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Sample records for indirect uv detection

  1. Quantitation of underivatized branched-chain amino acids in sport nutritional supplements by capillary electrophoresis with direct or indirect UV absorbance detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qiu

    Full Text Available The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs including leucine (Leu, isoleucine (Ile and valine (Val play a pivotal role in the human body. Herein, we developed capillary electrophoresis (CE coupled with conventional UV detector to quantify underivatized BCAAs in two kinds of sport nutritional supplements. For direct UV detection at 195 nm, the BCAAs (Leu, two enantiomers of Ile and Val were separated in a background electrolyte (BGE consisting of 40.0 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, and 40.0 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD at pH 10.2. In addition, the indirect UV detection at 264 nm was achieved in a BGE of 2.0 mmol/L Na2HPO4, 10.0 mmol/L p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS as UV absorbing probe, and 40.0 mmol/L β-CD at pH 12.2. The β-CD significantly benefited the isomeric separation of Leu, L- and D-Ile. The optimal conditions allowed the LODs (limit of detections of direct and indirect UV absorption detection to be tens μmol/L level, which was comparable to the reported CE inline derivatization method. The RSDs (relative standard deviations of migration time and peak area were less than 0.91% and 3.66% (n = 6. Finally, CE with indirect UV detection method was applied for the quantitation of BCAAs in two commercial sport nutritional supplements, and good recovery and precision were obtained. Such simple CE method without tedious derivatization process is feasible of quality control and efficacy evaluation of the supplemental proteins.

  2. Quantitation of underivatized branched-chain amino acids in sport nutritional supplements by capillary electrophoresis with direct or indirect UV absorbance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Jinhao; Xu, Zhongqi; Liu, Huiqing; Ren, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) play a pivotal role in the human body. Herein, we developed capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with conventional UV detector to quantify underivatized BCAAs in two kinds of sport nutritional supplements. For direct UV detection at 195 nm, the BCAAs (Leu, two enantiomers of Ile and Val) were separated in a background electrolyte (BGE) consisting of 40.0 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, and 40.0 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at pH 10.2. In addition, the indirect UV detection at 264 nm was achieved in a BGE of 2.0 mmol/L Na2HPO4, 10.0 mmol/L p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) as UV absorbing probe, and 40.0 mmol/L β-CD at pH 12.2. The β-CD significantly benefited the isomeric separation of Leu, L- and D-Ile. The optimal conditions allowed the LODs (limit of detections) of direct and indirect UV absorption detection to be tens μmol/L level, which was comparable to the reported CE inline derivatization method. The RSDs (relative standard deviations) of migration time and peak area were less than 0.91% and 3.66% (n = 6). Finally, CE with indirect UV detection method was applied for the quantitation of BCAAs in two commercial sport nutritional supplements, and good recovery and precision were obtained. Such simple CE method without tedious derivatization process is feasible of quality control and efficacy evaluation of the supplemental proteins.

  3. Development of an ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC method with indirect UV detection for determination of phosphates and phosphites as impurities in sodium risedronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuzovska, Katerina; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Kitanovski, Zoran; Petrusevska, Jelena; Ribarska, Jasmina Tonic; Jolevska, Suzana Trajkovic

    2010-01-01

    A method based on RP-HPLC with indirect UV detection was developed for the determination of phosphates and phosphites as impurities in sodium risedronate. RP separation of the phosphates and phosphites was achieved by adding tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as an ion-pairing agent in the mobile phase. Potassium hydrogen phthalate was added to the mobile phase as an ionic chromophore in order to obtain high background absorption of the mobile phase. Separation was performed on a C18 column using a mixture of pH 8.2 buffer (containing 0.5 mM tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and 1 mM phthalate) and acetonitrile (95 + 5, v/v) as the mobile phase, with indirect UV detection at 248 nm. The validation of the method included determination of specificity/selectivity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy, precision, and robustness. The LOD was 0.86 microg/mL for phosphates and 0.76 microg/mL for phosphites. The LOQ was 2.60 microg/mL for phosphates and 2.29 microg/mL for phosphites. The developed method is suitable for quantitative determination of phosphates and phosphites as impurities in QC of sodium risedronate.

  4. Simultaneous determination of ammonia, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and trimethylamine-N-oxide in fish extracts by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV-detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Jørgensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    A capillary electrophoretic method with indirect UV detection is described for simultaneous determination of ammonia, dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine-N- oxide (TMAO) in aqueous extracts of fish, A buffer consisting of 4 mM formic acid, 5 mM copper(II)sulfate and 3 m......M crown ether 18-crown-6 enabled separation of the analytes in 5-10 min. The use of an extended light path capillary technique resulted in a good sensitivity and repeatability. The linear dynamic range, based on a hydrostatic injection at 50 mbar for 2 s, was from the detection limit to at least 2.5 m......M. The detection limit for ammonia, DMA, TMA, and TMAO was less than 0.04 mM, corresponding to 2 mg nitrogen per 100 g fish. As an extra benefit, the method also provided a quantitative determination of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium ions. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Supersymmetric dark matter: Indirect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter detection experiments are improving to the point where they can detect or restrict the primary particle physics candidates for non baryonic dark matter. The methods for detection are usually categorized as direct, i.e., searching for signals caused by passage of dark matter particles in terrestrial detectors, or indirect. Indirect detection methods include searching for antimatter and gamma rays, in particular gamma ray lines, in cosmic rays and high-energy neutrinos from the centre of the Earth or Sun caused by accretion and annihilation of dark matter particles. A review is given of recent progress in indirect detection, both on the theoretical and experimental side

  6. Simultaneous determination of ammonia, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and trimethylamine-N-oxide in fish extracts by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV-detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Jørgensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    M crown ether 18-crown-6 enabled separation of the analytes in 5-10 min. The use of an extended light path capillary technique resulted in a good sensitivity and repeatability. The linear dynamic range, based on a hydrostatic injection at 50 mbar for 2 s, was from the detection limit to at least 2.5 m...

  7. Remote Leak Detection: Indirect Thermal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Remote sensing technologies are being considered for efficient, low cost gas leak detection. Eleven specific techniques have been identified for further study and evaluation of several of these is underway. The Indirect Thermal Technique is one of the techniques that is being explored. For this technique, an infrared camera is used to detect the temperature change of a pipe or fitting at the site of a gas leak. This temperature change is caused by the change in temperature of the gas expanding from the leak site. During the 10-week NFFP program, the theory behind the technique was further developed, experiments were performed to determine the conditions for which the technique might be viable, and a proof-of-concept system was developed and tested in the laboratory.

  8. UV detective quantum efficiency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Charles L.

    1999-11-01

    We have been testing the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) response of several types of detectors, supporting investigators developing photodiodes made of GaN, near UV photocathodes, and Electron-Bombarded CCDs (EBCCDs). We are currently supporting 4 independent research groups developing GaN most of which have produced devices with significant sensitivity down to 1200 Angstroms. Over the past year, we have also tested bare CCDs with coatings to enhance ultraviolet response. Detectors based on microchannel plate (MCP) have been used extensively for a wide variety of NASA mission and continue to be the standard to beat. Two particularly promising detector technologies are (1) EBCCDs which offer an immediate factor of 3 - 4 improvement in sensitivity and (2) devices made of GaN or GaAlN which may eventually offer factors of 6 - 8 increased sensitivity, both compared to MCPs for wavelengths between 1200 to 3000 Angstroms. We present latest results and plans to expand our vacuum UV testing.

  9. Direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter; Detection directe et indirecte de matiere sombre supersymetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, F

    2001-09-01

    A substantial body of astrophysical evidence supports the existence of non-baryonic dark matter in the universe. One of the leading dark matter candidates is the neutralino predicted by the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. Different detectors have been designed for the detection, either indirect or direct, of the neutralino. Related to indirect detection, the present work has been performed in the context of the AMS experiment. A precursor version of the spectrometer was flown on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998. The detector included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to identify antiprotons, whose spectrum may be used to infer a neutralino signal. The analysis of the ATC data is presented including an evaluation of the flight performance and a description of the optimization of the antiproton selection. An antiproton analysis is also reported. A phenomenological study allows us to investigate the discovery potential of this indirect method. This thesis also includes the development of a new detector (MACHe3) designed for direct neutralino search using a superfluid {sup 3}He bolometer operated at ultra low temperatures. The data analysis of the prototype cell is presented. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed, in order to optimize the detector design for direct neutralino search. These results are compared with theoretical predictions of supersymmetric models, thus highlighting the discovery potential of this detector and its complementarity with existing devices. (author)

  10. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions

  11. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions.

  12. Indirect Detection Analysis: Wino Dark Matter Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryczuk, Andrzej [Munich, Tech. U.; Cholis, Ilias [Fermilab; Iengo, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste; Tavakoli, Maryam [IPM, Tehran; Ullio, Piero [INFN, Trieste

    2014-07-15

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow simeq 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  13. Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Felter, Thomas E [Livermore, CA

    2010-04-20

    A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

  14. UV Spectrometric Indirect Analysis of Brominated MWCNTs with UV Active Thiols and an Alkene—Reaction Kinetics, Quantification and Differentiation of Adsorbed Bromine and Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hanelt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Indirect UV-absorption spectrometry was shown to be a valuable tool for chemical characterization of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs. It complements data from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or FTIR analysis since it helps to clarify the type and concentration of functional groups. The principles of indirect application of UV-spectrometry and its mathematical interpretation are discussed. Their facile application, together with their adequate sensitivity and high flexibility, make UV-absorption-based approaches a valuable alternative to fluorescence spectrometry. Here, the approach was applied to the chemical analysis of oxidizing substances on CNTs. For this, pristine CNTs of low but finite oxygen content as well as brominated CNTs were analyzed by reaction in suspension with UV-active thiol reagents and a styrene derivative. It was shown that carefully selected reagents allow differentiation and quantification of bromine and generally oxidizing entities like oxygen. For brominated CNTs, it was shown that physisorbed bromine may dominate the overall bromine content.

  15. Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo [Federal Univ. of Paraba (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.

  16. Indirect detection of dark matter with γ rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Stefan

    2015-10-06

    The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today-80 y after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles, which are weakly interacting and massive [weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)]. As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has thus far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. Indirect detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of γ-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi large-area telescope, high-energy stereoscopic system, major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov, and very energetic radiation imaging telescope array, combined with the future Cherenkov telescope array, will provide important complementarity to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent tests, and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be rethought. In this sense, we are on the threshold of discovery. In this article, I will give a general overview of the current status and future expectations for indirect searches of dark matter (WIMP) particles.

  17. Unstable gravitino dark matter prospects for indirect and direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Michael

    2011-11-15

    We confront the signals expected from unstable gravitino dark matter with observations of indirect dark matter detection experiments in all possible cosmic-ray channels. For this purpose we calculate in detail the gravitino decay widths in theories with bilinear violation of R parity, particularly focusing on decay channels with three particles in the final state. Based on these calculations we predict the fluxes of gamma rays, charged cosmic rays and neutrinos expected from decays of gravitino dark matter. Although the predicted spectra could in principal explain the anomalies observed in the cosmic ray positron and electron fluxes as measured by PAMELA and Fermi LAT, we find that this possibility is ruled out by strong constraints from gamma-ray and antiproton observations. Therefore, we employ current data of indirect detection experiments to place strong constraints on the gravitino lifetime and the strength of R-parity violation. In addition, we discuss the prospects of forthcoming searches for a gravitino signal in the spectrum of cosmic-ray antideuterons, finding that they are in particular sensitive to rather low gravitino masses. Finally, we discuss in detail the prospects for detecting a neutrino signal from gravitino dark matter decays, finding that the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes like IceCube is competitive to observations in other cosmic ray channels, especially for rather heavy gravitinos. Moreover, we discuss the prospects for a direct detection of gravitino dark matter via R-parity violating inelastic scatterings off nucleons. We find that, although the scattering cross section is considerably enhanced compared to the case of elastic gravitino scattering, the expected signal is many orders of magnitude too small in order to hope for a detection in underground detectors. (orig.)

  18. Indirect ultraviolet detection of alkaline earth metal ions using an imidazolium ionic liquid as an ultraviolet absorption reagent in ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    A convenient and versatile method was developed for the separation and detection of alkaline earth metal ions by ion chromatography with indirect UV detection. The chromatographic separation of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Sr 2+ was performed on a carboxylic acid base cation exchange column using imidazolium ionic liquid/acid as the mobile phase, in which the imidazolium ionic liquid acted as an UV-absorption reagent. The effects of imidazolium ionic liquids, detection wavelength, acids in the mobile phase, and column temperature on the retention of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Sr 2+ were investigated. The main factors influencing the separation and detection were the background UV absorption reagent and the concentration of hydrogen ion in ion chromatography with indirect UV detection. The successful separation and detection of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Sr 2+ within 14 min were achieved using the selected chromatographic conditions, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.06, 0.12, and 0.23 mg/L, respectively. A new separation and detection method of alkaline earth metal ions by ion chromatography with indirect UV detection was developed, and the application range of ionic liquids was expanded. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Uric acid detection using uv-vis spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazmi, N.; Rasad, Z. R. Abdul; Mohamad, M.; Manap, H.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this research is to detect uric acid (UA) concentration using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer in the Ultraviolet (UV) region. Absorption technique was proposed to detect different uric acid concentrations and its UV absorption wavelength. Current practices commonly take a lot of times or require complicated structures for the detection process. By this proposed spectroscopic technique, every concentration can be detected and interpreted into an absorbance value at a constant wavelength peak in the UV region. This is due to the chemical characteristics belong to the uric acid since it has a particular absorption cross-section, σ which can be calculated using Beer’s Lambert law formula. The detection performance was displayed using Spectrasuite sofware. It showed fast time response about 3 seconds. The experiment proved that the concentrations of uric acid were successfully detected using UV-Vis spectrometer at a constant absorption UV wavelength, 294.46 nm in a low time response. Even by an artificial sample of uric acid, it successfully displayed a close value as the ones reported with the use of the medical sample. It is applicable in the medical field and can be implemented in the future for earlier detection of abnormal concentration of uric acid.

  20. Propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays and Dark Matter indirect Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delahaye, Timur

    2010-07-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of propagation of cosmic electrons and positrons in the Milky Way and to the indirect detection of dark matter. The existence of dark matter is a hypothesis considered as reasonable from the point of view of cosmology, astrophysics and even particle physics. Nevertheless its detection still eludes us and it is not possible to verify this hypothesis by other means than gravitational one. A possible way to detect dark matter is to look for its annihilation or decay products among Galactic cosmic rays. During the last three years, data concerning cosmic ray electrons and positrons have been accumulated and have reached a remarkable precision. Such a precision requires from us to refine the theoretical models and to quantify the errors. This thesis addresses the study of all the sources of uncertainties affecting predictions of cosmic electrons and positron fluxes, primary and secondary, classical or from exotic origin. The greatest care has been dedicated to the sources and the propagation in the Galactic halo. Moreover a study of gamma and radio emissions associated to these cosmic rays is presented, again with the will of sizing uncertainties. Finally a status of the research for detection of annihilation or decay of Galactic dark matter is presented. (author)

  1. Collider, direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Howard; Park, Eun-Kyung; Tata, Xerxes

    2009-01-01

    We present an overview of supersymmetry (SUSY) searches, both at collider experiments and via searches for dark matter (DM). We focus on three DM possibilities in the SUSY context: the thermally produced neutralino, a mixture of axion and axino, and the gravitino, and compare and contrast signals that may be expected at colliders, in direct detection (DD) experiments searching of DM relics left over from the Big Bang, and indirect detection (ID) experiments designed to detect the products of DM annihilations within the solar interior or galactic halo. Detection of DM particles using multiple strategies provides complementary information that may shed light on the new physics associated with the DM sector. In contrast to the minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) model where the measured cold DM relic density restricts us to special regions mostly on the edge of the m 0 -m 1/2 plane, the entire parameter plane becomes allowed if the universality assumption is relaxed in models with just one additional parameter. Then, thermally produced neutralinos with a well-tempered mix of wino, bino and higgsino components, or with a mass adjusted so that their annihilation in the early Universe is Higgs-resonance-enhanced, can be the DM. Well-tempered neutralinos typically yield heightened rates for DD and ID experiments compared with generic predictions from mSUGRA. If instead DM consists of axinos (possibly together with axions) or gravitinos, then there exists the possibility of detection of quasi-stable next-to-lightest SUSY particles at colliding beam experiments, with especially striking consequences if the next-lightest-supersymmetric-particle (NLSP) is charged, but no DD or ID detection. The exception for mixed axion/axino DM is that DD of axions may be possible.

  2. Dark matter indirect detection with charged cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, Gaelle

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence for the existence of Dark Matter (DM), in the form of an unknown particle filling the galactic halos, originates from many observations in astrophysics and cosmology: its gravitational effects are apparent on galactic rotations, in galaxy clusters and in shaping the large scale structure of the Universe. On the other hand, a non-gravitational manifestation of its presence is yet to be unveiled. One of the most promising techniques is the one of indirect detection, aimed at identifying excesses in cosmic ray fluxes which could possibly be produced by DM annihilations or decays in the Milky Way halo. The current experimental efforts mainly focus in the GeV to TeV energy range, which is also where signals from WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) are expected. Focussing on charged cosmic rays, in particular antiprotons, electrons and positrons, as well as their secondary emissions, an analysis of current and foreseen cosmic ray measurements and improvements on astrophysical models are presented. Antiproton data from PAMELA imposes constraints on annihilating and decaying DM which are similar to (or even slightly stronger than) the most stringent bounds from gamma ray experiments, even when kinetic energies below 10 GeV are discarded. However, choosing different sets of astrophysical parameters, in the form of propagation models and halo profiles, allows the constraints to span over one or two orders of magnitude. In order to exploit fully the power of antiprotons to constrain or discover DM, effects which were previously perceived as sub-leading turn out to be relevant especially for the analysis of the newly released AMS-02 data. In fact, including energy losses, diffusive re-acceleration and solar modulation can somewhat modify the current bounds, even at large DM masses. A wrong interpretation of the data may arise if they are not taken into account. Finally, using the updated proton and helium fluxes just released by the AMS-02

  3. Capillary electrophoresis hyphenated with UV-native-laser induced fluorescence detection (CE/UV-native-LIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, François; Ong-Meang, Varravaddheay; Poinsot, Véréna

    2017-01-01

    Native laser-induced fluorescence using UV lasers associated to CE offers now a large related literature, for now 30 years. The main works have been performed using very expensive Ar-ion lasers emitting at 257 and 275 nm. They are not affordable for routine analyses, but have numerous applications such as protein, catecholamine, and indolamine analysis. Some other lasers such as HeCd 325 nm have been used but only for few applications. Diode lasers, emitting at 266 nm, cheaper, are extensively used for the same topics, even if the obtained sensitivity is lower than the one observed using the costly UV-Ar-ion lasers. This review presents various CE or microchips applications and different UV lasers used for the excitation of native fluorescence. We showed that CE/Native UV laser induced fluorescence detection is very sensitive for detection as well as small aromatic biomolecules than proteins containing Trp and Tyr amino acids. Moreover, it is a simple way to analyze biomolecules without derivatization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Detection of Fish Bones in Cod Fillets by UV Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Nian, Rui; Cao, Limin; Sui, Jianxin; Lin, Hong

    2015-07-01

    The presence of fish bones is now regarded as an important hazard in fishery products, and there is increasing demand for new analytical techniques to control it more effectively. Here, the fluorescent properties of cod bones under UV illumination were investigated, and the maximal wavelengths for excitation and emission were determined to be 320 nm and 515 nm, respectively, demonstrating significantly different fluorescence characteristics and much higher fluorescence intensity compared to those of fillet muscles. Based on the results, UV fluorescence-assisted candling for the detection of bones in fishery products was developed for the first time. Using cod fillets as samples, the detection ratio of this technique was calculated as 90.86%, significantly higher than that of traditional candling under daylight (76.78%). Moreover, the working efficiency of the new technique was about 26% higher than that of the traditional method. A UV fluorescence imaging framework was also developed, and a method for automatic identification of the fish bones in the cod fillets based on the linear discriminant analysis proposed by Fisher was preliminarily realized, but the detection ratio was demonstrated to be relatively poor compared to those of candling techniques. These results allow us to suggest UV-based methods as new and promising approaches for routine monitoring of bones in fishery products.

  5. The Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect-Detection EXperiment. MINIDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, Matteo

    2016-06-06

    A new experiment to measure muon-induced neutrons is introduced. The design of the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX, is presented and its installation and commissioning in the Tuebingen Shallow Underground Laboratory are described. Results from its first data taking period, run I, are presented. Muon-induced neutrons are not only an interesting physics topic by itself, but they are also an important source of background in searches for possible new rare phenomena like neutrinoless double beta decay or directly observable interactions of dark matter. These subjects are of great importance to understand the development of the early universe. Therefore, a new generation of ton-scale experiments which require extremely low background levels is under consideration. Reliable Monte Carlo simulations are needed to design such future experiments and estimate their background levels and sensitivities. The background due to muon-induced neutrons is hard to estimate, because of inconsistencies between different experimental results and discrepancies between measurements and Monte Carlo predictions. Especially for neutron production in high-Z materials, more experimental data and related simulation studies are clearly needed. MINIDEX addresses exactly this subject. Already the first five months of data taking provided valuable data on neutron production, propagation and interaction in lead. A first round of comparisons between MINIDEX data and Monte Carlo predictions are presented. In particular, the predictions of two Monte Carlo packages, based on GEANT4, are compared to the data. The data show an overall 70-100% higher rate of muon-induced events than predicted by the Monte Carlo packages. These packages also predict a faster time evolution of the muon-induced signal than observed in the data. Nevertheless, the time until the signal from the muon-induced events is completely collected was correctly predicted by the Monte Carlos. MINIDEX is foreseen

  6. An Electrochromatography Chip with Integrated Waveguides for UV Absorbance Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Omar; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Ohlsson, Pelle Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A silicon-based microchip for electrochromatographic separations is presented. Apart from a microfluidic network, the microchip has integrated UV-transparent waveguides for detection and integrated couplers for optical fibers on the chip, yielding the most complete chromatography microchip to date...... of an octylsilane covalently bonded to the surfaces to provide chromatographic interaction. The chip features a 1 mm long U-shaped detection cell and planar silicon dioxide waveguides that couple light to and from the detection cell. Microfabricated on-chip fiber couplers assure perfect alignment of optical fibers...

  7. Prospects for indirect detection of frozen-in dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, Matti; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2018-03-01

    We study observational consequences arising from dark matter (DM) of nonthermal origin, produced by dark freeze-out from a hidden sector heat bath. We assume this heat bath was populated by feebly coupled mediator particles, produced via a Higgs portal interaction with the Standard Model (SM). The dark sector then attained internal equilibrium with a characteristic temperature different from the SM photon temperature. We find that even if the coupling between the DM and the SM sectors is very weak, the scenario allows for indirect observational signals. We show how the expected strength of these signals depends on the temperature of the hidden sector at DM freeze-out.

  8. Design of autotrack detecting instrument for solar UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangtao; Mao, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In order to autotrack the object and detect the solar UV index, a reliable real-time high-precise instrument is proposed in this paper. This instrument involves two subsystems: the autotrack and detecting modules. The autotrack module consists of four-quadrant photo detector, multi-channel signal processing circuit and precise stepping system. The detecting module designed for dada measurement and acquisition is made up of the ultraviolet sensor UV460 and high precision A/D converter MAX1162. The key component of the entire instrument is ultralow-power microprocessor MSP430 which is used for entire system controlling and data processing. The lower system of autotracking and measurement is communicated with upper PC computer by RS232 module. In the experiment, the tracking precision of two-dimensional motion revolving stage is calibrated to be less than 0.05°. Experimental results indicate that the system designed could realize the precise autotracking and detecting function well, and the measure precision of system has reached the desirable target.

  9. Predicting and detecting reciprocity between indirect ecological interactions and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A; Brashares, Justin S; Power, Mary E

    2013-05-01

    Living nature can be thought of as a tapestry, defined not only by its constituent parts but also by how these parts are woven together. The weaving of this tapestry is a metaphor for species interactions, which can be divided into three broad classes: competitive, mutualistic, and consumptive. Direct interactions link together as more complex networks, for example, the joining of consumptive interactions into food webs. Food web dynamics are driven, in turn, by changes in the abundances of web members, whose numbers or biomass respond to bottom-up (resource limitation) and top-down (consumer limitation) forcing. The relative strengths of top-down and bottom-up forcing on the abundance of a given web member depend on its ecological context, including its topological position within the food web. Top-down effects by diverse consumers are nearly ubiquitous, in many cases influencing the structure and operation of ecosystems. While the ecological effects of such interactions are well known, far less is known of their evolutionary consequences. In this essay, we describe sundry consequences of these interaction chains on species and ecosystem processes, explain several known or suspected evolutionary effects of consumer-induced interaction chains, and identify areas where reciprocity between ecology and evolution involving the indirect effects of consumer-prey interaction chains might be further explored.

  10. Indirect Charged Particle Detection: Concepts and a Classroom Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Nicholas B.; Horányi, Mihály; Collette, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We describe the principles of macroscopic charged particle detection in the laboratory and their connections to concepts taught in the physics classroom. Electrostatic dust accelerator systems, capable of launching charged dust grains at hypervelocities (1-100 km/s), are a critical tool for space exploration. Dust grains in space typically have…

  11. Indirect detection of dark matter with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambard, G.

    2008-01-01

    The ANTANARES telescope is composed of an array of 900 photomultipliers (12 lines) that will be immersed in the Mediterranean sea at a depth of 2500 m. The photomultipliers are sensitive to the Cherenkov light emitted by high energy muons produced in the interactions of neutrinos with matter. My work consisted in the calibration of the detector, in time and charge in order to extract the crucial data for the reconstruction of the particle tracks and the ability of the detector to distinguish the atmospheric neutrinos from astrophysical neutrinos. The first part of this work is dedicated to the today understanding of the universe and of its models and of the importance of the neutrinos as the messengers of what occurs in the remote parts of the universe. The detection of neutrinos through the Cerenkov effect is detailed and the ANTANARES detector is presented. The second part deals with the study of the background radiation due to atmospheric muons and neutrinos. A simulation is the only tool to assess the background radiation level and to be able to extract the signal due to solar neutrinos. The third part shows how the solar neutrino flux might be influenced by the interaction of dark matter with baryonic matter. A Monte-Carlo simulation has allowed us to quantify this interaction and measure its impact on the number of events detected by ANTANARES. (A.C.)

  12. Indirect solid-phase immunosorbent assay for detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.P.; Rezapkin, G.V.; Dzagurova, T.K.; Tkachenko, E.A. (Institute of Poliomyelitis anU Viral Encephalities of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow)

    1984-05-01

    Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) using either enti-human or anti-mouse IgG labelled with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I, respectively, were developed for the detection of Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amapari, Tamiami, Lassa and LCM arenaviruses. Both methods allow high sensitivity detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies.

  13. [Determination of hexane in the acid cluster of caprolactam by high performance liquid chromatography with indirect photometric detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linan; Duan, Zhengkang; Zeng, Hongyan; He, Yuping; Chen, Qiuyun

    2011-01-01

    An indirect photometric detection method for the determination of hexane in the acid cluster of caprolactam by high performance liquid chromatography was developed. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption background reagents were added in the mobile phase, and the hexane, nonabsorption in ultraviolet region, was directly determined by a UV detector. The effects of the mobile phase composition, species and concentration of the background reagents etc. on the analyzed results were studied. The optimization of the separation was performed on an Agilent HC-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). A solution of methanol-water (85:15, v/v) containing 1.17 mmol/L 1,5-naphthalene disulfonic acid was used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and the column temperature was set at 35 degrees C. The gradient of wavelength was adopted to adjust the relative size of systematic peaks and the target peaks. The linear relationship in the range of 0.5-20 mg/kg with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 93 in this method was obtained. The recoveries and relative standard deviation for the hexane in the acid cluster of caprolactam were 98.45%-102.3% and 2.53%, respectively. The detection limit was 0.03 mg/kg. The method is simple, and has good selectivity, high sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability for the accurate determination of hexane in practical samples quickly.

  14. Indirect fluorometric detection techniques on thin layer chromatography and effect of ultrasound on gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinfa, Ma.

    1990-12-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a broadly applicable separation technique. It offers many advantages over high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), such as easily adapted for two-dimensional separation, for whole-column'' detection and for handling multiple samples, etc. However, due to its draggy development of detection techniques comparing with HPLC, TLC has not received the attention it deserves. Therefore, exploring new detection techniques is very important to the development of TLC. It is the principal of this dissertation to present a new detection method for TLC -- indirect fluorometric detection method. This detection technique is universal sensitive, nondestructive, and simple. This will be described in detail from Sections 1 through Section 5. Section 1 and 3 describe the indirect fluorometric detection of anions and nonelectrolytes in TLC. In Section 2, a detection method for cations based on fluorescence quenching of ethidium bromide is presented. In Section 4, a simple and interesting TLC experiment is designed, three different fluorescence detection principles are used for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. A laser-based indirect fluorometric detection technique in TLC is developed in Section 5. Section 6 is totally different from Sections 1 through 5. An ultrasonic effect on the separation of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis is investigated. 262 refs.

  15. Liquid chromatographic separation and indirect detection of non-absorbing aliphatic compounds using m-nitrophenol as a detection agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Seok; Kang, Sam Woo; Moon, Young Ja

    1991-01-01

    m-Nitrophenol(m-NP) was a detection agent for the use of the detection and separation of non-absorbing compounds such as aliphatic acids, alcohols, amines and tetraalkylammonium salts by indirect photometric detection in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Response of samples was investigated to the several factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of MeOH as well as concentration of detection reagent in mobile phase. The separation of several mixtures were attempted under optimum condition. (Author)

  16. The focal account: Indirect lie detection need not access unconscious, implicit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris N H; Richardson, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    People are poor lie detectors, but accuracy can be improved by making the judgment indirectly. In a typical demonstration, participants are not told that the experiment is about deception at all. Instead, they judge whether the speaker appears, say, tense or not. Surprisingly, these indirect judgments better reflect the speaker's veracity. A common explanation is that participants have an implicit awareness of deceptive behavior, even when they cannot explicitly identify it. We propose an alternative explanation. Attending to a range of behaviors, as explicit raters do, can lead to conflict: A speaker may be thinking hard (indicating deception) but not tense (indicating honesty). In 2 experiments, we show that the judgment (and in turn the correct classification rate) is the result of attending to a single behavior, as indirect raters are instructed to do. Indirect lie detection does not access implicit knowledge, but simply focuses the perceiver on more useful cues. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The impact of the phase-space density on the indirect detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Francesc; Hunter, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    We study the indirect detection of dark matter when the local dark matter velocity distribution depends upon position, as expected for the Milky Way and its dwarf spheroidal satellites, and the annihilation cross-section is not purely s-wave. Using a phase-space distribution consistent with the dark matter density profile, we present estimates of cosmic and gamma-ray fluxes from dark matter annihilations. The expectations for the indirect detection of dark matter can differ significantly from the usual calculation that assumes that the velocity of the dark matter particles follows a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

  18. Determination of neutral carbohydrates by CZE with direct UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovio, Stella; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Sirén, Heli

    2007-08-01

    A new CZE method relying on in-capillary reaction and direct UV detection at the wavelength 270 nm is presented for the simultaneous separation of the neutral carbohydrates xylitol, D-(-)-mannitol, sucrose, D-(+)-fucose, D-(+)-cellobiose, D-(+)-galactose, D-(+)-glucose, L-rhamnose, D-(+)-mannose, D-(-)-arabinose, D-(+)-xylose, and D-(-)-ribose. The alkaline electrolyte solution was prepared of 130 mM sodium hydroxide and 36 mM disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate. Separation of the sample mixture was achieved within 35 min. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 0.05-3 mM. Reproducibility of migration times was between 0.3 and 1.1%, and the detection limits for the analytes were 0.02 and 0.05 mM. The optimized method was applied for the determination of neutral monosaccharides in lemon, pineapple, and orange juices and a cognac sample. The methodology is fast since no other sample preparation except dilution is required.

  19. Electrophoresis microchip with integrated waveguides for simultaneous native UV fluorescence and absorbance detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, Pelle Daniel; Sala, Olga Ordeig; Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous label-free detection of UV absorbance and native UV-excited fluorescence in an electrophoresis microchip is presented. UV transparent integrated waveguides launch light at a wavelength of 254 nm from a mercury lamp along the length of a 1-mm. long detection cell. Transmitted UV light...... lid and by choosing a PMT insensitive to the excitation light. This way, the need for a fluorescence filter is eliminated. Calibration curves were measured for serotonin, tryptophan, propranolol and acetaminophen, and separations of the four compounds were demonstrated by electrophoresis and MEKC. All...... compounds could be detected in the micromolar range by absorbance detection, but fluorescence detection improved detection limits for compounds displaying native UV fluorescence up to ten times. The simultaneous detection also proved useful for the identification of compounds with similar retention times...

  20. Capillary electrophoresis of free amino acids in physiological fluids without derivatization employing direct or indirect absorbance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunić, Gordana D; Spasić, Slavica; Jelić-Ivanović, Zorana

    2012-01-01

    Whole blood and/or plasma amino acids are useful for monitoring whole body protein and amino acid metabolism in an organism under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Various methodological procedures are in use for their measurement in biological fluids. From the time when capillary electrophoresis was introduced as a technology offering rapid separation of various ionic and/or ionizable compounds with low sample and solvent consumption, there were many attempts to use it for the measurement of amino acids present in physiological fluids. As a rule, these methods require derivatization procedures for detection purposes.Here, we present two protocols for the analysis of free amino acids employing free zone capillary electrophoresis. Main advantage of both methods is an absence of any derivatization procedures that permits the analysis of free amino acid in physiological fluids. The method using direct detection and carrier electrolyte consisting of disodium monophosphate (10 mM at pH 2.90) permits determination of compounds that absorb in UV region (aromatic and sulfur containing amino acids, as well as some peptides, such as carnosine, reduced and oxidized glutathione). The other method uses indirect absorbance detection, employing 8 mM p-amino salicylic acid buffered with sodium carbonate at pH 10.2 as running electrolyte. It permits quantification of 30 underivatized physiological amino acids and peptides. In our experience, factorial design represents a useful tool for final optimization of the electrophoretic conditions if it is necessary.

  1. [Detection of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori with the immunoenzyme test and indirect immunofluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abb, J; Striegel, K; Frühmorgen, P

    1990-09-01

    Sera from 56 adult patients were screened for the presence of IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori by enzyme immunoassay and indirect immunofluorescence. In addition, the detection of Helicobacter pylori in antral biopsy specimens was attempted by culture and histological methods. Colonisation of the antrum mucosa with Helicobacter pylori was observed in 39 of the 56 patients. IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori were detected by enzyme immunoassay in 34 of 39 infected patients. Thus, the enzyme immunoassay showed a sensitivity of 87.2 percent and a specificity of 82.4 percent. IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori were further detected by indirect immunofluorescence in 28 of 39 infected patients. Thus, indirect immunofluorescence showed a sensitivity of 66.7 percent and a specificity of 88.2 percent. Our results demonstrate that the enzyme immunoassay for IgG antibodies and other invasive or noninvasive methods for the detection of infection with Helicobacter pylori appear to be of equal sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Simple and Low-cost Fiber-optic Sensors for Detection of UV Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Živanov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two simple and low-cost fiberoptic sensors for detection of UV radiation are presented. A U-shaped sensor covered with an UV marker for UV radiation detection and a fiber-optic sensor with one end covered with powder from a mercury lamp are produced and described in details. Both sensors are made of large-core PMMA plastic optical fibers. As UV sources, a solar simulator and four different UV lamps are used. The light spectrum on the fiber output is measured by using an USB spectrometer. Dependence of output light intensity on the distance of end-type sensor with powder from a mercury lamp from UV lamp is investigated as well. On the output of the sensor covered with powder from a mercury lamp are obtained peaks of fluorescent emission at approximately 616 nm and 620 nm wavelengths.

  3. Heteronuclear Correlation SSNMR Spectroscopy with Indirect Detection under Fast Magic-Angle Spinning [Book Chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayshi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States); Nishiyama, Yusuke [Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States); Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The main focus of this chapter is to address experimental strategies on the subject by providing a hands-on guide to fast MAS experiments, with a particular focus on indirect detection. Although our experience is limited to our respective laboratories in Ames and Yokohama, we hope that our descriptions of experimental setups and optimization procedures are sufficiently general to be applicable to all modern instruments. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 2 below introduces briefly the fast MAS technology and its main advantages. In Section 3, we describe the hardware associated with this remarkable technology and provide practical advices on its use, including procedures for loading and unloading the samples, maintaining the probe, reducing t1 noise, etc. In Section 4, we describe the principles and hands-on aspects of experiments involving the indirect detection of spin-1/2 and 14N nuclei

  4. Muon detection with scintillation detectors using indirect SiPM readout

    CERN Document Server

    Struth, Janina

    2010-01-01

    In the scope of this thesis prototypes of silicon photomultipliers with wavelength shifting fibres were measured for muon detection. This indirect readout happens with silizium photomultipliers (SiPM), which are coupled with the fibre. The scintillator was wrapped with different reflective materials to optimise the light amplification. Furthermore two different thicknesses of the scintillator were used to have a comparison between the different light yield. Consequently different scintillator thicknesses were combinded and measured with different wrapping materials to compare their efficiency.

  5. Design of indirect solid-phase immunosorbent methods for detecting arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.P.; Rezapkin, G.V.; Dzagurova, T.K.; Tkachenko, E.A.

    1984-05-01

    Specifications have been elaborated for formulating indirect solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) methods that employ anti-human and anti-mice G class immunoglobulin (IgG), conjugated with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I for detecting the arenaviruses Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amalpari, Tamiami, Lassa, and LCM (lymphocytic choriomeningitis). These methods make it possible to identify with a high degree of sensitivity arenavirus antigens and antibodies in various kinds of material.

  6. Detection of antibody against limax amoebae by means of the indirect haemagglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L

    1977-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the procuedure of the indirect haemagglutination test employed in the detection of specific antibodies against pathogenic amoebae of the genera Naegleria and Acanthamoeba. The preservation of all ingredients obtained by lyophilisation provide for a standard pattern of the test. The results of the test with experimentally prepared immune rabbit sera demonstrate an antigenic uniformity of the various isolates of Naegleria fowleri, and their marked difference from Acanthamoeba.

  7. CVD diamond sensor for UV-photon detection

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Gervino, G; Lamarina, A M; Palmisano, C; Periale, R; Picchi, P

    2012-01-01

    A new generation of UV photosensors, based on single crystal Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamonds to work optically coupled with large volume two-phase liquid-Ar (LAr) or liquid-Xe (LXe) detectors nowadays under design for the next generation of WIMPs experiments, is under development. Preliminary tests and first calibrations show these devices can have better performance than the existing UV sensitive detectors (higher photosensitivity and better signal-to-noise ratio). I-V characteristics, dark current measurements, linearity response to X-ray irradiation, and alpha-particle energy resolution are reported and discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Outlier detection in UV/Vis spectrophotometric data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepot, M.J.; Aubin, Jean Baptiste; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; Mašić, Alma

    2017-01-01

    UV/Vis spectrophotometers have been used to monitor water quality since the early 2000s. Calibration of these devices requires sampling campaigns to elaborate relations between recorded spectra and measured concentrations. In order to build robust calibration data sets, several spectra must be

  9. Highly Sensitive Detection of UV Radiation Using a Uranium Coordination Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Dai, Xing; Xie, Jian; Silver, Mark A; Zhang, Duo; Wang, Yanlong; Cai, Yawen; Diwu, Juan; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Ruhong; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Shuao

    2018-02-07

    The accurate detection of UV radiation is required in a wide range of chemical industries and environmental or biological related applications. Conventional methods taking advantage of semiconductor photodetectors suffer from several drawbacks such as sophisticated synthesis and manufacturing procedure, not being able to measure the accumulated UV dosage as well as high defect density in the material. Searching for new strategies or materials serving as precise UV dosage sensor with extremely low detection limit is still highly desirable. In this work, a radiation resistant uranium coordination polymer [UO 2 (L)(DMF)] (L = 5-nitroisophthalic acid, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide, denoted as compound 1) was successfully synthesized through mild solvothermal method and investigated as a unique UV probe with the detection limit of 2.4 × 10 -7 J. On the basis of the UV dosage dependent luminescence spectra, EPR analysis, single crystal structure investigation, and the DFT calculation, the UV-induced radical quenching mechanism was confirmed. Importantly, the generated radicals are of significant stability which offers the opportunity for measuring the accumulated UV radiation dosage. Furthermore, the powder material of compound 1 was further upgraded into membrane material without loss in luminescence intensity to investigate the real application potentials. To the best of our knowledge, compound 1 represents the most sensitive coordination polymer based UV dosage probe reported to date.

  10. Research on Fault Detection System of Power Equipment Based on UV and Infrared Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiyu; Ding, Kun

    2017-09-01

    UV corona on power system can reflect the location of the fault and the severity of the fault, the traditional UV and infrared detection equipment can only use the band and the visible light band image of the power system fault detection. In this paper, a power system fault detection system based on ultraviolet and infrared dual-band images is designed. The principle of UV imaging detection and image fusion are introduced respectively. The software of the host computer is written by MFC. The software can acquire both ultraviolet and infrared, the two images are fused using the image fusion algorithm based on edge detection and cross correlation and the highest point temperature is plotted. Experiments show that the system can detect the failure of power equipment in time, and has a certain practical value, which puts forward a new idea for fault detection of power equipment.

  11. Survival and mutagenesis in UV-irradiated phage: Multi-hit kinetics of mutation induction and lack of indirect induction by infection with UV-irradiated phage of error-prone repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, G.; Mennigmann, H.D.; Kaplan, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the question of whether Weigle-reactivation (WR) and Weigle-mutagenesis (WM) can be indirectly induced by infection with UV-irradiated phage. Experiments neither with phage lambda of Escherichia coli nor with phage kappa of Serratia marcescens show such induction. In this respect phage DNA differs from F'-DNA or Hfr-DNA; possible explanations are discussed. In both systems clear plaque mutations can also be induced by UV without irradiation of the host cells; they appear, in unirradiated and irradiated host cells, with an increase in frequency which is greater than proportional to the UV dose. It is concluded that mutation induction of phage in the unirradiated host cells is due to a low level constitutive mutagenic repair; this could either be due to 'spontaneous' induction of the mutagenic SOS function or it could be a mechanism different from this one. Host irradiation would give rise to additional activity by the induced SOS function leading to WR and WM. It is further concluded that deviation of the induction kinetics from a linear dose-dependence is not due to the necessary induction of SOS functions. (author)

  12. Detection of thrombocytic antibodies with the direct and indirect haemolysis inhibition test and the radioimmuno-Coombs test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettenboerger, D.; Vith, E.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of application of the direct and indirect haemolysis inhibition test were studied in order to optimise the test parameters: The ultimate aim was to standardize the test method and compare its sensitivity in detecting various platelet antibodies with platelet indirect radioactive Coombs-test and the platelet immunofluorescence test. (orig.) [de

  13. Human cryptosporidiosis: detection of specific antibodies in the serum by an indirect immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz Lúcia M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium sp., a coccidian parasite usually found in the faeces of cattle, has been recently implicated as an agent of human intestinal disease, mainly in immunocompromised patients. In the study realized, by an indirect immunofluorescence technique, specific immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM have been demonstrated in human serum against Cryptosporidium oocysts. Purified oocysts were used as antigens in the indirect immunofluorecence assay. After analyzing this test in sera from selected groups of patients, the frequency of both specific IgG and IgM of immunocompetent children who were excreting oocysts in their faeces was 62% and in children with negative excretion of oocysts was 20% and 40%, respectively. In adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and who were excreting Cryptosporidium in their stools, the frequency was 57% for IgG but only 2% for IgM. Twenty three percent of immunocompromised adults with not determined excretion of oocysts in their stools had anti-Cryptosporidium IgG in their sera. Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus had no IgM and only 14% had IgG detectable in their sera. The indirect immunoflorescence assay, when used with other parasitological techniques appears to be useful for retrospective population studies and for diagnosis of acute infection. The humoral immune response of HIV positive patients to this protozoan agent needs clarification.

  14. Towards understanding thermal history of the Universe through direct and indirect detection of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roszkowski, Leszek; Trojanowski, Sebastian [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Turzyński, Krzysztof, E-mail: leszek.roszkowski@ncbj.gov.pl, E-mail: sebastian.trojanowski@uci.edu, E-mail: Krzysztof-Jan.Turzynski@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-10-01

    We examine the question to what extent prospective detection of dark matter by direct and indirect- detection experiments could shed light on what fraction of dark matter was generated thermally via the freeze-out process in the early Universe. By simulating putative signals that could be seen in the near future and using them to reconstruct WIMP dark matter properties, we show that, in a model- independent approach this could only be achieved in a thin sliver of the parameter space. However, with additional theoretical input the hypothesis about the thermal freeze-out as the dominant mechanism for generating dark matter can potentially be verified. We illustrate this with two examples: an effective field theory of dark matter with a vector messenger and a higgsino or wino dark matter within the MSSM.

  15. UV-B detected by the UVR8 photoreceptor antagonizes auxin signaling and plant shade avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott; Velanis, Christos N; Jenkins, Gareth I; Franklin, Keara A

    2014-08-12

    Plants detect different facets of their radiation environment via specific photoreceptors to modulate growth and development. UV-B is perceived by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). The molecular mechanisms linking UVR8 activation to plant growth are not fully understood, however. When grown in close proximity to neighboring vegetation, shade-intolerant plants initiate dramatic stem elongation to overtop competitors. Here we show that UV-B, detected by UVR8, provides an unambiguous sunlight signal that inhibits shade avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana by antagonizing the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin. UV-B triggers degradation of the transcription factors PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 5 and stabilizes growth-repressing DELLA proteins, inhibiting auxin biosynthesis via a dual mechanism. Our findings show that UVR8 signaling is closely integrated with other photoreceptor pathways to regulate auxin signaling and plant growth in sunlight.

  16. Indirectly detected chemical shift correlation NMR spectroscopy in solids under fast magic angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Kanmi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The development of fast magic angle spinning (MAS) opened up an opportunity for the indirect detection of insensitive low-γ nuclei (e.g., 13C and 15N) via the sensitive high-{gamma} nuclei (e.g., 1H and 19F) in solid-state NMR, with advanced sensitivity and resolution. In this thesis, new methodology utilizing fast MAS is presented, including through-bond indirectly detected heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectroscopy, which is assisted by multiple RF pulse sequences for 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. Also presented is a simple new strategy for optimization of 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. As applications, various classes of materials, such as catalytic nanoscale materials, biomolecules, and organic complexes, are studied by combining indirect detection and other one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques. Indirectly detected through-bond HETCOR spectroscopy utilizing refocused INEPT (INEPTR) mixing was developed under fast MAS (Chapter 2). The time performance of this approach in 1H detected 2D 1H{l_brace}13C{r_brace} spectra was significantly improved, by a factor of almost 10, compared to the traditional 13C detected experiments, as demonstrated by measuring naturally abundant organic-inorganic mesoporous hybrid materials. The through-bond scheme was demonstrated as a new analytical tool, which provides complementary structural information in solid-state systems in addition to through-space correlation. To further benefit the sensitivity of the INEPT transfer in rigid solids, the combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy (CRAMPS) was implemented for homonuclear 1H decoupling under fast MAS (Chapter 3). Several decoupling schemes (PMLG5m$\\bar{x}$, PMLG5mm$\\bar{x}$x and SAM3) were analyzed to maximize the performance of through-bond transfer based

  17. GaN photocathodes for UV detection and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Martin, Adrian; Malloy, James; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wessels, Bruce

    2003-12-01

    The nitride-III semiconductors, in particular GaN (band gap energy 3.5 eV), AlN (band gap 6.2 eV) and their alloys AlxGa1-xN are attractive as UV photo-convertors with applications as photocathodes for position sensitive detector systems. These can "fill the gap" in the 150-400nm wavelength regime between alkali halide photocathodes (photocathodes (>4000Å, mutlialkali & GaAs). Currently CsTe photocathodes have fairly low efficiency (Fig. 1) in the 100nm to 300nm regime are sensitive to contamination and have no tolerance to gas exposure. We have prepared and measured a number of GaN photocathodes in opaque and semitransparent modes, achieving >50% quantum efficiency in opaque mode and ~35% in semitransparent mode (Fig. 2). The GaN photocathodes are stable over periods of >1 year and are robust enough to be re-activated many times. The cutoff wavelength is sharp, with a rapid decline in quantum efficiency at ~380-400nm. Application of GaN photocathodes in imaging devices should be feasible in the near future. Further performance improvements are also expected as GaN fabrication and processing techniques are refined.

  18. Diamond-based photoconductors for deep UV detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducci, A.; Bruzzi, M.; De Sio, A.; Donato, M.G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M.E.; Pace, E.; Pucella, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Scuderi, S.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2006-01-01

    This work reports on the development and characterization of bi-dimensional deep-UV sensor arrays based on synthetic diamond to address the requirements of space-born astrophysical experiments. The material was synthesized at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' where both heteroepitaxial polycrystalline diamond films and homoepitaxial single-crystal diamonds are grown using a tubular MWCVD reactor. The quality of chemical vapour deposited diamond was characterized by cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and thermally stimulated currents. Then, suitable samples were selected and used to fabricate photoconductive single-pixel and 2D array devices by evaporating metal contacts on the growth surface. The electro-optical characterization of the devices was carried out in a wide spectral region, ranging from 120 to 2400 nm. A deuterium lamp and a 0.5 m vacuum monochromator were used to measure the detector responsivity under continuous monochromatic irradiation in the 120-250 nm spectral range, while an optical parametric oscillator tunable laser producing 5 ns pulses was used as light source from 210 up to 2400 nm. Time response, signal-to-noise ratio, responsivity and visible rejection factor were evaluated and the results are hereafter summarized

  19. Investigation of photochemical reaction products of glucose formed during direct UV detection in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Himmelsbach, Markus; Buchberger, Wolfgang W

    2016-04-01

    In CE, saccharides are accessible to direct UV detection due to a photochemical reaction in the detection window of the separation capillary resulting in the formation of UV absorbing substances. Employing a CE method that allows long in-capillary irradiation with subsequent UV and MS detection, the present study could identify several reaction products of glucose. Among these were UV absorbing substances so far unknown to be formed during direct UV detection with the chemical formulas C4 H6 O2 , C5 H6 O4 , C5 H8 O3, and C6 H8 O5 . Investigations of the impact of the irradiation time revealed differences between these reaction products suggesting differing reaction mechanisms especially for the smallest products. More detailed information could be obtained by experiments with isotope-labeled substrates performed to determine the parts of glucose that are converted to the particular reaction products. In addition, structural formulas for the reaction products were suggested based on HPLC-MS/MS measurements of off-line irradiated glucose solutions which revealed the existence of functional groups such as carboxylic acid or aldehyde groups. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Detection of UV Pulse from Insulators and Application in Estimating the Conditions of Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingang; Chong, Junlong; Yang, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Solar radiation in the band of 240-280 nm is absorbed by the ozone layer in the atmosphere, and corona discharges from high-voltage apparatus emit in air mainly in the 230-405 nm range of ultraviolet (UV), so the band of 240-280 nm is called UV Solar Blind Band. When the insulators in a string deteriorate or are contaminated, the voltage distribution along the string will change, which causes the electric fields in the vicinity of insulators change and corona discharge intensifies. An UV pulse detection method to check the conditions of insulators is presented based on detecting the UV pulse among the corona discharge, then it can be confirmed that whether there exist faulty insulators and whether the surface contamination of insulators is severe for the safe operation of power systems. An UV-I Insulator Detector has been developed, and both laboratory tests and field tests have been carried out which demonstrates the practical viability of UV-I Insulator Detector for online monitoring.

  1. Indirect immunofluorescence test using polyclonal antibodies for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, M F; Duquesne, F; Sévin, C; Laugier, C; Petry, S

    2010-06-01

    Contagious equine metritis is a horse disease that causes endometrial inflammation due to Taylorella equigenitalis. Since Taylorella asinigenitalis was characterized, genital swab culture has proved to be an insufficient method for distinguishing between the two Taylorella species. Here, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test using polyclonal antibodies. Specificity, sensitivity, and detection limit were assessed using isolated bacteria (55 T. equigenitalis strains, 46 T. asinigenitalis strains and 18 other bacterial species), experimental and genital swabs in comparison to bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Our results indicated that IIF using polyclonal antibodies allows T. equigenitalis to be discriminated from T. asinigenitalis. This test constitutes a rapid, sensitive and specific tool for confirming presumptive colonies of T. equigenitalis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was used for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) types O1, A23, C3 which occurred in Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil during 1984-1994. The samples were randomly selected and tested by ELISA, Complement Fixation Test (CFT) and in tissue culture. Out of 106 samples 78 (73,5%) were positive by ELISA and 39 (36,8%) were found positive in CFT, when original suspensions were used. Once these samples were inoculated onto tissue culture both tests gave similar results, although ELISA picked up more positive samples during the 1st passage in tissue culture. The negative samples (16) included in this study were negative in all tests. The ELISA was more sensitive than and as specific as CFT. ELISA and tissue culture together were shown to be a better system for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen than CFT. (author)

  3. Facilitating the indirect detection of genomic DNA in an electrochemical DNA biosensor using magnetic nanoparticles and DNA ligase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Hushiarian

    2015-12-01

    This technique was found to be reliably repeatable. The indirect detection of genomic DNA using this method is significantly improved and showed high efficiency in small amounts of samples with the detection limit of 5.37 × 10−14 M.

  4. DETECTION OF INFECTIOUS ADENOVIRUS IN TERTIARY TREATED AND UV DISINFECTED WASTEWATER DURING A UV DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infectious enteric adenovirus was isolated from urban wastewater receiving tertiary treatment and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of UV disinfection (low pressure, high intensity radiation) of total and fecal coliform bac...

  5. Analysis of saccharides in beverages by HPLC with direct UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Baumann, Benedikt; Himmelsbach, Markus; Klampfl, Christian W; Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The present study demonstrates the suitability of direct UV detection for saccharide analysis in HPLC. Under highly alkaline conditions, the non-UV absorbing saccharides are converted by a photo-initiated chemical reaction in the detection cell into malonenolate, which can be detected at 266 nm. A straightforward method for such direct UV detection of saccharides after their separation by anion-exchange chromatography was developed and successfully applied to several beverage samples. Investigation and optimization of the influencing factors using design of experiment resulted in a baseline separation of glucose, fructose, and sucrose within 6 min and LOD values below 0.2 mg L(-1). In addition, a fast, simple and cost-effective flow injection method was developed to estimate the total saccharide concentration. The results of this method applied to beverage samples are in good agreement with the chromatographic method as well as to the saccharide concentration stated by the manufacturer. Finally, a comparison of different commercially available UV detectors and detector cells revealed that sensitive detection requires the use of recently introduced flow cells with extended path length.

  6. Establishment of an indirect ELISA for detection of the novel antifibrotic peptide M10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjina Akter

    Full Text Available M10 is a ten amino acid peptide generated from the intracellular cytoplasmic tail of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor c-Met following cleavage by caspase-3. Recently we reported that M10 interacts with Smad2 and demonstrates antifibrotic properties in vitro and in vivo and can be advanced into a novel antifibrotic remedy. The current study was undertaken to develop an immunoassay to measure M10 concentration in biological specimens.An Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for detection of M10 in biological fluids was developed using pharmaceutical grade synthetic M10 as a calibrator and commercially available anti-c-Met C12 antibody.M10 ELISA specifically detected in plasma M10, but not a scrambled peptide, following a single intraperitoneal administration of M10 (1mg/kg to mice. The detection limit was 9.6 ng/ml, and the measuring limit was between 15 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. The recovery limits of M10 were between 80% and 120%; intra-assay coefficient of variation was between 5.3% and 6.3%; inter-assay coefficient of variation was between 5.0% and 8.0% over the buffer concentration tested in the range from 15 ng /ml to 250 ng /ml. The peak of M10 concentration following a single intraperitoneal injection (1mg/kg was achieved within 6 hours and declined to minimal levels by 48 hours. The experimentally obtained half-life for M10 was comparable to the theoretically predicted half-life for M10.We have established a highly sensitive ELISA to detect the antifibrotic peptide M10 in plasma samples, which should prove to be a novel tool to study the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of M10 in the treatment of fibroproliferative disorders.

  7. Indirect immunofluorescence detection of E. coli O157:H7 with fluorescent silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ze-Zhong; Cai, Li; Chen, Min-Yan; Lin, Yi; Pang, Dai-Wen; Tang, Hong-Wu

    2015-04-15

    A method of fluorescent nanoparticle-based indirect immunofluorescence assay using either fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry for the rapid detection of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 was developed. The dye-doped silica nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using W/O microemulsion methods with the combination of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and polymerization reaction with carboxyethylsilanetriol sodium salt (CEOS). Protein A was immobilized at the surface of the NPs by covalent binding to the carboxyl linkers and the surface coverage of Protein A on NPs was determined by the Bradford method. Rabbit anti-E. Coli O157:H7 antibody was used as primary antibody to recognize E. coli O157:H7 and then antibody binding protein (Protein A) labeled with FITC-doped silica NPs (FSiNPs) was used to generate fluorescent signal. With this method, E. Coli O157:H7 in buffer and bacterial mixture was detected. In addition, E. coli O157:H7 in several spiked background beef samples were measured with satisfactory results. Therefore, the FSiNPs are applicable in signal-amplified bioassay of pathogens due to their excellent capabilities such as brighter fluorescence and higher photostability than the direct use of conventional fluorescent dyes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CIEF separation, UV detection, and quantification of ampholytic antibiotics and bacteria from different matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Vykydalová, Marie; Růžička, F.; Šalplachta, Jiří; Holá, V.; Dvořáčková, M.; Kubesová, Anna; Šlais, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 406, č. 25 (2014), s. 6285-6296 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing with UV detection * ampholytic antibiotics * Staphylococcus epidermidis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0236550

  9. CIEF separation, UV detection, and quantification of ampholytic antibiotics and bacteria from different matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Vykydalová, Marie; Růžička, F.; Šalplachta, Jiří; Holá, V.; Dvořáčková, M.; Kubesová, Anna; Šlais, Karel

    Roč. 406 , č. 25 (2014), s. 6285-6296 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing with UV detection * ampholytic antibiotics * Staphylococcus epidermidis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0236550

  10. Improved sensing using simultaneous deep-UV Raman and fluorescence detection-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, W. F.; Bhartia, R.; Sijapati, K.; Beegle, L. W.; Reid, R. D.

    2014-05-01

    Photon Systems in collaboration with JPL is continuing development of a new technology robot-mounted or hand-held sensor for reagentless, short-range, standoff detection and identification of trace levels chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) materials on surfaces. This deep ultraviolet CBE sensor is the result of Army STTR and DTRA programs. The evolving 10 to 15 lb, 20 W, sensor can discriminate CBE from background clutter materials using a fusion of deep UV excited resonance Raman (RR) and laser induced native fluorescence (LINF) emissions collected is less than 1 ms. RR is a method that provides information about molecular bonds, while LINF spectroscopy is a much more sensitive method that provides information regarding the electronic configuration of target molecules. Standoff excitation of suspicious packages, vehicles, persons, and other objects that may contain hazardous materials is accomplished using excitation in the deep UV where there are four main advantages compared to near-UV, visible or near-IR counterparts. 1) Excited between 220 and 250 nm, Raman emission occur within a fluorescence-free region of the spectrum, eliminating obscuration of weak Raman signals by fluorescence from target or surrounding materials. 2) Because Raman and fluorescence occupy separate spectral regions, detection can be done simultaneously, providing an orthogonal set of information to improve both sensitivity and lower false alarm rates. 3) Rayleigh law and resonance effects increase Raman signal strength and sensitivity of detection. 4) Penetration depth into target in the deep UV is short, providing spatial/spectral separation of a target material from its background or substrate. 5) Detection in the deep UV eliminates ambient light background and enable daylight detection.

  11. An indirect fluorescent antibody technique for detection of anti-Dermatophilus congolensis antibodies in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso De Mendoza, J; Nieto, C G; Arenas, A; Alonso, J M; Rey, J; Gil, M C; Anton, J; Cardenal, A; Hermoso De Mendoza, M

    1994-05-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) technique has been developed for detection of anti-Dermatophilus antibodies in sheep. Sera from 25 bacteriologically confirmed clinically affected sheep and from 10 negative non affected lambs were used. Whole cell antigen from brain heart infusion cultures of D. congolensis was used and all sera were tested in the same way for cross-reactivity against antigens obtained from cultures of Actinomyces viscosus, Micrococcus luteus, Nocardia asteroides, and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Sera from Dermatophilus-infected sheep gave positive results with D. congolensis antigen and negative results with the antigens from other bacteria. The whole cell antigens employed were simple to prepare and easy to recognise by microscopy. Cross-reactivity was further tested using the D. congolensis culture whole cell antigen and 3 sera from sheep with bacteriologically confirmed natural infections due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Actinomyces pyogenes and Nocardia asteroides. None of these sera showed positive reactions. The authors recommend this technique for serological surveys and research on dermatophilosis.

  12. Doppler effect on indirect detection of dark matter using dark matter only simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Devon; Laha, Ranjan; Ng, Kenny C. Y.; Abel, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Indirect detection of dark matter is a major avenue for discovery. However, baryonic backgrounds are diverse enough to mimic many possible signatures of dark matter. In this work, we study the newly proposed technique of dark matter velocity spectroscopy [E. G. Speckhard, K. C. Y. Ng, J. F. Beacom, and R. Laha, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 031301 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.031301]. The nonrotating dark matter halo and the Solar motion produce a distinct longitudinal dependence of the signal which is opposite in direction to that produced by baryons. Using collisionless dark matter only simulations of Milky Way like halos, we show that this new signature is robust and holds great promise. We develop mock observations by a high energy resolution x-ray spectrometer on a sounding rocket, the Micro-X experiment, to our test case, the 3.5 keV line. We show that by using six different pointings, Micro-X can exclude a constant line energy over various longitudes at ≥3 σ . The halo triaxiality is an important effect, and it will typically reduce the significance of this signal. We emphasize that this new smoking gun in motion signature of dark matter is general and is applicable to any dark matter candidate which produces a sharp photon feature in annihilation or decay.

  13. Detection of hidden hazelnut protein in food by IgY-based indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Kemmers - Voncken, A.E.M.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.; Banks, J.; Reece, P.; Danks, C.; Tomkies, V.; Immer, U.; Schmitt, K.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    The development of an indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay for the detection of hidden hazelnut protein in complex food matrices is described. A sensitive and selective polyclonal antibody was raised by immunisation of laying hens with protein extracts from roasted hazelnuts. In contrast to

  14. Comparison of direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining of clinical specimens for detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Minnich, L L; Ray, C G

    1982-01-01

    Immunofluorescence staining methods for respiratory syncytial virus antigen detection were compared. Of 50 specimens originally positive for respiratory syncytial virus by direct immunofluorescence and culture, 49 were positive by repeat direct immunofluorescence and 32 were positive by indirect immunofluorescence. Additional results obtained on specimens originally negative for respiratory syncytial virus by direct immunofluorescence, culture, or both indicate that direct immunofluorescence ...

  15. SERS detection of indirect viral DNA capture using colloidal gold and methylene blue as a Raman label

    Science.gov (United States)

    An indirect capture model assay using colloidal Au nanoparticles is demonstrated for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy detection of DNA. The sequence targeted for capture is derived from the West Nile Virus (WNV) RNA genome and was selected on the basis of exhibiting minimal seco...

  16. A CCD-based system for the detection of DNA in electrophoresis gels by UV absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, A.R.; MacDonald, J.H.; Mainwood, A.; Ott, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the detection and quantification of large fragments of unlabelled nucleic acids in agarose gels is presented. The technique is based on ultraviolet (UV) absorption by nucleotides. A deuterium source illuminates individual sample lanes of an electrophoresis gel via an array of optical fibres. As DNA bands pass through the illuminated region of the gel the amount of UV light transmitted is reduced because of absorption by the DNA. During electrophoresis the regions of DNA are detected on-line using a UV-sensitive charge coupled device (CCD). As the absorption coefficient is proportional to the mass of DNA the technique is inherently quantitative. The mass of DNA in a region of the gel is approximately proportional to the integrated signal in the corresponding section of the CCD image. This system currently has a detection limit of less than 1.25 ng compared with 2-10 ng for the most popular conventional technique, ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining. In addition the DNA sample remains in its native state. The removal of the carcinogenic dye from the detection procedure greatly reduces associated biological hazards. (author)

  17. Quantitative analysis of hindered amine light stabilizers by CZE with UV detection and quadrupole TOF mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintersteiner, Ingrid; Schmid, Thomas; Himmelsbach, Markus; Klampfl, Christian W; Buchberger, Wolfgang W

    2014-10-01

    The current work describes the development of a CZE method with quadrupole QTOF-MS detection and UV detection for the quantitation of Cyasorb 3529, a common hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), in polymer materials. Analysis of real polymer samples revealed that the oligomer composition of Cyasorb 3529 changes during processing, a fact hampering the development of a straightforward method for quantitation based on calibration with a Cyasorb 3529 standard. To overcome this obstacle in-depth investigations of the oligomer composition of this HALS using QTOF-MS and QTOF-MS/MS had to be performed whereby 22 new oligomer structures, in addition to the ten structures already described, were identified. Finally, a CZE method for quantitative analysis of this HALS was developed starting with a comprehensive characterization of a Cyasorb 3529 standard using CZE-QTOF-MS, subsequently allowing the correct assignment of most Cyasorb 3529 oligomers in an electropherogram with UV detection. Employing the latter detection technique and hexamethyl-melamine as internal standard, peak areas obtained for the melamine could be correlated with those from the triazine ring, the UV-absorbing unit present in the HALS. This approach finally allowed proper quantitation of the single oligomers of Cyasorb 3529, an imperative for the quantitative assessment of this HALS in real polymer samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Indirect photometric detection of boron cluster anions electrophoretically separated in methanol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítová, Lada; Fojt, Lukáš; Vespalec, Radim

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1338, APR 2014 (2014), s. 174-183 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Boron cluster * Capillary electrophoresis * Indirect photometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014

  19. Drosophila TRPA1 isoforms detect UV light via photochemical production of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, Ananya R.; Gu, Pengyu; Takle, Kendra; Chen, Jingyi; Xiang, Yang; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is an evolutionarily conserved detector of temperature and irritant chemicals. Here, we show that two specific isoforms of TRPA1 in Drosophila are H2O2 sensitive and that they can detect strong UV light via sensing light-induced production of H2O2. We found that ectopic expression of these H2O2-sensitive Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) isoforms conferred UV sensitivity to light-insensitive HEK293 cells and Drosophila neurons, whereas expressing the H2O2-insensitive isoform did not. Curiously, when expressed in one specific group of motor neurons in adult flies, the H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms were as competent as the blue light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 in triggering motor output in response to light. We found that the corpus cardiacum (CC) cells, a group of neuroendocrine cells that produce the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in the larval ring gland endogenously express these H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms and that they are UV sensitive. Sensitivity of CC cells required dTRPA1 and H2O2 production but not conventional phototransduction molecules. Our results suggest that specific isoforms of dTRPA1 can sense UV light via photochemical production of H2O2. We speculate that UV sensitivity conferred by these isoforms in CC cells may allow young larvae to activate stress response—a function of CC cells—when they encounter strong UV, an aversive stimulus for young larvae. PMID:26443856

  20. Basic model of fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in {gamma} astronomy with the CELESTE telescope; Modele effectif de matiere noire fermionique. Detection indirecte de matiere noire supersymetrique en astronomie {gamma} avec le telescope CELESTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavalle, J

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  1. An effective model for fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in astronomy with the CELESTE Telescope; Modele effectif de matiere noire fermionique. Detection indirecte de matiere noir supersymetrique en astronomie avec le Telescope CELESTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavalle, Julien [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  2. UV Absorption Spectroscopy in Water-Filled Antiresonant Hollow Core Fibers for Pharmaceutical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Nissen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to a worldwide increased use of pharmaceuticals and, in particular, antibiotics, a growing number of these substance residues now contaminate natural water resources and drinking supplies. This triggers a considerable demand for low-cost, high-sensitivity methods for monitoring water quality. Since many biological substances exhibit strong and characteristic absorption features at wavelengths shorter than 300 nm, UV spectroscopy presents a suitable approach for the quantitative identification of such water-contaminating species. However, current UV spectroscopic devices often show limited light-matter interaction lengths, demand sophisticated and bulky experimental infrastructure which is not compatible with microfluidics, and leave large fractions of the sample analyte unused. Here, we introduce the concept of UV spectroscopy in liquid-filled anti-resonant hollow core fibers, with large core diameters and lengths of approximately 1 m, as a means to overcome such limitations. This extended light-matter interaction length principally improves the concentration detection limit by two orders of magnitude while using almost the entire sample volume—that is three orders of magnitude smaller compared to cuvette based approaches. By integrating the fibers into an optofluidic chip environment and operating within the lowest experimentally feasible transmission band, concentrations of the application-relevant pharmaceutical substances, sulfamethoxazole (SMX and sodium salicylate (SS, were detectable down to 0.1 µM (26 ppb and 0.4 µM (64 ppb, respectively, with the potential to reach significantly lower detection limits for further device integration.

  3. UV Absorption Spectroscopy in Water-Filled Antiresonant Hollow Core Fibers for Pharmaceutical Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Mona; Doherty, Brenda; Hamperl, Jonas; Kobelke, Jens; Weber, Karina; Henkel, Thomas; Schmidt, Markus A

    2018-02-06

    Due to a worldwide increased use of pharmaceuticals and, in particular, antibiotics, a growing number of these substance residues now contaminate natural water resources and drinking supplies. This triggers a considerable demand for low-cost, high-sensitivity methods for monitoring water quality. Since many biological substances exhibit strong and characteristic absorption features at wavelengths shorter than 300 nm, UV spectroscopy presents a suitable approach for the quantitative identification of such water-contaminating species. However, current UV spectroscopic devices often show limited light-matter interaction lengths, demand sophisticated and bulky experimental infrastructure which is not compatible with microfluidics, and leave large fractions of the sample analyte unused. Here, we introduce the concept of UV spectroscopy in liquid-filled anti-resonant hollow core fibers, with large core diameters and lengths of approximately 1 m, as a means to overcome such limitations. This extended light-matter interaction length principally improves the concentration detection limit by two orders of magnitude while using almost the entire sample volume-that is three orders of magnitude smaller compared to cuvette based approaches. By integrating the fibers into an optofluidic chip environment and operating within the lowest experimentally feasible transmission band, concentrations of the application-relevant pharmaceutical substances, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sodium salicylate (SS), were detectable down to 0.1 µM (26 ppb) and 0.4 µM (64 ppb), respectively, with the potential to reach significantly lower detection limits for further device integration.

  4. UV Radiation Detection Using Optical Sensor Based on Eu3+ Doped PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miluski Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Progress in UV treatment applications requires new compact and sensor constructions. In the paper a hybrid (organic-inorganic rare-earth-based polymeric UV sensor construction is proposed. The efficient luminescence of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA matrix doped by europium was used for testing the optical sensor (optrode construction. The europium complex assures effective luminescence in the visible range with well determined multi-peak spectrum emission enabling construction of the optrode. The fabricated UV optical fibre sensor was used for determination of Nd:YAG laser intensity measurements at the third harmonic (355 nm in the radiation power range 5.0-34.0 mW. The multi-peak luminescence spectrum was used for optimization of the measurement formula. The composition of luminescent peak intensity enables to increase the slope of sensitivity up to −2.8 mW-1. The obtained results and advantages of the optical fibre construction enable to apply it in numerous UV detection systems.

  5. An effective model for fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in astronomy with the CELESTE Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle, Julien

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  6. Basic model of fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in γ astronomy with the CELESTE telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle, J.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  7. Application of photostable quantum dots for indirect immunofluorescent detection of specific bacterial serotypes on small marine animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decho, Alan W; Beckman, Erin M; Chandler, G Thomas; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence approach was developed using semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals to label and detect a specific bacterial serotype of the bacterial human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, attached to small marine animals (i.e. benthic harpacticoid copepods), which are suspected pathogen carriers. This photostable labeling method using nanotechnology will potentially allow specific serotypes of other bacterial pathogens to be detected with high sensitivity in a range of systems, and can be easily applied for sensitive detection to other Vibrio species such as Vibrio cholerae

  8. Detection, fate and inactivation of pathogenic norovirus employing settlement and UV treatment in wastewater treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, M.; Fitzhenry, K.; O'Flaherty, V.; Dore, W.; Keaveney, S.; Cormican, M.; Rowan, N.; Clifford, E.

    2016-01-01

    It is accepted that discharged wastewaters can be a significant source of pathogenic viruses in receiving water bodies contributing to pollution and may in turn enter the human food chain and pose a risk to human health, thus norovirus (NoV) is often a predominant cause of gastroenteritis globally. Working with NoV poses particular challenges as it cannot be readily identified and detection by molecular methods does not assess infectivity. It has been proposed that the infectivity of NoV may be modelled through the use of an alternative virus; F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophages; GA genotype and other FRNA bacteriophages have been used as a surrogate in studies of NoV inactivation. This study investigated the efficiency of novel pulsed ultraviolet irradiation and low pressure ultraviolet irradiation as a potential pathogen inactivation system for NoV and FRNA bacteriophage (GA) in secondary treated wastewaters. The role of UV dose and the impact of suspended solids concentration on removal efficiency were also examined. The study also investigated the role of settlement processes in wastewater treatment plants in removing NoV. While NoV inactivation could not be determined it was found that at a maximum UV dose of 6.9 J/cm 2 (6900 mJ/cm 2 ) an average 2.4 log removal of FRNA bacteriophage (GA) was observed; indicating the potential need for high UV doses to remove NoV if FRNA bacteriophage prove a suitable indicator for NoV. The study found that increasing concentrations of suspended solids impacted on PUV efficiency however, it appears the extent of the impact may be site specific. Furthermore, the study found that settlement processes can play a significant role in the removal of FRNA bacteriophage, thus potentially NoV. - Highlights: • Effectiveness of low pressure UV and novel high-intensity pulsed UV disinfection in NoVs removal. • Reduction of FRNA bacteriophage was seen in clarified wastewater after settling. • Adsorption of viral particles to solids

  9. Detection, fate and inactivation of pathogenic norovirus employing settlement and UV treatment in wastewater treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M. [Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Microbiology, School of Natural sciences, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Fitzhenry, K. [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); O' Flaherty, V. [Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Microbiology, School of Natural sciences, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Dore, W.; Keaveney, S. [Marine Institute, Galway (Ireland); Cormican, M. [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Centre for Health from Environment, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Rowan, N. [Bioscience Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland); Clifford, E., E-mail: eoghan.clifford@nuigalway.ie [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2016-10-15

    It is accepted that discharged wastewaters can be a significant source of pathogenic viruses in receiving water bodies contributing to pollution and may in turn enter the human food chain and pose a risk to human health, thus norovirus (NoV) is often a predominant cause of gastroenteritis globally. Working with NoV poses particular challenges as it cannot be readily identified and detection by molecular methods does not assess infectivity. It has been proposed that the infectivity of NoV may be modelled through the use of an alternative virus; F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophages; GA genotype and other FRNA bacteriophages have been used as a surrogate in studies of NoV inactivation. This study investigated the efficiency of novel pulsed ultraviolet irradiation and low pressure ultraviolet irradiation as a potential pathogen inactivation system for NoV and FRNA bacteriophage (GA) in secondary treated wastewaters. The role of UV dose and the impact of suspended solids concentration on removal efficiency were also examined. The study also investigated the role of settlement processes in wastewater treatment plants in removing NoV. While NoV inactivation could not be determined it was found that at a maximum UV dose of 6.9 J/cm{sup 2} (6900 mJ/cm{sup 2}) an average 2.4 log removal of FRNA bacteriophage (GA) was observed; indicating the potential need for high UV doses to remove NoV if FRNA bacteriophage prove a suitable indicator for NoV. The study found that increasing concentrations of suspended solids impacted on PUV efficiency however, it appears the extent of the impact may be site specific. Furthermore, the study found that settlement processes can play a significant role in the removal of FRNA bacteriophage, thus potentially NoV. - Highlights: • Effectiveness of low pressure UV and novel high-intensity pulsed UV disinfection in NoVs removal. • Reduction of FRNA bacteriophage was seen in clarified wastewater after settling. • Adsorption of viral particles

  10. Unconscious Deception Detection Measured by Finger Skin Temperature and Indirect Veracity Judgments – Results of a Registered Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth van 't Veer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A pre-registered experiment was conducted to examine psychophysiological responses to beinglied to. Bridging research on social cognition and deception detection, we hypothesized that observing a liar compared to a truth-teller would decrease finger skin temperature of observers. Participants first watched two targets while not forewarned that they would later be asked to judge (direct and indirect veracity, and then watched another two targets while forewarned about this. During both these phases finger skin temperature was measured. Findings pertaining to temperature partly confirmed our main hypothesis. When participants were observing a liar, irrespective of being forewarned, on average finger skin temperature declined over time. In the forewarned phase, temperature trajectories of truth-tellers were higher than those of liars, however, in the not forewarned phase, this pattern was reversed. Results confirmed our further hypotheses that participants judge liars as less likeable and less trustworthy than truth-tellers—an indication of indirect deception detection. Our hypothesis that the effect size for trustworthiness would be bigger than that of liking was not supported by the data. Additionally, and also confirming our hypothesis, participants performed around chance level when directly judging whether the target person was lying. Exploratory analyses are reported with regard to truth bias and dependency between direct and indirect veracity judgments. Limitations and directions for future work related to the existence of psychophysiological indicators of deception detection are discussed.

  11. Dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies and indirect detection: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, Louis E.

    2018-05-01

    Indirect dark matter searches targeting dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) have matured rapidly during the past decade. This has been because of the substantial increase in kinematic data sets from the dSphs, the new dSphs that have been discovered, and the operation of the Fermi-LAT and many ground-based gamma-ray experiments. Here we review the analysis methods that have been used to determine the dSph dark matter distributions, in particular the ‘J-factors’, comparing and contrasting them, and detailing the underlying systematics that still affect the analysis. We discuss prospects for improving measurements of dark matter distributions, and how these interplay with future indirect dark matter searches.

  12. Dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies and indirect detection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, Louis E

    2018-02-09

    Indirect dark matter searches targeting dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) have matured rapidly during the past decade. This has been because of the substantial increase in kinematic data sets from the dSphs, the new dSphs that have been discovered, and the operation of the Fermi-LAT and many ground-based gamma-ray experiments. Here we review the analysis methods that have been used to determine the dSph dark matter distributions, in particular the 'J-factors', comparing and contrasting them, and detailing the underlying systematics that still affect the analysis. We discuss prospects for improving measurements of dark matter distributions, and how these interplay with future indirect dark matter searches.

  13. The New World Observer: Scientific rationale for detecting biomarkers between the UV and near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, S.; Wilkinson, E.; Cash, W.

    2003-12-01

    The New World Observer(NWO) is a distributed instrument concept designed for UV/visible wavelength spectroscopy of extrasolar planets and was submitted in response to the NASA "Vision Mission" announcement of opportunity. NWO is essentially a pinhole camera where the "pinhole" and the "detector" are separate, formation flying spacecraft separated by ˜180,000 km. The size of the "pinhole" and distance from the "detector" spacecraft are optimized for isolating the image of an Earth-like planet from it's parent star at the focal plane and minimizing the time necessary to acquire a low-resolution spectrum of the planet. We present the scientific rationale behind observing in the UV/visible/near-IR portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and simulations of potential spectra. We discuss the biomarkers that exist from UV wavelengths through 2 microns, including, but not limited to, water, oxygen, ozone, nitrous oxide, and methane, and possible interpretations that can be derived from detections of these biomarkers. Also discussed are the effects of vegetation, weather, and planetary rotation. Simulations of observed spectra assume different instrument configurations and explore the sensitivity of NWO to a variety of biomarkers. Ultimately, the simulations demonstrate the power of the NWO concept for acquiring high quality spectra of Earth-like planets out to tens of parsecs.

  14. Characteristics of GaN material and application in UV detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianliang; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Xiaohui; Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, Benkang

    2012-10-01

    For the characteristics such as wide bandgap, low dielectric constant, ability to bear high temperature, ability to resist radiation etc., GaN material can be used for UV solar blind detection in very rigorous environments. But for a long time, the preparation technology for GaN material has been still keeping it from being used extensively. GaN photocathode with good future is developed slowly in the field of UV detection. The key method of obtaining effective photoemission is to reduce the vacuum energy level of GaN emission surface, make it lower than bulk conduction band minimum. Negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathode can convert the light under 365 nm to the photoelectrons that can be sent to the free space. The surface potential of NEA GaN photocathode is made up of two straight line sections with different slope. As the first dipole layer, [GaN(Mg):Cs] dipole brings 3.0 eV decline of the vacuum energy level, make the GaN photocathode surface obtain about -1.0 eV effective negative electron affinity. The second dipole O-Cs makes effective electron affinity reduce further to - 1.2 eV. The results show: near 37% quantum efficiency can be gotten at the wavelength 200 nm for reflection-mode GaN photocathode, and the quantum efficiency reaches up to 13% at 290 nm in transmission mode. The large quantum efficiency and high stability are very good properties for UV detection devices employing GaN photoemitter.

  15. A SHERLOC Study: Detection of Organics in Simulated Martian Soil using Deep UV Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, W.; Bhartia, R.; Carrier, B. L.; Doloboff, I.; Hara, E. K.; Beegle, L. W.

    2017-12-01

    The SHERLOC investigation is a vital part of NASA's 2020 Mars payload [1]. It utilizes deep UV Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy to enable non-contact, non-destructive detection and characterization of in situ organics and minerals in the Martian surface and near subsurface. Raman spectroscopy using deep UV excitation wavelengths (noise ratio. Also, it should be noted that this technique requires very low fluence on the sample ( 60 J/cm2), minimizing degradation of organics and allowing their detection in the presence of strong oxidizers without fear of combustion due to heating [5,6]. In this study, perchlorate at 1 wt% was successfully detected in the presence of organic compounds native to the MMS; this concentration is comparable to the amount of perchlorate suspected to be present in Mars soil [6,7]. This work expands on data previously reported in Abbey et al., 2017 [8]. References: [1] Beegle et al., 2015 IEEE Aerospace Conf., 2015; [2] Asher, Anal. Chem. 65 (4), 1993; [3] Bhartia et al., Appl. Spectrosc. 62 (10), 2008; [4] Peters et al., Icarus 197, 2008; [5] Navarro-Gonzalez et al., J. Geophys. Res. 115, 2010; [6] Glavin et al., J. Geophys. Res. 118, 2013; [7] Hecht et al., Science 325, 2009; [8] Abbey et al., Icarus 290, 2017.

  16. Detection and determination of volatile metal compounds in the atmosphere by a Mist-UV sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masayoshi; Shooter, David

    A newly developed system (Mist-UV sampling system) to simultaneously trap and detect metal compounds in the atmosphere is described. Metals present in atmospheric samples as volatile metal compounds (VMCs), including those associated with condensation mode particles, are simultaneously oxidized by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (low-pressure mercury lamp) and dissolved in nitric acid mist in an oxidation chamber. Air is first passed through a 0.2 μm filter and then mixed with a nitric acid mist and exposed to UV radiation after which it is passed through a nitric acid trap. After trapping, the inorganic metals resulting from the VMCs and particulates are quantitatively determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). After development, this sampling system was applied directly to the quantitation of VMCs in ambient air in Auckland, New Zealand. The trapping efficiency of the Mist-UV sampling system was over 69% for each of the seven different metals that were detected in the atmosphere (Mg, Al, Ga, Sr, Ba, Hg and Pb). Key results obtained were: Mg concentrations were found to be higher than concentrations associated with particulate in remote air (range: 0.36-1.6 μg m -3); Al and Sr existed as VMCs unaffected by UV; UV oxidized Hg provided the total concentration of Hg detected. The characteristics of the Mist-UV sampling system suggest that it can be used as a tool to determine volatile metals, metal clusters and metals associated with particulates transport and deposition.

  17. A comparative study of the neutralisation test and the indirect fluorescent antibody technique for the detection of antibodies to the virus of Aujeszky in pig sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirahadiredja, R M; Rondhuis, P R

    1976-10-15

    A microneutralisation test and an indirect fluorescent antibody technique for the detection of antibodies to Aujeszky-virus in pig sera are described. All the sera were tested with both techniques and the results were compared. Serum dilutions of less than 1:32 which produced a positive reaction in the indirect FAT were considered nonspecific. Bij contrast, all neutralising antibody titers of less than 1:8 gave nonspecific reactions in the indirect FAT.

  18. Detection of Organic Matter in Greenland Ice Cores by Deep-UV Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, M.; Malaska, M.; Wanger, G.; Bhartia, R.; Eshelman, E.; Abbey, W.; Priscu, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is an Earthly analog for icy ocean worlds in the outer Solar System. Future missions to such worlds including Europa, Enceladus, and Titan may potentially include spectroscopic instrumentation to examine the surface/subsurface. The primary goal of our research is to test deep UV/Raman systems for in the situ detection and localization of organics in ice. As part of this effort we used a deep-UV fluorescence instrument able to detect naturally fluorescent biological materials such as aromatic molecules found in proteins and whole cells. We correlated these data with more traditional downstream analyses of organic material in natural ices. Supraglacial ice cores (2-4 m) were collected from several sites on the southwest outlet of the Greenland Ice Sheet using a 14-cm fluid-free mechanical coring system. Repeat spectral mapping data were initially collected longitudinally on uncut core sections. Cores were then cut into 2 cm thick sections along the longitudinal axis, slowly melted and analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), and bacterial density. These data reveal a spatial correlation between organic matter concentration, cell density, and the deep UV fluorescence maps. Our results provide a profile of the organics embedded within the ice from the top surface into the glacial subsurface, and the TOC:TDN data from the clean interior of the cores are indicative of a biological origin. This work provides a background dataset for future work to characterize organic carbon in the Greenland Ice Sheet and validation of novel instrumentation for in situ data collection on icy bodies.

  19. Model-independent indirect detection constraints on hidden sector dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elor, Gilly; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei

    2016-06-01

    If dark matter inhabits an expanded ``hidden sector'', annihilations may proceed through sequential decays or multi-body final states. We map out the potential signals and current constraints on such a framework in indirect searches, using a model-independent setup based on multi-step hierarchical cascade decays. While remaining agnostic to the details of the hidden sector model, our framework captures the generic broadening of the spectrum of secondary particles (photons, neutrinos, e+e- and bar p p) relative to the case of direct annihilation to Standard Model particles. We explore how indirect constraints on dark matter annihilation limit the parameter space for such cascade/multi-particle decays. We investigate limits from the cosmic microwave background by Planck, the Fermi measurement of photons from the dwarf galaxies, and positron data from AMS-02. The presence of a hidden sector can change the constraints on the dark matter by up to an order of magnitude in either direction (although the effect can be much smaller). We find that generally the bound from the Fermi dwarfs is most constraining for annihilations to photon-rich final states, while AMS-02 is most constraining for electron and muon final states; however in certain instances the CMB bounds overtake both, due to their approximate independence on the details of the hidden sector cascade. We provide the full set of cascade spectra considered here as publicly available code with examples at http://web.mit.edu/lns/research/CascadeSpectra.html.

  20. Comparison of two indirect ELISA coating antigens for the detection of dairy cow antibodies against Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankaew, Pallop; Srisawat, Wanwisa; Singhla, Tawatchai; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Kataoka, Yasushi; Sawada, Takuo; Sthitmatee, Nattawooti

    2018-02-01

    The ELISA is recognized as an efficient diagnostic tool for antibody detection, but there is no standard ELISA assay for detection of antibodies against hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) in cattle. The present study reports on an indirect ELISA assay for antibody detection of HS in dairy cows, and evaluates the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the method using a Bayesian approach. An indirect ELISA was developed with two types of heat extract antigens, Pasteurella multocida strains P-1256 and M-1404, as coating antigens. A checkerboard titration was employed using dairy cow sera immunized with P. multocida bacterin and colostrum-deprived calf sera. The concentrations of heat extract antigen (160μg/mL), sample serum (1:100) and goat anti-bovine immunoglobulin G labeled with horseradish peroxidase (1:2000) were optimal for the assay. The cut-off values were 0.147 and 0.128 for P-1256 and M-1404 coating antigens, and there were no differences in the results of tests with positive and negative sera (p<0.05). The characteristics of three diagnostic tests were evaluated using a one-population Bayesian model, assuming conditional dependence between two types of coating antigen-based ELISAs and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). A total of 415 sera samples from dairy cows without HS vaccination and no history of disease were tested. The Se and Sp of the P-1256 and M-1404 ELISAs were higher than those of the IHA. The Se and Sp of the P-1256 ELISA were 90.3% and 90.1%, while the Se and Sp of the M-1404 ELISA were 92.1% and 71.9%. The median values of Se and Sp from the IHA were 36.0% and 58.2%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optical detection of magnetoplasma resonances in indirect-gap AlAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khisameeva, A. R.; Gubarev, S. I.; Murav'ev, V. M.; Kukushkin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetoplasma excitations in AlAs/AlGaAs quantum wells, characterized by strong anisotropy in the effective mass of two-dimensional electrons, are investigated using the optical detection of resonance microwave absorption. This technique is used for the first time for an indirect-gap semiconductor. It is found that the magnetic dispersion of the cyclotron magnetoplasma mode deviates significantly from the theoretically expected behavior. This may be related to the considerably more pronounced manifestation of retardation effects in two-dimensional systems with an anisotropic energy spectrum.

  2. Indirect ELISA for the detection of IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus in quail serum

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, D.D.; Folgueras-Flatschart, A.V.; Flatschart, R.B.; Resende, J.S.; Abreu, J.T.; Martins, N.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    An indirect ELISA for the detection of japanese quail IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed. The secondary anti-quail IgG was produced in Balb/c mice, by inoculating Freund's complete adjuvant emulsified japanese quail-IgG extract. The purification of IgG was achieved using the caprilic acid method. The ELISA was compared to the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test for antibodies to NDV. ELISA cut-off point was established through TG-ROC analysis. Total correlation was...

  3. Detection of UV-induced thymine dimers in individual Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts by immunofluorescence microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Adhami, B.H.; Nichols, R.A.B.; Kusel, J.R.; O'Grady, J.; Smith, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effect of UV light on Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in vitro, we exposed intact oocysts to 4-, 10-, 20-, and 40-mJ·cm−2 doses of UV irradiation. Thymine dimers were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy using a monoclonal antibody against cyclobutyl thymine dimers (anti-TDmAb). Dimer-specific fluorescence within sporozoite nuclei was confirmed by colocalization with the nuclear fluorogen 4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Oocyst walls we...

  4. Model-independent indirect detection constraints on hidden sector dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elor, Gilly; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    If dark matter inhabits an expanded “hidden sector”, annihilations may proceed through sequential decays or multi-body final states. We map out the potential signals and current constraints on such a framework in indirect searches, using a model-independent setup based on multi-step hierarchical cascade decays. While remaining agnostic to the details of the hidden sector model, our framework captures the generic broadening of the spectrum of secondary particles (photons, neutrinos, e{sup +}e{sup −} and p-barp) relative to the case of direct annihilation to Standard Model particles. We explore how indirect constraints on dark matter annihilation limit the parameter space for such cascade/multi-particle decays. We investigate limits from the cosmic microwave background by Planck, the Fermi measurement of photons from the dwarf galaxies, and positron data from AMS-02. The presence of a hidden sector can change the constraints on the dark matter by up to an order of magnitude in either direction (although the effect can be much smaller). We find that generally the bound from the Fermi dwarfs is most constraining for annihilations to photon-rich final states, while AMS-02 is most constraining for electron and muon final states; however in certain instances the CMB bounds overtake both, due to their approximate independence on the details of the hidden sector cascade. We provide the full set of cascade spectra considered here as publicly available code with examples at http://web.mit.edu/lns/research/CascadeSpectra.html.

  5. Detecting Kerogen as a Biosignature Using Co-located UV Time-Gated Raman and Fuorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolyar, S.; Eshelman, E.; Farmer, J. D.; Hamilton, D.; Daly, M. G.; Youngbull, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars 2020 mission will analyze samples in situ and identify any that could have preserved biosignatures in ancient habitable environments for later return to Earth. Highest-priority targeted samples include aqueously formed sedimentary lithologies containing fossil biosignatures as aromatic carbon (kerogen). In this study, we analyze non-extracted, naturally preserved kerogen in a diverse suite of realistic Mars analogs using combined UV excitation time-gated (UV-TG) Raman and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. We interrogated kerogen and its host matrix in samples to: (1) explore the capabilities of UV-TG Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for detecting kerogen in high-priority targets in the search for a Martian fossil record; (2) assess the effectiveness of time-gating and UV laser wavelength in reducing fluorescence; and (3) identify sample-specific issues which could challenge rover-based identifications of kerogen using UV-TG Raman spectroscopy. We found that ungated UV Raman is suited to identify diagnostic kerogen Raman bands without interfering fluorescence and that fluorescence features indicating kerogen are detectable. These data highlight the value of using both co-located Raman and fluorescence data sets together to strengthen the confidence of kerogen detection as a potential biosignature and are obtainable by SHERLOC onboard Mars 2020.

  6. Evaluation of an In-house indirect ELISA for detection of antibody against haemorrhagic septicemia in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankaew, Pallop; Singh-La, Thawatchai; Titaram, Chatchote; Punyapornwittaya, Veerasak; Vongchan, Preeyanat; Sawada, Takuo; Sthitmatee, Nattawooti

    2017-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes haemorrhagic septicemia in livestock and wild animals, including elephants. The disease has been reported in Asian elephants in India and Sri Lanka, but to date there have been no reported cases in Thailand. ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays (IHA) have been demonstrated to be able to detect the antibody against the disease in cattle, but no data are available for elephants. The present study reports a novel in-house indirect ELISA for antibody detection of haemorrhagic septicemia in Asian elephants, and evaluates the sensitivity and specificity of the method using a Bayesian approach. The characteristics of ELISA and IHA were analyzed using a one population Bayesian model assuming conditional dependence between these two diagnostic tests. The IHA was performed as recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) manual for haemorrhagic septicemia. An in-house indirect ELISA was developed with a heat extract antigen of P. multocida strain M-1404 (serovar B:2) as a coating antigen and rabbit anti-immunoglobulin G conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (eIgG-HRP). The checkerboard titration method was done using elephant sera immunized with P. multocida bacterin and negative sera from colostrum-deprived elephant calves. The concentrations of heat extract antigen (160μg/ml), sample serum (1:100), and eIgG-HRP (1:1000) were optimal for the assay. The calculated cut-off value was 0.103. Of the elephant sera, 50.59% (43/85) were considered seropositive by ELISA. The sensitivity of the ELISA test was higher than that of the IHA test [median=86.5%, 95% posterior probability interval (PPI)=52.5-98.9%] while the specificity was lower (median=54.1%, PPI=43.6-64.7%). The median sensitivity and specificity of IHA were 80.5% (PPI=43.8-98.0%) and 78.4% (PPI=69.0-87.0%), respectively. These findings suggest that our in-house indirect ELISA can be used as a tool to detect the antibody against haemorrhagic septicemia in Asian

  7. Utilizing Intrinsic Properties of Polyaniline to Detect Nucleic Acid Hybridization through UV-Enhanced Electrostatic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Partha Pratim; Gloria, Jared N; Amato, Dahlia N; Amato, Douglas V; Patton, Derek L; Murali, Beddhu; Flynt, Alex S

    2015-10-12

    Detection of specific RNA or DNA molecules by hybridization to "probe" nucleic acids via complementary base-pairing is a powerful method for analysis of biological systems. Here we describe a strategy for transducing hybridization events through modulating intrinsic properties of the electroconductive polymer polyaniline (PANI). When DNA-based probes electrostatically interact with PANI, its fluorescence properties are increased, a phenomenon that can be enhanced by UV irradiation. Hybridization of target nucleic acids results in dissociation of probes causing PANI fluorescence to return to basal levels. By monitoring restoration of base PANI fluorescence as little as 10(-11) M (10 pM) of target oligonucleotides could be detected within 15 min of hybridization. Detection of complementary oligos was specific, with introduction of a single mismatch failing to form a target-probe duplex that would dissociate from PANI. Furthermore, this approach is robust and is capable of detecting specific RNAs in extracts from animals. This sensor system improves on previously reported strategies by transducing highly specific probe dissociation events through intrinsic properties of a conducting polymer without the need for additional labels.

  8. Detection of Ganoderic Acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi by an Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Kohno, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushroom traditionally used for treating various diseases. Ganoderic acid A is one of the major bioactive Ganoderma triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma species. Herein, we produced a highly specific monoclonal antibody against ganoderic acid A (MAb 12 A) and developed an indirect competitive ELISA for the highly sensitive detection of ganoderic acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi, with a limit of detection of 6.10 ng/mL. Several validation analyses support the accuracy and reliability of the developed indirect competitive ELISA for use in the quality control of Ganoderma based on ganoderic acid A content. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of ganoderic acid A in G. lingzhi revealed that the pileus exhibits the highest ganoderic acid A content compared with the stipe and spore of the fruiting body; the best extraction efficiency was found when 50 % ethanol was used, which suggests the use of a strong liquor to completely harness the potential of Ganoderma triterpenoids in daily life. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Assays to Detect UV-reflecting Structures and Determine their Importance in Mate Preference using the Sailfin Molly Poecilia latipinna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankison, Shala J; Palmer, Meredith S

    2016-09-14

    Many organisms use cues and signals beyond human sensitivity during social interactions. It is important to take into account how organisms perceive their worlds when trying to understand their behavior and ecology. Sensitivity to the ultraviolet spectrum (UV; 300 - 400 nm) is found across multiple genera of birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and even mammals. This protocol describes a technique for examining organisms for the presence of UV-reflecting structures and a method for testing whether these cues are used as social signals in the context of mate choice. A spectrophotometer is used to detect the presence of UV reflectance and variation in reflective intensity between individuals and sexes. An example of this technique is presented in which a dichotomous mate choice test exposes sexually receptive individuals to opposite sex individuals whose visual appearance can be manipulated by filters that either transmit full spectrum or block UV wavelengths. This system allowed for the determination that female, but not male, sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) were using UV markings as part of their mating decisions. These types of studies serve to expand our knowledge of the range of organisms that utilize UV and provide insight into how UV plays a role in their lives.

  10. A rapid and reliable determination of doxycycline hyclate by HPLC with UV detection in pharmaceutical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNEZANA S. MITIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An accurate, sensitive and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method for the quantification of doxycycline hyclate in pharmaceutical samples has been developed and validated. The drug and the standard were eluted from a Lichrosorb RP-8 (250 mm´4.6 mm, 10 mm particle size at 20 °C with a mobile phase consisting of methanol, acetonitrile and 0.010 M aqueous solution of oxalic acid (2:3:5, v/v/v. The flow rate was 1.25 ml min-1. A UV detector set at 350 nm was used to monitor the effluent. Each analysis required no longer than 4 min. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.15 and 3.84 μg ml-1, respectively. Recoveries for different concentrations ranged from 99.58 to 101.93 %.

  11. Application of a molecular biology concept for the detection of DNA damage and repair during UV disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süss, Jacqueline; Volz, Sabrina; Obst, Ursula; Schwartz, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    As nucleic acids are major targets in bacteria during standardised UV disinfection (254 nm), inactivation rates also depend on bacterial DNA repair. Due to UV-related DNA modifications, PCR-based approaches allow for a direct detection of DNA damage and repair during UV disinfection. By applying different primer sets, the correlation between amplicon length and PCR amplification became obvious. The longer the targeted DNA fragment was, the more UV-induced DNA lesions inhibited the PCR. Regeneration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and complex wastewater communities was recorded over a time period of 66 h. While phases of intensive repair and proliferation were found for P. aeruginosa, no DNA repair was detected by qPCR in E. faecium. Cultivation experiments verified these results. Despite high UV mediated inactivation rates original wastewater bacteria seem to express an enhanced robustness against irradiation. Regeneration of dominant and proliferation of low-abundant, probably UV-resistant species contributed to a strong post-irradiation recovery accompanied by a selection for beta-Proteobacteria.

  12. Use of Indirect Calorimetry to Detect Overfeeding in Critically Ill Children: Finding the Appropriate Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerklaan, Dorian; Hulst, Jessie M; Verhoeven, Jennifer J; Verbruggen, Sascha C A T; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-10-01

    Overfeeding during critical illness is associated with adverse effects such as metabolic disturbances and increased risk of infection. Because of the lack of sound studies with clinical endpoints, overfeeding is arbitrarily defined as the ratio caloric intake/measured resting energy expenditure (mREE) or alternatively as a comparison of measured respiratory quotient (RQ) to the predicted RQ based on the macronutrient intake (RQmacr). We aimed to compare definitions of overfeeding in critically ill mechanically ventilated children based on mREE, RQ, and caloric intake to find an appropriate definition. Indirect calorimetry measurements were performed in 78 mechanically ventilated children, median age 6.3 months. Enteral and/or parenteral nutrition was provided according to the local guidelines. Definitions used to indicate overfeeding were the ratio caloric intake/mREE of >110% and >120% and by the measured RQ > RQmacr + 0.05. The proportion of patients identified as overfed varied widely depending on the definition used, ranging from 22% (RQ > RQmacr + 0.05), to 40% and 50% (caloric intake/mREE of >120% and >110%, respectively). Linear regression analysis showed that all patients would be identified as overfed with the definition RQ > RQmacr + 0.05 when the ratio caloric intake/mREE exceeded 165%. Caloric intake was higher in children with a standard deviation-score weight for age definition applied. These currently used definitions fail to take into account several relevant factors affecting metabolism during critical illness and are therefore not generally applicable to the pediatric intensive care unit population.

  13. Subdivision of Pantanal Quaternary Wetlands: Modis Ndvi Timeseries in the Indirect Detection of Sediments Granulometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penatti, N. C.; de Almeida, T. I. R.

    2012-07-01

    The Pantanal is the world's largest wetland presenting a variety of ecological sub-regions. The region is characterized by seasonal floods followed by long droughts. At this period, some areas rapidly dry, while others remain soaked. The study hypothesis was based on the statement that this phenomenon cannot be totally explained by small relief variations but by the sediment granulometry: the pelitic sediments allow the soil to retain moisture longer, implying that the vegetation has greater possibilities of continuing photosynthetically active even during the drought. It was developed based on the spectral behaviour of MODIS products, validated by previous fieldwork. Using MODIS, we studied a large scale patterns in spatial and seasonal dynamics of the vegetation in different regions of Pantanal. So, two indirect parameters of the local physical environment - sediment granulometry and water availability - potentially can be estimated. We calculated the NDVI from MOD09GQ for rainy and dry seasons, generating triplets (NDVI/NIR and Red bands) that allowed to identify vegetation changes in those periods. The 16-days composites of NDVI (MOD13Q1) were used to generate a 5-year time-series for pixels associated with 161 locals sampled for granulometric analyses. The samples were taken in 10 different areas from the 20 geological and environmentally homologous areas delimited in this research. The clear tendency in the time-series confirms the working hypothesis, indicating that there is a high relationship between drought-related changes in vegetation extracted from NDVI and sediment texture, parameter that plays an important role in soil moisture, influencing the vegetation response to droughts.

  14. Detection of understory bamboo in giant panda habitats using an indirect remote sensing approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Wang, T.; Liu, Y.F.; Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The bamboo is the exclusive food of the wild giant pandas. Detection of the bamboo forest in giant panda habitat will help scientists further understand the spatial distribution pattern of giant pandas and their habitats. Moreover, it provides crucial scientific evidence for estimating habitat

  15. Application of cholesterol determination method to indirectly detect meat and bone meals in ruminant feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília M. Bandeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the presence of meat and bone meal (MBM in ruminant feed, by identifying the cholesterol using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The proposed method demonstrated precision, trueness, and capability to detect MBM in the ruminant feed.

  16. Indirect Detection Of Bacillus Anthracis (Anthrax) Using Amplified Gamma Phage-Based Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    the four detection methods studied in this dissertation. Phage m 130 REFERENCES CITED 1. Madigan, M.T. and J.M. Martinko, Brock Biology of...INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Bacteria are small free-living organisms called microorganisms or microbes that have been around for billions of...lack a membrane enclosed nucleus, which can usually be grown on solid and/or in liquid culture media. These prokaryotic microorganisms have

  17. Online in-tube microextractor coupled with UV-Vis spectrophotometer for bisphenol A detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorahong, Sujittra; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2013-01-01

    A simple and high extraction efficiency online in-tube microextractor (ITME) was developed for bisphenol A (BPA) detection in water samples. The ITME was fabricated by a stepwise electrodeposition of polyaniline, polyethylene glycol and polydimethylsiloxane composite (CPANI) inside a silico-steel tube. The obtained ITME coupled with UV-Vis detection at 278 nm was investigated. By this method, the extraction and pre-concentration of BPA in water were carried out in a single step. Under optimum conditions, the system provided a linear dynamic range of 0.1 to 100 μM with a limit of detection of 20 nM (S/N ≥3). A single in-tube microextractor had a good stability of more than 60 consecutive injections for 10.0 μM BPA with a relative standard deviation of less than 4%. Moreover, a good tube-to-tube reproducibility and precision were obtained. The system was applied to detect BPA in water samples from six brands of baby bottles and the results showed good agreement with those obtained from the conventional GC-MS method. Acceptable percentage recoveries from the spiked water samples were obtained, ranging from 83-102% for this new method compared with 73-107% for the GC-MS standard method. This new in-tube CPANI microextractor provided an excellent extraction efficiency and a good reproducibility. In addition, it can also be easily applied for the analysis of other polar organic compounds contaminated in water sample.

  18. Indirect glyphosate detection based on ninhydrin reaction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng-Lei; Gao, Yu; Li, Yali; Li, Xueliang; Zhang, Huanjie; Han, Xiao Xia; Zhao, Bing; Su, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly-used and non-selective herbicides in agriculture, which may directly pollute the environment and threaten human health. A simple and effective approach to assessment of its damage to the natural environment is thus quite necessary. However, traditional chromatography-based detection methods usually suffer from complex pretreatment procedures. Herein, we propose a simple and sensitive method for the determination of glyphosate by combining ninhydrin reaction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The product (purple color dye, PD) of the ninhydrin reaction is found to SERS-active and directly correlate with the glyphosate concentration. The limit of detection of the proposed method for glyphosate is as low as 1.43 × 10- 8 mol·L- 1 with a relatively wider linear concentration range (1.0 × 10- 7-1.0 × 10- 4 mol·L- 1), which demonstrates its great potential in rapid, highly sensitive concentration determination of glyphosate in practical applications for safety assessment of food and environment.

  19. Evaluation of Global Genomic DNA Methylation in Human Whole Blood by Capillary Electrophoresis UV Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Zinellu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in global DNA methylation are implicated in various pathophysiological processes. The development of simple and quick, yet robust, methods to assess DNA methylation is required to facilitate its measurement and interpretation in clinical practice. We describe a highly sensitive and reproducible capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection for the separation and detection of cytosine and methylcytosine, after formic acid hydrolysis of DNA extracted from human whole blood. Hydrolysed samples were dried and resuspended with water and directly injected into the capillary without sample derivatization procedures. The use of a run buffer containing 50 mmol/L BIS-TRIS propane (BTP phosphate buffer at pH 3.25 and 60 mmol/L sodium acetate buffer at pH 3.60 (4 : 1, v/v allowed full analyte identification within 11 min. Precision tests indicated an elevated reproducibility with an interassay CV of 1.98% when starting from 2 μg of the extracted DNA. The method was successfully tested by measuring the DNA methylation degree both in healthy volunteers and in reference calf thymus DNA.

  20. [Indirect hemagglutination test for detection of antibodies to cytomegalovirus in blood collected on blotting paper (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabau, N; Duros, C; Ravisé, N; Coulon, M; Boué, A

    1976-10-01

    Indirect hemagglutination test for detection of antibodies to cytomegalovirus is highly sensitive and reproducible, if employed in well-defined conditions. Standardization of the various factors involved is necessary as well as their reciprocal equilibrium : sheep erythrocytes, antigen, dilution of tanin, buffers quality. The hemagglutination test can be performed on small volumes such as blood collection on blotting paper (PKU). Antibody titers were compared in the serum and the blood so collected in 104 subjects : the results were very similar and no "false negative" were found in any case. This way of collecting blood and hemagglutination are technical improvements in epidemiologic studies of cytomegalovirus infection. It can be hoped they will be adapted to other group herpes infections.

  1. Cosmic Ray Experiments and the Implications for Indirect Detection of Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.; Ormes, Jonathan F.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of cosmic-ray antiprotons was first reported by Golden et al. in 1979 and their existence was firmly established by the BESS and IMAX collaborations in the early 1990s. Increasingly precise measurements of the antiproton spectrum, most recently from BESS-Polar and PAMELA, have made it an important tool for investigating cosmic-ray transport in the galaxy and heliosphere and for constraining dark-matter models. The history of antiproton measurements will be briefly reviewed. The current status will be discussed, focusing on the results of BESS-Polar II and their implications for the possibility of antiprotons from primordial black hole evaporation. The current results of the BESS-Polar II antihelium search are also presented.

  2. Physiological bases for detecting and predicting photoinhibition of aquatic photosynthesis by PAR and UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neale, P.J.; Cullen, J.J.; Lesser, M.P.; Melis, A.

    1993-01-01

    stress is usually time dependent (12, 36); the light history of the cells must be known to specify the overall effect. The established method for measuring phytoplankton production, photosynthetic incorporation of 14 C into organic carbon during a12-24 h bottle incubation, may seriously misrepresent irradiance regimes actually experienced by phytoplankton in situ. Further discussion of the interaction of photoinhibition and mixing can be found in (36).We propose that an integrated modeling-sampling approach is needed to define the effects of irradiance stress on productivity in situ. The model should incorporate an optical specification of the underwater irradiance environment, abiological weighting function to account for the wavelength-dependence of photoinhibition of photosynthesis, and a response function of biological action during vertical mixing to account for the differences between static incubations and natural movements of phytoplankton. Recently, excellent progress has been made toward defining the individual components of this model (See also Cullen and Neale, this volume). To verify the model, we need to detect reliably the occurrence of irradiance stress in situ. This is the sampling side of the integrated approach. In particular, we would like to differentiate between the effects of PAR and UV. We propose that such detection can be accomplished by indicator assays (or ''diagnostic markers''). Such assays would involve little or no incubation of samples, so that the measurement corresponds as closely as possible to the physiological state of the phytoplankton at time of sampling.Our objective here is to review selected aspects of irradiance stress at biophysical and molecular levels, and then proceed to examine how that information can be used to design indicator assays of irradiance stress for phytoplankton photosynthesis in situ. The effects of PAR and UV at the cellular level and the use of in vivo fluorescence and molecular probes

  3. Quantification of five plasticizers used in PVC tubing through high performance liquid chromatographic-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaniel, Tsanta; Genay, Stéphanie; Simon, Nicolas; Feutry, Frédéric; Quagliozzi, Francesca; Barthélémy, Christine; Lecoeur, Marie; Sautou, Valérie; Décaudin, Bertrand; Odou, Pascal

    2014-08-15

    Searching for alternatives to di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, a plasticizer that has been widely used in the manufacturing of PVC medical devices, has become a major challenge since a European regulation underlined some clinical risks. The aim of this study is to develop an HPLC-UV method to quantify the currently used alternative plasticizers to DEHP. Five plasticizers, acetyl tributyl citrate, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, di-(ethylhexyl)-terephthalate, di-isononyl-1,2-cyclohexane-dicarboxylate, and trioctyl trimellitate, were separated on a C8 stationary phase (2.6 μm, 100 mm × 4.6mm) under gradient elution in 13 min. They were detected at 221 nm leading to a quantification threshold from 0.3 to 750 μg/mL as a function of the plasticizer. Within-day and between-day precisions were inferior to 0.9% and 18%, respectively. The assays were validated according to the accuracy profile method. Plasticizers were extracted from PVC-tubing by dissolving PVC in THF then precipitating it in methanol with a yield of over 90% for each plasticizer. This assay could feasibly be used to quantify plasticizers in PVC medical devices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterizing Protein Complexes with UV absorption, Light Scattering, and Refractive Index Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainoff, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Many modern pharmaceuticals and naturally occurring biomolecules consist of complexes of proteins and polyethylene glycol or carbohydrates. In the case of vaccine development, these complexes are often used to induce or amplify immune responses. For protein therapeutics they are used to modify solubility and function, or to control the rate of degradation and elimination of a drug from the body. Characterizing the stoichiometry of these complexes is an important industrial problem that presents a formidable challenge to analytical instrument designers. Traditional analytical methods, such as using florescent tagging, chemical assays, and mass spectrometry perturb the system so dramatically that the complexes are often destroyed or uncontrollably modified by the measurement. A solution to this problem consists of fractionating the samples and then measuring the fractions using sequential non-invasive detectors that are sensitive to different components of the complex. We present results using UV absorption, which is primarily sensitive to the protein fraction, Light Scattering, which measures the total weight average molar mass, and Refractive Index detection, which measures the net concentration. We also present a solution of the problem inter-detector band-broadening problem that has heretofore made this approach impractical. Presented will be instrumentation and an analysis method that overcome these obstacles and make this technique a reliable and robust way of non-invasively characterizing these industrially important compounds.

  5. Development of indirect competitive ELISA using egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) for the detection of Gentamicin residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxin; Hu, Jianjun; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Ruediger; Du, Enqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Gentamicin (Gent) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic being used in livestock sector. Gent residues could cause some genetic disorders by nonsense mutations. This study aimed to develop IgY-based ELISA for the detection of Gent in animal products. Gent was conjugated with Bovine serum albumin (BSA) by carbodiimide method for further immunization in the laying chickens. PEG-6000 extraction method was employed to extract IgY from the egg yolk. The titer of anti-Gent-IgY attained the peak of 1:256,000 after the 5(th) booster immunization. Checkerboard titration confirmed that, anti-Gent IgY in 1:2,000 dilution could give an Optical Density (OD) 1.0 at 2 µg mL(-1) of Gent-OVA coating concentration. IgY-based indirect competitive ELISA (Ic-ELISA) showed that, the IC50 value of anti-Gent IgY was 2.69 ng mL(-1) and regression curve equation was y = -16.27x + 56.97 (R(2) = 0.95, n = 3), confirming that, the detection limit (LOD, IC10 value) was 0.01 ng mL(-1). Recoveries from fresh milk, pork and chicken samples were ranged from 69.82% to 94.32%, with relative standard deviation lower than 10.88%. Our results suggested that generated anti-Gent IgY antibodies can be used in routine screening analysis of Gent residues in food samples.

  6. Benzophenone Suppression of Quercetin Antioxidant Activity towards Lipids under UV-B Irradiation Regime: Detection by HPLC Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena S. Stanojević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a well-known flavonoid antioxidant, has been employed to control benzophenone-sensitized peroxidation of the lipid mixture in methanol solution, induced by continuous UV-B irradiation. Surprisingly, the detected quercetin antioxidant activity was almost negligible. The presented data suggests that the reason is not in its own UV-B-induced degradation but rather in its interrelationship with benzophenone during UV-B stress. On the other side of this relationship, benzophenone anticipated sensitizing role towards lipids; that is, the initiation of lipid peroxidation has been affected as well. These results, obtained by HPLC chromatography, partly confirm but partly relativize to some extent recent results obtained with the same system by spectrophotometric method.

  7. Faint Object Spectrograph Spectra of the UV Emission Lines in NGC 5558: Detection of Strong Narrow Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, D. Michael; Boggess, Albert; Wu, Chi-Chao

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 were obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope on 1992 July 5, when the UV continuum and broad emission lines were at their lowest ever observed level. The high resolution of the spectra, relative to previous UV observations, and the low state of NGC 5548 allow the detection and accurate measurement of strong narrow components of the emission lines of Ly alpha, C IV 1549, and C III 1909. Isolation of the UV narrow components enables a detailed comparison of narrow-line region (NLR) properties in Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies, and removal of their contribution is important for studies of the broad-line region (BLR). Relative to the other narrow lines, C IV 1549 is much stronger in NGC 5548 than in Seyfert 2 galaxies, and Mg II 2798 is very weak or absent.

  8. WATSON: Detecting organic material in subsurface ice using deep-UV fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshelman, E.; Wanger, G.; Manatt, K.; Malaska, M.; Willis, M.; Abbey, W.; Doloboff, I.; Beegle, L. W.; DeFlores, L. P.; Priscu, J. C.; Lane, A. L.; Carrier, B. L.; Mellerowicz, B.; Kim, D.; Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; Bhartia, R.

    2017-12-01

    Future astrobiological missions to Europa and other ocean worlds may benefit from next-generation instrumentation capable of in situ organic and life detection in subsurface ice environments. WATSON (Wireline Analysis Tool for in Situ Observation of Northern ice sheets) is an instrument under development at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. WATSON contains high-TRL instrumentation developed for SHERLOC, the Mars 2020 deep-UV fluorescence and Raman spectrometer, including a 248.6 nm NeCu hollow cathode laser as an excitation source. In WATSON, these technologies provide spectroscopic capabilities highly sensitive to many organic compounds, including microbes, in an instrument package approximately 1.2 m long with a 101.6 mm diameter, designed to accommodate a 108 mm ice borehole. Interrogation into the ice wall with a laser allows for a non-destructive in situ measurement that preserves the spatial distribution of material within the ice. We report on a successful deployment of WATSON to Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, where the instrument was lowered to a 4.5 m depth in a hand-cored hole on the Kangerlussuaq sector of the Greenland ice sheet. Motorized stages within the instrument were used to raster a laser across cm-scale regions of the interior surface of the borehole, obtaining fluorescence spectral maps with a 200 µm spatial resolution and a spectral range from 265 nm to 440 nm. This region includes the UV emission bands of many aromatic compounds and microbes, and includes the water and ice Raman O-H stretching modes. We additionally report on experiments designed to inform an early-2018 deployment to Kangerlussuaq where WATSON will be incorporated into a Honeybee Robotics planetary deep drill, with a goal of drilling to a depth of 100 m and investigating the distribution of organic material within the ice sheet. These experiments include laboratory calibrations to determine the sensitivity to organic compounds embedded in ice at various depths, as well as

  9. Multiplex RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays for detection and subtyping of human influenza virus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben M'hadheb, Manel; Harrabi, Myriam; Souii, Amira; Jrad-Battikh, Nadia; Gharbi, Jawhar

    2015-03-01

    Influenza viruses are negative stranded segmented RNA viruses belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family. They are classified into three types A, B, and C. Type A influenza viruses are classified into subtypes according to the antigenic characters of the surface glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable multiplex RT-PCR technique for detecting simultaneously the subtypes A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 of influenza virus. Our study included 398 patients (mean age 30.33 ± 19.92 years) with flu or flu-like syndromes, consulting physicians affiliated with collaborating teams. A multiplex RT-PCR detecting A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza viruses and an examination by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) were performed. In the optimized conditions, we diagnosed by IFI a viral infection in 90 patients (22.6 %): 85 cases of influenza type A, four cases of influenza type B, and only one case of coinfection with types A and B. An evaluation of the technique was performed on 19 clinical specimens positive in IFI, and we detected eight cases of A/H3N2, five cases of A/H1N1, one case of influenza virus type A which is not an H1N1 nor H3N2, and five negative cases. Multiplex RT-PCR is a sensitive technique allowing an effective and fast diagnosis of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in which the optimization often collides with problems of sensibility.

  10. Absence of a detectable lunar nanodust exosphere during a search with LRO's LAMP UV imaging spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, C.; Stubbs, T. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Retherford, K. D.; Kaufmann, D. E.

    2017-05-01

    The Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) UV spectrograph on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) performed a campaign to observe the Moon's nanodust exosphere, evidence for which was provided by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) during the 2014 Quadrantid meteoroid stream. These LADEE/UVS observations were consistent with a nanodust exosphere modulated by meteoroid impacts. LRO performed off-nadir maneuvers around the peak of the 2016 Quadrantids, in order to reproduce, as closely as possible, the active meteoroid environment and observing geometry of LADEE/UVS. We analyzed LAMP spectra to search for sunlight backscattering from nanodust. No brightness enhancement attributable to dust, of any size, was observed. We determine an upper limit for dust column concentration of 105 cm-2 for grains of radius 25 nm, and an upper limit for dust column mass of 10-11 g cm-2, nearly independent of grain size for radii <100 nm.

  11. Investigation of the use of FXG gel dosimeter for UV radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.; Abu Kassem, I.

    2009-02-01

    The radio-chromic chemical radiation dosimeter is well known type of detectors that have been used in the measurement application of radiation dose resulting for ionizing radiation such as γ and X-rays. The detector materials consist of mainly water with added gelatin powder that gives the detector its solid shape. Other chemicals sensitive to radiation are also added to form the Ferrous-sulfate Xylenol-orange Gelatin gel detector (FXG). Ionizing radiation effects appears as an increase in the optical absorbance within a defined range of wavelengths located in the visible region of the light spectrum. These visible changes in the materials optical characteristic as a result of radiation exposure is proportional to the radiation absorbed dose at certain wave lengths. Ultraviolet radiation was found to produce similar effects in the FXG detector materials; hence we suggested studying the UV effects in details. It is known that UV radiation carry relatively high quantum energies big enough to enhance important chemical and biological reactions in some exposed medium. This study examines the most important properties required for the FXG detector to be used as a UV monitoring system that is capable of measuring the absorbed UV radiation dose. The study also works on finding chemical detector structure that is easy to be used for simulating the UV interactions with human body. It has been shown that the optical absorbance of standard size FXG samples increases linearly with the exposure time to UV radiation produced by a sun simulator source, when the beam is filtered to produces exposure similar to that found in nature. However, the UV effects are also influenced by the applied UV radiation spectrum used for irradiation as well as the thicknesses of the FXG materials.(authors)

  12. Ion chromatography with the indirect ultraviolet detection of alkali metal ions and ammonium using imidazolium ionic liquid as ultraviolet absorption reagent and eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Indirect ultraviolet detection was conducted in ultraviolet-absorption-agent-added mobile phase to complete the detection of the absence of ultraviolet absorption functional group in analytes. Compared with precolumn derivatization or postcolumn derivatization, this method can be widely used, has the advantages of simple operation and good linear relationship. Chromatographic separation of Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) , and NH4 (+) was performed on a carboxylic acid base cation exchange column using imidazolium ionic liquid/acid/organic solvent as the mobile phase, in which imidazolium ionic liquids acted as ultraviolet absorption reagent and eluting agent. The retention behaviors of four kinds of cations are discussed, and the mechanism of separation and detection are described. The main factors influencing the separation and detection were the background ultraviolet absorption reagent and the concentration of hydrogen ion in the ion chromatography-indirect ultraviolet detection. The successful separation and detection of Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) , and NH4 (+) within 13 min was achieved using the selected chromatographic conditions, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.02, 0.11, 0.30, and 0.06 mg/L, respectively. A new separation and analysis method of alkali metal ions and ammonium by ion chromatography with indirect ultraviolet detection method was developed, and the application range of ionic liquid was expanded. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Old but Still Warm: Far-UV Detection of PSR B0950+08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, G. G.; Rangelov, B.; Kargaltsev, O.; Reisenegger, A.; Guillot, S.; Reyes, C.

    2017-11-01

    We report on a Hubble Space Telescope detection of the nearby, old pulsar B0950+08 (d≃ 262 pc, spin-down age 17.5 Myr) in two far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands. We measured the mean flux densities {\\bar{f}}ν =109+/- 6 nJy and 83 ± 14 nJy in the F125LP and F140LP filters (pivot wavelengths 1438 and 1528 Å). Using the FUV data together with previously obtained optical-UV data, we conclude that the optical-FUV spectrum consists of two components—a nonthermal (presumably magnetospheric) power-law spectrum ({f}ν \\propto {ν }α ) with slope α ˜ -1.2 and a thermal spectrum emitted from the bulk of the neutron star (NS) surface with a temperature in the range of (1-3) × 105 K, depending on interstellar extinction and NS radius. These temperatures are much higher than predicted by NS cooling models for such an old pulsar, which means that some heating mechanisms operate in NSs. A plausible mechanism responsible for the high temperature of PSR B0950+08 is the interaction of vortex lines of the faster rotating neutron superfluid with the slower rotating normal matter in the inner NS crust (vortex creep heating). Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13783.

  14. Development and validation of an indirect enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Smith, P; Gall, D; Perez, B; Cosma, C; Mueller, P; Trottier, J; Cote, G; Boag, L; Bosse, J

    1996-09-01

    An indirect enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus in bovine milk was developed and validated using 6238 milk samples from Canadian herds (brucellosis free) and 202 samples from herds infected with B. abortus (from Argentina and Chile). The assay utilized lipopolysaccharide as the antigen, immobilized on the polystyrene matrix, whole milk to test and a mouse monoclonal antibody, specific for an epitope of bovine IgG1, conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. The sensitivity of the assay was 95.2% +/- 3.7% at a confidence limit of 95% for samples from B. abortus infected herds obtained from chile and 98.7% +/- 0.3% at a confidence limit of 95% for samples from similar herds in Argentina. Of the negative milk samples tested, 77 gave a result above the threshold value of 0.200 optical density units. When the 77 false positive samples were retested using 7.5 mM (final concentration) of EDTA and ethyleneglycol-bis-aminoether-N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), the number of false positive reactions was reduced to 3, giving a diagnostic specificity of 99.95%. The divalent cation chelating agents did not affect positive reactions and the sensitivity remained the same. Based on control samples included with each assay, the performance of the assay was consistent.

  15. Development of an Indirect ELISA Based on a Recombinant Chimeric Protein for the Detection of Antibodies against Bovine Babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Ortiz, José Manuel; Montenegro, Valeria Noely; de la Fournière, Sofía Ana María; Sarmiento, Néstor Fabián; Farber, Marisa Diana; Wilkowsky, Silvina Elizabeth

    2018-01-23

    The current method for Babesia spp. serodiagnosis based on a crude merozoite antigen is a complex and time-consuming procedure. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on a recombinant multi-antigen of Babesia bovis (rMABbO) was developed for detection of antibodies in bovines suspected of infection with this parasite. The multi-antigen comprises gene fragments of three previously characterized B. bovis antigens: MSA-2c, RAP-1 and the Heat Shock protein 20 that are well-conserved among geographically distant strains. The cutoff value for the new rMABbo-iELISA was determined using 75 known-positive and 300 known-negative bovine sera previously tested for antibodies to B. bovis by the gold-standard ELISA which uses a merozoite lysate. A cutoff value of ≥35% was determined in these samples by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, showing a sensitivity of 95.9% and a specificity of 94.3%. The rMABbo-iELISA was further tested in a blind trial using an additional set of 263 field bovine sera from enzootic and tick-free regions of Argentina. Results showed a good agreement with the gold standard test with a Cohen's kappa value of 0.76. Finally, the prevalence of bovine babesiosis in different tick enzootic regions of Argentina was analyzed where seropositivity values among 68-80% were obtained. A certain level of cross reaction was observed when samples from B. bigemina infected cattle were analyzed with the new test, which can be attributed to shared epitopes between 2 of the 3 antigens. This new rMABbo-iELISA could be considered a simpler alternative to detect anti Babesia spp. antibodies and appears to be well suited to perform epidemiological surveys at the herd level in regions where ticks are present.

  16. Enhanced detection of nitrogen dioxide via combined heating and pulsed UV operation of indium oxide nano-octahedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Gonzalez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of combined heating and pulsed UV light activation of indium oxide gas sensors for enhancing their performance in the detection of nitrogen dioxide in air. Indium oxide nano-octahedra were synthesized at high temperature (900 °C via vapour-phase transport and screen-printed onto alumina transducers that comprised interdigitated electrodes and a heating resistor. Compared to the standard, constant temperature operation of the sensor, mild heating (e.g., 100 °C together with pulsed UV light irradiation employing a commercially available, 325 nm UV diode (square, 1 min period, 15 mA drive current signal, results in an up to 80-fold enhancement in sensitivity to nitrogen dioxide. Furthermore, this combined operation method allows for making savings in power consumption that range from 35% to over 80%. These results are achieved by exploiting the dynamics of sensor response under pulsed UV light, which convey important information for the quantitative analysis of nitrogen dioxide.

  17. Two-Dimensional UV Absorption Correlation Spectroscopy as a Method for the Detection of Thiamethoxam Residue in Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zhao, Zh.; Wang, L.; Zhu, X.; Shen, L.; Yu, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with UV absorption spectroscopy was evaluated as a technique for the identification of spectral regions associated with the residues of thiamethoxam in tea. There is only one absorption peak at 275 nm in the absorption spectrum of a mixture of thiamethoxam and tea, which is the absorption peak of tea. Based on 2D-COS, the absorption peak of thiamethoxam at 250 nm is extracted from the UV spectra of the mixture. To determine the residue of thiamethoxam in tea, 250 nm is selected as the measured wavelength, at which the fitting result is as follows: the residual sum of squares is 0.01375, standard deviation R2 is 0.99068, and F value is 426. Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant linear relationship between the concentration of thiamethoxam in tea and the absorbance at 250 nm in the UV spectra of the mixture. Moreover, the average prediction error is 0.0033 and the prediction variance is 0.1654, indicating good predictive result. Thus, the UV absorption spectrum can be used as a measurement method for rapid detection of thiamethoxam residues in tea.

  18. Analytical high-speed countercurrent chromatography with photodiode array detection (HSCCC-UV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaufelberger, D.E. (Chemical Synthesis and Analysis Lab., National Cancer Institute, Frederick Center Research Facility, Frederick, MD (US))

    1989-01-01

    The use of analytical high-speed countercurrent chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HSCCC-UV) is described. Reduction of detector noise caused by non-retained stationary phase was achieved by adding an auxiliary solvent (MeOH, isoPrOH) by means of a post-column reactor. The technique was applied to the separation of aromatic compounds and natural products in Hexane-MeOH-H{sub 2} and CHCl{sub 3}-MeOH-H{sub 2}O solvent systems. On-line recorded UV spectra were almost identical to those obtained with pure standards in methanol. Spectra obtained by HSCCC-UV can be used to characterize separated compounds and facilitate peak identification.

  19. An indirect ELISA to detect the serologic response of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) inoculated with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Lesley A; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Elzer, Philip H

    2002-10-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to identify elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51)-specific antibodies using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for bovine IgG1. This test was relatively easy to perform, accurate, and easily reproducible; therefore it could be standardized for use between laboratories. In addition, we attempted to compensate for inherent variabilities encountered when comparing ELISA readings from multiple samples taken from many animals over time. Optical density (OD) readings for each sample were converted into a percent positivity value for analysis. A negative cutoff value was determined above which a sample was considered to have a significantly elevated anti-RB51 antibody level. Pre- and postvaccination sera from 64 6-8 mo old elk, divided into four groups (females subcutaneously inoculated with saline (control animals), females ballistically inoculated with RB51, females subcutaneously inoculated with RB51, and males subcutaneously inoculated with RB51) were used. All serum samples were collected between 27 April and 15 November 1995. Values for all saline controls were appropriately below the negative cutoff value. All subcutaneously and ballistically inoculated elk were serologically positive to RB51 for at least two sampling periods during the study. The difference in percent positivity values for the ballistically compared to the subcutaneously inoculated groups was not statistically significant at 8, 10, 14, or 18 wk postvaccination. This suggests that processing RB51 into lactose based pellets and ballistically inoculating elk with these pellets does not alter the detectable elk antibody response. Also, inoculated and control animals can be accurately identified with ELISA at 4-8 weeks postvaccination.

  20. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against clinically important old and new world hantaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Lederer

    Full Text Available In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV, Puumala (PUUV, Seoul (SEOV, Saaremaa (SAAV, Dobrava (DOBV, Sin Nombre (SNV or Andes (ANDV. For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n=97; SEOV (China, n=5; DOBV (Romania, n=7; SNV (Canada, n=23; ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n=52. The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n=177; 96% and/or IgM (n=131; 72%, while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99% of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71% IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%. Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%. Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2% showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV.

  1. Simultaneous determination of piracetam and its four impurities by RP-HPLC with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed; Mirza, Agha Zeeshan; Qureshi, Faiza; Zuberi, M Hashim

    2010-08-01

    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the separation and determination of piracetam and its four impurities, 2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetic acid, pyrrolidin-2-one, methyl (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetate, and ethyl (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetate, was developed. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C(18) Nucleosil column (25 cm x 0.46 cm, 10 microm). The mobile phase is composed of an aqueous solution containing 0.2 g/L of triethyl amine-acetonitrile (85:15, v/v). The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 6.5 with phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1 mL/min at ambient temperature and UV detection at 205 nm. The developed method was found to give good separation between the pure drug and its four related substance. The polynomial regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship in the concentration range of 50-10,000 ng/mL, 25-10,000 ng/mL, 45-10,000 ng/mL, 34-10,000 ng/mL, and 55-10,000 ng/mL, respectively, with r(2) = 0.9999. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, ruggedness, and recovery. The minimum quantifiable amounts were found to be 50 ng/mL of piracetam, 25 ng/mL of 2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetic acid, 45 ng/mL of pyrrolidin-2-one, 34 ng/mL of methyl (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetate, and 55 ng/mL of ethyl (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetate. Statistical analysis proves that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of piracetam as well as its related substance. As the method could effectively separate the drug from the related substances, it can be employed as a stability-indicating one. The proposed method shows high efficiency, allowing the separation of the main component piracetam from other impurities.

  2. Quantification of selected furocoumarins by high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-detection: capabilities and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmaster, Angus P; Owen, Neil; Brussaux, Sylvain; Brevard, Hugues; Hiserodt, Richard; Leijs, Hans; Bast, Nikola; Weber, Berthold; Loesing, Gerd; Sherlock, Alan; Schippa, Christine; Vey, Matthias; Frérot, Eric; Tissot, Emeline; Chaintreau, Alain

    2012-09-28

    The performance of HPLC-UV as a means of quantifying selected furocoumarins in essential oils has been evaluated, based on a ring test validation approach. Accuracy profiles were generated, to determine bias and statistical confidence associated with determination at different concentrations, along with lower limits of quantification (LOQ). From these findings, it can be concluded that the method described may only be used in simple cases (essential oils), to measure individual furocoumarin compounds at concentrations greater than 10mg/l; the non compound-specific nature of detection by absorption in the UV range is unable to overcome the effect of interferences arising from chromatographic coelutions, such as those encountered in the analysis of complex commercial fragrance mixtures. The use of an algorithmically calculated 'spectral similarity' function, with reference to authentic standards, may be used to improve reliability in assignment and quantification. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. 340nm UV LED excitation in time-resolved fluorescence system for europium-based immunoassays detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum......, and no significant afterglow, have made them attractive light sources for gated detection systems. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a 340 nm UV LED based time-resolved fluorescence system based on europium chelate as a fluorescent marker. The system performance was tested with the immunoassay based...... on the cardiac marker, TnI. The same signal-to-noise ratio as for the flash lamp based system was obtained, operating the LED below specified maximum current. The background counts of the system and its main contributors were measured and analyzed. The background of the system of the LED based unit was improved...

  4. Multispectral UV Fluorescence Detection of a Dilute Constituent in an Optically Dense Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, O.H.; Gray, P.C., Wehlburg, C.M.; Rubenstein, R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-15

    Multispectral UV fluorescence measurements were made of an optically dense medium (fetal bovine serum, FBS) spiked with sodium salicylate at concentrate ions from 0.2 to 500 pg/ml . Analysis of the spectra show that, depending on experimental conditions, reasonably good estimates of concentration can be obtained across the entire range of concentrate ions. Experimental conditions required for recovering these estimates are demonstrated.

  5. Applying UV cameras for SO2 detection to distant or optically thick volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Werner, Cynthia; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff; Lübcke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) camera systems represent an exciting new technology for measuring two dimensional sulfur dioxide (SO2) distributions in volcanic plumes. The high frame rate of the cameras allows the retrieval of SO2 emission rates at time scales of 1 Hz or higher, thus allowing the investigation of high-frequency signals and making integrated and comparative studies with other high-data-rate volcano monitoring techniques possible. One drawback of the technique, however, is the limited spectral information recorded by the imaging systems. Here, a framework for simulating the sensitivity of UV cameras to various SO2 distributions is introduced. Both the wavelength-dependent transmittance of the optical imaging system and the radiative transfer in the atmosphere are modeled. The framework is then applied to study the behavior of different optical setups and used to simulate the response of these instruments to volcanic plumes containing varying SO2 and aerosol abundances located at various distances from the sensor. Results show that UV radiative transfer in and around distant and/or optically thick plumes typically leads to a lower sensitivity to SO2 than expected when assuming a standard Beer–Lambert absorption model. Furthermore, camera response is often non-linear in SO2 and dependent on distance to the plume and plume aerosol optical thickness and single scatter albedo. The model results are compared with camera measurements made at Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii) and a method for integrating moderate resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy data with UV imagery to retrieve improved SO2 column densities is discussed.

  6. UV Absorption Spectroscopy in Water-Filled Antiresonant Hollow Core Fibers for Pharmaceutical Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Nissen; Brenda Doherty; Jonas Hamperl; Jens Kobelke; Karina Weber; Thomas Henkel; Markus A. Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    Due to a worldwide increased use of pharmaceuticals and, in particular, antibiotics, a growing number of these substance residues now contaminate natural water resources and drinking supplies. This triggers a considerable demand for low-cost, high-sensitivity methods for monitoring water quality. Since many biological substances exhibit strong and characteristic absorption features at wavelengths shorter than 300 nm, UV spectroscopy presents a suitable approach for the quantitative identifica...

  7. Applying UV cameras for SO2 detection to distant or optically thick volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Werner, Cynthia; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff; Lübcke, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) camera systems represent an exciting new technology for measuring two dimensional sulfur dioxide (SO2) distributions in volcanic plumes. The high frame rate of the cameras allows the retrieval of SO2 emission rates at time scales of 1 Hz or higher, thus allowing the investigation of high-frequency signals and making integrated and comparative studies with other high-data-rate volcano monitoring techniques possible. One drawback of the technique, however, is the limited spectral information recorded by the imaging systems. Here, a framework for simulating the sensitivity of UV cameras to various SO2 distributions is introduced. Both the wavelength-dependent transmittance of the optical imaging system and the radiative transfer in the atmosphere are modeled. The framework is then applied to study the behavior of different optical setups and used to simulate the response of these instruments to volcanic plumes containing varying SO2 and aerosol abundances located at various distances from the sensor. Results show that UV radiative transfer in and around distant and/or optically thick plumes typically leads to a lower sensitivity to SO2 than expected when assuming a standard Beer-Lambert absorption model. Furthermore, camera response is often non-linear in SO2 and dependent on distance to the plume and plume aerosol optical thickness and single scatter albedo. The model results are compared with camera measurements made at Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii) and a method for integrating moderate resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy data with UV imagery to retrieve improved SO2 column densities is discussed.

  8. Detection of Explosives on Surfaces Using UV Raman Spectroscopy: Effect of Substrate Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently...Several companies have proposed UV Raman spectroscopy to meet this need and have constructed and tested systems. One limitation of much of this testing...Enabling Technologies for Law Enforcement and Security; 1996; Boston, MA. Bellingham (WA): Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers; c1997. p

  9. Detection Limits of DLS and UV-Vis Spectroscopy in Characterization of Polydisperse Nanoparticles Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Tomaszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic light scattering is a method that depends on the interaction of light with particles. This method can be used for measurements of narrow particle size distributions especially in the range of 2–500 nm. Sample polydispersity can distort the results, and we could not see the real populations of particles because big particles presented in the sample can screen smaller ones. Although the theory and mathematical basics of DLS technique are already well known, little has been done to determine its limits experimentally. The size and size distribution of artificially prepared polydisperse silver nanoparticles (NPs colloids were studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy. Polydisperse colloids were prepared based on the mixture of chemically synthesized monodisperse colloids well characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, DLS, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Analysis of the DLS results obtained for polydisperse colloids reveals that several percent of the volume content of bigger NPs could screen completely the presence of smaller ones. The presented results could be extremely important from nanoparticles metrology point of view and should help to understand experimental data especially for the one who works with DLS and/or UV-Vis only.

  10. Performance of an in-plane detection cell with integrated waveguides for UV/Vis absorbance measurements on microfluidic separation devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2002-01-01

    A microfluidic device with integrated waveguides and a long path length detection cell for UV/Vis absorbance detection is presented. The 750 mum U-cell detection geometry was evaluated in terms of its optical performance as well as its influence on efficiency for electrophoretic separations...

  11. Detection of UV-treatment effects on plankton by rapid analytic tools for ballast water compliance monitoring immediately following treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradie, Johanna; Gianoli, Claudio; He, Jianjun; Lo Curto, Alberto; Stehouwer, Peter; Veldhuis, Marcel; Welschmeyer, Nick; Younan, Lawrence; Zaake, André; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    Non-indigenous species seriously threaten native biodiversity. To reduce establishments, the International Maritime Organization established the Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments which limits organism concentrations at discharge under regulation D-2. Most ships will comply by using on-board treatment systems to disinfect their ballast water. Port state control officers will need simple, rapid methods to detect compliance. Appropriate monitoring methods may be dependent on treatment type, since different treatments will affect organisms by a variety of mechanisms. Many indicative tools have been developed, but must be examined to ensure the measured variable is an appropriate signal for the response of the organisms to the applied treatment. We assessed the abilities of multiple analytic tools to rapidly detect the effects of a ballast water treatment system based on UV disinfection. All devices detected a large decrease in the concentrations of vital organisms ≥ 50 μm and organisms organisms, as examined herein for UV-C treatment systems.

  12. Method Development and Validation for Determination of Febuxostat from Spiked Human Plasma Using RP-HPLC with UV Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Monita Gide; Pankaj Sharma; Ravindra Saudagar; Birendra Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, simple, selective, and specific reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection (315 nm) was developed and validated for estimation of febuxostat from spiked human plasma. The analyte and internal standard (diclofenac) were extracted using LLE with diethyl ether. The chromatographic separation was performed on Shodex C-18-4E (5 μm; 250×4.6 mm) with a mobile phase comprised of methanol : acetate buffer pH 4, 20 mM (90 : 10 v/v), at a flow rate o...

  13. Enrichment and detection of microorganisms involved in direct and indirect methanogenesis from methanol in an anaerobic thermophilic bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, de K.; Altinbas, M.; Paulo, P.L.; Heilig, H.G.H.J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    To gain insight into the microorganisms involved in direct and indirect methane formation from methanol in a laboratory-scale thermophilic (55°C) methanogenic bioreactor, reactor sludge was disrupted and serial dilutions were incubated in specific growth media containing methanol and possible

  14. Development & standardization of an in-house IgM indirect ELISA for the detection of parvovirus B19 infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Vadivel

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The in-house IgM indirect ELISA was found to be simple with high sensitivity and specificity when compared with nPCR and could be used as an alternative to expensive commercial kits in resource-poor settings.

  15. Comparison of direct 13C and indirect 1H-[13C] MR detection methods for the study of dynamic metabolic turnover in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; De Feyter, Henk M.; Brown, Peter B.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Cai, Shuhui; de Graaf, Robin A.

    2017-10-01

    A wide range of direct 13C and indirect 1H-[13C] MR detection methods exist to probe dynamic metabolic pathways in the human brain. Choosing an optimal detection method is difficult as sequence-specific features regarding spatial localization, broadband decoupling, spectral resolution, power requirements and sensitivity complicate a straightforward comparison. Here we combine density matrix simulations with experimentally determined values for intrinsic 1H and 13C sensitivity, T1 and T2 relaxation and transmit efficiency to allow selection of an optimal 13C MR detection method for a given application and magnetic field. The indirect proton-observed, carbon-edited (POCE) detection method provides the highest accuracy at reasonable RF power deposition both at 4 T and 7 T. The various polarization transfer methods all have comparable performances, but may become infeasible at 7 T due to the high RF power deposition. 2D MR methods have limited value for the metabolites considered (primarily glutamate, glutamine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)), but may prove valuable when additional information can be extracted, such as isotopomers or lipid composition. While providing the lowest accuracy, the detection of non-protonated carbons is the simplest to implement with the lowest RF power deposition. The magnetic field homogeneity is one of the most important parameters affecting the detection accuracy for all metabolites and all acquisition methods.

  16. Autofluorescence of pigmented skin lesions using a pulsed UV laser with synchronized detection: clinical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Svenmarker, Pontus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2010-01-01

    signal, which may in turn produce high contrast images that improve diagnosis, even in the presence of ambient room light. The synchronized set-up utilizes a compact, diode pumped, pulsed UV laser at 355 nm which is coupled to a CCD camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter. The excitation and image...... capture is sampled at 5 kHz and the resulting autofluorescence is captured with the liquid crystal filter cycling through seven wavelengths between 420 nm and 580 nm. The clinical study targets pigmented skin lesions and evaluates the prospects of using autofluorescence as a possible means...

  17. Detection of Outliers and Imputing of Missing Values for Water Quality UV-VIS Absorbance Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Plazas-Nossa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The UV-Vis absorbance collection using online optical captors for water quality detection may yield outliers and/or missing values. Therefore, data pre-processing is a necessary pre-requisite to monitoring data processing. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a method that detects and removes outliers as well as fills gaps in time series. Method: Outliers are detected using Winsorising procedure and the application of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT and the Inverse of Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT to complete the time series. Together, these tools were used to analyse a case study comprising three sites in Colombia ((i Bogotá D.C. Salitre-WWTP (Waste Water Treatment Plant, influent; (ii Bogotá D.C. Gibraltar Pumping Station (GPS; and, (iii Itagüí, San Fernando-WWTP, influent (Medellín metropolitan area analysed via UV-Vis (Ultraviolet and Visible spectra. Results: Outlier detection with the proposed method obtained promising results when window parameter values are small and self-similar, despite that the three time series exhibited different sizes and behaviours. The DFT allowed to process different length gaps having missing values. To assess the validity of the proposed method, continuous subsets (a section of the absorbance time series without outlier or missing values were removed from the original time series obtaining an average 12% error rate in the three testing time series. Conclusions: The application of the DFT and the IFFT, using the 10% most important harmonics of useful values, can be useful for its later use in different applications, specifically for time series of water quality and quantity in urban sewer systems. One potential application would be the analysis of dry weather interesting to rain events, a feat achieved by detecting values that correspond to unusual behaviour in a time series. Additionally, the result hints at the potential of the method in correcting other hydrologic time series.

  18. Indirect calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Labussière, E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of indirect calorimetry to measure the heat production of men and animals has increased rapidly since the pioneering work of Lavoisier. Measurement of the consumption of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide are the basis for the measurement of heat production. Today, applications of

  19. HA1-specific indirect ELISA for serological detection of canine influenza virus H3N2 infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Doo Hee; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Hong, Minki; Na, Woonsung; Park, Yong-A; Park, Seong Jun; Song, Daesub; Lee, Jae Myun; Kim, Hye Kwon

    2015-04-01

    An indirect ELISA using recombinant HA1 protein of canine influenza virus (CIV) as a coating antigen was developed and characterized for its application to serosurveillance in dogs. The CIV H3N2-specific indirect ELISA was developed using recombinant HA1 protein (baculovirus-expression system) as a coating antigen. A total of 65 CIV H3N2-positive or negative canine sera were tested by the indirect ELISA for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and results compared to those generated by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Canine sera collected 10 days following intranasal inoculation with canine H3N2, seasonal H3N2 (A/Brisbane/10/2007) or pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (A/California/04/2009) were used for the cross-reaction test. An adjusted optical density (OD) of 0.17 was determined to be the optimal cut-off value for seropositivity. The indirect ELISA showed 95.7% sensitivity and 94.7% specificity when compared to the HI test. A cross-reaction test was also performed using canine sera reactive with CIV H3N2, seasonal H3N2 (human) and pandemic H1N1 (human) influenza viruses. Based on the data generated in this study, the canine H3N2-associated ELISA using baculovirus expressed HA1 antigen will be useful for herd-based serological survey of the canine H3N2 virus infection in dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunological detection of UV induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts in DNA from reference bacteria and natural aquatic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stephanie; Stephanie, Kraft; Obst, Ursula; Ursula, Obst; Schwartz, Thomas; Thomas, Schwartz

    2011-03-01

    UV light-caused DNA damage is a widespread field of study. As UV light has the biological effect of inactivating or killing bacteria, it is used for water disinfection. Due to this application, it is important to study the DNA damage efficiencies and regeneration capacities in bacteria after UV irradiation. Two monoclonal antibodies, anti-CPD and anti-(6-4) PP, were applied for an immunoassay of UV-induced DNA modifications. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and 6-4 photoproduct (6-4 PP) were detected in the reference bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium, and in natural water communities. The antibody-mediated detection signals increased with the UV doses from 100-400J/m(2). Here, the CPD-specific signals were stronger than the (6-4) PP-specific signals. These immunological results were in accordance with parallel cultivation experiments. All UV-irradiated bacteria showed a reduction of their growth rate depending on UV application by several orders of magnitudes. The immunoassay was also applied to three types of natural aquatic habitats with different cell densities. Besides artificial UV irradiation, it was possible to visualize natural sunlight effects on these natural bacterial communities. Light-dependent and dark repair processes were distinguished using the established immunological assays. The antibody-mediated analyses presented are fast methods to detect UV-induced DNA lesions and repair capacities in selected bacterial species as well as in entire natural mixed populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of 14 Phenolic Compounds in Grape Canes by HPLC-DAD-UV Using Wavelength Switching Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper described a novel chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds such as gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and salicylic acid, (+-catechin, (‒-epicatechin, rutin, morin, quercetin, coumarin and trans-resveratrol at their maximum absorbance wavelengths (MAW employing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with DAD and UV detection via detection wavelength switching. The method was based on MAW acquisition by DAD and quantification by UV. The separation process was performed on a Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm held at 30 °C, utilizing 3.0% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in the gradient elution mode. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.9990, 10‒350 mg/L, precision (both intra-day and inter-day RSD < 4.22%, accuracy (97.31%‒104.66%, specificity, robustness (0.59% < RSD < 2.86%, limit of detection and quantification. The switching method significantly improved the sensitivities of most phenolics studied in comparison with the standard constant wavelength detection (280 nm. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of 14 phenolic compounds in 89 varieties of one-year-old Chinese grape one-year-canes. Grape canes contain many phenolics, especially trans-resveratrol, (‒-epicatechin, and (+-catechin.

  2. Detection of NP, N3 and N7 antibodies to avian influenza virus by indirect ELISA using yeast-expressed antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammayappan Arun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses, belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, possess distinct combinations of hemagglutinin (H and the neuraminidase (N surface glycoproteins. Typing of both H and N antigens is essential for the epidemiological and surveillance studies. Therefore, it is important to find a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for their assay, and ELISA can be useful for this purpose, by using recombinant proteins. Results The nucleoprotein (NP and truncated neuraminidase subtype 3 and 7 of avian influenza virus (AIV were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody detection. The developed assays were evaluated with a panel of 64 chicken serum samples. The performance of NP-ELISA was compared with the commercially available ProFlok® AIV ELISA kit. The results showed comparable agreement and sensitivity between the two tests, indicating that NP-ELISA assay can be used for screening the influenza type A antibody in AIV infected birds. The N3 and N7- ELISAs also reacted specifically to their type specific sera and did not exhibit any cross-reaction with heterologous neuraminidase subtype specific sera. Conclusion The study demonstrates the expression of the NP, N3, and N7 proteins of AIV in yeast (S. cerevisiae and their application in developing an indirect ELISA for detecting NP, N3 and N7 antibodies from AIV-infected chicken sera. The described indirect ELISAs are rapid, sensitive, specific and can be used as promising tests during serological surveillance.

  3. Detection of emerging contaminants (UV filters, UV stabilizers and musks) in marine mussels from Portuguese coast by QuEChERS extraction and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot Groz, M; Martinez Bueno, M J; Rosain, D; Fenet, H; Casellas, C; Pereira, C; Maria, V; Bebianno, M J; Gomez, E

    2014-09-15

    The UV filters and musk fragrances have come into focus because these compounds are contained and increasingly used not only in sunscreen products but also in many products of daily use, such as cosmetics, skin creams, plastics or varnish. In view of this, the main objective of the present work was to develop and validate a method for the determination of three UV filters, two UV stabilizers and four musks in mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The procedure combined a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction method with an analysis by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The methodology allowed the determination of target analytes at trace concentration levels (ng/g), with mean recoveries ranging from 91 to 112%. A monitoring study was conducted in four beaches in the Portuguese coast which are impacted by recreational activities and outflow of treated waste water effluents in rivers. The results are used to assess the occurrence of UV filters in comparison with UV stabilizers and musk fragrances which indicate other activities than bathing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Indirect recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian; Rachman, Noer Fauzi

    2018-01-01

    Government institutions and local people in Indonesia have entrenched, resurrected, and reinvented space through their different territorial and property claims. From colonial times, onward, government institutions have dissolved local political orders and territorialized and reordered spatial...... categories are struggled over, and groups of actors seek to legitimate their presence, their activities, and their resource use by occupation, mapping, and construction of "public" infrastructure. In the case of conservation in the Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, we find that rather than one overarching...... important legal and political work. After the authoritarian New Order regime, in particular, claims to citizenship worked as indirect property claims, and indirect recognition of such claims are important because they serve as pragmatic proxies for formal property rights. Two case studies examine how people...

  5. A microcomputer-controlled modulation technique for the detection of transient species in UV photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonkhuyzen, H. van; Muller, H.G.; Lange, C.A. de

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer-controlled modulation method is described to measure UV photoelectron spectra of transient species generated in a microwave discharge. Spectra at low and high microwave power levels are simultaneously recorded and afterwards linearly combined in order to remove parent compound signals. The method is applied to discharged oxygen where the transition O 2 + ( 2 PHIsub(u)) 2 ( 1 Δsub(g)) becomes visible without interference from the parent molecule O 2 ( 3 Σsub(g) - ), and to discharged sulphur dioxide where SO( 3 Σ - ) and S( 3 P) photoelectron spectra are obtained free from SO 2 bands. Finally the build-up of transient bands as a function of time is recorded. (orig.)

  6. Defects in UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectra as method for forgery detections in writing documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somma, F; Aloe, P; Schirripa Spagnolo, G

    2010-11-01

    Documents have taken up a very important place in our society. Frauds committed in connection with documents are not at all uncommon, and, in fact, represent a very large domain of the forensic science called 'questioned documents'. In the field of forensic examination of questioned documents, the legitimacy of an ink entry is often an essential question. A common type of forgery consists in materially altering an existing writing or adding a new writing. These changes can be characterized by means of optical spectroscopy. The aim of this work is to perform the UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectrophotometry to analyze a range of blue and black commercial ballpoint pens, in order to investigate the discriminating abilities of the different inks found on the same document.

  7. Comparison between intraoral indirect and conventional film-based imaging for the detection of dental root fractures: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Werner H; Venturin, Jaqueline S; Noujeim, Marcel; Dove, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    Digital intraoral radiographic systems have been rapidly replacing conventional dental X-ray films for diagnosis of dental diseases. Current scientific literature supports the use of these digital systems for the detection of dental caries, periodontal bone loss, and periapical pathologies. However, relatively few studies have been published addressing the detection of dental root fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the intraoral F-speed film (Insight) with two photostimulable phosphor (PSP) indirect digital systems (ScanX and Digora Optime) for the detection of simulated dental root fractures. Ten raters evaluated images acquired from 10 dry human cadaver mandibles under optimal viewing conditions. These data were analyzed by a 5-point receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for statistical differences. Sensitivity and specificity of these systems were also assessed. Since statistically significant difference between the systems was not observed, the results of this study agreeably support indirect digital PSP plates as an alternative to the evaluated conventional film for the detection of dental root fractures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. The Indirect Efficacy Comparison of DNA Methylation in Sputum for Early Screening and Auxiliary Detection of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Peng, Hongli; Sun, Qi; Zhao, Zhongyao; Yu, Xinwei; Ge, Siqi; Wang, Hao; Fang, Honghong; Gao, Qing; Liu, Jiaonan; Wu, Lijuan; Song, Manshu; Wang, Youxin

    2017-06-23

    DNA methylation in sputum has been an attractive candidate biomarker for the non-invasive screening and detection of lung cancer. Databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane library, Web of Science databases, Chinese Biological Medicine (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Vip Databases and Google Scholar were searched to collect the diagnostic trials on aberrant DNA methylation in the screening and detection of lung cancer published until 1 December 2016. Indirect comparison meta-analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of the included candidate genes. The systematic literature search yielded a total of 33 studies including a total of 4801 subjects (2238 patients with lung cancer and 2563 controls) and covering 32 genes. We identified that methylated genes in sputum samples for the early screening and auxiliary detection of lung cancer yielded an overall sensitivity of 0.46 (0.41-0.50) and specificity of 0.83 (0.80-0.86). Combined indirect comparisons identified the superior gene of SOX17 (sensitivity: 0.84, specificity: 0.88), CDO1 (sensitivity: 0.78, specificity: 0.67), ZFP42 (sensitivity: 0.87, specificity: 0.63) and TAC1 (sensitivity: 0.86, specificity: 0.75). The present meta-analysis demonstrates that methylated SOX17 , CDO1 , ZFP42 , TAC1 , FAM19A4 , FHIT , MGMT , p16 , and RASSF1A are potential superior biomarkers for the screening and auxiliary detection of lung cancer.

  9. A Facile, Nonreactive Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Detection Method Enabled by Ion Chromatography with UV Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingrui; Wang, Junli; Chen, Baiyang; Wang, Lei

    2017-11-07

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is ubiquitous in the natural environment, and it is now widely used for pollutant control in water and wastewater treatment processes. However, current analytical methods for H 2 O 2 inevitably require reactions between H 2 O 2 and other reactants to yield signals and are thus likely subjective to the interferences of coexisting colored, oxidative, and reductive compounds. In order to overcome these barriers, we herein for the first time propose to analyze H 2 O 2 by ion chromatography (IC) using an ultraviolet (UV) detector. The proposal is based on two principles: first, that H 2 O 2 can deprotonate to hydroperoxyl ion (HO 2 - ) when eluent pH is higher than the acid-dissociation coefficient of H 2 O 2 (pK a = 11.6); and second, that after separation from other compounds via IC column, H 2 O 2 can be quantified by a UV detector. Under favorable operating conditions, this method has successfully achieved acceptable recoveries (>91%) of H 2 O 2 dosed to ultrapure and natural waters, a calibration curve with R 2 > 0.99 for a wide range of H 2 O 2 concentrations from 0.1 to 50 mg/L and a method detection limit of 0.027 mg/L. In addition, this approach was shown to be capable of distinguishing H 2 O 2 from anions (e.g., fluoride and chloride) and organics (e.g., glycolate) and monochloramine, suggesting that it is insensitive to many neighboring compounds as long as they do not react quickly with H 2 O 2 . Hence, this study proves the combination of IC and UV detector a facile and reliable method for H 2 O 2 measurement.

  10. The First Monolithic Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor Array for Solar Blind UV Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will address the needs of space astronomy, military threat detection, and scientific research for image...

  11. Early developability screen of therapeutic antibody candidates using Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoisier, Alexandra; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. They are used in a broad range of disease fields, such as autoimmune diseases, cancer, inflammation and infectious diseases. The growth of the segment has necessitated development of new analytical platforms for faster and better antibody selection and characterization. Early quality control and risk assessment of biophysical parameters help prevent failure in later stages of antibody development, and thus can reduce costs and save time. Critical parameters such as aggregation, conformational stability, colloidal stability and hydrophilicity, are measured during the early phase of antibody generation and guide the selection process of the best lead candidates in terms of technical developability. We report on the use of a novel instrument (ActiPix/Viscosizer) for measuring both the hydrodynamic radius and the absolute viscosity of antibodies based on Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging. The looped microcapillary-based method combines low sample consumption, fast throughput and high precision compared to other conventional methods. From a random panel of 130 antibodies in the early selection process, we identified some with large hydrodynamic radius outside the normal distribution and others with non-Gaussian Taylor dispersion profiles. The antibodies with such abnormal properties were confirmed later in the selection process to show poor developability profiles. Moreover, combining these results with those of the viscosity measurements at high antibody concentrations allows screening, with limited amounts of materials, candidates with potential issues in pre-formulation development.

  12. Comparison of indirect hemagglutination and 51Chromium release tests for detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 antibodies in patients with recurrent herpes infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavalu, L.; Seth, P.

    1980-01-01

    Indirect hemagglutination and 51 Cr release tests (IHAT and 51-CRT respectively) were compared in patients with recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections from whom HSV-1 or HSV-2 was isolated. Both tests were equally sensitive and specific in detecting HSV antibodies. However, IHAT was more specific in detecting homologous HSV antibody response in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Past infections with HSV-1 in the patients with dual infections were detected by determining HSV-type specific antibodies by inhibition of IHAT. Cross absorption studies showed that the antibody reactivity measured by the two tests was qualitatively and quantitatively different. Nevertheless, IHAT has been found to be more appropriate test for seroepidemiologic studies of HSV-2 infections because of its specificity, rapidity and less cost, whereas, 51-CRT appears to measure antibodies against recent and more predominant type of infecting HSV. (Author)

  13. X-hitting: A new algorithm for novelty detection and dereplication by UV spectra of complex mixtures of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2005-01-01

    identification of known structures, a task we call cross-hitting, and tentative identification of potentially new bioactive compounds, a task we call new-hitting, in HPLC data from analysis of fungal extracts. Both tasks are illustrated using 18 important reference compounds and complex fungal extracts obtained......A major challenge in lead discovery is to detect well-known and trivial compounds rapidly, a process known as dereplication, so that isolation, structure elucidation, and pharmacological investigations can be focused on novel compounds. In this paper, we present a new algorithm, X-hitting, based...... on cross sample comparison of full UV spectra from HPLC analysis of highly complex natural product extracts/samples. X-Hitting allows automatic identification of known compounds but more important also allows finding of potentially new or similar compounds. We demonstrate this new algorithm by automatic...

  14. 340 nm pulsed UV LED system for europium-based time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design, development and investigation of an optical system based on UV light emitting diode (LED) excitation at 340 nm for time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays. The system was tested to measure cardiac marker Troponin I with a concentration of 200 ng....../L in immunoassay. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable to state-of-the-art Xenon flash lamp based unit with equal excitation energy and without overdriving the LED. We performed a comparative study of the flash lamp and the LED based system and discussed temporal, spatial, and spectral features of the LED...... excitation for time-resolved fluorimetry. Optimization of the suggested key parameters of the LED promises significant increase of the signal-to-noise ratio and hence of the sensitivity of immunoassay systems....

  15. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis in Cattle by using Indirect Absorbed ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system and culture in Alborz Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedyeh Teymouri

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Because there is no treatment or cure for Johne's disease, detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling is very important for preventing infection in other cattle. Fecal culture is a standard method for the identification of the disease. However, in Johne's disease, due to prolonged incubation and shedding of the disease, the probability of isolating the responsible agent is very low. To identify the infection, the indirect absorbed ELISA method is used for eradication. This technique is considered as one of the most reliable for identification of the disease worldwide due to its ease of use and low cost. However, for confirmation of ELISA-positive results, culture method has been recommended.

  16. An analytical method for determination of fullerenes and functionalized fullerenes in soils with high performance liquid chromatography and UV detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboni, Andrea; Emke, Erik; Parsons, John R.; Kalbitz, Karsten; Voogt, Pim de

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A total of eight fullerenes can be analyzed in a single run with HPLC-UV. •The method allows the analysis of fullerenes in soil at relatively low concentrations. •The method developed is robust, highly reproducible and relatively efficient. •The method can be applied to the study of the environmental fate and toxicology of fullerenes. -- Abstract: Fullerenes are carbon-based nanomaterials expected to play a major role in emerging nanotechnology and produced at an increasing rate for industrial and household applications. In the last decade a number of novel compounds (i.e. fullerene derivatives) is being introduced into the market and specific analytical methods are needed for analytical purposes as well as environmental and safety issues. In the present work eight fullerenes (C60 and C70) and functionalized fullerenes (C60 and C70 exohedral-derivatives) were selected and a novel liquid chromatographic method was developed for their analysis with UV absorption as a method of detection. The resulting HPLC-UV method is the first one suitable for the analysis of all eight compounds. This method was applied for the analysis of fullerenes added to clayish, sandy and loess top-soils at concentrations of 20, 10 and 5 μg kg −1 and extracted with a combination of sonication and shaking extraction. The analytical method limits of detection (LoD) and limits of quantification (LoQ) were in the range of 6–10 μg L −1 and 15–24 μg L −1 respectively for the analytical solutions. The extraction from soil was highly reproducible with recoveries ranging from 47 ± 5 to 71 ± 4% whereas LoD and LoQ for all soils tested were of 3 μg kg −1 and 10 μg kg −1 respectively. No significant difference in the extraction performance was observed depending of the different soil matrices and between the different concentrations. The developed method can be applied for the study of the fate and toxicity of fullerenes in complex matrices

  17. Nontargeted detection of adulteration of skim milk powder with foreign proteins using UHPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Joseph E; Moore, Jeffrey C; Harnly, James M

    2014-06-04

    Chromatographic profiles of skim milk powder (SMP) and mixtures of SMP with soy (SPI), pea (PPI), brown rice (BRP), and hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWPI) isolates were obtained by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with 215 nm detection. Two data analysis approaches were compared for their utility to classify samples as authentic or adulterated. The t test approach evaluated data points exceeding the 99% confidence limit of the mean authentic SMP chromatogram and used data points from the entire chromatogram. The other approach used the multivariate Q statistic from a SIMCA model of authentic samples to determine adulteration and used a selected retention window to obtain best classifications. Q-Statistic and t test correctly classified adulteration of SMP with SPI at the 1% and 3% levels, respectively, while minimizing false classifications of authentic SMP. Detection of SMP adulterated with PPI, BRP, and HWPI was possible at higher adulteration levels.

  18. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection subtype in patients with multiple sclerosis by indirect immunofluorescence assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Chao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the infectious conditions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 20 patients with MS and 20 with other neurological diseases (OND were tested with indirect immunofluorescence for anti-EBV capsid antigen (EBV-CA immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgG affinity for anti-EBV-CA, anti-EBV-CA immunoglobulin M (IgM, anti-EBV early antigen (EBV-EA IgG and anti-EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA IgG. According to the pattern of antibodies in CSF, infection rates of acute, chronic, primary, recurrent, and past infections were analyzed in the two groups of patients. Results: There were no significant differences in anti-EBV-CA, anti-EBC-EA, and anti-EBNA antigen IgG in CSF between MS and OND patients (P > 0.05. The positive rate of low affinity for anti-EBV-CA IgG in MS patients was significantly higher than that for OND patients (75% vs. 40%, P < 0.05. Furthermore, significant differences in the positive rate of anti-EBV-CA IgM were found between MS and OND patients (70% vs. 25%, P < 0.05. Of the MS patients, 75% were in an EBV acute infection state compared with 40% of OND patients (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Acute infection of EBV closely correlates with the occurrence of MS.

  19. User's guide to the indirect solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of cytomegalovirus-specific IgM antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. (Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London (UK). Virus Laboratory); Kangro, H.O. (St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK). Virology Dept.)

    1984-07-01

    In this review full laboratory details are given of a solid-phase indirect radioimmunoassay for the detection of specific IgM antibodies against cytomegalovirus. Practical advice is given on readily available commercial sources of reagents, a simple iodination procedure, the rapid dilution of sera under test and calculation of the results with a computer program available from the authors. Problems encountered with the assay are also detailed such as interference by rheumatoid factor, deterioration of the radiolabel and high background binding found with some sera. If these problems are avoided by the methods given in the text then the radioimmunoassay has been shown to give results of 100% specificity with 89% sensitivity for detecting congenital infection and 92% sensitivity for identifying primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women.

  20. Accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Test vs Fibrotest, Elastography and Indirect Markers in Detection of Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Hansen, Janne Fuglsang

    2018-01-01

    -dimensional shear-wave elastography), and 6 indirect marker tests in detection of advanced liver fibrosis (Kleiner stage ≥F3). METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 10 liver fibrosis markers (patented and not), all performed on the same day. Patients were recruited from primary centers (municipal...... alcohol rehabilitation, n=128; 6% with advanced fibrosis) and secondary healthcare centers (hospital outpatient clinics, n=161; 36% with advanced fibrosis) in the Region of Southern Denmark from 2013 through 2016. Biopsy-verified fibrosis stage was used as the reference standard. The primary aim...... was to validate ELF in detection of advanced fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease recruited from primary and secondary healthcare centers, using the literature-based cut-off value of 10.5. Secondary aims were to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ELF for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis...

  1. A user's guide to the indirect solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of cytomegalovirus-specific IgM antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, P.D.; Kangro, H.O.

    1984-01-01

    In this review full laboratory details are given of a solid-phase indirect radioimmunoassay for the detection of specific IgM antibodies against cytomegalovirus. Practical advice is given on readily available commercial sources of reagents, a simple iodination procedure, the rapid dilution of sera under test and calculation of the results with a computer program available from the authors. Problems encountered with the assay are also detailed such as interference by rheumatoid factor, deterioration of the radiolabel and high background binding found with some sera. If these problems are avoided by the methods given in the text then the radioimmunoassay has been shown to give results of 100% specificity with 89% sensitivity for detecting congenital infection and 92% sensitivity for identifying primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women. (Auth.)

  2. Enrichment Double-Antibody Sandwich Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay That Uses a Specific Monoclonal Antibody for Sensitive Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in Asymptomatic Potato Tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Paola; Gorris, María Teresa; Cambra, Mariano; Palomo, José Luis; Collar, Jesús; López, María M.

    2002-01-01

    Sensitive and specific routine detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in symptomless potato tubers was achieved by efficient enrichment followed by a reliable double-antibody sandwich indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the specific monoclonal antibody 8B-IVIA. This monoclonal antibody reacted with 168 typical R. solanacearum strains and did not recognize 174 other pathogenic or unidentified bacteria isolated from potato. The optimized protocol included an initial enrichment step consisting of shaking the samples in modified Wilbrink broth for 72 h at 29°C. This step enabled specific detection by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of 1 to 10 CFU of R. solanacearum per ml of initial potato extract. Analysis of 233 commercial potato lots by this method provided results that coincided with the results of conventional methods. PMID:12089053

  3. Rapid analysis of 2,4-D in soil samples by modified Soxhlet apparatus using HPLC with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sanjay M; Pandya, Girish H; Kondawar, Vivek K; Gabhane, Sanjay S

    2005-02-01

    The 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) is used as a systemic herbicide to control broadleaf weeds in wheat, corn, range land/pasture land, sorghum, and barley. In this study, a fast and efficient method is developed by selection of modified extraction apparatus and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV conditions for the determination of 2,4-D in soil samples. The method is applied to the study of soil samples collected from the agricultural field. The herbicide is extracted from soil samples by acetonitrile in a modified Soxhlet apparatus. The advantages of the apparatus are that it uses small volume of organic solvent, reduced time of extraction, and better recovery of the analyte. The extract is filtered using a very fine microfiber paper. The total extract is concentrated in a rotatory evaporator, dried under ultrahigh pure N2, and finally reconstituted in 1 mL of acetonitrile. HPLC-UV at 228 nm is used for analysis. The herbicide is identified and quantitated using the HPLC system. The method is validated by the analysis of spiked soil samples. Recoveries obtained varied from 85% to 100% for spiked soil samples. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) and the limit of detection (LOD) are 0.010 and 0.005 parts per million (ppm), respectively, for spiked soil samples. The LOQ and LOD are 0.006 and 0.003 ppm for unspiked soil samples. The measured concentrations of 2,4-D in spiked soil samples are between 0.010 and 0.020 ppm with an average of 0.016 +/- 0.003 ppm. For unspiked soil samples it is between 0.006 ppm and 0.012 ppm with an average of 0.009 +/- 0.002 ppm. The measured concentrations of 2,4-D in soil samples are generally low and do not exceed the regulatory agencies guidelines.

  4. Determination of phenolic compounds and hydroxymethylfurfural in meads using high performance liquid chromatography with coulometric-array and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahoun, David; Rezková, Sona; Veskrnová, Katerina; Královský, Josef; Holcapek, Michal

    2008-08-15

    The objective of this study was the determination of 25 phenolic compounds in different mead samples (honeywines) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with coulometric-array detection and in case of hydroxymethylfurfural with UV detection. Our method was optimized in respect to both the separation selectivity of individual phenolic compounds and the maximum sensitivity with the electrochemical detection. The method development included the optimization of mobile phase composition, the pH value, conditions of the gradient elution and the flow rate using a window-diagram approach. The developed method was used for the determination of limits of detection and limits of quantitation for individual compounds. The linearity of calibration curves, accuracy and precision (intra- and inter-day) at three concentration levels (low, middle and high concentration range) were verified. Mead samples were diluted with the mobile phase at 1:1 to 1:50 ratio depending on the concentration and filtered through a PTFE filter without any other sample pre-treatment. Phenolic compounds concentration was determined in 50 real samples of meads and correlated with meads composition and hydroxymethylfurfural concentration. The most frequently occurred compounds were protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid (both of them were present in 98% samples), the least occurred compounds were (+)-catechin (10% samples) and sinapic acid (12% samples). Vanillin and ethylvanillin, which are used as artificial additives for the taste improvement, were found in 60% and 42% samples, respectively. Hydroxymethylfurfural concentration, as an indicator of honey quality, was in the range from 2.47 to 158 mg/L. Our method is applicable for the determination of 25 phenolic compounds in mead, honey and related natural samples.

  5. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography determination of +S and -R arotinolol in serum using UV detection and solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawy, Mohammed M

    2002-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of +S and -R arotinolol in serum by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography is described. Stereoselective resolution of the arotinolol enantiomers was achieved using 5 mM sodium taurocholate in 10 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer of pH 2.5. A 72-cm uncoated fused-silica capillary at a constant voltage of 15 kV was used for the analysis. The analytes of interest were extracted from serum using solid phase extraction. An octadecyl cartridge gave good recoveries in excess of 87% for both +S and -R arotinolol without any interference. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 50-500 ng ml(-1) with +S propranolol as the internal standard and the coefficient of determination was greater than 0.999 (n = 3). The limit of quantitation was 50 ng ml(-1) for each enantiomer and the detection limit using 1 ml serum and a UV detection set et 220 nm was 25 ng ml(-1) (S/N = 2). Precision and accuracy of the method were in the range 0.8-2.7% and 1.2-6.4%, respectively, for +S arotinolol and 1.1-3.9% and 2.2-6.5%, respectively, for -R arotinolol. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. An Improved Label-Free Indirect Competitive SPR Immunosensor and Its Comparison with Conventional ELISA for Ractopamine Detection in Swine Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Xiao; Zhang, Shan; Liu, Jiahui; Dong, Yiyang

    2017-01-01

    Ractopamine (RCT) is banned for use in animals in many countries, and it is urgent to develop efficient methods for specific and sensitive RCT detection. A label-free indirect competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor was first developed with a primary antibody herein and then improved by a secondary antibody for the detection of RCT residue in swine urine. Meanwhile, a pre-incubation process of RCT and the primary antibody was performed to further improve the sensitivity. With all the key parameters optimized, the improved immunosenor can attain a linear range of 0.3–32 ng/mL and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.09 ng/mL for RCT detection with high specificity. Furthermore, the improved label-free SPR immunosenor was compared thoroughly with a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The SPR immunosensor showed advantages over the ELISA in terms of LOD, reagent consumption, analysis time, experiment automation, and so on. The SPR immunosensor can be used as potential method for real-time monitoring and screening of RCT residue in swine urine or other samples. In addition, the design using antibody pairs for biosensor development can be further referred to for other small molecule detection. PMID:28300766

  7. An Improved Label-Free Indirect Competitive SPR Immunosensor and Its Comparison with Conventional ELISA for Ractopamine Detection in Swine Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ractopamine (RCT is banned for use in animals in many countries, and it is urgent to develop efficient methods for specific and sensitive RCT detection. A label-free indirect competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR immunosensor was first developed with a primary antibody herein and then improved by a secondary antibody for the detection of RCT residue in swine urine. Meanwhile, a pre-incubation process of RCT and the primary antibody was performed to further improve the sensitivity. With all the key parameters optimized, the improved immunosenor can attain a linear range of 0.3–32 ng/mL and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.09 ng/mL for RCT detection with high specificity. Furthermore, the improved label-free SPR immunosenor was compared thoroughly with a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The SPR immunosensor showed advantages over the ELISA in terms of LOD, reagent consumption, analysis time, experiment automation, and so on. The SPR immunosensor can be used as potential method for real-time monitoring and screening of RCT residue in swine urine or other samples. In addition, the design using antibody pairs for biosensor development can be further referred to for other small molecule detection.

  8. Thin film organic photodetectors for indirect X-ray detection demonstrating low dose rate sensitivity at low voltage operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkenburg, Daken J.; Johns, Paul M.; Baciak, James E.; Nino, Juan C.; Xue, Jiangeng

    2017-12-01

    Developments in the field of organic semiconductors have generated organic photodetectors with high quantum efficiency, wide spectral sensitivity, low power consumption, and unique form factors that are flexible and conformable to their substrate shape. In this work, organic photodetectors coupled with inorganic CsI(Tl) scintillators are used to showcase the low dose rate sensitivity that is enabled when high performance organic photodetectors and scintillator crystals are integrated. The detection capability of these organic-inorganic coupled systems to high energy radiation highlights their potential as an alternative to traditional photomultiplier tubes for nuclear spectroscopy applications. When exposed to Bremsstrahlung radiation produced from an X-ray generator, SubPc:C60, AlPcCl:C70, and P3HT:PC61BM thin film photodetectors with active layer thicknesses less than 100 nm show detection of incident radiation at low and no applied bias. Remarkably low dose rates, down to at least 0.18 μGy/s, were detectable with a characteristic linear relationship between exposure rate and photodetector current output. These devices also demonstrate sensitivities as high as 5.37 mC Gy-1 cm-2 when coupled to CsI(Tl). Additionally, as the tube voltage across the X-ray generator was varied, these organic-inorganic systems showed their ability to detect a range of continuous radiation spectra spanning several hundred keV.

  9. Thin film organic photodetectors for indirect X-ray detection demonstrating low dose rate sensitivity at low voltage operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkenburg, Daken J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Johns, Paul M. [Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Detection Systems Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA; Baciak, James E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Nino, Juan C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Xue, Jiangeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA

    2017-12-14

    Developments in the field of organic semiconductors have generated organic photodetectors with high quantum efficiency, wide spectral sensitivity, low power consumption, and unique form factors that are flexible and conformable to their substrate shape. In this work, organic photodetectors coupled with inorganic CsI(Tl) scintillators are used to showcase the low dose rate sensitivity that is enabled when high performance organic photodetectors and scintillator crystals are integrated. The detection capability of these organic-inorganic coupled systems to high energy radiation highlights their potential as an alternative to traditional photomultiplier tubes for nuclear spectroscopy applications. When exposed to Bremsstrahlung radiation produced from an X-ray generator, SubPc:C60, AlPcCl:C70, and P3HT:PC61BM thin film photodetectors with active layer thicknesses less than 100 nm show detection of incident radiation at low and no applied bias. Remarkably low dose rates, down to at least 0.28 µGy/s, were detectable with a characteristic linear relationship between exposure rate and photodetector current output. These devices also demonstrate sensitivities as high as 5.37 mC Gy-1 cm-2 when coupled to CsI(Tl). Additionally, as the tube voltage across the X-ray generator was varied, these organic-inorganic systems showed their ability to detect a range of continuous radiation spectra spanning several hundred keV.

  10. Capability of the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory for the Indirect Detection of Ultrahigh-Energy Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes León Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, with energies in the PeV range or above, is a topic of great interest in modern astroparticle physics. The importance comes from the fact that these neutrinos point back to the most energetic particle accelerators in the Universe and provide information about their underlying acceleration mechanisms. Atmospheric neutrinos are a background for these challenging measurements, but their rate is expected to be negligible above ≈1 PeV. In this work we describe the feasibility to study ultrahigh-energy neutrinos based on the Earth-skimming technique, by detecting the charged leptons produced in neutrino-nucleon interactions in a high mass target. We propose to detect the charged leptons, or their decay products, with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC observatory and use as a large-mass target for the neutrino interactions the Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico. In this work we develop an estimate of the detection rate using a geometrical model to calculate the effective area of the observatory. Our results show that it may be feasible to perform measurements of the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux from cosmic origin during the expected lifetime of the HAWC observatory.

  11. Rapid Detection and Identification of Streptococcus Iniae Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems . The traditional plate culture technique to detect and identify S. iniae is time consuming and may be problematic due to phenotypic variations...

  12. Copper ion-induced fluorescence band shift of CdTe quantum dots: a highly specific strategy for visual detection of Cu(2+) with a portable UV lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yunjie; Zhang, Jinjun; Lu, Xiaozhen; Wang, Yucong; Liu, Chenghui

    2015-12-07

    We have developed a new colorimetric strategy that allows visual detection of Cu(2+) under the irradiation of a UV lamp with high specificity based on the phenomenon that copper ions may lead to a fluorescence band shift of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) while other concomitant ions will not.

  13. Astrophysical limitations to the identification of dark matter: indirect neutrino signals vis-a-vis direct detection recoil rates

    CERN Document Server

    Serpico, Pasquale D

    2010-01-01

    A convincing identification of dark matter (DM) particles can probably be achieved only through a combined analysis of different detections strategies, which provides an effective way of removing degeneracies in the parameter space of DM models. In practice, however, this program is made complicated by the fact that different strategies depend on different physical quantities, or on the same quantities but in a different way, making the treatment of systematic errors rather tricky. We discuss here the uncertainties on the recoil rate in direct detection experiments and on the muon rate induced by neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in the Sun, and we show that, contrarily to the local DM density or overall cross section scale, irreducible astrophysical uncertainties affect the two rates in a different fashion, therefore limiting our ability to reconstruct the parameters of the dark matter particle. By varying within their respective errors astrophysical parameters such as the escape velocity and the velo...

  14. Determination of parabens using two microextraction methods coupled with capillary liquid chromatography-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Wen; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lu, Ya-Chen; Weng, Jing-Ru; Feng, Chia-Hsien

    2018-02-15

    Parabens are common preservatives and environmental hormones. As such, possible detrimental health effects could be amplified through their widespread use in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Thus, the determination of parabens in such products is of particular importance. This study explored vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction techniques based on the solidification of a floating organic drop (VA-DLLME-SFO) and salt-assisted cloud point extraction (SA-CPE) for paraben extraction. Microanalysis was performed using a capillary liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection system. These techniques were modified successfully to determine four parabens in 19 commercial products. The regression equations of these parabens exhibited good linearity (r 2 =0.998, 0.1-10μg/mL), good precision (RSD<5%) and accuracy (RE<5%), reduced reagent consumption and reaction times (<6min), and excellent sample versatility. VA-DLLME-SFO was also particularly convenient due to the use of a solidified extract. Thus, the VA-DLLME-SFO technique was better suited to the extraction of parabens from complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct and indirect singlet scalar dark matter detection in the lepton-specific two-Higgs-doublet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucenna, M. S.; Profumo, S.

    2011-01-01

    A recent study of gamma-ray data from the Galactic center motivates the investigation of light (∼7-10 GeV) particle dark matter models featuring tau-lepton pairs as dominant annihilation final state. The lepton-specific two-Higgs-doublet model provides a natural framework where light, singlet scalar dark matter can pair-annihilate dominantly into tau leptons. We calculate the nucleon-dark matter cross section for singlet scalar dark matter within the lepton-specific two-Higgs-doublet model framework, and compare with recent results from direct detection experiments. We study how direct dark matter searches can be used to constrain the dark matter interpretation of gamma-ray observations, for different dominant annihilation final states. We show that models exist with the correct thermal relic abundance that could fit the claimed gamma-ray excess from the Galactic center region and have direct detection cross sections of the order of what is needed to interpret recent anomalous events reported by direct detection experiments.

  16. Development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotta, M J; Higgins, R; Gottschalk, M; Lallier, R

    2000-01-01

    Serology plays an important role in the diagnosis of leptospirosis. Few laboratories have the resources, expertise, or facilities to perform the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Thus, there is a need for a rapid and simple serological test that could be used in any diagnostic laboratory. In this study, a genus-specific, heat-stable antigenic preparation from Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona was used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in dog sera. This antigenic preparation reacted with rabbit antisera against L. interrogans serovars bratislava, autumnalis, icterohaemorrhagiae and pomona and with rabbit antiserum against L. kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. The ELISA showed a relative specificity of 95.6% with 158 dog sera which were negative at a dilution of 1:100 in the MAT for serovars pomona, bratislava, icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hardjo, and grippotyphosa. The relative sensitivity of this assay with 21 dog sera that revealed serovars MAT titres of > or =100 to different serovars was 100%. This assay is easily standardized, technically more advantageous than MAT, and uses an antigenic preparation that can be routinely prepared in large amounts. It was concluded that this ELISA is sufficiently sensitive test to be used as an initial screening test for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in canine sera, with subsequent confirmation of positive test results with the MAT.

  17. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  18. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2) curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively. [es

  19. Establishment of an indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of HSV-type I-specific antibodies in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchow, H.

    1982-01-01

    An indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay (IFRIA) was developed for the detection in human serum of antibodies against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I. The IFRIA was carried out according to the 'sandwich' principle. In comparison to other serological routine methods, especially the complement binding reaction (CBR) commonly used for HSV diagnostic, the IFRIA excelled by being a test which is quick to carry out and by lacking the subjectivity by the researcher in the evaluation of the test results, as well as by the use of patients serum which had not been previously treated. Comparative studies between IFRIA and CBR resulted in no agreement between the respectively attained maximum titer. As a reason for this the different qualities of the antibodies which can be determined by each test were discussed. For the addition of this test to the routine diagnostic further studies in the preservation of the specificity of the antigen in the case of longer storage are requisite. (orig.) [de

  20. Application of the indirect enzyme-labeled antibody microtest to the detection and surveillance of animal diseases. [Brucellosis, cholera, and trichinosis in cattle and swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.

  1. Liquid chromatography-UV diode-array detection method for multi-residue determination of macrolide antibiotics in sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mayor, M A; Garcinuño, R M; Fernández-Hernando, P; Durand-Alegría, J S

    2006-07-28

    A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-UV diode-array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven macrolides (erythromycin, oleandomycin, roxithromycin, josamycin, spiramycin, tylosin and ivermectin) in sheep's milk. The column, mobile phase, temperature and flow rate were optimised to provide the best resolution of these analytes. The extraction of the antibiotic residues involves the treatment of protein-free samples with a combination of concentrated sodium hydroxide and ethyl acetate. Necessary defatting is achieved by alkaline hydrolysis. The recovery of each antibiotic was between 55% and 77%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 1% to 6.5%. The limit of quantification was 72.4 microg/kg for ivermectin, 48.3 microg/kg for roxithromycin, and 24.1 microg/kg for erythromycin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, josamycin and tylosin. The procedure was successfully used in the multi-residue determination of these macrolides at levels below the maximum concentrations legally allowed in milk samples.

  2. Determination of Coenzyme A and Acetyl-Coenzyme A in Biological Samples Using HPLC with UV Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniya I. Shurubor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme A (CoA and acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA play essential roles in cell energy metabolism. Dysregulation of the biosynthesis and functioning of both compounds may contribute to various pathological conditions. We describe here a simple and sensitive HPLC-UV based method for simultaneous determination of CoA and acetyl-CoA in a variety of biological samples, including cells in culture, mouse cortex, and rat plasma, liver, kidney, and brain tissues. The limits of detection for CoA and acetyl-CoA are >10-fold lower than those obtained by previously described HPLC procedures, with coefficients of variation <1% for standard solutions, and 1–3% for deproteinized biological samples. Recovery is 95–97% for liver extracts spiked with Co-A and acetyl-CoA. Many factors may influence the tissue concentrations of CoA and acetyl-CoA (e.g., age, fed, or fasted state. Nevertheless, the values obtained by the present HPLC method for the concentration of CoA and acetyl-CoA in selected rodent tissues are in reasonable agreement with literature values. The concentrations of CoA and acetyl-CoA were found to be very low in rat plasma, but easily measurable by the present HPLC method. The method should be useful for studying cellular energy metabolism under normal and pathological conditions, and during targeted drug therapy treatment.

  3. Evaluation of electrochemical, UV/VIS and Raman spectroelectrochemical detection of Naratriptan with screen-printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carla Navarro; Martín-Yerga, Daniel; González-García, María Begoña; Hernández-Santos, David; Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo

    2018-02-01

    Naratriptan, active pharmaceutical ingredient with antimigraine activity was electrochemically detected in untreated screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to carry out quantitative analysis of this molecule (in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 3.0) through its irreversible oxidation (diffusion controlled) at a potential of +0.75V (vs. Ag pseudoreference electrode). Naratriptan oxidation product is an indole based dimer with a yellowish colour (maximum absorption at 320nm) so UV-VIS spectroelectrochemistry technique was used for the very first time as an in situ characterization and quantification technique for this molecule. A reflection configuration approach allowed its measurement over the untreated carbon based electrode. Finally, time resolved Raman Spectroelectrochemistry is used as a powerful technique to carry out qualitative and quantitative analysis of Naratriptan. Electrochemically treated silver screen-printed electrodes are shown as easy to use and cost-effective SERS substrates for the analysis of Naratriptan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gamma-ray detection with an UV-enhanced photodiode and scintillation crystals emitting at short wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-noise ion implanted photodiode with high spectral response in the deep blue/UV region has been tested as read-out device for scintillation crystals with matching emission spectra (YAP(Ce), GSO(Ce), BGO and CsI(Tl)). This gamma-ray detector concept is attractive in many industrial applications where compactness, reliability and ambient temperature operation are important. The results show that the amount of detected scintillation light energy falls rapidly off as the wavelength of the scintillation light decreases. It is concluded that the dynamic spectral response of the photodiode, due to increasing carrier collection times, is considerably less than the DC response at short wavelengths. The diode is not useful in pulse mode operation with scintillation crystals emitting at wavelengths below about 400 nm. For read-out of CsI(Tl) with 661.6 keV gamma-radiation, however, the photodiode concept shows better energy resolution (7.1%) than other detectors. (orig.)

  5. Label-free solution-based kinetic study of aptamer-small molecule interactions by kinetic capillary electrophoresis with UV detection revealing how kinetics control equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jiayin; Krylova, Svetlana M; Reinstein, Oren; Johnson, Philip E; Krylov, Sergey N

    2011-11-15

    Here we demonstrate a label-free solution-based approach for studying the kinetics of biopolymer-small molecule interactions. The approach utilizes kinetic capillary electrophoresis (KCE) separation and UV light absorption detection of the unlabeled small molecule. In this proof-of-concept work, we applied KCE-UV to study kinetics of interaction between a small molecule and a DNA aptamer. From the kinetic analysis of a series of aptamers, we found that dissociation rather than binding controls the stability of the complex. Because of its label-free features and generic nature, KCE-UV promises to become a practical tool for challenging kinetic studies of biopolymer-small molecule interactions.

  6. Monoclonal antibody based Dot-ELISA and indirect fluorescence antibody technique for detecting Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella ictaluri is known as the etiological agent of Red-head disease of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and is the cause of heavy economic losses in the aquaculture industry. In this study, a Dot-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Dot-ELISA and an Indirect Fluorescence Antibody technique (IFAT for detecting Edwardsiella ictaluri were developed by using a monoclonal antibody, 5D11. For Dot-ELISA, the working dilutions of 5D11 and the secondary antisera (enzyme-labeled goat anti-mouse Ig were 1:320 dilution and 1:3000 dilution, respectively. For IFAT, the working dilutions of 5D11 and goat-anti-mouse Ig conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate were as respectively 1:80 and 1:256. Both of the methods established were highly sensitivity (Minimum detectable concentration, 5 × 107 CFU/mL and had a high degree of accuracy (positive rate was 100% for both artificial infected fish and spontaneous diseased Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The two reliable methods developed have high potential for quick and efficient detection of Edwardsiella ictaluri in aquaculture production units.

  7. Spectral Analysis of Ultraviolet Clutter Sources to Improve Probability of Detection in Helicopter UV Missile Warning Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forney, Bryan J

    2008-01-01

    ...) emissions of the three UV sources. The collected data were analyzed to identify common spectral characteristics of all clutter sources that may allow for improved clutter rejection by current and future MWS...

  8. [Detection of irregular anti-erythrocyte antibodies using the indirect antiglobulin test in a low-ionic-strength medium. Immunohematology Group of the French Blood Transfusion Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannessier, L; Roubinet, F

    1999-06-01

    The detection of irregular antibodies is usually performed with serum by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) with a polyspecific antiglobulin reagent. In a first study in 1996, we compared the results obtained with 3,264 blood samples of patients drawn with or without anticoagulant: no significant difference was observed among the 240 allo-antibodies detected and identified. In this paper we report the comparison of the results obtained by IAT on column of filtration with two kinds of reagents: polyspecific and anti-IgG antibodies. Respectively 2,927 (76 contained an antibody), and 643 (161 contained an antibody) sera of patients were tested with methods ID-Diamed and Ortho-Biovue. Titrations of 153 other antibodies were also performed with the two reagents. Results showed no significant difference using either polyspecific reagent or the anti-IgG antibodies. This study proves that it is possible to perform screening of irregular antibodies on uncoagulated blood samples. This possibility allows automation as blood typing and screening of irregular antibodies can be carried out with the same sample.

  9. Development and evaluation of a truncated recombinant NS3 antigen-based indirect ELISA for detection of pestivirus antibodies in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Mishra, Niranjan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Behera, Sthita Pragnya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect ELISA using the helicase domain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) NS3 protein instead of full-length NS3 protein for detection of BVDV and BDV antibodies in sheep and goats and its validation by comparing its sensitivity and specificity with virus neutralization test (VNT) as the reference test. The purified 50 kDa recombinant NS3 protein was used as the coating antigen in the ELISA. The optimal concentration of antigen was 320 ng/well at a serum dilution of 1:20 and the optimal positive cut-off optical density value was 0.40 based on test results of 418 VNT negative sheep and goat sera samples. When 569 serum samples from sheep (463) and goats (106) were tested, the ELISA showed a sensitivity of 91.71% and specificity of 94.59% with BVDV VNT. A good correlation (93.67%) was observed between the two tests. It showed a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 86.6% with VNT in detecting BDV antibody positive or negative samples. This study demonstrates the efficacy of truncated recombinant NS3 antigen based ELISA for seroepidemiological study of pestivirus infection in sheep and goats.

  10. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  11. HERSCHEL DETECTION OF DUST EMISSION FROM UV-LUMINOUS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 3.3 ∼< z ∼< 4.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Atlee, David; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Reddy, Naveen; Brown, Michael J. I.

    2012-01-01

    We report the Herschel/SPIRE detection of dust emission arising from UV-luminous (L ∼> L*) star-forming galaxies at 3.3 ∼ 2 in the Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. This is one of the largest samples of UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch and enables an investigation of the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function. We divide our sample into three luminosity bins and stack the Herschel/SPIRE data to measure the average spectral energy distribution (SED) of LBGs at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. We find that these galaxies have average IR luminosities of (3-5) × 10 11 L ☉ and 60%-70% of their star formation obscured by dust. The FIR SEDs peak at λ rest ∼> 100 μm suggesting dust temperatures (T d = 27-30 K) significantly colder than that of local galaxies of comparable IR luminosities. The observed IR-to-UV luminosity ratio (IRX ≡ L IR /L UV ) is low (≈3-4) compared with that observed for z ≈ 2 LBGs (IRX z∼2 ≈ 7.1 ± 1.1). The correlation between the slope of the UV continuum and IRX for galaxies in the two lower luminosity bins suggests dust properties similar to those of local starburst galaxies. However, the galaxies in the highest luminosity bin appear to deviate from the local relation, suggesting that their dust properties may differ from those of their lower-luminosity and low-redshift counterparts. We speculate that the most UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch are being observed in a short-lived and young evolutionary phase.

  12. Determination of N-acetylglucosamine in cosmetic formulations and skin test samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrali, Alice; Bleve, Mariella; Capra, Priscilla; Jonsson, Tobias; Massolini, Gabriella; Perugini, Paola; Marrubini, Giorgio

    2015-03-25

    N-Acetylglucosamine is an ingredient in pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements and in cosmetics. N-Acetylglucosamine in cosmetics is expected to improve skin hydration, reparation, and to contribute as anti-wrinkle agent. This study reports on the validation and application of an HPLC method based on HILIC and UV detection for determining N-acetylglucosamine in cosmetics and in samples obtained after testing the skin exposed to cosmetics formulations. The chromatographic column used is a ZIC(®)-pHILIC (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) on which a mobile phase containing acetonitrile-aqueous KH2PO4 (70:30, v/v) 15 mM was applied in isocratic elution mode injecting 20 μl of sample at 0.5 ml/min constant flow-rate and 10±1°C column temperature. Under these conditions the total run time was 10 min and N-acetylglucosamine eluted baseline separated from all other compounds in the samples. Calibration in the range from 40 to 80 μg/ml allowed to assess the method linearity (R(2)>0.999) in a concentration range corresponding to about 50% to 120% of the expected levels of N-acetylglucosamine in the formulations. Precision expressed by RSD% was always better than 2% in intra-day and inter-day assays of authentic samples. Accuracy was in all cases within 95-105% of the expected concentration value in formulations containing N-acetylglucosamine. The sensitivity of the method was at the level of 10 μg/ml as limit of detection, and at 40 μg/ml as limit of quantitation. The application of the method to formulations containing solid lipid nanoparticles documents its usefulness in cosmetic quality control. The results witness that the method is also suitable for the determination of N-acetylglucosamine in samples obtained from skin test strips. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of a monolithic Michelson interferometer for fringe-imaging in a near-field, UV, direct detection Doppler wind lidar

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Jonas; Vrancken, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The low-biased, fast, airborne, short-range, and range-resolved determination of atmospheric wind speeds plays a key role in wake vortex and turbulence mitigation strategies and would improve flight safety, comfort, and economy. In this work, a concept for an airborne, UV, direct-detection Doppler wind lidar receiver is presented. A monolithic, tilted, field-widened, fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer (FWFIMI) combines the Advantages of low angular sensitivity, high thermo-mecha...

  14. A protein A/G indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in Arctic wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Godfroid, Jacques; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Larsen, Anett K; das Neves, Carlos G; Rødven, Rolf; Tryland, Morten

    2013-05-01

    A species-independent indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on chimeric protein A/G was established for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in Arctic wildlife species and compared to previously established brucellosis serological tests for hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis), fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus), as well as bacteriology results for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus sp.). The protein A/G iELISA results were consistent with the other serological tests with Cohen kappa values between 0.47 and 0.92, and the protein A/G iELISA can thus offer a technically simple method for these species yielding results consistent with established brucellosis serological tests. Receiver operator characteristics analysis proved that the reindeer and caribou protein A/G iELISA results were consistent with the bacteriological gold standard with an area under the curve of 0.99, and the protein A/G iELISA was thus validated as a sensitive and specific serological method for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in reindeer and caribou. The binding of the antibodies from the respective species to protein A and G were also evaluated in the iELISA. The antibodies from hooded seals and polar bears reacted stronger to protein A than to G. The sei whale, fin whale, reindeer, and caribou antibodies reacted stronger to protein G than to A. The minke whale antibodies reacted to both protein A and G. There was a strong correlation (r s = 0.88-0.98) between the optical density results obtained with the iELISA with protein A/G and protein A or G, showing that protein A/G is as well suited as protein A or G for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in these species with the iELISA.

  15. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Onodera, Takeshi [Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Toko, Kiyoshi, E-mail: toko@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-05-30

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual’s stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38 ppt range with a measurement range of 10 ppt–100 ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8 min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R = 0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels.

  16. Non-invasive measurements of leaf epidermal transmittance of UV radiation using chlorophyll fluorescence: field and laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.W. [Southwest Texas State Univ.. Dept. of Biology, San Marcos, TX (United States); Searles, P.S.; Ryel, R.J.; Caldwell, M.M. [Utah State Univ., Dept. of Rangeland Resources and the Ecology Center, Logan, UT (United States); Ballare, C.L. [IFEVA, Univ. de Buenos Aires, Dept. de Ecologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Buenos Aires, (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    Ratios of chlorophyll fluorescence induced by ultraviolet (UV) and bluegreen (BG) radiation [F(UV)/F(BG)] were determined with a Xe-PAM fluorometer to test the utility of this technique as a means of non-intrusively assessing changes in the pigmentation and optical properties of leaves exposed to varying UV exposures under laboratory and field conditions. For plants of Vicia faba and Brassica campestris, grown under controlled-environmental conditions, F(UV-B)/F(BG) was negatively correlated with whole-leaf UV-B-absorbing pigment concentrations. Fluorescence ratios of V.faba were similar to, and positively correlated with (r{sup 2} = 0.77 [UV-B]; 0.85 [UV-A]), direct measurements of epidermal transmittance made with an integrating sphere. Leaves of 2 of 4 cultivars of field-grown Glycine max exposed to near-ambient solar UV-B at a mid-latitude site (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 34 degrees S) showed significantly lower abaxial F(UV-B)/F(BG) values (i.e., lower UV-B epidermal transmittance) than those exposed to attenuated UV-B, but solar UV-B reduction had a minimal effect on F(UV-B)/F(BG) in plants growing at a high-latitude site (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 55 degrees S). Similarly, the exotic Taraxacum officinale did not show significant changes in F(UV-B)/F(BG) when exposed to very high supplemental UV-B (biologically effective UV-B = 14-15 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1}) in the field in Tierra del Fuego, whereas a native species, Gunnera magellanica, showed significant increases in F(UV-B)/F(BG) relative to those receiving ambient UV-B. These anomalous fluorescence changes were associated with increases in BG-absorbing pigments (anthocyanins), but not UV-B-absorbing pigments. These results indicate that non-invasive estimates of epidermal transmittance of UV radiation using chlorophyll fluorescence can detect changes in pigmentation and leaf optical properties induced by UV-B radiation under both field and laboratory conditions. However, this technique may be of limited

  17. HERSCHEL DETECTION OF DUST EMISSION FROM UV-LUMINOUS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 3.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Atlee, David; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Reddy, Naveen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2012-10-20

    We report the Herschel/SPIRE detection of dust emission arising from UV-luminous (L {approx}> L*) star-forming galaxies at 3.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.3. Our sample of 1913 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates is selected over an area of 5.3 deg{sup 2} in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. This is one of the largest samples of UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch and enables an investigation of the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function. We divide our sample into three luminosity bins and stack the Herschel/SPIRE data to measure the average spectral energy distribution (SED) of LBGs at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. We find that these galaxies have average IR luminosities of (3-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} and 60%-70% of their star formation obscured by dust. The FIR SEDs peak at {lambda}{sub rest} {approx}> 100 {mu}m suggesting dust temperatures (T{sub d} = 27-30 K) significantly colder than that of local galaxies of comparable IR luminosities. The observed IR-to-UV luminosity ratio (IRX {identical_to} L{sub IR}/L{sub UV}) is low ( Almost-Equal-To 3-4) compared with that observed for z Almost-Equal-To 2 LBGs (IRX{sub z{approx}2} Almost-Equal-To 7.1 {+-} 1.1). The correlation between the slope of the UV continuum and IRX for galaxies in the two lower luminosity bins suggests dust properties similar to those of local starburst galaxies. However, the galaxies in the highest luminosity bin appear to deviate from the local relation, suggesting that their dust properties may differ from those of their lower-luminosity and low-redshift counterparts. We speculate that the most UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch are being observed in a short-lived and young evolutionary phase.

  18. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du Hong; Wang Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  19. Determination of phthalates in bottled water by automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography with uv detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Beltrán, Daniel; Hinojosa-Reyes, Laura; Ruiz-Ruiz, Edgar; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; Luis Guzmán-Mar, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    An on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography with UV detection (SPE/LC-UV) method was automated by the multisyringe flow-injection analysis (MSFIA) system for the determination of three phthalic acid esters (PAEs). The PAEs determined in drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles of ten commercial brands were dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP). C18-bonded silica membrane was used for isolation and enrichment of the PAEs in water samples. The calibration range of the SPE/LC-UV method was 2.5-100μgL -1 for DMP and DEP and 10-100μgL -1 for DBP with correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9970 to 0.9975. Limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.7 and 2.4μgL -1 . Inter-day reproducibility performed at two concentration levels (10 and 100μgL -1 ) expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD) were found in the range of 0.9-4.0%. The solvent volume was reduced to 18mL with a total analysis time of 48min per sample. The major species detected in bottled water samples was DBP reaching concentrations between 20.5 and 82.8μgL -1 . The recovery percentages for the three analytes in drinking water were 80-115%. The migration test showed a great variation in the sum of migrated PAEs level (10.2-50.6μgL -1 ) among the PET bottle brands analyzed indicating that the presence of these contaminants in the plastic containers may depend on raw materials and the conditions used during their production process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. UV-induced transcription from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat and UV-induced secretion of an extracellular factor that induces HIV-1 transcription in nonirradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, B.; Kraemer, M.R.; Rahmsdorf, H.J.; Ponta, H.; Herrlich, P.

    1989-01-01

    UV irradiation, but not visible sunlight, induces the transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Chimeric constructs carrying all or parts of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat linked to an indicator gene were transfected into HeLa cells or murine and human T-cell lines, and their response to irradiation was tested. The cis-acting element conferring UV responsiveness is identical to the sequence binding transcription factor NF kappa B. UV irradiation enhances NF kappa B binding activity as assayed by gel retardation experiments. Interestingly, the requirement for UV irradiation can be replaced by cocultivation of transfected cells with UV-irradiated nontransfected (HIV-1-negative) cells. A UV-induced extracellular protein factor is detected in the culture medium conditioned by UV-treated cells. The factor is produced upon UV irradiation by several murine and human cell lines, including HeLa, Molt-4, and Jurkat, and acts on several cells. These data suggest that the UV response of keratinocytes in human skin can be magnified and spread to deeper layers that are more shielded, including the Langerhans cells, and that this indirect UV response may contribute to the activation of HIV-1 in humans

  1. Readout of the UFFO Slewing Mirror Telescope to detect UV/optical photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J E; Jung, A; Linder, E V; Na, G W; Lim, H; Nam, J W; Chen, P; Liu, T-C; Brandt, S; Budtz-Jorgensen, C; Castro-Tirado, A J; Choi, H S; Grossan, B; Huang, M A; Jeong, S; Kim, M B; Lee, J; Park, I H; Kim, S-W; Panasyuk, M I

    2013-01-01

    The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) was proposed for rapid response to prompt UV/optical photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). The SMT is a key component of the Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO)-pathfinder, which will be launched aboard the Lomonosov spacecraft at the end of 2013. The SMT utilizes a motorized mirror that slews rapidly forward to its target within a second after triggering by an X-ray coded mask camera, which makes unnecessary a reorientation of the entire spacecraft. Subsequent measurement of the UV/optical is accomplished by a 10 cm aperture Ritchey-Chrètien telescope and the focal plane detector of Intensified Charge-Coupled Device (ICCD). The ICCD is sensitive to UV/optical photons of 200–650 nm in wavelength by using a UV-enhanced S20 photocathode and amplifies photoelectrons at a gain of 10 4 –10 6 in double Micro-Channel Plates. These photons are read out by a Kodak KAI-0340 interline CCD sensor and a CCD Signal Processor with 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter. Various control clocks for CCD readout are implemented using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The SMT readout is in charge of not only data acquisition, storage and transfer, but also control of the slewing mirror, the ICCD high voltage adjustments, power distribution, and system monitoring by interfacing to the UFFO-pathfinder. These functions are realized in the FPGA to minimize power consumption and to enhance processing time. The SMT readout electronics are designed and built to meet the spacecraft's constraints of power consumption, mass, and volume. The entire system is integrated with the SMT optics, as is the UFFO-pathfinder. The system has been tested and satisfies the conditions of launch and those of operation in space: those associated with shock and vibration and those associated with thermal and vacuum, respectively. In this paper, we present the SMT readout electronics: the design, construction, and performance, as well as the results of space environment

  2. Readout of the UFFO Slewing Mirror Telescope to detect UV/optical photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. E.; Lim, H.; Nam, J. W.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chen, P.; Choi, H. S.; Grossan, B.; Huang, M. A.; Jeong, S.; Jung, A.; Kim, M. B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lee, J.; Linder, E. V.; Liu, T.-C.; Na, G. W.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Park, I. H.; Ripa, J.; Reglero, V.; Smoot, G. F.; Svertilov, S.; Vedenkin, N.; Yashin, I.

    2013-07-01

    The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) was proposed for rapid response to prompt UV/optical photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). The SMT is a key component of the Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO)-pathfinder, which will be launched aboard the Lomonosov spacecraft at the end of 2013. The SMT utilizes a motorized mirror that slews rapidly forward to its target within a second after triggering by an X-ray coded mask camera, which makes unnecessary a reorientation of the entire spacecraft. Subsequent measurement of the UV/optical is accomplished by a 10 cm aperture Ritchey-Chrètien telescope and the focal plane detector of Intensified Charge-Coupled Device (ICCD). The ICCD is sensitive to UV/optical photons of 200-650 nm in wavelength by using a UV-enhanced S20 photocathode and amplifies photoelectrons at a gain of 104-106 in double Micro-Channel Plates. These photons are read out by a Kodak KAI-0340 interline CCD sensor and a CCD Signal Processor with 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter. Various control clocks for CCD readout are implemented using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The SMT readout is in charge of not only data acquisition, storage and transfer, but also control of the slewing mirror, the ICCD high voltage adjustments, power distribution, and system monitoring by interfacing to the UFFO-pathfinder. These functions are realized in the FPGA to minimize power consumption and to enhance processing time. The SMT readout electronics are designed and built to meet the spacecraft's constraints of power consumption, mass, and volume. The entire system is integrated with the SMT optics, as is the UFFO-pathfinder. The system has been tested and satisfies the conditions of launch and those of operation in space: those associated with shock and vibration and those associated with thermal and vacuum, respectively. In this paper, we present the SMT readout electronics: the design, construction, and performance, as well as the results of space environment test.

  3. An Optimised Method for Routine Separation and Quantification of Major Alkaloids in Cortex Cinchona by HPLC Coupled with UV and Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmfred, Else; Cornett, Claus; Maldonado, Carla; Rønsted, Nina; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2017-09-01

    Authentication of herbal products to ensure efficacy and safety require efficient separation and quantification of constituents. Standard assays for Cinchona bark used for the treatment of malaria and production of quinine, either use only spectrophotometry to detect two pairs of diastereoisomers of quinine and cinchonine type alkaloids (European Pharmacopoeia, Ph.Eur.) or liquid chromatography primarily optimised for detection of the four major alkaloids. However, numerous minor alkaloids occur in Cinchona and related species and efficient separation including gradient elution is necessary in order to obtain the full pattern of constituents in bark samples. To develop an optimised HPLC method for separation and quantitative analysis of the four major alkaloids in Cinchona bark using UV detection. Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) extracts of 50 mg of pulverised barks were prepared using ultrasonication. The chromatographic separation was performed on an XB-C18 column packed with 2.6 μm particles. Gradient elution using an ammonium formate buffer and methanol as organic modifier over 26 min was based on non-chiral separation of the diastereoisomers and the high solvent selectivity of methanol. Post column UV detection was performed at 250 nm and 330 nm. Fluorescence detection was performed using 330 nm for excitation and 420 nm for emission. The optimised HPLC method facilitates efficient separation and quantification of the four major alkaloids in 26 min with a limit of quantification of 5 μg/g from 50 mg bark sample. The optimised HPLC method offers a simple and efficient quantification of the four major alkaloids. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Towards a new tool for the indirect detection of Dark Matter: building of a SuSy spectrum generator based on micrOMEGAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Pierre [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-vieux de Physique des Particules, CNRS/IN2P3/Univ. de Savoie, 9 Chemin de Bellevue - BP 110 F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux CEDEX (France)

    2006-03-15

    In the quest for indirect signals from dark matter annihilation, powerful computation codes are required. I report here a new code based on micrOMEGAs devoted to the analysis of such signals in term of Supersymmetry. It computes gamma rays and positrons fluxes in a general SuSy model, as well as the other charged cosmic rays and neutrinos source terms. This work aims to propose an alternative to the DarkSUSY code by providing inclusive signals from SuSy for dark matter indirect searches. Therefore it can be used for sensitivity studies and data analysis. (author)

  5. Simple and rapid simultaneous profiling of minor components of honey by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to ultraviolet diode array detection (UV-DAD), combined with chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giangiacomo; Fermo, Paola; Maffei Facino, Roberto

    2012-01-25

    This paper discusses the importance of profiling UV-responsive components, properly integrated with chemometric techniques, in detecting indicative parameters for quality control of honey. The minor components in honeys of different botanical and geographical origins were investigated by size SEC-UV-DAD. We diluted honey with mobile phase before injection into the chromatographic apparatus and a single chromatographic run gave a fast profile of high- (proteins and enzymes), intermediate- (e.g. terpenoid glycosides in lime tree honey) and low-molecular-weight components (secondary metabolites, e.g. kynurenic acid in chestnut honey). The analysis of a total number of 32 honey samples from different regions (Italy, Western Balkan countries, Brazil, Cameroon, Kenya) and of different botanical origins (herbal flower and arboreal flower nectars/honeydews) showed peculiar and characteristic distribution of these markers, which were basically related to their floral origin. Chemometric examination carried out using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the chromatograms (RT vs. absorption) detected four main clusters in which the groups of (i) chestnut honeys, (ii) honeys from rain forests and (iii) counterfeit/adulterated honeys were clearly separated from the main group of flower nectar honeys. The method is fast, requiring minimal sample handling, and the chromatographic data can be analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques to obtain descriptive information about the honey's quality and composition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA for the detection of antibody titers against BVDV from beef cattle raised in Pará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Batista Viana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV antibodies (Ab in beef cattle raised in Pará state, to compare the prevalence of seropositive animals to BVDV using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (iELISA and the virus neutralization (VN test, and finally, to determine the sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp of the iELISA for the detection of anti-BVDV Ab using VN as a gold standard. A total of 400 serum blood samples from Nelore cows aged at least 24 months from five farms in the Pará state from two mesoregions (Metropolitan Region of Belem and Northeast of Pará were analyzed. All animals were vaccinated against brucellosis and foot-and-mouth disease. The examination of anti-BVDV Ab with VN was performed in the Laboratory of Bovine Viruses of the Biological Institute of Sao Paulo as described in the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. For VN, bovine kidney epithelial cells from the Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK strain were used. The determinations of anti-BVDV Ab were performed with the iELISA test at the Laboratory of Immunology and Microbiology of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The results were classified as follows: (a correct positive diagnosis, (b incorrect positive diagnosis, (c correct negative diagnosis, and (d incorrect negative diagnosis, according to the results obtained from VN. From the values obtained from VN and iELISA, Se [(a ÷ a + d × 100], Sp [(c ÷ c + b × 100], positive predictive value [(a ÷ a + B × 100], and negative predictive value [(c ÷ c + d × 100] were calculated for iELISA. The frequencies (% of seropositive animals were determined and compared both between the different tests (iELISA and VN and between the different farms (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The statistical analysis was performed with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of seropositive

  7. Biogenic unmodified gold nanoparticles for selective and quantitative detection of cerium using UV-vis spectroscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy (DLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, E; Pradhan, N; Panda, P K; Mishra, B K

    2015-06-15

    The ability of self-functionalized biogenic GNPs towards highly selective colorimetric detection of rare earth element cerium is being reported for the first time. GNPs underwent rapid aggregation on addition of cerium indicated by red shift of SPR peak followed by complete precipitation. Hereby, this concept of co-ordination of cerium ions onto the GNP surface has been utilized for detection of cerium. The remarkable capacity of GNPs to sensitively detect Ce without proves beneficial compared to previous reports of colorimetric sensing. MDL was 15 and 35 ppm by DLS and UV-vis spectroscopy respectively, suggesting DLS to be highly sensitive and a practical alternative in ultrasensitive detection studies. The sensing system showed a good linear fit favouring feasible detection of cerium in range of 2-50 ppm. Similar studies further showed the superior selectivity of biogenic GNPs compared to chemically synthesized counterparts. The sensing system favours on-site analysis as it overcomes need of complex instrumentation, lengthy protocols and surface modification of GNP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. UV-vis spectroscopy and colorimetric models for detecting anthocyanin-metal complexes in plants: An overview of in vitro and in vivo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedenko, Volodymyr S; Shemet, Sergiy A; Landi, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Although anthocyanin (ACN) biosynthesis is one of the best studied pathways of secondary metabolism in plants, the possible physiological and ecological role(s) of these pigments continue to intrigue scientists. Like other dihydroxy B-ring substituted flavonoids, ACNs have an ability to bind metal and metalloid ions, a property that has been exploited for a variety of purposes. For example, the metal binding ability may be used to stabilize ACNs from plant food sources, or to modify their colors for using them as food colorants. The complexation of metals with cyanidin derivatives can also be used as a simple, sensitive, cheap, and rapid method for determination concentrations of several metals in biological and environmental samples using UV-vis spectroscopy. Far less information is available on the ecological significance of ACN-metal complexes in plant-environment interactions. Metalloanthocyanins (protocyanin, nemophilin, commelinin, protodelphin, cyanosalvianin) are involved in the copigmentation phenomenon that leads to blue-pigmented petals, which may facilitate specific plant-pollinator interactions. ACN-metal formation and compartmentation into the vacuole has also been proposed to be part of an orchestrated detoxification mechanism in plants which experience metal/metalloid excess. However, investigations into ACN-metal interactions in plant biology may be limited because of the complexity of the analytical techniques required. To address this concern, here we describe simple methods for the detection of ACN-metal both in vitro and in vivo using UV-vis spectroscopy and colorimetric models. In particular, the use of UV-vis spectra, difference absorption spectra, and colorimetry techniques will be described for in vitro determination of ACN-metal features, whereas reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetric parameters related to CIE L * a * b * and CIE XYZ systems will be detailed for in vivo analyses. In this way, we hope to make this high-informative tool

  9. A simple and sensitive HPLC method for analysis of imipramine in human plasma with UV detection and liquid-liquid extraction: Application in bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Mahboubeh; Emami, Jaber

    2016-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods employing ultraviolet (UV) detector are not sufficiently sensitive to measure the low plasma concentrations following single oral dose of imipramine. Therefore, in the present study a simple, rapid and yet sensitive HPLC method with UV detection was developed and validated for quantitation of imipramine in human plasma samples. An efficient liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of imipramine from plasma with the mixture of hexane/isoamyl alcohol (98:2) and back extraction of the drug in acidic medium concomitant with evaporation of organic phase allowed the use of UV detector to conveniently measure plasma levels of this compound as low level as 3 ng/ml. Separation was achieved on a μ-Bondapak C18 HPLC column using sodium hydrogen phosphate solution (0.01 M)/acetonitrile (60/40 v/v) at pH 3.5 ± 0.1 at 1.5 ml/min. Trimipramine was used as the internal standard for analysis of plasma samples. The retention times for imipramine and trimipramine were 4.3 and 5.2 min, respectively. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 3-40 ng/ml using human plasma with the average extraction recovery of 85 ± 5%. Imipramine was found to be stable in plasma samples with no evidence of degradation during three freeze-thaw cycles and three months storage at -70°C. The current validated method was finally applied in bioequivalence studies of two different imipramine products according to a standard two-way crossover design with a two weeks washout period.

  10. Indirection and computer security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  11. Simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas and mate using RP-HPLC/UV detection: method development and optimization of extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, In Kyung; Ham, Hyeon Mi; Jeong, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Ho Jin

    2015-04-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic coupled to ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC/UV) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS (green tea, oolong tea, black tea and mate). Furthermore, the extraction process of total phenolic contents (TPC) from TEAS were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD) and then applied to extraction of TEAS. The best conditions obtained using the model were as follow: green tea--extraction time of 123 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 75%, oolong tea--extraction time of 98 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 69%, black tea--extraction time of 105 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 63%, and mate--extraction time of 103 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 61%. Among the extraction methods used in this study, heat-reflux extraction was found to result in the highest values of TPC. The chromatographic peaks of the 16 studied compounds were successfully identified by comparing their retention time and UV spectra with the reference standards. Method validation was performed by means of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. The developed method was found to be simple, specific and reliable and is suited for routine analysis of phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design of a monolithic Michelson interferometer for fringe imaging in a near-field, UV, direct-detection Doppler wind lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Jonas; Vrancken, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    The low-biased, fast, airborne, short-range, and range-resolved determination of atmospheric wind speeds plays a key role in wake vortex and turbulence mitigation strategies and would improve flight safety, comfort, and economy. In this work, a concept for an airborne, UV, direct-detection Doppler wind lidar receiver is presented. A monolithic, tilted, field-widened, fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer (FWFIMI) combines the advantages of low angular sensitivity, high thermo-mechanical stability, independence of the specific atmospheric conditions, and potential for fast data evaluation. Design and integration of the FWFIMI into a lidar receiver concept are described. Simulations help to evaluate the receiver design and prospect sufficient performance under different atmospheric conditions.

  13. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulkhemair, Dalila

    2009-07-01

    include, independent of any comparator, all randomised controlled trials (RCT that provide a study arm with the intervention of interest. 2. Adjusted indirect comparisons 3. and metaregression analyses include only those studies that provide one study arm with the intervention of interest and another study arm with a common comparator. While the aforementioned methods use conventional metaanalytical techniques, 4. Mixed treatment comparisons (MTC use Bayesian statistics. They are able to analyse a complex network of RCT with multiple comparators simultaneously. During the period from 1999 to 2008 adjusted indirect comparisons are the most commonly used method for indirect comparisons. Since 2006 an increase in the application of the more methodologically challenging MTC is being observed. For the validity check 248 data sets, which include results of a direct and an indirect comparison, are available. The share of statistically significant discrepant results is greatest in the unadjusted indirect comparisons (25,5% [95% CI: 13,1%; 38%], followed by metaregression analyses (16,7% [95% CI: -13,2%; 46,5%], adjusted indirect comparisons (12,1% [95% CI: 6,1%; 18%] and MTC (1,8% [95% CI: -1,7%; 5,2%]. Discrepant results are mainly detected if the basic assumption for an indirect comparison – between-study homogeneity – does not hold. However a systematic over- or underestimation of the results of direct comparisons by any of the indirectly comparing methods was not observed in this sample. Discussion: The selection of an appropriate method for an indirect comparison has to account for its validity, the number of interventions to be compared and the quality as well as the quantity of available studies. Unadjusted indirect comparisons provide, contrasted with the results of direct comparisons, a low validity. Adjusted indirect comparisons and MTC may, under certain circumstances, give results which are consistent with the results of direct comparisons. The limited number of

  14. Small-scale purification of butyrylcholinesterase from human plasma and implementation of a μLC-UV/ESI MS/MS method to detect its organophosphorus adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Breyer, Felicitas; Schmidt, Christian; Mizaikoff, Boris; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst

    2015-10-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) is a serine hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.8) present in all mammalian tissues and the bloodstream. Similar to acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme reacts with organophosphorus compounds (OP) like nerve agents or pesticides that cause enzyme inhibition (BChE adducts). These adducts represent valuable biomarkers for analytical verification of OP exposure. For establishment of these mass spectrometry based methods sufficient amounts of hBChE in high purity are required. Unfortunately, commercial lots are of inappropriate purity thus favouring in-house isolation. Therefore, we developed a small scale procedure to isolate hBChE from citrate plasma. After precipitation by polyethylene glycol (8% w/v and 20% w/v PEG 6000) hBChE was purified from plasma by four consecutive chromatographic steps including anion exchange, affinity extraction and size exclusion. Protein elution was monitored on-line by UV-absorbance (280 nm) followed by continuous fractionation for off-line analysis of (1) hBChE enzyme activity by Ellman assay, (2) protein purity by gel electrophoresis, and (3) protein identity by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Numerous major impurities separated from hBChE were identified. The purified material was used for in vitro incubation with diverse OP to establish a μ-liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection/electrospray ionization tandem-mass spectrometric method (μLC-UV/ESI MS/MS) for detection of hBChE adducts suitable for verification analysis. Analytical data for diverse OP pesticides including deuterated analogues as well as G- and V-type nerve agents and their precursor are summarized. This method was successfully applied to plasma samples provided by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for the 4th Biomedical Exercise. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey: Are Low-luminosity Submillimeter Galaxies Detected in the Rest-frame UV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J.; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2017-12-01

    In this third paper of the Hawaii SCUBA-2 Lensing Cluster Survey series, we present Submillimeter Array (SMA) detections of six intrinsically faint 850 μm sources detected in SCUBA-2 images of the lensing cluster fields, A1689, A2390, A370, MACS J0717.5+3745, and MACS J1423.8+2404. Two of the SCUBA-2 sources split into doublets, yielding a total of eight SMA detections. The intrinsic 870 μm flux densities of these submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) are ∼1 mJy. Five of the eight SMGs are not detected in optical or near-infrared (NIR) images. The NIR-to-submillimeter flux ratios of these faint SMGs suggest that most of them are extremely dusty and/or are at very high redshifts. By combining these SMGs and several other samples from the literature, we find a bimodal distribution for the faint sources in the space of submillimeter flux versus NIR-to-submillimeter flux ratio. While most of the SMA-detected lensed sources are very obscured, the other SMGs with similar flux densities are mostly bright in the NIR. Future Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of a large sample of SCUBA-2 sources in cluster fields will allow us to decide whether or not the bimodality we observe here really exists.

  16. Determination of chemotherapeutic drugs in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with UV and fluorimetric detection using solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction for sample clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Sánchez, María del Carmen; Acedo-Valenzuela, María Isabel; Durán-Merás, Isabel; Rodríguez-Cáceres, María Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Capillary electrophoresis was used for the rapid determination of three chemotherapeutic drugs employed to treat colorectal cancer: irinotecan, tegafur, and leucovorin, and their main metabolites (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin and 5-fluorouracil), in human urine samples. A phosphate buffer (pH 11.34; 20 mM) was selected as the background electrolyte. A hydrodynamic injection (9 s, 30 mbar) was applied and the separation was carried out using a separation temperature and voltage of 25°C and 25 kV, respectively. A capillary with two detection windows for serial online UV and fluorescence detection was satisfactorily employed. A solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction procedure was optimized for the clean-up of the urine samples and the extraction of the analytes. Matrix effects were assessed and signal suppression was observed for three of the analytes, thus, matrix-matched calibration was used for compensating residual matrix effects on these analytes. The proposed method allows the separation and quantification of the chemotherapeutics in less than 6 min. Detection limits range between 0.01 and 0.30 mg/L. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of the target compounds in human urine samples, with recoveries of 92.4-107.7%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Development of an Ion-Pairing Reagent and HPLC-UV Method for the Detection and Quantification of Six Water-Soluble Vitamins in Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jin Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and simple method for detecting six water-soluble vitamins in animal feed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA and ion-pairing reagent was developed. The chromatographic peaks of the six water-soluble vitamins were successfully identified by comparing their retention times and UV spectra with reference standards. The mobile phase was composed of buffers A (5 mM PICB-6 in 0.1% CH3COOH and B (5 mM PICB-6 in 65% methanol. All peaks were detected using a wavelength of 270 nm. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, and precision. The limits of detection (LODs for the instrument employed in these experiments ranged from 25 to 197 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification (LOQs ranged from 84 to 658 μg/kg. Average recoveries of the six water-soluble vitamins ranged from 82.3% to 98.9%. Method replication resulted in intraday and interday peak area variation of <5.6%. The developed method was specific and reliable and is therefore suitable for the routine analysis of water-soluble vitamins in animal feed.

  18. Temperature dependence of commercial 4H-SiC UV Schottky photodiodes for X-ray detection and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Lioliou, G.; Barnett, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    Two commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) 4H-SiC UV photodiodes have been investigated for their suitability as low-cost high temperature tolerant X-ray detectors. Electrical characterisation of the photodiodes which had different active areas (0.06 mm2 and 0.5 mm2) is reported over the temperature range 0 °C to 140 °C together with measurements of the X-ray photocurrents generated when the detectors were illuminated with an 55Fe radioisotope X-ray source. The 0.06 mm2 photodiode was also investigated as a photon counting spectroscopic X-ray detector across the temperature range 0 °C to 100 °C. The depletion widths (at 120 V reverse bias) of the two diodes were found to be 2.3 μm and 4.5 μm, for the 0.06 mm2 and 0.5 mm2 detectors respectively, at 140 °C. Both devices had low leakage currents (temperatures ≤40 °C even at high electric field strengths (500 kV/cm for 0.06 mm2 diode; 267 kV/cm for 0.5 mm2 diode). At 140 °C and similar field strengths (514 kV/cm for 0.06 mm2 diode; 269 kV/cm for 0.5 mm2 diode), the leakage currents of both diodes were temperatures temperatures ≤100 °C with modest energy resolution (1.6 keV FWHM at 5.9 keV at 0 °C; 2.6 keV FWHM at 5.9 keV at 100 °C). Due to their temperature tolerance, wide commercial availability, and the radiation hardness of SiC, such detectors are expected to find utility in future low-cost nanosatellite (cubesat) missions and cost-sensitive industrial applications.

  19. High-sensitivity detection of cardiac troponin I with UV LED excitation for use in point-of-care immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Rodenko, Olga; Eriksson, Susann; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Troldborg, Carl Peder; Fodgaard, Henrik; van Os, Sylvana; Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay development enables determination of biological variation in healthy populations, more accurate interpretation of clinical results and points towards earlier diagnosis and rule-out of acute myocardial infarction. In this paper, we report on preliminary tests of an immunoassay analyzer employing an optimized LED excitation to measure on a standard troponin I and a novel research high-sensitivity troponin I assay. The limit of detection is improved by fac...

  20. Detection of organic colorants in historical painting layers using UV laser ablation surface-enhanced Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaratto, Anna; Leona, Marco; Lombardi, John R; Comelli, Daniela; Nevin, Austin; Londero, Pablo

    2014-12-22

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been increasingly used in the study of works of art to identify organic pigments and dyes in paintings, which (depending on the material) are difficult or not possible to detect by other current methods. The application of SERS to the study of paintings has been limited, however, by the lack of a sampling approach with sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution. We show that ultraviolet laser ablation (LA) sampling coupled with SERS detection can be successfully used to study paint layers. LA-SERS permitted the isolation of signals from colorants in individual thin paint layers in sample cross-sections, avoiding contamination from adjacent layers. These results expand the range of analytical applications of SERS demonstrating how the technique can be used to sensitively detect minor organic components in complex matrices. While this is fundamental for the study of cultural heritage, it is also relevant in other fields such as forensic analysis, food science, and pharmacology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Indirect lymphography with iotrolan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmeinwieser, K.J.; Allgayer, B.; Golder, W.; Wenzel-Hora, B.; Theiss, H.; Dorrler, W.

    1988-01-01

    Indirect lymphography with the new nonionic dimeric isoosmolal contrast medium iotrolan is a simple method for visualizing the initial lymphatics and the lymph collectors up to the first lymph node station. Without risks, primary and secondary lymphedema and lipedema can be differentiated by typical patterns of lymph vessels. Four types of primary lymphedema can be discerned. This was demonstrated in 29 patients. The clinical diagnosis had to be altered in six cases because of the results of indirect lymphography. There were no side effects. Compared with clinical examination, dye test, fluorescence microlymphangiography, and lymph scintigraphy, indirect lymphography seems to be superior in the differential diagnosis of lymphedema

  2. Detection and characterization of silver nanoparticles and dissolved species of silver in culture medium and cells by AsFlFFF-UV-Vis-ICPMS: application to nanotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, E; Jiménez-Lamana, J; Laborda, F; Abad-Álvaro, I; Bladé, C; Arola, L; Castillo, J R

    2014-03-07

    A methodology based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled with UV-Vis absorption spectrometry and ICP mass spectrometry (ICPMS) has been developed and applied to the study of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and dissolved species of silver in culture media and cells used in cytotoxicity tests. The effect of a nano-silver based product (protein stabilized silver nanoparticles ca. 15 nm average diameter) on human hepatoma (HepG2) cell viability has been studied. UV-Vis absorption spectrometry provided information about the nature (organic vs. nanoparticle) of the eluted species, whereas the silver was monitored by ICPMS. A shift towards larger hydrodynamic diameters was observed in the AgNPs after a 24 hour incubation period in the culture medium, which suggests a "protein corona" effect. Silver(I) associated with proteins present in the culture medium has also been detected, as a consequence of the oxidation process experimented by the AgNPs. However, the Ag(I) released into the culture medium did not justify the toxicity levels observed. AgNPs associated with the cultured HepG2 cells were also identified by AsFlFFF, after applying a solubilisation process based on the use of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and Triton X-100. These results have been confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) analysis of the fractions collected from the AsFlFFF. The effect of AgNPs on HepG2 cells has been compared to that caused by silver(I) as AgNO3 under the same conditions. The determination of the total content of silver in the cells confirms that a much larger mass of silver as AgNPs with respect to AgNO3 (16 to 1) is needed to observe a similar toxicity.

  3. Detection and Assay of Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) in Alkaline Borate Buffer with UV/Visible Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bartzatt, Ronald; Wol, Tasloach

    2014-01-01

    The detection and assay of vitamin B-2 (riboflavin) was accomplished under aqueous conditions using sodium borate buffering at pH 7.52 conditions. The absorbance spectrum of riboflavin was determined at different pH values utilizing several buffers. The buffer at pH at 7.52 is followed by accurate and sensitive assay of riboflavin by spectrophotometer at 440?nm wavelength. Where indicated an origin solution (stock) was employed by dissolving sufficient vitamin to make a stock solution of 1.40...

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of coal liquefaction process streams using normal-phase separation with uv diode array detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, D.J.; McKinney, D.E.; Hou, Lei; Hatcher, P.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrated the considerable potential of using two-dimensional, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with normal-phase separation and ultraviolet (UV) diode array detection for the examination of filtered process liquids and the 850{degrees}F{sup {minus}} distillate materials derived from direct coal liquefaction process streams. A commercially available HPLC column (Hypersil Green PAH-2) provided excellent separation of the complex mixture of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal-derived process streams process. Some characteristics of the samples delineated by separation could be attributed to processing parameters. Mass recovery of the process derived samples was low (5--50 wt %). Penn State believes, however, that, improved recovery can be achieved. High resolution mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) also were used in this study to characterize the samples and the HPLC fractions. The GC/MS technique was used to preliminarily examine the GC-elutable portion of the samples. The GC/MS data were compared with the data from the HPLC technique. The use of an ultraviolet detector in the HPLC work precludes detecting the aliphatic portion of the sample. The GC/MS allowed for identification and quantification of that portion of the samples. Further development of the 2-D HPLC analytical method as a process development tool appears justified based on the results of this project.

  5. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of triclosan using core-shell Fe3O4-MIL-100 magnetic nanoparticles, and its determination by HPLC with UV detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yang; Ma, Xiaowei; Feng, Fan; Dang, Xueping; Huang, Jianlin; Chen, Huaixia

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the synthesis of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of the type Fe 3 O 4 -MIL-100 (MIL standing for Material Institut Lavoisier), and their application as sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of triclosan. The MNPs were prepared via circular self-assembly of ferric chloride and benzenetricarboxylic acid. The functionalized MNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, FTIR and thermogravimetry. Following extraction, triclosan was eluted with ammoniacal methanol and then submitted to HPLC with UV detection. The amount of magnetic microspheres, sample pH and ionic strength, adsorption time, desorption time, desorption solvent and the volume of the eluent were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the method showed good linearity in the 0.1 to 50 mg·kg −1 triclosan concentration range in toothpaste samples. Other features include (a) intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSD, for n = 4) of <5.5 %, (b) a 30 μg·kg −1 limit of detection, and (c) extraction recoveries between 90.86 % and 101.1 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of triclosan in children’s toothpaste. (author)

  6. Rapid modified QuEChERS method for pesticides detection in honey by high-performance liquid chromatography UV-visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of pesticides in agriculture plays an important role in bees die-off and allows the presence of residues in hive products, particularly in honey. An accurate and reliable analytical method, based on QuEChERS extractive technique, has been developed for the quantitative determination by high-performance liquid chromatography UV-visible detector of 5 pesticides (Deltamethrin, Dimethoate, Imidacloprid, Acetamiprid, Chlorfenvinphos in honey. The method, according to Commission Directive 2002/63/EC and Regulation 882/2004/EC, provided excellent results with respect to linearity (correlation coefficient up to 0.993, limits of detection and quantification (0.005 and 0.01 μg/mL for Dimethoate, Deltamethrin and Chlorfenvinphos; 0.02 and 0.05 μg/mL for Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid, recovery values (86.4 to 96.3%, precision and relative expanded uncertainty of a measurement, demonstrating the conformity of the this method with the European directives. The proposed method was applied to 23 samples of Apulian honey. None of the investigated pesticides was detected in these samples.

  7. Analysis of paspalic acid, lysergic acid, and iso-lysergic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis with UV- and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelsbach, Markus; Ferdig, Matthias; Rohrer, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    CZE was investigated for separation of lysergic, iso-lysergic, and paspalic acid. BGEs were optimized regarding separation selectivity and analysis time as well as MS compatibility. BGEs using asparagine, Na-tetraborate, or ammonium acetate yielded satisfactory resolution when 40% of methanol was added and the pH adjusted to 8.3. Applying acidic BGEs also allowed fast separations but the poor stability under acidic conditions of the selected analytes prevented further use. With ultraviolet (UV) detection, LODs were 0.45 and 0.40 mg/L for paspalic acid and lysergic acid, respectively. Run-to-run precision of peak areas was 1.8% for lysergic acid and 1.9% for paspalic acid and day-to-day precision was 2.4 and 4.0%, respectively. When MS detection was used LODs improved to 0.09 mg/L for paspalic acid and 0.07 mg/L for lysergic acid. Repeatability results were excellent for a CZE-MS method without internal standard ranging from 3.4% for the highest standard concentration to 5.8% for the lowest concentration. Recovery and matrix effects were studied with samples taken from different stages of the manufacturing process and yielded an average recovery of 100.8% and a RSD of 5.7%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. MeV electrons detected by the Alice UV spectrograph during the New Horizons flyby of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffl, A. J.; Shinn, A. B.; Gladstone, G. R.; Parker, J. W.; Retherford, K. D.; Slater, D. C.; Versteeg, M. H.; Stern, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    In early 2007, the New Horizons spacecraft flew through the Jovian magnetosphere on the dusk side. Here, we present results from a novel means of detecting energetic electrons along New Horizons' trajectory: the background count rate of the Alice ultraviolet spectrograph. Electrons with energies >1 MeV can penetrate the thin aluminum housing of Alice, interact with the microchannel plate detector, and produce a count that is indistinguishable from an FUV photon. We present Alice data, proportional to the MeV electron flux, from an 11-day period centered on the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter, and compare it to electron data from the PEPSSI instrument. We find that a solar wind compression event passed over the spacecraft just prior to it entering the Jovian magnetosphere. Subsequently, the magnetopause boundary was detected at a distance of 67 RJ suggesting a compressed magnetospheric configuration. Three days later, when the spacecraft was 35-90 RJ downstream of Jupiter, New Horizons observed a series of 15 current sheet crossings, all of which occurred significantly northward of model predictions implying solar wind influence over the middle and outer Jovian magnetosphere, even to radial distances as small as ˜35 RJ. In addition, we find the Jovian current sheet, which had a half-thickness of at least 7.4 RJ between 1930 and 2100 LT abruptly thinned to a thickness of ˜3.4 RJ around 2200 LT.

  9. Detection of Streptococcus suis by in situ hybridization, indirect immunofluorescence, and peroxidase-antiperoxidase assays in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Feenstra, Anne Avlund; Tegtmeier, Conny

    2000-01-01

    and the immunohistochemical methods were used for detection of S. suis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of brain, endocardium, and lung from pigs infected with S. suis. The methods developed were able to detect single cells of S. suis in situ in the respective samples, whereas no signal was observed from...

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF UV-C AND UV-B RADIATION INFLUENCE ON PLANT OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Міхєєв

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available General aim of work – comparative research of temporal regularities of growth processes of pea,that was grown under normal conditions and with application of UV-C and UV-B irradiation ofstem part, and also detection of irradiation dose relations to parameter of root and stem part sproutsgrowth rate of Aronis pea. Research subject of UV-C and UV-B irradiation influence on dynamicsof plant growth parameters in each set of experiments was alteration of growth rate, pecularities ofgrowth dynamics in different conditions of experiment, detection of UV-C and UV-B irradiationdoses range, that stimulate or inhibit growth parameters of pea sprouts. The investigation resulted indetermination 1,3 times higher efficiency of UV-V irradiation comparing to UV-B irradiation.Reaction of root didn’t depend on the type of UV-radiation

  11. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, paracetamol, and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and by capillary electrophoresis with conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rafael R; Chaves, Sandro C; Ribeiro, Michelle M A C; Torres, Lívia M F C; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Dos Santos, Wallans T P; Richter, Eduardo M

    2015-05-01

    Paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen are found in over-the-counter pharmaceutical formulations. In this work, we propose two new methods for simultaneous determination of paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations. One method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and the other on capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. The separation by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection was achieved on a C18 column (250×4.6 mm(2), 5 μm) with a gradient mobile phase comprising 20-100% acetonitrile in 40 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer pH 7.0. The separation by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was achieved on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm length, 50 μm i.d.) using 10 mmol L(-1) 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate and 10 mmol L(-1) β-alanine with pH adjustment to 10.4 with lithium hydroxide as background electrolyte. The determination of all three pharmaceuticals was carried out in 9.6 min by liquid chromatography and in 2.2 min by capillary electrophoresis. Detection limits for caffeine, paracetamol and ibuprofen were 4.4, 0.7, and 3.4 μmol L(-1) by liquid chromatography and 39, 32, and 49 μmol L(-1) by capillary electrophoresis, respectively. Recovery values for spiked samples were between 92-107% for both proposed methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. In situ growth and phenyl functionalization of titania nanoparticles coating for solid-phase microextraction of ultraviolet filters in environmental water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Guo, Ruibin; Li, Yi; Guo, Mei; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-03-31

    Based on TiO2-nanoparticles coating fabricated by a one-step anodization method on titanium wire substrate, a novel phenyl functionalized solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating was prepared by simple and rapid in situ chemical assembling technique between the fiber surface titanol groups and trichlorophenylsilane reaction. The as-fabricated fiber exhibited good extraction capability for some UV filters and was employed to determine the ultraviolet (UV) filters in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection (HPLC-UV). The main parameters affecting extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method was applied to detect several UV filters at trace concentration levels with only 8 mL of sample volume. They were determined in the range from 0.005 to 25 μg L(-1) with detection limits (S/N=3) from 0.1 to 50 ng L(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for single fiber repeatability varied from 4.6 to 6.5% (n=5) and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n=5) ranged from 5.5 to 9.1%. The linear ranges spanned two-four magnitudes with correlation coefficients above 0.9990. Five real water samples including four Yellow River water samples and one rain water sample were determined sensitively with good recoveries ranging from 86.2 to 105.5%. The functionalized fiber coating performed good reproducible manner, high mechanical strength, good stability and long service life. Moreover, this study proposed an efficient sample pretreatment method for the determination of UV filters from environmental water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of an indirect ELISA to detect Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis specific antibodies in sheep employing T1 strain culture supernatant as antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam F. Rebouças

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA, a chronic disease that affects goats and sheep, characterized by granuloma formation in subcutaneous and internal lymph nodes. CLA causes significant economic losses to commercial goat herds. In this study, we aimed to test secreted antigens secreted from T1 strain bacteria grown in brain heart infusion (BHI broth in an indirect ELISA system to determine the presence of specific immunoglobulins against C. pseudotuberculosis. We analyzed the BHI antigen electrophoretic profile and the recognition pattern by infected sheep sera samples. The ELISA results were compared with multiplex PCR assay and IFN-gamma production. The ELISA was able to discriminate between negative and positive animals, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 99%, using microbiological isolation as gold standard. When this assay was compared with multiplex PCR and specific IFN-gamma quantification, six discrepant results were found among thirty-two samples. We concluded that the ELISA using antigens secreted from C. pseudotuberculosis T1 strain growth in BHI broth culture can be used for the serodiagnosis of CLA in sheep.

  14. Development and Standardization of Dot - ELISA for Detection of Neospora caninum Antibodies in Cattle and Comparison with Standard Indirect ELISA and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidinejat, Hossein; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohamad Rahim; Ghorbanpoor, Masoud; Namavari, Mehdi; Gol, Sara Mohamad Ali

    2013-10-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite from phylum apicomplexa and an important agent causing abortion in cattle which produce notable economic loss all around the world. Dot-Elisa was set up performing checker board procedure and then 178 sera of cattle examined with commercial indirect ELISA and direct agglutination test (DAT) were also evaluated by dot-ELISA afterwards. Kappa statistical analysis revealed that Dot-ELISA has good agreements with ELISA as well as the DAT and also, Mc Nemar's analyzing showed that this procedure has acceptable ability to discriminate positive results. Relative sensitivity and specificity of Dot-ELISA were respectively 92.63% and 89.16% and 93.4% and 90.8% in comparison with ELISA and DAT. Since the dot-ELISA is easy, inexpensive and not needed high experience to interpret the results, it is superior to ELISA and DAT when we aim to screen the cattle on the farm and slaughterhouses or when the laboratory equipment is not available.

  15. Applicability of integrated cell culture quantitative PCR (ICC-qPCR) for the detection of infectious adenovirus type 2 in UV disinfection studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human adenovirus is relatively resistant to UV radiation and has been used as a conservative testing microbe for evaluations of UV disinfection systems as components of water treatment processes. In this study, we attempted to validate the applicability of integrated cell culture...

  16. Multielemental fractionation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by size exclusion liquid chromatography coupled to UV and ICP-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Gladys; Murillo, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    An analytical methodology is presented in this work to determine metal-biomolecule complexes size distribution patterns of several elements, among different compounds present in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A hyphenated technique based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled online to UV and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection is used. Two different SEC columns with separation ranges between 1,500-1,000,000 relative molecular mass (M(r)) (Nanofilm SEC-250) and 5,000 and 100,000 relative molecular mass (M(r)) (TSK-Gel G2000 SW) are used with 10 mmol/L tris-HCl at pH 7.3 as mobile phase. Retention behavior (retention time and peak-area ratios) remained unchanged for several successive separations. Metal-containing compounds are found to a wide range of M(r). Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, copper and zinc metallothionein, and copper and zinc transferrin are identified in PBMC samples. A high M(r) (147,000) metal-binding protein containing copper and zinc and a high M(r) (107,000) manganese-binding protein were also found; however, these remained unknown.

  17. Increased detection of clinically significant antibodies and decreased incidence of delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction with the indirect antiglobulin test potentiated by polyethylene glycol compared to albumin: a Japanese study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutsu, Miho; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Kawabata, Kinuyo; Ono, Satoshi; Saito, Shunnichi; Sugawara, Akiko; Kikuchi, Masami; Miura, Saori; Ishii, Youko; Watanabe, Kazuya; Tohyama, Yuriko; Nollet, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Background The indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) can be potentiated by agents such as polyethylene glycol (PEG-IAT) and albumin (Alb-IAT). PEG-IAT is generally regarded as superior to Alb-IAT for the detection of clinically significant red blood cell (RBC) antibodies. However, supporting data come from Caucasian-dominant populations. Non-Caucasian populations should be investigated as well. Material and methods In this single-centre, retrospective, sequential study, Alb-IAT was used from 1989 to 1996 (8 years) and PEG-IAT from 1997 to 2008 (12 years). Pre-transfusion RBC alloantibody detection rates and specificity, post-transfusion alloantibody production, and the incidence of delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction were assessed and compared for the two periods. Results Although overall RBC alloantibody detection rates were comparable, PEG-IAT more frequently detected clinically significant antibodies such as anti-E, anti-Fyb, and anti-Jka, and less frequently detected insignificant antibodies such as anti-Leb and anti-P1. New alloantibodies emerged comparably during the two periods. Delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction was less frequent during the PEG-IAT period (0.30% versus 0.12%, ptransfusion reaction better than Alb-IAT among Japanese transfusion recipients in this retrospective survey of limited power. PMID:21251459

  18. Development and use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of iridovirus exposure in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) and eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, April J; Wendland, Lori; Norton, Terry M; Belzer, Bill; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2010-05-19

    Iridoviruses, pathogens typically associated with fish and amphibians, have recently been shown to cause acute respiratory disease in chelonians including box turtles, red-eared sliders, gopher tortoises, and Burmese star tortoises. Case reports of natural infections in several chelonian species in the United States have been reported, however the prevalence remains unknown in susceptible populations of free-ranging chelonians. To determine the prevalence of iridovirus exposure in free-ranging gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) in the southeast United States, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and used to evaluate plasma samples from wild gopher tortoises (G. polyphemus) from: Alabama (n=9); Florida (n=658); Georgia (n=225); Louisiana (n=12); Mississippi (n=28); and unknown locations (68) collected between 2001 and 2006. Eight (1.2%) seropositive tortoises were identified from Florida and seven (3.1%) from Georgia for an overall prevalence of 1.5%. Additionally, a population of eastern box turtles was sampled from a private nature sanctuary in Pennsylvania that experienced an outbreak of iridovirus the previous year, which killed 16 turtles. Only 1 turtle out of 55 survivors tested positive (1.8%). Results suggest a low exposure rate in chelonians to this pathogen; however, it is suspected that this is an underestimate of the true prevalence. Since experimental transmission studies and past outbreaks have shown a high rate of mortality in infected turtles, turtles may die before they develop an antibody response. Further, the duration of the antibody response is unknown and may also cause an underestimate of the true prevalence. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isomer-specific detection in the UV photodissociation of the propargyl radical by chirped-pulse mm-wave spectroscopy in a pulsed quasi-uniform flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Bernadette M; Suas-David, Nicolas; Dias, Nureshan; Suits, Arthur G

    2018-02-21

    Isomer-specific detection and product branching fractions in the UV photodissociation of the propargyl radical is achieved through the use of chirped-pulse Fourier-transform mm-wave spectroscopy in a pulsed quasi-uniform flow (CPUF). Propargyl radicals are produced in the 193 nm photodissociation of 1,2-butadiene. Absorption of a second photon leads to H atom elimination giving three possible C 3 H 2 isomers: singlets cyclopropenylidene (c-C 3 H 2 ) and propadienylidene (l-C 3 H 2 ), and triplet propargylene ( 3 HCCCH). The singlet products and their appearance kinetics in the flow are directly determined by rotational spectroscopy, but due to the negligible dipole moment of propargylene, it is not directly monitored. However, we exploit the time-dependent kinetics of H-atom catalyzed isomerization to infer the branching to propargylene as well. We obtain the overall branching among H loss channels to be 2.9% (+1.1/-0.5) l-C 3 H 2 + H, 16.8% (+3.2/-1.3) c-C 3 H 2 + H, and 80.2 (+1.8/-4.2) 3 HCCCH + H. Our findings are qualitatively consistent with earlier RRKM calculations in that the major channel in the photodissociation of the propargyl radical at 193 nm is to 3 HCCCH + H; however, a greater contribution to the energetically most favorable isomer, c-C 3 H 2 + H is observed in this work. We do not detect the predicted HCCC + H 2 channel, but place an upper bound on its yield of 1%.

  20. Role of vacancy sites and UV-ozone treatment on few layered MoS2 nanoflakes for toxic gas detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Debasree; Ghosh, Ruma; Santra, Sumita; Ray, Samit Kumar; Guha, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Various issues like global warming and environmental pollutions have led to the research of toxic gas detection worldwide. In this work, we have tried to develop a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) based gas sensor to detect toxic gases like ammonia and NO. MoS2, an inorganic analog of graphene, has attracted lots of attention for many different applications recently. This paper reports the use of liquid exfoliated MoS2 nanoflakes as the sensing layer in a handheld, resistive toxic gas sensor. The nanoflakes were exfoliated from MoS2 bulk powder using a sonication based exfoliation technique at room temperature. The successful exfoliation of the nanoflakes was characterized using different techniques e.g., optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The characterization results showed that few-layered nanoflakes have successfully been exfoliated. The MoS2 nanoflakes showed reasonable sensing towards ammonia and NO. In order to explore the effect of particle size on ammonia sensing, the MoS2 flakes were also exfoliated using different sonication times. We also observed that various factors like presence of vacancy sites, ambient oxygen, humidity, different contact electrodes have significant effect on the sensing characteristics. In fact, the response of the sensing layer against 400 ppm of ammonia increased from 54.1% to ˜80% when it was UV-ozone treated. This work holds promises to developing cost-effective, reliable and highly sensitive MoS2 based ammonia sensors.

  1. Flow injection analysis of ethyl xanthate by gas diffusion and UV detection as CS2 for process monitoring of sulfide ore flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Thiago G; Hidalgo, Pilar; Gutz, Ivano G R; Pedrotti, Jairo J

    2010-07-15

    A sensitive and robust analytical method for spectrophotometric determination of ethyl xanthate, CH(3)CH(2)OCS(2)(-) at trace concentrations in pulp solutions from froth flotation process is proposed. The analytical method is based on the decomposition of ethyl xanthate, EtX(-), with 2.0 mol L(-1) HCl generating ethanol and carbon disulfide, CS(2). A gas diffusion cell assures that only the volatile compounds diffuse through a PTFE membrane towards an acceptor stream of deionized water, thus avoiding the interferences of non-volatile compounds and suspended particles. The CS(2) is selectively detected by UV absorbance at 206 nm (epsilon=65,000 L mol(-1) cm(-1)). The measured absorbance is directly proportional to EtX(-) concentration present in the sample solutions. The Beer's law is obeyed in a 1x10(-6) to 2x10(-4) mol L(-1) concentration range of ethyl xanthate in the pulp with an excellent correlation coefficient (r=0.999) and a detection limit of 3.1x10(-7) mol L(-1), corresponding to 38 microg L(-1). At flow rates of 200 microL min(-1) of the donor stream and 100 microL min(-1) of the acceptor channel a sampling rate of 15 injections per hour could be achieved with RSDapplications demonstrate the versatility of the FIA method: (i) evaluation the free EtX(-) concentration during a laboratory study of the EtX(-) adsorption capacity on pulverized sulfide ore (pyrite) and (ii) monitoring of EtX(-) at different stages (from starting load to washing effluents) of a flotation pilot plant processing a Cu-Zn sulfide ore. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Processes limiting the emergence of detectable aerosol indirect effects on tropical warm clouds in global aerosol-climate model and satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Peters

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We use data from simulations performed with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM to test the proposition that shipping emissions do not have a statistically significant effect on water clouds over tropical oceans on climate scales put forward in earlier satellite based work. We analyse a total of four sensitivity experiments, three of which employ global shipping emissions and one simulation which only employs shipping emissions in the mid-Atlantic Ocean. To ensure comparability to earlier results from observations, we sample the model data using a method previously applied to satellite data aimed at separating ‘clean’ from ‘polluted’ oceanic regions based on i the location of main shipping routes and ii wind direction at 10 m above sea level. The model simulations run with realistic present-day shipping emissions show changes in the lower tropospheric aerosol population attributable to shipping emissions across major shipping corridors over tropical oceans. However, we find the resulting effect on cloud properties to be non-distinguishable from natural gradients and variability, that is, gradients of cloud properties sampled across major shipping corridors over tropical oceans are very similar among those simulations. Our results therefore compare well to the earlier findings from satellite observations. Substantial changes of the aerosol population and cloud properties only occur when shipping emissions are increased 10-fold. We find that aerosol advection and rapid aerosol removal from the atmosphere play an important role in determining the non-significant response in i column integrated aerosol properties and ii cloud microphysical properties in the realistic simulations. Additionally, high variability and infrequent occurrence of simulated low-level clouds over tropical oceans in ECHAM5-HAM limit the development of aerosol indirect effects because i in-cloud production of sulphate from ship-emitted sulphuric species via

  3. Development of an Indirect ELISA Using Different Fragments of Recombinant Ncgra7 for Detection of Neospora caninum Infection in Cattle and Water Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAMIDINEJAT, Hossein; SEIFI ABAD SHAPOURI, Massoud Reza; NAMAVARI, Mohammad Mehdi; SHAYAN, Parviz; KEFAYAT, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dense granules are immunodominant proteins for the standardization of immunodiagnostic procedures to detect neosporosis. In the presented study different fragment of a dense-granule protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of Neospora caninum in cattle and water buffalo. Methods: NcGRA7, from N. caninum tachyzoites was amplified. PCR product and pMAL-c2X plasmid were digested with EcoR1 restriction enzyme and expressed in Escherichia coli to evaluate its competence for detection of anti- N. caninum antibodies with ELISA in comparison with commercial IDEXX ELISA. Furthermore, 230 sera of presumably healthy cattle and water buffaloes (108 cattle and 122 water buffaloes) were analyzed by both tests to determine the agreement of these two procedures. Results: Sensitivities and specificities of NcGRA7-based ELISA were 94.64% and 90.38% respectively using sera of cattle, but were 98.57% and 86.54% in the case of buffaloes respectively. A good correlation between the results of IDEXX ELISA and ELISA based on recombinant NcGRA7 for detecting N. caninum antibodies was appeared. Analyzing by Mc Nemar′s showed that NcGRA7-based ELISA has acceptable capability to differentiate the positive results in comparison with IDEXX ELISA. Conclusion: NcGRA7-based ELISA considering utilized new fragment of genomic DNA is a good tool for serodiagnosis of anti- N. caninum antibodies for screening and epidemiological purposes on cattle herd and water buffaloes as well. PMID:25904948

  4. Predicting Outcome and Therapy Response in mCRC Patients Using an Indirect Method for CTCs Detection by a Multigene Expression Panel: A Multicentric Prospective Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Vidal Insua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths. Early detection of tumor relapse is crucial for determining the most appropriate therapeutic management. In clinical practice, computed tomography (CT is routinely used, but small tumor changes are difficult to visualize, and reliable blood-based prognostic and monitoring biomarkers are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to prospectively validate a gene expression panel (composed of GAPDH, VIL1, CLU, TIMP1, TLN1, LOXL3 and ZEB2 for detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs as prognostic and predictive tool in blood samples from 94 metastatic CRC (mCRC patients. Patients with higher gene panel expression before treatment had a reduced progression-free survival (PFS and overall-survival (OS rates compared with patients with low expression (p = 0.003 and p ≤ 0.001, respectively. Patients with increased expression of CTCs markers during treatment presented PFS and OS times of 8.95 and 11.74 months, respectively, compared with 14.41 and 24.7 for patients presenting decreased expression (PFS; p = 0.020; OS; p ≤ 0.001. Patients classified as non-responders by CTCs with treatment, but classified as responders by CT scan, showed significantly shorter survival times (PFS: 8.53 vs. 11.70; OS: 10.37 vs. 24.13; months. In conclusion, our CTCs detection panel demonstrated efficacy for early treatment response assessment in mCRC patients, and with increased reliability compared to CT scan.

  5. Intranuclear localization and UV response of ERCC5/XPG protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M.S.; Marrone, B.L.; MacInnes, M.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The human ERCC5/XPG protein is defective in the hereditary genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum, group-G. The XPG gene encodes a single-strand DNA endonuclease which is essential for the incision step of nucleotide excision repair for a wide variety of DNA damages. We have shown previously by indirect immunofluorescence and biochemical fractionation that the XPG protein is localized in the nucleus, in discrete foci, and probably associated with the nuclear matrix. However, the intranuclear localization of XPG is markedly altered for a short time after UV irradiation. Here, we report the identification of XPG protein regions involved in the UV response, and its putative nuclear localization signals (NLS) using a B-galactosidase (B-gal) reporter gene system. Control and fusion reporter genes were expressed in Hela S3 cells after CaPO{sub 4} transfection. B-gal protein was detected by indirect immuno-fluorescence using an anti B-gal monoclonal antibody and FITC-labeled goat anti-mouse antiserum. Two NLS peptides of the XPG carboxy-terminal region (AA 1029-1069 and 1146-1186 term) were shown to independently localize B-gal fusion proteins to the nucleus (>90%). The C-terminus peptide was observed to further localize B-gal into nuclear foci and the perinucleolar regions. When B-gal was fused with two copies of the C-terminal NLS, in tandem, B-gal was extensively sublocalized to the perinucleolar regions. Shortly after cell UV irradiation (5 J/m{sup 2}) this B-gal fusion protein became dissociated from the perinucleolar regions whereupon it was distributed throughout the nucleus. Within 6 hours post-irradiation, the fusion protein reassociated again with the perinucleolar regions. These observations confirm and extend a similar UV response of endogenous XPG protein in UV-irradiation human cells. The involvement of XPG protein and its UV responses will be discussed in context of models nuclear matrix and preferential DNA repair in actively transcribed genes.

  6. Derivative Quotient Spectrophotometry and an Eco-Friendly Micellar Chromatographic Approach with Time-Programmed UV-Detection for the Separation of Two Fluoroquinolones and Phenazopyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Manar M.; Salim, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two analytical approaches were exploited for the resolution of binary mixtures of ciprofloxacin HCl (CIP) or norfloxacin (NOR) and phenazopyridine HCl (PHZ). In the first approach, the amplitudes of the first derivative of the ratio spectra were measured at 267 or 287 nm for CIP and at 268 or 291 nm for NOR. PHZ could be directly determined in the presence of CIP or NOR at 405 nm. The calibration graphs were rectilinear over the ranges of 1.0–16.0 µg/mL for CIP or NOR and 1.0–10.0 µg/mL for PHZ. In the second approach, an accurate, reliable and environmentally nontoxic micellar liquid chromatographic (MLC) method was developed. A good chromatographic separation was achieved using a 150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size Spherisorb ODS-2 column. Eco-friendly mobile phase containing 0.12 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 0.3% triethylamine and 6% n-butanol in 0.02 M orthophosphoric acid of pH 3.0 was pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Time programmed UV-detection was applied to allow sensitive determination of the studied drugs. The analytes were eluted without interferences in <10 min. Methocarbamol was used as an internal standard. The MLC method was found to be rectilinear over the concentration range of 0.5–20.0 μg/mL for CIP, NOR or PHZ. These optimized and validated methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous analysis of the studied drugs in their synthetic mixtures and co-formulated tablets. Moreover, the second method was further extended to the determination of these drugs in human urine with direct injection and without any pretreatment. PMID:26867555

  7. Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected non-human primates by Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA and indirect ELISA Detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii por meio das técnicas de Imunofluorescência Indireta e ELISA Indireto em primatas experimentalmente e naturalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bouer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA and the indirect ELISA were comparatively used to detect IgG and IgM antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally and naturally infected primates. In the experimentally infected group, antibodies of diagnostic value were detected at day 9 post-infection (PI with the IFA (IgG and IgM and with IgG-ELISA. IgM-ELISA detected antibodies for T. gondii starting at day 3 PI until the end of the experiment (102 days PI. Of the 209 naturally infected sera tested, from many zoos of State of Sao Paulo, 64.59 and 67.94% were positive in the IgG-IFA test and IgG-ELISA respectively. IgM-ELISA test detected seropositivity in 52.63% of the sera although IgM-IFA test detected it in only in 0.96% of the samples. The differential toxoplasmosis diagnosis was accomplished with Neospora caninum by IFA, observing 61 (29.2% seropositive animals for this parasite and 149 (70.8% negative. Sixty animals were positive for both T. gondii and N. caninum. Pneumonia, splenomegaly, and intestinal ulcers were macroscopically observed. Unremarkable interstitial pneumonia, enteritis, colitis, splenitis, and glomerulitis were microscopically observed. The immunohistochemical stain could not detect the presence of T. gondii in the tissues of the animals infected experimentally.Detectou-se anticorpos das classes IgG e IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii em primatas experimentalmente e naturalmente infectados, utilizando-se como técnicas comparativas a RIFI e o ELISA-teste. No grupo dos primatas experimentalmente infectados, anticorpos de valor diagnóstico foram detectados a partir do 9º dia de infecção tanto na RIFI (IgG e IgM como no ELISA-IgG. O ELISA IgM detectou anticorpos a partir do 3º dia de infecção até o final do experimento (102 dias pós-infecção. Dos 209 soros dos primatas naturalmente infectados, de diversos zoológicos do Estado de São Paulo, 64,59 e 67,94% mostraram-se positivos na RIFI-IgG e no ELISA-IgG, respectivamente. O

  8. Enantioselective determination of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl in vegetables, fruits, and soil and its enantioselective degradation in pak choi using HPLC with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Beibei; Zhang, Qing; Tian, Mingming; Zhang, Zhaoxian; Wang, Minghua

    2016-09-01

    An enantioselective method for the simultaneous determination of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl in vegetables, fruits, and soil has been established using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The complete enantioseparation was conducted by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with a cellulose-tris-(4-methylbenzoate) chiral stationary phase (CSP) (Lux Cellulose-3). The effects of different mobile phase compositions, temperatures, and flow rates on enantioseparation were also investigated. The experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra indicate that the first peak is (S)-(+)-isofenphos-methyl and the second peak is (R)-(-)-isofenphos-methyl. Alumina-A and Florisil solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns were used to clean up for vegetable, fruit, and soil samples. The mean recoveries of the two enantiomers ranged from 83.2 to 110.9 % with intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 3.2 to 10.8 % and inter-day RSDs from 3.6 to 10 %. Good linearity (≥0.9992) was obtained for the two enantiomers in all matrix-matched calibration curves in the range of 0.25 to 20 mg L(-1). The limit of detection for two enantiomers in six matrices was in the range of 0.008 to 0.011 mg kg(-1), and the limit of quantification was estimated to range from 0.027 to 0.037 mg kg(-1). The results indicated that this method was a convenient and dependable approach for the simultaneous determination of isofenphos-methyl enantiomers in food and environmental samples. The stereoselective degradation of isofenphos-methyl in pak choi has shown that the (R)-(-)-isofenphos-methyl isomer (half-life t 1/2 = 2.2 days) degraded faster than the (S)-(+)-isomer (t 1/2 = 1.9 days). Graphical Abstract The enantioselective determination and enantioselective degradation of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl.

  9. Indirect field technology for detecting areas object of illegal spills harmful to human health: application of drones, photogrammetry and hydrological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, Alessandra; Pindozzi, Stefania; Okello, Collins; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils is a serious environmental problem. The Campania region in southern Italy has higher levels of cancer risk, presumably due to the accumulation of geogenic and anthropogenic soil pollutants, some of which have been incorporated into organic matter. The aim of this study was to introduce and test an innovative, field-applicable methodology to detect heavy metal accumulation using drone-based photogrammetry and microrill network modelling, specifically to generate wetlands wetlands prediction indices normally applied at large catchment scales, such as a large geographic basin. The processing of aerial photos taken using a hexacopter equipped with fifth-generation software for photogrammetry allowed the generation of a digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution as high as 30 mm. Not only this provided a high potential for the study of micro-rill processes, but it was also useful for testing and comparing the capability of the topographic index (TI) and the clima-topographic index (CTI) to predict heavy metal sedimentation points at scales from 0.1 to 10 ha. Our results indicate that the TI and CTI indices can be used to predict points of heavy metal accumulation for small field catchments.

  10. Effect of uvs1, uvs2 and xrs mutations on the radiosensitivity and the induced mitotic recombination frequency in diploid yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslova, N.G.; Fedorova, I.V.; Zheleznyakova, N.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the loci of radiosensitivity uvs1, uvs2, and xrs in the homozygous state at the diploid level on the sensitivity to UV and ionizing radiation and induced mitotic recombination was studied in the yeast Sacch. cerevisiae. Hypersensitivity to UV irradiation was detected in the diploids uvs2 uvs2 xrs xrs in comparision with the corresponding control. The diploid uvs1 uvs1 uvs2 uvs2 does not differ in UV sensitivity from the diploid uvs1 uvs1 UVS2 UVS2. These facts demonstrate that the uvs1 and uvs2 mutations, on the one hand, and the xrs mutations, on the other, normally control different pathways of elimination of UV-induced damages. It was shown that the diploid uvs2 uvs2 xrs3 xrs3 is far more sensitive to the lethal action of x rays than the control diploid UVS2 UVS2 xrs3 xrs3. Consequently, the mutations uvs2 and xrs3 block different modes of repair of damages induced by ionizing radiation. In all the double-mutant diploids, the frequency of mitotic recombination induced by UV rays increases sharply in comparison with that of the radioresistant diploids UVS UVS XRS XRS and the UV-sensitive diploids uvs2 uvs2 XRS XRS. Possible causes of the observed phenomenon are discussed. It was established that in a diploid homozygous for the loci uvs2 xrs5, the frequency of mitotic recombination induced by x rays increases extremely sharply. This fact confirms the hypothesis that the gene product of the locus uvs2 participates in the repair of DNA after the action of ionizing radiation. (author)

  11. On-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection for the determination of benzotriazole UV stabilizers in coastal marine and wastewater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodriguez, Jose Juan [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Departamento de Quimica, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    Benzotriazoles are a group of UV absorbing compounds considered emerging contaminants that are used in different personal care products, and therefore, it is of high interest to develop sensitive and fast methods for investigating their presence in the environment. In this work, we present the development and application of a novel method based on on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of seven benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) in coastal marine and wastewater samples. This process is compared with a conventional off-line SPE procedure followed by UPLC-MS/MS. The parameters affecting the performance of the sample preparation and determination processes were evaluated. The results indicate that the on-line procedure provides for better sensitivity and reproducibility and is faster and easier than the off-line procedure. The detection limits and quantification limits achieved were in the range of 0.6-4.1 ng circle L{sup -1} and 2.1-14 ng circle L{sup -1} and relative standard deviation between 6.2 and 10 %. The developed method was applied to coastal marine and wastewater samples from Gran Canaria Island (Spain). All of the BUVSs studied were detected in the samples from wastewater treatment plants and two were found in the seawater samples (UV P in the range of 2.8-4.4 ng circle L{sup -1} and UV 360 between 3.6 and 5.2 ng circle L{sup -1}). (orig.)

  12. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  13. Ozone depletion and climate change: impacts on UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, A F; McKenzie, R L; Bernhard, G; Aucamp, P J; Ilyas, M; Madronich, S; Tourpali, K

    2015-01-01

    We assess the importance of factors that determine the intensity of UV radiation at the Earth's surface. Among these, atmospheric ozone, which absorbs UV radiation, is of considerable importance, but other constituents of the atmosphere, as well as certain consequences of climate change, can also be major influences. Further, we assess the variations of UV radiation observed in the past and present, and provide projections for the future. Of particular interest are methods to measure or estimate UV radiation at the Earth's surface. These are needed for scientific understanding and, when they are sufficiently sensitive, they can serve as monitors of the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. Also assessed are several aspects of UV radiation related to biological effects and health. The implications for ozone and UV radiation from two types of geoengineering methods that have been proposed to combat climate change are also discussed. In addition to ozone effects, the UV changes in the last two decades, derived from measurements, have been influenced by changes in aerosols, clouds, surface reflectivity, and, possibly, by solar activity. The positive trends of UV radiation observed after the mid-1990s over northern mid-latitudes are mainly due to decreases in clouds and aerosols. Despite some indications from measurements at a few stations, no statistically significant decreases in UV-B radiation attributable to the beginning of the ozone recovery have yet been detected. Projections for erythemal irradiance (UVery) suggest the following changes by the end of the 21(st) century (2090-2100) relative to the present time (2010-2020): (1) Ozone recovery (due to decreasing ozone-depleting substances and increasing greenhouse gases) would cause decreases in UVery, which will be highest (up to 40%) over Antarctica. Decreases would be small (less than 10%) outside the southern Polar Regions. A possible decline of solar activity during the 21(st) century

  14. Indirect detection of heavy supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamionkowski, M.

    1991-02-01

    If neutralinos reside in the galactic halo they will be captured in the Sun and annihilate therein producing high-energy neutrinos. Present limits on the flux of such neutrinos from underground detectors such as IMB and Kamiokande 2 may be used to rule out certain supersymmetric dark-matter candidates, while in many other supersymmetric models the rates are large enough that if neutralinos do reside in the galactic halo, observation of a neutrino signal may be possible in the near future. 10 refs., 2 figs

  15. Photodegradation and toxicity changes of antibiotics in UV and UV/H2O2 process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fang; Hu Chun; Hu Xuexiang; Wei Dongbin; Chen Yong; Qu Jiuhui

    2011-01-01

    The photodegradation of three antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DTC), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in UV and UV/H 2 O 2 process was investigated with a low-pressure UV lamp system. Experiments were performed in buffered ultrapure water (UW), local surface water (SW), and treated water from local municipal drinking water treatment plant (DW) and wastewater treatment plant (WW). The efficiency of UV/H 2 O 2 process was affected by water quality. For all of the three selected antibiotics, the fastest degradation was observed in DW, and the slowest degradation occurred in WW. This phenomenon can be explained by R OH,UV , defined as the experimentally determined ·OH radical exposure per UV fluence. The R OH,UV values represent the background ·OH radical scavenging in water matrix, obtained by the degradation of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), a probe compound. In natural water, the indirect degradation of CIP did not significantly increase with the addition of H 2 O 2 due to its effective degradation by UV direct photolysis. Moreover, the formation of several photoproducts and oxidation products of antibiotics in UV/H 2 O 2 process was identified using GC-MS. Toxicity assessed by Vibrio fischer (V. fischer), was increased in UV photolysis, for the photoproducts still preserving the characteristic structure of the parent compounds. While in UV/H 2 O 2 process, toxicity increased first, and then decreased; nontoxic products were formed by the oxidation of ·OH radical. In this process, detoxification was much easier than mineralization for the tested antibiotics, and the optimal time for the degradation of pollutants in UV/H 2 O 2 process would be determined by parent compound degradation and toxicity changes.

  16. Indirect bipolar electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, Gabriel; Roche, Jérome; Gianessi, Eugenio; Bouffier, Laurent; Kuhn, Alexander

    2012-12-12

    Based on the principles of bipolar electrochemistry, localized pH gradients are generated at the surface of conducting particles in solution. This allows the toposelective deposition of inorganic and organic polymer layers via a pH-triggered precipitation mechanism. Due to the intrinsic symmetry breaking of the process, the concept can be used to generate in a straightforward way Janus particles, with one section consisting of deposits obtained from non-electroactive precursors. These indirect electrodeposits, such as SiO(2), TiO(2), or electrophoretic paints, can be further used as an immobilization matrix for other species like dyes or nanoparticles, thus opening promising perspectives for the synthesis of a variety of bifunctional objects with a controlled shape.

  17. Resistance in bacteria and indirect beta-lactamase detection in E. coli isolated from Culex pipiens detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hleba, Lukáš; Kmeť, Vladimír; Tóth, Tomáš; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2017-01-02

    The aim of this study was detections of antibiotic resistance and resistance mechanism in bacteria isolated from mosquitos (Culex pipiens) living near humans. Therefore, antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from Culex pipiens was investigated by disk diffusion test and MIC E-test in this study. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used for detection of resistant mechanism. In this study, hydrolytic breakdown products after a few hours of incubation of the bacteria isolated from Culex pipiens were detected. Results show that enzymatic destruction of ampicillin by beta-lactamases is able to be detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from wild strains of potential pathogens. The MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is useful method for routine detection of beta-lactamases resistant mechanism, but overnight incubation of pure culture is necessary. The results are important for proper and fast intervention to limit the spread of beta-lactamase-producing wild bacteria and provide information for appropriate initial therapy of the infections caused by these microbes.

  18. [Value of functional lymphoscintigraphy and indirect lymphangiography in lipedema syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissleder, H; Brauer, J W; Schuchhardt, C; Herpertz, U

    1995-12-01

    Early terms of lymphostasis in lipedema can be detected with lymphoscintigraphy. A normal examination almost certainly excludes a lymphatic component. Indirect lymphography is only used to rule out morphological abnormalities of lymph vessels. If a lymphoscintigraphic study is normal indirect lymphography is not indicated.

  19. Deep UV Blocking Particle Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For sensitive detection of neutral and charged particles in satellite survey missions, instrumentation for the efficient rejection of EUV, Deep UV and visible flux...

  20. Effects of UV radiation on freshwater metazooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartarotti, B.

    1999-06-01

    There is evidence that fluxes of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 290-320 nm) are increasing over wide parts of the earth's surface due to stratospheric ozone depletion. UV radiation (290-400 nm) can have damaging effects on biomolecules and cell components that are common to most living organisms. The aim of this thesis is to gain a more thorough understanding of the potential impacts of solar radiation on freshwater metazooplankton. To detect UV-vulnerability in zooplankton populations dominating the zooplankton community of two clear-water, high mountain lakes located one in the Austrian Alps and another in the Chilean Andes, the survival of two copepod species was studied. The organisms were exposed to a 10- to 100-fold increase in UV-B radiation compared to those levels found at their natural, maximum daytime distribution. Both species vertically migrate and are pigmented. UV-absorbing compounds with a maximum absorption at ∼334 nm were also detected. Cyclops abyssorum tatricus, a common cyclopoid copepod species of Alpine lakes, was highly resistant to UV-B radiation and no significant lethal effect was observed. The calanoid copepod Boeckella gracilipes, frequent in Andean lakes, had a mortality ∼5 times higher in the treatment receiving full sunlight than in the UV-B excluded treatment (3.2 %) only when exposed for 70 h. The resistance of B. gracilipes was higher than that reported in the literature for the same species suggesting the existence of intraspecific differences in UV sensitivity. Survival, fecundity and development of the zooplankton community of a clear-water, high elevation Andean lake (33 o S) were studied with mesocosms experiments after prolonged UV exposure (48 days). When exposed to full sunlight, the population of the cladoceran Chydorus sphaericus and the rotifer Lepadella ovalis were strongly inhibited by UV-B, whereas both species were resistant to UV-A radiation. Conversely, UV-B radiation had no effect on the survival of the

  1. Fuzzy clustering evaluation of the discrimination power of UV-Vis and (±) ESI-MS detection system in individual or coupled RPLC for characterization of Ginkgo Biloba standardized extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Albu, Florin; Naşcu-Briciu, Rodica Domnica; Sârbu, Costel

    2014-02-01

    Discrimination power evaluation of UV-Vis and (±) electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric techniques, (ESI-MS) individually considered or coupled as detectors to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) in the characterization of Ginkgo Biloba standardized extracts, is used in herbal medicines and/or dietary supplements with the help of Fuzzy hierarchical clustering (FHC). Seventeen batches of Ginkgo Biloba commercially available standardized extracts from seven manufacturers were measured during experiments. All extracts were within the criteria of the official monograph dedicated to dried refined and quantified Ginkgo extracts, in the European Pharmacopoeia. UV-Vis and (±) ESI-MS spectra of the bulk standardized extracts in methanol were acquired. Additionally, an RPLC separation based on a simple gradient elution profile was applied to the standardized extracts. Detection was made through monitoring UV absorption at 220 nm wavelength or the total ion current (TIC) produced through (±) ESI-MS analysis. FHC was applied to raw, centered and scaled data sets, for evaluating the discrimination power of the method with respect to the origins of the extracts and to the batch to batch variability. The discrimination power increases with the increase of the intrinsic selectivity of the spectral technique being used: UV-Viscluster analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA) indicates that the FHC algorithm produces better classification. However, PCA and CA may be successfully applied to discriminate between the manufacturing sources of the standardized extracts, and at some extent, to monitor the inter-batch variability. Although the chromatographic dimension sensibly contributes to the discrimination power, spectral MS data may be used as the lone powerful holistic alternative in characterization of standardized Ginkgo Biloba extracts. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. UV water disinfector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  3. UV holographic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyashova, Zoya N.

    2017-11-01

    A new approach to UV holographic filter's manufacturing, when the filters are the volume reflection holograms, working in UV region in the second Bragg diffraction order, is offered. The method is experimentally realized for wavelength of 266 nm.

  4. WE-G-204-05: Relative Object Detectability Evaluation of a New High Resolution A-Se Direct Detection System Compared to Indirect Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscopic (MAF) Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M; Nagesh, S Setlur; Ionita, C; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY (United States); Scott, C; Karim, K [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the task specific imaging performance of a new 25µm pixel pitch, 1000µm thick amorphous selenium direct detection system with CMOS readout for typical angiographic exposure parameters using the relative object detectability (ROD) metric. Methods: The ROD metric uses a simulated object function weighted at each spatial frequency by the detectors’ detective quantum efficiency (DQE), which is an intrinsic performance metric. For this study, the simulated objects were aluminum spheres of varying diameter (0.05–0.6mm). The weighted object function is then integrated over the full range of detectable frequencies inherent to each detector, and a ratio is taken of the resulting value for two detectors. The DQE for the 25µm detector was obtained from a simulation of a proposed a-Se detector using an exposure of 200µR for a 50keV x-ray beam. This a-Se detector was compared to two microangiographic fluoroscope (MAF) detectors [the MAF-CCD with pixel size of 35µm and Nyquist frequency of 14.2 cycles/mm and the MAF-CMOS with pixel size of 75µm and Nyquist frequency of 6.6 cycles/mm] and a standard flat-panel detector (FPD with pixel size of 194µm and Nyquist frequency of 2.5cycles/mm). Results: ROD calculations indicated vastly superior performance by the a-Se detector in imaging small aluminum spheres. For the 50µm diameter sphere, the ROD values for the a-Se detector compared to the MAF-CCD, the MAF-CMOS, and the FPD were 7.3, 9.3 and 58, respectively. Detector performance in the low frequency regime was dictated by each detector’s DQE(0) value. Conclusion: The a-Se with CMOS readout is unique and appears to have distinctive advantages of incomparable high resolution, low noise, no readout lag, and expandable design. The a-Se direct detection system will be a powerful imaging tool in angiography, with potential break-through applications in diagnosis and treatment of neuro-vascular disease. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an

  5. Índice UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Información general sobre el Índice UV que proporciona un pronóstico del riesgo esperado de sobreexposición a la radiación ultravioleta (UV) del sol. El índice UV va acompañado de recomendaciones para protegerse del sol.

  6. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and UV-filters in riverine run-offs and waters of the German Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Kathrin; Waniek, Joanna J; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E

    2017-11-15

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the marine environment is of great concern. This study was done to determine the emergence of eight pharmaceuticals and eleven ultraviolet filters (UV-Filters) in 5 rivers/streams discharging into the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, a focus was put on the influence of wastewater treatment plant as indirect source and the occurrence of the PPCPs in close beach proximity. Two pharmaceuticals (sulfamethoxazole, salicylic acid) and two UV-filters (2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid, octocrylene) were detected in all analyzed water samples, with concentration ranging from 0.6ng/L to 836.3ng/L. In all rivers the PPCP concentration decreases towards the Baltic Sea. Sulfamethoxazole was detected at comparable concentration along the coast, which leads to the assumption of stable concentration in beach proximity. Along the coast UV-filters appeared in varying concentrations, leading to the conclusion that the direct input into the marine environment plays a bigger role than the indirect input. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estudo comparativo entre as provas de ELISA e imunofluorescência indireta (IFI para detectar anticorpos contra Babesia bovis A comparative study between ELISA and indirect imunofluorescent (IFI tests to detect antibodies against Babesia bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Martins

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se o desempenho de um kit de ELISA para detectar anticorpos contra Babesia bovis, em hemoparasita bovino, com o teste de Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFI usualmente empregado em rotina sorológica. Sobre 97 amostras de soros oriundas de uma região livre de carrapatos e hematozoários, o teste de ELISA demonstrou uma especificidade de 98.9% contra 97.9% do teste de IFI. Ambos os testes apresentaram uma sensibilidade de 100% quando utilizados sobre 22 amostras de soro de bovinos experimentalmente infectados com B. bovis. Os resultados obtidos sobre 1560 amostras colhidas à campo, mostraram uma concordância de 90,1% (1406/1560 entre amostras positivas e negativas, enquanto que 4,2% (66 foram positivas para IFI e negativas para ELISA e 5,6% (88 foram negativas para IFI e positivas para ELISA.Performance of an ELISA kit for detecting antibodies to Babesia bovis, a bovine haemoparasite, was compared with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT used in serological routine. Over 97 sera samples from a free tick area, ELISA showed an specificity of 98.9% against 97.9% obtained by IFA T. Both tests showed a sensitivity of 100% when compared over 22 sera samples from experimentally infected bovine with B. bovis. Results obtained with 1560 field samples showed an agreement of 90.1% (1406/1560 between positive and negativo samples while 4.2% (66 were positives to IFAT and negatives to ELISA, and 5.6% (88 owere negatives to IFAT and positives to ELISA.

  8. Determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids at ultra-trace levels by means of online coupling ion exchange chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with indirect detection via their Pd2+-complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nette, David; Seubert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 8 important APCA’s analyzed in one run instead of 3 in the previous method. • Pd 2+ extents the methods applicability to 3 and more dentate amino carboxylic acids. • Separation system optimized for the isocratic determination of important APCA’s. • Thermodynamic stability of APCA–Pd 2+ complexes is higher than for Fe 3+ and In 3+ . • Pd 2+ is kinetically much slower than Fe 3+ and In 3+ and makes the method more rugged. - Abstract: A new indirect IC-ICP-MS method for the determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids in water samples is described. It is based on the addition of an excess of Pd(II) to water samples. The analytes are forced into very strong and negatively charged palladium complexes, separated by ion exchange chromatography and detected by their palladium content, utilizing an on-line coupled ICP-MS. This method is suitable to determine the concentration of 8 aminopolycarboxylic acids (nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), (2-carboxyethyl) iminodiacetic acid (β-ADA), methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), 2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1,3-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,3-PDTA) and 1,2-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,2-PDTA) at the ng kg −1 level. The method is faster and easier than the established gas chromatography (GC)-method ISO 16588:2002 [1] and up to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ion pair chromatography based method of DIN 38413-8. Analytic performance is superior to ISO 16588:2002 and the comparability is good

  9. Ultraviolet absorption detection of DNA in gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the detection and quantification of large fragments of unlabelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in agarose gels is presented. The technique is based on ultra-violet (UV) absorption by nucleotides. A deuterium lamp was used to illuminate regions of an electrophoresis gel. As DNA bands passed through the illuminated region of the gel the amount of UV light transmitted was reduced due to DNA absorption. Two detection systems were investigated. In the first system, synthetic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond strip detectors were used to locate regions of DNA in the gels by detecting the transmitted light. CVD diamond has a high indirect band gap of 5.45 eV and is therefore sensitive to UV photons of wavelengths < 224 nm. A number of CVD diamond samples were characterised to investigate their suitability as detectors for this application. The detectors' quantum efficiency, UV response and time response were measured. DNA bands containing as little as 20 ng were detected by the diamond. In a second system, a deuterium lamp was used to illuminate individual sample lanes of an electrophoresis gel via an array of optical fibres. During electrophoresis the regions of DNA were detected with illumination at 260 nm, using a UV-sensitive charge coupled device (CCD). As the absorption coefficient of a DNA sample is approximately proportional to its mass, the technique is inherently quantitative. This system had a detection limit of 0.25 ng compared with 2-10 ng for the most popular conventional technique, ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining. Using this detection technique, the DNA sample remains in its native state. The removal of carcinogenic dyes from the detection procedure greatly reduces associated biological hazards. (author)

  10. CUVE — Cubesat UV Experiment: Unveil Venus' UV Absorber with Cubesat UV Mapping Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, V.; Aslam, S.; Gorius, N.; Hewagama, T.; Glaze, L.; Ignatiev, N.; Piccioni, G.; D'Aversa, E.

    2017-11-01

    The Cubesat UV Experiment (CUVE) will investigate Venus’ atmosphere at its absorbers at the cloud tops in the UV, with two on-board science payloads (i) a high spectral resolution UV spectrometer and (ii) a multispectral UV imager.

  11. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  12. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  13. Comets in UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B.; Sachkov, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; Vallejo, J. C.; Kanev, E.; Dorofeeva, V.

    2018-04-01

    Comets are important "eyewitnesses" of Solar System formation and evolution. Important tests to determine the chemical composition and to study the physical processes in cometary nuclei and coma need data in the UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Comprehensive and complete studies require additional ground-based observations and in situ experiments. We briefly review observations of comets in the ultraviolet (UV) and discuss the prospects of UV observations of comets and exocomets with space-borne instruments. A special reference is made to the World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) project.

  14. The logic of indirect speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  15. ELISA indireto para detecção de IgG antivírus da doença de Newcastle em soro de codorna Indirect ELISA for the detection of IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus in quail serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An indirect ELISA for the detection of japanese quail IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus (NDV was developed. The secondary anti-quail IgG was produced in Balb/c mice, by inoculating Freund's complete adjuvant emulsified japanese quail-IgG extract. The purification of IgG was achieved using the caprilic acid method. The ELISA was compared to the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI test for antibodies to NDV. ELISA cut-off point was established through TG-ROC analysis. Total correlation was observed between the ELISA and the HI, being the ELISA efficient in the identification of positive and negative sera, with high sensitivity and specificity (100%. These results validate the use of the indirect ELISA as an alternative for the detection of NDV-specific IgG in japanese quail sera, with the advantage of high sensitivity and automation.

  16. Reactivation of UV- and γ-irradiated herpes virus in UV- and X-irradiated CV-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, K.; Niwa, O.; Sugahara, T.

    1982-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of UV- and γ-irradiated herpes virus was investigated by the plaque assay on CV-1 monkey kidney monolayer cells irradiated with UV light or X-rays. Both UV- and X-irradiated CV-1 cells showed enhancement of survival of UV-irradiated virus, while little or no enhancement was detected for γ-irradiated virus assayed on UV- or X-irradiated cells. The enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus was greater when virus infection was delayed 24 or 48 h, than for infection immediately following the irradiation of cells. Thus the UV- or X-irradiated CV-1 cells are able to enhance the repair of UV damaged herpes virus DNA, but not of γ-ray damaged ones. (author)

  17. Enantioseparation of α-Hydroxyallylphosphonates and Phosphonoallylic Carbonate Derivatives on Chiral Stationary Phases Using Sequential UV, Polarimetric, and Refractive Index Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamper, Bruce C; Mannino, Michael P; Mueller, Melissa E; Harrison, Liam T; Spilling, Christopher D

    2016-09-01

    Chromatographic separation of the enantiomers of parent compounds dimethyl α-hydroxyallyl phosphonate and 1-(dimethoxyphosphoryl) allyl methyl carbonate was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using Chiralpak AS-H and ad-H chiral stationary phases (CSP), respectively, using a combination of UV, polarimetric, and refractive index detectors. A comparison was made of the separation efficiency and elution order of enantiomeric α-hydroxyallyl phosphonates and their carbonate derivatives on commercially available polysaccharide AS, ad, OD, IC-3, and Whelk-O 1 CSPs. In general, the α-hydroxyallyl phosphonates were resolved on the AS-H CSP, whereas the carbonate derivatives and were preferentially resolved on the ad-H CSP. The impact of aryl substitution on the resolution of analytes and was evaluated. Thermodynamic parameters determined for enantioselective adsorption hydroxyphosphonates and on the AS-H CSP and carbonate on the ad-H CSP demonstrated enthalpic control for separation of the enantiomers. Chirality 28:656-662, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. UV exposure in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  19. New UV-source catalogs, UV spectral database, UV variables and science tools from the GALEX surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Luciana; de la Vega, Alexander; Shiao, Bernard; Bohlin, Ralph

    2018-03-01

    We present a new, expanded and improved catalog of Ultraviolet (UV) sources from the GALEX All-Sky Imaging survey: GUVcat_AIS (Bianchi et al. in Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 230:24, 2017). The catalog includes 83 million unique sources (duplicate measurements and rim artifacts are removed) measured in far-UV and near-UV. With respect to previous versions (Bianchi et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 411:2770 2011a, Adv. Space Res. 53:900-991, 2014), GUVcat_AIS covers a slightly larger area, 24,790 square degrees, and includes critical corrections and improvements, as well as new tags, in particular to identify sources in the footprint of extended objects, where pipeline source detection may fail and custom-photometry may be necessary. The UV unique-source catalog facilitates studies of density of sources, and matching of the UV samples with databases at other wavelengths. We also present first results from two ongoing projects, addressing respectively UV variability searches on time scales from seconds to years by mining the GALEX photon archive, and the construction of a database of ˜120,000 GALEX UV spectra (range ˜1300-3000 Å), including quality and calibration assessment and classification of the grism, hence serendipitous, spectral sources.

  20. UV-induced effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Spielmann, H.; Pape, W.; Krul, C.; Deguercy, A.; Eskes, C.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory requirements: According to the current Notes for Guidance of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP), cosmetic ingredients and mixtures of ingredients absorbing UV light (in particular UV filter chemicals used, for example, to ensure the light

  1. Development of a solid-phase extraction method with simple MEKC-UV analysis for simultaneous detection of indole metabolites in human urine after administration of indole dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonchai, Apichai; Wilairat, Prapin; Chantiwas, Rattikan

    2017-11-01

    This work presents the development of a solid phase extraction method with simple MEKC-UV analysis for the simultaneous determination of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its metabolites (3, 3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (I3CAL), indole-3-acetonitrile (I3A)) in human urine after oral administration of an indole dietary supplement. Solid phase extraction (SPE) method was applied for the first time for simultaneous analysis of these indole metabolites. The MEKC separation method was developed in a previous work. Three commercial SPE cartridges, each with different sorbent materials, were investigated: Sep-Pak ® C18, Oasis ® HLB and Oasis ® WCX. The Sep-Pak ® C18 material provided the highest extraction recovery of 88-113% (n = 9), for the four target indole metabolites (I3C, DIM, I3CAL and I3A). The optimal washing and elution solutions were 40% methanol/water (v/v) and 100% methanol, respectively, and optimal elution volume was 2.0mL. The specificity of the proposed SPE method was evaluated with negative control urine samples (n = 10) from healthy volunteers who had not taken the dietary supplement or vegetables known to contain indole compounds. Linear calibration curves were in the range of 0.2-25μgmL -1 (r 2 > 0.998) using diphenylamine (DPA) as the internal standard. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were 3.5-12.3%RSD and 2.7-14.1%RSD, respectively. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.05-0.10μgmL -1 and 0.10-0.50μgmL -1 , respectively. The four target indole compounds were separated within only 5min by MEKC-UV analysis. Urine from 5 subjects who had taken a dietary supplement containing I3C and DIM were found to contain only the DIM metabolite at concentrations ranging from 0.10 to 0.35µgmL -1 . Accuracy of the proposed method based on the percentage recovery of spiked urine samples were 70-108%, 82-116%, 82-132% and 80-100% for I3C, I3CAL, I3A and DIM, respectively. The Sep-Pak ® C18 cartridge was highly effective in

  2. Analysis of fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) clean-up and ion-pair LC with diode array UV detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaric acid is a phytotoxin and mycotoxin occasionally found in maize contaminated with Fusarium fungi. A selective sample clean-up procedure was developed to detect fusaric acid in maize using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) clean-up coupled with ion-pair liquid chromatography...

  3. Indirect haemagglutination reaction with Sarcocystis dispersa antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L; Cerná, Z

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the preparation of antigen from Sarcocystis dispersa cystozoites and the procedure of the indirect haemagglutination test (IHA). The antibodies against this antigen were detected in experimentally infected mice from day 20 p.i. (1: 640). In the following weeks the antibody titres reached the value of 1: 40,960. The sera of pigs, sheep and horses spontaneously infected with other Sarcocystis species reacted with this antigen in low titres only. The bovine sera gave negative reactions even in cases when Sarcocystis cysts were present in the muscles of the examined animals. A possible application of IHA for the research and diagnostic purposes is discussed.

  4. Does the X-ray outflow quasar PDS 456 have a UV outflow at 0.3c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Fred; Chartas, George; Reeves, James; Nardini, Emanuele

    2018-05-01

    The quasar PDS 456 (at redshift ˜0.184) has a prototype ultra-fast outflow (UFO) measured in X-rays. This outflow is highly ionized with relativistic speeds, large total column densities log NH(cm-2) > 23, and large kinetic energies that could be important for feedback to the host galaxy. A UV spectrum of PDS 456 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2000 contains one well-measured broad absorption line (BAL) at ˜1346 Å (observed) that might be Ly α at v ≈ 0.06c or N V λ1240 at v ≈ 0.08c. However, we use photoionization models and comparisons to other outflow quasars to show that these BAL identifications are problematic because other lines that should accompany them are not detected. We argue that the UV BAL is probably C IV at v ≈ 0.30c. This would be the fastest UV outflow ever reported, but its speed is similar to the X-ray outflow and its appearance overall is similar to relativistic UV BALs observed in other quasars. The C IV BAL identification is also supported indirectly by the tentative detection of another broad C IV line at v ≈ 0.19c. The high speeds suggest that the UV outflow originates with the X-ray UFO crudely 20-30 rg from the central black hole. We speculate that the C IV BAL might form in dense clumps embedded in the X-ray UFO, requiring density enhancements of only ≳0.4 dex compared to clumpy structures already inferred for the soft X-ray absorber in PDS 456. The C IV BAL might therefore be the first detection of low-ionization clumps proposed previously to boost the opacities in UFOs for radiative driving.

  5. A Dual-Line Detection Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic Technique for the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Filtered UV Rayleigh Scattering for Gas Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otugen, M. Volkan

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive techniques for the dynamic measurement of gas flow properties such as density, temperature and velocity, are needed in the research leading to the development of new generation high-speed aircraft. Accurate velocity, temperature and density data obtained in ground testing and in-flight measurements can help understand the flow physics leading to transition and turbulence in supersonic, high-altitude flight. Such non-intrusive measurement techniques can also be used to study combustion processes of hydrocarbon fuels in aircraft engines. Reliable, time and space resolved temperature measurements in various combustor configurations can lead to a better understanding of high temperature chemical reaction dynamics thus leading to improved modeling and better prediction of such flows. In view of this, a research program was initiated at Polytechnic University's Aerodynamics Laboratory with support from NASA Lewis Research Center through grants NAG3-1301 and NAG3-1690. The overall objective of this program has been to develop laser-based, non-contact, space- and time-resolved temperature and velocity measurement techniques. In the initial phase of the program a ND:YAG laser-based dual-line Rayleigh scattering technique was developed and tested for the accurate measurement of gas temperature in the presence of background laser glare. Effort was next directed towards the development of a filtered, spectrally-resolved Rayleigh/Mie scattering technique with the objective of developing an interferometric method for time-frozen velocity measurements in high-speed flows utilizing the uv line of an ND:YAG laser and an appropriate molecular absorption filter. This effort included both a search for an appropriate filter material for the 266 nm laser line and the development and testing of several image processing techniques for the fast processing of Fabry-Perot images for velocity and temperature information. Finally, work was also carried out for the development of

  6. Biological UV dosimeters in simulated space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontó, Gy.; Bérces, A.; Fekete, A.; Kovács, G.; Gróf, P.; Lammer, H.

    2004-01-01

    Polycrystalline uracil thin layers participate in the phage and uracil response (PUR) experiment, assigned to the biological dosimetry of the extraterrestrial solar radiation on the International Space Station (ISS). In ground based experiments (experiment verification tests), the following space parameters were simulated and studied: temperature, vacuum and short wavelength UV (UV-C, down to 200 nm) radiation. The closed uracil samples proved to be vacuum-tight for 7 days. In the tested temperature range (from -20 to +40 °C) the uracil samples are stable. The kinetic of dimer formation (dimerization) and reversion (monomerization) of uracil dimers due to short wavelength UV radiation was detected, the monomerization efficiency of the polychromatic deuterium lamp is higher than that of the germicidal lamp. A mathematical model describing the kinetic of monomerization-dimerization was constructed. Under the influence of UV radiation the dimerization-monomerization reactions occur simultaneously, thus the additivity law of the effect of the various wavelengths is not applicable.

  7. Development of a New Microextraction Fiber Combined to On-Line Sample Stacking Capillary Electrophoresis UV Detection for Acidic Drugs Determination in Real Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Espina-Benitez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new analytical method coupling a (off-line solid-phase microextraction with an on-line capillary electrophoresis (CE sample enrichment technique was developed for the analysis of ketoprofen, naproxen and clofibric acid from water samples, which are known as contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic environments. New solid-phase microextraction fibers based on physical coupling of chromatographic supports onto epoxy glue coated needle were studied for the off-line preconcentration of these micropollutants. Identification and quantification of such acidic drugs were done by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE using ultraviolet diode array detection (DAD. Further enhancement of concentration sensitivity detection was achieved by on-line CE “acetonitrile stacking” preconcentration technique. Among the eight chromatographic supports investigated, Porapak Q sorbent showed higher extraction and preconcentration capacities. The screening of parameters that influence the microextraction process was carried out using a two-level fractional factorial. Optimization of the most relevant parameters was then done through a surface response three-factor Box-Behnken design. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three drugs ranged between 0.96 and 1.27 µg∙L−1 and 2.91 and 3.86 µg∙L−1, respectively. Recovery yields of approximately 95 to 104% were measured. The developed method is simple, precise, accurate, and allows quantification of residues of these micropollutants in Genil River water samples using inexpensive fibers.

  8. Photodegradation and toxicity changes of antibiotics in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu Chun, E-mail: huchun@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu Xuexiang; Wei Dongbin; Chen Yong; Qu Jiuhui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2011-01-30

    The photodegradation of three antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DTC), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was investigated with a low-pressure UV lamp system. Experiments were performed in buffered ultrapure water (UW), local surface water (SW), and treated water from local municipal drinking water treatment plant (DW) and wastewater treatment plant (WW). The efficiency of UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was affected by water quality. For all of the three selected antibiotics, the fastest degradation was observed in DW, and the slowest degradation occurred in WW. This phenomenon can be explained by R{sub OH,UV}, defined as the experimentally determined {center_dot}OH radical exposure per UV fluence. The R{sub OH,UV} values represent the background {center_dot}OH radical scavenging in water matrix, obtained by the degradation of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), a probe compound. In natural water, the indirect degradation of CIP did not significantly increase with the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} due to its effective degradation by UV direct photolysis. Moreover, the formation of several photoproducts and oxidation products of antibiotics in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was identified using GC-MS. Toxicity assessed by Vibrio fischer (V. fischer), was increased in UV photolysis, for the photoproducts still preserving the characteristic structure of the parent compounds. While in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process, toxicity increased first, and then decreased; nontoxic products were formed by the oxidation of {center_dot}OH radical. In this process, detoxification was much easier than mineralization for the tested antibiotics, and the optimal time for the degradation of pollutants in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process would be determined by parent compound degradation and toxicity changes.

  9. [UV-radiation--sources, wavelength, environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert

    2005-09-01

    The UV-radiation in our environment is part of the electromagnetic radiation, which emanates from the sun. It is designated as optical radiation and reaches from 290-4,000 nm on the earth's surface. According to international definitions UV irradiation is divided into short-wave UVC (200-280 nm), medium-wave UVB (280-320 nm), and long-wave UVA (320-400 nm). Solar radiation which reaches the surface of the globe at a defined geographical site and a defined time point is called global radiation. It is modified quantitatively and qualitatively while penetrating the atmosphere. Besides atmospheric conditions, like ozone layer and air pollution, geographic latitude, elevation, time of the season, time of the day, cloudiness and the influence of indirect radiation resulting from stray effects in the atmosphere and reflection from the underground play a role in modifying global radiation, which finally represents the biologically effective radiation. The radiation's distribution on the body surface varies according to sun angle and body posture. The cumulative UV exposure is mainly influenced by outdoor profession and recreational activities. The use of sun beds and phototherapeutic measures additionally may contribute to the cumulative UV dose.

  10. Controlled ultraviolet (UV) photoinitiated fabrication of monolithic porous layer open tubular (monoPLOT) capillary columns for chromatographic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David A; Nesterenko, Ekaterina P; Brabazon, Dermot; Paull, Brett

    2012-04-03

    An automated column fabrication technique that is based on a ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) array oven, and provides precisely controlled "in-capillary" ultraviolet (UV) initiated polymerization at 365 nm, is presented for the production of open tubular monolithic porous polymer layer capillary (monoPLOT) columns of varying length, inner diameter (ID), and porous layer thickness. The developed approach allows the preparation of columns of varying length, because of an automated capillary delivery approach, with precisely controlled and uniform layer thickness and monolith morphology, from controlled UV power and exposure time. The relationships between direct exposure times, intensity, and layer thickness were determined, as were the effects of capillary delivery rate (indirect exposure rate), and multiple exposures on the layer thickness and axial distribution. Layer thickness measurements were taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with the longitudinal homogeneity of the stationary phase confirmed using scanning capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (sC(4)D). The new automated UV polymerization technique presented in this work allows the fabrication of monoPLOT columns with a very high column-to-column production reproducibility, displaying a longitudinal phase thickness variation within ±0.8% RSD (relative standard deviation).

  11. Enhanced electro-active phase in a luminescent P(VDF-HFP)/Zn2+ flexible composite film for piezoelectric based energy harvesting applications and self-powered UV light detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Prakriti; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-07-21

    We have prepared a flexible polymer composite film containing poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) and Zn 2+ for the fabrication of a multifunctional piezoelectric based nanogenerator (MFNG), where a traditional electrical poling treatment was avoided. The desirable amount of Zn 2+ yields more than 99% of electro-active phases in the P(VDF-HFP) matrix that co-operates to enhance the dielectric properties of the composite film via hydrogen bonding interactions. In situ thermal Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy affirms the improved thermal stability of the electro-active β-phase and the β→γ phase transition temperature in the Zn 2+ doped composite film. It also shows UV absorption and intense blue light emission confirmed by a CIE 1931 chart that gives it applicability as a flexible optical sensor. The MFNG behaves as an efficient mechanical energy harvester that delivers an open-circuit voltage ∼6 V and an output power of 2.4 μW and successfully enables the charging of a capacitor by simple repetitive finger touch and release motions (a pressure amplitude of ∼14 kPa). The UV light sensing ability of the MFNG is confirmed under the continuous application and removal of applied stress, which is very promising for designing versatile self-powered optoelectronic smart sensors. Our approach is very simple and cost effective for the construction of a new class of flexible multifunctional energy harvesters that have wonderful applications in the areas of piezo-photonics, wireless detection and flexible self-powered opto-electronics.

  12. DNA from BK virus and JC virus and from KI, WU, and MC polyomaviruses as well as from simian virus 40 is not detected in non-UV-light-associated primary malignant melanomas of mucous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Géraldine; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Ragnarsson-Olding, Boel; Dalianis, Tina

    2008-11-01

    The single most important causative factor for malignant melanomas of the skin is UV radiation. However, this is not true for melanomas on body surfaces sheltered from the sun; thus, it is important to seek new causative factors of melanoma genesis. Human papillomaviruses and gammaherpesviruses are associated with human skin cancer; for example, human papillomavirus types 5 and 8 are associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and human herpesvirus 8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. Recently, a newly described human polyomavirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), has been associated with Merkel cell carcinoma, an unusual form of neurotropic skin cancer. Moreover, melanocytes are of neuroepithelial origin. This background impelled us to investigate if human polyomavirus DNA could play a role in the development of extracutaneous melanomas. Sixty-four extracutaneous melanomas were initially collected and dissected. Of these, 38 could be successfully used for further testing for the presence of the five human polyomaviruses known so far-BK virus (BKV), JC virus (JCV), KI polyomavirus (KIPyV), WU polyomavirus (WUPyV), and MCPyV-and of simian virus 40 (SV40). No polyomavirus DNA could be detected in any of the samples tested by use of a nested PCR detecting BKV, JCV, and SV40; a newly designed PCR detecting KIPyV and WUPyV; or a newly designed PCR for MCPyV. We conclude that since no human polyomavirus DNA was detected in primary malignant melanomas on non-sun-exposed body surfaces, these polyomaviruses presumably are not major factors for the development of extracutaneous melanomas.

  13. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.P.; De Moor, A.P.G.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism. From the results it appears that the hazardous effects of subsidies are big. Examples are milk, the regulating energy levy, and kerosene [nl

  14. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have ...

  15. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excite- ments and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter ...

  16. Indirect speech acts in English

    OpenAIRE

    Василина, В. Н.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with indirect speech acts in Englishspeaking discourse. Different approaches to their analysis and the reasons for their use are discussed. It is argued that the choice of the form of speech actsdepends on the parameters of communicative partners.

  17. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions. (paper)

  18. Solid phase extraction of antidepressant drugs amitriptyline and nortriptyline from plasma samples using core-shell nanoparticles of the type Fe3O4-ZrO2-N- cetylpyridinium, and their subsequent determination by HPLC with UV detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Fahimeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Daneshfar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The solid phase extraction (SPE) is described for preconcentration of the antidepressant drugs amitriptyline and nortriptyline prior to their determination by HPLC with UV detection. It is based on the use of water-dispersible core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) of the Fe 3 O 4 -ZrO 2 -N-cetylpyridinium type. The positively charged surfactant N-cetylpyridinium forms mixed aggregates with the drugs on the surface of the core-shell and thereby improves the adsorption of amitriptyline and nortriptyline through hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions. Their extraction depends on the type and amount of surfactant, sample pH, extraction time, desorption conditions, sample volume and amount of NPs that were optimized by application of experimental design. The enrichment factors are 220 and 250, respectively, for amitriptyline and nortriptyline, and the detection limits are 0.04 and 0.08 ng·mL -1 . This protocol enables accurate and precise quantification of the two drugs in complex and low content samples. It was applied to the determination of the two drugs in plasma samples with relative recoveries in the range from 89 to 105 % and RSDs less than 4 %. (author)

  19. Low-level bromate analysis in drinking water by ion chromatography with optimized suppressed conductivity cell current followed by a post-column reaction and UV/Vis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotsing, Marcellin; Barbeau, Benoit; Prevost, Michele

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, a high capacity anion exchange column was used to efficiently and simultaneously separate traces of oxyhalide disinfection byproducts (DBP) anions and bromide by an ion chromatography system followed by a post-column reaction (PCR). The PCR generates in situ hydroiodic (HI) acid from the excess of potassium iodate that combines with bromate from the column effluent to form the triiodide anion detectable by UV/Vis absorbance at 352 nm. The suppressed conductivity cell current was optimized at 70 mA, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and a 9 mM carbonate eluent. Its performance was investigated on a trace-level determination of bromate in ozonated municipal and bottled drinking water. Based on ozonated municipal drinking water matrix, the method detection limit of 0.27 μg BrO(-)(3)/L was evaluated with the Method Quantification Limit (MQL) of 0.89 μg BrO(-)(3)/L. However, in ultrapure water, a MDL of 0.015 μg BrO(-)(3)/L and a MRL of 0.052 μg BrO(-)(3)/L were achieved. The recovery for spiked municipal samples was in the range of 90%-115%.

  20. Capillary isoelectric focusing of microorganisms in the pH range 2-5 in a dynamically modified FS capillary with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horká, Marie; Růzicka, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Slais, Karel

    2006-07-01

    The isoelectric points of many microbial cells lie within the pH range spanning from 1.5 to 4.5. In this work, we suggest a CIEF method for the separation of cells according to their isoelectric points in the pH range of 2-5. It includes the segmental injection of the sample pulse composed of the segment of the selected simple ampholytes, the segment of the bioanalytes and the segment of carrier ampholytes into fused silica capillaries dynamically modified by poly(ethylene glycole). This polymer dissolved in the catholyte, in the anolyte and in the injected sample pulse was used for a prevention of the bioanalyte adsorption on the capillary surface and for the reduction of the electroosmotic flow. Between each focusing run, the capillaries were washed with the mixture of acetone/ethanol to achieve the reproducible and efficient CIEF. In order to trace of pH gradients, low-molecular-mass pI markers were used. The mixed cultures of microorganisms, Escherichia coli CCM 3954, Candida albicans CCM 8180, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, CCM 8223, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiela pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus CCM 3953, Streptococcus agalactiae CCM 6187, Enterococcus faecalis CCM 4224 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CCM 4418, were focused and separated by the CIEF method suggested here. This CIEF method enables the separation and detection of the microbes from the mixed cultures within several minutes. The minimum detectable number of microbial cells was less than 10(3).

  1. Manifestation of Aerosol Indirect Effects in Arctic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The first aerosol indirect effect has traditionally been conceived as an enhancement of shortwave cloud reflectance in response to decreased effective droplet size at fixed liquid water path, as cloud nucleating aerosol becomes entrained in the cloud. The high Arctic, with its pervasive low-level stratiform cloud cover and frequent episodes of anthropogenic aerosol (Artic "haze"), has in recent years served as a natural laboratory for research on actual manifestations of aerosol indirect effects. This paper will review the surprising set of developments: (1) the detection of the indirect effect as a source of surface warming, rather than cooling, throughout early spring, (2) a transition to a cooling effect in late spring, corresponding to the beginning of the sea ice melt season, and (3) detection of an indirect effect during summer, outside of the "Arctic haze" season. This paper will also discuss measurements of spectral shortwave irradiance (350-2200 nm) made at Barrow, Alaska, during the U.S. Department of Energy's Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), which reveal complications in our conception of the indirect effect related to the ice phase in Arctic stratiform clouds.

  2. UV Signature Mutations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations – deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen – and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the non-transcribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; non-signature mutations induced by UV may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  3. Coupling of SPME with MCC/UV-IMS as a tool for rapid on-site detection of groundwater and surface water contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendzik, G.; Baumbach, J.I.; Klockow, D. [ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Dortmund (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    The combination of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) [1] with fast chromatographic pre-separation by means of multi-capillary columns (MCC) coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer equipped with a 10.6 eV photoionisation source was applied to rapid on-site monitoring of ground and surface water contaminations. Under field conditions, water contaminants were directly detectable down to the upper {mu}g/L range. The potential of the developed method is illustrated by measurements of BTEX, naphthalene, chlorinated alkenes and chlorinated benzenes in water. Practical results from investigations of contaminated groundwater at a former gasworks site and groundwater from the site of a metal processing plant, focusing on the key substances benzene, naphthalene and tetrachloroethene, demonstrate the feasibility of the system for field studies. (orig.)

  4. Self-Assembly High-Performance UV-vis-NIR Broadband β-In2Se3/Si Photodetector Array for Weak Signal Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Yao, Jiandong; Wang, Bing; Yang, Yibin; Yang, Guowei; Li, Jingbo

    2017-12-20

    The emergence of a rich variety of layered materials has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of their exciting properties. However, the applications of layered materials in optoelectronic devices are hampered by the low light absorption of monolayers/few layers, the lack of p-n junction, and the challenges for large-scale production. Here, we report a scalable production of β-In 2 Se 3 /Si heterojunction arrays using pulsed-laser deposition. Photodetectors based on the as-produced heterojunction array are sensitive to a broadband wavelength from ultraviolet (370 nm) to near-infrared (808 nm), showing a high responsivity (5.9 A/W), a decent current on/off ratio (∼600), and a superior detectivity (4.9 × 10 12 jones), simultaneously. These figures-of-merits are among the best values of the reported heterojunction-based photodetectors. In addition, these devices can further enable the detection of weak signals, as successfully demonstrated with weak light sources including a flashlight, lighter, and fluorescent light. Device physics modeling shows that their high performance is attributed to the strong light absorption of the relatively thick β-In 2 Se 3 film (20.3 nm) and the rational energy band structures of β-In 2 Se 3 and Si, which allows efficient separation of photoexcited electron-hole pairs. These results offer a new insight into the rational design of optoelectronic devices from the synergetic effect of layered materials as well as mature semiconductor technology.

  5. Stable, Fast UV-Vis-NIR Photodetector with Excellent Responsivity, Detectivity, and Sensitivity Based on α-In2Te3 Films with a Direct Bandgap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiandong; Deng, Zexiang; Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Yang, Guowei

    2016-08-17

    Photoelectric conversion is of great importance to extensive applications. However, thus far, photodetectors integrated with high responsivity, excellent detectivity, large phototo-dark current ratio, fast response speed, broad spectral range, and good stability are rarely achieved. Herein, we deposited large-scale and high-quality polycrystalline indium sesquitelluride (α-In2Te3) films via pulsed-laser deposition. Then, we demonstrated that the photodetectors made of the prepared α-In2Te3 films possess stable photoswitching behavior from 370 to 1064 nm and short response time better than ca. 15 ms. At a source-drain voltage of 5 V, the device achieves a high responsivity of 44 A/W, along with an outstanding detectivity of 6 × 10(12) cm H(1/2) W(-1) and an excellent sensitivity of 2.5 × 10(5) cm(2)/W. All of these figures-of-merit are the best among those of the reported α-In2Te3 photodetectors. In fact, they are comparable to the state-of-the-art commercial Si and Ge photodetectors. For the first time, we established the theoretical evidence that α-In2Te3 possesses a direct bandgap structure, which reasonably accounts for the superior photodetection performances above. Importantly, the device exhibits a good stability against the multiple photoswitching operation and ambient environment, along with no obvious voltage-scan hysteresis. These excellent figures-of-merit, together with the broad spectral range and good stability, underscore α-In2Te3 as a promising candidate material for next-generation photodetection.

  6. Demonstrating the influence of UV rays on living things

    OpenAIRE

    MORIMOTO, Kouichi

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) rays are used in our daily lives for a variety of purposes, including detection of counterfeit bank notes and passports, sterilisation in hospitals and water treatment plants, and in medical treatments for diseases such as athlete's foot. However, a majority of students are unaware of UV rays and their effects. This practical introduces students to the different types of UV rays and their effects on living things, using appropriate teaching materials and equipment. The effect...

  7. JUNO JUPITER UVS 2 EXPERIMENT DATA RECORD V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) CODMAC Level 2 Experiment Data Record is a collection of the far ultraviolet photon detections obtained by the UVS...

  8. JUNO JUPITER UVS 3 REDUCED DATA RECORD V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) CODMAC Level 3 Reduced Data Record is a collection of the far ultraviolet photon detections obtained by the UVS instrument,...

  9. Single Chip EUV, VUV and Deep UV Photodetector System with Integrated Amplifier, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We here propose the development and fabrication of an integrated sensor device capable of detecting across a wide band of UV radiation, from extreme UV (1 to 50 nm)...

  10. p53 induction in normal human skin in vitro following exposure to solar simulated UV and UV-B irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, V; Morris, J F; Motazed, R; Chu, A C

    1999-04-01

    Exposure of normal human breast skin ex vivo to physiological levels of UV-B and solar simulated UV results in a UV dose- and time-dependent increase in epidermal p53, as determined by PAGE analysis. Peak p53 levels are detected 12 to 24 h post irradiation with UV-B (470-1410 mJ cm-2) and solar simulated UV (5-12 minimal erythema dose (MED) equivalents). Irradiation with an FS20 UV-B lamp, contaminated with UV-A and UV-C (74-1111 mJ cm-2), also induces peak levels after 12 h incubation at 37 degrees C but these levels persist to 36 h post UV irradiation. In all cases p53 levels start to return to normal by 48 h culture. A significant positive correlation is demonstrated between UV-B dose (47-1645 mJ cm-2) and p53 level (p 0.977) in explants cultured for 24 h at 37 degrees C post irradiation. The FS20 induces a 'UV-B' dose-dependent increase in p53 to a maximum from 370 to 1111 mJ cm-2. Similarly, solar simulated UV induces a plateau of peak p53 induction between 5 and 15 MED equivalents. Immunohistochemical analysis using microwave retrieval on 5 microns sections shows the same pattern of p53 staining with UV-B and solar UV insult, but proves unreliable as a method of quantification. These results suggest that the skin explant model may be a useful tool in the evaluation of UV-induced epidermal cell damage, providing a valuable alternative to in vivo studies.

  11. Protective effects of polyamines against UV-A and UV-B illumination in Physcia semipinnata thalli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmer Işıl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The damage to DNA induced by UV-A and UV-B and protective effects of the polyamines putrescine (put, spermidine (spd and spermine (spm were investigated on the lichen Physcia semipinnata in the present study. Our results suggest that significant alterations of the photosynthetic quantum yield ratio occurred in response to increased UV-A and UV-B exposure time. The photosynthetic quantum yield ratio gradually decreased in P. semipinnata following exposure to UV-A and UV-B. Physcia semipinnata thalli which were treated with a polyamine in a concentration of 1 mM were not affected by UV-A exposure for 72 h. In the case of UV-B treatment, the protective polyamine dosage was 0.25 mM. We also used the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique to detect DNA damage. The main changes observed in the RAPD profiles, which were obtained using 12 RAPD primers, were the appearance or disappearance of different bands and variation of their intensities. The use of at least three different primers allowed detection of specific band patterns in both UV-A- and UV-B-exposed samples treated with polyamines as compared to untreated ones.

  12. A simple method for the quantification of diclofenac potassium in oral suspension by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Machado Rubim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and low cost method was developed to determine diclofenac potassium (DP in oral suspension, using a reverse-phase column (C8, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm, mobile phase containing methanol/buffer phosphate (70:30 v/v, pH 2.5, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, isocratic method, and ultraviolet detection at 275 nm. A linear response (r = 1.0000 was observed in the range of 10.0-50.0 µg/mL. Validation parameters such as linearity, specificity, precision, accuracy and robustness were evaluated. The method presented precision (repeatability: relative standard deviation = 1.21% and intermediate precision: between-analyst = 0.85%. The specificity of the assay was evaluated by exposure of diclofenac potassium under conditions of stress such as hydrolysis, photolysis, oxidation and high temperature. The method presented accuracy values between 98.28% and 101.95%. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method that allows determination of diclofenac potassium in oral suspension and may be used as an alternative method for routine analysis of this product in quality control.

  13. Determination of Mitragynine inMitragyna speciosaRaw Materials and Finished Products by Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Elizabeth M; Brown, Paula N

    2017-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a tree indigenous to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used in herbal formulations because they contain indole alkaloids mitragynine and 7-hydroxy (7-OH) mitragynine. An HPLC method was developed, optimized, and validated using single-laboratory validation guidelines to quantify mitragynine in kratom raw materials and finished products. The method optimization evaluated several extraction parameters including solvent type, solvent volume, time, and extraction method. The separation of the mitragynine alkaloids was achieved in 18 min with a fused-core C18 EVO column using gradient separation with ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9.5) and acetonitrile. The calibration range for mitragynine was 1.0-500 μg/mL with correlation coefficients of ≥99.9% throughout method development and validation. The method detection limit and LOQ were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/mL, respectively for mitragynine. Eight test samples were obtained to evaluate method repeatability. RSDr ranged from 0.4 to 1.0%, whereas intermediate precision ranged from 3.7 to 7.3%, with HorRat values from 0.68 to 1.96. 7-OH mitragynine was below the LOQ for all samples, therefore, spikes repeatability sample RSD values were Kratom Working Group.

  14. Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Determination of Amifostine and/or Its Metabolite (WR-1065) In Human Plasma Using OPA Derivatization and UV Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Nasim; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen; Shafaati, Alireza; Zarghi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible HPLC method was developed and validated for the analysis of amifostine (AMF) and/or its metabolite, WR-1065 in human plasma. The method involves the alkylation of free sulfydryl group with iodoacetic acid followed by derivatization of the drug and its metabolite with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) and UVdetection at 340 nm. The derivatized AMF and WR-1065 were eluted in less than 11 min, and in the case of the metabolite with no interferences from the endogenous plasma peaks. Cystein was used as the internal standard. Analysis was carried out on a Eurosphere Performance (RP-18e, 100 × 4.6 mm) analytical column. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol and phosphate buffer 0.03 M pH = 2.7 at a ratio of 40: 60v/v, respectively, with a flow rate of 1.5 mLmin(-1). Limit of detection was 0.5 µgmL(-1). The method involved a simple extraction procedure for AMF and/or its metabolite and analytical recovery was 90 ± 0.9%.The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 1-200 µgmL(-1). The coefficients of variation for intra-day and inter-day assays were less than 10%.

  15. Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide From Baby Toilet Water Prior to its HPLC-UV Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaowei; Feng, Fan; Yang, Yang; Dang, Xueping; Huang, Jianlin; Chen, Huaixia

    2017-07-01

    Fe3O4@MIL-100 (MIL, Material Institut Lavoisier) core-shell magnetic microspheres were prepared and applied as the sorbent for the magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in baby toilet water for the first time. The synthesized magnetic metal-organic frameworks were characterized by transmission electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The functionalized magnetic microparticles showed excellent dispersibility in aqueous solution. The MSPE conditions were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, an MSPE-high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of DEET was developed. The method was linear in the concentration range from 5 to 500 μg L-1 for DEET in baby toilet water and good linearity (r2 > 0.9998) was obtained for the calibration curve. The limit of detection was 1.5 μg L-1. Both the intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviations) were <3%. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Approaching work and learning indirectly

    OpenAIRE

    Macintyre, Ronald; Thomson, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This paper approaches work and learning indirectly. It is part of a mixed method longitudinal study that looks at the articulation from Higher National (HN) to part time Higher Education (HE). Since 2003 the Open University in Scotland (OU) has been collecting quantitative and qualitative data on students who have HN qualifications. This paper looks at the experiences of those students and the central place of work in those journeys. \\ud \\ud The paper beings with a statistical overview. HN St...

  17. Simultaneous determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride and fluphenazine hydrochloride in microgram quantities from low dosage forms by liquid chromatography–UV detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safwan Ashour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for the simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride and fluphenazine hydrochloride was developed and validated. Fluvastatin sodium was used as internal standard. The determination was performed on a Hypersil Gold C8 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size at 25 °C; the mobile phase, consisting of a mixture of formic acid (0.1 M, pH 2.16-methanol (33:67, v/v, was delivered at a flow rate of 1.1 mL/min and detector wavelength at 251 nm. The retention time of nortriptyline, fluphenazine and fluvastatin was found to be 5.11, 8.05 and 11.38 min, respectively. Linearity ranges were 5.0–1350.0 and 10.0–1350.0 μg/mL with limit of detection values of 0.72 and 0.31 μg/mL, for nortriptyline and fluphenazine, respectively. Results of assay and recovery studies were statistically evaluated for its accuracy and precision. Correlation coefficients (r2 of the regression equations were greater than 0.999 in all cases. According to the validation results, the proposed method was found to be specific, accurate, precise and could be applied to the simultaneous quantitative analysis of nortriptyline and fluphenazine. Keywords: Nortriptyline hydrochloride, Fluphenazine hydrochloride, Liquid chromatography, Pharmaceutical dosage form

  18. UVR measurement of a UV germicidal lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Shieh, Jeng-Yueh; Lan, Cheng-Hang

    2007-03-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is known to cause serious effects such as conjunctivitis and keratitis in eyes and erythema in skin. The exposure assessment of UVR has not been well established and developed in workplaces due to the lack of suitable UV detecting instruments. Therefore, UV monitoring and measuring procedures were investigated and developed with commercial spectroradiometry devices described in this paper. The UVR irradiance integrated with a biological effective parameter (S lambda) represents the impacts on human skin and eyes as UV effective irradiance. The spectral weighting function derived from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists was applied and evaluated to indicate the degree of harmfulness of UVR as a function of wavelength. A portable UV germicidal lamp with short and long wavelengths (254 nm and 365 nm) served as the UVR emission source. The UVR photon count similar to the perceived brightness of a source, irradiance, and effective irradiance (E eff) of the germicidal lamp were measured and analyzed, then the permissible exposure times (T max) were derived for UVR exposure assessment. This monitoring provided a comprehensive approach to detecting UVR magnitude, evaluated the performance of the approach, and quantified the effective exposure based on measured data. From this study, the methodology of UV measurement was established and could be applied to further UVR exposure assessment in the workplace.

  19. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  20. Covalent bindings in proteins following UV-C irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diezel, W.; Meffert, H.; Soennichsen, N.; Reinicke, C.

    1980-01-01

    Following a UV-C irradiation of catalase cross-linked catalase subunits could be detected by sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis. The subunits of aldolase were not cross-linked. The origin of covalent bindings in the catalase molecule is suggested to be effected by a free radical chain reaction induced by the heme component of catalase after UV-C irradiation. (author)

  1. Effects of prolonged UV-B exposure in plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... is the differential production of pigments, especially flavonoids (Fohnmeyer et al., 1997; Musil, 1996). This type of response involves the stimulation of expression of particular genes by UV-B, implying specific UV-B light detection systems and signal transduction processes, which lead to the regulation of ...

  2. Response of biological uv dosimeters to the simulated extraterrestrial uv radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérces, A.; Rontó, G.; Kerékgyártó, T.; Kovács, G.; Lammer, H.

    In the Laboratory polycrystalline uracil thin layer and bacteriophage T7 detectors have been developed for UV dosimetry on the EarthSs surface. Exponential response of the uracil polycrystal has been detected both by absorption spectroscopy and measurements of the refractive index under the influence of terrestrial solar radiation or using UV-C sources. In UV biological dosimetry the UV dose scale is additive starting at a value of zero according to the definition of CIE (Technical Report TC-6-18). The biological dose can be defined by a measured end-effect. In our dosimeters (phage T7 and uracil dosimeter) exposed to natural (terrestrial) UV radiation the proportion of pyrimidin photoproducts among the total photoproducts is smaller than 0.1 and the linear correlation between the biological and physical dose is higher than 0.9. According to the experimental data this linear relationship is often not valid. We observed that UV radiation did not only induce dimerisation but shorter wavelengths caused monomerisation of pyrimidin dimers. Performing the irradiation in oxygen free environment and using a Deuterium lamp as UV source, we could increase monomerisation against dimerisation thus the DNA-based dosimetrySs additivity rule is not fulfilled in these conditions. In this study we will demonstrate those non-linear experiments which constitute the basis of our biological experiments on the International Space Station.

  3. UV photoprocessing of NH3 ice: photon-induced desorption mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Doménech, R.; Cruz-Díaz, G. A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.

    2018-01-01

    Ice mantles detected on the surface of dust grains towards the coldest regions of the interstellar medium can be photoprocessed by the secondary ultraviolet (UV) field present in dense cloud interiors. In this work, we present UV-irradiation experiments under astrophysically relevant conditions of pure NH3 ice samples in an ultra-high vacuum chamber where solid samples were deposited on to a substrate at 8 K. The ice analogues were subsequently photoprocessed with a microwave-discharged hydrogen-flow lamp. The induced radiation and photochemistry led to the production of H2, N2 and N2H4. In addition, photodesorption to the gas phase of the original ice component, NH3, and two of the three detected photoproducts, H2 and N2, was observed thanks to a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). Calibration of the QMS allowed quantification of the photodesorption yields, leading to Ypd (NH3) = 2.1^{+2.1}_{-1.0} × 10-3 molecules/{incident photon}, which remained constant during the whole experiments, while photodesorption of H2 and N2 increased with fluence, pointing towards an indirect photodesorption mechanism involving energy transfer for these species. Photodesorption yield of N2 molecules after a fluence equivalent to that experienced by ice mantles in space was similar to that of the NH3 molecules (Ypd (N2) = 1.7^{+1.7}_{-0.9} × 10-3 molecules/{incident photon}).

  4. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils; Detección de la adulteración de aceite de oliva mediante relaxometría magnética nuclear de campo bajo y espectroscopía UV-Vis sobre mezcla de aceite de oliva con diversos aceites comestibles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ok, S.

    2017-07-01

    Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2) curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively. [Spanish] La adulteración del aceite de oliva con sustituyentes menos saludables es una amenaza para la salud pública. En este trabajo, la detección de la adulteración del aceite de oliva se demuestra utilizando tanto relaxometría magnética nuclear de campo bajo (LF) de protones (1H) (RMN) y espectroscopía visible y ultra-violeta (UV). Tres muestras de aceites de oliva con diferentes contenidos en oleico se mezclaron con aceites de almendra, ricino, maíz y sésamo con tres relaciones volumétricas. Además, el de arbequina de California se mezcló con cánola, lino, semilla de uva, cacahuete, soja y aceites de girasol con tres relaciones volumétricas. Las curvas de

  5. Ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of Ni, Co, Cu and Zn in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV detection was developed for simultaneous extraction and determination of nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc ions. In the proposed approach, salophen (N,N'-bis(salisyliden-1,2-phenylenediamine was used as a chelating agent; the ionic liquid, 1-hexeyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, and acetone were selected as extracting and dispersive solvents, respectively. After extraction, phase separation was performed by centrifugation and the sedimented phase (ionic liquid was solubilized in acetonitrile and directly injected into the HPLC for subsequent analysis. Baseline separation of metal ion complexes was achieved on a RP-C18 column using a gradient elution of the mixtures of methanol-acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The influence of variables such as sample pH, concentration of the chelating agent, amount of ionic liquid (extraction solvent, disperser solvent volume, extraction time, salt effect and centrifugation speed were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factor of 222 was obtained. The detection limits for Ni, Co, Cu and Zn were 0.8, 1.6, 1.9 and 2.8 μg L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs were in the range of 3.6-5.0 % for all of the investigated metal ions. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of the studied metal ions in water samples.

  6. Determination of brilliant green from fish pond water using carbon nanotube assisted pseudo-stir bar solid/liquid microextraction combined with UV-vis spectroscopy-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Khooni, Maliheh Ahmadi-Kalateh; Heidari, Tahereh

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a new design of hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction (HF-SLPME) for determination of brilliant green (BG) residues in water fish ponds. This method consists of an aqueous donor phase and carbon nanotube reinforced organic solvent (acceptor phase) operated in direct immersion sampling mode. The multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersed in the organic solvent is held in the pores and lumen of a porous polypropylene hollow fiber. It is in contact directly with the aqueous donor phase. In this method the solid/liquid extractor phase is supported using a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane. Both ends of the hollow fiber segment are sealed with magnetic stoppers. This device is placed inside the donor solution and plays the rule of a pseudo-stir bar. It is disposable, so single use of the fiber reduces the risk of carry-over problems. Brilliant green (BG) after extraction from the aqueous samples with mentioned HF-SLPME device was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy with diode array detection (UV-vis/DAD). The absorption wavelength was set to 625 nm (λ(max)). The effect of different variables on the extraction was evaluated and optimized to enhance the sensitivity and extraction efficiency of the proposed method. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.00-10,000 μg L(-1) of BG in the initial solution with R(2)=0.979. Detection limit, based on three times the standard deviation of the blank, was 0.55 μg L(-1). All experiments were carried out at room temperature (25±0.5°C). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biobased Nanoparticles for Broadband UV Protection with Photostabilized UV Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Douglas R; Imhof, Arnout; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2016-12-07

    Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon solar irradiation. Herein, we demonstrate significant reduction in the ROS concentration by encapsulating an antioxidant photostabilizer with multiple UV filters into biobased ethyl cellulose nanoparticles. The developed nanoparticles display complete broadband UV protection and can form transparent and flexible films. This system therefore shows significant potential toward effective and safe nanoparticle-based UV protective coatings.

  8. Diagnostic efficacy of indirect hemagglutination test inrelation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Sensitive and specific diagnostic tools are very central to decide on individual case management and at all stages of control programs in schistosomiasis. This study was undertaken to assess the diagnostic efficacy of a commercial indirect hemagglutination test in detection of schistosomiasis mansoni in ...

  9. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  10. UV spectroscopy. Ch. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Eugene S.

    1991-01-01

    The use of synchrotron radiation (SR) in the ultraviolet (UV) region by biophysics and biophysical chemists continues to increase as access improves and as awareness of its unique combination of properties grows. SR is continuously tunable, intense (even in the UV region), and pulsed. Pulse characteristics are comparable to those of picosecond lasers, but have the advantage of being independent of wavelength. Drawbacks are the continuous, but slow, decay of intensity arising from loss of particles in the ring, and the intrinsic limitation in pulse repetition rate. The particular combination of features that makes SR a superior light source depends upon the application. Spectroscopic techniques based on absorption and some techniques based on emission exploit its intensity and continuous tunability; time resolved techniques make use of its pulse characteristics. This chapter is a status report on two of the major biological applications of UV SR, circular dichroism and time-resolved fluorescence, covering mainly the published literature of the last five years. For the present purpose, the term UV is understood to include the vacuum ultraviolet region to 100 nm. (author). 83 refs.; 4 figs.; 6 tabs

  11. UV-induced structural changes in chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H.; Zimmer, C.; Vengerov, Yu.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    UV-induced structural alterations of chromatin were studied by means of CD, electron microscopic, and gel electrophoretic measurements. The results indicate that chromatin undergoes serious structural changes after irradiation even at very low fluences. In the low fluence range the structural transitions from the higher ordered chromatin structure to the unfolded state occur without detectable changes in the content of histone H1 and of the core histones. Histone H1 disappears only at fluences above 10 kJ/m 2 . Furthermore, DNA in chromatin is much more sensitive against UV-irradiation and shows a higher degree of strand scission relative to free DNA. While fragmentation in free DNA occurs at fluences above 15 kJ/m 2 , it occurs even at 5.5 kJ/m 2 in the case of chromatin. The biological meaning of the observed UV-induced structural alterations of chromatin is discussed. (author)

  12. UV-guided screening of benzodiazepine producing species in Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld Larsen T; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Christian Frisvad J

    2000-01-01

    spectroscopy. UV-guided screening for benzodiazepine production by other penicillia revealed that sclerotigenin was also produced by isolates of P. clavigerum, P. lanosum, P. melanoconidium, P. sclerotigenum and P. verrucosum. Sclerotigenin was detected both intra- and extracellularly. Apparently, P...

  13. UV-guided screening of benzodiazepine producing species in Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frydenvang, K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2000-01-01

    spectroscopy, UV-guided screening for benzodiazepine production by other penicillia revealed that sclerotigenin was also produced by isolates of P. clavigerum, P. lanosum, P. melanoconidium, P. sclerotigenum and P. verrucosum. Sclerotigenin was detected both intra- and extracellularly, Apparently, P...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression. ...

  15. UV-induced recessive lethals in uvs strains of Neurospora which are deficient in UV mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaefer, E.

    1984-01-01

    The frequencies of spontaneous and UV-induced recessive lethal mutations were compared for UV-sensitive and wild-type heterokaryons of Neurospora crassa. These heterokaryons were homokaryotic either for one of two alleles of uvs-3, or for uvs-6 or uvs + . For uvs-3, which is known to have mutator effects, spontaneous recessive lethals were found to be 4-6 times more frequent than observed in uvs + . After correction for clonal distribution of spontaneous mutants, an observed 2-fold increase for uvs-6 was not statistically significant and may have been due to chance occurrence of a few large clones of mutants. Treatment with low doses of UV (50-200 J/m 2 ) produced very similar overall rates of increase for recessive lethals in uvs and uvs + heterokaryons. This means, that in contrast to results obtained when mutation to ad-3 was measured, both uvs-3 alleles showed highly significant increases for recessive lethals when treated with UV. It is proposed that certain types of UV damage may be processed into recessive lethal mutations by an alternate mechanism from that responsible for viable mutations. (Auth.)

  16. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  17. Development and Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method With UV Detection for Determination of 1-(2-phenylethyl)-5- (quinaldin-4-yl) Biuret in Rat Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibpour, Neda; Ahmadnasr, Maryam; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Rezaee, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Recently, biuret derivatives have been reported as showing moderate to good cytotoxic effect against certain cancer cell lines. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determination of 1-(2-phenylethyl)-5-(quinaldin-4-yl) biuret (PEQB) in rat plasma to use in future studies on this compound and related derivatives. In this study, we describe a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection for determination of 1-(2-phenylethyl)-6-(quinaldin-4-yl) biuret (PEQB) in rat plasma. Separations were performed on a Nucleosil-100 CN HPLC column (125 × 4.0 mm) (5 µm), using a mixture of acetonitrile: methanol: potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (0.05 M, pH 3.5) (10:10:80) as mobile phase delivered at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute. Detection of PEQB and internal standard (1-([[3-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl)propyl]carbamoyl]amino)-N-phenylformamide) was performed at 235 nm and ambient temperature. Plasma samples (200 µL) were prepared by addition of 40 µL internal standard (100 µg/mL), and 400 µL acetonitrile. After vortex mixing and centrifugation at 10000 g, 50 µL of the clear supernatant was directly injected onto the chromatography column. Calibration curves were constructed by fitting the peak area ratio of the biuret to internal standard against concentration of biuret to a power model using generalized least squares nonlinear regression method. Under the above chromatography condition, biuret compound (PEQB) and the internal standard were detected at 4.5 and 13.5 minutes, respectively. Limit of quantitation of the PEQB was 0.1 µg/mL. Accuracy of the method over the concentration range of 0.1-100 µg/mL was between 88-109%. Inter- and intraday precisions were 4-19% and 6-8%, respectively. A good relationship in the form of a power model was found for two separate concentration ranges of 0.1-1 and 2.5-100 µg/mL (R (2)> 0.99). The presented simple HPLC method is sufficiently accurate

  18. Biobased Nanoparticles for Broadband UV Protection with Photostabilized UV Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayden, D.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412640694; Imhof, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145641600; Velikov, K. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239483472

    2016-01-01

    Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species

  19. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, K.D.; Scherrer, C.; Smith, L.E.; Chilton, L.K.; Anderson, K.K.; Ressler, J.J.; Trease, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  20. Rough lipopolysaccharide of Brucella abortus RB51 as a common antigen for serological detection of B. ovis, B. canis, and B. abortus RB51 exposure using indirect enzyme immunoassay and fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Smith, P; Conde, S; Draghi de Benitez, G; Gall, D; Halbert, G; Kenny, K; Massengill, C; Muenks, Q; Rojas, X; Perez, B; Samartino, L; Silva, P; Tollersrud, T; Jolley, M

    2004-01-01

    Rough lipopolysaccharide (RLPS) antigens were prepared from cultures of Brucella abortus RB51, B. ovis, and B. canis. The preparations were standardized by weight and tested with sera from cattle immunized with B. abortus RB51, sheep infected with B. ovis, and dogs infected with B. canis. Populations of unexposed animals of each species were also tested. The tests used were the indirect enzyme immunoassay (IELISA) using RLPS and the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using RLPS core fractions, labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. The IELISA using B. abortus RB51 RLPS antigen resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 94.8% and 97.3%, respectively, when testing bovine sera, 98.5% and 97.8% when testing ovine sera, and 95.8% and 100% when testing dog sera. The IELISA using B. ovis RLPS antigen gave sensitivity and specificity values of 80.5% and 91.7%, respectively with bovine sera, 98.9% and 93.8% with sheep sera, and 70.8% and 79.8% with dog sera. The IELISA using B. canis RLPS antigen resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 97.0% and 97.4%, respectively, with bovine sera, 96.2% and 96.3% with sheep sera, and 95.8% and 98.8% with dog sera. Labeling RLPS core from B. ovis and B. canis with fluorescein was not successful. B. abortus RB51 core labeled with fluorescein resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 93.5% and 99.8%, respectively, with bovine sera and 78.1% and 99.0% with sheep sera. It was not possible to test the dog sera in the FPA.

  1. Ultrathin ZnSe nanowires: one-pot synthesis via a heat-triggered precursor slow releasing route, controllable Mn doping and application in UV and near-visible light detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Xing, Guanjie; Tang, Shilin; Li, Xiaohong; Fan, Louzhen; Li, Yunchao

    2017-10-12

    We report herein a heat-triggered precursor slow releasing route for the one-pot synthesis of ultrathin ZnSe nanowires (NWs), which relies on the gradual dissolving of Se powder into oleylamine containing a soluble Zn precursor under heating. This route allows the reaction system to maintain a high monomer concentration throughout the entire reaction process, thus enabling the generation of ZnSe NWs with diameter down to 2.1 nm and length approaching 400 nm. The size-dependent optical properties and band-edge energy levels of the ZnSe NWs were then explored in depth by UV-visible spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. Considering their unique absorption properties, these NWs were specially utilized for fabricating photoelectrochemical-type photodetectors (PDs). Impressively, the PDs based on the ZnSe NWs with diameters of 2.1 and 4.5 nm exhibited excellent responses to UVA and near-visible light, respectively: both possessed ultrahigh on/off ratios (5150 for UVA and 4213 for near-visible light) and ultrawide linear response ranges (from 2.0 to 9000 μW cm -2 for UVA and 5.0 to 8000 μW cm -2 for near-visible light). Furthermore, these ZnSe NWs were selectively doped with various amounts of Mn 2+ to tune their emission properties. As a result, ZnSe NW film-based photochromic cards were creatively developed for visually detecting UVA and near-visible radiation.

  2. Simultaneous determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in muscles, liver, eggs and milk by MLC with a monolithic column and time-programmed UV detection: application to baby food and formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Jenny Jeehan; Shalan, Shereen; Belal, Fathalla

    2014-01-01

    Tylosin and Josamycin are macrolide antibiotics. They are used in the treatment of pneumonia, arthritis and mastitis in cattle, and mycoplasma infections in poultry. The incorrect use of antibiotics has lead to the presence of antibiotic residues in foods. The residues cause toxic effects on consumers. A simple and sensitive method was optimized and validated for the analysis of tylosin and josamycin residues in food samples. Analytical separation was performed in less than 10 min using a RP C18 monolithic column with time-programmed UV detection at 287 nm and 232 nm and a micellar solution of 0.17 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 14% methanol and 0.3% triethylamine in 0.02 M phosphoric acid buffered at pH 4 as the mobile phase. The method was fully validated in accordance with ICH guidelines. The micellar method was successfully applied to quantitatively determine tylosin and josamycin residues in spiked chicken muscles, chicken liver, bovine muscles, liver, milk and eggs. It was also extended to the determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in chicken-based baby food and baby formulae. The compounds were separated by a monolithic column which, on account of its particular structure, could bear higher flow rates than usually found for this kind of analysis. High extraction efficiency for tylosin and josamycin was obtained without matrix interference in the extraction process and in the subsequent chromatographic determination. No organic solvent was used during the pretreatment step. Hence, it is considered an interesting technique for "green" chemistry. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for the determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in spiked chicken muscles, chicken liver, bovine muscles, liver, milk and eggs. It was also extended to the determination of tylosin and josamycin residues in chicken-based baby food and baby formulae.

  3. The effect of UV-B and UV-C radiation on Hibiscus leaves determined by ultraweak luminescence and fluorescence induction [chlorophyll fluorescence induction, ultraweak luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, I.; Bornman, J.F.; Björn, L.O.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of UV-C (254 nm) and UV-B (280-320 nm) on chlorophyll fluorescence induction and ultraweak luminescence (UL) in detached leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. were investigated. UL from leaves exposed to UV-B and UV-C radiation reached a maximum 72 h after irradiation. In both cases most of the light was of a wavelength over 600 nm. An increase in the percentage of long wavelength light with time was detected. UV radiation increased peroxidase activity, which also reached a maximum 72 h after irradiation. UV-B and UV-C both reduced variable chlorophyll fluorescence. No effect on the amount of chlorophyll or UV screening pigments was observed with the short-term irradiation used in this investigation. (author)

  4. uv preilluminated gas switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.

    1980-06-03

    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10/sup 12/ amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters.

  5. UV curable materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, B.G.

    1996-12-01

    Adhesives, coatings, and inks were selected for evaluation based on literature search and possible production applications. A differential photocalorimeter was used to measure degree of cure and allow prediction of optimum processing conditions. UV cure equipment were characterized and the ability to size equipment to specific materials cure needs established. Adhesion tests procedures were developed for the adhesives and solvent resistance testing procedures developed for the coatings and inks.

  6. uv preilluminated gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10 12 amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters

  7. Biochemical traits and proteomic changes in postharvest flowers of medicinal chrysanthemum exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaoqin; Chu, Jian-Zhou; Ma, Chun-Hui; Si, Chao; Li, Ji-Gang; Shi, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Chao-Nan

    2015-08-01

    The article studied UV-B effects on biochemical traits and proteomic changes in postharvest flowers of medicinal chrysanthemum. The experiment about UV-B effects on biochemical traits in flowers included six levels of UV-B treatments (0 (UV0), 50 (UV50), 200 (UV200), 400 (UV400), 600 (UV600) and 800 (UV800) μWcm(-2)). UV400, UV600 and UV800 treatments significantly increased the contents of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and UV-B absorbing compounds, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme over the control. The contents of chlorogenic acid and flavone in flowers were significantly increased by UV-B treatments (except for UV50 and UV800). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was utilized to analyze proteomic changes in flowers with or without UV-B radiation. Results indicated that 43 protein spots (>1.5-fold difference in volume) were detected, including 19 spots with a decreasing trend and 24 spots with an increasing trend, and 19 differentially expressed protein spots were successfully indentified by MALDI-TOF MS. The indentified proteins were classified based on functions, the most of which were involved in photosynthesis, respiration, protein biosynthesis and degradation and defence. An overall assessment using biochemical and differential proteomic data revealed that UV-B radiation could affect biochemical reaction and promote secondary metabolism processes in postharvest flowers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of the viral progeny during the indirect recombinogenesis of the lambda bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara D, D.

    1993-12-01

    In this work the effect of the UV irradiation on the number of cells that follow the lytic via of the phage is determined, as well as the production of total particles and recombinants in irradiated individual cells and not irradiated with light UV. The results show that the indirect recombinogenesis of lambda is caused by a so much increment in the number of recombinant phages for cells like in the number of cells in those that happen events of viral recombination, without any significant effect on the number of bacteria that follow the lytic via of viral development. (Author)

  9. Analysis of Explosives by GC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasko, Jan; Lagesson-Andrasko, Ludmila; Dahlén, Johan; Jonsson, Bengt-Harald

    2017-07-01

    A mixture of explosives was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) linked to ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry that enabled detection in the range of 178-330 nm. The gas-phase UV spectra of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), glycerine trinitrate (NG, nitroglycerine), triacetone triperoxide (TATP), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were successfully recorded. The most interesting aspect of the current application is that it enabled simultaneous detection of both the target analyte and its decomposition products. At suitable elevated temperatures of the transfer line between the GC instrument and the UV detector, a partial decomposition was accomplished. Detection was made in real time and resulted in overlaid spectra of the mother compound and its decomposition product. Hence, the presented approach added another level to the qualitative identification of the explosives in comparison with traditional methods that relies only on the detection of the target analyte. As expected, the decomposition product of EGDN, NG, and PETN was NO, while TATP degraded to acetone. DNT and TNT did not exhibit any decomposition at the temperatures used. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. UV plasmonic device for sensing ethanol and acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Ichikawa, Yo; Rozhin, Alex G.; Kulinich, Sergei A.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate efficient detection of volatile organic vapors with improved sensitivity, exploiting the localized surface plasmon resonance of indium nanograins in the UV range (UV-LSPR). The sensitivity of deep-UV-LSPR measurements toward ethanol was observed to be 0.004 nm/ppm, which is 10 times higher than that of a previously reported visible-LSPR device based on Ag nanoprisms [Sensors 11, 8643 (2011)]. Although practical issues such as improving detection limits are still remaining, the results of the present study suggest that the new approach based on UV-LSPR may open new avenues to the detection of organic molecules in solid, liquid, and gas phases using plasmonic sensors.

  11. A novel automated indirect immunofluorescence autoantibody evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivity, Shaye; Gilburd, Boris; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Carrasco, Marina Garcia; Tzafrir, Yaron; Sofer, Yael; Mandel, Matilda; Buttner, Thomas; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Danko, Katalin; Hoyos, Marcos López; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2012-03-01

    Autoantibodies (AAb), especially antinuclear (ANAs) and anticytoplasmatic antibodies (ACyA), are essential diagnosing markers for several autoimmune diseases. The current gold standard method for ANA detection is manual indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on human epithelial-2 (HEp-2) cells. However, this technique is cost and time consuming, and characterized by considerable intra- and interlaboratory variability. Thus, an automated IIF-HEp-2 reader has been developed recently. In the current study, we compared the performance of the automated AAb IIF-HEp-2 interpretation to conventional detection methods. Autoantibody detection by IIF on HEp-2 cells was performed in a total of 260 sera of patients, including 34 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 111 with dermatomyositis or polymyositis, 74 with systemic sclerosis, 41 with rare AAb patterns, and 137 healthy individuals. Visual interpretation and routine immunoassays were compared with a novel automated IIF-HEp-2 system using Aklides pattern recognition algorithms. Positive AAbs were detected in 95-100% of rheumatic patients by automated interpretation, in 74-100% with manual reading, and in 64-100% by immunodot assay. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of fluorescent intensity revealed a high sensitivity and specificity for automated reading of AAb with an agreement ranging from 90% to 95% between manual and automated interpretation (kappa 0.554-0.69) for systemic sclerosis and myositis, respectively. This study demonstrates a good correlation between manual and automated interpretation of AAb including ANA and ACyA in patients with autoimmune diseases. Full automation of HEp-2 cell assay reading may minimize errors in ANA pattern interpretation and thus help in the standardization of ANA assessment.

  12. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  13. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  14. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Scott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation (UV is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

  15. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M S; Andersen, Henrik R

    2015-07-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  16. The TROPOMI surface UV algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Anders V.; Kujanpää, Jukka; Kalakoski, Niilo; Heikkilä, Anu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Mielonen, Tero; Sneep, Maarten; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Arola, Antti; Tamminen, Johanna

    2018-02-01

    The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is the only payload of the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P), which is a polar-orbiting satellite mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing spectrometer measuring in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and the shortwave infrared that provides near-global daily coverage. Among other things, TROPOMI measurements will be used for calculating the UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Thus, the TROPOMI surface UV product will contribute to the monitoring of UV radiation by providing daily information on the prevailing UV conditions over the globe. The TROPOMI UV algorithm builds on the heritage of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Satellite Application Facility for Atmospheric Composition and UV Radiation (AC SAF) algorithms. This paper provides a description of the algorithm that will be used for estimating surface UV radiation from TROPOMI observations. The TROPOMI surface UV product includes the following UV quantities: the UV irradiance at 305, 310, 324, and 380 nm; the erythemally weighted UV; and the vitamin-D weighted UV. Each of these are available as (i) daily dose or daily accumulated irradiance, (ii) overpass dose rate or irradiance, and (iii) local noon dose rate or irradiance. In addition, all quantities are available corresponding to actual cloud conditions and as clear-sky values, which otherwise correspond to the same conditions but assume a cloud-free atmosphere. This yields 36 UV parameters altogether. The TROPOMI UV algorithm has been tested using input based on OMI and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) satellite measurements. These preliminary results indicate that the algorithm is functioning according to expectations.

  17. The TROPOMI surface UV algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lindfors

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI is the only payload of the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P, which is a polar-orbiting satellite mission of the European Space Agency (ESA. TROPOMI is a nadir-viewing spectrometer measuring in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and the shortwave infrared that provides near-global daily coverage. Among other things, TROPOMI measurements will be used for calculating the UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Thus, the TROPOMI surface UV product will contribute to the monitoring of UV radiation by providing daily information on the prevailing UV conditions over the globe. The TROPOMI UV algorithm builds on the heritage of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and the Satellite Application Facility for Atmospheric Composition and UV Radiation (AC SAF algorithms. This paper provides a description of the algorithm that will be used for estimating surface UV radiation from TROPOMI observations. The TROPOMI surface UV product includes the following UV quantities: the UV irradiance at 305, 310, 324, and 380 nm; the erythemally weighted UV; and the vitamin-D weighted UV. Each of these are available as (i daily dose or daily accumulated irradiance, (ii overpass dose rate or irradiance, and (iii local noon dose rate or irradiance. In addition, all quantities are available corresponding to actual cloud conditions and as clear-sky values, which otherwise correspond to the same conditions but assume a cloud-free atmosphere. This yields 36 UV parameters altogether. The TROPOMI UV algorithm has been tested using input based on OMI and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 satellite measurements. These preliminary results indicate that the algorithm is functioning according to expectations.

  18. Indirect Calorimetry in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Perner, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The 2 currently available indirect calorimeters, CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter (MedGraphics, St Paul, MN) and Quark RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter (COSMED, Rome, Italy), have not been validated against a gold standard in mechanically ventilated patients. Our aim was to do so...... presented.) O2) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in a randomized, sequential, crossover design with double determination of each device. Results: Compared with the modified Tissot bell-spirometer, the CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter demonstrated a mean Δ-REE of +361 kcal/d, corresponding to a 31...... of 77 (167) with limits of agreement −249 to 404 kcal/d. Conclusions: The QUARK RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter compared better with the gold standard for values of (Formula presented.) O2 and REE than did the CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter in mechanically ventilated patients who were circulatory...

  19. uvsI mutants defective in UV mutagenesis define a fourth epistatic group of uvs genes in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, S K; Kafer, E

    1993-01-01

    Three UV-sensitive mutations of A. nidulans, uvsI, uvsJ and uvsA, were tested for epistatic relationships with members of the previously established groups, here called the "UvsF", "UvsC", and "UvsB" groups. uvsI mutants are defective for spontaneous and induced reversion of certain point mutations and differ also for other properties from previously analyzed uvs types. They are very sensitive to the killing effects of UV-light and 4-NQO (4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide) but not to MMS (methylmethane sulfonate). When double- and single-mutant uvs strains were compared for sensitivity to these three agents, synergistic or additive effects were found for uvsI with all members of the three groups. The uvsI gene may therefore represent a fourth epistatic group, possibly involved in mutagenic repair. On the other hand, uvsJ was clearly epistatic with members of the UvsF group and fitted well into this group also by phenotype. The uvsA gene was tentatively assigned to the UvsC group. uvsA showed epistatic interactions with uvsC in all tests, and like UvsC-group mutants is UV-sensitive mainly in dividing cells. However, the uvsA mutation does not cause the defects in recombination and UV mutagenesis typical for this group.

  20. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M.S.; Andersen, Henrik R.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  1. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Andrew R.; Walls, Susan C.; Bancroft, Betsy A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Searle, Catherine L.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth, reproduction and dispersal capabilities. Moreover, climate change can alter amphibian habitats including vegetation, soil, and hydrology. Climate change can influence food availability, predator-prey relationships and competitive interactions which can alter community structure. Climate change can also alter pathogen-host dynamics and greatly influence how diseases are manifested. Changes in climate can interact with other stressors such as UV-B radiation and contaminants. The interactions among all these factors are complex and are probably driving some amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  2. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  3. Molecular Viability Testing of UV-Inactivated Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Kris M; Nguyen, Felicia K; Kearney, Moira R; Meschke, John S; Cangelosi, Gerard A

    2017-05-15

    PCR is effective in detecting bacterial DNA in samples, but it is unable to differentiate viable bacteria from inactivated cells or free DNA fragments. New PCR-based analytical strategies have been developed to address this limitation. Molecular viability testing (MVT) correlates bacterial viability with the ability to rapidly synthesize species-specific rRNA precursors (pre-rRNA) in response to brief nutritional stimulation. Previous studies demonstrated that MVT can assess bacterial inactivation by chlorine, serum, and low-temperature pasteurization. Here, we demonstrate that MVT can detect inactivation of Escherichia coli , Aeromonas hydrophila , and Enterococcus faecalis cells by UV irradiation. Some UV-inactivated E. coli cells transiently retained the ability to synthesize pre-rRNA postirradiation (generating false-positive MVT results), but this activity ceased within 1 h following UV exposure. Viable but transiently undetectable (by culture) E. coli cells were consistently detected by MVT. An alternative viability testing method, viability PCR (vPCR), correlates viability with cell envelope integrity. This method did not distinguish viable bacteria from UV-inactivated bacteria under some conditions, indicating that the inactivated cells retained intact cell envelopes. MVT holds promise as a means to rapidly assess microbial inactivation by UV treatment. IMPORTANCE UV irradiation is increasingly being used to disinfect water, food, and other materials for human use. Confirming the effectiveness of UV disinfection remains a challenging task. In particular, microbiological methods that rely on rapid detection of microbial DNA can yield misleading results, due to the detection of remnant DNA associated with dead microbial cells. This report describes a novel method that rapidly distinguishes living microbial cells from dead microbial cells after UV disinfection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. A UV-Vis photoacoustic spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Joseph R; Mathews, L Dalila; Smith, Geoffrey D

    2014-06-17

    A novel photoacoustic spectrophotometer (PAS) for the measurement of gas-phase and aerosol absorption over the UV-visible region of the spectrum is described. Light from a broadband Hg arc lamp is filtered in eight separate bands from 300 to 700 nm using bandpass interference filters (centered at 301 nm, 314 nm, 364 nm, 405 nm, 436 nm, 546 nm, 578 and 687 nm) and modulated with an optical chopper before entering the photoacoustic cell. All wavelength bands feature a 20-s detection limit of better than 3.0 Mm(-1) with the exception of the lower-intensity 687 nm band for which it is 10.2 Mm(-1). Validation measurements of gas-phase acetone and nigrosin aerosol absorption cross sections at several wavelengths demonstrate agreement to within 10% with those measured previously (for acetone) and those predicted by Mie theory (for nigrosin). The PAS instrument is used to measure the UV-visible absorption spectrum of ambient aerosol demonstrating a dramatic increase in the UV region with absorption increasing by 300% from 405 to 301 nm. This type of measurement throughout the UV-visible region and free from artifacts associated with filter-based methods has not been possible previously, and we demonstrate its promise for classifying and quantifying different types of light-absorbing ambient particles.

  5. Induction of mutations in blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans by consolidated and split UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amla, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    Ultraviolet mutability of consolidated and split dose treatment in A. nidulans was investigated with reference to induction of phage- and streptomycin-resistant markers. The consolidated UV treatment induced both the markers about 100-150-fold, whereas under photoreactivating conditions the survival of alga was enhanced and mutation frequency was decreased. The split UV treatment with 6 hr dark incubation between two UV exposures enhanced the survival and mutation frequencies to 500-700 fold above the back-ground level. The data give indirect evidence for the presence of error-prone dark repair system in this organism. (auth.)

  6. CUVE - Cubesat UV Experiment: Unveil Venus' UV Absorber with Cubesat UV Mapping Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, V.; Aslam, S.; D'Aversa, E.; Glaze, L.; Gorius, N.; Hewagama, T.; Ignatiev, N.; Piccioni, G.

    2017-09-01

    Our Venus mission concept Cubesat UV Experiment (CUVE) is one of ten proposals selected for funding by the NASA PSDS3 Program - Planetary Science Deep Space SmallSat Studies. CUVE concept is to insert a CubeSat spacecraft into a Venusian orbit and perform remote sensing of the UV spectral region using a high spectral resolution point spectrometer to resolve UV molecular bands, observe nightglow, and characterize the unidentified main UV absorber. The UV spectrometer is complemented by an imaging UV camera with multiple bands in the UV absorber main band range for contextual imaging. CUVE Science Objectives are: the nature of the "Unknown" UV-absorber; the abundances and distributions of SO2 and SO at and above Venus's cloud tops and their correlation with the UV absorber; the atmospheric dynamics at the cloud tops, structure of upper clouds and wind measurements from cloud-tracking; the nightglow emissions: NO, CO, O2. This mission will therefore be an excellent platform to study Venus' cloud top atmospheric properties where the UV absorption drives the planet's energy balance. CUVE would complement past, current and future Venus missions with conventional spacecraft, and address critical science questions cost effectively.

  7. Environmental occurrence and distribution of organic UV stabilizers and UV filters in the sediment of Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Christina; Tang, Jianhui; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2018-04-01

    Organic UV stabilizers and UV filters are applied to industrial materials and cosmetics worldwide. In plastics they prevent photo-induced degradation, while in cosmetics they protect human skin against harmful effects of UV radiation. This study reports on the occurrence and distribution of organic UV stabilizers and UV filters in the surface sediment of the Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas for the first time. In total, 16 out of 21 analyzed substances were positively detected. Concentrations ranged from sub-ng/g dw to low ng/g dw. The highest concentration of 25 ng/g dw was found for octocrylene (OC) in the Laizhou Bay. In the study area, characteristic composition profiles could be identified. In Korea Bay, the dominating substances were OC and ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS). All other analytes were below their method quantification limit (MQL). Around the Shandong Peninsula, highest concentrations of benzotriazole derivatives were observed in this study with octrizole (UV-329) as the predominant compound, reaching concentrations of 6.09 ng/g dw. The distribution pattern of UV-329 and bumetrizole (UV-326) were related (Pearson correlation coefficient r > 0.98, p « 0.01 around the Shandong Peninsula), indicating an identical input pathway and similar environmental behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: m.shrimali@gmail.com. Abstract. The dynamics of indirectly coupled Lorenz circuits is investigated experimentally. The in-phase and anti-phase synchronization of indirectly coupled chaotic oscillators reported in Phys. Rev. E 81, 046216 (2010) is verified by physical experiments with electronic circuits. Two chaotic.

  9. Indirect Network Effects in New Product Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan); G.J. Tellis (Gerard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIndirect network effects are of prime interest to marketers because they affect the growth and takeoff of software availability for, and hardware sales of, a new product. While prior work on indirect network effects in the economics and marketing literature is valuable, these literatures

  10. Indirectness in Discourse: Ethnicity as Conversational Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1981-01-01

    Examines social differences in expectations of indirectness in conversations between married couples, both Greek and Greek-American. Concludes that Greeks are more likely to expect indirectness in the context presented and that Greek-Americans have retained the Greek communicative patterns. (FL)

  11. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  12. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  13. Ligand-protein conjugated quantification assay by UV spectrophotometry in 99mTc indirect labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basualdo, Daniel A.; Rabiller, Graciela; Poch, Carolina; El Tamer, Elias A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Quantify IgG-HYNIC conjugated for obtaining substitution ratio and as a chemical quality control for 99m Tc labeling of this immunoglobulin. Introduction: The Operational Guidance on Hospital Radiopharmacy by IAEA states that the procedures performed in a Radiopharmacy Laboratory fall into three operational levels. At present, Nuclear Medicine Centre of 'Hospital de Clinicas' has an operational level 2b which requires the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals from approved reagent kits and radionuclide generators, and labeling of autologous blood cells. Centre's goal is to reach an operational level 3a, which allows us to compounding radiopharmaceuticals from drugs and radionuclides for diagnosis; modification to existing commercial kits; related research and development. In approach of that goal, we addressed the optimization of conjugation of proteins and peptides with S-HYNIC so as to bring about the procedures involved. In this work, was conjugated nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) with S-HYNIC. Our interest was focused in calculate how many HYNIC groups were incorporated per IgG molecule so that in later stages can be obtained a correlate with labeling efficiency. Materials and methods: A sample of IgG-HYNIC conjugate of 0.2 ml was diluted in 4 ml of benzaldehyde o-sulfonic acid (1 mg / ml, 0.1 M NaAc, pH 4.7). The reaction was incubated at room temperature overnight in darkness. As a negative control took 0.2 ml of IgG-HYNIC conjugate in 4 ml of NaAc buffer 0.1 M. 3 ml of benzaldehyde o-sulfonic acid (1 mg / ml 0.1 M NaAc, pH 4.7) was used as blank. The absorption of the hydrazone was read at 343 nm. The hydrazine concentration was calculated using a molar extinction coefficient ε (343 nm) 17000 M-1cm-1. Results: Molar substitution ratio (MSR) was calculated. The MSR indicates the number of HYNIC groups incorporated in the IgG-HYNIC conjugate determined by the spectrophotometric assay. Conclusions: In labeling with a bifunctional chelating agent, it is important to know the molar substitution ratio of ligands to peptides or proteins, since an excess of substitutions can modify the specific binding of the radiolabel to the receptor and defect can result in low specific activity after attached the radionuclide. The ligand-protein conjugate quantification assay, proposed by Bridger and Abrams, proved to be useful, fast, and workable in Hospital Radiopharmacy previous to 99m Tc labeling. (author)

  14. Solar radiation (PAR, UV-A, UV-B) penetration in a shallow maturation pond operating in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniel F C; von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-07-01

    Solar radiation is considered the primary route for disinfection of pathogenic bacteria in maturation ponds. There is scarce information on depth profiling and attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), UV-A and UV-B in shallow maturation ponds operating in tropical climates. Measurements of solar irradiance of the three wavelength ranges, together with turbidity, have been acquired from different depths for over 1 year in a shallow maturation pond (44 cm of depth) operating in Brazil. UV-A and UV-B were still detected at 10 cm from the surface, but from 15 cm both were undetectable. PAR was still detected at 30 cm of depth. Irradiation attenuation showed to be related to turbidity. Attenuation coefficients were calculated and simple models without turbidity (traditional structure) or including log 10 of turbidity are proposed for predicting PAR irradiance attenuation as a function of depth.

  15. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  16. Comparison of indirect ELISA based on recombinant protein NcSRS2 and IFAT for detection of Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep Comparação entre ELISA baseado no antígeno recombinante NcSRS2 e RIFI para detecção de anticorpos de Neospora caninum em ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Andreotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum, an Apicomplexan parasite that can causes abortion, is responsible for considerable economic and reproductive losses in livestock. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether recombinant NcSRS2 is a suitable indirect ELISA antigen for determining specific immune response to N. caninum in sheep. A total of 441 serum samples were subjected to IFAT and rNcSRS2 based-ELISA, with both tests performing similarly. The sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA were 98.6 and 98.3%, respectively. The kappa index shows 0.98 concordance between the two tests, which is considered excellent. Seroprevalences of 30.8 and 32.0% were detected by IFAT and indirect ELISA, respectively, showing these tests did not differ significantly on this measure (p > 0.05. Serological analysis showed that HisG tag was detected by Western Blotting recognizing rNcSRS2 protein. The potential value of rNcSRS2-based ELISA as a highly specific and sensitive tool for serological diagnosis is also supported by the strong agreement found between IFAT and ELISA. The results support the potential use of recombinant protein NcSRS2 as an antigen in indirect ELISA in sheep.Neospora caninum é um parasito Apicomplexa que pode causar abortos e é reconhecido como agente importante responsável por perdas econômicas e reprodutivas. Este estudo avaliou a proteína recombinante NcSRS2 como antígeno para ELISA indireto na determinação de resposta imune para N. caninum em ovinos. 441 amostras de soro foram analisadas por IFAT e ELISA indireto com rNcSRS2 e ambos os testes revelaram comportamento similar. A sensibilidade e especificidade de ELISA indireto foram 98,6 e 98,3%, respectivamente. O índice kappa mostrou uma concordância entre os dois testes com valor de 0,98, que é considerado excelente. Prevalências de 30,8 e 32,0% detectadas por IFAT e ELISA indireto, respectivamente, mostraram que os testes não diferiram significativamente nesse aspecto (P

  17. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  18. Near ultraviolet radiation (280-400 nm): Direct and indirect effects on microbial pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asthana, A.

    1993-01-01

    Responses of pigmented pathogenic fungi and E. coli strains differing in DNA repair and catalase proficiency to direct and indirect effects of ultraviolet radiation were evaluated. Pigments in the four fungal pathogens of Citrus differed in their ability to protect against direct UV and damage by UV-A -mediated phototoxins of both host and non-host origin. UV-A and UV-B did not inactivate the fungal species. Differential protection in wild type strains of the two Fusarium spp. and in the wild type strains of the two Penicilium spp. against UV-C was observed. Wild type and mutants with altered coloration in Penicilium spp. protected to varying extent against both α-T and 8-MOP in the presence of UV-A. UV-B irradiation of E. coli resulted in inactivation of strains deficient in DNA excision repair. Plasmid DNA damaged in vitro by UV-B from lamp systems as well as by sunlight, and transformed in vivo into bacterial cells lacking specific nucleases showed reduced transformation in DNA excision repair strains. UV-B enriched wavelengths isolated from a solar simulator affected plasmid DNA in a similar manner as UV-B from lamp systems. Sunlight, however affected the membrane of whole cells. Concentration of foliar furanocoumarins of Citrus jambhiri decreased with UV-B irradiation. Phototoxicity to Fusarium spp. was accounted for, in part, by furanocoumarins, psoralen and bergapten (5-MOP) and others. Pure psoralen and 5-MOP affected both Fusarium spp. similarly and carotenoids protected only partially in the wild type strains. Citrus targetted the cell membrane in Fusarium spp.l and in E. coli strains; carotenoids in both of which protected against such damage. Loss in structural integrity of plasmid DNA when treated with citral and UV-A correlated with loss in transforming activity. Biological damage to membrane and DNA was due to the production of hydrogen peroxide. Fruit-rot pathogens Penicilium spp. were not affected by either furanocoumarins or citrals

  19. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I.V. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  20. UV RADIATION EFFECTS ON HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIOPLANKTON AND VIRUSES IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    t is now apparent that there is a great potential for UVR to impact microbial carbon cycling andbiogeochemical processes. Although variability in effects has been observed, all of the organisms involved may be directly damaged by UB-B and may be indirectly damaged by UV-A. By...

  1. Expression of future prospective in indirect speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnaruk Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics and use of grammatical semantics and lexical and grammatical means used to create future prospects in double indirect discourse. The material for the study were epic works by contemporary German writers. In the analysis of the empirical material it has been pointed out that indirect discourse has preterial basis and is the kind of most frequent inner speech of characters. The most widely used form with future semantics in preterial indirect speech is conditional I, formally having a conjunctive basis, but is mostly used with the indicative semantics. Competitive to conditional I in indirect speech is preterial indicative. A characteristic feature of the indirect speech is the use of modal verbs, which, thanks to its semantics is usually referred as an action at a later term, creating the prospect of future statements. The most frequent were modal verbs wollen and sollen in the form of the preterite, more rare verbs were m ssen and k nnen. German indirect speech distinguishes the ability to use forms on the basis of conjunctive: preterite and plusquamperfect of conjunctive. Both forms express values similar to those of the indicative. However, conjunctive forms the basis of the data shown in a slightly more pronounced seme of uncertainty that accompanies future uses of these forms in indirect speech. In addition, plusquamperfect conjunctive differs from others by the presence of the seme of completeness.

  2. DNA from BK Virus and JC Virus and from KI, WU, and MC Polyomaviruses as Well as from Simian Virus 40 Is Not Detected in Non-UV-Light-Associated Primary Malignant Melanomas of Mucous Membranes ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Géraldine; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Ragnarsson-Olding, Boel; Dalianis, Tina

    2008-01-01

    The single most important causative factor for malignant melanomas of the skin is UV radiation. However, this is not true for melanomas on body surfaces sheltered from the sun; thus, it is important to seek new causative factors of melanoma genesis. Human papillomaviruses and gammaherpesviruses are associated with human skin cancer; for example, human papillomavirus types 5 and 8 are associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and human herpesvirus 8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. ...

  3. The Aspergillus uvsH gene encodes a product homologous to yeast RAD18 and Neurospora UVS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J H; Lee, B J; Kang, H S

    1995-07-28

    The uvsH DNA repair gene of Aspergillus nidulans has been cloned by complementation of the uvsH77 mutation with a cosmid library containing genomic DNA inserts from a wild-type strain. Methylmethane sulfonate (MMS)-resistant transformants were obtained on medium containing 0.01% MMS, to which uvsH mutants exhibit high sensitivity. Retransformation of uvsH77 mutants with the rescued cosmids from the MMS-resistant transformants resulted in restoration of both UV and MMS resistance to wild-type levels. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the genomic DNA and cDNA of the uvsH gene shows that it has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1329 bp, interrupted by two introns of 51 and 61 bp. A 2.4 kb transcript of the uvsH gene was detected by Northern blot analysis. Primer extension analysis revealed that transcription starts at 31 bp upstream from the translation initiation codon. This gene encodes a predicted polypeptide of 443 amino acids, which has two unique zinc finger motifs. The proposed polypeptide displays 39% identity to the Neurospora crassa UVS-2 protein and 24% identity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD18 protein. The sequence similarity is particularly high in three domains. One zinc finger (RING finger) motif is located in the first domain close to the N-terminus. The other zinc finger motif is in the second domain. In the third domain, the mutation sites in both the uvsH77 and uvsH304 alleles were identified.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  5. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the mycotoxin zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M T; Ram, B P; Hart, L P; Pestka, J J

    1985-01-01

    A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin. Zearalenone was converted to zearalenone-6'-carboxymethyloxime and conjugated to bovine serum albumin and poly-L-lysine for use as immunogen and solid-phase marker, respectively. Immunization of rabbits with the bovine serum albumin conjugate resulted in zearalenone antibody titers of 20,480 in 11 weeks. A competitive indirect ELISA was conducted by simultaneously incubating zearalenone with zearalenone antiserum over zearalenone-6'-carboxymethyloxime poly-L-lysine solid phase and then determining the bound rabbit immunoglobulin with goat anti-rabbit peroxidase conjugate. Response range for zearalenone in the resulting competition curve was between 1 and 50 ng/ml. Reactivities of this antiserum for alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol, alpha-zearalanol, and beta-zearalanol were, respectively, 50, 12, 6, and 3% of that found for zearalenone. By using the competitive indirect ELISA, zearalenone was detectable in methanol-water extracts of corn, wheat, and pig feed samples. PMID:2932054

  6. and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna S. Agasthya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT and standard tube agglutination test (STAT. Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence, and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%.

  7. Urban groundwater contamination by residues of UV filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Anna; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Vàzquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesus; Pujades, Estanislao; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2014-04-30

    The occurrence and fate of UV filters (UV F) in an urban aquifer in correlation with (1) the spatial distribution of UV F in Barcelona's groundwater, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the physicochemical properties of the target compounds, (4) the recharge sources, and (5) the redox conditions of the Barcelona aquifers, were studied for the first time. The highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected UV F were observed in an aquifer recharged by a polluted river (around 55 ng/L in SAP-4). In contrast, the urbanized areas had lower concentrations (around 20 ng/L in MPSP-1). Two pathways can be identified for UV F to enter the aquifers: (1) leakage of row sewage from the sewage network in urbanized areas and (2) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents discharged into the river. Measured concentrations of UV F were significantly much lower than those estimated from the waste water proportion in groundwater samples suggesting that UV F might undergo transformation processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of UV-filters in sunscreens by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisvert, A; Pascual-Martí, M C; Salvador, A

    2001-04-01

    Simultaneous determination of six internationally authorised organic UV-filters in sunscreen formulations was performed by HPLC with UV spectrophotometric detection. The filters determined were: sulisobenzone, oxybenzone, octyl dimethyl PABA, octyl methoxycinnamate, octyl salicylate and homosalate. A C18 stationary phase and a mobile phase of ethanol water acetic acid (70:29.5:0.5) were used with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. UV measurements were carried out at 313 nm. The time required for the analysis was 25 min and the limits of detection were between 0.2 and 2 mg/L, except for sulisobenzone, which gave a limit of detection of 20 mg/L. The procedure proposed provides an accurate, fast and green analytical method, that does not involve toxic organic solvents.

  9. A Novel Flux Linkage Indirect Measurement for Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Yue

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a indirect detection system of flux linkage characteristic of switched reluctance motor based on dsPACE, fixed rotor position by mechanical indexing for Static flux linkage detection, the phase windings is excited by the step voltage signal, the voltage and phase current are collected real -time, and calculate flux linkage. The advantages of the method is that the parameters are optimized by ControlDesk, the flux linkage detection model is built by Simulink, no writing program, simple, easy implementation. An 1.5kw three-phase 12/8 SRM experimental prototype was constructed, the detection results of the Static flux linkage and dynamic flux linkage verified its validity and feasibility.

  10. Indirect punishment and generosity toward strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ule, Aljaz; Schram, Arthur; Riedl, Arno; Cason, Timothy N

    2009-12-18

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can prevail in the long run only if rewarders earn higher payoffs than "defectors" who ignore strangers' kindness. We provide experimental evidence regarding the payoffs received by individuals who employ these and other strategies, such as "indirect punishment," by imposing costs on unkind strangers. We find that if unkind strangers cannot be punished, defection earns most. If they can be punished, however, then indirect rewarding earns most. Indirect punishment plays this important role, even if it gives a low payoff and is rarely implemented.

  11. Comparison of "Direct" and "Indirect" Nuclear Cystography in the Diagnosis of Vesicoureteric Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khriesat Imad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to compare "direct" and "indirect" nuclear cystography for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Forty-five children (15 males and 30 females, ranging in age from 5 months to 10 years, were studied at the King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan between January 1998 and December 1999, using both direct (catheter and indirect techniques of nuclear cystography (NC. Of the 82 ureters that could be compared, 32 ureters were positive for VUR on the direct technique while only 20 ureters showed VUR on the indirect technique (sensitivity 62%. Nine ureters, which did not show VUR on the direct cystogram, were read as positive on the indirect cystogram (specificity 82%. The false positive results of indirect nuclear cystogram make it invalid for VUR screening program, while the ease of assessment and low radiation dose from the direct NC has made this the recommended test for screening and follow-up of VUR.

  12. Direct Detection of The Lyman Continuum of Star-forming Galaxies at z~3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasei, Kaveh; Siana, Brian; Shapley, Alice; Alavi, Anahita; Rafelski, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies are widely believed to be responsible for the reionization of the Universe and much of the ionizing background at z>3. Therefore, there has been much interest in quantifying the escape fraction of the Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of the star-forming galaxies. Yet direct detection of LyC has proven to be exceptionally challenging. Despite numerous efforts only 7 galaxies at z2 have been robustly confirmed as LyC leakers. To avoid these challenges many studies use indirect methods to infer the LyC escape fraction. We tested these indirect methods by attempting to detect escaping LyC with a 10-orbit Hubble near-UV (F275W) image that is just below the Lyman limit at the redshift of the Cosmic Horseshoe (a lensed galaxy at z=2.4). We concluded that the measured escape fraction is lower, by more than a factor of five, than the expected escape fraction based on the indirect methods. This emphasizes that indirect determinations should only be interpreted as upper-limits. We also investigated the deepest near-UV Hubble images of the SSA22 field to detect LyC leakage from a large sample of candidate star-forming galaxies at z~3.1, whose redshift was obtained by deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy and for which Keck narrow-band imaging was showing possible LyC leakage. The high spatial resolution of Hubble images is crucial to confirm our detections are clean from foreground contaminating galaxies, and also to ascertain the escape fraction of our final candidates. We identify five clean LyC emitting star-forming galaxies. The follow up investigation of these galaxies will significantly increase our knowledge of the LyC escape fraction and the mechanisms allowing for LyC escape.

  13. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribble, R E; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Spitaleri, C

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. (review article)

  14. Two UV colours of the central part of M 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deharveng, J. M.; Laget, M.; Monnet, G.; Vuillemin, A.

    1976-01-01

    Two photographs of the galaxy M 31 have been obtained in the far UV with a Faust rocket experiment and in the near UV with the S 183 experiment aboard Skylab. Only the central part of the galaxy is detected. Reductions provide both the energy received and the angular area over M 31 from which it is emitted. The UV flux is brighter than expected from extrapolation of the visible spectrum. The distribution below 300 A is rather flat and different from previous OAO-2 observations. These results, combined with Lyman continuum flux evaluation, are used to discuss the temperature and the age of the stars which may be responsible for this anomalous UV distribution.

  15. Studies of aluminium nitride ceramics for application in UV dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Christensen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The study is reported of the ceramic material AlN-Y2O3 as a potential luminescence dosemeter for the detection of UV radiation. Both the thermoluminescence and the optically stimulated luminescence properties of the material have been studied after exposure to UV radiation and compared with those...... of the widely used dosemeter material Al2O3:C. It has been shown that AlN-Y2O3 ceramics exhibit three orders of magnitude higher sensitivity to UV radiation than does Al2O3,:C over a broad spectral region. The thermoluminescence from AlN-Y2O3 is characterised by linear dose dependence over a wide range....... The fading characteristics of the UV-induced thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence signals with storage time at room temperature were found to be a drawback, but still lower than those induced after exposure to ionising radiation....

  16. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  17. Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to PAH Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.; Brosch, Noah; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. PAHs are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μ m IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR PAH emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorption and IR PAH emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR PAH emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μ m IR PAH bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ∼15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in PAH molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ∼15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.

  18. Impact of UV Radiation on Genome Stability and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sujit

    2017-01-01

    Gradual depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer during the past few years has increased the incidence of solar UV radiation specifically the UV-C on earth's surface is one of the major environmental concerns because of the harmful effects of this radiation in all forms of life. The solar UV radiation including the harmful wavelength range of UV-B (280-320 nm) represents a significant climatic stress for both animals and plants, causing damage to the fundamental biomolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids, thus activating genotoxic stress and induces genome instability. When DNA absorbs UV-B light, energy from the photon causes covalent linkages to form between adjacent pyrimidine bases, creating photoproducts, primarily cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-6,4-pyrimidinone photoproduct (6,4PPs). Pyrimidine dimers create distortions in the DNA strands and therefore can inhibit DNA replication as well transcription. Lack of efficient repair of UV-induced DNA damage may induce the formation of DNA double stand breaks (DSBs), one of the serious forms of damage in DNA double helix, as well as oxidative damage. Unrepaired DSBs in the actively dividing somatic cells severely affect cell growth and development, finally results in loss of cell viability and development of various diseases, such as cancer in man.This chapter mainly highlights the incidence of solar UV-radiation on earth's surface along with the formation of major types of UV-induced DNA damage and the associated repair mechanisms as well as methods of detecting DNA damage and finally our present understanding on the impact on solar UV radiation on human health.

  19. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15771 Athens (Greece); Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: sdcqam@cid.csic.es [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, C/ Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification.

  20. Phototransformation of selected pharmaceuticals during UV treatment of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonica, Silvio; Meunier, Laurence; von Gunten, Urs

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics of Ultraviolet C (UV-C)-induced direct phototransformation of four representative pharmaceuticals, i.e., 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, and iopromide, was investigated in dilute solutions of pure water buffered at various pH values using a low-pressure and a medium-pressure mercury arc lamp. Except for iopromide, pH-dependent rate constants were observed, which could be related to acid-base equilibria. Quantum yields for direct phototransformation were found to be largely wavelength-independent, except for EE2. This compound, which also had a rather inefficient direct phototransformation, mainly underwent indirect phototransformation in natural water samples, while the UV-induced depletion of the other pharmaceuticals appeared to be unaffected by the presence of natural water components. At the UV-C (254 nm) drinking-water disinfection fluence (dose) of 400 Jm(-2), the degree of depletion of the select pharmaceuticals at pH=7.0 in pure water was 0.4% for EE2, 27% for diclofenac, 15% for sulfamethoxazole, and 15% for iopromide, indicating that phototransformation should be seriously taken into account when evaluating the possibility of formation of UV transformation products from pharmaceuticals present as micropollutants.

  1. Radiative capture reactions via indirect methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Rogachev, G. V.

    2017-10-01

    Many radiative capture reactions of astrophysical interest occur at such low energies that their direct measurement is hardly possible. Until now the only indirect method, which was used to determine the astrophysical factor of the astrophysical radiative capture process, was the Coulomb dissociation. In this paper we address another indirect method, which can provide information about resonant radiative capture reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. This method can be considered an extension of the Trojan horse method for resonant radiative capture reactions. The idea of the suggested indirect method is to use the indirect reaction A (a ,s γ )F to obtain information about the radiative capture reaction A (x ,γ )F , where a =(s x ) and F =(x A ) . The main advantage of using the indirect reactions is the absence of the penetrability factor in the channel x +A , which suppresses the low-energy cross sections of the A (x ,γ )F reactions and does not allow one to measure these reactions at astrophysical energies. A general formalism to treat indirect resonant radiative capture reactions is developed when only a few intermediate states contribute and a statistical approach cannot be applied. The indirect method requires coincidence measurements of the triple differential cross section, which is a function of the photon scattering angle, energy, and the scattering angle of the outgoing spectator particle s . Angular dependence of the triple differential cross section at fixed scattering angle of the spectator s is the angular γ -s correlation function. Using indirect resonant radiative capture reactions, one can obtain information about important astrophysical resonant radiative capture reactions such as (p ,γ ) , (α ,γ ) , and (n ,γ ) on stable and unstable isotopes. The indirect technique makes accessible low-lying resonances, which are close to the threshold, and even subthreshold bound states located at negative energies. In this paper, after

  2. Characterization of antibodies specific for UV-damaged DNA by ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggset, G.; Volden, G.; Krokan, H.; Norsk Hydro Research Centre, Porsgrunn

    1987-01-01

    The specificity of affinity purified antibodies raised against UV-irradiated DNA was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DNA irradiated with UV doses higher than needed for saturation with pyrimidine dimers bound increasing amounts of antibody. Photosensitized DNA, containing high amounts of pyrimidine dimers, showed very poor binding of antibody. When UV-irradiated DNA was given a second dose of 340-nm UV light, the binding of antibodies was inhibited. Taken together, this indicates a major specificity for (6-4)-photoproducts, which are photochemically reversed by UV light in the 340-nm region. The antibodies also showed little but detectable binding to pyrimidine glycols produced in DNA by oxidation with OsO 4 . Previously, we have used these antibodies for the detection of UV-induced DNA damage and its repair in human skin in vivo. These findings indicate that (6-4)-photoproducts, considered highly mutagenic, are repaired in human skin. (author)

  3. Single Photon Counting UV Solar-Blind Detectors Using Silicon and III-Nitride Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jewell, April D.; Hennessy, John J.; Carver, Alexander G.; Jones, Todd J.; Goodsall, Timothy M.; Hamden, Erika T.; Suvarna, Puneet; Bulmer, J.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Charbon, Edoardo; Padmanabhan, Preethi; Hancock, Bruce; Bell, L. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) studies in astronomy, cosmology, planetary studies, biological and medical applications often require precision detection of faint objects and in many cases require photon-counting detection. We present an overview of two approaches for achieving photon counting in the UV. The first approach involves UV enhancement of photon-counting silicon detectors, including electron multiplying charge-coupled devices and avalanche photodiodes. The approach used here employs molecular beam epitaxy for delta doping and superlattice doping for surface passivation and high UV quantum efficiency. Additional UV enhancements include antireflection (AR) and solar-blind UV bandpass coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition. Quantum efficiency (QE) measurements show QE > 50% in the 100–300 nm range for detectors with simple AR coatings, and QE ≅ 80% at ~206 nm has been shown when more complex AR coatings are used. The second approach is based on avalanche photodiodes in III-nitride materials with high QE and intrinsic solar blindness. PMID:27338399

  4. UV/EB curable psa's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author describe both water-based and 100% solids UV/EB curable PSA's (Pressure Sensitive Adhesives) and their properties. A new acrylate monomer, ethoxylated nonyl phenol acrylate, has great utility in the formulation of water-based PSA's

  5. Health Effects of UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Topics: Sun Safety Contact Us Share Health Effects of UV Radiation Ozone layer depletion decreases our ... against these invaders. Fact Sheet Download the Health Effects of Overexposure to the Sun (PDF) Did You ...

  6. Performance characteristics of solar blind UV image intensifier tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongchang; Shi, Feng; Feng, Liu; Liu, Hui; Ren, Bing; Zhang, Lian-dong

    2009-07-01

    The UV radiation of spectrum range of 200~320nm almost is zero on the earth surface because UV radiation is greatly absorbed by ozone in atmosphere. So this spectrum range is called "Solar Blind Range". Because Solar Blind UV(SBUV) can't be influenced by atmosphere, it is easy to detect them as soon as SBUV radiation objects appear in the earth surface. If UV photoelectric image devices are used to observe them, high contrast picture will be acquired, that bright object's image lie in full black background. It is easy to identify the picture by human eye or other optical sensor (CCD). A solar blind UV(Ultra Violet) image intensifier tube(SBUV-IIT) is a special image intensifier tube, which was developed on double proximity focused Generation low-light-level image intensifier tube. It only responses spectrum range of 200~320 nm., SBUV-IIT can be used to observe UV faint radiation object, because UV sensitivity is high and response time is rapid and radiation gain is high. Low-altitude-flying missile can be observed by detecting its tail fog with SBUV-IIT, because its tail fog emits plenty of SBUV. By this way high contrast UV picture can be acquired to achieve missile warning, and this way has been widely used in foreign ordnance equipment. SBUV-IIT has been described in this paper. It is double proximity focused MCP (Micro-channel plate) image intensifier tube. It is 18mm active diameter of photocathode and phosphor screen. Input and output window is quartz glass and fiber optics faceplate respective. Photocathode material and phosphor screen is tellurium cesium compound and P20. It has been developed with a limiting UV resolution of 39 line pair per millimeter, and spectral response of 200~320 nm, photocathode maximum sensitivity of 29.5 milli-ampere per watt at wavelength 254 nm and a mass of 35g. It can be coupled with CCD easily. It has been well suited for fingerprint identify and camera system, It'll be used for UV hail testing, UV earthquake forecasting and

  7. Impact of increasing Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on photosynthetic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Jajoo, Anjana; Guruprasad, Kadur N

    2014-08-01

    Increased UV-B radiation on the earth's surface due to depletion of stratospheric ozone layer is one of the changes of current climate-change pattern. The deleterious effects of UV-B radiation on photosynthesis and photosynthetic productivity of plants are reviewed. Perusal of relevant literature reveals that UV-B radiation inflicts damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of green plants at multiple sites. The sites of damage include oxygen evolving complex, D1/D2 reaction center proteins and other components on the donor and acceptor sides of PS II. The radiation inactivates light harvesting complex II and alters gene expression for synthesis of PS II reaction center proteins. Mn cluster of water oxidation complex is the most important primary target of UV-B stress whereas D1 and D2 proteins, quinone molecules and cytochrome b are the subsequent targets of UV-B. In addition, photosynthetic carbon reduction is also sensitive to UV-B radiation which has a direct effect on the activity and content of Rubisco. Some indirect effects of UV-B radiation include changes in photosynthetic pigments, stomatal conductance and leaf and canopy morphology. The failure of protective mechanisms makes PS II further vulnerable to the UV-B radiation. Reactive oxygen species are involved in UV-B induced responses in plants, both as signaling and damaging agents. Exclusion of ambient UV components under field conditions results in the enhancement of the rate of photosynthesis, PS II efficiency and subsequently increases the biomass accumulation and crop yield. It is concluded that predicted future increase in UV-B irradiation will have significant impact on the photosynthetic efficiency and the productivity of higher plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos-; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Tsirigotis-Maniecka, Marta Afrodyta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals. 156 homosexual individuals (111 males, 45 females) aged 25-35 (mean age of 29.6) and 561 heterosexual individuals (400 males, 161 females) aged 24-36 (mean age of 28.2) were studied with regard to indirect self-destructiveness. The research instrument was the Polish version of the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale (CS-DS) including: Transgression and Risk (A1), Poor Health Maintenance (A2), Personal and Social Neglects (A3), Lack of Planfulness (A4) and Helplessness and Passiveness in the face of problems (A5). Homosexual individuals obtained significantly higher scores than heterosexual ones in numerous scales: Indirect Self-Destructiveness - global (general) index (pdifferences in the Poor Health Maintenance scale (A2). They also achieved significantly higher scores in the subscales assessing using of psychoactive substances. Factor analysis revealed the presence of only one factor both in the group of homosexual and heterosexual individuals. The research results indicate that, as compared with the group of heterosexual individuals, in the group of homosexuals there occurs a worsening in psychological functioning, which may be also manifested by an increased indirect self-destructiveness index. The increased intensity of indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals may be considered a manifestation of worsened psychological functioning. The homosexual individuals look after their health similarly to heterosexuals.

  9. [Photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS) for the isomeric volatile organic compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Niu, Wen-qi; Wang, Hong-mei; Huang, Chao-qun; Jiang, Hai-he; Chu, Yan-nan

    2012-01-01

    The construction and performance study is reported for a newly developed ultraviolet photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS). In the present paper, an UV-IMS technique was firstly developed to detect eleven isomeric volatile organic compounds including the differences in the structure of carbon chain, the style of function group and the position of function group. Their reduced mobility values were determined and increased in this order: linears alcohols homemade UV-IMS was around ppb-ppm.

  10. Comparison of viral RNA electrophoresis and indirect ELISA methods in the diagnosis of human rotavirus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avendano, L.F.; Dubinovsky, S.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 177 stool samples from Chilean diarrhea patients under two years of age were tested for rotavirus by two methods - the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect ELISA) and viral RNA electrophoresis in agarose gels (v RNA EPH). Fifty of the specimens came from patients with acute diarrhea and 127 came from patients with protracted diarrhea. The indirect ELISA testing was performed at the National Institutes of Health in the United States: the electrophoretic testing was carried out in Santiago, Chile by the authors. The electrophoretic method detected rotavirus in 36% of the acute samples and 25% of the samples from protracted cases, while the indirect ELISA method detected rotavirus in higher percentages of samples - 46% and 38%, respectively. These results support the conclusion that v RNA EPH is a less sensitive method for detecting rotavirus than the indirect ELISA. Nevertheless, the former method's high specificity, ease of application, and low cost make it a worthwhile alternative to indirect ELISA. Thus, considering the important role played by rotavirus in infant diarrhea and the need for a diagnostic technique that can be incorporated into the routines of medical center laboratories in developing countries, there is good reason to conclude that v RNA EPH is a useful tool for studying rotavirus diarrhea. (author)

  11. Indirect thyroid lymphography in the thyroid diseases diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kradinov, A.I.; Fesenko, V.P.; Kabalich, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Indirect thyroid lymphography with water-soluble radiographic agents has been applied. This method allows contrast lymph microvessels of the thyroid gland, providing the detection of volume formations of 0.3 to 0.4 cm and more in diameter. 232 patients with different thyroid diseases were examined. Different rate of the water-soluble contrast agent resolution in diffuse toxic and nodular goiter, thyroid cancer, chronic thyroiditis is of great importance in differential diagnosis of these diseases. This method provides necessary information on the organs inner structure, its topography and size [ru

  12. Comparative study of diethyl phthalate degradation by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2: kinetics, mechanism, and effects of operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengjie; Wang, Liping; Ren, Jie; Lv, Bo; Sun, Zhonghao; Yan, Jing; Li, Xinying; Liu, Jingjing

    2016-02-01

    The photodegradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 is studied. The DEP degradation kinetics and multiple crucial factors effecting the clearance of DEP are investigated, including initial DEP concentration ([DEP]0), initial pH values (pH0), UV light intensity, anions (Cl(-), NO(3-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-), and CO3 (2-)), cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), and Fe(3+)), and humic acid (HA). Total organic carbon (TOC) removal is tested by two treatments. And, cytotoxicity evolution of DEP degradation intermediates is detected. The relationship between molar ratio ([H2O2]/[DEP] or [TiO2]/[DEP]) and degradation kinetic constant (K) is also studied. And, the cytotoxicity tests of DEP and its degradation intermediates in UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 treatments are researched. The DEP removal efficiency of UV/H2O2 treatment is higher than UV/TiO2 treatment. The DEP degradation fitted a pseudo-first-order kinetic pattern under experimental conditions. The K linearly related with molar ratio in UV/H2O2 treatment while nature exponential relationship is observed in the case of UV/TiO2. However, K fitted corresponding trends better in H2O2 treatment than in TiO2 treatment. The Cl(-) is in favor of the DEP degradation in UV/H2O2 treatment; in contrast, it is disadvantageous to the DEP degradation in UV/TiO2 treatment. Other anions are all disadvantageous to the DEP degradation in two treatments. Fe(3+) promotes the degradation rates significantly. And, all other cations in question inhibit the degradation of DEP. HA hinders DEP degradation in two treatments. The intermediates of DEP degradation in UV/TiO2 treatment are less toxic to biological cell than that in UV/H2O2 treatment.

  13. 48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement. Except for educational institutions having a cognizant agency (as defined in OMB...

  14. Does UV instrumentation effectively measure ozone abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of O3 on Mars provide significant information about the chemistry and composition of the atmosphere, including long-term changes. The most extensive and accurate data were inferred from the Mariner 9 UV spectrometer experiment. Mars O3 shows strong seasonal and latitudinal variation, with column abundances ranging from 0.2 microns at equatorial latitudes to 60 microns over the northern winter polar latitudes (1 micron-atm is a column abundance of 2.689 x 10(exp 15) molecules cm(exp-2)). The Mariner 9 UV spectrometer scanned from 2100 to 3500 Angstroms in one of its two spectral channels every 3 seconds with a spectral resolution of 15 Angstroms and an effective field-of-view of approximately 300 km(exp 2). Measurements were made for almost half a Martian year, with winter and spring in the Northern Hemisphere and summer and fall in the Southern Hemisphere. The detectability limit of the spectrometer was approximately 3 microns of ozone. The UV spectrometer on Mariner 9 was incapable of penetrating the dust during dust storms; the single-scattering albedo and phase function of airborne dust and cloud ice are not known to the degree required to extract the small UV signal reflected up from near the surface. The reflectance spectroscopy technique would also have difficulty detecting the total column abundance of O3 in cases where large dust abundances exist together with the polar hood, especially at high latitudes where large solar zenith angles magnify those optical depths; yet these cases would contain the maximum O3, based on theoretical results. It is quite possible that the maximum O3 column abundance observed by Mariner 9 of 60 microns is common. In fact, larger quantities may exist in some of the colder areas with optically thick clouds and dust. As the Viking period often had more atmospheric dust loading than did that of Mariner 9, the reflectance spectroscopy technique may even have been incapable of detecting the entire O3 column abundance

  15. A review of Indirect Matrix Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Rahmani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Matrix Converter (MC is a modern direct AC/AC electrical power converter without dc-link capacitor. MC is operated in four quadrant, assuring a control of the output voltage, amplitude and frequency. The matrix converter has recently attracted significant attention among researchers and it has become increasing attractive for applications of wind energy conversion, military power supplies, induction motor drives, etc. Recently, different MC topologies have been proposed and developed which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Matrix converter can be classified as direct and indirect structures. The direct one has been elaborated in previous work. In this paper the indirect MCs are reviewed. Different characteristics of the indirect MC topologies are mentioned to show the strengths and weaknesses of such converter topologies.

  16. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  17. DNA damage caused by UV- and near UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    1986-01-01

    Much work with mutants deficient in DNA repair has been performed concerning UV-induced DNA damage under the condition where there is no artificial stimulation. In an attempt to infer the effects of solar wavelengths, the outcome of the work is discussed in terms of cellular radiation sensitivity, unscheduled DNA synthesis, and mutation induction, leading to the conclusion that some DNA damage occurs even by irradiation of the shorter wavelength light (270 - 315 nm) and is repaired by excision repair. It has been thought to date that pyrimidine dimer (PD) plays the most important role in UV-induced DNA damage, followed by (6 - 4) photoproducts. As for DNA damage induced by near UV irradiation, the yield of DNA single-strand breaks and of DNA-protein crosslinking, other than PD, is considered. The DNA-protein crosslinking has proved to be induced by irradiation at any wavelength of UV ranging from 260 to 425 nm. Near UV irradiation causes the inhibition of cell proliferation to take place. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Indirect Comorbidity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eCopeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between psychiatric disorders is common, but pairwise associations between two disorders may be explained by the presence of other diagnoses that are associated with both disorders or indirect comorbidity. Method: Comorbidities of common childhood psychiatric disorders were tested in three community samples of children ages 6 to 17 (8931 observations of 2965 subjects. Psychiatric disorder status in all three samples was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Indirect comorbidity was defined as A-B associations that decreased from significance to nonsignificance after adjusting for other disorders. Results: All tested childhood psychiatric disorders were positively associated in bivariate analyses. After adjusting for comorbidities, many ssociations involving a behavioral disorder and an emotional disorder were attenuated suggesting indirect comorbidity. Generalized anxiety and depressive disorders displayed a very high level of overlap (adjusted OR=37.9. All analyses were rerun with depressive disorders grouped with generalized anxiety disorder in a single distress disorders category. In these revised models, all associations between and emotional disorder and a behavior disorder met our criteria for indirect comorbidity except for the association of oppositional defiant disorder with distress disorders (OR=11.3. Follow-up analyses suggested that the indirect associations were primarily accounted for by oppositional defiant disorder and the distress disorder category. There was little evidence of either sex differences or differences by developmental period Conclusions: After accounting for the overlap between depressive disorders with generalized anxiety disorder, direct comorbidity between emotional and behavioral disorders was uncommon. When there was evidence of indirect comorbidity, ODD and distress disorders were the key intermediary diagnoses accounting for the apparent associations.

  19. UV surface habitability of the TRAPPIST-1 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley-James, Jack T.; Kaltenegger, L.

    2017-07-01

    With the discovery of rocky planets in the temperate habitable zone (HZ) of the close-by cool star TRAPPIST-1, the question of whether such planets could harbour life arises. Habitable planets around red dwarf stars can orbit in radiation environments that can be life-sterilizing. Ultraviolet (UV) flares from these stars are more frequent and intense than solar flares. Additionally, their temperate HZs are closer to the star. Here we present UV surface environment models for TRAPPIST-1's HZ planets and explore the implications for life. TRAPPIST-1 has high X-ray/extreme-ultraviolet activity, placing planetary atmospheres at risk from erosion. If a dense Earth-like atmosphere with a protective ozone layer existed on planets in the HZ of TRAPPIST-1, UV surface environments would be similar to the present-day Earth. However, an eroded or an anoxic atmosphere would allow more UV to reach the surface, making surface environments hostile even to highly UV tolerant terrestrial extremophiles. If future observations detect ozone in the atmospheres of any of the planets in the HZ of TRAPPIST-1, these would be interesting targets for the search for surface life. We anticipate our assay to be a starting point for in-depth exploration of stellar and atmospheric observations of the TRAPPIST-1 planets to constrain their UV surface habitability.

  20. The indirect radioiodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lihua; Li Junling; Yin Duanzhi; Zhang Lei; Zhang Xiuli; Wang Yongxian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To seek for an effective way to acquire radiolabeled vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) with excellent in vivo stability. N-succinimidyl-3-iodo-125-benzoate (S 125 IB) came from radioiodination of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) precursor and then conjugated with VIP to form 125 IBA-VIP. The labelling procedure was optimized; the in vitro stability and biological activity were evaluated. Methods: 1) Radiolabeling of ATE precursor was achieved with iodogen oxidant and the influential factors were considered in this procedure. The labeling efficiency was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the purification was carried out by Sep-pak silica gel cartridge. The stability was detected by TLC after 2 h storage in dark at 4 degree C. 2) Conjugation of S 125 IB and VIP. The labelling efficiency was determined with RP TLC and the purification was carried out with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, RP C18 column). Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation method was applied to evaluate the in vitro stability while the biological activity was determined by cell binding experiments with SGC7901 cell lines. Results: 1) S 125 IB experiments. The radioiodination of ATE was performed well for 5 min at 25 degree C with 10 micrograms of iodogen at suitable mole ratio (3-8:1) of ATE/Na 125 I, the labelling efficiency was about 96%. The stability was kept well at 4 degree C in dark, no significant decrease of S 125 IB was observed. 2) The conjugation efficiency of S 125 IB and VIP was above 75% with TLC. HPLC showed the different retention time (t R ) as follows, 125 IBA-VIP: 13.3 min, S 125 IB: 19.6 min, VIP: 8.32 min. The stability of 125 IBA-VIP was better than 125 I-VIP from direct radioiodination of VIP with iodogen oxidant, only 2.85% decrease was found after 7 d at 4 degree C. The biological activity of 125 IBA-VIP was kept as well as 125 I-VIP under the condition of 37 degree C 60 min. Conclusions: The indirect

  1. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  2. Global indirect aerosol effects: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lohmann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.

  3. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of cultured neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbierato, Massimo; Argentini, Carla; Skaper, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Immunofluorescence is a technique allowing the visualization of a specific protein or antigen in cells or tissue sections by binding a specific antibody chemically conjugated with a fluorescent dye such as fluorescein isothiocyanate. There are two major types of immunofluorescence staining methods: (1) direct immunofluorescence staining in which the primary antibody is labeled with fluorescence dye and (2) indirect immunofluorescence staining in which a secondary antibody labeled with fluorochrome is used to recognize a primary antibody. This chapter describes procedures for the application of indirect immunofluorescence staining to neural cells in culture.

  4. Indirect methods for wake potential integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnov, I.

    2006-05-01

    The development of the modern accelerator and free-electron laser projects requires to consider wake fields of very short bunches in arbitrary three dimensional structures. To obtain the wake numerically by direct integration is difficult, since it takes a long time for the scattered fields to catch up to the bunch. On the other hand no general algorithm for indirect wake field integration is available in the literature so far. In this paper we review the know indirect methods to compute wake potentials in rotationally symmetric and cavity-like three dimensional structures. For arbitrary three dimensional geometries we introduce several new techniques and test them numerically. (Orig.)

  5. Two-components UV-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    20 patients with generalized psoriasis were treated with an apparatus containing UV-A- and UV-B-fluorescence tubes to be switched separately. The therapy was started with an UV-A-dose of 12 J/cm 2 daily. After the first week of treatment UV-B in increasing doses was applicated additionally. Clearance was achieved in 80 percent. (orig.) [de

  6. Comparison of the serologic tests of Indirect Immunofluorescence, Rapid Conglutination, Indirect ELISA and Competition ELISA for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma marginale in cattle sera from different enzootic areas/ Comparação dos testes sorológicos de Imunofluorescência Indireta, Conglutinação Rápida, ELISA indireto e ELISA por competição para a detecção de anticorpos contra o Anaplasma marginale em soros de bovinos de diferentes áreas enzoóticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Garcia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The serological techniques Rapid Conglutination Test (RCT, Indirect ELISA (iELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescent Assay (IFA, using the competition ELISA (cELISA as gold test, were comparatively evaluated to detect antibodies against Anaplasma marginale. A total of 453 sera from vaccinated and non vaccinated cattle and, collected from enzootic stability and instability areas were tested. iELISA, IFA and TCR presented kappa index = 0.77 (substantial; 0.57 and 0.49 (moderate, sensibility of 90.6%; 90.2% and 73.7% and specificity of 86.6%; 62.8%, and 79.3%, respectively. Therefore, iELISA presented better specificity than IFA and RCT, and can be indicated for more detailed serological investigations, detection of persistently infected animals in cattle herds and for monitorating of vaccination programs. IFA and TCR can be used in prevalence studies and to monitor cattle movement between different geographical regions.Os testes sorológicos de Conglutinação Rápida (TCR Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFI e Imunoenzimáticos Indireto (iELISA utilizando ELISA por competição (cELISA, como padrão ouro, foram avaliados comparativamente para a detecção de anticorpos contra o Anaplasma marginale. Foram utilizadas 453 amostras de soros sangüíneos de bovinos vacinados e não-vacinados e de áreas de estabilidade e instabilidade enzoótica. O iELISA, IFI e TCR apresentaram respectivamente, índice kappa=0,77 (substancial, 0,57 e 0,49 (moderado, sensibilidade de 90,6%, 90,2% e 73,7% e especificidade de 86,6%, 62,8%, e 79,3%. O iELISA apresentou o melhor desempenho e maior especificidade, podendo ser indicado na avaliação do perfil sorológico de rebanhos, na detecção de animais persistentemente infectados e de animais submetidos a programas de vacinação. As técnicas de IFI e TCR, mesmo apresentando desempenho inferior, podem ser recomendadas para a realização de inquéritos epidemiológicos e para o monitoramento de animais em trânsito entre

  7. Evaluating UV-C LED disinfection performance and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together for their efficacy at inactivating Escherichia. coli, MS2 coliphage, human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and Bacillus pumilus spores; research included an evaluation of genomic damage. Inactivation by the LEDs was compared with the efficacy of conventional UV sources, the low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) mercury vapor lamps. The work also calculated the electrical energy per order of reduction of the microorganisms by the five UV sources.For E. coli, all five UV sources yielded similar inactivation rates. For MS2 coliphage, the 260 nm LED was most effective. For HAdV2 and B. pumilus, the MP UV lamp was significantly more effective than the LP UV and UVC LED sources. When considering electrical energy per order of reduction, the LP UV lamp was the most efficient for E. coli and MS2, and the MPUV and LPUV were equally efficient for HAdV2 and B. pumilus spores. Among the UVC LEDs, the 280 nm LED unit required the least energy per log reduction of E. coli and HAdV2. The 280 nm and 260|280 nm LED units were equally efficient per log reduction of B. pumilus spores, and the 260 nm LED unit required the lowest energy per order of reduction of MS2 coliphage. The combination of the 260 nm and 280 nm UV LED wavelengths was also evaluated for potential synergistic effects. No dual-wavelength synergy was detected for inactivation of

  8. An investigation of UV-induced chromosome changes in relation to lethality in normal and UV-sensitive human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.; Mashall, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts of excision-repair xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells sustain more conventional chromosome structural aberrations than normal human fibroblasts when exposed to UV. By measuring cell cycle times after UV-irradiation it is found that whereas in normal cells such aberrations are primarily confined to cells at their first post-irradiation mitosis, XP cells aberrations occur mainly in later cell cycles. The frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations is totally inadequate to explain the degree of cell killing. Neither can an explanation be offered for the mechanism of cell killing in terms of abnormal segregation of chromosomes at mitosis (multipolarity) or failure to undergo first post-irradiation mitosis (interphase death), the frequency of the latter being small compared with the proportion of cells that die. Chromosomally normal cells pass through several cell cycles before dying. UV-sensitive cells from an individual (designated 11961), who is not an XP and has no detectable DNA repair defects, exhibit no chromosome aberrations or multipolar mitoses above control values even after UV doses that kill over 90% of cells. A small increase in sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies is observed after these UV doses and the spontaneous frequency of SCEs in 11961 cells is a little higher than in normal cells studies in parallel. Cell death cannot be attributed to visible UV-induced chromosome changes. (author)

  9. [Simultaneous determination of 1-sulfo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid and sulfate anion in the by-products of caprolactam by high performance liquid chromatography-indirect photometric analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhixiang; Duan, Zhengkang; Li, Linan; Li, Haitao; Chen, Qiuyun; Peng, Ye

    2013-02-01

    An improved anion-exchange chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 1-sulfo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid (SCCA) and sulfate anion in the by-products of caprolactam. An strong anion chromatographic column and an ultraviolet (UV) detector were chosen for the assay of SCCA and sulfate anion. Non-chromophore-containing sulfate anion is not directly adaptable to the commonly used ultraviolet detection of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This paper reports the development and validation of an HPLC assay for SCCA and sulfate anion based on indirect ultraviolet detection. An ultraviolet-absorbing reagent (the probe), phthalic acid (PA), was added to the mobile phase to induce a signal for the compound. The proposed method was qualified based on the performance criteria of repeatability, intermediate precision and linearity. The limits of detection were 1.0 g/L for both the analytes. The linear ranges varied from 0.50 to 40.0 g/L for SCCA and from 0.10 to 10.0 g/L for sulfate anion, with the correlation coefficients of 0. 999 97 and 0.999 14, and the recoveries of 93.33%-97.40% and 98.50%-101.00%, respectively. The established method can be used in practice to determine SCCA and sulfate anion simultaneously with perfect separation selectivity.

  10. High power deep UV-LEDs for analytical optical instrumentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Y.; Dvořák, Miloš; Nesterenko, P. N.; Nuchtavorn, N.; Macka, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 255, č. 2 (2018), s. 1238-1243 ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : deep UV Light emitting diodes (LEDs) * optical detection * portable analytical instrumentation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  11. High power deep UV-LEDs for analytical optical instrumentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Y.; Dvořák, Miloš; Nesterenko, P. N.; Nuchtavorn, N.; Macka, M.

    Roč. 255, č. 2 ( 2018 ), s. 1238-1243 ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : deep UV Light emitting diodes (LEDs) * optical detection * portable analytical instrumentation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  12. UV Observations of Atomic Oxygen in the Cusp Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, B.; Lessard, M.; Dymond, K.; Kenward, D. R.; Lynch, K. A.; Clemmons, J. H.; Hecht, J. H.; Hysell, D. L.; Crowley, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Rocket Experiment for Neutral Upwelling (RENU) 2 launched into the dayside cusp on 13 December, 2015. The sounding rocket payload carried a comprehensive suite of particle, field, and remote sensing instruments to characterize the thermosphere in a region where pockets of enhanced neutral density have been detected [Lühr et al, 2004]. An ultraviolet photomultiplier tube (UV PMT) was oriented to look along the magnetic field line and remotely detect neutral atomic oxygen (OI) above the payload. The UV PMT measured a clear enhancement as the payload descended through a poleward moving auroral form, an indicator of structure in both altitude and latitude. Context for the UV PMT measurement is provided by the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Imager (SSULI) instrument on the Defense Meteorological Space Program (DMSP) satellite, which also measured OI as it passed through the cusp. UV tomography of SSULI observations produces a two-dimensional cross-section of volumetric emission rates in the high-latitude thermosphere prior to the RENU 2 flight. The volume emission rate may then be inverted to produce a profile of neutral density in the thermosphere. A similar technique is used to interpret the UV PMT measurement and determine structure in the thermosphere as RENU 2 descended through the cusp.

  13. Excimer UV curing in printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnert, R.

    1999-01-01

    It is the aim of this study to investigate the potential of 308 run excimer UV curing in web and sheet fed offset printing and to discuss its present status. Using real-time FTIR-ATR and stationary or pulsed monochromatic (313 nm) irradiation chemical and physical factors affecting the curing speed of printing inks such as nature and concentration of photo-initiators, reactivity of the ink binding system, ink thickness and pigmentation, irradiance in the curing plane, oxygen concentration and nitrogen inerting, multiple pulse exposure, the photochemical dark reaction and temperature dependence were studied. The results were used to select optimum conditions for excimer UV curing in respect to ink reactivity, nitrogen inerting and UV exposure and to build an excimer UV curing unit consisting of two 50 W/cm 308 run excimer lamps, power supply, cooling and inerting unit. The excimer UV curing devices were tested under realistic conditions on a web offset press zirkon supra forte and a sheet fed press Heidelberg GTO 52. Maximum curing speeds of 300 m/min in web offset and 8000 sheets per hour in sheet fed offset were obtained

  14. UV-B induces DNA damage and DNA synthesis delay in the marine diatom Cyclotella sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buma, A.G.J.; van Hannen, E.J; Veldhuis, M.J W; Gieskes, W.W C

    The effect of UV-B on the occurrence of DNA damage and consequences for the cell cycle were studied in the marine diatom Cyclotella sp. DNA damage was quantified by immunofluorescent detection of thymine dimers in nuclear DNA of single cells using flow cytometry. A total UV-B dose (biologically

  15. UV-B induces DNA damage and DNA synthesis delay in the marine diatom Cyclotella sp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buma, A.G.J.; Van Hannen, E.J.; Veldhuis, M.; Gieskes, W.W.C.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of UV-B on the occurrence of DNA damage and consequences for the cell cycle were studied in the marine diatom Cyclotella sp. DNA damage was quantified by immunofluorescent detection of thymine dimers in nuclear DNA of single cells using flow cytometry. A total UV-B dose (biologically

  16. Development of indirect sandwich ELISA for determination of excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora-Gonzales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a cosmopolitan parasitosis medical-veterinary importance caused by Fasciola hepatica, which affects sheep, goats and cattle; and it affects man accidentally causing an epidemic-endemic infection difficult to diagnose. The aim was to develop an indirect sandwich ELISA with 3 antibodies for detecting excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica (ESFh. For the development of indirect sandwich ELISA were used, as capture antibody, mouse polyclonal antibodies anti ESFh and polyclonal antibodies rabbit anti-ESFh as detection antibody, at the concentrations of 10 and 5 µg/mL respectively. The conjugate used was mouse monoclonal anti- total immunoglobulins rabbit linked to peroxidase (1/1000. Were analized 31 sheep fecal samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by direct coproparasitological examination (DC and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP. The detection limit obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 100 ng/mL. The test had a 100% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 50% and 96.6% respectively, in relation to DC test. Comparing with CIEP the specificity obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 93.5% and a negative predictive value of 100%. We concluded that indirect sandwich ELISA designed is able to detect metabolic antigens in ovine feces samples and can be used for Fasciola hepatica diagnosis.

  17. Ultraviolet-B wavelengths regulate changes in UV absorption of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus mucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Zamzow

    Full Text Available High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm and the UVA (315-400-nm portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton's body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton's body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton's body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure.

  18. Ultraviolet-B Wavelengths Regulate Changes in UV Absorption of Cleaner Fish Labroides dimidiatus Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Jill P.; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Eckes, Maxi J.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2013-01-01

    High-energy wavelengths in the ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-315 nm) and the UVA (315-400-nm) portion of the spectrum are harmful to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Interestingly, UVA is also involved in the repair of UV induced damage. Organisms living in shallow coral reef environments possess UV absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids, to protect them from UV radiation. While it has been demonstrated that exposure to UV (280-400 nm) affects the UV absorbance of fish mucus, whether the effects of UV exposure vary between UVB and UVA wavelengths is not known. Therefore, we investigated whether the UVB, UVA, or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) portions of the spectrum affected the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus and Fulton’s body condition index of the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. We also compared field-measured UV absorbance with laboratory based high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of mycosporine-like amino acid concentrations. After 1 week, we found that the UV absorbance of epithelial mucus was higher in the UVB+UVA+PAR treatment compared with the UVA+PAR and PAR only treatments; after 2 and 3 weeks, however, differences between treatments were not detected. After 3 weeks, Fulton’s body condition index was lower for fish in the UVB+UVA+PAR compared with PAR and UVA+PAR treatments; furthermore, all experimentally treated fish had a lower Fulton’s body condition index than did freshly caught fish. Finally, we found a decrease with depth in the UV absorbance of mucus of wild-caught fish. This study suggests that the increase in UV absorbance of fish mucus in response to increased overall UV levels is a function of the UVB portion of the spectrum. This has important implications for the ability of cleaner fish and other fishes to adjust their mucus UV protection in response to variations in environmental UV exposure. PMID:24143264

  19. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail property includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in retail property...

  20. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail licenses includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in a retail license...

  1. Indirect effects drive coevolution in mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Paulo R; Pires, Mathias M; Jordano, Pedro; Bascompte, Jordi; Thompson, John N

    2017-10-26

    Ecological interactions have been acknowledged to play a key role in shaping biodiversity. Yet a major challenge for evolutionary biology is to understand the role of ecological interactions in shaping trait evolution when progressing from pairs of interacting species to multispecies interaction networks. Here we introduce an approach that integrates coevolutionary dynamics and network structure. Our results show that non-interacting species can be as important as directly interacting species in shaping coevolution within mutualistic assemblages. The contribution of indirect effects differs among types of mutualism. Indirect effects are more likely to predominate in nested, species-rich networks formed by multiple-partner mutualisms, such as pollination or seed dispersal by animals, than in small and modular networks formed by intimate mutualisms, such as those between host plants and their protective ants. Coevolutionary pathways of indirect effects favour ongoing trait evolution by promoting slow but continuous reorganization of the adaptive landscape of mutualistic partners under changing environments. Our results show that coevolution can be a major process shaping species traits throughout ecological networks. These findings expand our understanding of how evolution driven by interactions occurs through the interplay of selection pressures moving along multiple direct and indirect pathways.

  2. Indirect punishment and generosity towards strangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ule, A.; Schram, A.; Riedl, A.; Cason, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can

  3. Teaching Indirect Speech: Deixis Points the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an alternative approach to the teaching of indirect or reported speech. Deixis is proposed as a means of clarifying the anomalies of reported speech. The problem is assessed from a grammatical and semantic point of view in the reporting of statements (as opposed to the reporting of questions or commands). (GLR)

  4. Direct or indirect - that is the question!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    rather destroyed teeth need to be restored. Although much can be solved by direct fillings and thereby make treatments less invasive for the tooth and less expensive for the patient, there still will be teeth, where the prognosis is improved, if an indirect restoration in terms of an inlay, onlay...

  5. Development and evaluation of Indirect Hemagglutination Antibody ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to develop and evaluate an Indirect Hemagglutination Antibody Test (IHAT) for the serological diagnosis of Cysticercus bovis in live animals. IHAT was set-up in-house and used to test serum samples of cattle against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) coated with crude extracts of C. bovis cyst. Serum ...

  6. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  7. Indirect genetic effects and kin recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. The tradi...

  8. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fiscal year used for financial reporting purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting... contract or other work, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to intermediate or two or more... basis of the benefits accruing to intermediate and final cost objectives. When substantially the same...

  9. Indirect effects of recreation on wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Peter B. Landres

    1995-01-01

    Most of this book focuses on direct impacts to wildlife that result from contact with people. The purpose of our chapter is to provide a broad overview of the indirect influences that recreation has on wildlife. Recreational activities can change the habitat of an animal. This, in turn, affects the behavior, survival, reproduction, and distribution of individuals....

  10. Plant regeneration through indirect organogenesis of chestnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish an effective protocol for plant regeneration through indirect organogenesis, effects of explants type, culture media and plant growth regulators on callus induction and shoot regeneration of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) were investigated. Three different explants (root, nodal and internodal segment), two ...

  11. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partial synchronization occurs in a population of chemical oscillators coupled through the concentration of chemical in the surrounding solutions [19]. Two nonlinear chaotic systems coupled indirectly through a common dynamic environment synchronize to in-phase or anti-phase state [20]. The early stages of Alzheimer's ...

  12. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  13. Indirect bankruptcy costs and bankruptcy law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sautner, Z.; Vladimirov, V.

    2013-01-01

    We use a simple model to predict how creditor rights in bankruptcy a¤ect the accumulation and magnitude of indirect bankruptcy costs. We empirically identify these e¤ects by using two matched samples of bankrupt firms that provide us with variation in creditor rights. Consistent with our model, we

  14. UV-enhanced reactivation of minute-virus-of-mice: stimulation of a late step in the viral life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rommelaere, J.; Vos, J.-M.; Cornelis, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    UV-enhanced reactivation of minute-virus-of-mice (MVM), an autonomous parvovirus, was studied in parasynchronous mouse A9 cells. The survival of UV-irradiated MVM is increased in cells which have been UV-irradiated prior to infection. UV-enhanced reactivation can be explained neither by facilitated plaque detection on UV-treated indicator cells, nor by altered kinetics of virus production by UV-irradiated cells. No effect of the multiplicity of infection on virus survival was detected in unirradiated or irradiated cells. The magnitude of UV-enhanced reactivation is a direct exponential function of the UV dose administered to the virus while virus survival is inversely proportional to the UV dosage. The expression of UV-enhanced reactivation can be activated in cells arrested in G 0 , it requires de novo protein synthesis and it is maximal when cells are irradiated 30 h before the onset of viral DNA replication. Early phases of the viral cycle, such as adsorption to cellular receptors, migration to the nucleus and uncoating were not affected by cell irradiation and are unlikely targets of the UV-enhanced reactivation function(s). These results, together with the single-strandedness of the viral genome, strongly suggest that the step stimulated in UV-irradiated cells functions concomitant with, or subsequent to, viral DNA replication. (author)

  15. DNA replication and indirect induction of the SOS response in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Ari, R.; Huisman, O. (Institut Jacques Monod, C.N.R.S., Universite de Paris-7, 75 - Paris (France))

    The SOS response can be induced indirectly in Escherichia coli by infection with UV irradiated bacteriophage P1, lambda or M13. Induction, monitored quantitatively by means of a sfiA::lac operon fusion, was stronger with the plasmid phage P1 than with lambda, but the kinetics were similar, showing that plasmid and non-plasmid phages are not fundamentally different in their ability to produce indirect induction. In the absence of lambda DNA replication the level of induction was strongly reduced, indicating that the attempt to replicate damaged DNA results in induction of the SOS response. The slight residual induction observed in the absence of DNA replication suggests the existence of a second pathway leading from DNA lesions to induction of the SOS response.

  16. UV imaging in pharmaceutical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    UV imaging provides spatially and temporally resolved absorbance measurements, which are highly useful in pharmaceutical analysis. Commercial UV imaging instrumentation was originally developed as a detector for separation sciences, but the main use is in the area of in vitro dissolution...... and release testing studies. The review covers the basic principles of the technology and summarizes the main applications in relation to intrinsic dissolution rate determination, excipient compatibility studies and in vitro release characterization of drug substances and vehicles intended for parenteral...... administration. UV imaging has potential for providing new insights to drug dissolution and release processes in formulation development by real-time monitoring of swelling, precipitation, diffusion and partitioning phenomena. Limitations of current instrumentation are discussed and a perspective to new...

  17. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  18. Automation in indirect immunofluorescence testing: a new step in the evolution of the autoimmunology laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Tozzoli, Renato; Antico, Antonio; Porcelli, Brunetta; Bassetti, Danila

    2012-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) plays an important role in immunological and immunometric assays for detecting and measuring autoantibodies. This technology was the first multiplex method used to detect cardinal autoantibodies for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Over the last 20?years, research has enabled the progressive identification of cell and tissue autoantigens which are the target of autoantibodies originally detected by IIF. Accordingly, newer immunometric methods, capable of...

  19. Reação de imunofluorescência indireta para detecção de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em amostras coletivas de leite Indirect fluorescent antibody test to detection of Neospora caninum antibodies in samples of bulk milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Camillo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a presença de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em amostras coletivas de leite, através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI. Para isso, foram coletadas amostras do leite dos tanques refrigerados de 36 rebanhos, das quais foram selecionadas 14 para coletas de amostras individuais de soro sanguíneo e de leite das vacas. Encontrou-se correlação em 12 dos 14 rebanhos selecionados para a amostragem individual dos animais, em comparação à detecção de anticorpos nas amostras coletivas de leite. Foi observada uma concordância de 76% comparando-se o resultado das amostras coletivas com os resultados individuais de leite. Observaram-se baixos títulos de anticorpos (50 no soro sanguíneo dos animais soropositivos, cujos resultados da RIFI no leite coletivo e no sangue foram discordantes. Assim, a partir dos resultados deste estudo, pode-se concluir que a utilização de testes sorológicos para detecção de anticorpos anti-N. caninum em amostras coletivas de leite através da RIFI pode ser uma opção ao diagnóstico para a triagem de rebanhos positivos bem como para estudos epidemiológicos.The aim of this study was to determine the presence of anti-N. caninum in the bulk milk samples by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT. For this, it was collected samples of milk from refrigerated tanks from 36 herds, of which 14 were selected for sampling of individual blood serum and milk of cows. It was found concordance for 12 of the 14 herds selected for samples of individual animals, compared to the detection of antibodies in the bulk milk samples. Concordance was of 76% when comparing the results of the pooled sample with the results of individual milk. It was observed low antibody titers (50 in the serum of animals positive whose results in IFA of bulk milk and blood were discordant. Thus, with the results of this study, it can be concluded that the use of serological tests for detection of

  20. UV Visibility of Moderate-Redshift Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Rhee

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We show quantitatively whether giant elliptical galaxies would be visible at far UV wavelengths if they were placed at moderate redshift of 0.4-0.5. On the basis of simple cosmological tests, we conclude that giant elliptical galaxies can be detectable upto the redshift of 0.4-0.5 in the proposed GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey. We also show that obtaining UV color index such as m_1550 - V from upcoming GALEX and SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations should be feasible.

  1. A Novel UV Photon Detector with Resistive Electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Bidault, J M; Francke, T; Galy, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Rodionov, I

    2006-01-01

    In this study we present first results from a new detector of UV photons: a thick gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) with resistive electrodes, combined with CsI or CsTe/CsI photocathodes. The hole type structure considerably suppresses the photon and ion feedback, whereas the resistive electrodes protect the detector and the readout electronics from damage by any eventual discharges. This device reaches higher gains than a previously developed photosensitive RPC and could be used not only for the imaging of UV sources, flames or Cherenkov light, for example, but also for the detection of X-rays and charged particles.

  2. Enhanced UV photoresponse with Au nanoparticles incorporated rGO/Si heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakalavathi, T.; Rao Peta, Koteswara; Jeyalakshmi, R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we demonstrated Au nanoparticles incorporated reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Si heterostructure based UV photodetector. The pristine and Au nanoparticles incorporated heterostructure was analyzed and characterized by x-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Current- Voltage (I-V) characteristics and UV photo detective properties were examined by using UV light emitting diode (LED) with 382 nm wavelengths. The UV photoresponse properties revealed that the Au-rGO/Si heterostructure showed much better photoresponse activity toward UV light than pristine rGO/Si. The experimental results clearly revealed that the photoresponse of Au-rGO/Si heterostructure can be effectively enhanced by 30 times at 382 nm wavelength over pristine rGO/Si. The effect of rGO thickness on performance of UV photodetector was also examined. The improved photoresponse was attributed to localized surface plasmon resonance, in addition high electron transport capability of rGO number of photoexcited electrons collected at interface.

  3. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    Full Text Available Excessive ultraviolet (UV radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application.

  4. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive; Pielak, Rafal M

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application.

  5. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A.; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application. PMID:29293664

  6. Characterisation of extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. using an on-line HPLC system with UV/visible and fluorescence detection prior to and after photochemical conversion of the effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. G.; Cornett, Claus; Gudiksen, L.

    2000-01-01

    An HPLC system designed for the simultaneous determination of the four naphthodianthrone derivatives, protopseudohypericin, pseudohypericin, protohypericin and hypericin, in extracts of Hypericum perforatum L, has been developed. The on-line system permits quantification of the compounds...... naphthodianthrone derivatives using the on-line HPLC system, and the results showed the presence of similar relative amounts of naphthodianthrone derivatives in the investigated extracts. The largest total amount of hypericins in extracts of H. perforatum was obtained using detection at 590 nm after the effluent...... by spectrophotometric detection at 590 nm as well as by fluorescence detection at 470/590 nm, Since protopseudohypericin and protohypericin are converted by exposure to light into pseudohypericin and hypericin, respectively, detection was performed before as well as after photochemical conversion in the on-line system...

  7. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  8. Towards a semiquantitative non invasive characterisation of Tyrian purple dye composition: Convergence of UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy and fast-high temperature-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Catia; Nowik, Witold; Romani, Aldo; Cardon, Dominique; Trojanowicz, Marek; Davantès, Athénaïs; Chaminade, Pierre

    2016-07-05

    In this paper, partial least square (PLS) regression is innovatively applied for a semi-quantitative non invasive study of the most precious dye of Antiquity: Tyrian purple. This original approach for the study of organic dyes in the cultural heritage field, is based on the correlation of spectrophotometric (UV-Visible) and chromatographic (Fast-HT-HPLC-PDA) data from an extensive set of textiles prepared with different snail species according to historical recipes. A cross-validated PLS model, based on the quantity of 6,6'-dibromoindigotin, displays an excellent correlation factor (R(2)Y = 0.987) between values determined by chromatography and those predicted from reflectance spectra. This indicates that the spectral features of Tyrian purple on textile fibre is strictly related to the amount of this indigoid component whose content may be non invasively predicted from reflectance spectrum. The studied correlation also highlights that, independently of the dyeing method and nature of the textile fibre used, the relative content of 6,6'-dibromindigotin may be used as a parameter to distinguish samples prepared with Hexaplex trunculus L. snails from those prepared with further mollusc species. To validate this model, archaeological textile fragments dating from the Roman period were successfully examined. The results achieved open an absolutely new way in Tyrian purple analysis in cultural heritage by non invasive spectroscopic techniques attesting their convergence with HPLC and giving them a semi-quantitative value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of antimycotic drugs transformation products upon UV exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado, Jorge; Rodríguez, Isaac, E-mail: isaac.rodriguez@usc.es; Ramil, María; Cela, Rafael

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Evaluation of antimycotic drugs UV stabilities in model supports. • Simultaneous detection of precursor drugs and transformation products. • Transformation products identification from their scan, accurate MS/MS spectra. • Directed search of identified transformation products in sand and soil samples. • Preliminary toxicity estimations. - Abstract: The reactivity of three imidazolic, environmental persistent antimycotic drugs (clotrimazole, CTZ; ketoconazole, KTZ; and miconazole, MCZ) upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is discussed. First, precursor compounds were immobilized in a silicone support which was further exposed to UV light at two different wavelengths: 254 and 365 nm. After solvent desorption, degradation kinetics of the precursor pharmaceuticals, identification of the arising transformation products (TPs) and evaluation of their time-course were investigated by liquid chromatography (LC) with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) detection. The three antimycotics displayed similar stabilities when exposed to 254 nm light; however, CTZ was significantly more stable than MCZ and KTZ when irradiated with the 365 nm lamp. TPs identified in silicone supports resulted from de-chlorination, cleavage, intra-molecular cyclization and hydroxylation reactions. Many of these species were also detected when exposing other solid matrices, such as sand and agricultural soil, previously spiked with target compounds, to UV light. The 50% estimated lethal concentration, calculated using the 48-h Daphnia magna test, for the two main TPs of CTZ and MCZ, at both wavelengths, were lower than those corresponding to the precursor drugs.

  10. Presence of UV-endonuclease sensitive sites in daughter DNA of UV-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, S.; Setlow, R.B.

    1978-02-01

    Asynchronous Chinese hamster cells were irradiated with 10 Jm -2 uv radiation and 0.25 to 4 hours later pulse-labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine. Cells synchronized by shaking off mitotic and G 1 cells were irradiated in either the G 1 -phase or S-phase of the cell cycle and pulse-labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine in the S-phase. After a 12 to 14 hour chase in unlabeled medium, the DNA was extracted, incubated with Micrococcus luteus uv-endonuclease and sedimented in alkaline sucrose. The number of endonuclease sensitive sites decreased as the time between uv irradiation and pulse-labeling of daughter DNA increased. Further, there were significantly less endonuclease sensitive sites in the daughter DNA from cells irradiated in the G 1 -phase than in the S-phase. These data indicate that very few, if any, dimers are transferred from parental DNA to daughter DNA and that the dimers detected in daughter DNA may be due to the irradiation of replicating daughter DNA before labeling

  11. How good is technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine indirect cystography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeleer, C. de; Boe, V. de; Keuppens, F.; Desprechins, B.; Verboven, M.; Piepsz, A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the sensitivity of indirect radionuclide cystography (IRC) performed with technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), in comparison with the micturition cystourethrography (MCUG) and direct radionuclide cystography (DRC), for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux. Two groups of patients were selected: group I comprised 40 children who underwent IRC during the acute phase of urinary tract infection and an MCUG 6 weeks later; group II comprised 42 (other) children with known reflux, who underwent IRC and DRC during follow-up. Taking as the reference the total number of refluxing kidneys detected by means of any cystographic technique, 99m Tc-MAG3 ICR missed two-thirds of the refluxing kidneys. Most of the small refluxes were missed, but so too were 50% of the major refluxes. Taking as the reference 99m Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy, MCUG detected 91% of the patients with DMSA abnormalities on at least one kidney, DRC detected 95%, and IRC detected 46% and 43% respectively, in groups I and II. The use of 99m Tc-MAG3 IRC as the sole technique for the detection of vesicoureteric reflux gives rise to an unacceptable number of false-negative results. (orig.)

  12. Near UV Aerosol Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Omar

    2013-01-01

    2012-13 Report of research on aerosol and cloud remote sensing using UV observations. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  13. UV-LED photopolymerised monoliths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abele, S.; Nie, F.; Foret, František; Paull, B.; Macka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 7 (2008), s. 864-866 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400310651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : photopolymerisation * UV-LED * polymethacrylate monolith Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.761, year: 2008

  14. Lack of indirect sensitization in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzel, F.W.; Avery, K.; Mensinger, M.; Frinak, S.; Tidwell, C.

    1985-01-01

    The possible utility of respiratory inhibiting drugs as indirect radiation sensitizers has been investigated in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In vitro studies were conducted in V79 monolayer and spheroid cultures examining both respiratory inhibition and radiation survival as end points. These drugs (BCNU, Mustargen and Chlorambucil) were found to be potent respiratory inhibitors and, in the spheroid system, to be effective indirect radiation sensitizers with enhancement ratios of approximately 2.0. In vivo studies with these drugs have also been conducted in a C/sub 3/H mouse MCa tumor system to determine if the same reoxygenation effect observed in spheroids could be demonstrated in the solid tumor system. Detailed microelectrode studies, employing each drug at its LD/sub 10/ level, have been unable to demonstrate any drug induced reoxygenation for any of the drugs tested. Complete details are presented

  15. Studies of aluminium nitride ceramics for application in UV dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Christensen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The study is reported of the ceramic material AlN-Y2O3 as a potential luminescence dosemeter for the detection of UV radiation. Both the thermoluminescence and the optically stimulated luminescence properties of the material have been studied after exposure to UV radiation and compared with those...... of the widely used dosemeter material Al2O3:C. It has been shown that AlN-Y2O3 ceramics exhibit three orders of magnitude higher sensitivity to UV radiation than does Al2O3,:C over a broad spectral region. The thermoluminescence from AlN-Y2O3 is characterised by linear dose dependence over a wide range...

  16. VOYAGER 2 JUPITER/SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9 UVS NULL RESULTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A preliminary examination of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) data revealed no obvious detections of anything which might correspond with the impact phenomena. In...

  17. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/gd.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/gd.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04-0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Environmental occurrence and risk of organic UV filters and stabilizers in multiple matrices in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Katherine H; Reid, Malcolm J; Fjeld, Eirik; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-07-01

    Eight organic UV filters and stabilizers were quantitatively determined in wastewater sludge and effluent, landfill leachate, sediments, and marine and freshwater biota. Crab, prawn and cod from Oslofjord, and perch, whitefish and burbot from Lake Mjøsa were selected in order to evaluate the potential for trophic accumulation. All of the cod livers analysed were contaminated with at least 1 UV filter, and a maximum concentration of almost 12 μg/g wet weight for octocrylene (OC) was measured in one individual. 80% of the cod livers contained OC, and approximately 50% of cod liver and prawn samples contained benzophenone (BP3). Lower concentrations and detection frequencies were observed in freshwater species and the data of most interest is the 4 individual whitefish that contained both BP3 and ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate (EHMC) with maximum concentrations of almost 200 ng/g wet weight. The data shows a difference in the loads of UV filters entering receiving water dependent on the extent of wastewater treatment. Primary screening alone is insufficient for the removal of selected UV filters (BP3, Padimate, EHMC, OC, UV-234, UV-327, UV-328, UV-329). Likely due in part to the hydrophobic nature of the majority of the UV filters studied, particulate loading and organic carbon content appear to be related to concentrations of UV filters in landfill leachate and an order of magnitude difference in these parameters correlates with an order of magnitude difference in the effluent concentrations of selected UV filters (Fig. 2). From the data, it is possible that under certain low flow conditions selected organic UV filters may pose a risk to surface waters but under the present conditions the risk is low, but some UV filters will potentially accumulate through the trophic food chain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Indirect MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoon, Young Cheol; Choi, Sang-Hee

    2011-12-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the indirect MR arthrographic findings of patients with adhesive capsulitis and patients without adhesive capsulitis. Indirect MR arthrograms of 35 patients (21 women, 14 men; mean age, 50.1 years) diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis clinically were compared with indirect MR arthrograms of 45 patients (23 women, 22 men; mean age, 48.9 years) without adhesive capsulitis. Joint capsule thickness in the axillary recess and the thicknesses of the enhancing portion of the axillary recess and the rotator interval were, respectively, evaluated on coronal T2-weighted images and coronal and sagittal fat-suppressed enhanced T1-weighted images by two radiologists independently. Reliability was studied using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared. Patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly thickened joint capsules in the axillary recess and a thickened enhancing portion in the axillary recess and in the rotator interval. The difference in the thicknesses of the enhancing portion in the axillary recess and in the rotator interval were significantly greater than the difference in joint capsule thicknesses in the axillary recess between the adhesive capsulitis group and the control group (p capsule in the axillary recess and the thicknesses of the enhancing portion of the axillary recess and the rotator interval were 0.797, 0.861, and 0.847, respectively. An abundance of enhancing tissue in the rotator interval and thickening and enhancement of the axillary recess are signs suggestive of adhesive capsulitis on indirect MR arthrography.

  20. Indirect posterior composite inlays and onlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, P

    1994-01-01

    Indirect posterior composite inlays and onlays are a valuable part of the cosmetic dentist's repertoire of services. They fulfill most of the requirements for an esthetic alternative to the previously considered amalgam, gold, porcelain, and directly placed composite restorations. As in all other cosmetic dental procedures, attention to detail is essential for success. Improving technology will continue to have an impact on the place these restorations occupy in future cosmetic practice.