; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; McWilliams, Robert R; Flotte, Thomas J


    The emergence of individualized medicine is driven by developments in precision diagnostics, epitomized by molecular testing. Because treatment decisions are being made based on such molecular data, data management is gaining major importance. Among data management challenges, creating workflow solutions for timely delivery of molecular data has become pivotal. This study aims to design and implement a scalable process that permits preappointment BRAF/KIT mutation analysis in melanoma patients, allowing molecular results necessary for treatment plans to be available before the patient's appointment. Process implementation aims to provide a model for efficient molecular data delivery for individualized medicine. We examined the existing process of BRAF/KIT testing in melanoma patients visiting our institution for oncology consultation. We created 5 working groups, each designing a specific segment of an alternative process that would allow preappointment BRAF/KIT testing and delivery of results. Data were captured and analyzed to evaluate the success of the alternative process. For 1 year, 35 (59%) of 55 patients had prior BRAF/KIT testing. The remaining 20 patients went through the new process of preappointment testing; results were available at the time of appointment for 12 patients (overall preappointment results availability, 85.5%). The overall process averaged 13.4 ± 4.7 days. In conclusion, we describe the successful implementation of a scalable workflow solution that permits preappointment BRAF/KIT mutation analysis and result delivery in melanoma patients. This sets the stage for further applications of this model to other conditions, answering an increasing demand for robust delivery of molecular data for individualized medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Attitudes towards individuals with disabilities as measured by the implicit association test: a literature review. (United States)

    Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina


    Research investigating attitudes towards individuals with disabilities has largely focused on self-reported explicit attitudes. Given that factors such as social desirability may influence explicit attitudes, researchers have developed tools which instead assess less consciously controllable implicit attitudes. Considering research on implicit attitudes thus seems pertinent. A review of studies measuring implicit attitudes towards individuals with physical disabilities (visual, motor or hearing) or intellectual disabilities via the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was carried out. Systematic searches of PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus and Web of Science databases identified relevant articles published between January 2000 and September 2012. Seventeen articles (reporting on 18 studies that employed the IAT) were identified. These investigated implicit attitudes towards individuals with; physical disabilities (N=13), intellectual disabilities (N=3), both physical and intellectual disabilities (N=1), and 'unspecified disabilities' (N=1). Across all studies, moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes were found and there was little to no association between explicit and implicit attitudes. Individuals' beliefs about the controllability of their future, sensitivity to the concept of disease, and contact with individuals with disabilities appear to be associated with implicit attitudes. A consistent pattern of moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes towards individuals with disabilities was evident. These studies provide a starting point, but methodological issues related to sampling and the employed IATs limit the generalizability of these results. Further research investigating implicit attitudes towards specific disability types, with a wider subject pool are necessary as well as further investigation of factors that contribute to these attitudes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. 40 CFR 63.2354 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? (United States)


    ... evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? 63.2354 Section 63.2354 Protection of Environment... tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? (a)(1) For each performance test... procedures specified in subpart SS of this part. (3) For each performance evaluation of a continuous emission...

  9. A Plan for Evaluating the IPI Testing Program. (United States)

    Unks, Nancy J.

    The testing sub-program is designed to provide the diagnostic instruments necessary to measure pupil progress through the Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) curricula. Its objectives are to provide information about pupils which teachers can use to direct each child's individual learning program, to provide the measurements necessary for…

  10. Heart Rate Measures of Flight Test and Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Malcolm A; Wilson, Glenn F


    .... Because flying is a complex task, several measures are required to derive the best evaluation. This article describes the use of heart rate to augment the typical performance and subjective measures used in test and evaluation...

  11. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation (United States)

    Masters, John E.


    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  12. Management and Use of Director, Operational Test and Evaluation Funds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The reorganization disestablished the functions of the Director, Test, Systems Engineering, and Evaluation, within the Office of Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics...

  13. A holistic model for evaluating the impact of individual technology-enhanced learning resources. (United States)

    Pickering, James D; Joynes, Viktoria C T


    The use of technology within education has now crossed the Rubicon; student expectations, the increasing availability of both hardware and software and the push to fully blended learning environments mean that educational institutions cannot afford to turn their backs on technology-enhanced learning (TEL). The ability to meaningfully evaluate the impact of TEL resources nevertheless remains problematic. This paper aims to establish a robust means of evaluating individual resources and meaningfully measure their impact upon learning within the context of the program in which they are used. Based upon the experience of developing and evaluating a range of mobile and desktop based TEL resources, this paper outlines a new four-stage evaluation process, taking into account learner satisfaction, learner gain, and the impact of a resource on both the individual and the institution in which it has been adapted. A new multi-level model of TEL resource evaluation is proposed, which includes a preliminary evaluation of need, learner satisfaction and gain, learner impact and institutional impact. Each of these levels are discussed in detail, and in relation to existing TEL evaluation frameworks. This paper details a holistic, meaningful evaluation model for individual TEL resources within the specific context in which they are used. It is proposed that this model is adopted to ensure that TEL resources are evaluated in a more meaningful and robust manner than is currently undertaken.

  14. Neuroticism, intelligence, and intra-individual variability in elementary cognitive tasks: testing the mental noise hypothesis. (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Quiroga, Ma Angeles


    Some studies show positive correlations between intraindividual variability in elementary speed measures (reflecting processing efficiency) and individual differences in neuroticism (reflecting instability in behaviour). The so-called neural noise hypothesis assumes that higher levels of noise are related both to smaller indices of processing efficiency and greater levels of neuroticism. Here, we test this hypothesis measuring mental speed by means of three elementary cognitive tasks tapping similar basic processes but varying systematically their content (verbal, numerical, and spatial). Neuroticism and intelligence are also measured. The sample comprised 196 undergraduate psychology students. The results show that (1) processing efficiency is generally unrelated to individual differences in neuroticism, (2) processing speed and efficiency correlate with intelligence, and (3) only the efficiency index is genuinely related to intelligence when the colinearity between speed and efficiency is controlled.

  15. Development and establishment of a protocol of an individual aggressiveness test in breeding does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Olivas


    Full Text Available The present work aims to define the optimal conditions to perform a resident-intruder test in individually housed breeding does as a measure of aggressiveness and describe the biological characteristics of aggressiveness in rabbit does: severity, frequency, duration and latency of aggressive events. Sixty-four nulliparous does at 90 d of age were used for this experiment, half (32 does as residents and the rest as intruders, testing them once a week for 14 wk. The time and duration of each aggressive behaviour was recorded and analysed to assess the aforementioned measures. According to the results, and regarding the studied effects, the origin of the animals caused no effect, whereas the level of aggressiveness seemed to be clearly increased in weeks 3-7 of the experiment, when animals were 110-140 d of age. In conclusion, a resident-intruder test lasting 1 min is enough to assess individual aggressiveness in adult breeding does, the response of which evolves with age and repetition.

  16. Resting and post bronchial challenge testing carbon dioxide partial pressure in individuals with and without asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Miedinger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is conflicting evidence about resting carbon dioxide levels in asthmatic individuals. We wanted to determine if transcutaneously measured carbon dioxide levels prior and during bronchial provocation testing differ according to asthma status reflecting dysfunctional breathing. METHODS: We investigated active firefighters and policemen by means of a validated questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, spirometry, bronchial challenge testing with methacholine (MCT and measurement of transcutaneous blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO(2 at rest prior performing spirometry, one minute and five minutes after termination of MCT. A respiratory physician blinded to the PtcCO(2 results assigned a diagnosis of asthma after reviewing the available study data and the files of the workers medical screening program. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 128 male and 10 female individuals. Fifteen individuals (11% had physician-diagnosed asthma. There was no clinically important difference in median PtcCO(2 at rest, one and five minutes after recovery from MCT in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics (35.6 vs 35.7 mmHg, p = 0.466; 34.7 vs 33.4 mmHg, p = 0.245 and 37.4 vs 36.4 mmHg, p = 0.732. The median drop in PtcCO(2 during MCT and the increase after MCT was lower in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics (0.1 vs 3.2 mmHg, p = 0.014 and 1.9 vs 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.025. CONCLUSIONS: PtcCO(2 levels at rest prior and during recovery after MCT do not differ in individuals with or without physician diagnosed asthma. The fall and subsequent increase in PtcCO(2 levels are higher in non-asthmatics than in asthmatics and seems to be related with increased number of respiratory maneuvers during MCT.

  17. An autonomous vehicle: Constrained test and evaluation (United States)

    Griswold, Norman C.


    The objective of the research is to develop an autonomous vehicle which utilizes stereo camera sensors (using ambient light) to follow complex paths at speeds up to 35 mph with consideration of moving vehicles within the path. The task is intended to demonstrate the contribution to safety of a vehicle under automatic control. All of the long-term scenarios investigating future reduction in congestion involve an automatic system taking control, or partial control, of the vehicle. A vehicle which includes a collision avoidance system is a prerequisite to an automatic control system. The report outlines the results of a constrained test of a vision controlled vehicle. In order to demonstrate its ability to perform on the current street system the vehicle was constrained to recognize, approach, and stop at an ordinary roadside stop sign.

  18. Safety Evaluation Test on Human for Radiation Pre vulcanised Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pairu Ibrahim; Wan Manshol Wan Zain; Chai, Chee Keong; Sofian Ibrahim; Saadiah Sulaiman; Sharifah Ismail


    This paper discussed about clinical test conducted to determine safety evaluations on human for latex examination gloves and latex films made from Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL). Two types of test were being adopted which are i) Modified Draize-95 test and ii) Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals. Modified Draize-95 test was conducted on 200 non-sensitized human subjects and Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals was conducted on 25 individuals who are allergic to the defined major chemical sensitizer presents in natural rubber product. It was found that Modified Draize-95 test has prove that there is no clinical evidence on the presence of residual chemical additives at the level that may induce Type IV allergy in the un sensitized general user population in the RVNRL gloves. Meanwhile Patch Test on Sensitized Individuals has proved that the patch test conducted using the test article on 25 individuals who are allergic to the defined major chemical sensitizers present in natural rubber products, thiuram, carbamates or thiazoles produced a negative response, meeting the pre requirement for the claim of reduced reaction-inducing potential. (author)

  19. Test Procedures to Assess Somatosensory Abnormalities in Individuals with Peripheral Joint Pain: A Systematic Review of Psychometric Properties. (United States)

    Alqarni, Abdullah Mohammad; Manlapaz, Donald; Baxter, David; Tumilty, Steve; Mani, Ramakrishnan


    Test procedures that were developed to assess somatosensory abnormalities should possess optimal psychometric properties (PMPs) to be used in clinical practice. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature to assess the level of evidence for PMPs of test procedures investigated in individuals with peripheral joint pain (PJP). A comprehensive electronic literature search was conducted in 7 databases from inception to March 2016. The Quality Appraisal for Reliability Studies (QAREL) checklist and the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Status Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) tool were used to assess risk for bias of the included studies. Level of evidence was evaluated based on the methodological quality and the quality of the measurement properties. Forty-one studies related to PJP were included. The majority of included studies were considered to be of insufficient methodological quality, and the level of evidence for PMPs varied across different test procedures. The level of evidence for PMPs varied across different test procedures in different types of PJP. Hand-held pressure algometry is the only test procedure that showed moderate positive evidence of intrarater reliability, agreement, and responsiveness, simultaneously, when it was investigated in patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis. This systematic review identified that the level of evidence for PMPs varied across different testing procedures to assess somatosensory abnormalities for different PJP populations. Further research with standardized protocols is recommended to further investigate the predictive ability and responsiveness of reported test procedures in order to warrant their extended utility in clinical practice. © 2018 World Institute of Pain.

  20. Individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases. (United States)

    Kubik, Veit; Söderlund, Hedvig; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Jönsson, Fredrik U


    We investigated the individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases to address whether both study techniques commonly promote item-specific processing. Participants (N = 112) were divided into four groups (n = 28). They either exclusively studied 36 action phrases (e.g., "lift the glass") or both studied and cued-recalled them in four trials. During study trials participants encoded the action phrases either by motorically performing them, or by reading them aloud, and they took final verb-cued recall tests over 18-min and 1-week retention intervals. A testing effect was demonstrated for action phrases, however, only when they were verbally encoded, and not when they were enacted. Similarly, enactive (relative to verbal) encoding reduced the rate of forgetting, but only when the action phrases were exclusively studied, and not when they were also tested. These less-than-additive effects of enactment and testing on the rate of forgetting, as well as on long-term retention, support the notion that both study techniques effectively promote item-specific processing that can only be marginally increased further by combining them.

  1. Decontamination tests of some materials used in installations and individual equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestre, E.; Sautiez, N.; Kerdelleau, J. de


    After having indicated the definitions of some contamination and decontamination characteristics (susceptibility to contamination, decontamination gain, percentage of removed activity) and rankings used to assess chemical resistance to various chemical agents, this report contains results (resistance to contamination and chemical resistance) of decontamination and chemical tests performed on various materials: floor coatings, paints (vinyl-based, Epikote resin and urethane-based paint, and so on), peelable paints and coatings, individual materials and equipment (rubber, synthetic fibres, other textiles), materials (metals, ceramics, graphite and polythene)

  2. Quantitative in situ TEM tensile testing of an individual nickel nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yang; Peng Cheng; Ganesan, Yogeeswaran; Lou Jun; Huang Jianyu


    In this paper, we have demonstrated the usage of a novel micro-mechanical device (MMD) to perform quantitative in situ tensile tests on individual metallic nanowires inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Our preliminary experiment on a 360 nm diameter nickel nanowire showed that the sample fractured at an engineering stress of ∼ 1.2 GPa and an engineering strain of ∼ 4%, which is consistent with earlier experiments performed inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). With in situ high resolution TEM imaging and diffraction capabilities, this novel experimental set-up could provide unique opportunities to reveal the underlying deformation and damage mechanisms for metals at the nanoscale.

  3. Laboratory competence evaluation through proficiency testing - mycotoxins in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torović Ljilja D.


    Full Text Available Laboratory for analysis of mycotoxins in food at the Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina (Novi Sad, Serbia participated in 15 proficiency testing schemes in period 2012-2016, comprising 22 determinations of regulated mycotoxins: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenone, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin, in different food commodities: wheat, corn, barley, breakfast cereals, infant food, milk, wine and fruit juice. Analyses were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (patulin, deoxynivalenol or fluorescence detection (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone using o-phthalaldehyde precolumn derivatization (fumonisins or UV postcolumn derivatization (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, following clean-up on immunoaffinity columns with specific antibodies, except in case of patulin when solvent extraction and solid-phase C-18 clean-up were used. Laboratory performance assessed in terms of z scores showed all satisfactory results. In depth evaluation revealed following distribution of z scores (absolute values: 59.1% up to 0.5, 36.4% between 0.5 and 1.0, and 4.5% above 1.0. Analysis of trends performed for multiple determinations of individual mycotoxins showed several changes of z score to better or worse rank. Overall assessment of the performance in proficiency testing demonstrated laboratory competence for analysis of mycotoxins in food.

  4. Language in individuals with left hemisphere tumors: Is spontaneous speech analysis comparable to formal testing? (United States)

    Rofes, Adrià; Talacchi, Andrea; Santini, Barbara; Pinna, Giampietro; Nickels, Lyndsey; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Miceli, Gabriele


    The relationship between spontaneous speech and formal language testing in people with brain tumors (gliomas) has been rarely studied. In clinical practice, formal testing is typically used, while spontaneous speech is less often evaluated quantitatively. However, spontaneous speech is quicker to sample and may be less prone to test/retest effects, making it a potential candidate for assessing language impairments when there is restricted time or when the patient is unable to undertake prolonged testing. To assess whether quantitative spontaneous speech analysis and formal testing detect comparable language impairments in people with gliomas. Specifically, we addressed (a) whether both measures detected comparable language impairments in our patient sample; and (b) which language levels, assessment times, and spontaneous speech variables were more often impaired in this subject group. Five people with left perisylvian gliomas performed a spontaneous speech task and a formal language assessment. Tests were administered before surgery, within a week after surgery, and seven months after surgery. Performance on spontaneous speech was compared with that of 15 healthy speakers. Language impairments were detected more often with both measures than with either measure independently. Lexical-semantic impairments were more common than phonological and grammatical impairments, and performance was equally impaired across assessment time points. Incomplete sentences and phonological paraphasias were the most common error types. In our sample both spontaneous speech analysis and formal testing detected comparable language impairments. Currently, we suggest that formal testing remains overall the better option, except for cases in which there are restrictions on testing time or the patient is too tired to undergo formal testing. In these cases, spontaneous speech may provide a viable alternative, particularly if automated analysis of spontaneous speech becomes more readily

  5. Evaluation of Auto-Test Generation Strategies and Platforms (United States)

    Gerlich, R.; Gerlich, R.; Boll, T.; Mayer, J.


    As the test effort takes a significant part of the software development lifecycle, efficient test strategies are a precondition for reduction of development costs and time. In this respect two main issues exist: firstly, the tuning of the test track from test case identification to evaluation, secondly, the reduction of number of test cases to be processed and evaluated. Both aspects were considered in the work presented in this paper. For reduction of the effort related to the test track two test automation tools have been applied: DCRTT for C and SmartG for Java. While DCRTT is ready for industrial use at high degree of automation of all test steps, SmartG is a prototype exploiting the identifcation of path sets by random testing. DCRTT only requires provision of the source files and then delivers test drivers, a filtered and reduced set of test cases, related test results and detailed information on data ranges and observed exceptions. The manual effort is reduced to test evaluation. DCRTT identifies a significantly reduced set of test cases left for manual evaluation. The selection criteria are based on block coverage, decision coverage and occurrence of exceptions when generating inputs from the valid and invalid data range. One or more test cases may be collected for each basket of such a criterion and element of a function's structure. It is of high importance how well such automated strategies do work. Therefore a number of investigations have been performed, evaluating the achieved coverage and number of reported exceptions. Three test modes have been considered: random and lattice-based test generation for module testing and operational testing imposing the complete main program to representative operational conditions.

  6. Costs and benefits of individuals conceived after IVF: a net tax evaluation in The Netherlands. (United States)

    Moolenaar, L M; Connolly, M; Huisman, B; Postma, M J; Hompes, P G A; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W J


    This study evaluated the lifetime future net tax revenues from individuals conceived after IVF relative to those naturally conceived. A model based on the method of generational accounting was developed to evaluate investments in IVF. Calculations were based on average investments paid and received from the government by an individual. All costs were discounted to their net present values and adjusted for survival. The lifetime net present value of IVF-conceived individuals was -€81,374 (the minus sign reflecting negative net present value). The lifetime net present value of IVF-conceived men and women were -€47,091 and -€123,177, respectively. The lifetime net present value of naturally conceived individuals was -€70,392; respective amounts for men and women were -€36,109 and -€112,195. The model was most sensitive to changes in the growth of healthcare costs, economic growth and the discount rate. Therefore, it is concluded that, similarly to naturally conceived individuals in the Netherlands, IVF-conceived individuals have negative discounted net tax revenue at the end of life. The analytic framework described here undervalues the incremental value of an additional birth because it only considers the fiscal consequences of life and does not take into consideration broader macroeconomic benefits. This study evaluated the lifetime future net tax revenues from individuals conceived after IVF relative those naturally conceived. A model based on the method of generational accounting to evaluate investments in IVF was used. Calculations were based on average investments paid and received from the government by an individual. The lifetime net present value of IVF-conceived individuals was -€81,374 (the minus sign reflecting negative net present value). The lifetime net present value of IVF-conceived men and women were -€47,091 and -€123,177, respectively. The lifetime net present value of naturally conceived individuals was -€70,392; respective

  7. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests. (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole


    Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

  8. Quantitative sensory testing measures individual pain responses in emergency department patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy KJ


    Full Text Available Kevin J Duffy, Katharyn L Flickinger, Jeffrey T Kristan, Melissa J Repine, Alexandro Gianforcaro, Rebecca B Hasley, Saad Feroz, Jessica M Rupp, Jumana Al-Baghli, Maria L Pacella, Brian P Suffoletto, Clifton W Callaway Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Background: Refining and individualizing treatment of acute pain in the emergency department (ED is a high priority, given that painful complaints are the most common reasons for ED visits. Few tools exist to objectively measure pain perception in the ED setting. We speculated that variation in perception of fixed painful stimuli would explain individual variation in reported pain and response to treatment among ED patients. Materials and methods: In three studies, we 1 describe performance characteristics of brief quantitative sensory testing (QST in 50 healthy volunteers, 2 test effects of 10 mg oxycodone versus placebo on QST measures in 18 healthy volunteers, and 3 measure interindividual differences in nociception and treatment responses in 198 ED patients with a painful complaint during ED treatment. QST measures adapted for use in the ED included pressure sensation threshold, pressure pain threshold (PPT, pressure pain response (PPR, and cold pain tolerance (CPT tests. Results: First, all QST measures had high inter-rater reliability and test–retest reproducibility. Second, 10 mg oxycodone reduced PPR, increased PPT, and prolonged CPT. Third, baseline PPT and PPR revealed hyperalgesia in 31 (16% ED subjects relative to healthy volunteers. In 173 (88% ED subjects who completed repeat testing 30 minutes after pain treatment, PPT increased and PPR decreased (Cohen’s dz 0.10–0.19. Verbal pain scores (0–10 for the ED complaint decreased by 2.2 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.9, 2.6 (Cohen’s dz 0.97 but did not covary with the changes in PPT and PPR (r=0.05–0.13. Treatment effects were greatest in ED subjects

  9. The safety evaluation for an Individual Plant Examination for External Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastelan, M.


    The safety evaluation for an Individual Plant Examination for External Events (IPEEE) is the part of the plant-specific, systematic evaluation of the nuclear power plants. The objective for such evaluation is in identifying the plant-specific vulnerabilities and risk coming out from the same, for which cost-effective safety improvements may be done. The programme outcome from the US regulatory practise, and is internationally accepted. Paper has the objective to present the objectives, goals and methodology which is used in the process of evaluation. (author) [hr

  10. Comparing observed and modelled growth of larval herring (Clupea harengusz: Testing individual-based model parameterisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Hauss


    Full Text Available Experiments that directly test larval fish individual-based model (IBM growth predictions are uncommon since it is difficult to simultaneously measure all relevant metabolic and behavioural attributes. We compared observed and modelled somatic growth of larval herring (Clupea harengus in short-term (50 degree-day laboratory trials conducted at 7 and 13°C in which larvae were either unfed or fed ad libitum on different prey sizes (~100 to 550 µm copepods, Acartia tonsa. The larval specific growth rate (SGR, % DW d-1 was generally overestimated by the model, especially for larvae foraging on large prey items. Model parameterisations were adjusted to explore the effect of 1 temporal variability in foraging of individuals, and 2 reduced assimilation efficiency due to rapid gut evacuation at high feeding rates. With these adjustments, the model described larval growth well across temperatures, prey sizes, and larval sizes. Although the experiments performed verified the growth model, variability in growth and foraging behaviour among larvae shows that it is necessary to measure both the physiology and feeding behaviour of the same individual. This is a challenge for experimentalists but will ultimately yield the most valuable data to adequately model environmental impacts on the survival and growth of marine fish early life stages.

  11. Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Benney


    The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be

  12. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C.; Todosow, M.


    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized

  13. Forensic individual age estimation with DNA: From initial approaches to methylation tests. (United States)

    Freire-Aradas, A; Phillips, C; Lareu, M V


    Individual age estimation is a key factor in forensic science analysis that can provide very useful information applicable to criminal, legal, and anthropological investigations. Forensic age inference was initially based on morphological inspection or radiography and only later began to adopt molecular approaches. However, a lack of accuracy or technical problems hampered the introduction of these DNA-based methodologies in casework analysis. A turning point occurred when the epigenetic signature of DNA methylation was observed to gradually change during an individual´s lifespan. In the last four years, the number of publications reporting DNA methylation age-correlated changes has gradually risen and the forensic community now has a range of age methylation tests applicable to forensic casework. Most forensic age predictor models have been developed based on blood DNA samples, but additional tissues are now also being explored. This review assesses the most widely adopted genes harboring methylation sites, detection technologies, statistical age-predictive analyses, and potential causes of variation in age estimates. Despite the need for further work to improve predictive accuracy and establishing a broader range of tissues for which tests can analyze the most appropriate methylation sites, several forensic age predictors have now been reported that provide consistency in their prediction accuracies (predictive error of ±4 years); this makes them compelling tools with the potential to contribute key information to help guide criminal investigations. Copyright © 2017 Central Police University.

  14. Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics. (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U; Jonsson, Bert


    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design ( N  = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provided to a discussion group, and that test-enhanced learning leads to better learning than the discussion groups, independent of retention interval. Moreover, we examined whether memory and learning might be influenced by the participants' need for cognition (NFC). The results showed that those scoring high on NFC remembered more than those who scored low. To conclude, testing trumps discussion groups from a learning perspective, and the discussion groups were also the least beneficial learning context for those scoring low on NFC.

  15. Evaluation of exercise on individuals with dementia and their carers: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Claire


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost all of the 820,000 people in the UK with dementia will experience Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD. However, research has traditionally focused on treating cognitive symptoms, thus neglecting core clinical symptoms that often have a more profound impact on living with dementia. Recent evidence (Kales et al, 2007; Ballard et al, 2009 indicates that the popular approach to managing BPSD - prescription of anti-psychotic medication - can increase mortality and the risk of stroke in people with dementia as well as impair quality of life and accelerate cognitive decline. Consequently, there is a need to evaluate the impact that non-pharmacological interventions have on BPSD; we believe physical exercise is a particularly promising approach. Methods/Design We will carry out a pragmatic, randomised, single-blind controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise (planned walking on the behavioural and psychological symptoms of individuals with dementia. We aim to recruit 146 people with dementia and their carers to be randomized into two groups; one will be trained in a structured, tailored walking programme, while the other will continue with treatment as usual. The primary outcome (BPSD will be assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI along with relevant secondary outcomes at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Discussion Designing this study has been challenging both ethically and methodologically. In particular to design an intervention that is simple, measurable, safe, non-invasive and enjoyable has been testing and has required a lot of thought. Throughout the design, we have attempted to balance methodological rigour with study feasibility. We will discuss the challenges that were faced and overcome in this paper. Trial Registration ISRCTN01423159

  16. Coping among individuals with multiple sclerosis: Evaluating a goodness-of-fit model. (United States)

    Roubinov, Danielle S; Turner, Aaron P; Williams, Rhonda M


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic illness involving both controllable and uncontrollable stressors. The goodness-of-fit hypothesis posits that managing stressors effectively requires the use of different coping approaches in the face of controllable and uncontrollable stressors. To test the applicability of the goodness-of-fit model in a sample of adults with MS, we evaluated the ratio of 2 types of coping (an active problem-solving approach and an emotion-based meaning-focused approach) as a moderator of the relations between stress uncontrollability and mental health outcomes. Participants were veterans with MS (N = 90) receiving medical services through the Veterans Health Administration who completed telephone-based interviews. Regression analyses tested the interaction of stress uncontrollability and the problem- and meaning-focused coping ratio on anxious and depressive symptoms. Significant interactions were probed at 1 SD above the mean of coping (use of predominantly problem-focused coping) and 1 SD below the mean of coping (use of predominantly meaning-focused coping). Findings largely supported the goodness-of-fit hypothesis. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were elevated when participants used more problem-focused strategies relative to meaning-focused strategies in the face of perceived uncontrollable stress. Conversely, symptoms of anxiety and depression were lower when uncontrollable stress was met with predominantly meaning-focused coping; however, the relations did not reach statistical significance. The impact of uncontrollable stressors on mental health outcomes for individuals with MS may vary depending on the degree to which problem-focused versus meaning-focused coping strategies are employed, lending support to the goodness-of-fit model. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Cross-lingual tagger evaluation without test data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Zeljko; Plank, Barbara; Søgaard, Anders


    We address the challenge of cross-lingual POS tagger evaluation in absence of manually annotated test data. We put forth and evaluate two dictionary-based metrics. On the tasks of accuracy prediction and system ranking, we reveal that these metrics are reliable enough to approximate test set......-based evaluation, and at the same time lean enough to support assessment for truly low-resource languages....

  18. Test plan for FY-91 alpha CAM evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.


    This report describes the test plan for evaluating the Merlin Gerin, Inc., Edgar alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) and associated analysis system to be conducted by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy. INEL has evaluated other commercial alpha CAM systems to detect transuranic contaminants during waste handling and retrieval operations. This test plan outlines experimental methods, sampling methods, sampling and analysis techniques, and equipment needed and safety and quality requirements to test the commercial CAM. 8 refs., 3 figs

  19. The 1 μg cosyntropin test in normal individuals: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Anantharaman


    Full Text Available Background: The 1μg cosyntropin test has some advantages over the 250μg test as a test of adrenal function. One of the concerns regarding the 1 μg test includes stability of the cosyntropin when reconstituted and stored. Classically the 5 th percentile responses to cosyntropin in normal individuals have been used to define a normal response. Recent studies have shown that these normative values should be determined for individual assays. Materials and Methods: We performed a 1μg cosyntropin test using reconstituted and refrigerated (4-8° C cosyntropin in saline solution in 49 non pregnant adults who were apparently healthy and had no exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids. The cosyntropin solution was stored for up to 60 days following reconstitution. We analysed the data for any association between duration of cosyntropin solution storage and the cortisol responses to cosyntropin administration. Results: The mean ± SD cortisol level at baseline, 30 and 60 min were-12.19 ± 3 μg/dl, 20.72 ± 2.63 μg/dl, 16.86 ± 3.33 μg/dl. The 5 th percentile cortisol response at 30 min was 16.5 μg/dl (16.33 μg/dl rounded off. The correlation coefficients between number of days of cosyntropin solution storage and the cortisol responses at 30 and 60 min were (Spear mans rho = 0.06,-0.24 respectively (P = 0.69 and 0.41. There were no differences in cortisol values whether the storage was for less than 30 days or more than 30 days (mean difference 0.25 μg/dl P = 0.44. Conclusion: The 5 th percentile normative values determined for our assay is lower than what is currently being used clinically and in research publications. Prolonged refrigerated storage of cosyntropin solution does not affect the validity of the 1 μg cosyntropin test.

  20. Development, evaluation and application of performance-based brake testing technologies field test : executive summary (United States)


    This report presents the results of the field test portion of the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Performance-Based Brake Testing Technologies sponsored by the Federal Highway Administrations (FHWA) Office of Motor Carriers.

  1. A Communicative Approach to Second Language Testing and Evaluation


    Cunliffe, Brenda


    This paper briefly reviews the communicative approach to second language teaching and discusses testing students' communicative performance. It is of primary importance that testing should reflect the approach to teaching that has been adopted; hence, this paper includes a brief description of the communicative approach to second language instruction. This approach is then related to testing procedures used to evaluate students' communicative performance.

  2. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 19, 2007 ... The assessment of H2S field test for detection of potability of drinking water was evaluated by analysing. 1050 water samples from various sources at room temperature and at 37ºC after 18, 24, and 48 h of incubation. The H2S test showed 100, 84 and 89% correlation with Eijkman test, Membrane Filter.

  3. Evaluation of individual subjects in the analog classroom setting: II. Effects of dose of amphetamine (Adderall). (United States)

    Wigal, S B; Swanson, J M; Greenhill, L; Waslick, B; Cantwell, D; Clevenger, W; Davies, M; Lerner, M; Regino, R; Fineberg, E; Baren, M; Browne, R


    Multiple dependent variables were graphed for 29 subjects who participated in a double-blind evaluation of 4 doses of Adderall, plus positive (methylphenidate) and placebo control conditions. Five judges ranked the conditions for each subject, and analyses of individual subjects indicated that these rankings were concordant (reliable) across judges. Consensus rankings were assigned to each subject, and an analysis of these ranks showed that the conditions differed significantly. The choice of best conditions were judged to be across 3 doses of Adderall (10, 15, and 20 mg). This confirms the clinical impression of individual differences in optimal dose of stimulant medication. The methodological, graphical, and statistical methods presented in this article provide a systematic, reliable procedure for evaluating relative response of individuals to different doses of stimulant medication.

  4. An Evaluation of a Behaviorally Based Social Skills Group for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Milne, Christine; Taubman, Mitchell; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty; Torres, Norma; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Yoder, Paul


    In this study we evaluated a social skills group which employed a progressive applied behavior analysis model for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A randomized control trial was utilized; eight participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group and seven participants were randomly assigned to a waitlist control group. The…

  5. The evaluation of an individual burnout intervention program : The role of inequity and social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDierendonck, D; Schaufeli, W.B; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    This study evaluated a 5-week, group-based burnout intervention program among direct-care professionals working with mentally disabled individuals. Equity theory was used as the theoretical framework. The main objective of the program was to reduce perceptions of inequity in the relationship with

  6. Evaluation of variation in individual seed electrical conductivity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed lots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Auma, E.O.; Struik, P.C.


    Twenty-four seed lots of two common bean cultivars were produced to evaluate the distributions found in individual seed electrical conductivity (EC, pS cm(-1) g(-1)), to determine which parameters would best quantify the observed variation between seeds, and to explore whether cultivar or production

  7. Evaluation of Individual and Group Grief and Trauma Interventions for Children Post Disaster (United States)

    Salloum, Alison; Overstreet, Stacy


    This study evaluated a community-based grief and trauma intervention for children conducted postdisaster. Fifty six children (7 to 12 years old) who reported moderate to severe levels of symptoms of posttraumatic stress were randomly assigned to group or individual treatment. Treatment consisted of a manualized 10-session grief- and trauma-focused…

  8. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings. (United States)


    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  9. Suspected fragrance allergy requires extended patch testing to individual fragrance allergens. (United States)

    Katsarma, G; Gawkrodger, D J


    This study has been performed to evaluate the efficacy of fragrance mix (FM) as a screen for fragrance allergy. Patients were included if they had had positive allergic reactions to FM, to 1 of the 8 ingredients of FM, to 1 of 14 other fragrance materials, or to their own perfume. 91 patients were studied. There were 65 women and 23 men (in 3, their sex was not recorded) allergic to FM on patch testing. The mean (+/-SD) age was 48.4+/-18.6 years. 22 patients gave a past history of atopic eczema. Dermatitis of the hands (31%) and face (26%) were the most common presenting complaints. 85 patients (93%) had a positive allergic patch test reaction to FM. 22 of the 40 tested to the extended fragrance series were positive to other perfumes as well, and of these, there were 14 reactions (in 9 patients) to allergens not in the FM. In addition, 6 patients were positive only to separately tested fragrance constituents and not to the FM. In conclusion, FM is an accurate screen for fragrance contact sensitivity. However, patch testing to an extended series is needed if there is clinical suspicion of perfume allergy, as otherwise about 7% of patients allergic to fragrances will be missed.

  10. Plan for the Assessment and Evaluation of Individual and Team Proficiencies Developed by the DARWARS Environments (United States)


    Eva L. Baker Richard Wainess Claire Chen Robert Mislevy Patrick Kyllonen DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Fublic Release Distribution Unlimited...Ignazi, 3D- Maze (a) Observation and time 1, 2 Collaboration, problem Vercesi, & Riva (2001) to complete game solving, communication, and and evaluation; Eva Baker, UCLA, evaluation and measurement expertise; Patrick Kyllonen, Educational Testing Service, whose work focuses on

  11. An evaluation of Wb123 antibody elisa in individuals treated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of antibody testing for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is intended to enhance the monitoring and evaluation activities of the Global Program for the Elimination of LF. This is due to the fact that antibody tests are expected to be the most sensitive at detecting exposure to LF compared to antigen that ...

  12. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sartor

    Full Text Available Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9, 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30. The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI, which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40, but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91. The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93. It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42 than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29. In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  13. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals. (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Bonato, Matteo; Papini, Gabriele; Bosio, Andrea; Mohammed, Rahil A; Bonomi, Alberto G; Moore, Jonathan P; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter


    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR) features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30). The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI), which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40), but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV) error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91). The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93). It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42) than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29). In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  14. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Gren, D.C.; Simon, S.L.; Wrenn, M.E.; Hawthorne, H.A.; Lotz, T.M.; Stevens, W.; Till, J.E.


    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS

  15. The Motivation Analysis Test: an historical and contemporary evaluation. (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C; Walsh, R Patricia; Mills, Michael


    This is an historical review and contemporary empirical evaluation of the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT), one of the first tests to take a psychometric approach to the assessment of motivation. Reviews were quite positive, but the test is now over 50 years old. Nevertheless, it employs innovations in measurement not widely used in objective measurement then or now: (1) subtests with different formats, (2) disguised items, (3) speeded administration procedures, and (4) ipsative format and scoring procedures. These issues are discussed and a contemporary sample (N = 360) obtained to evaluate the Motivation Analysis Test in light of its innovative characteristics.

  16. Stem analysis program (GOAP for evaluating of increment and growth data at individual tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafura Aylak Özdemir


    Full Text Available Stem analysis is a method evaluating in a detailed way data of increment and growth of individual tree at the past periods and widely used in various forestry disciplines. Untreated data of stem analysis consist of annual ring count and measurement procedures performed on cross sections taken from individual tree by section method. The evaluation of obtained this untreated data takes quite some time. Thus, a computer software was developed in this study to quickly and efficiently perform stem analysis. This computer software developed to evaluate untreated data of stem analysis as numerical and graphical was programmed as macro by utilizing Visual Basic for Application feature of MS Excel 2013 program currently the most widely used. In developed this computer software, growth height model is formed from two different approaches, individual tree volume depending on section method, cross-sectional area, increments of diameter, height and volume, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height are calculated depending on desired period lengths. This calculated values are given as table. Development of diameter, height, volume, increments of these variables, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height according to periodic age are given as chart. Stem model showing development of diameter, height and shape of individual tree in the past periods also can be taken from computer software as chart.

  17. Development of in-pile test and evaluation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yung Hwan; Park, Jong Man; Joo, Kee Nam; Park, Duk Keun; Park, Se Jin; Oh, Jong Myung; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park Jin Suk; Lee, Jae Han [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    To develop the in-pile test and evaluation technologies using KMRR, basic design of instrumented capsule and auxiliary system for material irradiation test and the related studies are performed. First, reactor and test hole characteristics are summarized, and conceptual design requirements of capsule to KMRR are reviewed. And fundamental principles and criteria for the instrumented capsule design are summarized. Basic design and analysis of instrumented capsule are performed, and design of capsule supporting system are also performed and structural integrity of the system is analyzed. Based on the prior studies, test mock-ups are designed and manufactured, and thermohydraulic and vibration tests are prepared. And, as in-pile test evaluation technologies, KMRR neutron dosimetry and mechanical tests related to material irradiation are investigated. 67 figs, 30 tabs, 41 refs. (Author).

  18. Drop performance test and evaluation for HANARO shutoff units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. H.; Cho, Y. K.; Lee, J. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Woo, J. S.


    The function of the shutoff units of the HANARO is to rapidly insert the shutoff rod into the reactor core for safe shutdown of reactor. This paper describes drop performance test and evaluation for a shutoff unit for the technical verification of lifetime extension and localization of the HANARO shutoff units. We have performed preliminary drop performance tests for a shutoff unit at 1/2-core test loop and analyzed through the comparison with the test results performed during design verification test and the results of the periodic performance test in HANARO. It shows that the results of the local fabrication, installation and alignment for the shutoff unit meet the basic performance requirements, Furthermore, the performance evaluation method of the periodic drop test of the HANARO shutoff units is a conservative method comparing with the real drop time

  19. Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich


    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS

  20. Electromyographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of the masseter muscle individuals with unilateral peripheral facial paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion


    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with peripheral Facial Paralysis (FP show conditions that lead to unilateral mastication, performed by the non-affected side, mainly due to the difficulty of action of the buccinator muscle. Objectives: characterize the motor control and morphology of the masseter muscle in individuals with unilateral peripheral FP through electromyographic and ultrasonographic evaluation. Method: 16 participants, of both sexes, with ages superior to 18 years old. The study group (SG consisted of 8 individuals who'd had idiopathic unilateral peripheral FP for more than 6 months; the control group (CG consisted of 8 normal individuals. All the subjects were submitted to the masseter muscle evaluation through surface electromyography (sEMG and ultrasonography (USG during the following tasks: rest, clenching with cotton roller between the teeth (CT and clenching with maximum intercuspation (MIC. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in comparisons within and between the groups concerning the hemifacial asymmetry, both for the sEMG and for the USG. Also there were no significant differences in the activation of the masticatory muscles (masseter and temporal in the sEMG. Conclusions: Both the motor control and the morphology of the masseter muscles in individuals with unilateral peripheral FP were similar to those of normal individuals. Although literature suggests that the demand of functional adaptations made by FP individuals could exceed the structural and functional tolerance of the temporomandibular joints, the results indicate that the length of analyzed patient's FP was not enough to generate anatomical and physiological differences in the masticatory muscles.

  1. Dredged Material Testing and Evaluation for Ocean Disposal (United States)

    Evaluation and testing of dredged material proposed for ocean dumping is conducted to help protect human health and the marine environment. National guidance is provided by the Green Book. Regional Implementation Manuals are provided.

  2. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : exogenous factors test plan. (United States)


    This report presents the exogenous factors test plan for the national evaluation of the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The Minnesota UPA projects focus on reduc...

  3. Challenges of Pre- and Post-Test Counseling for Orthodox Jewish Individuals in the Premarital Phase. (United States)

    Rose, E; Schreiber-Agus, N; Bajaj, K; Klugman, S; Goldwaser, T


    The Jewish community has traditionally taken ownership of its health, and has taken great strides to raise awareness about genetic issues that affect the community, such as Tay-Sachs disease and Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome. Thanks in part to these heightened awareness efforts, many Orthodox Jewish individuals are now using genetics services as they begin to plan their families. Due to unique cultural and religious beliefs and perceptions, the Orthodox Jewish patients who seek genetic counseling face many barriers to a successful counseling session, and often seek the guidance of programs such as the Program for Jewish Genetic Health (PJGH). In this article, we present clinical vignettes from the PJGH's clinical affiliate, the Reproductive Genetics practice at the Montefiore Medical Center. These cases highlight unique features of contemporary premarital counseling and screening within the Orthodox Jewish Community, including concerns surrounding stigma, disclosure, "marriageability," the use of reproductive technologies, and the desire to include a third party in decision making. Our vignettes demonstrate the importance of culturally-sensitive counseling. We provide strategies and points to consider when addressing the challenges of pre- and post-test counseling as it relates to genetic testing in this population.

  4. Evaluation of the contribution made by different tests in nuclear medicine to occupational dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreras Caballero, A.; Damera Martinez, A.; Brigido Flores, O.; Rosa Suarez, R.; Lasserra Sanchez, O.; Prieto, F.


    The Department of Nuclear Medicine from the Cancer Hospital at Camaguey y is described based on the evaluation of the contribution to the collective dose of different tests carried out at the department. Studies were made starting from statistics from tests in 1995 -1996 and the dose measurements made during the execution of different procedures. Outcomes are compared with those from the individual dosimetric control using the film dosimetry service from the CPHR during 1995 -1996

  5. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.


    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  6. Comparative study of heuristic evaluation and usability testing methods. (United States)

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam Paul; Monaco, Valerie; Thambuganipalle, Himabindu; Schleyer, Titus


    Usability methods, such as heuristic evaluation, cognitive walk-throughs and user testing, are increasingly used to evaluate and improve the design of clinical software applications. There is still some uncertainty, however, as to how those methods can be used to support the development process and evaluation in the most meaningful manner. In this study, we compared the results of a heuristic evaluation with those of formal user tests in order to determine which usability problems were detected by both methods. We conducted heuristic evaluation and usability testing on four major commercial dental computer-based patient records (CPRs), which together cover 80% of the market for chairside computer systems among general dentists. Both methods yielded strong evidence that the dental CPRs have significant usability problems. An average of 50% of empirically-determined usability problems were identified by the preceding heuristic evaluation. Some statements of heuristic violations were specific enough to precisely identify the actual usability problem that study participants encountered. Other violations were less specific, but still manifested themselves in usability problems and poor task outcomes. In this study, heuristic evaluation identified a significant portion of problems found during usability testing. While we make no assumptions about the generalizability of the results to other domains and software systems, heuristic evaluation may, under certain circumstances, be a useful tool to determine design problems early in the development cycle.

  7. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems (United States)

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  8. Evaluation of an extended pancreatic function test in normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exocrine pancreatic response was evaluated in patients with varying degrees of pancreatic damage and in control subjects by means of an extended pancreatic function test (PFT). A second injection of secretin and pancreozymin was given after completion of the standard test. The discriminatory value of the standard PFT ...

  9. Evaluation of fuel rods behavior - under irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameiras, F.S.; Terra, J.L.; Pinto, L.C.M.; Dias, M.S.; Pinheiro, R.B.


    By the accompanying of the irradiation of instrumented test fuel rods simulating the operational conditions in reactors, plus the results of post - irradiation exams, tests, evaluation and calibration of analitic modelling of such fuel rods is done. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Instrumental and Non-Instrumental Evaluation of 4-Meter Walking Speed in Older Individuals. (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Ticinesi, Andrea; De Vita, Francesca; Gelmini, Giovanni; Costantino, Cosimo; Meschi, Tiziana; Kressig, Reto W; Cesari, Matteo; Fabi, Massimo; Lauretani, Fulvio


    Manual measurement of 4-meter gait speed by a stopwatch is the gold standard test for functional assessment in older adults. However, the accuracy of this technique may be biased by several factors, including intra- and inter-operator variability. Instrumental techniques of measurement using accelerometers may have a higher accuracy. Studies addressing the concordance between these two techniques are missing. The aim of the present community-based observational study was to compare manual and instrumental measurements of 4-meter gait speed in older individuals and to assess their relationship with other indicators of physical performance. One-hundred seventy-two (69 men, 103 women) non-disabled community-dwellers aged ≥65 years were enrolled. They underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment including physical function by Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), hand grip strength, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT). Timed usual walking speed on a 4-meter course was assessed by using both a stopwatch (4-meter manual measurement, 4-MM) and a tri-axial accelerometer (4-meter automatic measurement, 4-MA). Correlations between these performance measures were evaluated separately in men and women by partial correlation coefficients. In both genders, 4-MA was associated with 4-MM (men r = 0.62, pwomen r = 0.73, pmen r = 0.40, p = 0.005; women r = 0.29, p = 0.001) and 6MWT (men r = 0.50, p = 0.0004; women r = 0.22, p = 0.048). 4-MM was associated with handgrip strength and 6MWT in both men and women. Considering gait speed men and 23% of women. The use of accelerometer resulted in 29 (13 M, 16 F) additional diagnoses of dismobility, compared with the 4-MM. In an older population, the concordance of gait speeds manually or instrumentally assessed is not optimal. The results suggest that manual measures might lead to misclassification of a substantial number of subjects. However, longitudinal studies using standardized and validated procedures aimed at the comparison of

  11. Instrumental and Non-Instrumental Evaluation of 4-Meter Walking Speed in Older Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maggio

    Full Text Available Manual measurement of 4-meter gait speed by a stopwatch is the gold standard test for functional assessment in older adults. However, the accuracy of this technique may be biased by several factors, including intra- and inter-operator variability. Instrumental techniques of measurement using accelerometers may have a higher accuracy. Studies addressing the concordance between these two techniques are missing. The aim of the present community-based observational study was to compare manual and instrumental measurements of 4-meter gait speed in older individuals and to assess their relationship with other indicators of physical performance.One-hundred seventy-two (69 men, 103 women non-disabled community-dwellers aged ≥65 years were enrolled. They underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment including physical function by Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, hand grip strength, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT. Timed usual walking speed on a 4-meter course was assessed by using both a stopwatch (4-meter manual measurement, 4-MM and a tri-axial accelerometer (4-meter automatic measurement, 4-MA. Correlations between these performance measures were evaluated separately in men and women by partial correlation coefficients.In both genders, 4-MA was associated with 4-MM (men r = 0.62, p<0.001; women r = 0.73, p<0.001, handgrip strength (men r = 0.40, p = 0.005; women r = 0.29, p = 0.001 and 6MWT (men r = 0.50, p = 0.0004; women r = 0.22, p = 0.048. 4-MM was associated with handgrip strength and 6MWT in both men and women. Considering gait speed <0.6 m/s as diagnostic of dismobility syndrome, the two methods of assessment disagreed, with a different categorization of subjects, in 19% of men and 23% of women. The use of accelerometer resulted in 29 (13 M, 16 F additional diagnoses of dismobility, compared with the 4-MM.In an older population, the concordance of gait speeds manually or instrumentally assessed is not optimal. The results suggest

  12. Evaluation of work routines in PET/CT service with and individual tool in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Maryana N.; Oliveira, Fernanda R. de; Fischer, Andreia C.F.S.; Bacelar, Alexandre


    This study used a direct monitoring system (RemoteDose) that presents the individual dose and dose rate measurements, plotted instantly, as a tool to evaluate work routines of Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOE) of a PET/CT Service. With this evaluation was possible to identify the critical tasks performed by each work team (Pharmaceutical/Nursing/Radiology Technician team) for subsequent optimization of patient care processes. It was also possible to assess whether these tasks are properly distributed among this teams. The RemoteDose system proved to be able to assist the optimization of radiation protection of a PET/CT Service, proving to be an important ally of the Radiation Protection Supervisor in this process, since it allows the display of real-time monitoring. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the FORETELL consortium operational test : weather information for surface transportation, evaluation strategy (United States)


    The purpose of the independent evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of the FORETELL Program in achieving certain ARTS goals and objectives. Independent evaluations of ITS Operational Tests require a well documented structured approach to ensure ...

  14. Ipsilesional upper limb performance in stroke individuals: relationship among outcomes of different tests used to assess hand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Pinto Cunha

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Stroke individuals have sensorimotor repercussions on their ipsilesional upper limb. Therefore, it is important to use tests that allow an adequate assessment and follow-up of such deficits. Physical and occupational therapists commonly use maximal grip strength tests to assess the functional condition of stroke individuals. However, one could ask whether a single test is able to characterize the hand function in this population. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among outcomes of different tests frequently used to describe the function of the hand in the ipsilesional upper limb of stroke individuals. Methods: Twenty-two stroke individuals performed four hand function tests: maximal handgrip strength (HGSMax, maximal pinch grip strength (PGSMax, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT and Nine Hole Peg Test (9-HPT. All tests were performed with the ipsilesional hand. Pearson's correlation analyses were performed. Results: the results indicated a moderate and positive relationship between HGSMax and JTHFT (r = 0.50 and between JTHFT and 9-HPT (r = 0.55. Conclusion: We conclude that the existence of only moderate relationships between test outcomes demonstrates the need to use at least two instruments to better describe the ipsilesional hand function of stroke individuals.

  15. Evaluating Decision Making Capacity in Older Individuals: Does the Law Give a Clue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall B. Kapp


    Full Text Available Adequate cognitive and emotional capacity is essential to autonomous decision making by adult medical patients. Society often attaches legal consequences to decisional capacity evaluations. Even when the legal system is not formally involved in the competency evaluation of a particular individual, clinical practice and ethical conduct occur within and are informed by legal parameters. Using relevant statutory, court rule, and judicial opinion examples from a representative jurisdiction within the United States, this article argues that the law seldom provides much meaningful guidance to health care and human services providers to assist them regarding the content of capacity evaluation. The article concludes by asking how society ought to respond to the paucity of helpful guidance provided by the law in the decisional capacity evaluation context.

  16. Clinical patch test data evaluated by multivariate analysis. Danish Contact Dermatitis Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, J; Menné, T; Tanghøj, P


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of individual explanatory factors, such as sex, age, atopy, test time and presence of diseased skin, on clinical patch test results, by application of multivariate statistical analysis. The study population was 2166 consecutive patients...... patch tested with the standard series of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG) by members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group (DCDG) over a period of 6 months. For the 8 test allergens most often found positive (nickel, fragrance-mix, cobalt, chromate, balsam of Peru, carba...

  17. Handheld mechanical nociceptive threshold testing in dairy cows - intra-individual variation, inter-observer agreement and variation over time. (United States)

    Raundal, Peter M; Andersen, Pia H; Toft, Nils; Forkman, Björn; Munksgaard, Lene; Herskin, Mette S


    To examine the use of handheld methodology to assess mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) on cows kept loose-housed. Prospective randomized partial cross-over experimental study. A one-factor (test day) design was used to evaluate MNT over time. One hundred and fifteen healthy, loose-housed Danish Holstein cattle. We evaluated intra-individual variation, inter-observer agreement and variation over time of MNT using two handheld devices and two stimulation sites. Mechanical, ramped stimulations were performed with an algometer (6.5 mm diameter steel probe, 0-10.0 kgf) or an electronic von Frey device (plastic tip with diameter 0.8 mm, 0-1000 gf). Each cow received 5-6 consecutive stimulations within a 2 × 5 cm skin area on the dorsal or lateral aspect of the left third metatarsus until an avoidance reaction occurred. We investigated the difference in precision [expressed as coefficient of variation (CV)] between the combinations of devices and stimulation sites. The inter-observer agreement and the difference in MNT between test day 1, 3, 7, 10 and 24 were investigated for selected combinations. Data were analysed in mixed models and Bland-Altman as relevant. The CVs did not differ [range 0.34-0.52 (p = 0.1)]. Difference between observers (95% limits) was 0.2 kgf (2.8) and 4 gf (369) for the algometer and von Frey device, respectively. Mechanical nociceptive threshold increased from 361 on test day one to 495 gf on test day 24 (p < 0.01). All methods showed a high degree of intra-individual variation, and no combination of device and stimulation site showed superior precision. Mean difference between observers was low, and MNT was not consistent over time. Further development of the methods is required before they can be used in research to investigate possible relations between claw lesions and hyperalgesia. © 2014 The Authors Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the

  18. Image Encryption Performance Evaluation Based on Poker Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li


    Full Text Available The fast development of image encryption requires performance evaluation metrics. Traditional metrics like entropy do not consider the correlation between local pixel and its neighborhood. These metrics cannot estimate encryption based on image pixel coordinate permutation. A novel effectiveness evaluation metric is proposed in this paper to address the issue. The cipher text image is transformed to bit stream. Then, Poker Test is implemented. The proposed metric considers the neighbor correlations of image by neighborhood selection and clip scan. The randomness of the cipher text image is tested by calculating the chi-square test value. Experiment results verify the efficiency of the proposed metrics.

  19. Economic Evaluation of Individual School Closure Strategies: The Hong Kong 2009 H1N1 Pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoie Shui-Yee Wong

    Full Text Available School closures as a means of containing the spread of disease have received considerable attention from the public health community. Although they have been implemented during previous pandemics, the epidemiological and economic effects of the closure of individual schools remain unclear.This study used data from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong to develop a simulation model of an influenza pandemic with a localised population structure to provide scientific justifications for and economic evaluations of individual-level school closure strategies.The estimated cost of the study's baseline scenario was USD330 million. We found that the individual school closure strategies that involved all types of schools and those that used a lower threshold to trigger school closures had the best performance. The best scenario resulted in an 80% decrease in the number of cases (i.e., prevention of about 830,000 cases, and the cost per case prevented by this intervention was USD1,145; thus, the total cost was USD1.28 billion.This study predicts the effects of individual school closure strategies on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong. Further research could determine optimal strategies that combine various system-wide and district-wide school closures with individual school triggers across types of schools. The effects of different closure triggers at different phases of a pandemic should also be examined.

  20. Using Tests Designed to Measure Individual Sensorimotor Subsystem Perfomance to Predict Locomotor Adaptability (United States)

    Peters, B. T.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; Guined, J. R.; DeDios, Y. E.; Stepanyan, V.; Gadd, N. E.; Szecsy, D. L.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; hide


    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during the initial exposure to microgravity and during the readapation phase following a return to a gravitational environment. These alterations may lead to disruption in the ability to perform mission critical functions during and after these gravitational transitions. Astronauts show significant inter-subject variation in adaptive capability following gravitational transitions. The way each individual's brain synthesizes the available visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is likely the basis for much of the variation. Identifying the presence of biases in each person's use of information available from these sensorimotor subsystems and relating it to their ability to adapt to a novel locomotor task will allow us to customize a training program designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Eight tests are being used to measure sensorimotor subsystem performance. Three of these use measures of body sway to characterize balance during varying sensorimotor challenges. The effect of vision is assessed by repeating conditions with eyes open and eyes closed. Standing on foam, or on a support surface that pitches to maintain a constant ankle angle provide somatosensory challenges. Information from the vestibular system is isolated when vision is removed and the support surface is compromised, and it is challenged when the tasks are done while the head is in motion. The integration and dominance of visual information is assessed in three additional tests. The Rod & Frame Test measures the degree to which a subject's perception of the visual vertical is affected by the orientation of a tilted frame in the periphery. Locomotor visual dependence is determined by assessing how much an oscillating virtual visual world affects a treadmill-walking subject. In the third of the visual manipulation tests, subjects walk an obstacle course while wearing up-down reversing prisms. The two remaining tests include direct

  1. Consensus Statement : Chromosomal Microarray Is a First-Tier Clinical Diagnostic Test for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities or Congenital Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, David T.; Adam, Margaret P.; Aradhya, Swaroop; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Brothman, Arthur R.; Carter, Nigel P.; Church, Deanna M.; Crolla, John A.; Eichler, Evan E.; Epstein, Charles J.; Faucett, W. Andrew; Feuk, Lars; Friedman, Jan M.; Hamosh, Ada; Jackson, Laird; Kaminsky, Erin B.; Kok, Klaas; Krantz, Ian D.; Kuhn, Robert M.; Lee, Charles; Ostell, James M.; Rosenberg, Carla; Scherer, Stephen W.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Tepperberg, James H.; Thorland, Erik C.; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Waggoner, Darrel J.; Watson, Michael S.; Martin, Christa Lese; Ledbetter, David H.


    Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is increasingly utilized for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Performing CMA and G-banded karyotyping on every patient

  2. Quantitative evaluation of surveillance test intervals including test-caused risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Martorell, S.; Vesely, W.E.


    Concerns have been raised regarding the adverse safety impact of surveillance testing and generally overburdensome surveillance requirements. To evaluate these concerns, the risk-effectiveness with the beneficial risk impact. This report defines the adverse effects of surveillance testing from a risk perspective, and then presents the methodology by which the adverse risk impact can be quantified, focusing on two important kinds of adverse risk impact of surveillance testing: risk impact of test-caused trips and risk impact of test-caused equipment wear. Using the methodology presented, these risk impacts are evaluated for a selected set of surveillance tests for demonstration examples. The results of the risk-effectiveness evaluation are provided along with the insights from the sensitivity analyses

  3. Inter-Observer, Intra-Observer and Intra-Individual Reliability of Uroflowmetry Tests in Aged Men: A Generalizability Theory Approach. (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Buh; Yang, Stephen S; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Lin, Chia-Da; Chang, Shang-Jen


    To evaluate the inter-observer, intra-observer and intra-individual reliability of uroflowmetry and post-void residual urine (PVR) tests in adult men. Healthy volunteers aged over 40 years were enrolled. Every participant underwent two sets of uroflowmetry and PVR tests with a 2-week interval between the tests. The uroflowmetry tests were interpreted by four urologists independently. Uroflowmetry curves were classified as bell-shaped, bell-shaped with tail, obstructive, restrictive, staccato, interrupted and tower-shaped and scored from 1 (highly abnormal) to 5 (absolutely normal). The agreements between the observers, interpretations and tests within individuals were analyzed using kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients. Generalizability theory with decision analysis was used to determine how many observers, tests, and interpretations were needed to obtain an acceptable reliability (> 0.80). Of 108 volunteers, we randomly selected the uroflowmetry results from 25 participants for the evaluation of reliability. The mean age of the studied adults was 55.3 years. The intra-individual and intra-observer reliability on uroflowmetry tests ranged from good to very good. However, the inter-observer reliability on normalcy and specific type of flow pattern were relatively lower. In generalizability theory, three observers were needed to obtain an acceptable reliability on normalcy of uroflow pattern if the patient underwent uroflowmetry tests twice with one observation. The intra-individual and intra-observer reliability on uroflowmetry tests were good while the inter-observer reliability was relatively lower. To improve inter-observer reliability, the definition of uroflowmetry should be clarified by the International Continence Society. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. The individual reminiscence therapy for patients with dementia. Assessment with SPECT and neuropsychological test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Katsuaki


    We evaluated psychosocial and neuronal effects of the individual reminiscence therapy (IRT) for patients with cognitive impairment. 25 IRT- treated outpatients with Alzheimer disease were compared with 14 outpatients who were not receiving any treatments including IRT. The subjects were treated with the total of 8 IRT sessions within 4 months. The changes of cognitive function, mood, volition, and the ability of caregiver were measured with questionnaires. The changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with IRT were measured using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In IRT group, depressed mood was improved after 4 month-IRT, which reached the significance level one year later. On the contrary, we could not observe any psychosocial changes in control group. Significant increase in regional blood flow was observed in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and in the right temporoparietal cortex in IRT group. On the contrary, the significant increase in the rCBF was observed only in the left DLPFC in control group. These results suggest that the IRT might improve the depressed mood and the spatial cognition in patients with cognitive impairment with neuronal change. (author)

  5. Diagnosing prosopagnosia in East Asian individuals: Norms for the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Chinese. (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Wan, Lulu; Robbins, Rachel; Crookes, Kate; Liu, Jia


    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) is widely accepted as providing a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing prosopagnosia (inability to recognize people's faces). Previously, large-sample norms have been available only for Caucasian-face versions, suitable for diagnosis in Caucasian observers. These are invalid for observers of different races due to potentially severe other-race effects. Here, we provide large-sample norms (N = 306) for East Asian observers on an Asian-face version (CFMT-Chinese). We also demonstrate methodological suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for prosopagnosia diagnosis (high internal reliability, approximately normal distribution, norm-score range sufficiently far above chance). Additional findings were a female advantage on mean performance, plus a difference between participants living in the East (China) or the West (international students, second-generation children of immigrants), which we suggest might reflect personality differences associated with willingness to emigrate. Finally, we demonstrate suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for individual differences studies that use correlations within the normal range.

  6. Distress in unaffected individuals who decline, delay or remain ineligible for genetic testing for hereditary diseases: a systematic review. (United States)

    Heiniger, Louise; Butow, Phyllis N; Price, Melanie A; Charles, Margaret


    Reviews on the psychosocial aspects of genetic testing for hereditary diseases typically focus on outcomes for carriers and non-carriers of genetic mutations. However, the majority of unaffected individuals from high-risk families do not undergo predictive testing. The aim of this review was to examine studies on psychosocial distress in unaffected individuals who delay, decline or remain ineligible for predictive genetic testing. Systematic searches of Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, PubMed and handsearching of related articles published between 1990 and 2012 identified 23 articles reporting 17 different studies that were reviewed and subjected to quality assessment. Findings suggest that definitions of delaying and declining are not always straightforward, and few studies have investigated psychological distress among individuals who remain ineligible for testing. Findings related to distress in delayers and decliners have been mixed, but there is evidence to suggest that cancer-related distress is lower in those who decline genetic counselling and testing, compared with testers, and that those who remain ineligible for testing experience more anxiety than tested individuals. Psychological, personality and family history vulnerability factors were identified for decliners and individuals who are ineligible for testing. The small number of studies and methodological limitations preclude definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, subgroups of those who remain untested appear to be at increased risk for psychological morbidity. As the majority of unaffected individuals do not undergo genetic testing, further research is needed to better understand the psychological impact of being denied the option of testing, declining and delaying testing. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A New Tribological Test for Candidate Brush Seal Materials Evaluation (United States)

    Fellenstein, James A.; Dellacorte, Christopher


    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700 C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  8. Consumer evaluation and satisfaction with individual versus group parent training for children with hyperkinetic disorder (HKD). (United States)

    Heubeck, Bernd G; Otte, Thomas A; Lauth, Gerhard W


    The objective of this study was to investigate the social validity of cognitive-behavioural parent training (CBPT) delivered in two formats to parents who have children with hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) with and without medication. Compared individual with group treatment as part of a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Obtained a broad range of evaluations and satisfaction ratings post-treatment and related them to pre-treatment and treatment factors. Attendance rates were high in the individual and slightly less in the group training. Levels of satisfaction were high in both treatment arms with large numbers rating the outcomes, the trainers and the overall training very favourably. Medication showed no effect on parental evaluations. Evaluation of outcomes and satisfaction with the trainer emerged as strong predictors of overall programme satisfaction. The social validity of cognitive-behavioural parent training for hyperkinetic children was supported by high levels of treatment acceptability across a range of indicators and for children with and without medication. Both forms of treatment delivery lead to high rates of consumer satisfaction. Consumer evaluations of CBPT appear independent of medication for HKD. Course satisfaction is clearly associated with two factors that trainers can affect: The parent-trainer relationship and parents' sense of achievement. Far more mothers than fathers attended the trainings. Attitudes may differ in other cultures. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Three-dimensional evaluation of pharyngeal airway in individuals with varying growth patterns using cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Diwakar


    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharyngeal airway volume in individuals with different vertical growth patterns. Methods: Cone beam computed tomography scans were evaluated of 40 subjects with the age range from 14 to 25 years and were divided into three groups. Horizontal growers consisted of 13 subjects, normal growers consisted of 14 subjects, and the vertical growers consisted of 13 subjects. The pharyngeal airway volume was measured using In Vivo Dental 5.1 software (Anatomage, Anatomy Imaging Software, San Jose, CA, USA. Results: The results obtained were analyzed statistically. The statistical test used for the analysis of the result was Student′s t-test. The independent t-test was done to compare the mean of the pharyngeal airway between the normal growers and horizontal growers and between the normal growers and the vertical growers. No statistically significant difference between the three groups was found in the volumetric measurements of the various sections of airway. Conclusions: Pharyngeal airway volume does not differ significantly in different vertical jaw relationships. It was possible to evaluate the pharyngeal airway volume three dimensionally.

  10. The Bradykinesia Akinesia Incoordination Test (BRAIN TEST), an objective and user-friendly means to evaluate patients with parkinsonism. (United States)

    Homann, C N; Suppan, K; Wenzel, K; Giovannoni, G; Ivanic, G; Horner, S; Ott, E; Hartung, H P


    The BRAIN TEST, a computerized alternating finger tapping test, was performed on 154 patients with parkinsonism to assess whether the test could be used as an objective tool to evaluate reliably the severity of Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients were instructed to tap two marked computer keyboard keys as fast and as accurately as possible for 60 seconds. The test generates the following variables: (1) kinesia score (KS)--number of keystrokes/min, (2) akinesia time (AT)--cumulative time that keys are depressed, (3) dysmetria score (DS)--a weighted score generated from incorrectly hit keys and corrected for speed, and (4) arrhythmia score (AS)--variance of the time interval between individual keystrokes. Among parkinsonian patients, we found a significant correlation between the four test parameters and PD rating scores of the Hoehn & Yahr, Schwab & England, and Unified PD Rating Scales (KS, AS, and AT p <0.001 and DS p <0.05). When compared with 73 parkinsonian patients 73 age- and sex-matched control subjects showed significantly higher KS and lower AT (p <0.001) as well as lower DS and AS (p = 0.05). The BRAIN TEST is a reliable and practical tool for evaluating the severity of parkinsonism and for distinguishing subjects with parkinsonism from normal control subjects. A version of the BRAIN TEST is available by FTP on the worldwide web (

  11. Validity, reliability and responsiveness of the "Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life – Direct Weighting" (SEIQoL-DW) in congenital heart disease


    Moons, Philip; Marquet, Kristel; Budts, Werner; De Geest, Sabina


    Abstract Background The 'Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life – Direct Weighting' (SEIQoL-DW) is an instrument developed to measure individual quality of life. Although this instrument has been used in numerous studies, data on validity and reliability are sparse. This study aimed to examine aspects of validity, reliability and responsiveness of the SEIQoL-DW on data obtained in adults with congenital heart disease, by using the new standards of psychological testing. Met...

  12. The steps to recovery program: Evaluation of a group-based intervention for older individuals receiving mental health services. (United States)

    Flaherty-Jones, Graeme M; Carne, Alexandra S; Dexter-Smith, Sarah


    This study reports on the evaluation of a group-based intervention for older individuals receiving mental health services. A prospective cohort repeated-measure design was used for 48 participants who accessed secondary care mental health services for older people. Changes on the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS), the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWEBS), and a postevaluation questionnaire were analyzed. A paired sample t test examined changes in participant's scores on the WEMWEBS and RAS from baseline to postintervention. Participants qualitatively evaluated the Steps to Recovery group as having a positive effect on their recovery. Following involvement in this group intervention, participants reported improved mental well-being and recovery from mental health difficulty. These results suggest that the program has the potential to provide an accessible framework for developing recovery-orientated approaches in mental health care that can be delivered by care staff at all levels. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Evaluation of EEG Features in Decoding Individual Finger Movements from One Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Xiao


    Full Text Available With the advancements in modern signal processing techniques, the field of brain-computer interface (BCI is progressing fast towards noninvasiveness. One challenge still impeding these developments is the limited number of features, especially movement-related features, available to generate control signals for noninvasive BCIs. A few recent studies investigated several movement-related features, such as spectral features in electrocorticography (ECoG data obtained through a spectral principal component analysis (PCA and direct use of EEG temporal data, and demonstrated the decoding of individual fingers. The present paper evaluated multiple movement-related features under the same task, that is, discriminating individual fingers from one hand using noninvasive EEG. The present results demonstrate the existence of a broadband feature in EEG to discriminate individual fingers, which has only been identified previously in ECoG. It further shows that multiple spectral features obtained from the spectral PCA yield an average decoding accuracy of 45.2%, which is significantly higher than the guess level (P<0.05 and other features investigated (P<0.05, including EEG spectral power changes in alpha and beta bands and EEG temporal data. The decoding of individual fingers using noninvasive EEG is promising to improve number of features for control, which can facilitate the development of noninvasive BCI applications with rich complexity.

  14. Evaluation of Postprandial Total Antioxidant Activity in Normal and Overweight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan


    Full Text Available Aim: Postprandial changes acutely alter some mechanisms in body. There are many studies showing blood oxidative status changes after food intake, and supplementation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized meal on serum total antioxidant activity (TAA in normal weight and overweight individuals. Material and Method: Fourteen normal weight and twelve overweight individuals were given a standardized meal in the morning after an overnight fast. Serum TAA, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured at baseline, 3rd hour, and 6th hour after the meal in both groups.Results: In both normal and overweight groups, the difference between baseline and 3rd hour was significant for TAA. The TAA of the overweight group was also significantly lower than the TAA of the normal weight group at 3rd hour. However, there was no significant correlation between lipid parameters and TAA levels. Discussion: The present study shows that postprandial oxidative damage occurs more prominently in overweight individuals than in normal weight individuals. Postprandial changes acutely induce oxidative stress and impair the natural antioxidant defense mechanism. It should be noted that consuming foods with antioxidants in order to avoid various diseases and complications is useful, particularly in obese subjects.

  15. An initial evaluation of a weight loss intervention for individuals who engage in emotional eating. (United States)

    Goldbacher, Edie; La Grotte, Caitlin; Komaroff, Eugene; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Foster, Gary D


    Emotional eating may contribute to variability in weight loss and may warrant specialized treatment, although no randomized studies of specialized treatments exist for individuals who engage in emotional eating. This pilot study tested a new weight loss intervention for individuals who emotionally eat and compared it to the standard behavioral weight loss treatment (SBT). 79 predominantly female (95 %), predominantly African American (79.7 %) individuals who emotionally eat (BMI = 36.2 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)) were randomized to (1) a new enhanced behavioral treatment (EBT), incorporating skills for managing emotions and emotional eating or (2) a SBT. Primary outcomes were weight and emotional eating at 20 weeks. Weight decreased significantly in both groups (SBT: -5.77 kg (-7.49, -4.04); EBT: -5.83 kg (-7.57, -4.09)), with no significant between-group differences. Similar results were produced for emotional eating. Results suggest that SBT may be effective for reducing weight and emotional eating in individuals who emotionally eat, and that adding emotional-eating specific strategies may not provide additional benefits beyond those produced by SBT interventions in the short-term.Registration site: . NCT02055391.

  16. Evaluation of Test/Analysis Correlation Methods for Crash Applications (United States)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Bark, Lindley W.; Jackson, Karen E.


    A project has been initiated to improve crash test and analysis correlation. The work in this paper concentrated on the test and simulation results for a fuselage section. Two drop tests of the section were conducted. The first test was designed to excite the linear structural response for comparison with finite element modal analysis results. The second test was designed to provide data for correlation with crash simulations. An MSC.Dytran model was developed to generate nonlinear transient dynamic results. Following minor modifications, the same model was executed in MSC.Nastran to generate modal analysis results. The results presented in this paper concentrate on evaluation of correlation methodologies for crash test data and finite element simulation results.

  17. An evaluation of the liquid oxygen mechanical impact test (United States)

    Moffett, Gary E.; Schmidt, Naomi E.; Pedley, Michael D.; Linley, Larry J.


    This study was conducted to evaluate the repeatability of the ambient LO2 mechanical impact test used by NASA to screen materials for oxygen service (NHB 8060.1B Test 12 Part 1, which is based on the ASTM method). Four materials were tested: Teflon, Vespel SP-21, Viton A, and nylon 6/6. Each test material was subjected to several series of tests that were conducted at different impact energy levels. The results show that the variability from series to series in the reaction threshold energy level is within the precision statement of the ASTM method. However, this precision is considerably broader than the reaction threshold implied by the NHB 8060.1B test criteria.

  18. Acceptance testing and evaluation of TOPAZ II space power systems (United States)

    Follis, Hoby D.; Schmidt, Glen; Ogloblin, Boris; Sinkevich, Valery G.


    The Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) facility, part of the TOPAZ International Program, in Albuquerque, New Mexico is currently testing Russian TOPAZ II space power systems (Wold 1993). The TOPAZ International Program has received six TOPAZ II Space Nuclear power Reactors. Two of these reactors (Eh-43 and Eh-44) are considered ``flight quality.'' A considerable transfer of technology has occurred during the preparations for acceptance testing of the Eh-43 and Eh-44 TOPAZ II reactors. The Eh-43 and Eh-44 are new systems that have not undergone any testing and require the coolant loop and gas cavities to be filled. The new systems will undergo an acceptance process that ranges from receipt inspection to thermal vacuum testing. The knowledge we gain from these tests will help determine the use of this technology in future applications.

  19. Comparison of individual and social feather pecking tests in two lines of laying hens at ten different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Koene, P.


    The aim of this experiment was to select a suitable test to measure feather pecking in laying hens. Pecking behaviour in individual and social feather pecking tests was compared with pecking behaviour in the homepen. Two lines of laying hens were used that differ in their propensity to display

  20. Testing and evaluating personal dosimetry services in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plato, P.


    The National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) of Ann Arbor, Michigan, conducts an annual testing program for personal dosimetry services. In 1976, five processors participated in the testing program in order to be certified by NSF. Four other processors participated on a non-certification basis. Six of the participants are large commercial processors, and three are non-commercial, in-house processors. Some dosimetry services submitted film badges, some submitted thermoluminescent dosimeters, and some submitted both. This paper shows the results of all processors in each of nine radiation categories. The average performance of all the processors tested is good. The average reported quantity of radiation among the 927 dosimeters tested is within about 25% of the actual delivered quantity. However, the individual performance of some processors varies greatly from the average performance of all the processors. (author)

  1. Computer Administered Safety Planning for Individuals at Risk for Suicide: Development and Usability Testing. (United States)

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Brown, Gregory K; Stanley, Barbara; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Camargo, Carlos A; Miller, Ivan W


    Safety planning is a brief intervention that has become an accepted practice in many clinical settings to help prevent suicide. Even though it is quick compared to other approaches, it frequently requires 20 min or more to complete, which can impede adoption. A self-administered, Web-based safety planning application could potentially reduce clinician time, help promote standardization and quality, and provide enhanced ability to share the created plan. The aim of this study was to design, build, and test the usability of a Web-based, self-administered safety planning application. We employed a user-centered software design strategy led by a multidisciplinary team. The application was tested for usability with a target sample of suicidal patients. Detailed observations, structured usability ratings, and Think Aloud procedures were used. Suicidal ideation intensity and perceived ability to cope were assessed pre-post engagement with the Web application. A total of 30 participants were enrolled. Usability ratings were generally strong, and all patients successfully built a safety plan. However, the completeness of the safety plan varied. The mean number of steps completed was 5.5 (SD 0.9) out of 6, with 90% (27/30) of participants completing at least 5 steps and 67% (20/30) completing all 6 steps. Some safety planning steps were viewed as inapplicable to some individuals. Some confusion in instructions led to modifications to improve understandability of each step. Ratings of suicide intensity after completion of the application were significantly lower than preratings, pre: mean 5.11 (SD 2.9) versus post: mean 4.46 (SD 3.0), t 27 =2.49, P=.02. Ratings of ability to cope with suicidal thoughts after completion of the application were higher than preratings, with the difference approaching statistical significance, pre: mean 5.93 (SD 2.9), post: mean 6.64 (SD 2.4), t 27 =-2.03, P=.05. We have taken the first step toward identifying the components needed to maximize

  2. Computer Administered Safety Planning for Individuals at Risk for Suicide: Development and Usability Testing (United States)

    Brown, Gregory K; Stanley, Barbara; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Camargo, Carlos A; Miller, Ivan W


    Background Safety planning is a brief intervention that has become an accepted practice in many clinical settings to help prevent suicide. Even though it is quick compared to other approaches, it frequently requires 20 min or more to complete, which can impede adoption. A self-administered, Web-based safety planning application could potentially reduce clinician time, help promote standardization and quality, and provide enhanced ability to share the created plan. Objective The aim of this study was to design, build, and test the usability of a Web-based, self-administered safety planning application. Methods We employed a user-centered software design strategy led by a multidisciplinary team. The application was tested for usability with a target sample of suicidal patients. Detailed observations, structured usability ratings, and Think Aloud procedures were used. Suicidal ideation intensity and perceived ability to cope were assessed pre-post engagement with the Web application. Results A total of 30 participants were enrolled. Usability ratings were generally strong, and all patients successfully built a safety plan. However, the completeness of the safety plan varied. The mean number of steps completed was 5.5 (SD 0.9) out of 6, with 90% (27/30) of participants completing at least 5 steps and 67% (20/30) completing all 6 steps. Some safety planning steps were viewed as inapplicable to some individuals. Some confusion in instructions led to modifications to improve understandability of each step. Ratings of suicide intensity after completion of the application were significantly lower than preratings, pre: mean 5.11 (SD 2.9) versus post: mean 4.46 (SD 3.0), t27=2.49, P=.02. Ratings of ability to cope with suicidal thoughts after completion of the application were higher than preratings, with the difference approaching statistical significance, pre: mean 5.93 (SD 2.9), post: mean 6.64 (SD 2.4), t27=−2.03, P=.05. Conclusions We have taken the first step toward

  3. Evaluation of glomerular function in individual kidneys using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Tomita, T.; Katayama, H.; Miyano, T.; Yabuta, K.


    We used the fast field-echo technique of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with an intravenous bolus injection of paramagnetic contrast agent to evaluate glomerular function. The time-dependent curves of changes in signal intensity observed in the renal cortex and renal medulla brought about by the paramagnetic contrast agent allowed insight into excretory kinetics. The time at which the cortical and medullary curves cross, the cortico-medullary (C-M) junction time, was delayed with a decrease in glomerular function. The mean C-M junction time in both kidneys showed a significant inverse correlation with total creatinine clearance (Ccr), indicating the glomerular filtration rate. The C-M junction time in an individual kidney also showed an inverse correlation with individual Ccr in each kidney. Results suggest that dynamic MR imaging is a useful tool in evaluating renal morphology and in evaluating semiquantitatively the glomerular function of the kidneys, singly and together, in a manner analogous to radionuclide scintigraphy. (orig.). With 6 figs

  4. Evaluation of an e-PBL model to promote individual reasoning. (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon


    Medical educators should promote the development of student clinical reasoning toward independence in clinical settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate an online problem-based learning (e-PBL) model designed to promote student individual reasoning in supplement to traditional PBL. Twelve e-PBL modules were added to the fully problem-based curriculum for Year 2 at Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM). In this e-PBL, students worked on the problems individually in an online setting, followed by face-to-face discussions in a colloquium. The cases were presented using interactive multimedia to enhance the authenticity of the case and stimulate student interest in learning. A formative evaluation study was conducted to determine student satisfaction with e-PBL and its effectiveness as perceived by the students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A cohort of Year 2 students at SKKUSOM (n = 38) took part in this study. Students perceived e-PBL significantly more positively after they had taken a module in terms of its ability to foster problem-solving skills and its ability to allow them to learn in ways suited to individual learning styles. Additionally, student survey and interview revealed that a vast majority of students were satisfied with the overall learning process in e-PBL and perceived it positively in fostering knowledge acquisition and clinical reasoning. Moreover, students found the cases realistic and engaging. The results show the potential of e-PBL to enhance traditional PBL by promoting the development of individual reasoning in a flexible online-learning environment and offering cases in an interactive multimedia format, which warrants further investigation into its impact on student learning outcomes.

  5. Material control test and evaluation system at the ICPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.


    The US DOE is evaluating process monitoring as part of a total nuclear material safeguards system. A monitoring system is being installed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to test and evaluate material control and surveillance concepts in an operating nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Process monitoring for nuclear material control complements conventional safeguards accountability and physical protection to assure adherence to approved safeguards procedures and verify containment of nuclear materials within the processing plant

  6. Shuttle orbiter Ku-band radar/communications system design evaluation. Deliverable test equipment evaluation (United States)

    Maronde, R. G.


    The Ku-band test equipment, known as the Deliverable System Test equipment (DSTE), is reviewed and evaluated. The DSTE is semiautomated and computer programs were generated for 14 communication mode tests and 17 radar mode tests. The 31 test modules provide a good cross section of tests with which to exercise the Ku-band system; however, it is very limited when being used to verify Ku-band system performance. More detailed test descriptions are needed, and a major area of concern is the DSTE sell-off procedure which is inadequate.

  7. The Eyes Test as a Measure of Individual Differences: How much of the Variance Reflects Verbal IQ? (United States)

    Peterson, Eric; Miller, Stephanie F


    Developed by Baron-Cohen et al. (1997, 2001), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test requires individuals to determine mental states from photos of pairs of eyes. Used in over 250 studies, it has been conceptualized as an advanced theory of mind test that is relatively free of general cognitive abilities. Given the sensitivity of the instrument, many studies with healthy adult samples have used this instrument as a measure of individual differences in social-perceptual processes that contribute to theory of mind and overall phenotype. We administered the two-subtest Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, a face-processing task (Cambridge Face Memory Test), and the Eyes Test to 42 college students. Surprisingly, verbal IQ contributed significantly to the variance in Eyes Test performance while the face perception measure did not. These findings have both practical and theoretical ramifications for interpreting Eyes Test results in normative adult samples.

  8. The Eyes Test as a measure of individual differences: How much of the variance reflects verbal IQ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric ePeterson


    Full Text Available Developed by Baron-Cohen and colleagues, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test requires individuals to determine mental states from photos of pairs of eyes. Used in over 250 studies, it has been conceptualized as an advanced theory of mind test that is relatively free of general cognitive abilities. Given the sensitivity of the instrument, many studies with healthy adult samples have used this instrument as a measure of individual differences in social perceptual processes that contribute to theory of mind and overall phenotype. We administered the two-subtest WASI, a face processing task (Cambridge Face Memory Test, and the Eyes Test to forty-two college students. Surprisingly, verbal IQ contributed significantly to the variance in Eyes Test performance while the face perception measure did not. These findings have both practical and theoretical ramifications for interpreting Eyes Test results in normative adult samples.

  9. Evaluation of the face and dental morphologic alterations in adult individuals with labial incompetence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Cristina Valdrighi


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate certain facial and dental characteristics by comparing individuals with labial incompetence and individuals withpassive labial sealing. Method: The study analyzed fifty lateral teleradiographs of which 25 were of subjects with labial incompetence, with minimum opening of 4 mm, and 25 of subjects with labial sealing, none of the subjects having undergone orthodontic treatment, all being between 15 and 30 years of age, irrespective of gender and malocclusion, with slight tendency towards vertical growth. The following cephalometric variables were used: Nfp – Nfa with the objective of determining the width of the upper airway, Sn – St to measure the length of the upper lip, Sn –IIs for the vertical length of the maxilla and 1.NA to determine the inclination of the maxillary incisor. Results: The measurements obtained in the group of passive lip sealing (G1 and labial incompetence (G2 respectively, were as follows: 14.12 mm (G1 and 12.76 mm (G2 for width of the upper airway; 24.24 mm (G1 and 23.80 mm (G2 for the length of the upper lip; 26.92 mm (G1 and 28.64 mm (G2 for the vertical length of the maxilla and 26.76º (G1 and 30.76º (G2 for the inclination of themaxillary incisor. Conclusion: The results allowed one to conclude that the individual with labial incompetence presented width of the upper airway similar to that of the individual with passive lip sealing. Individuals with labial incompetence presented increased vertical length of the maxilla and not shortening of the upper lip. The presence of vestibularized maxillary incisors is a condition inherent to the subject with labial incompetence, who will consequently present hypotonicity of the upper lip.

  10. Evaluating rodent motor functions: Which tests to choose? (United States)

    Schönfeld, Lisa-Maria; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Jahanshahi, Ali; Temel, Yasin; Hendrix, Sven


    Damage to the motor cortex induced by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in chronic motor deficits. For the development and improvement of therapies, animal models which possess symptoms comparable to the clinical population are used. However, the use of experimental animals raises valid ethical and methodological concerns. To decrease discomfort by experimental procedures and to increase the quality of results, non-invasive and sensitive rodent motor tests are needed. A broad variety of rodent motor tests are available to determine deficits after stroke or TBI. The current review describes and evaluates motor tests that fall into three categories: Tests to evaluate fine motor skills and grip strength, tests for gait and inter-limb coordination and neurological deficit scores. In this review, we share our thoughts on standardized data presentation to increase data comparability between studies. We also critically evaluate current methods and provide recommendations for choosing the best behavioral test for a new research line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of three oil spill laboratory dispersant effectiveness tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Farlow, J.; Sahatjian, K.A.


    Chemical dispersants can be used to reduce the interfacial tension of floating oil slicks so that the oils disperse more rapidly into the water column and thus pose less of a threat to shorelines, birds, and marine mammals. The laboratory test currently specified in federal regulations to measure dispersant effectiveness is not especially easy or inexpensive, and generates a rather large quantity of oily waste water. This paper describes the results of an effort by the EPA to identify a more suitable laboratory dispersant effectiveness test. EPA evaluated three laboratory methods: the Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test currently used (and required by regulation) in the United States, the swirling flask test (developed by Environment Canada), and the IFP-dilution test (used in france and other European countries). Six test oils and three dispersants were evaluated; dispersants were applied to the oil at an average 1:10 ratio (dispersant to oil) for each of the three laboratory methods. Screening efforts were used to focus on the most appropriate oil/dispersant combination for detailed study. A screening criterion was established that required a combination that gave at least 20% effectiveness results. The selected combination turned out to be Prudhoe Bay crude oil and the dispersant Corexit 9527. This combination was also most likely to be encountered in US coastal waters. The EPA evaluation concluded that the three tests gave similar precision results, but that the swirling flask test was fastest, cheapest, simplest, and required least operator skill. Further, EPA is considering conducting the dispersant effectiveness test itself, rather than having data submitted by a dispersant manufacturer, and establishing an acceptability criterion (45% efficiency) which would have to be met before a dispersant could be placed on the Product Schedule of the National Contingency Plan (NCP)

  12. Development of a frontal small overlap crashworthiness evaluation test. (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher P; Mueller, Becky C; Nolan, Joseph M; Zuby, David S; Lund, Adrian K


    Small overlap frontal crashes are those in which crash forces are applied outboard of the vehicle's longitudinal frame rails. In-depth analyses of crashes indicate that such crashes account for a significant proportion of frontal crashes with seriously injured occupants. The objective of this research was to evaluate possible barrier crash tests that could be used to evaluate the crashworthiness of vehicles across a spectrum of small overlap crash types. Sixteen full-scale vehicle tests were conducted using 3 midsize passenger vehicles in up to 6 different test configurations, including vehicle-to-vehicle and barrier tests. All vehicles were tested at 64 km/h with an instrumented Hybrid III midsize male driver dummy. All test configurations resulted in primary loading of the wheel, suspension system, and hinge pillar. Vehicles underwent substantial lateral movement during the crash, which varied by crash configuration. The occupant compartments had significant intrusion, particularly to the most outboard structures. Inboard movement of the steering wheel in combination with outboard movement of the dummies (due to the lateral vehicle motion) caused limited interaction with the frontal air bag in most cases. When assessing overall crashworthiness (based on injury measures, structural deformation, and occupant kinematics), one vehicle had superior performance in each crash configuration. This was confirmation that the countermeasures benefiting performance in a single small overlap test also will provide a benefit in other crash configurations. Based on these test results, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has developed a small overlap crashworthiness evaluation with the following characteristics: a rigid flat barrier with a 150-mm corner radius, 25 percent overlap, 64 km/h test speed, and a Hybrid III midsize male driver dummy.

  13. Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas (United States)

    Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin


    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-γ and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-γ test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-γ test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-γ positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-γ test with two antibody tests in a “test package,” although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

  14. Evaluation of the Wishart test statistics for polarimetric SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut


    A test statistic for equality of two covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution has previously been used in new algorithms for change detection, edge detection and segmentation in polarimetric SAR images. Previously, the results for change detection and edge detection have been...... quantitatively evaluated. This paper deals with the evaluation of segmentation. A segmentation performance measure originally developed for single-channel SAR images has been extended to polarimetric SAR images, and used to evaluate segmentation for a merge-using-moment algorithm for polarimetric SAR data....

  15. Tamper-indicating devices and safeguards seals evaluation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.


    Sandia National Laboratories was asked to evaluate the seals used as tamper-indicating devices (TIDs) at DOE facilities. Initially, a survey determined what seal manufacturers were being used and what similar seal types were available. Once the required specifications for TIDs were defined, a test plan measured the currently available seals against the requirements. Environmental and physical type tests stressed the seals under two broad categories: (1) handling durability and (2) tamper resistance. Results of the testing provide comparative ratings for the various seals, recommendations for using currently available seals, and a new tamper-indicating technology

  16. Developing a Test Collection for the Evaluation of Integrated Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Larsen, Birger; Lund, Haakon


    he poster discusses the characteristics needed in an information retrieval (IR) test collection to facilitate the evaluation of integrated search, i.e. search across a range of different sources but with one search box and one ranked result list, and describes and analyses a new test collection...... constructed for this purpose. The test collection consists of approx. 18,000 monographic records, 160,000 papers and journal articles in PDF and 275,000 abstracts with a varied set of metadata and vocabularies from the physics domain, 65 topics based on real work tasks and corresponding graded relevance...

  17. An Evaluation of a Behaviorally Based Social Skills Group for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B; Leaf, Jeremy A; Milne, Christine; Taubman, Mitchell; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty; Torres, Norma; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Yoder, Paul


    In this study we evaluated a social skills group which employed a progressive applied behavior analysis model for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A randomized control trial was utilized; eight participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group and seven participants were randomly assigned to a waitlist control group. The social skills group consisted of 32, 2 h sessions. Teachers implemented a variety of behaviorally based procedures. A blind evaluator measured participants' behavior immediately prior to intervention, immediately following intervention, and during 16 and 32-week maintenance probes. Results of the study demonstrated that participants made significant improvements with their social behavior (p < .001) following intervention, and the results were maintained up to 32 weeks after intervention had concluded.

  18. Efficient p-value evaluation for resampling-based tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, K.


    The resampling-based test, which often relies on permutation or bootstrap procedures, has been widely used for statistical hypothesis testing when the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic is unavailable or unreliable. It requires repeated calculations of the test statistic on a large number of simulated data sets for its significance level assessment, and thus it could become very computationally intensive. Here, we propose an efficient p-value evaluation procedure by adapting the stochastic approximation Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The new procedure can be used easily for estimating the p-value for any resampling-based test. We show through numeric simulations that the proposed procedure can be 100-500 000 times as efficient (in term of computing time) as the standard resampling-based procedure when evaluating a test statistic with a small p-value (e.g. less than 10( - 6)). With its computational burden reduced by this proposed procedure, the versatile resampling-based test would become computationally feasible for a much wider range of applications. We demonstrate the application of the new method by applying it to a large-scale genetic association study of prostate cancer.

  19. Evaluation of Test Method for Solar Collector Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    on these efficiencies, an efficiency equation is determined by regression analysis. In the test method, there are no requirements on the ambient air temperature and the sky temperature. The paper will present an evaluation of the test method for a 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector panel from Arcon Solvarme A....../S. The solar collector panel investigated has 16 parallel connected horizontal absorber fins. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations, calculations with a solar collector simulation program SOLEFF (Rasmussen and Svendsen, 1996) and thermal experiments are carried out in the investigation......The test method of the standard EN12975-2 (European Committee for Standardization, 2004) is used by European test laboratories to determine the efficiency of solar collectors. In the test methods the mean solar collector fluid temperature in the solar collector, Tm is determined by the approximated...

  20. Evaluation of an individual sleep intervention programme in people undergoing peritoneal dialysis treatment. (United States)

    Yngman-Uhlin, Pia; Fernström, Anders; Börjeson, Sussanne; Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla


    This study aimed to evaluate effects of a non-pharmacological intervention on sleep, activity and fatigue in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis by the use of both actigraphy registration and self-assessed questionnaires. Insomnia is estimated to affect up to 60% of haemo- and peritoneal dialysis patients. It is associated with two common uremic symptoms, pruritus and restless legs syndrome. To our knowledge, no interventions have been evaluated by actigraphy. A prospective multiple baseline single-case experimental design. Two women and seven men with sleep problems, 48-77 years, treated with PD participated in a 17-week study from January 2009 to February 2011. Two interventions were separately implemented. First, a pressure-relieving mattress and second, a four week individual sleep hygiene and sleep scheduling intervention. The two interventions were evaluated both objectively by actigraphy and subjectively by questionnaires. A total of 315 sleep-wake cycles from nine individuals were evaluated. Three patients improved clinically significantly in five or more of the nine outcomes, i.e. sleep onset latency, nocturnal sleep duration, numbers and duration of napping, movement and fragmentation index, number of steps, metabolic equivalent unit, sleep efficiency and fatigue. The other six patients also showed improvements but to a lesser degree. Physical activity advice was the intervention that yielded most sleep improvements. This study illuminates the need for regular assessment of sleep and tiredness. It also demonstrates how a non-pharmacological treatment and self-management can be applied with renal supportive care to improve sleep quality. This study is a clinical example of a non-pharmacological intervention with supportive care and self-management. This model can improve health and reduce the pharmacological burden because hypnotics can be replaced by sleep hygiene self-care activities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Laser doppler flowmetry evaluation as a pulpal vitality test; Avaliacao da fluxometria laser doppler como teste de vitalidade pulpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo, Flavia Tavares de Oliveira de Paula


    The more frequently used pulp vitality tests (PVTs) are the thermal (cold and heat) and the electrical stimulus. These tests are, however, subjective, depending on the sensitivity threshold of each individual, and usually fail when immature or recently traumatised teeth are tested. The laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) have been suggested as a PVT, by evaluating the pulp measured flow (F). The measured quantity F, used to discriminate healthy and non-vital teeth, is sensitive to factors hardly controlled or predictable, such as the LDFs and probe response differences, and the flow variations among individuals. It was suggested recently a new discriminator, F(%), less sensitive to such factors. The PVTs performances for F (%) and F as discriminators, however, were not known. The present study aimed to evaluate the PVTs' performances using the quantities F(%) and F (dif) as discriminators, both derived from F, and to compare, qualitatively and quantitatively, their performances to that obtained by using F. The quantities F(%) and F(dif) are, respectively, the ratio and the difference of the flow from the interrogated tooth and its healthy homologous, being F(dif) a proposed new discriminator. The obtained confidence intervals (95% of significance) of the areas under ROC curves were from 0,964 to 1,000 for F (%); from 0,959 to 1,000 for F (dif) and; from 0,584 to 0,951 for F; showing that F(%) and F (dif) are more reliable discriminators then F. (author)

  2. Novel speed test for evaluation of badminton specific movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Møller; Karlsen, Anders; Nybo, Lars


    in badminton players. Thus, the BST appears to be sport specific as it may discriminate between groups (elite, less trained players and non-badminton players) with similar sprinting performance and the low test-retest variation may allow for using the BST to evaluate longitudinal changes e.g. training effects...

  3. Evaluation of NGAL TestTM on Cobas 6000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Young B L; Damgaard, Anette; Poulsen, Jørgen H


    BACKGROUND: Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI). Our objectives were to evaluate the NGAL Test(TM) from Bioporto for both urine NGAL and plasma NGAL on the Cobas 6000 c501 (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) with matched...

  4. Evaluating the Instructional Sensitivity of Four States' Student Achievement Tests (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.


    As state tests of student achievement are used for an increasingly wide array of high- and low-stakes purposes, evaluating their instructional sensitivity is essential. This article uses data from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Project to examine the instructional sensitivity of 4 states' mathematics and English…

  5. Product evaluation of in situ vitrification engineering, Test 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, C.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Bates, S.O.


    This report is one of several that evaluates the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Engineering-Scale Test 4 (ES-4). This document describes the chemical and physical composition, microstructure, and leaching characteristics of ES-4 product samples; these data provide insight into the expected performance of a vitrified product in an ISV buried waste application similar to that studied in ES-4

  6. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen


    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  7. Laboratory evaluation of the improved tube test detection limits for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya there is currently no screening of antimicrobial drug residues in milk. This study evaluated the improved tube test as a possible screening method using seven representatives of the β-lactam antibiotics. The group comprises antimicrobials most frequently used to treat bacterial infections in dairy cows.

  8. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lifting and supporting weights) and have an important influence on blood pressure, it is essential to evaluate blood pressure response to iso- metric effort. This test can reveal high blood pressure that might otherwise not be detected. Only a few ...

  9. Individual meaning in life assessed with the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation: toward a circumplex meaning model. (United States)

    Fegg, Martin; Kudla, Dorothea; Brandstätter, Monika; Deffner, Veronika; Küchenhoff, Helmut


    The experience of "meaning in life" (MiL) is a major aspect of life satisfaction and psychological well-being. To assess this highly individual construct, idiographic measures with open-response formats have been developed. However, it can be challenging to categorize these individual experiences for interindividual comparisons. Our study aimed to derive MiL categories from individual listings and develop an integrative MiL model. University students were asked to rate 58 MiL providing aspects recently found in a nationwide study using the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMiLE), an MiL instrument allowing for open responses. Pearson's correlations and factor analyses were used to test the unidimensionality of subsequently derived higher-order MiL categories. Multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and factor analysis were performed to further analyze a latent MiL structure. A total of 340 students participated in the study. Some 11 unidimensional categories consisting of 34 meaning-providing aspects were summarized into a circumplex model with four MiL domains: leisure/health, work/finances, culture/spirituality, and relationships (family, partnership, social relations). This model seems to incorporate a major portion of individual respondent-generated MiL listings. It may be useful for future idiographic MiL studies to help organize individual experiences of MiL and allow for higher-level interindividual comparisons. Further studies including different samples are necessary to confirm this model or derive other MiL domains, for example, in palliative care patients or patients who are confronted with a loss of meaning.

  10. Association Between Medication Use and Performance on Higher Education Entrance Tests in Individuals With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Sjölander, Arvid; Cederlöf, Martin; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Almqvist, Catarina; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul


    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for academic problems. Pharmacologic treatment is effective in reducing the core symptoms of ADHD, but it is unclear whether it helps to improve academic outcomes. To investigate the association between the use of ADHD medication and performance on higher education entrance tests in individuals with ADHD. This cohort study observed 61 640 individuals with a diagnosis of ADHD from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2013. Records of their pharmacologic treatment were extracted from Swedish national registers along with data from the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test. Using a within-patient design, test scores when patients were taking medication for ADHD were compared with scores when they were not taking such medication. Data analysis was performed from November 24, 2015, to November 4, 2016. Periods with and without ADHD medication use. Scores from the higher education entrance examination (score range, 1-200 points). Among 930 individuals (493 males and 437 females; mean [SD] age, 22.2 [3.2] years) who had taken multiple entrance tests (n = 2524) and used ADHD medications intermittently, the test scores were a mean of 4.80 points higher (95% CI, 2.26-7.34; P < .001) during periods they were taking medication vs nonmedicated periods, after adjusting for age and practice effects. Similar associations between ADHD medication use and test scores were detected in sensitivity analyses. Individuals with ADHD had higher scores on the higher education entrance tests during periods they were taking ADHD medication vs nonmedicated periods. These findings suggest that ADHD medications may help ameliorate educationally relevant outcomes in individuals with ADHD.

  11. Diagnostic tests in obstetrics: a method for improved evaluation. (United States)

    Richardson, D K; Schwartz, J S; Weinbaum, P J; Gabbe, S G


    With the proliferation of diagnostic tests in obstetrics, several recurrent questions arise. How does one determine whether one diagnostic test is superior to another available test? What test cutoff value best separates diseased from nondiseased patients? How much does performance of additional tests assist in arriving at a correct diagnosis? This article reviews a simple yet sophisticated analytic technique, the receiver operating characteristic curve, and demonstrates its application to several obstetric diagnostic tests. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis is used to select a cutoff value for the 1-hour glucose tolerance test, to compare amniotic fluid tests of fetal lung maturity, and to determine the optimal combinations of factors and overall performance of the fetal biophysical profile. The value of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis lies in providing a clear graphic analysis of the performance of diagnostic tests over their entire range of values. It also provides the starting point for evaluating the costs and benefits of alternative cutoff points in differing clinical settings.

  12. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edson, J.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))


    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Reliability of photogrammetry in the evaluation of the postural aspects of individuals with structural scoliosis. (United States)

    Saad, Karen Ruggeri; Colombo, Alexandra Siqueira; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; João, Sílvia Maria Amado


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of photogrammetry in the measurement of the postural deviations in individuals with idiopathic scoliosis. Twenty participants with scoliosis (17 women and three men), with a mean age of 23.1 ± 9 yrs, were photographed from the posterior and lateral views. The postural aspects were measured with CorelDRAW software. High inter-rater and test-retest reliability indices were found. It was observed that with more severity of scoliosis, greater were the variations between the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis measures obtained by the same examiner from the left lateral view photographs. A greater body mass index (BMI) was associated with greater variability of the trunk rotation measures obtained by two independent examiners from the right, lateral view (r = 0.656; p = 0.002). The severity of scoliosis was also associated with greater inter-rater variability measures of trunk rotation obtained from the left, lateral view (r = 0.483; p = 0.036). Photogrammetry demonstrated to be a reliable method for the measurement of postural deviations from the posterior and lateral views of individuals with idiopathic scoliosis and could be complementarily employed for the assessment procedures, which could reduce the number of X-rays used for the follow-up assessments of these individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Are individuals with Parkinson's disease capable of speech-motor learning? - A preliminary evaluation. (United States)

    Kaipa, Ramesh; Jones, Richard D; Robb, Michael P


    The benefits of different practice conditions in limb-based rehabilitation of motor disorders are well documented. Conversely, the role of practice structure in the treatment of motor-based speech disorders has only been minimally investigated. Considering this limitation, the current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of selected practice conditions in spatial and temporal learning of novel speech utterances in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Participants included 16 individuals with PD who were randomly and equally assigned to constant, variable, random, and blocked practice conditions. Participants in all four groups practiced a speech phrase for two consecutive days, and reproduced the speech phrase on the third day without further practice or feedback. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between participants across the four practice conditions with respect to either spatial or temporal learning of the speech phrase. Overall, PD participants demonstrated diminished spatial and temporal learning in comparison to healthy controls. Tests of strength of association between participants' demographic/clinical characteristics and speech-motor learning outcomes did not reveal any significant correlations. The findings from the current study suggest that repeated practice facilitates speech-motor learning in individuals with PD irrespective of the type of practice. Clinicians need to be cautious in applying practice conditions to treat speech deficits associated with PD based on the findings of non-speech-motor learning tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An implicit test of UX: individuals differ in what they associate with computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmettow, Martin; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Mundt, M.


    User experience research has made considerable progress in understanding subjective experience with interactive technology. Nevertheless, we argue, some blind spots have remained: individual differences are frequently ignored, the prevalent measures of self-report rarely undergo verification, and

  16. Functional capacity evaluation of work performance among individuals with pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents. (United States)

    Ratzon, Navah Z; Ari Shevil, Eynat Ben; Froom, Paul; Friedman, Sharon; Amit, Yehuda


    Pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) cause disability and affect work capabilities. This study evaluated functional, self-report, and medical-based factors that could predict work capacity as was reflected in a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) among persons who sustained a pelvic injury. It was hypothesized that self-reported functional status and bio-demographic variables would predict work capacity. Sixty-one community-dwelling adults previously hospitalized following a MVA induced pelvic injury. FCE for work performance was conducted using the Physical Work Performance Evaluation (PWPE). Additional data was collected through a demographics questionnaire and the Functional Status Questionnaire. All participants underwent an orthopedic medical examination of the hip and lower extremities. Most participants self-reported that their work capacity post-injury were lower than their job required. PWPE scores indicated below-range functional performance. Regression models predicted 23% to 51% of PWPE subtests. Participants' self-report of functioning (instrumental activities of daily living and work) and bio-demographic variables (gender and age) were better predictors of PWPE scores than factors originating from the medical examination. Results support the inclusion of FCE, in addition to self-report of functioning and medical examination, to evaluate work capacity among individuals' post-pelvic injury and interventions and discharge planning.

  17. Recovery of balance function among individuals with total knee arthroplasty: Comparison of responsiveness among four balance tests. (United States)

    Chan, Andy C M; Ouyang, Xi H; Jehu, Deborah A M; Chung, Raymond C K; Pang, Marco Y C


    Balance deficits are common after total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however the responsiveness of commonly used balance measurement tools has not been well defined. The objective of this prospective study was to compare the internal and external responsiveness of four measurement tools in assessing recovery of balance function following TKA. A total of 134 individuals with TKA (95 women; age: 66.3±6.6years) completed the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), Mini-BESTest, Brief-BESTest, and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks post-TKA. The Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) served as the anchor measure, and was also measured across these time points. Internal responsiveness was indicated by the standardized response mean (SRM), while external responsiveness was reflected by the degree of association of the changes of balance scores with those of FGA. The SRM ranged from 0.60-1.14 for the BESTest, 0.40-0.94 for the Mini-BESTest, 0.27-0.91 for the Brief-BESTest, and 0.19-0.70 for the BBS, over time. The change in BESTest and Mini-BESTest scores predicted the change in the FGA scores across all time periods, except for the Mini-BESTest between weeks 12-24, accounting for 13-27%, and 12-24% of the variance, respectively. The Brief-BESTest scores only predicted FGA scores between the weeks 2-4 (R 2 =20%). The changes in BBS scores were not associated with the FGA. The BESTest is the most responsive in measuring recovery of balance among individuals with TKA. The Mini-BESTest is a reasonable option during time constraints. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Alternate Reductant Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace Phase II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.


    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  20. Testing and Measurement Potentials of Microcomputers for Cognitive Style Research and Individualized Instruction. (United States)

    Burroway, Robert L.

    Microcomputer versions of three commonly used cognitive style measurement instruments are described and demonstrated: the Leveling-Sharpening House Test (LSHT) (Santostefano, 1964); Lowenfeld's Successive Impressions Test I (SIT-I) (1945); and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (Witkin, Oltman, Ruskin, and Karp, 1971). At present, many…

  1. Tested Tools You Can Use: Evaluating Earth System Science Courses (United States)

    Lee, S. P.; Prakash, A.; Reider, D.; Baker, D.


    Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century (ESSE 21) has created a public access on-line evaluation resource available at in collaboration with the ESSE 21 institutions, PIs, and evaluators. The purpose of the ESSE toolkit is to offer examples of how evaluation and assessment are/have been used in Earth System Science courses and programs. Our goal is to help instructors recognize different types of assessment and evaluation tools and uses that have proved useful in these courses and provide models for designing assessments in new courses. We have included actual examples of evaluations used by ESSE institution faculty in their own courses. This is not a comprehensive toolkit on educational evaluation and assessment, but it does provide several examples of evaluations that have been used successfully in Earth System Science courses and links to many good web resources on course evaluation. We have provided examples of assessments that are designed to collect information from students before, during and after courses. Some, presented in different formats, are designed to assess what students learn, others are designed to provide course instructors with information they can use to revise their courses. These assessments range from content tests to portfolios, from feedback forms to interviews, and from concept maps to attitude surveys.

  2. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Byrne


    individual tests, including data collection, are the responsibility of the assigned Principal Investigator(s) (PIS) and are not evaluated in this DIE. This DIE focuses on integrating and compiling the evaluations of previous DIES which were prepared for various ESF subsurface testing activities, including the use of temporary items currently located or being developed for these testing activities, and to provide a bounding evaluation for potential future ESF subsurface testing activities that are sufficiently similar to the generic testing activities addressed herein. Subsurface testing activities items/facilities evaluated herein include: ongoing and planned testing in the TS Loop, alcoves, and niches, planned testing in the ECRB Starter Tunnel, borehole drilling and workover, and tracers, fluids, and materials (TFM) usage. Detailed identification of individual testing items/facilities and generic descriptions for subsurface-testing-related activities are provided in Section 6. The conclusions and requirements of this DIE conservatively bound the conclusions and requirements of previously approved DIES for the ESF subsurface testing activities addressed herein, based on conservative engineering judgment and on concurrence with this DIE (via a formal review process) by the originating and reviewing organizations of the previously approved evaluations. Hence, this DIE supersedes the following DIES listed in Table 1.1

  3. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Byrne


    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the individual

  4. Individual Variability and Test-Retest Reliability Revealed by Ten Repeated Resting-State Brain Scans over One Month (United States)

    Zhou, Changle; Wang, Luoyu; Yang, Ning; Wang, Ze; Dong, Hao-Ming; Yang, Zhi; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Weng, Xu-Chu


    Individual differences in mind and behavior are believed to reflect the functional variability of the human brain. Due to the lack of a large-scale longitudinal dataset, the full landscape of variability within and between individual functional connectomes is largely unknown. We collected 300 resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) datasets from 30 healthy participants who were scanned every three days for one month. With these data, both intra- and inter-individual variability of six common rfMRI metrics, as well as their test-retest reliability, were estimated across multiple spatial scales. Global metrics were more dynamic than local regional metrics. Cognitive components involving working memory, inhibition, attention, language and related neural networks exhibited high intra-individual variability. In contrast, inter-individual variability demonstrated a more complex picture across the multiple scales of metrics. Limbic, default, frontoparietal and visual networks and their related cognitive components were more differentiable than somatomotor and attention networks across the participants. Analyzing both intra- and inter-individual variability revealed a set of high-resolution maps on test-retest reliability of the multi-scale connectomic metrics. These findings represent the first collection of individual differences in multi-scale and multi-metric characterization of the human functional connectomes in-vivo, serving as normal references for the field to guide the use of common functional metrics in rfMRI-based applications. PMID:26714192

  5. Linkage into care among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals tested through outreach and facility-based HIV testing models in Mbeya, Tanzania: a prospective mixed-method cohort study. (United States)

    Sanga, Erica Samson; Lerebo, Wondwossen; Mushi, Adiel K; Clowes, Petra; Olomi, Willyhelmina; Maboko, Leonard; Zarowsky, Christina


    Linkage to care is the bridge between HIV testing and HIV treatment, care and support. In Tanzania, mobile testing aims to address historically low testing rates. Linkage to care was reported at 14% in 2009 and 28% in 2014. The study compares linkage to care of HIV-positive individuals tested at mobile/outreach versus public health facility-based services within the first 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Rural communities in four districts of Mbeya Region, Tanzania. A total of 1012 newly diagnosed HIV-positive adults from 16 testing facilities were enrolled into a two-armed cohort and followed for 6 months between August 2014 and July 2015. 840 (83%) participants completed the study. We compared the ratios and time variance in linkage to care using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Log rank tests. Cox proportional hazards regression models to evaluate factors associated with time variance in linkage. At the end of 6 months, 78% of all respondents had linked into care, with differences across testing models. 84% (CI 81% to 87%, n=512) of individuals tested at facility-based site were linked to care compared to 69% (CI 65% to 74%, n=281) of individuals tested at mobile/outreach. The median time to linkage was 1 day (IQR: 1-7.5) for facility-based site and 6 days (IQR: 3-11) for mobile/outreach sites. Participants tested at facility-based site were 78% more likely to link than those tested at mobile/outreach when other variables were controlled (AHR=1.78; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.07). HIV status disclosure to family/relatives was significantly associated with linkage to care (AHR=2.64; 95% CI 2.05 to 3.39). Linkage to care after testing HIV positive in rural Tanzania has increased markedly since 2014, across testing models. Individuals tested at facility-based sites linked in significantly higher proportion and modestly sooner than mobile/outreach tested individuals. Mobile/outreach testing models bring HIV testing services closer to people. Strategies to improve linkage

  6. Evaluating daytime alertness in individuals with Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) compared to sleep restricted controls. (United States)

    Gamaldo, Charlene; Benbrook, Amy R; Allen, Richard P; Oguntimein, Oluwamurewa; Earley, Christopher J


    Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder often associated with significant chronic sleep loss. Previous studies looking at the effects of sleep loss on daytime function in RLS individuals, using subjective reporting techniques have yielded mixed results. In this study we used more objective measures of alertness and compared RLS subjects who are off treatments and chronically sleep restricted to chronic sleep-restricted controls. The final sample consisted of 20 RLS subjects (10 male and 10 female) and 13 sleep-restricted controls (seven male and six female). Thirteen controls underwent a 14-day chronic partial sleep-restriction protocol in order to closely match the degree of chronic sleep loss reportedly experienced by untreated RLS patients. On the final day of the protocol each subject performed a morning and evening Suggested Immobilization Test (SIT) which served as a modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT). RLS and control groups were compared for differences in alertness as measured objectively by the sleep latency on the morning and evening SITs. The RLS subjects had a longer sleep latency on the morning and evening SIT than controls (t=3.80, p=0.001, U=31.0, pRLS individuals still demonstrated a higher degree of objective alertness (p=0.023, p=0.006, Fisher's exact test). RLS subjects, despite having, if anything, greater sleep loss, displayed greater sustained alertness than sleep-restricted controls. Thus, the heightened degree of alertness demonstrated by RLS patients may be in contrast to the perceived impairment in mood, vigor, and vigilance commonly reported in previous studies.

  7. Steel Containment Vessel Model Test: Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J.F.; Hashimote, T.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Luk, V.K.


    A high pressure test of the steel containment vessel (SCV) model was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. A concentric steel contact structure (CS), installed over the SCV model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. The SCV model and contact structure were instrumented with strain gages and displacement transducers to record the deformation behavior of the SCV model during the high pressure test. This paper summarizes the conduct and the results of the high pressure test and discusses the posttest metallurgical evaluation results on specimens removed from the SCV model.

  8. Measurement invariance within and between individuals: a distinct problem in testing the equivalence of intra- and inter-individual model structures. (United States)

    Adolf, Janne; Schuurman, Noémi K; Borkenau, Peter; Borsboom, Denny; Dolan, Conor V


    We address the question of equivalence between modeling results obtained on intra-individual and inter-individual levels of psychometric analysis. Our focus is on the concept of measurement invariance and the role it may play in this context. We discuss this in general against the background of the latent variable paradigm, complemented by an operational demonstration in terms of a linear state-space model, i.e., a time series model with latent variables. Implemented in a multiple-occasion and multiple-subject setting, the model simultaneously accounts for intra-individual and inter-individual differences. We consider the conditions-in terms of invariance constraints-under which modeling results are generalizable (a) over time within subjects, (b) over subjects within occasions, and (c) over time and subjects simultaneously thus implying an equivalence-relationship between both dimensions. Since we distinguish the measurement model from the structural model governing relations between the latent variables of interest, we decompose the invariance constraints into those that involve structural parameters and those that involve measurement parameters and relate to measurement invariance. Within the resulting taxonomy of models, we show that, under the condition of measurement invariance over time and subjects, there exists a form of structural equivalence between levels of analysis that is distinct from full structural equivalence, i.e., ergodicity. We demonstrate how measurement invariance between and within subjects can be tested in the context of high-frequency repeated measures in personality research. Finally, we relate problems of measurement variance to problems of non-ergodicity as currently discussed and approached in the literature.

  9. Development and test evaluation of duplex steam reformer tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.C.; Meyer, D.J.; Pflasterer, G.R.


    For HTR applications involving a steam reformer (SR), it is uncertain whether an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required. There are several system configurations that could be developed for the application of nuclear heat using the steam reformer reaction. The considerations (advantages vs. disadvantages) for each of the system configurations are summarized. The approach that technically and economically appears to be the most attractive, in studies conducted by General Electric, combines the SR process heat exchanger and the IHX in a single component using a duplex tube. A central question concerning the duplex tube concept is whether the design would provide adequate leak monitoring capability and significant reduction in tritium and hydrogen diffusion, while introducing only a small increase in overall temperature difference from the helium to the process gas. A cooperative GE-KFA effort was undertaken to develop, fabricate, test, and evaluate a duplex steam reformer tube. GE was responsible for the development and fabrication of the tube, and KFA was responsible for testing the tube in the EVA I facility at Juelich. Both GE and KFA are evaluating the thermochemical and metallurgical test data. Actual fabrication of the tube was performed by Foster-Wheeler in accordance with the GE design. This paper reviews the highlights of the fabrication development and preliminary evaluation of the test data

  10. Evaluation of nine HIV rapid test kits to develop a national HIV testing algorithm in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orji Bassey


    Full Text Available Background: Non-cold chain-dependent HIV rapid testing has been adopted in many resource-constrained nations as a strategy for reaching out to populations. HIV rapid test kits (RTKs have the advantage of ease of use, low operational cost and short turnaround times. Before 2005, different RTKs had been used in Nigeria without formal evaluation. Between 2005 and 2007, a study was conducted to formally evaluate a number of RTKs and construct HIV testing algorithms. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess and select HIV RTKs and develop national testing algorithms. Method: Nine RTKs were evaluated using 528 well-characterised plasma samples. These comprised 198 HIV-positive specimens (37.5% and 330 HIV-negative specimens (62.5%, collected nationally. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with 95% confidence intervals for all nine RTKs singly and for serial and parallel combinations of six RTKs; and relative costs were estimated. Results: Six of the nine RTKs met the selection criteria, including minimum sensitivity and specificity (both ≥ 99.0% requirements. There were no significant differences in sensitivities or specificities of RTKs in the serial and parallel algorithms, but the cost of RTKs in parallel algorithms was twice that in serial algorithms. Consequently, three serial algorithms, comprising four test kits (BundiTM, DetermineTM, Stat-Pak® and Uni-GoldTM with 100.0% sensitivity and 99.1% – 100.0% specificity, were recommended and adopted as national interim testing algorithms in 2007. Conclusion: This evaluation provides the first evidence for reliable combinations of RTKs for HIV testing in Nigeria. However, these RTKs need further evaluation in the field (Phase II to re-validate their performance.

  11. An empirical evaluation of the ACSM guidelines for exercise testing. (United States)

    Kohl, H W; Gibbons, L W; Gordon, N F; Blair, S N


    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) has published exercise guidelines identifying individuals who should have an exercise test prior to clearance for exercise participation and whether a physician should supervise the test. These age and health status criteria (apparently healthy, higher risk, and diseased) were developed using clinical judgement and opinion rather than empirical data. Thus, there is a need to validate the recommendations with actual data. We studied the results of 24,332 maximal treadmill tests in men (n = 18,076) and women (n = 5,626) as they associated with age and baseline health status. Commonly accepted criteria for abnormal exercise tests were used (i.e., 1 mm ST segment depression at 0.08 s, systolic blood pressure drop with exercise, complex ventricular ectopy, etc.). There were 895 and 183 abnormal exercise tests in men and women, respectively. Men and women who were apparently healthy had lower abnormality rates per 1,000 tests than those considered to be at higher risk for coronary heart disease and those who had preexisting disease. Further, when those who were at higher risk were considered, those men with only one risk factor had significantly lower abnormality rates than did men with more than one risk factor (95% confidence intervals (CI) per 1,000 tests: 1 risk factor = 36.1-46.4; greater than 1 risk factor = 47.5-62.5). Abnormality rates in women with 1 risk factor were also lower than those in their peers with greater than 1 risk factor, but not statistically so (95% CI per 1,000 tests: 1 risk factor = 24.9-43.0; greater than 1 risk factor = 25.3-54.4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus testing behaviors among US adults: the roles of individual factors, legislative status, and public health resources. (United States)

    Du, Ping; Camacho, Fabian; Zurlo, John; Lengerich, Eugene J


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended an "opt-out" human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing strategy in 2006 for all persons aged 13 to 64 years at healthcare settings. We conducted this study to identify individual, health, and policy factors that may be associated with HIV testing in US adults. The 2008 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System data were utilized. Individuals' residency states were classified into 4 categories based on the legislation status to HIV testing laws in 2007 and HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome morbidity. A multivariate logistic regression adjusting for survey designs was performed to examine factors associated with HIV testing. A total of 281,826 adults aged 18 to 64 years answered HIV testing questions in 2008. The proportions of US adults who had ever been tested for HIV increased from 35.9% in 2006 to 39.9% in 2008. HIV testing varied across the individual's characteristics including sociodemographics, access to regular health care, and risk for HIV infection. Compared with residents of "high morbidity-opt out" states, those living in "high morbidity-opt in" states with legislative restrictions for HIV testing had a slightly lower odds of being tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio = 0.96; 95% confidence interval = 0.92, 1.01). Adults living in "low morbidity" states were significantly less likely to be tested for HIV, regardless of legislative status. To implement routine HIV testing in the general population, the role of public health resources should be emphasized and legislative barriers should be further reduced. Strategies need to be developed to reach people who do not have regular access to health care.

  13. Evaluation of behavioral states among morning and evening active healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Hidalgo


    Full Text Available The Horne-Östberg questionnaire partly covers some factors that may be important determinants of peak time and characterize patterns of behavior. We conducted a study for the evaluation of self-reported behavioral states (hunger sensation, availability for study, physical exercise, solving daily problems, and time preferences as expressions of underlying cyclic activity. Three hundred and eighteen community subjects without history of medical, psychiatric, or sleep disorders were evaluated in a cross-sectional design. A self-report about daily highest level of activity was used to categorize individuals into morning, evening, and indifferently active. Time-related behavioral states were evaluated with 23 visual analog questions. The responses to most analogic questions were significantly different between morning and evening active subjects. Logistic regression analysis identified a group of behaviors more strongly associated with the self-reported activity pattern (common wake up time, highest subjective fatigue, as well as wake up, bedtime, exercise and study preferences. These findings suggested that the patterns of activity presented by normal adults were related to specific common behavioral characteristics that may contribute to peak time.

  14. Evaluation of Apoptosis in the Lung Tissue of Sulfur Mustard-exposed Individuals. (United States)

    Mosayebzadeh, Marjan; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Delshad, Alireza; Akbari, Hassan


    Lung exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) results in pulmonary complications, which is the main cause of long-term disability and morbidity. Up to now, the precise mechanisms of SM-induced lung complications has not been identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis in the lung tissue of SM-exposed individuals. The study was performed on archived lung paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of21 patients suffering from pulmonary complications due to previous SM exposure and 9 unexposed patients who had undergone lung resections for another lung disease. Evaluation of apoptosis in paraffin-embedded lung tissue sections was performed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and the cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry assays. TUNEL-positive apoptotic features and caspase-3 expression of specimens were significantly higher in the SM-exposed group compared with the control group. This result demonstrates higher apoptosis rate in the SM-exposed group. Furthermore, the majority of positive cells consisted of alveolar epithelial cells in both methods. In conclusion,it seems that exposure to SM may result in increased apoptosis in respiratory epithelium. More studies are needed to evaluate the role of apoptosis in SM-induced lung complications in order to design new and effective therapeutic protocols.

  15. Toronto Rehabilitation Institute–Hand Function Test: Assessment of Gross Motor Function in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury (United States)

    Kapadia, Naaz; Zivanovic, Vera; Verrier, Molly; Popovic, Milos R.


    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interrater reliability, construct validity, and sensitivity of Toronto Rehabilitation Institute–Hand Function Test (TRI-HFT), within an interventional randomized control trial. Method: Twenty-one participants with subacute C4 to C7 spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited. Based on randomization, participants were allocated to either the functional electrical stimulation therapy group or the conventional occupational therapy group. Baseline and follow-up assessments of participants were videotaped. For testing interrater reliability, videotaped images were transferred to DVDs that were later observed by 2 observers. Construct validity was determined by comparing total scores on TRI-HFT to self-care subscore components of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) and FIM. To establish sensitivity of TRI-HFT, we compared pre- and posttreatment scores on all 3 measures (ie, TRI-HFT, FIM, and SCIM). Results: TRI-HFT was found to have high interrater reliability with an intercorrelation coefficient (ICC) of 0.98. Moderate to strong correlations were found between TRI-HFT total scores and self-care components of FIM and SCIM for both hands individually post therapy. Due to a floor effect of the FIM and SCIM, there was weak correlation between pretherapy scores of the said measures and TRI-HFT. TRI-HFT was found to be highly sensitive in determining difference in function pre and post therapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the TRI-HFT is a reliable and sensitive measure to assess unilateral hand gross motor function in persons with tetraplegia, with moderate to strong construct validity. PMID:23459270

  16. ANOLE Portable Radiation Detection System Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Chris A.


    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  17. Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan


    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  18. INEL test plan for evaluating waste assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandler, J.W.; Becker, G.K.; Harker, Y.D.; Menkhaus, D.E.; Clements, T.L. Jr.


    A test bed is being established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These tests are currently focused on mobile or portable radioassay systems. Prior to disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), radioassay measurements must meet the quality assurance objectives of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. This test plan provides technology holders with the opportunity to assess radioassay system performance through a three-tiered test program that consists of: (a) evaluations using non-interfering matrices, (b) surrogate drums with contents that resemble the attributes of INEL-specific waste forms, and (c) real waste tests. Qualified sources containing a known mixture and range of radionuclides will be used for the non-interfering and surrogate waste tests. The results of these tests will provide technology holders with information concerning radioassay system performance and provide the INEL with data useful for making decisions concerning alternative or improved radioassay systems that could support disposal of waste at WIPP

  19. Tests for evaluating the physiological quality of pitaya seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Alberto Ortiz


    Full Text Available Germination test is used to assess the physiological quality of seeds; however, since it is carried out under ideal conditions, this test has not been shown sufficient for this purpose. Instead, it is possible to use vigor tests, although the lack of standardized methodologies has reduced their applicability and reproducibility. Thus, this study aimed to develop methodologies for conducting tests of germination, accelerated aging, and electrical conductivity for the evaluation of the physiological quality of pitaya seeds. For this purpose, seeds from ripe Hylocereus undatus fruits were used. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four replications. The physiological quality of the seeds was assessed using germination, accelerated aging, and electrical conductivity tests, and the speed of germination index (SGI and mean germination time (MGT were determined for both the germination test and accelerated aging test. For the statistical analysis, we performed regression model adjustments and calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient (p < 0.05. The germination test for H. undatus seeds can be performed at 25 °C, with the aim of reaching the highest SGI and lowest MGT values. The accelerated aging test can be conducted at 43 °C for 48 h, because combining these factors favors the expression of seed vigor, allowing seeds to achieve the maximum SGI and minimum MGT, while reducing the time of the assay. The electrical conductivity test can be performed using 25 seeds at a temperature of 30 °C and a water volume of 10 mL, since under these conditions there is less interference from external factors on the leachate content of the solution.

  20. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.


    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  1. Quality Evaluation By Acousto-Ultrasonic Testing Of Composites (United States)

    Vary, Alex


    Promising nondestructive-testing method based on ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. Report reviews acousto-ultrasonic technology for nondestructive testing. Discusses principles, suggests advanced signal-analysis schemes for development, and presents potential applications. Acousto-ultrasonics applied principally to assess defects in laminated and filament-wound fiber-reinforced composite materials. Technique used to determine variations in such properties as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and reductions in strength and toughness caused by defects. Also used to evaluate states of cure, porosities, orientation of fibers, volume fractions of fibers, bonding between fibers and matrices, and qualities of interlaminar bonds.

  2. Different Perspectives: Spatial Ability Influences Where Individuals Look on a Timed Spatial Test (United States)

    Roach, Victoria A.; Fraser, Graham M.; Kryklywy, James H.; Mitchell, Derek G. V.; Wilson, Timothy D.


    Learning in anatomy can be both spatially and visually complex. Pedagogical investigations have begun exploration as to how spatial ability may mitigate learning. Emerging hypotheses suggests individuals with higher spatial reasoning may attend to images differently than those who are lacking. To elucidate attentional patterns associated with…

  3. Norm Block Sample Sizes: A Review of 17 Individually Administered Intelligence Tests (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Woods, Isaac L.; Hawkins, Haley K.; Irby, Sarah M.


    The representativeness, recency, and size of norm samples strongly influence the accuracy of inferences drawn from their scores. Inadequate norm samples may lead to inflated or deflated scores for individuals and poorer prediction of developmental and academic outcomes. The purpose of this study was to apply Kranzler and Floyd's method for…

  4. Consensus Statement: Chromosomal Microarray Is a First-Tier Clinical Diagnostic Test for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities or Congenital Anomalies


    Miller, David T.; Adam, Margaret P.; Aradhya, Swaroop; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Brothman, Arthur R.; Carter, Nigel P.; Church, Deanna M.; Crolla, John A.; Eichler, Evan E.; Epstein, Charles J.; Faucett, W. Andrew; Feuk, Lars; Friedman, Jan M.; Hamosh, Ada; Jackson, Laird


    Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is increasingly utilized for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Performing CMA and G-banded karyotyping on every patient substantially increases the total cost of genetic testing. The International Standard Cytogenomic Array (ISCA) Consortium held two international workshops and conducted a literature review of 33 studies, incl...

  5. Evaluation of the screening test results before marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz


    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses and Treponema pallidum are parenterally and sexually transmitted infection agents. Screening test is made before marriage to pre-marital couples legally under the relevant legislation and legal procedures in our country; applicants are evaluated in terms of sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate pre-marital test results for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and Treponema pallidum.Materials and methods: To make screening test before marriage, randomized 117 patients who were applied to Kızıltepe General Hospital of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, were included in this study between January 2011 and March 2011. Of these patients, 64 were women (average age 24.7±5.7, and 55 were males (mean age 24.7±4.7. HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV I/II tests of the patients were studied by macro-ELISA device (ECIQ Vitros, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA, screening of anti-Treponema pallidum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies were studied by immunochromatographic rapid test (syphilis syphilis 3.0, Standard Diagnostics, inc. Korea.Results: Of the 119 patients, five patients (4.2% were positive for HBsAg (3 male and 2 female. Anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies were negative in all patients.Conclusion: HBsAg test result which was obtained in present study has been found consistent with HBsAg positivity rate in our region. As a result of screening test that was done before marriage will continue to believe that the increased importance of the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 292-294.

  6. Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity? (United States)

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer


    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8) and part-time (N = 10) male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8) and women (N = 12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (pbarbell shoulder press (rs = −0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = −0.82) and bench press (rs = −0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75) and bench press (rs = 0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = −0.83) and bench press (rs = −0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = −0.58) and upright barbell row (rs = −0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  7. Dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures: an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, H.J.


    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) evaluated the applications of system identification techniques to the dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures and subsystems. These experimental techniques involve exciting a structure and measuring, digitizing, and processing the time-history motions that result. The data can be compared to parameters calculated using finite element or other models of the test systems to validate the model and to verify the seismic analysis. This report summarizes work in three main areas: (1) analytical qualification of a set of computer programs developed at LLL to extract model parameters from the time histories; (2) examination of the feasibility of safely exciting nuclear power plant structures and accurately recording the resulting time-history motions; (3) study of how the model parameters that are extracted from the data be used best to evaluate structural integrity and analyze nuclear power plants

  8. Summary of the Solar Two Test and Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Solar Two was a collaborative, cost-shared project between eleven US industry and utility partners and the U. S. Department of Energy to validate molten-salt power tower technology. The Solar Two plant, located east of Barstow, CA, was comprised of 1926 heliostats, a receiver, a thermal storage system and a steam generation system. Molten nitrate salt was used as the heat transfer fluid and storage media. The steam generator powered a 10 MWe, conventional Rankine cycle turbine. Solar Two operated from June 1996 to April 1999. The major objective of the test and evaluation phase of the project was to validate the technical characteristics of a molten salt power tower. This paper describes the significant results from the test and evaluation activities.

  9. Tools of Individual Evaluation and Prestige Recognition in Spain: How Sexenio 'Mints the Golden Coin of Authority' (United States)

    Marini, Giulio


    Individual experiences in dealing with individual evaluations are studied through a national documental analysis and qualitative interviews. The analysis considers three main individual assessments designed to measure individual credentials or performance: "sexenio" (research and third mission), "quinquenio" (teaching) and…

  10. Oral prednisolone suppresses allergic but not irritant patch test reactions in individuals hypersensitive to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anveden, Ingegärd; Lindberg, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus E


    A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of prednisone on allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 24 subjects with known allergy to nickel were recruited and patch tested with a nickel sulfate dilution series in aqueous solution, 5% nickel...... sulfate in petrolatum and 2 dilution series of the irritants nonanoic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate. The subjects were tested x2, both during treatment with prednisone 20 mg oral daily and during placebo treatment. The total number of positive nickel patch test reactions decreased significantly...... in patients during prednisone treatment. The threshold concentration to elicit a patch test reaction increased and the overall degree of reactivity to nickel sulfate shifted towards weaker reactions. The effect of prednisone treatment on the response to irritants was divergent with both increased...

  11. Evaluation of lymphocyte transformation tests as compared with patch tests in nickel allergy diagnosis. (United States)

    Ständer, Sascha; Oppel, Eva; Thomas, Peter; Summer, Burkhard


    The patch test is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing nickel (Ni) allergy. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) can also be used to detect Ni sensitization. However, little is known about the correlation between patch test and LTT reactions to Ni. To establish and validate an LTT for Ni sensitization by comparison with patch test reaction and history. Fifty individuals without self-reported 'Ni allergy' (controls) and 50 patients with self-reported suspicion of Ni allergy were included. A questionnaire-aided history was taken, and patch tests with at least the baseline series and LTTs with various NiSO 4 dilutions were performed. In the patch tests, 2 of 50 controls and 18 of 50 patients with self-reported suspicion of Ni allergy showed positive reactions to Ni. In the LTTs, 2 of 50 controls and 26 of 50 patients with self-reported suspicion of Ni allergy showed positive reactions to NiSO 4 2.5 × 10 -5 m, and 2 of 50 controls and 17 of 50 patients with self-reported suspicion of Ni allergy showed positive reactions to NiSO 4 1 × 10 -5 m. Sixteen of the 18 history-positive and patch test-positive patients (i.e. 88% sensitivity) were also LTT-positive, in contrast to only 2 positive LTT reactors within the 48 PT and history negative individuals (i.e. 96% specificity). [Correction added on 16 February 2017, after first online publication: The preceding sentence has been edited for language and this has been amended in this version.] CONCLUSION: Performing the LTT with optimized stimulating conditions might be a useful additional tool for the diagnosis of Ni allergy if non-sensitized controls are included. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ecotoxicological evaluation of propranolol hydrochloride and losartan potassium to Lemna minor L. (1753) individually and in binary mixtures. (United States)

    Godoy, Aline A; Kummrow, Fábio; Pamplin, Paulo Augusto Z


    Antihypertensive pharmaceuticals, including the beta-blockers, are one of the most detected therapeutic classes in the environment. The ecotoxicity of propranolol hydrochloride and losartan potassium was evaluated, both individually and combined in a binary mixture, by using the Lemna minor growth inhibition test. The endpoints evaluated in the single-pharmaceutical tests were frond number, total frond area and fresh weight. For the evaluation of the mixture toxicity, the selected endpoint was frond number. Water quality criteria values (WQC) were derived for the protection of freshwater and saltwater pelagic communities regarding the effects induced by propranolol and losartan using ecotoxicological data from the literature, including our data. The risks associated with both pharmaceutical effects on non-target organisms were quantified through the measured environmental concentration (MEC)/predicted-no-effect concentration (PNEC) ratios. For propranolol, the total frond area was the most sensitive endpoint (EC50 = 77.3 mg L(-1)), while for losartan there was no statistically significant difference between the endpoints. Losartan is only slightly more toxic than propranolol. Both concentration addition and independent action models overestimated the mixture toxicity of the pharmaceuticals at all the effect concentration levels evaluated. The joint action of both pharmaceuticals showed an antagonistic interaction to L. minor. Derived WQC assumed lower values for propranolol than for losartan. The MEC/PNEC ratios showed that propranolol may pose a risk for the most sensitive aquatic species, while acceptable risks posed by losartan were estimated for most of aquatic matrices. To the authors knowledge these are the first data about losartan toxicity for L. minor.

  13. Evaluation of an instrument-assisted dynamic prosthetic alignment technique for individuals with transtibial amputation. (United States)

    Chen, Caroline Wen Jia; Heim, Winfried; Fairley, Karen; Clement, Russell J; Biddiss, Elaine; Torres-Moreno, Ricardo; Andrysek, Jan


    A prosthesis that is not optimally aligned can adversely influence the rehabilitation and health of the amputee. Very few studies to date evaluate the effectiveness and utility of instrument-assisted alignment techniques in clinical practice. To compare an instrument-assisted dynamic alignment technique (Compas(™)) to conventional methods. In a crossover study design, dynamic prosthetic alignments were provided to nine individuals with unilateral transtibial amputations to compare conventional and instrument-assisted alignment techniques. The instrument-assisted technique involved a commercially available force and torque sensing dynamic alignment system (Compas). Cadence, pelvic accelerations, and socket moments were assessed. A custom questionnaire was used to gather user perceptions. No differences between alignment techniques were found in global gait measures including cadence and pelvic accelerations. No significant alignment differences were achieved by examination of angular changes between the socket and foot; however, significantly higher below-the-socket moments were found with the instrument-assisted technique. From the questionnaire, six amputees had no preference, while three preferred the conventional alignment. The use of Compas appears to produce similar alignment results as conventional techniques, although with slightly higher moments at the socket. This study provides new information about the clinical utilization of instrument-assisted prosthetic alignment techniques for individuals with transtibial amputation. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  14. Clinical evaluation of semiautonomous smart wheelchair architecture (Drive-Safe System) with visually impaired individuals. (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod; Simpson, Richard C; LoPresti, Edmund F; Schmeler, Mark


    Nonambulatory, visually impaired individuals mostly rely on caregivers for their day-to-day mobility needs. The Drive-Safe System (DSS) is a modular, semiautonomous smart wheelchair system aimed at providing independent mobility to people with visual and mobility impairments. In this project, clinical evaluation of the DSS was performed in a controlled laboratory setting with individuals who have visual impairment but no mobility impairment. Their performance using DSS was compared with their performance using a standard cane for navigation assistance. Participants rated their subjective appraisal of the DSS by using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index inventory. DSS significantly reduced the number and severity of collisions compared with using a cane alone and without increasing the time required to complete the task. Users rated DSS favorably; they experienced less physical demand when using the DSS, but did not feel any difference in perceived effort, mental demand, and level of frustration when using the DSS alone or along with a cane in comparison with using a cane alone. These findings suggest that the DSS can be a safe, reliable, and easy-to-learn and operate independent mobility solution for visually impaired wheelchair users.

  15. Vision in the global evaluation of older individuals hospitalized following a fall. (United States)

    Boutin, Tanguy; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Latour, Judith; Massoud, Fadi; Kergoat, Hélène


    The objective of this study was to verify if vision is appropriately evaluated in older individuals admitted to a Geriatric Assessment Unit following a fall. A retrospective clinical chart review of 158 patients from 3 university-based Geriatric Assessment Units is presented. The clinical charts of patients admitted following a fall in the Geriatric Assessment Units of 3 Montreal hospitals, between April 2006 and 2008, were reviewed. Clinical charts from age- and sex-matched controls hospitalized in the Geriatric Assessment Units during the same period but without a history of fall or fracture, were also reviewed. Pertinent sociodemographic, medical, and visual characteristics were extracted from the charts and entered into a database for analysis. The mean age ± standard deviation for the cases (n = 79) and controls (n = 79) were 82.3 ± 6.2 years and 81.7 ± 6.4 years, respectively. Most falls were not a result of accidents, but rather were more often related to underlying medical problems that were multifactorial in origin. More cases than controls were taking antiarrhythmic and antidepressant medications, whereas more controls were taking calcium channel blockers. Cases were more likely to have cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and decreased visual acuity. Although cases were referred more often than controls for an eye examination, they were not referred in a systematic fashion. Our results indicate that more visual problems are identified in persons who fall and, even if they are referred more often than controls for an eye examination, their vision is not evaluated systematically by an eye care specialist despite current clinical recommendations. These data indicate that eye care professionals should work more closely with the medical team to improve the overall clinical care of older individuals with a history of falls. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation criteria of the individual motor predisposition of female sport gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boraczynski T.


    Full Text Available In the paper were presented the results of research, aimed to improve criteria for assessing the motor predisposition of girls in sports gymnastics at the initial stage of training. The studies included 24 gymnasts divided into two age groups: A 6,0-7,5 years of age and B (8,3-13,0. The level of physical fitness was assessed with the use of the EUROFIT battery tests. easurements of the maximum moment of muscle strength in the bending forearm in the elbow joint in terms of isometric contraction were also performed. Assessment f the level of individual strengthspeed and coordination abilities and physical fitness structure including the pace of biological development were the basis for the development of objective criteria for assessing the sports predispositions of young gymnasts at the initial stage of training. Our results provide the basis for improving the control system and optimization of assessment criteria in women gymnastics, including age, training experience and sports level. The results presented in this paper demonstrated the usefulness of the research methodology used to assess the physical fitness and predispositions of gymnasts at the initial stage of training, what enables individualization of training process.

  17. Colorimetric evaluation of iPhone apps for colour vision tests based on the Ishihara test. (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; AlMerdef, Ali


    Given the versatility of smart phone displays, it was inevitable that applications (apps) providing colour vision testing would appear as an option. In this study, the colorimetric characteristics of five available iPhone apps for colour vision testing are assessed as a prequel to possible clinical evaluation. The colours of the displays produced by the apps are assessed with reference to the colours of a printed Ishihara test. The visual task is assessed on the basis of the colour differences and the alignment to the dichromatic confusion lines. The apps vary in quality and while some are colorimetrically acceptable, there are also some problems with their construction in making them a clinically useful app rather than curiosity driven self-testing. There is no reason why, in principle, a suitable test cannot be designed for smart phones. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  18. Extra-regulatory impact tests and analyses of the structural evaluation test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwigsen, J.S.; Ammerman, D.J.


    The structural evaluation test unit is roughly equivalent to a 1/3 scale model of a high level waste rail cask. The test unit was designed to just meet the requirements of NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6 when subjected to a 9 m (30 ft) free drop resulting in an impact velocity of 13.4 m/s (30 mph) onto an unyielding target in the end-on orientation. The test unit was then subjected to impacts with higher velocities to determine the amount of built-in conservatism in this design approach. Test impacts of 13.4, 20.1 and 26.8 m/s (30, 45, and 60 mph) were performed. This paper will describe the design, testing, and comparison of measured strains and deformations to the equivalent analytical predictions

  19. The Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities : test-retest reliability and comparison with an accelerometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Streppel, Kitty R M; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Woude, Lucas

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). METHODS: Forty-five non-wheelchair dependent subjects were recruited from three Dutch rehabilitation centers. Subjects'

  20. Evaluation of new creosote formulations after extended exposures in fungal cellar tests and field plot tests (United States)

    Douglas M. Crawford; Patricia K. Lebow; Rodney. DeGroot


    This paper compares two new formulations of creosote and one pigment-emulsified creosote (PEC) with a formulation of creosote that met requirements of the AWPA standard P1/P13. Two softwood and two hardwood species were treated to four retention levels with each formulation. The evaluation of the four creosote formulations was done using (1) soil-block tests, (2)...

  1. Evaluation Of Algorithms Of Anti- HIV Antibody Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paranjape R.S


    Full Text Available Research question: Can alternate algorithms be used in place of conventional algorithm for epidemiological studies of HIV infection with less expenses? Objective: To compare the results of HIV sero- prevalence as determined by test algorithms combining three kits with conventional test algorithm. Study design: Cross â€" sectional. Participants: 282 truck drivers. Statistical analysis: Sensitivity and specificity analysis and predictive values. Results: Three different algorithms that do not include Western Blot (WB were compared with the conventional algorithm, in a truck driver population with 5.6% prevalence of HIV â€"I infection. Algorithms with one EIA (Genetic Systems or Biotest and a rapid test (immunocomb or with two EIAs showed 100% positive predictive value in relation to the conventional algorithm. Using an algorithm with EIA as screening test and a rapid test as a confirmatory test was 50 to 70% less expensive than the conventional algorithm per positive scrum sample. These algorithms obviate the interpretation of indeterminate results and also give differential diagnosis of HIV-2 infection. Alternate algorithms are ideally suited for community based control programme in developing countries. Application of these algorithms in population with low prevalence should also be studied in order to evaluate universal applicability.

  2. Evaluation of thyroid function tests in non-thyroidal illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, D.P.


    Normal thyroid physiology and pathophysiology with reference to non-thyroidal illness (NTI) is reviewed including specific disease states and drugs and their effect on thyroid function tests. The diagnostic utility of two new highly sensitive thyrotrophin (TSH) assays as screening tests for thyroid dysfunction are evaluated and compared with conventional thyroid function assays. A group of 40 patients with NTI was studied. This group was compared to a group of normal controls and a group of thyrotoxic patients. Conventional thyroid function tests yielded many values outside the reference range in the NTI group. The general pattern that emerged was decreased total triiodothyronine levels in 70% of NTI patients, normal to low thyroxine values, increased mean free thyroxine values (dialysis), low mean values for the free thyroxine index and varying results for newer commercial assays for free thyroxine according to methodology. The TSH response to intravenous thyroliberin (TRH) was found to be blunted compared to controls. Basal TSH levels were measured with two ultasensitive TSH assays. The immunoradiometric assays yielded fewer values outside the reference range in the NTI group than conventional thyroid function tests. This assay yielded undetectable basal TSH levels in all thyrotoxic patients and could reliably separate thyrotoxic patients from the NTI group. Basal TSH levels with ultrasensitive TSH assays correlated well with the TSH response to TRH (TSH) and could obviate the need for TRH tests. Ultrasensitive TSH assays are promising first line screening tests in NTI. 120 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Evaluating clinical significance: incorporating robust statistics with normative comparison tests. (United States)

    van Wieringen, Katrina; Cribbie, Robert A


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a modified test of equivalence for conducting normative comparisons when distribution shapes are non-normal and variances are unequal. A Monte Carlo study was used to compare the empirical Type I error rates and power of the proposed Schuirmann-Yuen test of equivalence, which utilizes trimmed means, with that of the previously recommended Schuirmann and Schuirmann-Welch tests of equivalence when the assumptions of normality and variance homogeneity are satisfied, as well as when they are not satisfied. The empirical Type I error rates of the Schuirmann-Yuen were much closer to the nominal α level than those of the Schuirmann or Schuirmann-Welch tests, and the power of the Schuirmann-Yuen was substantially greater than that of the Schuirmann or Schuirmann-Welch tests when distributions were skewed or outliers were present. The Schuirmann-Yuen test is recommended for assessing clinical significance with normative comparisons. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. The Test of Inaccurate Position of Renography Detector to Relative UptakeFigure and Individual Excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang-Supardiyono; Prayitno


    Accuracy of detector position toward the kidney location (preciseposition) in renography will resulting the maximum count figure, detectorposition change from the precise point (inaccurate) will decreasing the countrate. Therefore for it had been simulated the influence of count figure ofright kidney (fixed left kidney count) ± 5 % to ± 20 % to relativeuptake figure and individual excretion. Based on the calculation it was foundthat the relation of detector position ± 0.5 cm to ± 2 cm from theprecise point will have effect to relative uptake figure ± (1.25 % to 5.00%), the fixed individual excretion figure. The change is still can beaccepted because the qualitative information with 10 % accuracy is stillacceptable. (author)

  5. A modular mind? A test using individual data from seven primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Amici

    Full Text Available It has long been debated whether the mind consists of specialized and independently evolving modules, or whether and to what extent a general factor accounts for the variance in performance across different cognitive domains. In this study, we used a hierarchical Bayesian model to re-analyse individual level data collected on seven primate species (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, gorillas, spider monkeys, brown capuchin monkeys and long-tailed macaques across 17 tasks within four domains (inhibition, memory, transposition and support. Our modelling approach evidenced the existence of both a domain-specific factor and a species factor, each accounting for the same amount (17% of the observed variance. In contrast, inter-individual differences played a minimal role. These results support the hypothesis that the mind of primates is (at least partially modular, with domain-specific cognitive skills undergoing different evolutionary pressures in different species in response to specific ecological and social demands.

  6. Tritium-gas/water-vapor monitor. Tests and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.


    A tritium gas/water-vapor monitor was designed and built by the Health Physics Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. In its prototype configuration, the monitor took the shape of two separate instruments: a (total) tritium monitor and a water-vapor monitor. Both instruments were tested and evaluated. The tests of the (total) tritium monitor, basically an improved version of the standard flow-through ion-chamber instrument, are briefly reported here and more completely elsewhere. The tests of the water-vapor monitor indicated that the novel approach used to condense water vapor for scintillation counting has a number of serious drawbacks and that further development of the instrument is unwarranted

  7. Limited streamer chamber testing and quality evaluation in ASTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzivino, G.; Bianco, S.; Casaccia, R.


    Limited streamer chambers are extensively used for high-energy and nuclear physics experiments in accelerator and underground laboratories. The tracking system of LVD, an underground experiment to study muons and nutrino astronomy, will use roughly 15000 limited streamer chambers and 100000 external pickup strips with digital readout electronics. In the article the different aspects of chamber operation that serve to establish a testing procedure and to define acceptance criteria for selecting reliable and long-life devices, are discussed. The procedures and the results obtained from a long-term test to evaluate streamer chamber quality, based upon a sample of 2900 items, are described. The selection tests and the long-term observations have been performed in the ASTRA laboratory, established at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati to carry out quality control procedures for streamer chambers on a large scale and in a controlled environment

  8. Evaluation of eugenol toxicity in bioassays with test-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Santos Gueretz


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fish in both natural and farming conditions are exposed to stress of capture, handling, transport or treatment that provoke low zootechnical performance. Anesthetics like eugenol obtained from clove oil have been used strategically not only in freshwater but also in marine and estuarine fish in order to reduce the stress. Apart from the eugenol indication as anesthetic and its low toxicity for animals, its environment action is not clear. Bioassays or ecotoxicity tests with indicator organisms are used to evaluate the mode of action of the pollutants in the environment. The aim of this study was to test the acute toxicity of eugenol using the microcrustacean Daphnia magna and the bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri, and also its chronic toxicity for the algae Desmodesmus subspicatus. Eugenol in the concentrations of 50, 75 and 100mg L-1 were toxic to tested indicator organisms.

  9. Evaluation of individually body weight adapted contrast media injection in coronary CT-angiography. (United States)

    Mihl, Casper; Kok, Madeleine; Altintas, Sibel; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Turek, Jakub; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco


    Contrast media (CM) injection protocols should be customized to the individual patient. Aim of this study was to determine if software tailored CM injections result in diagnostic enhancement of the coronary arteries in computed tomography angiography (CTA) and if attenuation values were comparable between different weight categories. 265 consecutive patients referred for routine coronary CTA were scanned on a 2nd generation dual-source CT. Group 1 (n=141) received an individual CM bolus based on weight categories (39-59 kg; 60-74 kg; 75-94 kg; 95-109 kg) and scan duration ('high-pitch: 1s; "dual-step prospective triggering": 7s), as determined by contrast injection software (Certegra™ P3T, Bayer, Berlin, Germany). Group 2 (n=124) received a standard fixed CM bolus; Iopromide 300 mgI/ml; volume: 75 ml; flow rate: 7.2 ml/s. Contrast enhancement was measured in all proximal and distal coronary segments. Subjective and objective image quality was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (IBM, version 20.0). For group 1, mean attenuation values of all segments were diagnostic (>325 HU) without statistical significant differences between different weight categories (p>0.17), proximal vs. distal: 449 ± 65-373 ± 58 HU (39-59 kg); 443 ± 69-367 ± 81 HU (60-74 kg); 427 ± 59-370 ± 61 HU (75-94 kg); 427 ± 73-347 ± 61 HU (95-109 kg). Mean CM volumes were: 55 ± 6 ml (39-59 kg); 61 ± 7 ml (60-74 kg); 71 ± 8 ml (75-94 kg); 84 ± 9 ml (95-109 kg). For group 2, mean attenuation values were not all diagnostic with differences between weight categories (p<0.01), proximal vs. distal: 611 ± 142-408 ± 69 HU (39-59 kg); 562 ± 135-389 ± 98 HU (60-74 kg); 481 ± 83-329 ± 81 HU (75-94 kg); 420 ± 73-305 ± 35 HU (95-109 kg). Comparable image noise and image quality were found between groups (p ≥ 0.330). Individually tailored CM injection protocols yield diagnostic attenuation and a more homogeneous enhancement pattern between different weight groups. CM

  10. Individual and family characteristics associated with BRCA1/2 genetic testing in high-risk families. (United States)

    Katapodi, Maria C; Northouse, Laurel L; Milliron, Kara J; Liu, Guipeng; Merajver, Sofia D


    Little is known about family members' interrelated decisions to seek genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility. The specific aims of this cross-sectional, descriptive, cohort study were (i) to examine whether individual and family characteristics have a direct effect on women's decisions to use genetic testing for hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer and (ii) to explore whether family characteristics moderate the relationships between individual characteristics and the decision to use genetic testing. Participants were women (>18 years old) who (i) received genetic testing for hereditary breast cancer and who agreed to invite one of their female relatives into the study and (ii) female relatives who had NOT obtained genetic testing and were identified by pedigree analysis as having >10% chances of hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer. The final sample consisted of 168 English-speaking, family dyads who completed self-administered, mailed surveys with validated instruments. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed that the proposed model explained 62% of the variance in genetic testing. The factors most significantly associated with genetic testing were having a personal history of cancer; perceiving genetic testing to have more benefits than barriers; having greater family hardiness; and perceiving fewer negative consequences associated with a breast cancer diagnosis. No significant interaction effects were observed. Findings suggest that both individual and family characteristics are associated with the decision to obtain genetic testing for hereditary breast cancer; hence, there is a need for interventions that foster a supportive family environment for patients and their high-risk relatives. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Availability of the Two-step Test to evaluate balance in frail people in a day care service. (United States)

    Kojima, Kazunori; Kamai, Daisuke; Ishitani, Shogo; Watanabe, Susumu


    [Purpose] This study evaluated balance tests in users of a day care service who needed nursing care or support, and investigated the usefulness of the Two-step Test for evaluating balance. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were users of a day care service, and had certified need for long-term care or support. All subjects were able to undergo the balance evaluations. Balance tests included the 3-m Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the one-leg standing time, and the Two-step Test. [Results] The Two-step Test and other balance tests were strongly correlated. [Conclusion] In this study of subjects who needed nursing care or support, the results were the same as in a previous study of subjects who did not need nursing care or support. The Two-step Test should be considered as an indicator of balance ability in elderly individuals requiring nursing care or support.

  12. Auditory Tests for the Early Detection of Noise-Susceptible Individuals - A Literature Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vos, Joos


    ... of persons who are less susceptible to noise. The Netherlands Ministry of Defense contracted TNO Human Factors to investigate whether, at present, reliable auditory tests are available to determine at an early stage (i.e...

  13. Operational Ground Testing Protocol to Optimize Astronaut Sleep Medication Efficacy and Individual Effects (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As of July 3, 2014, data collection has been completed for 29 participants, with each participant completing testing across three nights at the Astronaut Quarantine...

  14. Sex-Dependent Individual Differences and the Correlational Relationship Between Proprioceptive and Verbal Tests


    Liutsko Liudmila


    Introduction. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between proprioceptive and verbal tests on personality in both sexes separately due to existing proprioceptive differences in fine motor behavior between men and women in our previous studies [1, 2, 3]. Material and methods. 114 middle-aged participants from Belarus completed verbal tests (personality: Eysenck's EPQ, Big Five in Hromov's Russian adaptation, and Rosenberg's Self-esteem) together with Proprioceptive Diagnostics ...

  15. Genetic testing in the European Union: does economic evaluation matter? (United States)

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, R; Hutter, M F; Lorente, R; Juárez, C; Pinillos, M


    We review the published economic evaluation studies applied to genetic technologies in the EU to know the main diseases addressed by these studies, the ways the studies were conducted and to assess the efficiency of these new technologies. The final aim of this review was to understand the possibilities of the economic evaluations performed up to date as a tool to contribute to decision making in this area. We have reviewed a set of articles found in several databases until March 2010. Literature searches were made in the following databases: PubMed; Euronheed; Centre for Reviews and Dissemination of the University of York-Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, NHS Economic Evaluation Database; and Scopus. The algorithm was "(screening or diagnosis) and genetic and (cost or economic) and (country EU27)". We included studies if they met the following criteria: (1) a genetic technology was analysed; (2) human DNA must be tested for; (3) the analysis was a real economic evaluation or a cost study, and (4) the articles had to be related to any EU Member State. We initially found 3,559 papers on genetic testing but only 92 articles of economic analysis referred to a wide range of genetic diseases matched the inclusion criteria. The most studied diseases were as follows: cystic fibrosis (12), breast and ovarian cancer (8), hereditary hemochromatosis (6), Down's syndrome (7), colorectal cancer (5), familial hypercholesterolaemia (5), prostate cancer (4), and thrombophilia (4). Genetic tests were mostly used for screening purposes, and cost-effectiveness analysis is the most common type of economic study. The analysed gene technologies are deemed to be efficient for some specific population groups and screening algorithms according to the values of their cost-effectiveness ratios that were below the commonly accepted threshold of 30,000€. Economic evaluation of genetic technologies matters but the number of published studies is still

  16. Introducing a Third Timed Up & Go Test Trial Improves Performances of Hospitalized and Community-Dwelling Older Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Mette L; Jønsson, Line R; Kristensen, Morten T


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Originally, the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test was described as including a practice trial before a timed trial, but recent studies in individuals with hip fracture have reported that performance improved with a third trial and that high intertester reliability was achieved when...... the fastest of 3 timed trials was used. Thus, the fastest of 3 TUG trials is recommended when testing individuals with hip fracture. To our knowledge, no study has examined the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability on the TUG test (defined as no further improvement on subsequent trials...... the hospital unit) performed 3 TUG trials, as fast as safely possible on the same day, and separated by up to 1-minute pauses. A rollator (4-wheeled rolling walker) was used as a standardized walking aid in the geriatric hospital unit, whereas participants used their normal walking aid (if any...

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Moss

    Full Text Available Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot. Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%. Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56 years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%. Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add

  18. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability. (United States)

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony


    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  19. [The MMPI-2 test in the evaluation of the mobbing syndrome]. (United States)

    Pappone, P; Santalucia, L; Del Castello, E; De Maino, V; Garofalo, E; Cappelluccio, R; Feola, D; Ruberto, M; Liotti, F


    MMPI-2 test is widely used in psychodiagnostic evaluation as well as in the evaluation of psychic pathologies related to psychosocial adversative events in working activities. A more efficacious use of MMPI-2 test in the working context can be achieved by the individuation of indexes able to facilitate the evaluation of mobbing syndrome. This work is based on the analysis of 150 cases (39.7% women and 60.7% men, 30 to 60 years of age), evaluated through an accurate examination of working history and a series of clinic conversations, followed by psychodiagnostic evaluation. The average of T-scores on the clinical scale, the content scale, the PK addition scale and the validation scale were calculated from tests. Pathologic high T-scores on the scales Hs, D. Hy e Pa were found in subjects having positive mobbing anamnesis. These results strongly indicate the presence of clinical specificities in workers exposed to working harassments, and that these specificities can be efficaciously evidenced by the MMPI-2 test.

  20. The highly anxious individual presenting for Huntington disease-predictive genetic testing: the psychiatrist's role in assessment and counseling. (United States)

    Groves, Mark


    Guidelines in the Huntington disease genetic counseling community have set a standard for the process of at-risk counseling, recommending the involvement of a multidisciplinary team, which includes a psychiatrist or psychologist. Though most studies have been largely reassuring regarding the psychologic consequences of predictive testing, there are individuals presenting to testing who really want something else other than the test results, who are being pressured by others to obtain results, or who remain deeply ambivalent about testing. Particularly concerning are those testing candidates who are highly anxious or depressed at the time of presentation. Balancing the ethical principles of autonomy with beneficence and nonmaleficence requires careful exploration of the motivations behind testing to ensure that all are fully informed of alternatives, and opportunities for further support are offered when needed. This chapter illustrates 13 areas of focus and inquiry in the psychiatric interview and gives some case examples to illustrate an approach to the psychiatric assessment and counseling of highly anxious individuals seeking genetic testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High acceptability of HIV voluntary counselling and testing among female sex workers: impact of individual and social factors. (United States)

    Aho, J; Nguyen, V-K; Diakité, Sl; Sow, A; Koushik, A; Rashed, S


    Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV infection is an important tool for prevention of HIV infection and AIDS in high-risk groups. Our goal was to describe the acceptability and consequences of VCT among a stigmatized and vulnerable group, female sex workers (FSWs), in Conakry, Guinea. Acceptance of the test and return for test results at baseline and consequences of testing 1 year later were described. The perceived risk of HIV infection and perceived benefits and barriers to testing were examined using quantitative and qualitative methods. All 421 FSW participants agreed to undergo VCT and most participants (92%) returned for their results. The main reason cited for VCT acceptance was the wish to know their HIV status. However, some managers of FSW worksites urged FSWs to be tested, curtailing FSWs' free decision-making. One year later, status disclosure was common (90% of the 198 individuals who knew their results among those who participated in the follow-up part of the study). Positive consequences of testing were far more frequently reported than negative consequences (98% vs. 2%, respectively). Negative life events included banishment from the worksite (one case) and verbal abuse (two cases). Acceptability of VCT appears high in the FSW population in Conakry as a consequence of both perceptions of high individual risk and social pressures. © 2011 British HIV Association.

  2. Clinic and Emergency Room Evaluation and Testing of Headache. (United States)

    Nye, Barbara L; Ward, Thomas N


    Evaluation of the headache patient in the outpatient clinic and emergency department (ED) has different focuses and goals. The focus of this paper is to review the evaluation of patients in both settings with mention of evaluation in the pediatric and pregnant patient population.  The patient's history should drive the practitioner's decision and evaluation choices. We review recommendations made by the American Board of Internal Medicine and American Headache Society through the Choosing Wisely Campaign, which has an emphasis on choosing the right imaging modality for the clinical situation and elimination/prevention of medication overuse headache, as well as the US Headache Consortium guidelines for migraine headache. We will also review focusing on ED evaluation of the pediatric patient and pregnant patient presenting with headache. At the end of the review we hope to have provided you with a framework to think about the headache patient and what is the appropriate test in the given clinical setting in order to ensure that the patient gets the right diagnosis and is set on a path to the appropriate management plan. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  3. Analysis of Tests Evaluating Sport Climbers’ Strength and Isometric Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozimek Mariusz


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and “conditioning” variables on the one hand, and climber’s performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades. The strongest correlations (Spearman’s rank were found between climber’s competence and the relative results of the finger strength test (r = 0.7; much lower, but still statistically significant coefficients were found between the level of competence and the results of the muscle endurance tests (r = 0.53 – 0.57. Climbers aspiring to attain an elite level must have strong finger and forearm muscles, but most of all, they must be capable of releasing their potential during specific motor capability tests engaging these parts of the body. The forearm muscles of elite climbers must also be very resistant to fatigue. Since highly trained athletes vary only slightly in body mass, this variable does not have a major effect on their performance during strength and endurance tests.

  4. G6PD testing in support of treatment and elimination of malaria: recommendations for evaluation of G6PD tests (United States)


    Malaria elimination will be possible only with serious attempts to address asymptomatic infection and chronic infection by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Currently available drugs that can completely clear a human of P. vivax (known as “radical cure”), and that can reduce transmission of malaria parasites, are those in the 8-aminoquinoline drug family, such as primaquine. Unfortunately, people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency risk having severe adverse reactions if exposed to these drugs at certain doses. G6PD deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, affecting approximately 400 million people worldwide. Scaling up radical cure regimens will require testing for G6PD deficiency, at two levels: 1) the individual level to ensure safe case management, and 2) the population level to understand the risk in the local population to guide Plasmodium vivax treatment policy. Several technical and operational knowledge gaps must be addressed to expand access to G6PD deficiency testing and to ensure that a patient’s G6PD status is known before deciding to administer an 8-aminoquinoline-based drug. In this report from a stakeholder meeting held in Thailand on October 4 and 5, 2012, G6PD testing in support of radical cure is discussed in detail. The focus is on challenges to the development and evaluation of G6PD diagnostic tests, and on challenges related to the operational aspects of implementing G6PD testing in support of radical cure. The report also describes recommendations for evaluation of diagnostic tests for G6PD deficiency in support of radical cure. PMID:24188096

  5. Evaluation of dental pulp sensibility tests in a clinical setting. (United States)

    Jespersen, James J; Hellstein, John; Williamson, Anne; Johnson, William T; Qian, Fang


    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of dental pulp sensibility testing with Endo Ice (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and an electric pulp tester (EPT) and to determine the effect of several variables on the reliability of these tests. Data were collected from 656 patients seen in the University of Iowa College of Dentistry Endodontic graduate clinic. The results of pulpal sensibility tests, along with the tooth number, age, sex, number of restored surfaces, presence or absence of clinical or radiographic caries, and reported recent use of analgesic medications, were recorded. The presence of vital tissue within the pulp chamber was used to verify the diagnosis. The Endo Ice results showed accuracy, 0.904; sensitivity, 0.916; specificity, 0.896; positive predictive value, 0.862; and negative predictive value, 0.937. The EPT results showed accuracy, 0.75; sensitivity, 0.84; specificity, 0.74; positive predictive value, 0.58; and negative predictive value, 0.90. Patients aged 21-50 years exhibited a more accurate response to cold testing (P = .0043). Vital teeth with caries responded more accurately to cold testing (P = .0077). There was no statistically significant difference noted with any other variable examined. Pulpal sensibility testing with Endo Ice and EPT are accurate and reliable methods of determining pulpal vitality. Patients aged 21-50 exhibited a more accurate response to cold. Sex, tooth type, number of restored surfaces, presence of caries, and recent analgesic use did not significantly alter the results of pulpal sensibility testing in this study. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Lindberg

    Full Text Available Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N = 8 and part-time (N = 10 male firefighters and civilian men (N = 8 and women (N = 12, and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM and endurance (IE muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs. The highest significant (p<0.01 correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs = 0.72 and maximal hand grip strength (rs = 0.67, for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.81 and barbell shoulder press (rs = -0.77, for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs = -0.82 and bench press (rs = -0.85, for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs = 0.75 and bench press (rs = 0.83, for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs = -0.83 and bench press (rs = -0.82, and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs = -0.58 and upright barbell row (rs = -0.70. In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs≥0.7 with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity.

  7. Sub-optimal Testing and Awareness of HCV and HBV Among High Risk Individuals at an Underserved Safety-Net Hospital. (United States)

    Wong, Robert J; Campbell, Brendan; Liu, Benny; Baden, Rachel; Bhuket, Taft


    Sub-optimal screening for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) among high risk groups delays diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to evaluate overall rates of HCV and HBV screening and patient knowledge of their testing result. Adults age ≥18 years undergoing elective outpatient endoscopy at a large, urban safety-net hospital from July 2015 to July 2016 were prospectively evaluated to determine rates of HCV and HBV testing, the results of those completed tests, and patient knowledge of test results among high risk individuals (as determined by U.S. Preventative Services Task Force). Among 1125 patients (52.3% male, 70.4% foreign-born), 66.5% were high risk for chronic HCV; only 30.9% received prior testing. 14.7% had positive chronic HCV infection. Patients born in the 1945-1965 cohort were more likely to have received prior HCV testing compared to those born outside of this cohort (32.7 vs. 16.9%, p = 0.01). Among patients who received HCV screening, 29.3% were aware of test results. Overall, 61.6% were high risk for chronic HBV; only 25.1% received prior testing. 4.1% were positive for chronic HBV. Compared to Caucasians, Asians (19.0 vs. 44.4%, p HBV testing. Among patients who received prior HBV screening, 18.4% were aware of test results. Less than one-third of high risk patients received HCV and HBV screening among an ethnically diverse safety-net population. Equally low rates of patient knowledge of testing results were observed.

  8. G-tunnel pressurized slot-testing evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Sifre-Soto, C.; Mann, K.L.; Bellman, R.A. Jr.; Luker, S.; Dodds, D.J.


    Designers and analysts of radioactive waste repositories must be able to predict the mechanical behavior of the host rock. Sandia National Laboratories elected to conduct a development program to enhance mechanical-type measurements. The program was focused on pressurized slot testing and featured (1) development of an improved method to cut slots using a chain saw with diamond-tipped cutters, (2) measurements useful for determining in situ stresses normal to slots, (3) measurements applicable for determining the in situ modulus of deformation parallel to a drift surface, and (4) evaluations of pressurized slot strength testing results and methods. This report contains data interpretation and evaluations. Included are recommendations for future efforts. This third report contains the interpretations of the testing with emphasis on the measurement results as they apply to describing rock behavior. In particular, emphases are placed on (1) normal stress determinations using the flatjack cancellation (FC) method, (2) modulus of deformation determinations, and (3) high pressure investigations. Most of the material in the first two reports is not repeated here. Appropriate data are repeated in tabular form

  9. Three state-of-the-art individual electric and hybrid vehicle test reports, volume 2 (United States)


    Procedures used in determining the energy efficiency and economy of a gasoline-electric hybrid taxi, an electric passenger car, and an electric van are described. Tabular and graphic data show results of driving cycle and constant speed tests, energy distribution to various components, efficiency of the components, and, for the hybrid vehicle, the emissions.

  10. A Combined IRT and SEM Approach for Individual-Level Assessment in Test-Retest Studies (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.


    The standard two-wave multiple-indicator model (2WMIM) commonly used to analyze test-retest data provides information at both the group and item level. Furthermore, when applied to binary and graded item responses, it is related to well-known item response theory (IRT) models. In this article the IRT-2WMIM relations are used to obtain additional…

  11. Structure and mechanism of diet specialisation: testing models of individual variation in resource use with sea otters (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Novak, Mark; Marquitti, Flavia Maria Darcie; Bodkin, James L.; Staedler, Michelle; Bentall, Gena B.; Estes, James A.


    Studies of consumer-resource interactions suggest that individual diet specialisation is empirically widespread and theoretically important to the organisation and dynamics of populations and communities. We used weighted networks to analyze the resource use by sea otters, testing three alternative models for how individual diet specialisation may arise. As expected, individual specialisation was absent when otter density was low, but increased at high-otter density. A high-density emergence of nested resource-use networks was consistent with the model assuming individuals share preference ranks. However, a density-dependent emergence of a non-nested modular network for ‘core’ resources was more consistent with the ‘competitive refuge’ model. Individuals from different diet modules showed predictable variation in rank-order prey preferences and handling times of core resources, further supporting the competitive refuge model. Our findings support a hierarchical organisation of diet specialisation and suggest individual use of core and marginal resources may be driven by different selective pressures.

  12. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L. Sargénius


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT, and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO patients and 100 healthy controls (HC completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference −0.302, CI −1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579. In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean −1.784, CI −3.237 to −0.331, p = 0.016 and the Unit points (mean −1.409, CI −2.291 to −0.528, p = 0.002, but not on the Order points score (mean −0.351, CI −0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284. Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  13. Development and psychometric testing the Health of Body, Mind and Spirit Scale for assessing individuals who have drug abuse histories. (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Chiang, Chun-Ying; Lu, Chu-Yun; Yu, Pei-Jane; Liao, Tzu-Chiao; Lan, Chu-Mei


    To develop the Health of Body, Mind and Spirit Scale (HBMSS), which was designed to assess drug abusers' health condition. Helping drug abusers to become healthy is important to healthcare professionals. However, no instrument exists to assess drug abusers' state of health. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was implemented to examine the validity of the HBMSS. Data were collected from 2015-2016 at one drug abuse prevention centre in Taiwan. Participants (N = 320) who had abused drugs were invited to complete a preliminary 64-item version of the HBMSS. An item analysis, criterion-related validity analysis (using the Relapse Prediction Scale [RPS] score), split-half reliability testing and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the HBMSS. The final version of the HBMSS contained 15 items that were divided into three subscales: the health of the body, mind and spirit. Cronbach's α and split-half reliability coefficients were all above .85. The factor loading of each item was between .74-.95. The HBMSS had satisfactory criterion-related validity with the RPS score (r = -.50, p < .001). A second-order CFA was conducted on the HBMSS. The fit indexes were good, χ 2  = 184.060, df = 94, χ 2 /df = 1.958 (p = .000). The entire HBMSS and the subscales had satisfactory reliability and validity. Healthcare professionals could use the HBMSS to evaluate the condition of the health of individuals with a drug abuse history. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of acute caffeine withdrawal on Short Category Test performance in sleep-deprived individuals. (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Kahn-Greene, Ellen T; Killgore, Desiree B; Kamimori, Gary H; Balkin, Thomas J


    Caffeine is a popular stimulant often used to counter the effects of sleep loss and fatigue. Withdrawal from caffeine may produce mild declines in simple cognitive capacities such as attention and concentration, but it is unclear whether more complex cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning or concept formation, may be similarly affected. To assess the effect of acute caffeine withdrawal on executive functioning during sleep deprivation, 26 healthy volunteers were administered in double-blind form either repeated doses of caffeine or placebo over two nights of continuous wakefulness. The 108-item Short Category Test was administered after 56 hr. of total sleep deprivation (9 hr. post-caffeine administration). The caffeine group scored significantly more poorly, making approximately 57% more errors on the test than the placebo group. These findings suggest that acute caffeine withdrawal during prolonged sleep deprivation has an adverse effect on abstract reasoning and concept formation.

  15. Lessons Learned in Pilot Testing Specialty Consultations to Benefit Individuals with Lower Limb Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Elnitsky


    Full Text Available Telerehabilitation technologies enable the delivery of rehabilitation services from providers to people with disabilities as well as specialty care consultations. This article discusses the barriers experienced when planning and pilot testing a telerehabilitation multi-site specialty consultation for specialists in their medical centers, and the lessons learned. The barriers included integration and participation, coordination across organizational units, and privacy and information security. Lessons learned included the need for collaboration across multiple departments, telerehabilitation equipment back-ups, and anonymous and private communication protocols. Despite delays resulting from coordination at multiple levels of a national organization, we developed a program plan and successfully implemented a pilot test of the southeast region program.  Specialty consultation using telerehabilitation delivery methods requires identifying provider preferences for technological features. Lessons learned could inform development of outpatient telerehabilitation for patients with amputations and studies of patients and providers involved in telerehabilitation.

  16. Performance and type testing of selected dosimeters used for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almhena, E. H. Y.


    This study describes calibration and performance testing carried out for a set of 14 electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs ) at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. Also the conversion coefficients from air kerma have been determined. Dosimeters tested are belonging to three manufactures representing most commonly used types in Sudan. Calibrations were carried out at three X-ray qualities: 80, 120 and 150 kV, ISO 'narrow' spectra and for ''1''3''7Cs, '' 60 Co gamma rays. The experiments were carried out using ICRU Slab phantom with dimension 30x30x15 cm. Secondary standard ionization chamber was used to measure the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) as standard dosimetric quantity of interest. parameters tested include: The variation of response with radiation energy and angle of incident in addition to dose rate dependence. The angular dependence factors have been experimentally determined for the same qualities and for different angles (0, ±20, ±40, ±60u) + were performed in accordance to the relevant international standards. Excellent energy, angular and dose rate response was demonstrated for 662 137 Cs, 1250 60 Co beam and (118, 100,65 keV) x-ray beam qualities exception the EPD at PM1203M are slightly larger but still with the acceptable. The response of electronic dosimeters were found to in limits of acceptable performance. For the mean response of all energies is range of EPDs Type RADOS 60, Greatz ED 150, Polimaster PM1203M, TLD were (0.75 ±0.08- 1.13±0.13), (0.83±0.29 -1.06±0.07), (1.08±0.14-1.27±0.09), (0.99±0.05 - 1.14±0.13) respectively. The majority of the dosimeters tested showed good energy and angular response. (Author)

  17. Evaluation of a new automated instrument for pretransfusion testing. (United States)

    Morelati, F; Revelli, N; Maffei, L M; Poretti, M; Santoro, C; Parravicini, A; Rebulla, P; Cole, R; Sirchia, G


    A number of automated devices for pretransfusion testing have recently become available. This study evaluated a fully automated device based on column agglutination technology (AutoVue System, Ortho, Raritan, NJ). Some 6747 tests including forward and reverse ABO group, Rh type and phenotype, antibody screen, autocontrol, and crossmatch were performed on random samples from 1069 blood donors, 2063 patients, and 98 newborns and cord blood. Also tested were samples from 168 immunized patients and 53 donors expressing weak or variant A and D antigens. Test results and technician times required for their performance were compared with those obtained by standard methods (manual column agglutination technology, slide, semiautomatic handler). No erroneous conclusions were found in regard to the 5028 ABO group and Rh type or phenotype determinations carried out with the device. The device rejected 1.53 percent of tests for sample inadequacy. Of the remaining 18 tests with discrepant results found with the device and not confirmed with the standard methods, 6 gave such results because of mixed-field reactions, 10 gave negative results with A2 RBCs in reverse ABO grouping, and 2 gave very weak positive reactions in antibody screening and crossmatching. In the samples from immunized patients, the device missed one weak anti-K, whereas standard methods missed five weak antibodies. In addition, 48, 34, and 31 of the 53 weak or variant antigens were detected by the device, the slide method, and the semiautomated handler, respectively. Technician time with the standard methods was 1.6 to 7 times higher than that with the device. The technical performance of the device compared favorably with that of standard methods, with a number of advantages, including in particular the saving of technician time. Sample inadequacy was the most common cause of discrepancy, which suggests that standardization of sample collection can further improve the performance of the device.

  18. Rapid Immunization Scheme for Spouses of Individuals Estabilished as Hepatitis B Carriers during Premarital Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Tosun


    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to monitor the cases identified as hepatitis B carriers during premarital tests, to vaccinate their prospective spouses with a rapid vaccination scheme, and to compare the anti-HBs responses with the traditional vaccination scheme. Methods. Blood samples of 1250 couple spouses were tested for HBsAg and anti-HBs. HBsAg positive cases' fiancées which were found HBV negative were administered a rapid three-dose vaccination scheme on days 0, 7, and 21. Forty controls with similar age and gender were also were administered three doses of the same vaccine. Results. Out of 1250 cases (625 couples, 46 (3.6% were HBsAg positive, and 40 of them aged between 18 and 39 were admitted to the rapid vaccination program. Conclusion. Upon determination of HBsAg positivity in premarital tests, a rapid vaccination program provides early protection, but the 6th and 12th month vaccinations are also required. Anti-HBs response should be monitored.

  19. Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.


    Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. The Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics are given. Results of pretest performance analyses show that high nozzle performance can be attained despite substantial nozzle length reduction through the use of plug nozzles as compared to a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pretest measurement uncertainty analyses indicate that specific impulse values are expected to be within + or - 1.17 pct.

  20. Toxics testing performance evaluation for GB and GD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, H.J.; Schneider, J.F.; Brubaker, K.L.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.


    Residues resulting from demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah, are currently listed as hazardous wastes by the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality. The US Army Test and Evaluation Command believes that certain categories of waste generated at DPG are not hazardous. To demonstrate this, analytical methods capable of quantitatively measuring the concentrations of chemical agents, including GB and GD, in the different waste media must be available. Argonne National Laboratory has developed methods to analyze metal substrate, spent hypochlorite decontamination fluid, and soil matrices for GB and GD. These methods involve the use of sorbent cartridge preconcentration and thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography using flame photometric detection to achieve the desired sensitivity and specificity. This report describes the methods and presents results for these three common waste matrices. The test results indicate that these methods can be used to quantitatively determine concentrations of GB and GD in the low parts-per-billion range in all sample media tested.

  1. Basic tests on integrity evaluation for natural hexafluoride transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomi, Yoshio; Yamakawa, Hidetsugu; Kato, Osamu; Kobayashi, Seiichi


    In this study, the affected factors that needed to integrity evaluation for UF 6 transporting 48Y cylinder, were confirmed by basic tests and preliminary analysis. The factors were the sealing parts and external surface emissivity that ruled both the behavior under fire accident condition and the fire resistance capability of the cylinder, and the external pressure resistance capability at the sunk accident. The results obtained as follows. (1) Confirming tests for fire resistance of cylinder valve and plug, seat leakage of the valve caused at 150 degrees C. by unequal thermal expansion between the valve body and the stem. The tin-lead solder coating the tapered thread of valve and plug, melted at 200 degrees C., then the sealing boundary broke. (2) An external emissivity influence to radiation heat transfer measured with test pieces heated by electric oven. The covered paints of the specimen burned and separated, the emissivity changed 0.4 to 0.6, dependent on the surrounding temperature. Type 48Y cylinder filled with 12.5 tons of UF 6 and the measured emissivity was used the computer code analysis. The hydraulic breaking did not happen under the fire accident condition at 800 degrees C., for 30 minutes. (3) The external pressure test of the valve endured the hydrostatic pressure at 3000 meters, which corresponded to about five times the cylinder body buckling strength. (author)

  2. Compact and portable system for evaluation of individual exposure at aerosol particle in urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zaiacomo, T.


    A compact and portable system for real-time acquisition of aerosol concentration data in urban and extra-urban area is presented. It is based on two optical type aerosol monitors integrated by aerosol particle separating and collecting devices, assembled into a carrying case together with temperature and relative humidity sensors and a programmable analog data logger; data output is addressed to a dedicated printer or personal computer. Further data about particle size, morphological aspect and particle mass concentration are obtainable by weighing supports used to concurrently collect aerosol particles and/or by means of microanalytical techniques. System performances are evaluated from the point of view of portability, possibility of use as stationary sampler for long-term monitoring purposes and coherence between optical response and ponderal mass. Some tests are finally carried out, to investigate the effect of relative humidity on the optical response of this type of instruments

  3. Individual dosimetry in a radiotherapy department - evaluation between 1997 and 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, S.C.; Jorge, L.; Alves, J.


    Full text: The occupational exposure is the exposure of workers due to their work. With the individual monitorization of the external radiation it is possible to get an approximated value of the effective dose and of the equivalent dose to the skin. The effective doses evaluation allows us to verify if these values are bellow the threshold established by law (a Portuguese law from 1990 established levels under 50 mSv/year for professionals and another law from 1997 established levels under 0,4 mSv/week, which is equivalent to 20 mSv/year, also for professionals). Methods and materials: we analyzed the values of the TLD dosimeters used by the workers during their professional activity between 1997 and 2004, in a Radiotherapy Department. Results: we separed the workers by professional groups and analyzed the equivalent dose in depth achieved (mSv/year). The workers were separed by physicians, medical physicists, technicians, nurses, helpers and secretaries. Conclusions: from the analysis of the results it is possible to demonstrate that the equivalent dose in depth achieved by the workers are under the threshold established and that we work under good conditions of radiation protection. (author)

  4. Technical requirements for implementation of an individual monitoring service for evaluation of operational quantity HP(10) using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, Adelaide Benedita Armando


    This work aims to establish technical requirements for the development of a TLDs system for the assessment of operational quantity H P (10), in order to implement an external individual monitoring service in countries who do not have. This allows a better understanding of the technic and the thermoluminescent dosimetry system, thus contributing to identify the technical criteria to be followed by a dosimetry laboratory and evaluation of the dosimetric system performance. For this, the review of the specific literature of the dosimetry field was conducted and later the type and performance tests that must be followed by a dosimetric system were reproduced in practice. In additional was made a analysis of internationals standards norms and the technical regulation used in Brazil, to define the essentials type testes to a dosimetric system. To check the performance of a dosimetry system, a performance analysis of the Brazilian TLDs system was carried out over the past 6 years using the trumpet curve, where it was observed that most of TLDs system, in this review period, were approved and have excellent performance. The technical requirements for the development of a thermoluminescent dosimetry system ensure that the system provides technically reliable results and allow demonstration of compliance with the standard criteria established by national and international standards, and the implementation of the dosimetry system, is verified the compliance of the annual doses limits set for occupationally exposed. (author)

  5. Evaluation of some properties of individual bioequivalence (IBE) from replicate-design studies. (United States)

    Tothfalusi, L; Endrenyi, L


    One of the claimed benefits of the individual bioequivalence (IBE) approach has been that the aggregate regulatory model rewards a test formulation when it has a within-subject variation smaller than the reference product. Hauck et al. [1996] demonstrated that, in the absence of random variations, this property of IBE was due to the tradeoff between the difference of the means and the deviation between the intrasubject variances of the two formulations. The tradeoff was a consequence of the aggregate regulatory model. However, calculations of Endrenyi and Hao [1998] showed that, in the presence of random variations, not only rewards but also penalties can arise due to chance alone. A data set of 55 investigations made public by the FDA in 1999 and containing replicate crossover designs was analyzed. Two parameters, AUC and Cmax, were determined in each investigation. The analyses of the FDA data indicate that: rewards and penalties occur at similar frequencies, large rewards and penalties are recorded quite often, and the aggregate IBE model is rather insensitive to the difference between the estimated means and is compatible with the frequent occurrence of large deviations. Rewards and penalties, apparently arising from random variations, can affect regulatory decisions on the acceptance of IBE and can lead to incorrect conclusions.

  6. The ABC's of Suicide Risk Assessment: Applying a Tripartite Approach to Individual Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M Harris

    Full Text Available There is considerable need for accurate suicide risk assessment for clinical, screening, and research purposes. This study applied the tripartite affect-behavior-cognition theory, the suicidal barometer model, classical test theory, and item response theory (IRT, to develop a brief self-report measure of suicide risk that is theoretically-grounded, reliable and valid. An initial survey (n = 359 employed an iterative process to an item pool, resulting in the six-item Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale (SABCS. Three additional studies tested the SABCS and a highly endorsed comparison measure. Studies included two online surveys (Ns = 1007, and 713, and one prospective clinical survey (n = 72; Time 2, n = 54. Factor analyses demonstrated SABCS construct validity through unidimensionality. Internal reliability was high (α = .86-.93, split-half = .90-.94. The scale was predictive of future suicidal behaviors and suicidality (r = .68, .73, respectively, showed convergent validity, and the SABCS-4 demonstrated clinically relevant sensitivity to change. IRT analyses revealed the SABCS captured more information than the comparison measure, and better defined participants at low, moderate, and high risk. The SABCS is the first suicide risk measure to demonstrate no differential item functioning by sex, age, or ethnicity. In all comparisons, the SABCS showed incremental improvements over a highly endorsed scale through stronger predictive ability, reliability, and other properties. The SABCS is in the public domain, with this publication, and is suitable for clinical evaluations, public screening, and research.

  7. Testing a Relational Model for Health Communication Competence among Caregivers for Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    Query, J L; Kreps, G L


    The Relational Model of Health Communication Competence suggests that health-care participants' level of communication competence is positively related to their achieving desired physiological and psychological health outcomes. This article provides a partial test of the model by examining the relationships between communication competence, social support and cognitive depression among lay caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The study provides validation for the model by demonstrating that the communication competence of the caregivers is positively related to important psychological health outcomes, such as high levels of social support, and decreases in cognitive depression. Implications of these findings and directions for future inquiry are examined.

  8. Three-Month Test-Retest Reliability of Center of Pressure Motion During Standing Balance in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis. (United States)

    Wajda, Douglas A; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J


    Balance impairment and an increased rate of falls are commonly reported in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Force platform-generated center of pressure (COP) metrics have previously been recommended as an outcome measure to quantify balance deficits and distinguish between fallers and nonfallers in MS. Information is limited regarding the preservation of postural control in individuals with MS over extended time frames in the absence of an intervention. This report examines the test-retest reliability and magnitude of change of COP motion during standing balance over 3 months. Twenty individuals with MS and a history of falling underwent testing on two occasions 3 months apart in the absence of an intervention. On both occasions, participants completed two 30-second trials of three conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, and eyes open with concurrent cognitive challenge (dual task). Measures of COP area, velocity, and temporal structure were calculated and included in the reliability analysis. The COP metrics displayed fair-to-excellent reliability over 3 months without an intervention. Reliability was maintained across the three commonly used balance conditions. These results offer insight into the reliability of COP measures over a 3-month period in MS and can inform the use of COP metrics for future study design (eg, sample size estimates) and balance outcome assessment during randomized controlled trials and fall-prevention studies in individuals with MS.

  9. Methods to measure peripheral and central sensitization using quantitative sensory testing: A focus on individuals with low back pain. (United States)

    Starkweather, Angela R; Heineman, Amy; Storey, Shannon; Rubia, Gil; Lyon, Debra E; Greenspan, Joel; Dorsey, Susan G


    Quantitative sensory testing can be used to assess peripheral and central sensitization; important factors that contribute to the individual's experience of pain and disability. Many studies use quantitative sensory testing in patients with low back pain to detect alterations in pain sensitivity, however, because investigators employ different protocols, interpretation of findings across studies can become problematic. The purpose of this article is to propose a standardized method of testing peripheral and central pain sensitization in patients with low back pain. Video clips are provided to demonstrate correct procedures for measuring the response to experimental pain using mechanical, thermal and pressure modalities. As nurse researchers and clinicians increase utilization of quantitative sensory testing to examine pain phenotypes, it is anticipated that more personalized methods for monitoring the trajectory of low back pain and response to treatment will improve outcomes for this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative evaluation of competitive ELISA test in Colombian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, O.; Rueda, E.; Sedano, L.; Zuniga, I.; Calderon, C.; Ortega, A.; Puentes, A.


    In order to contribute to the definition of the best ELISA test for screening and differential diagnosis of Brucella abortus to be applied for control programmes, a total of 2971 sera from Colombian cattle were tested for brucellosis. Conventional agglutination tests, Buffered Plate antigen test (BPAT) and Rose Bengal (RB) as well as Complement Fixation test (CFT) (Alton, et al. 1988) were used comparatively. Radial immunodiffusion test (RID) was also performed to all sera. The sera were also tested using four different ELISAs: indirect ELISA from FAO/IAEA and the indirect ELISA modified by Nielsen, et al. 1992 as well as two competitive ELISAs: one competitive ELISA used B. abortus O-polysaccharide antigen and an enzyme conjugated monoclonal to the O-polysaccharide for competition and detection. The second competitive ELISA used lipopolysaccharide (sLPS) antigen, a different monoclonal antibody for competition but also specific for the O-polysaccharide and a commercially available goat anti-mouse IgG enzyme conjugate for detection. The sera were analyzed based on its population status, 987 positive obtained from Brucella abortus infected herds based on clinical and/or bacteriological evidence and a high prevalence of brucellosis, CFT percentage of positive animals in the herd was greater than 5%. Eight hundred sixty six (866) negative sera from non-vaccinated cattle from a brucellosis free area and 1118 negative sera obtained from reglamentary vaccinated areas under a free herd program. Initial cut-off values were derived using negative serum samples. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was defined from frequency histograms based on this cut-off values and using 2x2 tables, corresponding confidence limits (95%) were calculated. The data were also analysed using signal detection analysis (ROC). Kappa statistics was determined for all tests and populations, accuracy was used as index of comparison to evaluate different assays. The data support the initial

  11. Development and psychometric evaluation of a health-related quality of life instrument for individuals with adult-onset hearing loss. (United States)

    Stika, Carren J; Hays, Ron D


    Self-reports of 'hearing handicap' are available, but a comprehensive measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for individuals with adult-onset hearing loss (AOHL) does not exist. Our objective was to develop and evaluate a multidimensional HRQOL instrument for individuals with AOHL. The Impact of Hearing Loss Inventory Tool (IHEAR-IT) was developed using results of focus groups, a literature review, advisory expert panel input, and cognitive interviews. The 73-item field-test instrument was completed by 409 adults (22-91 years old) with varying degrees of AOHL and from different areas of the USA. Multitrait scaling analysis supported four multi-item scales and five individual items. Internal consistency reliabilities ranged from 0.93 to 0.96 for the scales. Construct validity was supported by correlations between the IHEAR-IT scales and scores on the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, version 2.0 (SF-36v2) mental composite summary (r = 0.32-0.64) and the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly/Adults (HHIE/HHIA) (r ≥ -0.70). The field test provides initial support for the reliability and construct validity of the IHEAR-IT for evaluating HRQOL of individuals with AOHL. Further research is needed to evaluate the responsiveness to change of the IHEAR-IT scales and identify items for a short-form.

  12. Reliability and validity of the inertial sensor-based Timed "Up and Go" test in individuals affected by stroke. (United States)

    Wüest, Seline; Massé, Fabien; Aminian, Kamiar; Gonzenbach, Roman; de Bruin, Eling D


    The instrumented Timed "Up and Go" test (iTUG) has the potential for playing an important role in providing clinically useful information regarding an individual's balance and mobility that cannot be derived from the original single-outcome Timed "Up and Go" test protocol. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the iTUG using body-fixed inertial sensors in people affected by stroke. For test-retest reliability analysis, 14 individuals with stroke and 25 nondisabled elderly patients were assessed. For validity analysis, an age-matched comparison of 12 patients with stroke and 12 nondisabled controls was performed. Out of the 14 computed iTUG metrics, the majority showed excellent test-retest reliability expressed by high intraclass correlation coefficients (range 0.431-0.994) together with low standard error of measurement and smallest detectable difference values. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement between two repeated measurements. Significant differences between patients with stroke and nondisabled controls were found in 9 of 14 iTUG parameters analyzed. Consequently, these results warrant the future application of the inertial sensor-based iTUG test for the assessment of physical deficits poststroke in longitudinal study designs.

  13. Performance Evaluation and Robustness Testing of Advanced Oscilloscope Triggering Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeb A. KHAN


    Full Text Available In this paper, performance and robustness of two advanced oscilloscope triggering schemes is evaluated. The problem of time period measurement of complex waveforms can be solved using the algorithms, which utilize the associative memory network based weighted hamming distance (Whd and autocorrelation based techniques. Robustness of both the advanced techniques, are then evaluated by simulated addition of random noise of different levels to complex test signals waveforms, and minimum value of Whd (Whd min and peak value of coefficient of correlation(COCmax are computed over 10000 cycles of the selected test waveforms. The distance between mean value of second lowest value of Whd and Whd min and distance between second highest value of coefficient of correlation (COC and COC max are used as parameters to analyze the robustness of considered techniques. From the results, it is found that both the techniques are capable of producing trigger pulses efficiently; but correlation based technique is found to be better from robustness point of view.

  14. Evaluation of mid-term stability of night vision tests. (United States)

    Levy, Y; Glovinsky, Y


    Dark adaptation rate, scotopic retinal sensitivity and contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions, but not visual acuity, have been shown to be directly related to the ability to identify military targets at night. These parameters can be used to select personnel for specific military tasks demanding excellent night vision, as well as to assess pharmacological effects on night vision. To evaluate the mid-term (2 to 6-week period) stability of night vision tests based on assessment of the above parameters. Dark adaptation rate, scotopic retinal sensitivity and contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions were studied in 16 young volunteers during a 6-week period. Tests of scotopic retinal sensitivity (after 30 min of dark adaptation) exhibited high reproducibility and a low fluctuation rate, with a high correlation between values at week 0 and at 2-week intervals during the following 6 weeks of the study (rs (week 0 to week 6) = 0.81, p = 0.0001). The reproducibility of mesopic contrast sensitivity tests (average of 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 cycles per degree, (cpd)) was fair (rs (week 0 to week 2) = 0.67, p = 0.0045), whereas that of dark adaptation rate tests was poor. In view of the reproducibility characteristics of these night vision tests, assessment of night vision ability in pilots and military personnel, as well as assessment of pharmacological effects on night vision, may be based on scotopic retinal sensitivity (after 30 min of dark adaptation) and contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions (average of 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 cpd).

  15. A novel mouse running wheel that senses individual limb forces: biomechanical validation and in vivo testing. (United States)

    Roach, Grahm C; Edke, Mangesh; Griffin, Timothy M


    Biomechanical data provide fundamental information about changes in musculoskeletal function during development, adaptation, and disease. To facilitate the study of mouse locomotor biomechanics, we modified a standard mouse running wheel to include a force-sensitive rung capable of measuring the normal and tangential forces applied by individual paws. Force data were collected throughout the night using an automated threshold trigger algorithm that synchronized force data with wheel-angle data and a high-speed infrared video file. During the first night of wheel running, mice reached consistent running speeds within the first 40 force events, indicating a rapid habituation to wheel running, given that mice generated >2,000 force-event files/night. Average running speeds and peak normal and tangential forces were consistent throughout the first four nights of running, indicating that one night of running is sufficient to characterize the locomotor biomechanics of healthy mice. Twelve weeks of wheel running significantly increased spontaneous wheel-running speeds (16 vs. 37 m/min), lowered duty factors (ratio of foot-ground contact time to stride time; 0.71 vs. 0.58), and raised hindlimb peak normal forces (93 vs. 115% body wt) compared with inexperienced mice. Peak normal hindlimb-force magnitudes were the primary force component, which were nearly tenfold greater than peak tangential forces. Peak normal hindlimb forces exceed the vertical forces generated during overground running (50-60% body wt), suggesting that wheel running shifts weight support toward the hindlimbs. This force-instrumented running-wheel system provides a comprehensive, noninvasive screening method for monitoring gait biomechanics in mice during spontaneous locomotion.

  16. The association between disease and profitability in individual finishing boars at a test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Baadsgaard, Niels Peter; Houe, Hans


    Endemic diseases in finisher herds are considered to be costly for the pig producer. We investigated the effect of diseases on the profit margin using data from a Danish boar test station (n = 5777) collected from July 2002 to December 2004. Boars reaching a target slaughter weight of at least 80...... a reduction in the range from 0.54 to 2.41 € (corresponding to a reduction in the profit margin ranging from 4 to 20%). The results were robust to changes in price of a 30 kilogram piglet and, relatively robust in regard to changes in the feed price. However, price per kilogram carcass weight appeared...... to influence the economic effect of oral and parenteral treatment and pathological findings on the profit margin. The effect of oral and parenteral treatments was also sensitive to changes in medicine prices....

  17. Laboratory Tests for Group and Individual Exposures of Arion lusitanicus Mabille Slugs to Different Molluscicide Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Stojnić


    Full Text Available Molluscicide baits based on different active ingredients were tested in a seven-day laboratory trial on juveniles and young adults of Arion lusitanicus Mabille slug collected in ruderal sites during June and July of 2008. Before setting the trial, the slugs were adapted to laboratory conditions. The testing was conducted using a modified version of the method proposed by Godan (1983 and Wiktor (1989. The slugs were kept in arenas under controlled conditions (20-24oC temperature, 80-90% relative air humidity, no air stream, diffuse daylight. Smaller(15.5 x 15.5 x 7 cm and larger (28 x 17.5 x 7 cm arenas were used, depending on slug numbers, and different rates of food and bait were administered. Plastic boxes with perforated coverage, lined with multi-ply paper moistened on a daily basis, were used as arenas. The slugs were fed on fresh salad daily, while baits were administered in open 35 mm petri dishes once for the duration of experiment. The first trial involved single-slug exposures to bait in 20 arenas per each of four treatments with two replicates and a total of 160 slugs. The second trial, group exposure, involved four treatments of five slugs per arena in six replicates with a total of 120 slugs. The products Arion and Pužomor demonstrated the highest efficacy (77.5% in the single-slug trial. The average efficacy of the product Carakol after seven days of exposure was 60.0%. Regarding group exposure, Pužomor pellets achieved 79.3% efficacy after three days and this efficacy rate remained for the rest of the experiment. On the seventh day ofexposure, Arion and Carakol had 33.3% and 40.0% efficacy, respectively.

  18. EVA Metro Sedan electric-propulsion system: test and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimers, E.


    The procedure and results of the performance evaluation of the EVA Metro Sedan (car No. 1) variable speed dc chopper motor drive and its three speed automatic transmission are presented. The propulsion system for a battery powered vehicle manufactured by Electric Vehicle Associates, Valley View, Ohio, was removed from the vehicle, mounted on the programmable electric dynamometer test facility and evaluated with the aid of a hp 3052A Data Acquisition System. Performance data for the automatic transmission, the solid state dc motor speed controller, and the dc motor in the continuous and pulsating dc power mode, as derived on the dynamometer test facility, as well as the entire propulsion system are given. This concept and the system's components were evaluated in terms of commercial applicability, maintainability, and energy utility to establish a design base for the further development of this system or similar propulsion drives. The propulsion system of the EVA Metro Sedan is powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries, Type EV 106 (Exide Battery Mfg. Co.). A thyristor controlled cable form Pulsomatic Mark 10 controller, actuated by a foot throttle, controls the voltage applied to a dc series field motor, rated at 10 hp at 3800 rpm (Baldor Electric Co.). Gear speed reduction to the wheel is accomplished by the original equipment three speed automatic transmission with torque converter (Renault 12 Sedan). The brake consists of a power-assisted, hydraulic braking system with front wheel disk and rear drum. An ability to recuperate electric energy with subsequent storage in the battery power supply is not provided.

  19. The evaluation of upright posture caused by simple movement test. (United States)

    Jelínková, Ivana; Řorfová, Monika; Wagner, Heiko; Puta, Christian


    Actual studies show increasing poor posture especially in the cervical-thoracic spine. The aim of this study was to develop a model-based evaluation of posture and the amount of segmental spinal movement using a simple movement test. Twenty-five subjects with forward head posture were recruited. We were interested in the external humeral rotation with the adduction of the shoulder, its influence on posture of the cervical thoracic spine and the evaluation of upright posture. Upright posture was determined as the change in the gradient of the trunk from forward posture to erect posture. The kinematics of the cervical-thoracic spine and the inclination of the pelvis and thorax were measured in the sagittal plane with a motion analysis system. The kinematic model for the evaluation of upright posture and as a control the electromyography was presented. Correlation (Pearson r = 0.89; p postural quality was more important than the quantity of spinal movement. Upright posture of the cervical-thoracic spine was provoked only if there was horizontal position of the pelvis and thorax. This should be considered in clinical practice.

  20. Post test evaluation of natural circulation in FFTF secondary loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, T.R.; Turner, D.M.; Additon, S.L.


    Two transient tests in one of the FFTF secondary heat transport loops were performed (March to May 1979) in order to verify that the transition to natural convective flow could be effected from near isothermal refueling conditions without excessive cooling at the air dump heat exchangers. Following the tests, the best estimate computer model was calibrated against the data, yielding in the process insights about the loop parameters and the probable suitability of the model structure. Key empirical parameters of pressure drop and heat loss were found to be at 62% and 81% of the pretest safety evaluation model parameter values, respectively. Pretest piping thermal transport and flow calculational models required no further revision to produce good agreement with the test data. Additional detail in the air dump heat exchanger heat loss model, accounting for long structural thermal time constants, was found to be necessary to obtain model agreement with transient outlet temperature data. The pretest model had conservatively employed steady state heat losses for transient calculations

  1. Evaluation of methods to test chemicals suitability for umbilical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenson, S. J.; Lindeman, O. E.; Cenegy, L. M.


    . Once the chemicals passed all tests they were further evaluated in a full size operational umbilical unit. The test protocols developed are fully discussed in this paper. (Author) (tk)

  2. Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation (LITE). Post-Test Grease Analysis (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Martinez, James E.; Devivar, Rodrigo V.


    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a mechanism of the International Space Station (ISS) that orients the solar power generating arrays toward the sun as the ISS orbits our planet. The orientation with the sun must be maintained to fully charge the ISS batteries and maintain all the other ISS electrical systems operating properly. In 2007, just a few months after full deployment, the starboard SARJ developed anomalies that warranted a full investigation including ISS Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The EVA uncovered unexpected debris that was due to degradation of a nitride layer on the SARJ bearing race. ISS personnel identified the failure root-cause and applied an aerospace grease to lubricate the area associated with the anomaly. The corrective action allowed the starboard SARJ to continue operating within the specified engineering parameters. The SARJ LITE (Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation) program was initiated by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing to simulate the operation of the ISS SARJ for an extended time. The hardware was designed to test and evaluate the exact material components used aboard the ISS SARJ, but in a controlled area where engineers could continuously monitor the performance. After running the SARJ LITE test for an equivalent of 36+ years of continuous use, the test was opened to evaluate the metallography and lubrication. We have sampled the SARJ LITE rollers and plate to fully assess the grease used for lubrication. Chemical and thermal analysis of these samples has generated information that has allowed us to assess the location, migration, and current condition of the grease. The collective information will be key toward understanding and circumventing any performance deviations involving the ISS SARJ in the years to come.

  3. Evaluation of registered visually disabled individuals in a district of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sambuddha


    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the sociodemographic characteristics, degree and cause of visual disability among certified visually disabled individuals in a rural district of West Bengal, India and to identify possible lacunae, if any, in the existing certification system. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study by secondary data analysis of medical records of 155 visually disabled individuals and their 310 eyes. Demographical features, diagnosis, percentage of visual disability and work activity status of each individual were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty one (84.52% individuals had 100% disability. The number of males was significantly higher than that of females. Fifty eight (37.42% individuals were below 21 years of age. Phthisis bulbi was the most common cause followed by microphthalmos. Further, 81.29% patients had the same lesion bilaterally. Conclusion: Patients with higher grades of disability have attended certification boards. A large number of disabled individuals comprised children and young adults. Male gender bias demands concern.

  4. Age determination in roe deer - a new approach to tooth wear evaluated on known age individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas


    integrated in a scoring system. Permanent cheek teeth emerge in May-July in the year after birth, which enables precise age determination of individuals with deciduous premolars. For individuals with permanent cheek teeth, the method provides the correct age for all individuals younger than 13 months...... measures of tooth wear can provide the basis for age determination in ungulate species that are otherwise difficult to age....

  5. Evaluation of the concomitant use of two different EIA tests for HIV screening in blood banks. (United States)

    Otani, Marcia M; Salles, Nanci A; Barreto, Angela M E; Barreto, Claudia C; Chamone, Dalton F; Sabino, Ester C


    In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo), which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB) test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4%) had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58%) did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great majority of HIV-positive donors have already seroconverted and

  6. Strategies for individual phenotyping of linoleic and arachidonic acid metabolism using an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Saccenti

    Full Text Available The ability to restore homeostasis upon environmental challenges has been proposed as a measure for health. Metabolic profiling of plasma samples during the challenge response phase should offer a profound view on the flexibility of a phenotype to cope with daily stressors. Current data modeling approaches, however, struggle to extract biological descriptors from time-resolved metabolite profiles that are able to discriminate between different phenotypes. Thus, for the case of oxylipin responses in plasma upon an oral glucose tolerance test we developed a modeling approach that incorporates a priori biological pathway knowledge. The degradation pathways of arachidonic and linoleic acids were modeled using a regression model based on a pseudo-steady-state approximated model, resulting in a parameter A that summarizes the relative enzymatic activity in these pathways. Analysis of the phenotypic parameters As suggests that different phenotypes can be discriminated according to preferred relative activity of the arachidonic and linoleic pathway. Correlation analysis shows that there is little or no competition between the arachidonic and linoleic acid pathways, although they share the same enzymes.

  7. Cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test in obese and reduced obese individuals. (United States)

    Therrien, Fanny; Drapeau, Vicky; Lalonde, Josée; Lupien, Sonia J; Beaulieu, Serge; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Richard, Denis


    Impact of body weight loss, body fat distribution and the nutritional status on the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was investigated in this study. Fifty-one men (17 non-obese, 20 abdominally obese and 14 reduced obese) and 28 women (12 non-obese, 10 peripherally obese and 6 reduced obese) were subjected to the TSST in fed and fasted states. The TSST response was determined using salivary cortisol measurements. The nutritional status (being fed or fasted) had no effect on the cortisol levels during and following the TSST. Reduced obese men exhibited lower cortisol levels than non-obese men. Cortisol levels in obese men were not different from those of non-obese and reduced obese subjects. In women, there was no significant difference between groups. These finding suggest that weight status in men influences cortisol reactivity to a psychological stress and the different responses seen among genders could be linked to the different fat distributions that characterize men and women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test. (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L


    A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is "predicting" who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Which physical examination tests provide clinicians with the most value when examining the shoulder? Update of a systematic review with meta-analysis of individual tests. (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Goode, Adam P; Cook, Chad E; Michener, Lori; Myer, Cortney A; Myer, Daniel M; Wright, Alexis A


    To update our previously published systematic review and meta-analysis by subjecting the literature on shoulder physical examination (ShPE) to careful analysis in order to determine each tests clinical utility. This review is an update of previous work, therefore the terms in the Medline and CINAHL search strategies remained the same with the exception that the search was confined to the dates November, 2006 through to February, 2012. The previous study dates were 1966 - October, 2006. Further, the original search was expanded, without date restrictions, to include two new databases: EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies, version 2 (QUADAS 2) tool was used to critique the quality of each new paper. Where appropriate, data from the prior review and this review were combined to perform meta-analysis using the updated hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and bivariate models. Since the publication of the 2008 review, 32 additional studies were identified and critiqued. For subacromial impingement, the meta-analysis revealed that the pooled sensitivity and specificity for the Neer test was 72% and 60%, respectively, for the Hawkins-Kennedy test was 79% and 59%, respectively, and for the painful arc was 53% and 76%, respectively. Also from the meta-analysis, regarding superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, the test with the best sensitivity (52%) was the relocation test; the test with the best specificity (95%) was Yergason's test; and the test with the best positive likelihood ratio (2.81) was the compression-rotation test. Regarding new (to this series of reviews) ShPE tests, where meta-analysis was not possible because of lack of sufficient studies or heterogeneity between studies, there are some individual tests that warrant further investigation. A highly specific test (specificity >80%, LR+ ≥ 5.0) from a low bias study is the passive distraction test for a SLAP lesion. This test may

  10. Evaluation of Obesity-Associated Dermatoses in Obese and Overweight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Döner


    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although the effects of obesity on the skin are known, there are no adequate studies on this subject. To evaluate obesity-related dermatoses in obese and overweight people and to compare the obtained results with those of individuals with body mass index (BMI lower than 25 kg/m2.Material and methods: A total of 500 (mean age: 43.6±12.8; 318 female, 182 male volunteer patients aged 18 years and older, who were treated in inpatient clinics except dermatology, and their relatives were included in the study. The subjects were grouped according to BMI: less than 25 kg/m2 (controls, n = 120, 25-29.9 kg/m2 (overweights, n=130, and greater than 30 kg/m2 (obeses, n=250. The participants were examined dermatologically and all known skin diseases associated with obesity were noted. Results: The total number of dermatoses was statistically higher in obeses and overweights than in controls, as well as in obeses than in overweights. The five most frequently seen dermatoses in all groups were: varicose vein, tinea pedis, striae distensae, acrochordon and onychomycosis, respectively. There were statistically significant differences: between obeses and controls with regard to varicose vein, tinea pedis, striae distensae, acrochordon, onychomycosis, acanthosis nigricans and intertrigo; between overweights and controls with respect to varicose vein, tinea pedis, striae distensae, acrochordon and onychomycosis; between obeses and overweights with regard to striae distensae, acanthosis nigricans and onychomycosis. A positive correlation was detected between BMI and degree of plantar hyperkeratosis in all participants; between BMI and hirsutism score, severity of androgenetic alopecia (AGA and cellulite in women. Conclusion: While acanthosis nigricans and AGA in females were associated with obesity, the other dermatoses were related with not only with obesity but also with increasing weight gain.

  11. Testing and evaluation of used UF6 shipping packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, C.R.; Ziehlke, K.T.; Pryor, W.A.; Housholder, W.R.


    Damage to shipping packages and their components, whether due to normal environmental exposure or because of unforeseen accidents, requires occasional reevaluation and requalification to assure the suitability of the packages for continued service. Pressure tests have been conducted on used 30B cylinders that were involved in a warehouse fire to assess the possible damaging effects of the exposure. Deteriorated and mechanically damaged overpacks which had absorbed large quantities of water in service were subjected to drying tests, foam properties were evaluated, and a rehabilitation procedure was developed to allow return of such packages to service. Protective shipping packages show deterioration with extended service, principally structural damage from rough handling and rust damage from exposure to weather and from storage practices which may promote absorption of water by the insulating foam. The structural and thermal properties of the phenolic foam insulation from used shipping packages were found to be not adversely affected by absorbed water, and they were not degraded by the drying process. In order to slow or avoid continuing rust damage in renovated packages, however, a process was developed for drying the foam in commercial facilities prior to restoration work on used or damaged containers. Two 2-1/2-ton steel transport cylinders, type 30B, were involved in a warehouse fire where portions of the cylinders were estimated to have reached a temperature of 1600 0 F. The cylinders were empty at the time of the fire and thus were not in the protective packages in which full product cylinders are handled while in transit. Hydrostatic burst tests showed that the integrity of the cylinders was not degraded by the fire exposure. They withstood test pressures in excess of 10 times the design pressure, and showed a volume expansion of 30% above the original capacity before rupturing in a completely ductile fashion

  12. Analysis of impacts from environmental factors evaluated by icf in individuals post-cva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Suely Queiroz Silva Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The CVA is the second cause of death in Brazil, presenting with serious clinical repercussions and as a public health issue. Live with the disabilities caused by it requires facing daily situations, which can increase the disability, such as the ones imposed by the environment inside or outside home. Objective: Analyze the environmental factors of ICF with a facilitator or barrier for victims of Stroke. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study, 152 individuals; span of less than 60 months involvement and enrolled in the Family Health Units in João Pessoa, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to characterize the socio-economic and clinical form and the Core Set for stroke to identify environmental factors. The data were stored in EpiInfo 7. Associations between environmental factors and the variables age, gender, and marital status verified by chi-square test. Results: Assistive technologies and products or substances for personal consumption were the main factors recognized as facilitators, followed by interpersonal relationships. The most prevalent factors as barriers were the physical structures of public and private spaces, highlighting the physical geography of their residence. It was found that the immediate family was associated with variable marital status, use of products and technology for personal use in daily life was associated with age and, friends partnered with variable gender. Conclusions: The Core Set is shown as a sensitive instrument to capture the barriers and facilitators in population surveys. Their findings point to the need to think about public policy more appropriate for this population.{#}

  13. Assessing the Impact of Clothing and Individual Equipment (CIE) on Soldier Physical, Biomechanical, and Cognitive Performance Part 1: Test Methodology (United States)


    March: Post-Dynamic Marksmanship End of Day Questionnaires Note: indicates cognitive tasks indicates biomechanical measures indicates physiological ...during ACSM’S resource manual for exercise testing and prescription Human Movement Science, 31(2), Proceedings of the 2016 American Biomechanics...Society Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2, Human factors evaluation of a prototype load-carrying system Technical memorandum: CAN-LEAP

  14. Comparative Evaluation of the Pharyngeal Airway Space in Unilateral and Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Individuals With Noncleft Individuals: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study. (United States)

    Gandedkar, Narayan H; Chng, Chai Kiat; Basheer, Mohammad Abdul; Chen, Por Yong; Yeow, Vincent Kok Leng


      To evaluate the pharyngeal airway space changes in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) individuals, and compare with age and sex-matched noncleft (NC) control subjects.   Retrospective study.   Cleft and Craniofacial Centre, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore.   Twenty UCLP (mean age: 13.4 ± 0.5 years), 18 BCLP (mean age: 13.5 ± 0.5 years) and 20 skeletal Class I subjects (mean age: 13.4 ± 0.6 years) were included in the study. Cone beam computed tomography scans were assessed for pharyngeal airway space (PAS) (oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, total airway space volume), and compared with PAS of age and sex-matched skeletal Class I NC individuals.   Pharyngeal airway space showed statistically significant differences in the UCLP, BCLP, and NC control subjects. Oropharyngeal (9338 ± 1108 mm 3 , P space (12 250 ± 1185 mm 3 , P .05).   The pharyngeal airway space was significantly reduced in the BCLP group than were those in UCLP and control groups. This reduced PAS should be taken into account when planning treatment for these individuals.

  15. Psychological evaluation test after the use of assisted reproduction techniques. (United States)

    Franco, José Gonçalves; Razera Baruffi, Ricardo Luiz; Mauri, Ana Lucia; Petersen, Claudia Guilhermino; Felipe, Valeria; Garbellini, Erika


    The emotional changes provoked by the use of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) may trigger important psychological reactions. The objective of the present study was to develop a psychological evaluation test (PET-ART) in order to identify the occurrence of psychological problems and to facilitate their treatment. A total of 128 women were submitted to PET-ART of the Center for Human Reproduction, "Sinhá Junqueira" Maternity Foundation, after application of IVF/ICSI program at least once. The causes of infertility were male-related in 45% of cases, female-related in 48%, and both male- and female-related in 7%. Infertility was primary in 79% of cases and secondary in 21%. The mean age of the women was 34.5 +/- 5.2 years and the mean age of the men was 37.9 +/- 6.8 years. The PET-ART was evaluated using a questionnaire with 15 questions selected in order to detect emotional reactions caused by infertility. The responses were assigned four grades with respect to intensity (1 = mild intensity; 2 = medium intensity; 3 = high intensity; and 4 = maximum or unbearable intensity). The sum of the responses corresponded to PET-ART score ranging from 15 to 60 points. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by the alpha coefficient of Cronbach. The PET-ART identified five questions receiving 50% or more responses of the high/maximum intensity type (sum of the percentages of responses with a score of 3 and 4). The questions were the following: 1--The waiting time before being submitted to a pregnancy test (82.8% of the patients); 2--A negative result of the pregnancy test (77.3% of the patients); 3--The degree of anxiety in a new attempt to obtain pregnancy (76.5% of the patients); 4--Finding the money necessary for the repetition of the IVF/ICSI techniques (66.4% of the patients); 5--The possibility of collecting few eggs, or of forming or not an embryo in the laboratory is an expectation that makes me anxious (57.8% of the patients). The mean PET-ART was 33

  16. Constant-head pumping test of a multiaquifer well to determine characteristics of individual aquifers (United States)

    Bennett, Gordon D.; Patten, E.P.


    This report describes the theory and field procedures for determining the transmissibility and storage coefficients and the original hydrostatic head of each aquifer penetrated by a multiaquifer well. The procedure involves pumping the well in such a manner that the drawdown of water level is constant while the discharges of the different aquifers are measured by means of borehole flowmeters. The theory is developed by analogy to the heat-flow problem solved by Smith. The internal discharge between aquifers after the well is completed is analyzed as the first step. Pumping at constant, drawdown constitutes the second step. Transmissibility and storage coefficients are determined by a method described by Jacob and Lohman, after the original internal discharge to or from the aquifer has been compensated for in the calculations. The original hydrostatic head of each aquifer is then determined by resubstituting the transmissibility and storage coefficients into the first step of the analysis. The method was tested on a well in Chester County, Pa., but the results were not entirely satisfactory, owing to the lack of sufficiently accurate methods of flow measurement and, probably, to the effects of entrance losses in the well. The determinations of the transmissibility coefficient and static head can be accepted as having order-of-magnitude significance, but the determinations of the storage coefficient, which is highly sensitive to experimental error, must be rejected. It is felt that better results may be achieved in the future, as more reliable devices for metering the flow become available and as more is learned concerning the nature of entrance losses. If accurate data can be obtained, recently developed techniques of digital or analog computation may permit determination of the response of each aquifer in the well to any form of pumping.

  17. Evaluation of the theory of mind in autism spectrum disorders with the Strange Stories test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Lima Velloso


    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the theory of mind in autism spectrum disorders (ASD and control individuals by applying the Strange Stories test that was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language. Method Twenty-eight children with ASD and 56 controls who were all male and aged between 6 and 12 years participated in the study. Results There were significant differences between the median scores of the groups for each of the 12 stories of the test and for the sum total of all the median scores. The median scores for all stories were significantly greater in the control group than those in the experimental group (children with ASD. In addition, the protocol had excellent internal consistency. Conclusion The theory of mind skills assessed with the Strange Stories test indicated alterations in children with ASD compared with children in the control group.

  18. The swimming test is effective for evaluating spasticity after contusive spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Ryu, Youngjae; Ogata, Toru; Nagao, Motoshi; Kitamura, Taku; Morioka, Kazuhito; Ichihara, Yoshinori; Doi, Toru; Sawada, Yasuhiro; Akai, Masami; Nishimura, Ryohei; Fujita, Naoki


    Spasticity is a frequent chronic complication in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the severity of spasticity varies in patients with SCI. Therefore, an evaluation method is needed to determine the severity of spasticity. We used a contusive SCI model that is suitable for clinical translation. In this study, we examined the feasibility of the swimming test and an EMG for evaluating spasticity in a contusive SCI rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats received an injury at the 8th thoracic vertebra. Swimming tests were performed 3 to 6 weeks after SCI induction. We placed the SCI rats into spasticity-strong or spasticity-weak groups based on the frequency of spastic behavior during the swimming test. Subsequently, we recorded the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) and examined the immunoreactivity of serotonin (5-HT) and its receptor (5-HT2A) in the spinal tissues of the SCI rats. The spasticity-strong group had significantly decreased rate-dependent depression of the H-reflex compared to the spasticity-weak group. The area of 5-HT2A receptor immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the spasticity-strong group. Thus, both electrophysiological and histological evaluations indicate that the spasticity-strong group presented with a more severe upper motor neuron syndrome. We also observed the groups in their cages for 20 hours. Our results suggest that the swimming test provides an accurate evaluation of spasticity in this contusive SCI model. We believe that the swimming test is an effective method for evaluating spastic behaviors and developing treatments targeting spasticity after SCI.

  19. The swimming test is effective for evaluating spasticity after contusive spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjae Ryu

    Full Text Available Spasticity is a frequent chronic complication in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI. However, the severity of spasticity varies in patients with SCI. Therefore, an evaluation method is needed to determine the severity of spasticity. We used a contusive SCI model that is suitable for clinical translation. In this study, we examined the feasibility of the swimming test and an EMG for evaluating spasticity in a contusive SCI rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats received an injury at the 8th thoracic vertebra. Swimming tests were performed 3 to 6 weeks after SCI induction. We placed the SCI rats into spasticity-strong or spasticity-weak groups based on the frequency of spastic behavior during the swimming test. Subsequently, we recorded the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex and examined the immunoreactivity of serotonin (5-HT and its receptor (5-HT2A in the spinal tissues of the SCI rats. The spasticity-strong group had significantly decreased rate-dependent depression of the H-reflex compared to the spasticity-weak group. The area of 5-HT2A receptor immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the spasticity-strong group. Thus, both electrophysiological and histological evaluations indicate that the spasticity-strong group presented with a more severe upper motor neuron syndrome. We also observed the groups in their cages for 20 hours. Our results suggest that the swimming test provides an accurate evaluation of spasticity in this contusive SCI model. We believe that the swimming test is an effective method for evaluating spastic behaviors and developing treatments targeting spasticity after SCI.

  20. Validation of a computer-adaptive test to evaluate generic health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardaín Pilar C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is a relevant variable in the evaluation of health outcomes. Questionnaires based on Classical Test Theory typically require a large number of items to evaluate HRQoL. Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT can be used to reduce tests length while maintaining and, in some cases, improving accuracy. This study aimed at validating a CAT based on Item Response Theory (IRT for evaluation of generic HRQoL: the CAT-Health instrument. Methods Cross-sectional study of subjects aged over 18 attending Primary Care Centres for any reason. CAT-Health was administered along with the SF-12 Health Survey. Age, gender and a checklist of chronic conditions were also collected. CAT-Health was evaluated considering: 1 feasibility: completion time and test length; 2 content range coverage, Item Exposure Rate (IER and test precision; and 3 construct validity: differences in the CAT-Health scores according to clinical variables and correlations between both questionnaires. Results 396 subjects answered CAT-Health and SF-12, 67.2% females, mean age (SD 48.6 (17.7 years. 36.9% did not report any chronic condition. Median completion time for CAT-Health was 81 seconds (IQ range = 59-118 and it increased with age (p Conclusions Although domain-specific CATs exist for various areas of HRQoL, CAT-Health is one of the first IRT-based CATs designed to evaluate generic HRQoL and it has proven feasible, valid and efficient, when administered to a broad sample of individuals attending primary care settings.

  1. A new ethical landscape of prenatal testing: individualizing choice to serve autonomy and promote public health: a radical proposal. (United States)

    Munthe, Christian


    A new landscape of prenatal testing (PNT) is presently developing, including new techniques for risk-reducing, non-invasive sampling of foetal DNA and drastically enhanced possibilities of what may be rapidly and precisely analysed, surrounded by a growing commercial genetic testing industry and a general trend of individualization in healthcare policies. This article applies a set of established ethical notions from past debates on PNT for analysing PNT screening-programmes in this new situation. While some basic challenges of PNT stay untouched, the new development supports a radical individualization of how PNT screening is organized. This reformation is, at the same time, difficult to reconcile with responsible spending of resources in a publicly funded healthcare context. Thus, while the ethical imperative of individualization holds and applies to PNT, the new landscape of PNT provides reasons to start rolling back the type of mass-screening programmes currently established in many countries. Instead, more limited offers are suggested, based on considerations of severity of conditions and optimized to simultaneously serve reproductive autonomy and public health within an acceptable frame of priorities. The new landscape of PNT furthermore underscores the ethical importance of supporting and including people with disabilities. For the very same reason, no ban on what may be analysed using PNT in the new landscape should be applied, although private offers must, of course, conform to strict requirements of respecting reproductive autonomy and what that means in terms of counselling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle test and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.


    In the past many DOE and DoD facilities involved in handling nuclear material realized a need to enhance the safely and security for movement of sensitive materials within their facility, or ''intra-site''. There have been prior efforts to improve on-site transportation; however, there remains a requirement for enhanced on-site transportation at a number of facilities. The requirements for on-site transportation are driven by security, safety, and operational concerns. The Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle (ISTV) was designed to address these concerns specifically for DOE site applications with a standardized vehicle design. This paper briefly reviews the ISTV design features providing significant enhancement of onsite transportation safety and security, and also describes the test and evaluation activities either complete of underway to validate the vehicle design and operation

  3. Anthropometric and intellectual evaluation of individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome. (United States)

    Shu, San-Ging; Chien, Shu; Wu, Yen-Ching; Tsai, Pei-Ling; Yih, Joung-Kun


    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare, multifaceted genetic disorder resulting from the absence of normally active paternally expressed genes from the 15q11-q13 chromosome region. Due to a lack of anthropometric and intellectual data in Taiwan, we attempted these evaluations. Twenty patients (14 males/6 females) aged 7-23 years with molecularly confirmed PWS were enrolled with parental consent. Their mean height standard deviation score (SDS) was -1.26 +/- 1.89 (from -4.3 to +2.16); mean weight SDS was +1.77 +/- 2.00 (from -0.44 to +5.89); mean body mass index SDS was +3.84 +/- 10.54 (from -0.08 to +10.48); and mean body fat tissue SDS was 39.4 +/- 10.54% (14.7-57.8%) by an InBody 3.0 analyzer. All were hypogonadal. Nine of them had once been given growth hormone therapy, and were taller and slimmer than the rest. Their intelligence tests showed full intelligence quotient = 52.0 +/- 7.6; verbal intelligence quotient = 55.9 +/- 8.77; performance intelligence quotient = 53.2 +/- 9.0. Chronic health status revealed that diabetes was prevalent among the older population. Their IQ was in the range of those with moderate retardation.

  4. Anthropometric and Intellectual Evaluation of Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Ging Shu


    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare, multifaceted genetic disorder resulting from the absence of normally active paternally expressed genes from the 15q11-q13 chromosome region. Due to a lack of anthropometric and intellectual data in Taiwan, we attempted these evaluations. Twenty patients (14 males/6 females aged 7–23 years with molecularly confirmed PWS were enrolled with parental consent. Their mean height standard deviation score (SDS was −1.26 ± 1.89 (from −4.3 to +2.16; mean weight SDS was +1.77 ± 2.00 (from −0.44 to +5.89; mean body mass index SDS was +3.84 ± 10.54 (from −0.08 to +10.48; and mean body fat tissue SDS was 39.4 ± 10.54% (14.7-57.8% by an InBody 3.0 analyzer. All were hypogonadal. Nine of them had once been given growth hormone therapy, and were taller and slimmer than the rest. Their in telligence tests showed full intelligence quotient = 52.0 ± 7.6; verbal intelligence quotient = 55.9 ± 8.77; performance intelligence quotient = 53.2 ± 9.0. Chronic health status revealed that diabetes was prevalent among the older population. Their IQ was in the range of those with moderate retardation.

  5. Testing a key assumption in animal communication: between-individual variation in female visual systems alters perception of male signals. (United States)

    Ronald, Kelly L; Ensminger, Amanda L; Shawkey, Matthew D; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban


    Variation in male signal production has been extensively studied because of its relevance to animal communication and sexual selection. Although we now know much about the mechanisms that can lead to variation between males in the properties of their signals, there is still a general assumption that there is little variation in terms of how females process these male signals. Variation between females in signal processing may lead to variation between females in how they rank individual males, meaning that one single signal may not be universally attractive to all females. We tested this assumption in a group of female wild-caught brown-headed cowbirds ( Molothrus ater ), a species that uses a male visual signal (e.g. a wingspread display) to make its mate-choice decisions. We found that females varied in two key parameters of their visual sensory systems related to chromatic and achromatic vision: cone densities (both total and proportions) and cone oil droplet absorbance. Using visual chromatic and achromatic contrast modeling, we then found that this between-individual variation in visual physiology leads to significant between-individual differences in how females perceive chromatic and achromatic male signals. These differences may lead to variation in female preferences for male visual signals, which would provide a potential mechanism for explaining individual differences in mate-choice behavior. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Evaluating the efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in reducing susceptibility in methamphetamine-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Amiri


    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (abuse have gained popularity among youth and is increasingly become a part of mainstream culture. Methamphetamine(abuse is dangerous because of its wide range adverse outcomes and hazardous sustaining side effects. Its dependence is hardly withdrawn by routine therapeutic methods. This study is devoted to evaluate the efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in outpatient methamphetamine-dependent individuals. 24 individuals were chosen according to inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study and randomly assigned to equal experimental (age range 19-41; mean age: 46.9 and control groups (age range: 21-42; mean age: 27.8. Experimental group members partook Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model once a week in 12 consecutive weeks, while control group members remained at waitlist. Independent t-test in 12th week showed that experimental group had lower methamphetamine use, comparing to control group (p<.05.Phillai’s Trace, Wilk’s Lambda, HotellingLawley's trace, and Roy's largest root showed that there are significant association between experimental and control groups in reduction of methamphetamine-use lapse (p<.05.Within-subject F ratio revealed that “methamphetamine use” was significantly reduced in experimental group after clinical intervention (p<.001. Findings of the study indicate the efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in craving management and control as well as reduction of lapse and substance (abuse in methamphetamine-dependent patients. It appears that the Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model would be a new reliable solution to treat methamphetamine-dependence in Iran and other alike cultural and social atmospheres. Limitations and future implications are discussed.

  7. Breath alcohol test precision: an in vivo vs. in vitro evaluation. (United States)

    Gullberg, R G


    Random error is associated with breath alcohol measurements, as with all analytical methods. The total random uncertainty of a group of n measurements is typically determined by computing the standard deviation and requiring it to be less than some appropriate level (i.e., +/- 0.0042 g/210 l). The total random uncertainty has two primary sources; the instrumental method and the sample source. These are typically inseparable values. In breath alcohol testing the two primary sample sources are simulators and human breath. The present study evaluates ten groups of simulator samples consisting of ten measurements each on BAC Verifier Datamaster instruments. The data also includes ten breath alcohol measurements from each of 21 individuals following alcohol consumption. The range of standard deviations for the simulator samples was 0.0003-0.0022 g/210 l. The range of standard deviations for the human breath samples was 0.0015-0.0089 g/210 l. Two statistics that test for homogeneity for variances were applied. The simulator samples resulted in a Cochran's C test of 0.5000 and an Fmax test of 48.9. The human breath samples resulted in a Cochran's C test of 0.1519 and an Fmax test of 27.3. All were significant at P less than 0.001. The statistical tests demonstrated that the intragroup variability among the human subjects was comparable to the intragroup variability among the simulator samples. The data also demonstrates that the sample source (simulator or human) is probably the largest contributor to total random uncertainty. Therefore, when duplicate breath alcohol testing from individuals shows variability in the second decimal place the cause is differences in breath samples provided and not instrumental imprecision.

  8. The evaluation of a positive direct antiglobulin test (autocontrol) in pretransfusion testing revisited. (United States)

    Judd, W J; Barnes, B A; Steiner, E A; Oberman, H A; Averill, D B; Butch, S H


    Direct antiglobulin tests (DATs) using anti-IgG were performed on 65,049 blood samples from prospective transfusion recipients; 3570 tests (5.49%) were positive. Using criteria published previously (primarily excluding patients not transfused within the preceding 14 days), 778 samples from other than neonatal patients were selected for further evaluation. Eluates that did not react were obtained on 518 (66.6%) of these samples. Warm-reactive autoantibodies were apparent in 192 eluates, while 16 contained drug-related antibodies, anti-A or anti-B from prior transfusion with ABO mismatched blood components, or anti-D passively acquired from immune serum globulin. Fifty-two eluates contained alloantibodies; however, in only six of these cases did the corresponding serum lack unexpected alloantibodies, as determined by routine pretransfusion studies. Three additional weakly reactive clinically significant alloantibodies were detected solely through additional serum tests performed on DAT-positive samples. On the basis of these findings, the DAT had a low predictive value when used to detect the early manifestations of an immune response to recently transfused red cells. Elimination of the autocontrol from routine pretransfusion testing, therefore, carries minimal risk to patients yet will undoubtedly contribute to the containment of health care costs. Moreover, the risk is lower than that associated with the elimination of the antiglobulin crossmatch.

  9. Evaluation of a visual acuity test using closed Landolt-Cs to determine malingering. (United States)

    Kröger, Nils; Jürgens, Clemens; Kohlmann, Thomas; Tost, Frank


    To evaluate a visual acuity test (VAT) with unexpected optotypes to detect malingering. We tested two groups. Group 1 consisted of 20 individuals with normal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Group 2 included participants with ocular diseases and reduced BCVA. All subjects underwent a VAT proposed by Gräf and Roesen to assess suspected malingering. This test used 36 charts with one Landolt-C per page. The first 20 optotypes were Landolt-Cs, while at positions 21, 26, 30, and 34 closed rings were presented. The testing distance was adapted to 50% of the test person's visual acuity. The test person was requested to name the gap direction of the Landolt-C within 3 s. The complete testing conversation was recorded digitally to determine response latency for each optotype from the audio tracks. The average response time was 0.46 s in group 1 and 0.45 s in group 2 for the first 20 Landolt-Cs. In both groups the response time was significantly extended (p ring compared to the mean of the first 20 Landolt-Cs, (group 1: 2.9 s; group 2: 2.3 s). The following three closed rings had also longer response times. However, these differences were not significant. Our results suggest that the proposed test may be helpful to evaluate ocular malingering. The testing procedure appeared to be feasible and showed good repeatability. The fast training effect may be a limitation for malingering detection.

  10. Evaluation of a single leg stance balance test in children. (United States)

    Zumbrunn, Thomas; MacWilliams, Bruce A; Johnson, Barbara A


    Balance is a major determinate of gait. In high functioning individuals without significant vestibular or vision impairments, a ceiling effect may be present when using a double limb support protocol to assess balance function. For these populations, a single leg stance protocol may be more suitable. 47 typically developing (TD) subjects and 10 patients with CEV performed a single leg stance test on a force plate. The center of pressure (COP) was determined and several COP derived variables were calculated. Included measurements were: standard deviation, maximum excursion, area, average radial displacement, path velocity and frequency of the COP. Directional components of suitable variables were used to analyze anterior/posterior and medial/lateral contributions. Correlations with age of TD subjects indicated that all balance variables except frequency were significantly correlated. Most parameters were highly inter-correlated. Age adjusted COP balance variables also correlated to the Bruininks-Oseretsky balance subtest. Highest correlations were determined by the maximum excursion and velocity of the COP in the anterior/posterior direction. Statistical comparisons between the CEV group and a 4-6 TD group indicated significant differences between groups for most COP balance parameters. These results indicated that a single limb balance assessment may be a useful assessment for determining balance impairments in higher functioning children with orthopedic impairments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of river water genotoxicity using the piscine micronucleus test. (United States)

    Ergene, Serap; Cavaş, Tolga; Celik, Ayla; Köleli, Nurcan; Aymak, Cemil


    The Berdan River, which empties into the Mediterranean Sea on the east coast of Turkey, receives discharges of industrial and municipal waste. In the present study, the in vivo piscine micronucleus (MN) test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of water samples collected from different locations along the Berdan River. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed in the laboratory for 2, 4, and 6 days, and micronuclei were evaluated in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill cells, and caudal fin epithelial cells. A single dose of 5 mg/L cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. In addition to micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities (NAs), such as binucleated cells and blebbed, notched, and lobed nuclei, were assessed in the erythrocytes, and chemical analyses were carried out to determine the amount of heavy metals in the water samples. MN and NA frequencies were significantly elevated (up to 2- to 3-fold) in fish exposed to river water samples taken downstream of potential discharges, and the elevated responses in gill and fin cells were related to the concentration of heavy metals in the water. MN frequencies (expressed as micronucleated cells/1,000 cells), in both treated and untreated fish, were greatest in gill cells (range: 0.80-3.70), and generally lower in erythrocytes (range: 0.50-2.80), and fin cells (range: 0.45-1.70). The results of this study indicate that the Berdan River is contaminated with genotoxic pollutants and that the genotoxicity is related to the discharge of wastes into the river water.

  12. Formability of a wrought Mg alloy evaluated by impression testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Walid; Gollapudi, Srikant; Charit, Indrajit; Murty, K. Linga


    This study is focused on furthering our understanding of the different factors that influence the formability of Magnesium alloys. Towards this end, formability studies were undertaken on a wrought Mg-2Zn-1Mn (ZM21) alloy. In contrast to conventional formability studies, the impression testing method was adopted here to evaluate the formability parameter, B, at temperatures ranging from 298 to 473 K. The variation of B of ZM21 with temperature and its rather limited values were discussed in the light of different deformation mechanisms such as activation of twinning, slip, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX). It was found that the material characteristics such as grain size, texture and testing conditions such as temperature and strain rate, were key determinants of the mechanism of plastic deformation. A by-product of this analysis was the observation of an interesting correlation between the Zener-Hollomon parameter, Z, and the ability of Mg alloys to undergo DRX.

  13. Initial ACTR retrieval technology evaluation test material recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.


    Millions of gallons of radiaoctive waste are contained in underground storage tanks at Hanford (SE Washington). Techniques for retrieving much of this waste from the storage tanks have been developed. Current baseline approach is to use sluice jets for single-shell tanks and mixer pumps for double-shell tanks. The Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval (ACTR) effort was initiated to identify potential improvements in or alternatives to the baseline waste retrieval methods. Communications with a variety of vendors are underway to identify improved methods that can be implemented at Hanford with little or no additional development. Commercially available retrieval methods will be evaluated by a combination of testing and system-level cost estimation. Current progress toward developing waste simulants for testing ACTR candidate methods is reported; the simulants are designed to model 4 different types of tank waste. Simulant recipes are given for wet sludge, hardpan/dried sludge,hard saltcake, and soft saltcake. Comparisons of the waste and simulant properties are documented in this report

  14. Further evaluation of the CSNI separate effect test activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Auria, F.; Aksan, S.N.; Glaeser, H. [and others


    An internationally agreed Separate Effect Test (SET) Validation Matrix for the thermalhydraulic system codes has been established by a subgroup of the Task Group on Thermalhydraulic System Behaviour as requested by OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Principal Working Group No. 2 on Coolant System Behavior. The construction of such matrix constituted an attempt to collect together in a systematic way the best sets of openly available test data to select for code validation. As a final result, 67 phenomena have been identified and characterized, roughly 200 facilities have been considered and more than 1000 experiments have been selected as useful for the validation of the codes. The objective of the present paper is to provide additional evaluation of the obtained data base and to supply an a-posteriori judgement in relation to (a) the data base adequacy, (b) the phenomenon, and (c) the need for additional experiments. This has been provided independently by each of the authors. The main conclusions are that large amount of data are available for certain popular phenomena e.g. heat transfer, but data are severely lacking in more esoteric areas e.g. for characterizing phenomena such as parallel channel instability and boron mixing and transport.

  15. Evaluation of four methods for separation of lymphocytes from normal individuals and patients with cancer and tuberculosis. (United States)

    Patrick, C C; Graber, C D; Loadholt, C B


    An optimal technique was sought for lymphocyte recovery from normal and chronic diseased individuals. Lymphocytes were separated by four techniques: Plasmagel, Ficoll--Hypaque, a commercial semiautomatic method, and simple centrifugation using blood drawn from ten normal individuals, ten cancer patients, and ten tuberculosis patients. The lymphocyte mixture obtained after using each method was analyzed for percent recovery, amount if contamination by erythrocytes and neutrophils, and percent viability. The results show that the semiautomatic method yielded the best percent recovery of lymphocytes for normal individuals, while the simple centrifugation method contributed the highest percent recovery for cancer and tuberculosis patients. The Ficoll-Hypaque method gave the lowest erythrocyte contamination for all three types of individuals tested, while the Plasmagel method gave the lowest neutrophil contamination for all three types of individuals. The simple centrifugation method yielded all viable lymphocytes and thus gave the highest percent viability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gushchin


    Full Text Available Usage of chemical additives while executing concrete works at negative temperatures is considered as a convenient and economical method. Range of the used antifreeze additives is rather wide. A great number of new additives are advertised but their characteristics have not been practically studied. Evaluation of the antifreeze additive efficiency is unfortunately rather long process and it does not provide comprehensive data on concrete structure formation processes. Due to this development of rapid and comprehensive methodology for construction companies is urgently required.Freezing processes of antifreeze additive aqueous solutions and hardening of cement paste with them have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of freezing point for aqueous solutions of chemical additives of various applications. Identity of  freezing point for a chemical additive aqueous solution and cement paste with an equal concentration of the additive in the paste pore fluid has been determined while taking  calcium nitrate and sodium formate additives as an example. The paper demonstrates the possibility to evaluate efficiency of antifreeze additive action on the basis of kinetics in temperature changes of the cement paste with additives by its consecutive freezing and defrosting.  A methodology for operational evaluation in the field of chemical additive application for concreting items at negative temperatures has been offered in the paper.  The methodology does not require  deficient and expensive test-equipment. It can be applied at ordinary construction companies and it is comprehensible for personnel of low-qualification.  The paper shows the possibility to develop an original methodology for designing concrete structure which is based on operating efficiency determinations  for single and integrated antifreeze additives.

  17. Fit of different functions to the individual deviations in random regression test day models for milk yield in dairy cattle

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    L.R. Schaeffer


    Full Text Available The shape of individual deviations of milk yield for dairy cattle from the fixed part of a random regression test day model (RRTDM was investigated. Data were 53,217 TD records for milk yield of 6,229 first lactation Canadian Holsteins in Ontario. Data were fitted with a model that included the fixed effects of herd-testdate, DIM interval nested within age and season of calving. Residuals of the model were then fitted with the following functions: Ali and Schaeffer 5 parameter model, fourth-order Legendre Polynomials, and cubic spline with three, four or five knots. Result confirm the great variability of shape that can be found when individual lactation are modeled. Cubic splines gave better fitting pe4rformances although together with a marked tendency to yield aberrant estimates at the edge of the lactation trajectory.

  18. Modify beam transversal test to evaluate hemiparkinsonian rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Lezcano, Lissette; Lorigados Pedre, Lourdes del C; Fernandez Verdecia, Caridad I; Serrano Sanchez, Teresa; Pavon Fuentes, Nancy; Turner, Liliana Francis


    The nigrostriatal degeneration underlying Parkinson's disease (PD) is commonly studied in experimental animals by injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. the present study describes a modified version of a beam traversal test which allows the quantification of the motor deficit through the time spent to arrive to the platform once all four paws of the animals are in contact with the beam (escape latency, el), the time spent before falling (tumbled down latency, TDL) and the number of errors (NE) committed for the animals in each beam. The shape and the diameter of the cross section of the beams were modified from rectangular and circular cross section with 2.5 cm of diameter to the same shape with 1 cm of diameter, which induced a high difficulty to the execution of the test. Three groups of Wistar rats were examined: untreated (n=15), lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (n=14), and sham-operated (n=14). All variables studied showed significant differences between control and hemiparkinsonian rats. The EL and the NE were increased and the TDL was decreased in hemiparkinsonian rats for all beams in comparison with control rats. In TDL the significant differences between groups were more evident (p<0.001) for the beams with high cross section irrespective of the shape of the cross section. BTT is a convenient sensorimotor test that does not need to be trained extensively, and require adverse motivation or food deprivation and appears to be very useful in evaluating the motor deficits in established unilateral model of PD and also other experimental models.

  19. Reliability and Agreement of Neck Functional Capacity Evaluation Tests in Patients With Chronic Multifactorial Neck Pain. (United States)

    Reneman, M F; Roelofs, M; Schiphorst Preuper, H R


    To analyze test-retest reliability and agreement, and to explore the safety of neck functional capacity evaluation (Neck-FCE) tests in patients with chronic multifactorial neck pain. Test-retest; 2 FCE sessions were held with a 2-week interval. University-based outpatient rehabilitation center. Individuals (N=18; 14 women) with a mean age of 34 years. Not applicable. The Neck-FCE protocol consists of 6 tests: lifting waist to overhead (kg), 2-handed carrying (kg), overhead working (s), bending and overhead reaching (s), and repetitive side reaching (left and right) (s). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and limits of agreement (LoA) were calculated. ICC point estimates between .75 and .90 were considered as good, and >.90 were considered as excellent reliability. ICC point estimates ranged between .39 and .96. Ratios of the LoA ranged between 32.0% and 56.5%. Mean ± SD numeric rating scale pain scores in the neck and shoulder 24 hours after the test were 6.7±2.6 and 6.3±3.0, respectively. Based on ICC point estimates and 95% confidence intervals, 3 tests had excellent reliability and 3 had poor reliability. LoA were substantial in all 6 tests. Safety was confirmed. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prospective evaluation of abnormal liver function tests in pregnancy. (United States)

    Harish, K; Nitha, R; Harikumar, R; Sunil Kumar, K; Varghese, Thomas; Sreedevi, N S; Bushrath, K; Sandesh, K; Tony, J


    Abnormalities in liver function tests (LFT) during pregnancy are a commonly encountered problem often associated with serious consequences especially when it occurs in the third trimester. The spectrum of abnormal liver functions in pregnancy can be fairly wide and diagnostic work up often challenging. There is insufficient prospective data on the spectrum and outcome of liver disease in pregnant population from south India. This study was performed to assess the causes of deranged liver function in the pregnant population and also to prospectively determine the outcome of liver dysfunction in pregnancy. All abnormal LFT results observed in serum samples from pregnant patients attending the obstetric unit of our hospital from January 2003 to January 2005 were evaluated and prospectively followed throughout pregnancy. Laboratory investigations included coagulation profile, renal function tests, serology for viral markers (HBsAg, anti-HCV, IgM anti-HEV and IgM anti-HAV) and other relevant biochemical tests. In those with liver dysfunction in the third trimester the maternal and perinatal outcome was evaluated. A total of 125 patients were identified with abnormalities in LFT results during this period. The majority of causes were related to pregnancy specific conditions (57.6%). Most episodes of abnormal LFT occurred in the third trimester (59.2%). Hyperemesis gravidarum (55.8%) and viral hepatitis (47%) were the most common causes of abnormal LFT in the first and second trimesters respectively. HELLP (28.3%) and AFLP (14.8%) were the most common causes of abnormal LFT in the third trimester. There were no mAternal deaths due to liver dysfunction in the first or second trimester. Liver dysfunction in the third trimester (74 patients) was associated with serious consequences. DIC was the most common complication (20.2%). The overall and perinatal mortality was 20.2% and 24.6% respectively. AFLP and HELLP syndromes were associated with poor maternal and fetal outcome

  1. Description and Validation of a Test to Evaluate Sustained Silent Reading (United States)

    Ramulu, Pradeep Y.; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Jefferys, Joan L.; Rubin, Gary S.


    Purpose. To construct and validate a test of sustained silent reading. Methods. Standardized 7300 and 7600 word passages were written to evaluate sustained silent reading. Two hundred forty subjects validated whether comprehension questions could discriminate subjects who did and did not read the passage. To evaluate test–retest properties, 49 subjects silently read the standardized passages on separate days. Sixty glaucoma suspect controls and 64 glaucoma subjects had their out loud reading evaluated with the MNRead card and an International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) passage, and their silent reading measured using the 7300 word passage. Sustained silent reading parameters included reading speed and reading speed slope over time. Results. Comprehension questions distinguished individuals who had and had not read passage materials. Bland-Altman analyses of intersession sustained reading speed and reading speed slope demonstrated 95% coefficients of repeatability of 57 words per minute (wpm) and 2.76 wpm/minute. Sustained silent reading speed was less correlated with MNRead (r = 0.59) or IReST passage (r = 0.68) reading speeds than the correlation of these two measures of out loud reading speed with each other (r = 0.72). Sustained silent reading speed was more likely to differ from IReST reading speed by more than 50% in rapid silent readers (odds ratio [OR] = 29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10–87), and comparisons of sustained and out loud reading speeds demonstrated proportional error in Bland-Altman analyses. Conclusions. Tests of out loud reading do not accurately reflect silent reading speed in individuals with normal vision or glaucoma. The described test offers a standardized way to evaluate the impact of eye disease and/or visual rehabilitation on sustained silent reading. PMID:23258146

  2. Evaluation of genotoxicity through micronuclei test in workers of car and battery repair garages

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    Martino-Roth M.G.


    Full Text Available In this study, the micronuclei test (MNT was applied in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa, in order to evaluate the genotoxic risk associated with occupational exposure of mechanics, storage battery renovation workers, and car painters. For each individual, 3000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. There was a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC in the exposed workers than in controls. Smoking and drinking habits, age, and working time did not represent significant factors in terms of increasing the production of micronuclei (MN, when the control and the exposed groups were compared. These results allowed to conclude that the studied individuals belong to a risk group and should periodically undergo biological monitoring and proper care.

  3. Correlates of previous couples’ HIV counseling and testing uptake among married individuals in three HIV prevalence strata in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. B. Matovu


    Full Text Available Background: Studies show that uptake of couples’ HIV counseling and testing (couples’ HCT can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples’ HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples’ HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples’ HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing HIV prevalence levels. Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2,135 married individuals resident in the three HIV prevalence strata (low HIV prevalence: 9.7–11.2%; middle HIV prevalence: 11.4–16.4%; and high HIV prevalence: 20.5–43% in Rakai district, southwestern Uganda, between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were collected on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including previous receipt of couples’ HCT. HIV testing data were obtained from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify correlates that are independently associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. Data analysis was conducted using STATA (statistical software, version 11.2. Results: Of the 2,135 married individuals enrolled, the majority (n=1,783, 83.5% had been married for five or more years while (n=1,460, 66% were in the first-order of marriage. Ever receipt of HCT was almost universal (n=2,020, 95%; of those ever tested, (n=846, 41.9% reported that they had ever received couples’ HCT. There was no significant difference in previous receipt of couples’ HCT between low (n=309, 43.9%, middle (n=295, 41.7%, and high (n=242, 39.7% HIV prevalence settings (p=0.61. Marital order was not significantly associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. However, marital duration [five or more years vis-à-vis 1–2 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.04–1.08] and

  4. Individual Differences in Laughter Perception Reveal Roles for Mentalizing and Sensorimotor Systems in the Evaluation of Emotional Authenticity (United States)

    McGettigan, C.; Walsh, E.; Jessop, R.; Agnew, Z. K.; Sauter, D. A.; Warren, J. E.; Scott, S. K.


    Humans express laughter differently depending on the context: polite titters of agreement are very different from explosions of mirth. Using functional MRI, we explored the neural responses during passive listening to authentic amusement laughter and controlled, voluntary laughter. We found greater activity in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) to the deliberate, Emitted Laughs, suggesting an obligatory attempt to determine others' mental states when laughter is perceived as less genuine. In contrast, passive perception of authentic Evoked Laughs was associated with greater activity in bilateral superior temporal gyri. An individual differences analysis found that greater accuracy on a post hoc test of authenticity judgments of laughter predicted the magnitude of passive listening responses to laughter in amPFC, as well as several regions in sensorimotor cortex (in line with simulation accounts of emotion perception). These medial prefrontal and sensorimotor sites showed enhanced positive connectivity with cortical and subcortical regions during listening to involuntary laughter, indicating a complex set of interacting systems supporting the automatic emotional evaluation of heard vocalizations. PMID:23968840

  5. Development and Reliability Testing of a Health Action Process Approach Inventory for Physical Activity Participation among Individuals with Schizophrenia. (United States)

    Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Duncan, Markus; Remington, Gary; Cairney, John; Faulkner, Guy E


    Individuals with schizophrenia tend to have high levels of cardiovascular disease and lower physical activity (PA) levels than the general population. Research is urgently required in developing evidence-based behavioral interventions for increasing PA in this population. One model that has been increasingly used to understand the mechanisms underlying PA is the health action process approach (HAPA). The purpose of this study was to adapt and pilot-test a HAPA-based inventory that reliably captures salient, modifiable PA determinants for individuals with schizophrenia. Initially, 12 outpatients with schizophrenia reviewed the inventory and provided verbal feedback regarding comprehension, item relevance, and potential new content. A content analysis framework was used to inform modifications to the inventory. The resultant inventory underwent a quantitative assessment of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Twenty-five outpatients (M age = 41.5 ± 13.5 years; 64% male) completed the inventory on two separate occasions, 1 week apart. All but two scales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.62-0.98) and test-retest correlations (rs = 0.21-0.96). Preliminary assessment of criterion validity of the HAPA inventory showed significant, large-sized correlations between behavioral intentions and both affective outcome expectancies and task self-efficacy, and small to moderate correlations between self-reported minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA and the volitional constructs of the HAPA model. These findings provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the first-ever inventory for examining theory-based predictors of moderate-to-vigorous PA intentions and behavior among individuals with schizophrenia. Further validation research with this inventory using an objective measure of PA behavior will provide additional support for its psychometric properties within the schizophrenia population.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Čokorilo


    Full Text Available The research included (N=60 females from the territory of Municipality of Novi Sad. The sample of individuals included females of the average age of 58.5 ±6.90, average body mass of 70.9 kg±15.32, and average body height of 164.8 m±7.24. The walking test of 2 kilometres of length offers the possibility to determine the Fitness Index (general ability and evaluate maximal consumption of oxygen VO2max. Since the individuals were older, very demanding tests were not recommendable, so we chose UKK test of 2 kilometre walking. Although it engages great muscle groups, it is not considered a risky activity which can bring to quick body exhaustion. Nordic walking is very convenient for intensifying of the training, and the important thing is that it protects joints. The use of sticks off-loads the whole passive composition for moving, such as ligaments and connective tissues, back and joints (especially knees, for some 15 to 35 tonnes per hour. Because of that, Nordic walking is ideal as a rehabilitation sport for people with orthopaedic disorders. The protocol of the test requires observation of the air temperature in the span of 5 - 25°C, moderate humidity, casual clothes or sweat suit and appropriate clothes and sneakers, and 5 to 10 minutes of warm-up: stretching of the spine muscles, legs muscles, and fast walking of 200 meters. After such preparations, the test starts, and each individual sets own tempo of walking. After 2 kilometres, we measure achieved time and the value of the pulse

  7. The effect of test kit provision, and individual and family education on the uptake rates of fecal occult blood test in an Asian population: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Ha, Tam Cam; Yong, Sook Kwin; Yeoh, Kheng-Wei; Kamberakis, Kay; Yeo, Richard Ming Chert; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat


    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether fecal occult blood test (FOBT) home-delivery and individual education or combined with family education increases FOBT uptake rates in Singapore. This is a randomized controlled intervention study of Singaporean residents aged 50 years and above, conducted in May 2012 till May 2013. Eligible individuals in randomly selected households were screened, and one member was randomly selected and allocated to one of the four arms: Group A (individual and family education, FOBT kits provided), Group B (individual education only, FOBT kits provided), Group C (no education, FOBT kits provided) and Group D (no education or FOBT kits provided). Overall response rate was 74.7 %. The FOBT return rates for groups A, B, C and D were 24.5 % [CI 16.2-34.4 %], 25.3 % [CI 16.4-36.0 %], 10.7 % [CI 4.7-19.9 %] and 2.2 % [CI 0.3-7.7 %], respectively. Respondents who were provided education and home-delivered FOBT kits were 15 times more likely to return FOBT kits [Group A: OR 15.0 (3.4-66.2); Group B: OR 15.5 (3.5-68.8)] and those provided with home-delivered FOBT without education were five times more likely to return FOBT kits [Group C: OR 5.8 (1.2-28.3)] than those without education and FOBT kits (Group D). There was no significant difference in return of FOBT kits whether education was provided to subject with or without a family member. Home delivery of FOBT kits increased FOBT return rates and individual education combined with home-delivered FOBT increased FOBT return rates even further. However, additional combination with family education did not increase FOBT rates further.

  8. An Analysis of the Structure and Evaluation Methods of Individual Tacit Knowledge


    LI, Zuo-xue; WANG, Qian; Cao, Lianzhong


    Tacit knowledge, especially individual tacit knowledge, plays a direct role in enabling an organization to attain a sustainable competitiveness. How to discern employee's tacit knowledge is a crucial step for an organization to cultivate, apply, and renew its core competency. As an inherent link with excellent performance, individual tacit knowledge refers to the knowledge which is hard to be expressed in words in certain situations. But tacit knowledge can be divided into general tacit knowl...

  9. Developing a new individualized 3-node model for evaluating the effects of personal factors on thermal sensation. (United States)

    Davoodi, Farzin; Hasanzadeh, Hasan; Alireza Zolfaghari, Seyed; Maerefat, Mehdi


    Individual differences, such as weight, height, gender, age, and Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), between human subjects can significantly affect body thermoregulatory mechanisms. Therefore, application of common population-based thermal comfort models cannot provide accurate results for an individual's thermal sensation. Based on the standard thermal models, including those of Fanger and Gagge, individual parameters are not considered in the evaluation of thermal sensations. Thus, these simplified standard models have some limitations under varied individual conditions. In this study, a new individualized thermal comfort model is presented on the basis of a simplified 3-node model. This model was developed by regarding the effects of individual characteristics, such as age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), and BMR on the thermal sensations of the bare and clothed parts of the body. A good agreement was found in the current model, which was verified based on the experimental data. In conclusion, the results indicated that the mean error in the prediction of skin temperature decreased from 1.2°C to 0.4°C when using the new individual model instead of a non-individualized 3-node model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-dimensional evaluation of pharyngeal airway in individuals with varying growth patterns using cone beam computed tomography


    Rohan Diwakar; Maninder Singh Sidhu; Mona Prabhakar; Seema Grover; Ritu Phogat


    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharyngeal airway volume in individuals with different vertical growth patterns. Methods: Cone beam computed tomography scans were evaluated of 40 subjects with the age range from 14 to 25 years and were divided into three groups. Horizontal growers consisted of 13 subjects, normal growers consisted of 14 subjects, and the vertical growers consisted of 13 subjects. The pharyngeal airway volume was measured using In Vivo Dental 5.1 so...

  11. Testing Results and Prospects of Educational Module “Individualization and Personalization of Educational Work with Students of Different Types”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaslavskaya O.Y.


    Full Text Available The article presents the testing results of educational module “Individualization and Personalization of Educational Work with Students of Different Types” in pedagogical master program, Teacher education (secondary general education teacher training direction. The module based on the professional direction, involving the connection of the objectives, content, forms, tools, and educational results with the main educational results according to Federal State Educational standard, as well as the content of different professional activities of future teachers of secondary education, are contained in the professional standards of the teacher. We characterized the structure and content of module subjects, the kinds of master educational activity organization, assessment tools which were used for the module educational outcomes (competencies, job functions and teacher activity in master students. The article describes the changes and updates that have been made in teaching and guidance documents on the results of the module testing and presents the perspectives of module in master students training.

  12. [Value of the isometric exercise test in objectively evaluating the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygenation in ischemic heart disease]. (United States)

    Efuni, S N; Kudriashov, V E; Rodionov, V V; Beletskiĭ, Iu V; Telegin, Iu N


    The isometric test was conducted prior to and after a hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) session in 31 coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. The results were compared with the findings provided by the examination of 138 coronary patients and 23 normal subjects receiving no HBO treatment. It was shown that the isometric test makes it possible to objectively assess the HBO effect in CHD patients. The results of the test reflect reduction in the severity of angina pectoris or cardiac failure following hyperbarotherpy. The results obtained justify the recommendation of the isometric test for the individual evaluation of the hyperbaric treatment in CHD.

  13. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation (United States)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul


    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  14. Developing and testing an intervention to prevent homelessness among individuals discharged from psychiatric wards to shelters and 'No Fixed Address'. (United States)

    Forchuk, C; MacClure, S K; Van Beers, M; Smith, C; Csiernik, R; Hoch, J; Jensen, E


    Shelter data in a recent study revealed discharges from psychiatric facilities to shelters or the street occurred at least 194 times in 2002 in London, Ontario, Canada. This problem must be addressed to reduce the disastrous effects of such discharge, including re-hospitalization and prolonged homelessness. An intervention was developed and tested to prevent homelessness associated with discharge directly to no fixed address. A total of 14 participants at-risk of being discharged without housing were enrolled, with half randomized into the intervention group. The intervention group was provided with immediate assistance in accessing housing and assistance in paying their first and last month's rent. The control group received usual care. Data was collected from participants prior to discharge, at 31 and 6-months post-discharge. All the individuals in the intervention group maintained housing after 3 and 6 months. All but one individual in the control group remained homeless after 3 and 6 months. The exception joined the sex trade to avoid homelessness. The results of this pilot were so dramatic that randomizing to the control group was discontinued. Discussions are underway to routinely implement the intervention. Systemic improvements can prevent homelessness for individuals being discharged from psychiatric wards.

  15. Individual contributions, provision point mechanisms and project cost information effects on contingent values: Findings from a field validity test. (United States)

    Christantoni, Maria; Damigos, Dimitris


    In many instances, Contingent Valuation practitioners rely on voluntary monetary contributions, despite the fact that they are deemed to be neither incentive compatible in theory nor demand revealing in practice. The reason is that they are suitable for most field applications and offer benefits that may outweigh their drawbacks. This paper endeavors to contribute to the literature by exploring the effect of donation payments with differing incentive structures and information levels on contingent values and on respondents' uncertainty regarding the donations declared. To this end, a field survey was conducted using a sample of 332 respondents who were randomly assigned to one of three different mechanisms: (1) individual contribution (hereinafter CVM treatment); (2) individual contribution with provision point mechanism (PPM), where the total cost of the project is unknown (hereinafter PPM treatment); and (3) individual contribution with PPM, where the total cost of the project is known (hereinafter PPM-INF treatment). The results indicate that there are no statistically significant differences in willingness to pay (WTP) estimates between the CVM and PPM treatments nor between the PPM and the PPM-INF treatments. The results also indicate that the PPM has a positive effect on respondents' certainty level, but there is no evidence that the certainty level is affected by the project information cost. The results are mixed compared to previous research efforts. Thus, further tests are necessary in field comparisons and under different information environments before any definite recommendations can be made. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating DIF and extensions using an LLTM approach and also an individual differences approach: an international testing context

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    Full Text Available This study intends to investigate two ways to generalise differential item functioning (DIF by grouping of items that share a common feature, or an item property as in the Linear Logistic Test Model (LLTM. An item “facet” refers to this type of grouping, and DIF can be expressed in terms of more fundamental parameters that relate to the facet of items. Hence the differential facet functioning (DFF model, a particular version of the LLTM, helps to explain the DIF effects more substantively. Using the mathematics data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA 2003, this study shows that modeling the DFF effect through an interaction of the group-by-facet parameter rather than DIF effect on the individual item level can be handled easily with the NLMIXED procedure of SAS. We found that the results are more interpretable when the bias is interpreted on the facet level rather than the item level. Analogous to the multidimensional DIF model, one natural extension of the DFF model is to make the model multidimensional when DFF facets (i.e., LLTM facets are considered as dimensions. This extension, multidimensional DFF (MDFF, is also investigated. The MDFF model allows individual differences to be modeled on the dimension that exhibits a DFF effect. However, it is always recommended to check the individual DIF estimates and construct a substantive analysis first before conducting DFF and MDFF analysis.

  17. Volition-adaptive control for gait training using wearable exoskeleton: preliminary tests with incomplete spinal cord injury individuals. (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Vijaykumar; López-Larraz, Eduardo; Trincado-Alonso, Fernando; Aranda, Joan; Montesano, Luis; Del-Ama, Antonio J; Pons, Jose L


    Gait training for individuals with neurological disorders is challenging in providing the suitable assistance and more adaptive behaviour towards user needs. The user specific adaptation can be defined based on the user interaction with the orthosis and by monitoring the user intentions. In this paper, an adaptive control model, commanded by the user intention, is evaluated using a lower limb exoskeleton with incomplete spinal cord injury individuals (SCI). A user intention based adaptive control model has been developed and evaluated with 4 incomplete SCI individuals across 3 sessions of training per individual. The adaptive control model modifies the joint impedance properties of the exoskeleton as a function of the human-orthosis interaction torques and the joint trajectory evolution along the gait sequence, in real time. The volitional input of the user is identified by monitoring the neural signals, pertaining to the user's motor activity. These volitional inputs are used as a trigger to initiate the gait movement, allowing the user to control the initialization of the exoskeleton movement, independently. A Finite-state machine based control model is used in this set-up which helps in combining the volitional orders with the gait adaptation. The exoskeleton demonstrated an adaptive assistance depending on the patients' performance without guiding them to follow an imposed trajectory. The exoskeleton initiated the trajectory based on the user intention command received from the brain machine interface, demonstrating it as a reliable trigger. The exoskeleton maintained the equilibrium by providing suitable assistance throughout the experiments. A progressive change in the maximum flexion of the knee joint was observed at the end of each session which shows improvement in the patient performance. Results of the adaptive impedance were evaluated by comparing with the application of a constant impedance value. Participants reported that the movement of the

  18. Collection and use of individual behavioral and consumption rate data to improve reconstruction of thyroid doses from nuclear weapons tests in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Schonfeld, Sara; Bouville, Andre; Land, Charles; Luckyanov, Nick; Simon, Steven L.; Schwerin, Michael


    Full text: Historical behavioral and consumption rate data were collected from residents of Kazakhstan exposed to nuclear weapons testing fallout using a focus group data collection strategy. These data will enable improved thyroid dose estimation in a radiation epidemiological study being carried out the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The study on the relationship of radiation exposure from weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a cohort of 2,994 subjects is now in a stage of improving earlier dose estimates based on individual information collected from a basic questionnaire administered to the study population in 1998. The study subjects of both Kazakh and Russian origin were exposed during childhood to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site between 1949 and 1962. Due to the long time since exposure, a well developed strategy is necessary to encourage accurate memory recall. Limitations of the data collected in 1998 suggested the need to obtain reliable information that is tailored specific to the requirements of the dose reconstruction algorithm and to the evaluation of individual dose uncertainties. Focus group data collection in Kazakhstan in 2007 involved four 8-person focus groups (three of women and one of men) in each of four exposed settlements where thyroid disease screening was conducted in 1998. Age-specific data on relevant childhood behaviour, including time spent indoors and consumption of milk and other dairy products from cows, goats, horses, and sheep, were collected from women's groups. Men's focus groups were interviewed about construction materials of houses and schools as well as animal grazing patterns and supplemental feed to animals. Information obtained from the focus groups are being used to derive the settlement-, ethnicity-, age-, and gender-specific (where appropriate) probability density distributions on individual consumption rates of milk and dairy products

  19. Habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting: Measurement test-retest reliability for the LUMOback device and preliminary evidence for slouched posture in individuals with low back pain. (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi


    It has been difficult to monitor the pelvic position during actual daily life. However, recent developments in wearable device technologies, such as the LUMOback device, provide the possibility to evaluate habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting during daily life. The current study aimed (1) to investigate test-retest reliability for habitual pelvic posture and time spent sitting with the LUMOback in individuals with prolonged low back pain (low back pain group) and without low back pain (control group), and (2) to preliminarily investigate differences in those measures between groups. Fifteen individuals in each group wore the LUMOback daily for 2 weeks. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated in each group by comparing the mean from the first week with the mean from the second week: (1) for the posture score, which is a proportion of time with neutral posture, and (2) for time spent sitting. The two measures for the first week were compared between the low back pain and control groups. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the posture score were .82 in the low back pain group and .91 in the control group. The intraclass correlation coefficients for time spent sitting were .75 in the low back pain group and .85 in the control group. The posture score in the low back pain group (mean ± SD: 37.5% ± 10.3%) was less than that in the control group (49.6% ± 6.0%; p  .05). The current study found (1) acceptable test-retest reliability for the posture score and time spent sitting evaluated by the LUMOback device, and (2) preliminary evidence of a difference in the posture score, indicating a more slouched lumbopelvic posture in individuals with prolonged low back pain than those without low back pain.

  20. Evaluation of snubber functional test methods: Tier 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.


    The objective of the research is to establish technical bases in support of efforts on the part of the Snubber Utility Group (SNUG) and the Subsection ISTD Working Group of the ASME O ampersand M Code in developing guidelines and methodologies for snubber functional testing to ensure that snubbers are tested in a manner that ensures reliable and meaningful test results. The methodology used in this research includes both a review of available industry information as well as the testing of different snubber models using various test machines. Information is provided pertaining to current industry practices in regard to snubber testing including recommended test procedures, technical description of various test machines, and the number and types of snubbers used in the nuclear power industry. A review of previous test methodology research conducted by the Snubber Utility Group is also included. The effects of variations in controllable test parameters on snubber test results are discussed. Also included are the results of confirmatory tests in which various snubber models were tested using various test machines. Recommendations are provided for standard test methods to be included in Subsection ISTD of the ASME O ampersand M Code [4]. General information and recommendations are provided that may be used by utility personnel in specifying snubber test equipment that is most suited for plant-specific needs as well as information that may be effectively used in the review and interpretation of test results

  1. Evaluation of and Information Concerning Individually Prescribed Instruction in Mathematics (IPI); 1967-1968, Friends School, Wilmington, Delaware. (United States)

    Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    A self-evaluation of Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) in mathematics made by Friends School (Wilmington, Delaware) is justified and presented in this report. First, the establishment of six objectives (student independence, mastery of basic skills and concepts, achievement rate and level; teacher diagnostic functions, prescriptive…

  2. 45 CFR 2516.840 - By what standards will the Corporation evaluate individual Learn and Serve America programs? (United States)


    ... individual Learn and Serve America programs? 2516.840 Section 2516.840 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING... Learn and Serve America programs? The Corporation will evaluate programs based on the following: (a) The...

  3. Embodiment in tests of cognitive functioning: A study of an interpreter-mediated dementia evaluation. (United States)

    Majlesi, Ali Reza; Plejert, Charlotta


    This study explores how manners of mediation, and the use of embodiment in interpreter-mediated conversation have an impact on tests of cognitive functioning in a dementia evaluation. By a detailed analysis of video recordings, we show how participants-an occupational therapist, an interpreter, and a patient-use embodied practices to make the tasks of a test of cognitive functioning intelligible, and how participants collaboratively put the instructions of the tasks into practice. We demonstrate that both instructions and instructed actions-and the whole procedure of accomplishing the tasks-are shaped co-operatively by embodied practices of all three participants involved in the test situation. Consequently, the accomplishment of the tasks should be viewed as the outcome of a collaborative achievement of instructed actions, rather than an individual product. The result of the study calls attention to issues concerning interpretations of, and the reliability of interpreter-mediated tests and their bearings for diagnostic procedures in dementia evaluations.

  4. Comparison of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential and Caloric Tests Findings in Noise Induced Hearing Loss-Affected and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinoosh Fakharnia


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Balance disturbance is one of the non-auditory effects of noisy industrial environments that is usually neglected. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of occupational noise on vestibular system among workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL, based on both vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP and caloric tests.Methods: Thirty male workers with noise-induced hearing loss and thirty male matched controls were examined by VEMP and caloric tests. Study parameters included unilateral weakness, p13 and n23 latencies, and p13-n23 amplitude. Caloric test was performed only for 20 patients.Results: No significant difference was observed in unilateral weakness between the two groups. On the other hand, the difference in mean latencies of p13 in the right ear (p=0.003 and left ear (p=0.01 was significant between the two groups. However, the difference in n23 latency was significant only in the right ear (p=0.03. There was no significant difference between groups in p13-n23 amplitude.Conclusion: It seems that pars inferior of vestibule is the susceptible part in individuals with NIHL. In general, abnormal findings in both VEMP and caloric tests were more common compared to functional symptoms such as vertigo, which may be due to central compensation and the symmetry of the disorder.

  5. Semantic memory for actions as assessed by the Kissing and Dancing Test: Education and age effects in cognitively healthy individuals. (United States)

    Baradel, Roberta Roque; da Silva, Henrique Salmazo; Estequi, Jaqueline Geraldin; Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; Sato, João Ricardo; Carthery-Goulart, Maria Teresa


    Action semantics is a relevant part of cognitive-linguistic assessment and the "Kissing and Dancing Test" (KDT) has been used extensively for this purpose, evidencing clinical distinctions among brain-damaged patients. To enhance its use, reference values are necessary, especially for populations with heterogeneous educational levels and socioeconomic backgrounds. To analyze the effects of schooling and age on the KDT in cognitively unimpaired individuals. The KDT was applied to seventy-four healthy subjects. Sociodemographic factors were investigated through correlational and between-group analyses. Reference values according to age and schooling were provided. KDT performance correlated significantly with schooling (r=0.757, p<0.01), age (r=-0.496, p<0.01) and socioeconomic status (r=0.418 p<0.01) but these variables were intercorrelated. Correlation with schooling and age remained significant when controlling for age and socioeconomic status (r=0.530, p<0.01), and for schooling (-0.305,<0.01), respectively. When controlling for schooling, correlation between socioeconomic status and KDT was not significant (p=0.164). Between-group analyses revealed no age effects. Significant differences were found in performance according to educational level. Scores below 39/52 and below 47/52 (percentile 25) for individuals with 8 or less years of schooling and for individuals with 9 or more years of schooling, respectively, seem suggestive of an impairment in Action Semantics Processing and shall be further investigated. KDT performance was influenced both by age and schooling, indicating the need to consider these demographic features as covariates when analyzing performance on the test and to adjust cut-off scores according to these demographic characteristics in clinical practice.

  6. Site Specific Advisory Board initiative, evaluation survey results supplementary appendix: Summary of individual site results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Appendix presents results of the Site-Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) Initiative for each of the 11 sites that participated in the survey. These individual results are a supplement to the June 1996 Summary Report which presented overall survey results. Results are presented in 11 sections, arranged alphabetically by site. Each section includes a series of figures and tables that parallel those presented in the Summary Report. To facilitate comparison, figures are presented both for the individual site and for the overall long survey. The sequence of sections is: Fernald, Hanford, Idaho, Los Alamos, Monticello, Nevada, Pantex, Rocky Flats, St. Louis, Sandia, and Savannah River

  7. A Review of Microwave Thermography Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang


    Full Text Available Microwave thermography (MWT has many advantages including strong penetrability, selective heating, volumetric heating, significant energy savings, uniform heating, and good thermal efficiency. MWT has received growing interest due to its potential to overcome some of the limitations of microwave nondestructive testing (NDT and thermal NDT. Moreover, during the last few decades MWT has attracted growing interest in materials assessment. In this paper, a comprehensive review of MWT techniques for materials evaluation is conducted based on a detailed literature survey. First, the basic principles of MWT are described. Different types of MWT, including microwave pulsed thermography, microwave step thermography, microwave pulsed phase thermography, and microwave lock-in thermography are defined and introduced. Then, MWT case studies are discussed. Next, comparisons with other thermography and NDT methods are conducted. Finally, the trends in MWT research are outlined, including new theoretical studies, simulations and modelling, signal processing algorithms, internal properties characterization, automatic separation and inspection systems. This work provides a summary of MWT, which can be utilized for material failures prevention and quality control.

  8. A Review of Microwave Thermography Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Yang, Ruizhen; He, Yunze; Foudazi, Ali; Cheng, Liang; Tian, Guiyun


    Microwave thermography (MWT) has many advantages including strong penetrability, selective heating, volumetric heating, significant energy savings, uniform heating, and good thermal efficiency. MWT has received growing interest due to its potential to overcome some of the limitations of microwave nondestructive testing (NDT) and thermal NDT. Moreover, during the last few decades MWT has attracted growing interest in materials assessment. In this paper, a comprehensive review of MWT techniques for materials evaluation is conducted based on a detailed literature survey. First, the basic principles of MWT are described. Different types of MWT, including microwave pulsed thermography, microwave step thermography, microwave pulsed phase thermography, and microwave lock-in thermography are defined and introduced. Then, MWT case studies are discussed. Next, comparisons with other thermography and NDT methods are conducted. Finally, the trends in MWT research are outlined, including new theoretical studies, simulations and modelling, signal processing algorithms, internal properties characterization, automatic separation and inspection systems. This work provides a summary of MWT, which can be utilized for material failures prevention and quality control.

  9. Industrial non-destructive testing and evaluation using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Peter; Davis, J.; Banci, N.


    Since the introduction of computed tomography (CT) as a medical diagnostic tool in 1972, there has been a steady growth in the use of CT for industrial nondestructive testing and evaluation. This paper briefly describes the tomography method, and then discusses two industrial CT instruments currently being developed in Australia. The advantages and limitations of the CT process over conventional radiographic methods will be noted. The field instrument is powered by a portable generator and is capable of providing cross-sectional images near ground line of wooden poles up to 450 mm in diameter. Strength degrading features such as rot, cracks and termite infestations are readily seen in the resultant images which take about six minutes to acquire, process and display. The second instrument is being constructed at Intico Pty Ltd in Coburg, Victoria, and uses, in the first instance, an Ir 192 source and a single detector and energy analyser that allows energy discrimination between the various iridium gamma-ray emissions. 10 refs., 12 figs

  10. SMILE: numerical evaluation of the WPS validation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinereau, D.; Studer, V.; Dahl, A.; Wadier, Y.


    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is an essential component liable to limit the lifetime duration of nuclear PWR power plants. The structural integrity assessment of RPV subjected to pressurized thermal shock (PTA) transients made at an European level does not take always into account the potential beneficial effect of the load history (warm pre-stress WPS). A three-year European Research and Development program (SMILE) started in January 2002 as part of the Fifth Framework Program of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) to evaluate this effect. The SMILE project is one of a ''cluster'' of Fifth Framework Projects in the area of Plant Life Management. It aims to give sufficient elements to model and to validate the beneficial WPS effect in a RPV structural integrity assessment. Finally, this project aims to harmonize the different approaches to lay the basis for European codes and standards regarding the inclusion of the warm pre-stress (WPS) effect in the RPV assessments. Within the framework of this project, an important experimental work has been conducted including WPS type tests on CT specimens and also a PTS type transient experiment on a large cracked cylinder. The present paper describes shortly the PTS type experiment and presents the corresponding analyses based on engineering methods, finite element elastic and elastic-plastic computations, and local approach to fracture. The results are in good agreement with the experimental result. Significant margins are underlined, with an effective significant increase of the material resistance regarding the risk of brittle failure. (orig.)

  11. EU-project: SMILE. Synthesis of validation test numerical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, A.; Moinereau, D. [Electricite de France, Moret-sur-Loing (France). R and D Div.; Kerkhf, K. [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA) Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)


    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is an essential component liable to limit the lifetime duration of nuclear PWR power plants. The structural integrity assessment of RPV subjected to pressurised thermal shock (PTS) transients made at an European level does not take always into account the potential beneficial effect of the load history (warm pre-stress WPS). A three-year European Research and Development program (SMILE) started in January 2002 as part of the Fifth Framework Program of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) to evaluate this effect. The SMILE project aims to give sufficient elements to model and to validate the beneficial WPS effect in a RPV structural integrity assessment. Finally, this project aims to harmonize the different approaches to lay the basis for European codes and standards regarding the inclusion of the warm prestress (WPS) effect in the RPV assessments. Within the framework of this project, an important experimental work has been conducted including WPS type tests on CT specimens and also a PTS type transient experiment on a large cracked cylinder. The present paper describes shortly the PTS type experiment and presents the synthesis of the corresponding analyses based on engineering methods, finite element elastic and elastic-plastic computations, and local approach to fracture. The results are in good agreement with the experimental result. Significant margins are underlined, with an effective significant increase of the material resistance regarding the risk of brittle failure.

  12. EU-project: SMILE. Synthesis of validation test numerical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, A.; Moinereau, D.


    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is an essential component liable to limit the lifetime duration of nuclear PWR power plants. The structural integrity assessment of RPV subjected to pressurised thermal shock (PTS) transients made at an European level does not take always into account the potential beneficial effect of the load history (warm pre-stress WPS). A three-year European Research and Development program (SMILE) started in January 2002 as part of the Fifth Framework Program of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) to evaluate this effect. The SMILE project aims to give sufficient elements to model and to validate the beneficial WPS effect in a RPV structural integrity assessment. Finally, this project aims to harmonize the different approaches to lay the basis for European codes and standards regarding the inclusion of the warm prestress (WPS) effect in the RPV assessments. Within the framework of this project, an important experimental work has been conducted including WPS type tests on CT specimens and also a PTS type transient experiment on a large cracked cylinder. The present paper describes shortly the PTS type experiment and presents the synthesis of the corresponding analyses based on engineering methods, finite element elastic and elastic-plastic computations, and local approach to fracture. The results are in good agreement with the experimental result. Significant margins are underlined, with an effective significant increase of the material resistance regarding the risk of brittle failure

  13. A Review of Microwave Thermography Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Yang, Ruizhen; He, Yunze; Foudazi, Ali; Cheng, Liang; Tian, Guiyun


    Microwave thermography (MWT) has many advantages including strong penetrability, selective heating, volumetric heating, significant energy savings, uniform heating, and good thermal efficiency. MWT has received growing interest due to its potential to overcome some of the limitations of microwave nondestructive testing (NDT) and thermal NDT. Moreover, during the last few decades MWT has attracted growing interest in materials assessment. In this paper, a comprehensive review of MWT techniques for materials evaluation is conducted based on a detailed literature survey. First, the basic principles of MWT are described. Different types of MWT, including microwave pulsed thermography, microwave step thermography, microwave pulsed phase thermography, and microwave lock-in thermography are defined and introduced. Then, MWT case studies are discussed. Next, comparisons with other thermography and NDT methods are conducted. Finally, the trends in MWT research are outlined, including new theoretical studies, simulations and modelling, signal processing algorithms, internal properties characterization, automatic separation and inspection systems. This work provides a summary of MWT, which can be utilized for material failures prevention and quality control. PMID:28505130

  14. Individual differences in brain structure and resting brain function underlie cognitive styles: evidence from the Embedded Figures Test. (United States)

    Hao, Xin; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Wenfu; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin


    Cognitive styles can be characterized as individual differences in the way people perceive, think, solve problems, learn, and relate to others. Field dependence/independence (FDI) is an important and widely studied dimension of cognitive styles. Although functional imaging studies have investigated the brain activation of FDI cognitive styles, the combined structural and functional correlates with individual differences in a large sample have never been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of individual differences in FDI cognitive styles by analyzing the correlations between Embedded Figures Test (EFT) score and structural neuroimaging data [regional gray matter volume (rGMV) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)]/functional neuroimaging data [resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)] throughout the whole brain. Results showed that the increased rGMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was associated with the EFT score, which might be the structural basis of effective local processing. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between ALFF and EFT score was found in the fronto-parietal network, including the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We speculated that the left IPL might be associated with superior feature identification, and mPFC might be related to cognitive inhibition of global processing bias. These results suggested that the underlying neuroanatomical and functional bases were linked to the individual differences in FDI cognitive styles and emphasized the important contribution of superior local processing ability and cognitive inhibition to field-independent style.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Lachman Test in the Evaluation of Anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In most cities and towns in the developing countries there are none or very few centers with sophisticated diagnostic investigative tests. We therefore depend a lot on clinical tests for diagnosis. The Lachman test is a very important test of the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament. In this prospective study, the ...

  16. Change-based test selection : An empirical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, Quinten; Demeyer, Serge; Zaidman, A.E.; Perez, Javier


    Regression test selection (i.e., selecting a subset of a given regression test suite) is a problem that has been studied intensely over the last decade. However, with the increasing popularity of developer tests as the driver of the test process, more fine-grained solutions that work well within the

  17. 76 FR 27016 - Evaluating Test Procedures for Voting Systems (United States)


    ... testing process beyond that which is necessary and sufficient for performing test method validation activities. Manufacturers should be aware that some of the testing could damage or destroy the equipment... NIST's main campus as required for the purpose of conducting usability tests. NIST will ensure that all...

  18. One window-period donation in two years of individual donor-nucleic acid test screening for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Eduardo Levi


    Full Text Available Objective: To describe general data on nucleic acid/serology testing and report the first hepatitis B-nucleic acid testing yield case of an immunized donor in Brazil. Methods: A total of 24,441 donations collected in 2010 and 2011 were submitted to individual nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus using the TaqMan® MPX kit (Roche on the Cobas s201 platform, in addition to routine screening for serological markers. Nucleic acid testing-reactive donations were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus tests. Results: Thirty-two donations were reactive by nucleic acid testing, 31 were also serologically reactive and one first-time donor was identified as having hepatitis B in the window period. Follow-up samples showed increasing titers of anti-HBs rising from 19 UI/mL in the index donation to 109 IU/mL seven months later attributable to his vaccination history. Curiously, this donor was never reactive for HbsAg nor for anti-HBc. In the yield donation, he was concomitantly reactive for syphilis (enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption; venereal disease research laboratory non-reactive. Overall, six donors (0.02% were characterized as occult hepatitis B. A total of 35% of the confirmed (recombinant immunoblot assay positive hepatitis C donations were nucleic acid testing non-reactive and no human immunodeficiency virus "elite controller" was identified. Conclusion: The yield rate (1:24,441; 95% confidence interval: 1:9,537 - 1:89,717 contrasts to the North American rate (1:410,540 donations and strongly advocates the adoption of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B in Brazil despite the increasing rate of anti-HBs reactive subjects due to the successful immunization program.

  19. Evaluation of the scratch collapse test in peroneal nerve compression. (United States)

    Gillenwater, Justin; Cheng, Jonathan; Mackinnon, Susan E


    The scratch collapse test is a recently described provocative test for diagnosis of peripheral nerve compression. The scratch collapse test was studied prospectively in 24 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of common peroneal nerve compression neuropathy. The diagnosis was confirmed by history, physical examination, and electrodiagnostic testing. Provocative testing by the scratch collapse test and Tinel's sign was performed. The scratch collapse test showed a sensitivity of 0.77 and a specificity of 0.99, while the Tinel's sign showed 0.65 and 0.99, respectively. The scratch collapse test is a sensitive and specific provocative test that compares favorably to existing clinical tests and aids in the diagnosis of common peroneal neuropathy. Diagnostic, II.

  20. Avoidance temperament and social-evaluative threat in college students' math performance: a mediation model of math and test anxiety. (United States)

    Liew, Jeffrey; Lench, Heather C; Kao, Grace; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Kwok, Oi-man


    Standardized testing has become a common form of student evaluation with high stakes, and limited research exists on understanding the roles of students' personality traits and social-evaluative threat on their academic performance. This study examined the roles of avoidance temperament (i.e., fear and behavioral inhibition) and evaluative threat (i.e., fear of failure and being viewed as unintelligent) in standardized math test and course grades in college students. Undergraduate students (N=184) from a large public university were assessed on temperamental fear and behavioral inhibition. They were then given 15 minutes to complete a standardized math test. After the test, students provided data on evaluative threat and their math performance (scores on standardized college entrance exam and average grades in college math courses). Results indicate that avoidance temperament was linked to social-evaluative threat and low standardized math test scores. Furthermore, evaluative threat mediated the influence of avoidance temperament on both types of math performance. Results have educational and clinical implications, particularly for students at risk for test anxiety and underperformance. Interventions targeting emotion regulation and stress management skills may help individuals reduce their math and test anxieties.

  1. Evaluation tests for photovoltaic concentrator receiver sections and modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodworth, J.R.; Whipple, M.L.


    Sandia has developed a third-generation set of specifications for performance and reliability testing of photovoltaic concentrator modules. Several new requirements have been defined. The primary purpose of the tests is to screen new concentrator designs and new production runs for susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Ultraviolet radiation testing of materials precedes receiver section and module performance and environmental tests. The specifications include the purpose, procedure, and requirements for each test. Recommendations for future improvements are presented.

  2. SMC Standard: Evaluation and Test Requirements for Liquid Rocket Engines (United States)


    78 8.2 Pre-Launch Validation and Operational Tests ...................................................................... 78 8.2.1 General...completion of the development test program. The phase includes validation of test techniques, procedures, equipment, instrumentation, and software, as... reliability for flight operations. A corollary to TLYF is the “fly-as-you- test ” approach. “Fly-as-you- test ” means that flight operation should remain

  3. Preliminary evaluation of environmental variables affecting diameter growth of individual hardwoods in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; F. Thomas Lloyd


    The value of environmental variables as measures of site quality for individual tree growth models was determined for 12 common species of eastern hardwoods in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Periodic diameter increment was modeled as a function of size, competition and environmental variables for 1,381 trees in even-aged stands of mixed-species. Resulting species...

  4. Evaluating Training and Implementation of the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach to Teaching Braille Literacy (United States)

    Durando, Julie A.; Wormsley, Diane P.


    This study investigated the effectiveness of training workshops in braille literacy for teachers of students who are visually impaired and have additional disabilities. Participants in the training workshops in the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach indicated general satisfaction with the training. Most reported using the approach with…

  5. Dosimetric Evaluation of Individualized Adaptive Motion Margins for Abdominal and Thoracic Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Cho, Byungchul; Keall, Paul

    the former ignores motion correlation along different axes the latter tends to overestimate the dosimetric consequences of random motion. The purpose of this study was to propose and investigate an individualized adaptive margin approach that accounts for motion correlation while still considering......, the smallest Dmin was 71%. The mean PTV volume was 7.6 cm3 for adaptive margins (4.3 mm, 1.6 mm, 1.0 mm margins) and 8.2 cm3 for standard margins (1.8 mm, 3.4 mm, 2.4 mm margins). Conclusions: A strategy for individualized adaptive margins that accounts for motion correlation was proposed. Compared to standard...... motion axes, while σ is the SD of random motion-induced errors along the tumor motion axes. The applied value for σ was the largest of the population-based random motion and the individually CBCT estimated random motion. The individual value for σ was largest (and therefore used for margin calculation...

  6. Evaluation of the Discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia Test and an Adopted United States Pharmacopoeia Test Regarding the Weight Uniformity of Scored Tablet Halves: Is Harmonization Required? (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghoush, Abeer Abu; Al-Ramahi, Rowa'; Are'r, Mohammed


    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there exists any discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and adopted United States Pharmacopeia (USP) tests concerning the weight uniformity measurements of tablet halves after splitting. The USP method does not contain provisions to evaluate split tablets, so here we adopt their whole tablet weight uniformity method. Twenty-nine different commercial scored tablets (local and imported) were divided. The split units were individually weighed and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for each product was calculated and then evaluated according to both the adopted USP and the Ph. Eur. tests of weight uniformity. Twenty out of the 29 products tested failed the USP test, while 14 of them failed the Ph. Eur. test. Nine products passed both the USP and Ph. Eur. tests. Six products passed the Ph. Eur. test but failed the USP test, with all of these products having an RSD greater than 6%. The correlation coefficient between the weight and content of split halves for three randomly selected products-corotenol 100 mg, corotenol 50 mg, and lorazepam 2.5 mg-was found to be 0.986, 0.998, and 0.72, respectively. A clear difference can be seen between outcomes obtained by the two compendial tablet splitting methods with regard to weight uniformity. Results from the USP test showed that tighter measures are needed to pass the test. Our results argue that the Ph. Eur. should revise the existing weight uniformity test on scored tablets to include the RSD parameter in it. The USP should include this adopted test as a specific test for scored tablet halves, not just whole tablets. Manufacturers in some cases will need to improve the quality of the produced scored tablets in order to pass the USP test, especially those with low therapeutic indices. Finally, harmonization between the pharmacopoeias regarding the weight uniformity testing of split tablets is warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there

  7. The Influence of Individual Characteristics and Assessment Center Evaluation on Career Exploration Behavior and Job Involvement. (United States)

    Noe, Raymond A.; Steffy, Brian D.


    Investigated the impact of the assessment center evaluation, attitudes toward the assessment process, gender, locus of control, and career strategy on career exploration behavior and job involvement in 107 educators. Indicated that assessment center evaluation, locus of control, career strategy, and attitudes toward the assessment process…

  8. Patch Testing for Evaluation of Hypersensitivity to Implanted Metal Devices: A Perspective From the American Contact Dermatitis Society. (United States)

    Schalock, Peter C; Crawford, Glen; Nedorost, Susan; Scheinman, Pamela L; Atwater, Amber Reck; Mowad, Christen; Brod, Bruce; Ehrlich, Alison; Watsky, Kalman L; Sasseville, Denis; Silvestri, Dianne; Worobec, Sophie M; Elliott, John F; Honari, Golara; Powell, Douglas L; Taylor, James; DeKoven, Joel


    The American Contact Dermatitis Society recognizes the interest in the evaluation and management of metal hypersensitivity reactions. Given the paucity of robust evidence with which to guide our practices, we provide reasonable evidence and expert opinion-based guidelines for clinicians with regard to metal hypersensitivity reaction testing and patient management. Routine preoperative evaluation in individuals with no history of adverse cutaneous reactions to metals or history of previous implant-related adverse events is not necessary. Patients with a clear self-reported history of metal reactions should be evaluated by patch testing before device implant. Patch testing is only 1 element in the assessment of causation in those with postimplantation morbidity. Metal exposure from the implanted device can cause sensitization, but a positive metal test does not prove symptom causality. The decision to replace an implanted device must include an assessment of all clinical factors and a thorough risk-benefit analysis by the treating physician(s) and patient.

  9. Smart merger of developmental and operational test and evaluation (United States)

    Frizzelle, Charles Delano, Jr.

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has implemented Acquisition Reform to take advantage of commercial products, to compress the acquisition cycle, and to reduce the overall life-cycle cost of major weapon systems. This initiative, following requirements of the National Performance Review to perform faster, cheaper, and better, is expected to produce significant savings required to fund a new generation of weapons for the United States military. The DoD has a clear requirement to verify through a rigorous test and evaluation (T&E) that these advanced weapons are suitable and effective for use in combat. T&E is an inherently expensive and time-consuming activity performed to ensure that the system under test can meet contractual specifications and the operational user requirements. With a detailed and rich theoretical base, T&E has come to consider alternatives. Making a change from the safe and traditional paradigm of sequential developmental and operational T&E to a combined T&E strategy is one option. The central research question for this dissertation is "Does combining developmental and operational T&E permit faster acquisition cycle times without unnecessarily increasing risks of deploying ineffective systems?" In this interrupted time-series multiple case study, the impact of the independent variable of acquisition reform is assessed regarding the applicability and utility of a combined T&E strategy for the dependent variable of the Brilliant Eyes, Follow-on Early Warning System, and Space-based Infra-red System programs. In this analysis, the Brilliant Eyes and Follow-on Early Warning System preceded application of the independent variable while the Space-based Infra-red System followed Acquisition Reform. The conclusion of this dissertation is that the combined T&E strategy, where developmental and operational T&E events and resources are merged to the greatest extent possible consistent with mission requirements, provides significant advantages in cost and

  10. The JPSS Ground Project Algorithm Verification, Test and Evaluation System (United States)

    Vicente, G. A.; Jain, P.; Chander, G.; Nguyen, V. T.; Dixon, V.


    The Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) is an operational system that provides services to the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Mission. It is also a unique environment for Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) and Data Quality Assessment (DQA) of the Join Polar Satellite System (JPSS) mission data products. GRAVITE provides a fast and direct access to the data and products created by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), the NASA/NOAA operational system that converts Raw Data Records (RDR's) generated by sensors on the S-NPP into calibrated geo-located Sensor Data Records (SDR's) and generates Mission Unique Products (MUPS). It also facilitates algorithm investigation, integration, checkouts and tuning, instrument and product calibration and data quality support, monitoring and data/products distribution. GRAVITE is the portal for the latest S-NPP and JPSS baselined Processing Coefficient Tables (PCT's) and Look-Up-Tables (LUT's) and hosts a number DQA offline tools that takes advantage of the proximity to the near-real time data flows. It also contains a set of automated and ad-hoc Cal/Val tools used for algorithm analysis and updates, including an instance of the IDPS called GRAVITE Algorithm Development Area (G-ADA), that has the latest installation of the IDPS algorithms running in an identical software and hardware platforms. Two other important GRAVITE component are the Investigator-led Processing System (IPS) and the Investigator Computing Facility (ICF). The IPS is a dedicated environment where authorized users run automated scripts called Product Generation Executables (PGE's) to support Cal/Val and data quality assurance offline. This data-rich and data-driven service holds its own distribution system and allows operators to retrieve science data products. The ICF is a workspace where users can share computing applications and resources and have full access to libraries and

  11. 'Sink or swim': an evaluation of the clinical characteristics of individuals with high bone mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gregson, C L


    High bone mineral density on routine dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) may indicate an underlying skeletal dysplasia. Two hundred fifty-eight individuals with unexplained high bone mass (HBM), 236 relatives (41% with HBM) and 58 spouses were studied. Cases could not float, had mandible enlargement, extra bone, broad frames, larger shoe sizes and increased body mass index (BMI). HBM cases may harbour an underlying genetic disorder. INTRODUCTION: High bone mineral density is a sporadic incidental finding on routine DXA scanning of apparently asymptomatic individuals. Such individuals may have an underlying skeletal dysplasia, as seen in LRP5 mutations. We aimed to characterize unexplained HBM and determine the potential for an underlying skeletal dysplasia. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-eight individuals with unexplained HBM (defined as L1 Z-score ≥ +3.2 plus total hip Z-score ≥ +1.2, or total hip Z-score ≥ +3.2) were recruited from 15 UK centres, by screening 335,115 DXA scans. Unexplained HBM affected 0.181% of DXA scans. Next 236 relatives were recruited of whom 94 (41%) had HBM (defined as L1 Z-score + total hip Z-score ≥ +3.2). Fifty-eight spouses were also recruited together with the unaffected relatives as controls. Phenotypes of cases and controls, obtained from clinical assessment, were compared using random-effects linear and logistic regression models, clustered by family, adjusted for confounders, including age and sex. RESULTS: Individuals with unexplained HBM had an excess of sinking when swimming (7.11 [3.65, 13.84], p < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval shown), mandible enlargement (4.16 [2.34, 7.39], p < 0.001), extra bone at tendon\\/ligament insertions (2.07 [1.13, 3.78], p = 0.018) and broad frame (3.55 [2.12, 5.95], p < 0.001). HBM cases also had a larger shoe size (mean difference 0.4 [0.1, 0.7] UK sizes, p = 0.009) and increased BMI (mean difference 2.2 [1.3, 3.1] kg\\/m(2

  12. Standard Test Procedures for Evaluating Various Leak Detection Methods (United States)

    Learn about protocols that testers could use to demonstrate that an individual release detection equipment type could meet the performance requirements noted in the federal UST requirements for detecting leaks.

  13. Evaluation of the influence of clinical symptoms on the quality of life in individuals with Williams-Beuren Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Parolin Jackowski


    Full Text Available Introduction: Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS results from a deletion in the chromosome 7q11.23. Psychiatric symptoms, such as Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, and others, have been described in this syndrome. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to identify related clinical symptoms in individuals with WBS and the impact of this disorder in their quality of life. Method: The study sample included 42 individuals aged 11 to 16 years divided into two groups: a study group composed of 20 individuals with WBS and a control group comprising 22 individuals with typical development. The following instruments were used in this evaluation: Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB, to estimate the purchasing power of urban households; Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, to provide a useful measure of psychopathology applied to children and youth aged 4-17 years; and Quality of Life Evaluation Scale (AUQEI, to assess the feeling of well-being according to the opinion of the child and adolescent. Results: The results suggest that adolescents with WBS have a good quality of life despite presenting greater possibilities of psychiatric symptoms. These results are valid considering that quality of life is measured from the opinion of the assessed individual. Conclusion: We hypothesized that adolescents with WBS can present a distortion of reality regarding the positive/optimistic factor, possibly based on some characteristics of the syndrome such as being always cheerful and smiling, which are factors associated with intellectual disability.

  14. Evaluating Individual Students' Perceptions of Instructional Quality: An Investigation of their Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Relations to Educational Outcomes (United States)

    Scherer, Ronny; Nilsen, Trude; Jansen, Malte


    Students' perceptions of instructional quality are among the most important criteria for evaluating teaching effectiveness. The present study evaluates different latent variable modeling approaches (confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and bifactor modeling), which are used to describe these individual perceptions with respect to their factor structure, measurement invariance, and the relations to selected educational outcomes (achievement, self-concept, and motivation in mathematics). On the basis of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 large-scale data sets of Australia, Canada, and the USA (N = 26,746 students), we find support for the distinction between three factors of individual students' perceptions and full measurement invariance across countries for all modeling approaches. In this regard, bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling outperformed alternative approaches with respect to model fit. Our findings reveal significant relations to the educational outcomes. This study synthesizes different modeling approaches of individual students' perceptions of instructional quality and provides insights into the nature of these perceptions from an individual differences perspective. Implications for the measurement and modeling of individually perceived instructional quality are discussed. PMID:26903917

  15. Evaluating individual students’ perceptions of instructional quality: An investigation of their factor structure, measurement invariance, and relations to educational outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny eScherer


    Full Text Available Students’ perceptions of instructional quality are among the most important criteria for evaluating teaching effectiveness. The present study evaluates different latent variable modeling approaches (confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and bifactor modeling, which are used to describe these individual perceptions with respect to their factor structure, measurement invariance, and the relations to selected educational outcomes (achievement, self-concept, and motivation in mathematics. On the basis of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2012 large-scale data sets of Australia, Canada, and the USA (N = 26,746 students, we find support for the distinction between three factors of individual students’ perceptions and full measurement invariance across countries for all modeling approaches. In this regard, bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling outperformed alternative approaches with respect to model fit. Our findings reveal significant relations to the educational outcomes. This study synthesizes different modeling approaches of individual students’ perceptions of instructional quality and provides insights into the nature of these perceptions from an individual differences perspective. Implications for the measurement and modeling of individually perceived instructional quality are discussed.

  16. Field Test Evaluation Report on Introduction to Polymer Chemistry. (United States)

    Chapman, Kenneth; Fleming, Janice


    After describing a continuing education course in polymer chemistry, summarizes materials, methods, and results of an extensive evaluation of the course. Includes a discussion of benefits for participants and a list of 14 recommendations based on the evaluation. (JN)

  17. [Evaluation of an immunochromatographic dipstick test for the assessment of tetanus immunity in horses]. (United States)

    Recknagel, Stephan; Snyder, Alice; Blanke, Annemarie; Uhlig, Albrecht; Brüser, Benjamin; Schusser, Gerald Fritz


    Knowledge of tetanus immunity in equine patients is crucial in cases of injuries, elective surgeries, or when effective vaccination protocols are to be designed. The Fassisi® TetaCheck is a stall-side rapid test which was developed to address these issues. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate its performance parameters. To this end, the qualitative test results obtained by two blinded observers were compared to tetanus toxoid antibody levels from 99 serum samples, measured with a double antigen ELISA. Additionally the colour intensities of the test window were quantified using a camera and photo editing software. Assuming that the protective level of tetanus toxoid antibodies is ≥ 0.1 IE/ml, the tetanus quick stick (TQS) showed a sensitivity of 83.6% and a specificity of 100%. almost perfect (K = 0.88). Exchanging the observer did not affect the interpretation of theTQS (K = 0.80; K = 0.84). The definition of five distinct colour intensities of the "test window" enabled a clear differentiation of unprotected individuals from those with a protective immunity. There was a linear relationship between the objectively measured colour intensities and the tetanus toxoid antibody concentration (r2 = 0.74). The TQS thus proved to be a robust and reliable test in the stall-side assessment of tetanus immunity in horses. Its implementation in equine daily practice can help to avoid unnecessary immunizations in adult horses and therefore minimize vaccination side effects.

  18. A randomised controlled trial evaluating the effect of an individual auditory cueing device on freezing and gait speed in people with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Deirdre


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disorder resulting from a degeneration of dopamine producing cells in the substantia nigra. Clinical symptoms typically affect gait pattern and motor performance. Evidence suggests that the use of individual auditory cueing devices may be used effectively for the management of gait and freezing in people with Parkinson's disease. The primary aim of the randomised controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of an individual auditory cueing device on freezing and gait speed in people with Parkinson's disease. Methods A prospective multi-centre randomised cross over design trial will be conducted. Forty-seven subjects will be randomised into either Group A or Group B, each with a control and intervention phase. Baseline measurements will be recorded using the Freezing of Gait Questionnaire as the primary outcome measure and 3 secondary outcome measures, the 10 m Walk Test, Timed "Up & Go" Test and the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale. Assessments are taken 3-times over a 3-week period. A follow-up assessment w