Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.
Wagyu cattle have been improved from indigenous cattle raised in Japan since the country was opened 100 years ago. Characteristics of the breed were formed during that period. Here, the process of the breeding is described, and recent topics about breeding studies are discussed.
This study was conducted in order to document and preserve valuable indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. Data were collected from thirty (30) cattle farms from three locations: Gbindi (16 farms), Sackelereh (7 farms), and Flamansa (7 farms) in ...
A comparison of productivity and adaptability of indigenous (Boran and Small East African Zebu) and the exotic (Sahiwal and Ayrshire) cattle on Kenyan ranches located in semi-arid areas of the Rift Valley Provinces was done. Data sets of the cattle breeds over the 1979-1993 period on Deloraine, Elkarama, Ilkerin, ...
Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the physical and morphometric characteristics in indigenous cattle of Assam. The data pertain to 339 indigenous cattle of different categories. The physical characteristics included colour pattern of body coat, muzzle, tail switch, hoof and horn. Body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were taken up for morphometric characterization. The main body coat colour of indigenous cattle was brown (31.18% followed by white (28.53%, fawn (15.29%, grey (13.53%, black (4.41% and mixed (7.06%. The prominent colour of tail switch was black (74.53%. Most of animals had black muzzle (86.47%, black hooves (84.71% and black horn (100%. Morphometric characteristics data obtained were classified according to location, age group and sex of the animal. The means for body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were 83.668±0.590, 91.942±0.55, 113.146±0.738, 121.181±0.761, 54.196±0.527, 26.098±0.186, 32.705±0.166, 18.131±0.111 and 35.035±0.195 cm respectively. Age and sex had significant effect on all the morphometric characters however, location effect was non significant. The indigenous cattle of Assam are comparatively smaller in size than most of the recognized breeds of cattle however coat colour showed sizeable variation. The data generated for indigenous cattle of Assam would be useful to characterize them.
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important zoonosis that affects uman, wildlife and livestock. A cross sectional study was carried out between December 2012 and January 2013 to establish the prevalence of bTB and the associated risk factors among ive and slaughter indigenous cattle in ...
Lkhagva, B [International Livestock Research Institute - ILRI, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi (Kenya) and Mongolian State Agricultural University, Zaisan, Ulaanbaatar 210153 (Mongolia); Ochieng, J W; Hanotte, O; Jianlin, H [International Livestock Research Institute - ILRI, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi (Kenya); Yoon, D H [National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, 441-350, Suwon (Korea)
Livestock production plays an important role in Mongolian economy. Over the last decade it has contributed to around 80-90% of the gross domestic agricultural products and to 30% of the revenues generated from exportations. Cattle is one of the five traditional and most important livestock species of Mongolia together with horse, sheep, goat and camel. Out of a total of 1.57 millions Mongolian cattle, 1.55 millions supposedly belong to three indigenous Bos taurus cattle breeds, namely Mongol, Selenge and Khalkhun Golun, all herded under extensive pastoral systems. Indigenous Mongolian cattle are generally small but look sturdy and strong. They have a well-off coat of hair, solid forward looking shoulders and short stubby snouts, and they are used for meat, milk and transport. Beef production contributes to 30% of the total meat supply in Mongolia. The Mongol breed is by the far the commonest with 1.53 million animals and it is found almost throughout the country. The Selenge breed, found in Selenge province and numbering 9000 heads, was developed in middle of the 20th century by crossing the Kazakh Whiteheaded with the local Mongol cattle. The Khalkhun Golun breed was developed from local Mongol cattle and it is distributed in Eastern and Suhbaatar provinces with about 10,000 heads. Until now, to the best of our knowledge, only a single population of Mongolian cattle has been studied with microsatellite DNA markers and no information is available on the genetic relationship between the Mongolian indigenous cattle breeds. In this study, we collected samples from two populations of the Mongol cattle (sampled at Ikhtamir soum in North Hangay province and Tsogt soum in Govi Altay province) and one population of the Khalkhun Golun cattle (sampled at Tumentsogt soum in Suhbaatar province). Samples were characterised with nine microsatellite markers MGTG4B, ILSTS005, ILSTS006, ILSTS008, ILSTS023, ILSTS028, ILSTS036, ILSTS050 and ILSTS103. To assess the genetic diversity
Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenous breeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress production system still practised by millions of families in Indonesia. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Pham, Lan Doan; Do, Duy Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Trong
Cattle play a very important role in agriculture and food security in Vietnam. A high level of cattle diversity exists and serves different needs of Vietnamese cattle keepers but has not yet been molecularly characterized. This study evaluates the genetic diversity and structure of Vietnamese...... geographic distances. Structure analysis indicated five homogeneous clusters. The Brahman, Lang Son, Ha Giang and U Dau Riu cattle were assigned to independent clusters while Nghe An, Thanh Hoa and Phu Yen cattle were grouped in a single cluster. We conclude that Vietnamese indigenous cattle have high levels...
Verma, Subhash; Thakur, Aneesh; Katoch, Shailja; Shekhar, Chander; Wani, Aasim Habib; Kumar, Sandeep; Dohroo, Shweta; Singh, Geetanjali; Sharma, Mandeep
Cattle are an integral part of the largely agrarian economy of India. Indigenous breeds of cattle comprise about 80% of total cattle population of the country and contribute significantly to the overall milk production. There are 40 recognized indigenous breeds of cattle and a number of uncharacterized non-descript cattle. Pahari cattle of Himachal Pradesh in Northern India are one such non-descript indigenous breed. Here we describe a comprehensive evaluation of haematobiochemical parameters and innate and adaptive immune response traits of Pahari cattle and a comparison with Jersey crossbred cattle. The study shows demonstrable differences in the two breeds with respect to some innate and adaptive immunological traits. This is a first attempt to characterize immune response traits of Pahari cattle and the results of the study provide an understanding of breed differences in immune status of cattle which could be useful for their breeding and conservations programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vahidi, S.M.F.; Faruque, M.O.; Falahati Anbaran, M.; Afraz, F.; Mousavi, S.M.; Boettcher, P.; Joost, S.; Han, J.L.; Colli, L.; Periasamy, K.; Negrini, R.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.
Full text: Iranian livestock diversity is still largely unexplored, in spite of the interest in the populations historically reared in this country located near the Fertile Crescent, a major livestock domestication centre. In this investigation, the genetic diversity and differentiation of 10 Iranian indigenous fat-tailed sheep breeds were investigated using 18 microsatellite markers. Iranian breeds were found to host a high level of diversity. This conclusion is substantiated by the large number of alleles observed across loci (average 13.83, range 7–22) and by the high within-breed expected heterozygosity (average 0.75, range 0.72–0.76). Iranian sheep have a low level of genetic differentiation, as indicated by the analysis of molecular variance, which allocated a very small proportion (1.67%) of total variation to the between-population component, and by the small fixation index (FST = 0.02). Both Bayesian clustering and principal coordinates analysis revealed the absence of a detectable genetic structure. Also, no isolation by distance was observed through comparison of genetic and geographical distances. In spite of high within-breed variation, signatures of inbreeding were detected by the FIS indices, which were positive in all and statistically significant in three breeds. Possible factors explaining the patterns observed, such as considerable gene flow and inbreeding probably due to anthropogenic activities in the light of population management and conservation programmes are discussed. (author)
Alemayehu, Befikadu; Bogale, Ayalneh; Wollny, Clemens; Tesfahun, Girma
Based on a survey data collected from 150 farming households in Dano district of western Showa of Ethiopia, this paper analyzes determinants of smallholders' choice for market oriented indigenous Horo cattle production and tries to suggest policy alternatives for sustainable use of animal genetic resource in the study area. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic model were employed to analyze the data. Eight explanatory variables including age of the household head, size of the grazing land, total size of cultivated land, farmer's experience in indigenous cattle production, farmer's attitude towards productivity of local breed, off-farm income, fattening practice, and availability of information and training of the head of the household regarding conservation, management and sustainable use indigenous cattle were found to be statistically significant variables to explain farmers' choice for market oriented indigenous cattle production activities. Besides, possible policy implications were made in order to improve conservation, management and sustainable use of market oriented indigenous cattle genetic resources.
Full Text Available The diversity of cattle in Niger is predominantly represented by three indigenous breeds: Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri. This study aimed at characterizing the genetic diversity and relationship of Niger cattle breeds using short tandem repeat (STR marker variations. A total of 105 cattle from all three breeds were genotyped at 27 STR loci. High levels of allelic and gene diversity were observed with an overall mean of 8.7 and 0.724 respectively. The mean inbreeding estimate within breeds was found to be moderate with 0.024, 0.043 and 0.044 in Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri cattle respectively. The global F statistics showed low genetic differentiation among Niger cattle with about 2.6 % of total variation being attributed to between-breed differences. Neighbor-joining tree derived from pairwise allele sharing distance revealed Zebu Arabe and Kuri clustering together while Zebu Bororo appeared to be relatively distinct from the other two breeds. High levels of admixture were evident from the distribution of pairwise inter-individual allele sharing distances that showed individuals across populations being more related than individuals within populations. Individuals were assigned to their respective source populations based on STR genotypes, and the percent correct assignment of Zebu Bororo (87.5 to 93.8 % was consistently higher than Zebu Arabe (59.3 to 70.4 % and Kuri (80.0 to 83.3 % cattle. The qualitative and quantitative tests for mutation drift equilibrium revealed absence of genetic bottleneck events in Niger cattle in the recent past. High genetic diversity and poor genetic structure among indigenous cattle breeds of Niger might be due to historic zebu–taurine admixture and ongoing breeding practices in the region. The results of the present study are expected to help in formulating effective strategies for conservation and genetic improvement of indigenous Niger cattle breeds.
Browett, Sam; McHugo, Gillian; Richardson, Ian W.; Magee, David A.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Fahey, Alan G.; Kearney, John F.; Correia, Carolina N.; Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; MacHugh, David E.
Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds. Modelling of genetic effective population size (Ne) revealed a demographic trend of diminishing Ne over time and that recent estimated Ne values for the Kerry breed may be less than the threshold for sustainable genetic conservation. In addition, analysis of genome-wide autozygosity (FROH) showed that genomic inbreeding has increased significantly during the 20 years between 1992 and 2012. Finally, signatures of selection revealed genomic regions subject to natural and artificial selection as Kerry cattle adapted to the climate, physical geography and agro-ecology of southwest Ireland. PMID:29520297
Full Text Available Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds. Modelling of genetic effective population size (Ne revealed a demographic trend of diminishing Ne over time and that recent estimated Ne values for the Kerry breed may be less than the threshold for sustainable genetic conservation. In addition, analysis of genome-wide autozygosity (FROH showed that genomic inbreeding has increased significantly during the 20 years between 1992 and 2012. Finally, signatures of selection revealed genomic regions subject to natural and artificial selection as Kerry cattle adapted to the climate, physical geography and agro-ecology of southwest Ireland.
Kim, Suhee; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Kang, Sung-Woo; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Bae-Keun; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Jinho
Tick-borne pathogens can cause serious problems in grazing cattle. However, little information is available on tick-mediated diseases in cattle grazing on mountains. Thus, this study aimed to understand the potential problems related to tick-borne diseases in grazing cattle through the investigation of prevalent tick-transmitted infections, and their associated hematological changes, in terms of season and grazing type in Korean indigenous cattle (=Hanwoo). Hanwoo cattle from 3 regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea) were either maintained indoors or placed on grassy mountains from spring to fall of 2014 and 2015. Cattle that grazed in mountainous areas showed a greater prevalence of tick-borne infections with an increased Theileria orientalis infection rate (54.7%) compared to that in non-grazing cattle (16.3%) (Pcattle were significantly lower than those of non-grazing cattle throughout the season (Pcattle in mountainous areas is closely associated with an increase in T. orientalis infection (RR=3.4, Pcattle in mountainous areas of Korea are at a high risk of infection by T. orientalis, which can lead to hematological alterations. This study highlights the necessity of preventive strategies that target T. orientalis infection.
Nyamushamba, G B; Mapiye, C; Tada, O; Halimani, T E; Muchenje, V
The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.
Nyamushamba, G. B.; Mapiye, C.; Tada, O.; Halimani, T. E.; Muchenje, V.
The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified. PMID:27004814
G. B. Nyamushamba
Full Text Available The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.
Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The microflora of the normal ocular surface is one of the sources supplying fungal agents for keratomycosis. This study was conducted to identify fungal isolates of the conjunctiva in clinically healthy Iranian native cattle in Urmia district. Swabs were taken from both eyes of cattle (n=45 and cultured onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and malt extract agar. Plates were incubated at 25°C and examined for 7 days. Data were analyzed for the effect of age and sex by fisher’s exact test. Thirteen cattle (28.89% were found to be positive for fungal growth. The isolated fungal genera were Aspergillus spp-7 cases (53.84%, Penicillium spp-6 cases (46.15%, Rhodotorula sp-1 case (7.69% and Candida sp-1 case (7.69%. Yeast genera represented 13.3% of all the isolates. Sex and age of cattle had no significant effect on prevalence of isolates. Incidence of fungal colonization of the eyes compared with similar studies was low which may reflect differences in season and technique of sampling. Unexpected high frequency of Aspergillus may be due to geographic differences.
Africa. The high calving rate of Sanga cattle (89,6%) compared to an average of 77,4% of four other breeds was the ... The former group is tax- onomically .... growth rate, the differences in feed conversion ratios ..... The economic importance.
Oct 4, 2007 ... (2002) reported that people living in central Africa developed cattle ... attributes such as body size, horn shape and size, coat color and hump size and their ... into Africa from West Asia, and probably developed from a group of.
Zhou, J W; Zhong, C L; Liu, H; Degen, A A; Titgemeyer, E C; Ding, L M; Shang, Z H; Guo, X S; Qiu, Q; Li, Z P; Yang, G; Long, R J
Under traditional management on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, yaks () graze only on natural pasture without supplements and are forced to cope with sparse forage of low N content, especially in winter. In contrast, indigenous Tibetan yellow cattle () require supplements during the cold season. We hypothesized that, in response to harsh conditions, yaks cope with low N intakes better than cattle. To test this hypothesis, a study of whole-body N retention and urea kinetics was conducted in 2 concurrent 4 × 4 Latin squares, with 1 square using yaks and 1 square using cattle. Four isocaloric forage-concentrate diets differing in N concentrations (10.3, 19.5, 28.5, and 37.6 g N/kg DM) were formulated, and by design, DMI were similar between species and across diets. Urea kinetics were determined with continuous intravenous infusion of NN urea for 104 h, and total urine and feces were concomitantly collected. Urea production, urea recycling to the gut, and ruminal microbial protein synthesis all linearly increased ( Urea production was greater in yaks than in cattle at the 3 lowest N diets but greater in cattle than in yaks at the highest N diet (species × diet, Urea N recycled to the gut ( urea N captured by ruminal bacteria ( urea recycling was through saliva, with no difference between species ( = 0.61). Glomerular filtration rate was lower ( = 0.05) in yaks than in cattle. The higher urea recycling and greater capture of recycled urea by ruminal microbes in yaks than in cattle suggest that yaks use mechanisms to utilize dietary N more efficiently than cattle, which may partially explain the better survival of yaks than cattle when fed low-N diets.
growing. The Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries estimated the exotic/crossbred cattle population at 1.3 million, .... Carcass components. Slaughter weight 248.7 250.2 255.0. 3.8. 220.2c. 257.1b. 276.5a. 4.0 ns. ***. Hot carcass weight. 126.7 129.3 130.8. 2.4. 109.6c. 132.3b. 145.0a. 2.5 ns. ***. Hot carcass ...
Full Text Available Although a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified from the bovine genome-sequencing project, few of these have been validated at large in Bos indicus breeds. We have genotyped 192 animals, representing 5 cattle populations of Ethiopia, with the Illumina Bovine 8K SNP BeadChip. These include 1 Sanga (Danakil, 3 zebu (Borana, Arsi and Ambo, and 1 zebu × Sanga intermediate (Horro breeds. The Hanwoo (Bos taurus was included for comparison purposes. Analysis of 7,045 SNP markers revealed that the mean minor allele frequency (MAF was 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.21, 0.23, and 0.29 for Ambo, Arsi, Borana, Danakil, Horro, and Hanwoo, respectively. Significant differences of MAF were observed between the indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations and Hanwoo breed (p < 0.001. Across the Ethiopian cattle populations, a common variant MAF (≥0.10 and ≤0.5 accounted for an overall estimated 73.79% of the 7,045 SNPs. The Hanwoo displayed a higher proportion of common variant SNPs (90%. Investigation within Ethiopian cattle populations showed that on average, 16.64% of the markers were monomorphic, but in the Hanwoo breed, only 6% of the markers were monomorphic. Across the sampled Ethiopian cattle populations, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.314 and 0.313, respectively. The level of SNP variation identified in this particular study highlights that these markers can be potentially used for genetic studies in African cattle breeds.
Full Text Available This article reports cases of nitrate poisoning in Indian indigenous cattle breeds comprising two Gir cows aging 4 years each, and one Barugur cow at 1.5 years of age. The cattle with case history of sudden death and oozing of partially clotted blood from the anal opening were brought to the Central University Laboratory (CUL, Center for Animal Health Studies (CAHS, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS for diagnostic investigation with a suspicion of anthrax. According to anamnesis, all the animals were clinically normal and did not reveal any abnormality on the previous day. The animals were fed with recently harvested sorghum leaves and stalks. Smears examined for anthrax were found negative. Biological test (mice inoculation for anthrax was also negative. Gross lesions on necropsy examination of the carcases were suggestive of nitrate intoxication. Finally, nitrate intoxication of these cattle was confirmed by chemical and toxicological analysis of fodder, rumen content, aqueous humor, liver, kidney and urine.
Ward, Paul R; Coffey, Cushla; Javanparast, Sara; Wilson, Carlene; Meyer, Samantha B
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest cancer mortality rate in Australia. The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) aims to increase early detection of CRC by offering free Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT), although uptake is low for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups. To present data on trust and mistrust in the NBCSP by population groups with low uptake and thus to highlight areas in need of policy change. A qualitative study was undertaken in South Australia, involving interviews with 94 people from four CALD groups: Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian, and Indigenous peoples. Our study highlights the complexities of institutional trust, which involves considerations of trust at interpersonal, local and national levels. In addition, trust and mistrust was found in more abstract systems such as the medical knowledge of doctors to diagnose or treat cancer or the scientific procedures in laboratories to test the FOBTs. The object of institutional (mis)trust differed between cultural groups - Anglo-Australian and Iranian groups indicated a high level of trust in the government, whereas Indigenous participants were much less trusting. The level and nature of trust in the screening process varied between the CALD groups. Addressing program misconceptions, clarifying the FOBT capabilities and involving medical services in collecting and transporting the samples may increase trust in the NBCSP. However, broader and more enduring mistrust in services and institutions may need to be dealt with in order to increase trust and participation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chopra, A; Gupta, I D; Verma, A; Chakravarty, A K; Vohra, V
Lactoferrin (Lf) gene promoter was screened for the presence of single nucleotide polymphism in indigenous and crossbred cattle from North India and to evaluate its association with Mastitis. Study revealed the presence of genetic variation in regulatory region of bovine Lactoferrin gene using PCR-RFLP technique. Three genotypes namely GG, GH and HH were identified. A single nucleotide change, from guanine to adenine at 25th position was found to be significantly associated (pmastitis in indigenous Sahiwal and crossbred Karan Fries cattle maintained at organised herd of National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. A non-significant association was observed between subclinical mastitis, somatic cell score (SCS), and GG genotype in Karan Fries cattle, however, a lower SCS was observed in animals having GG genotype. Overall a lower incidence of clinical mastitis was recorded in those animals having GG genotype of Lf in Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) cattle. The SNP identified in the promoter region may effect expression lactoferrin protein, which may lead to different levels of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of Lf gene. Results from this study indicated the probable role played by Lactoferrin promoter to serve as candidate gene for mastitis susceptibility among indigenous and crossbred milch cattle.
Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles
Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (p<0.001) associated with seropositive herds. These findings add critical evidence to existing information on the widespread occurrence of brucellosis among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda and could guide allocation of meagre resources for awareness creation
Full Text Available Introduction Cattle are a monotocous species meaning that, under most circumstances, a successful pregnancy results in the birth of one calf. Twinning rate has been reported in dairy cows from 3 to 5 percent, which can be influenced by maternal age.The birth of twins is detrimental to the majority of beef and dairy cattle producer. Financial loss arising from any of twinning has been reported in Europe between 109 to 201 dollars in recent years. Because it is associated with undesirable consequences such as reduced survival, calf, cow increased removal rate and poor performance. This also reduces pregnancy rates and profitability herds. One of the effects of twinning severe is reduction of the number of calves for replacement fertility in dairy cows. This is a loss arising from an increase in infant mortality and a gender bias in bull calves homo zygote.Twinning rate increases significantly the incidence of reproductive abnormalities, including the retained placenta, dystocia, stillbirth and abortion. Many studies have been done on the effect of multiple pregnancies in cattle production and reproduction. Higher milk production for cows twin issue is controversial as some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the rate of twinning in dairy cattle and milk production. But in the next lactation, production for cows that have been the twin of the infected cow metabolic disease in the previous period was lower. In a study reported that cows spend fewer days in the twin peak production. The results of the study on the effect of twinning on reproductive traits of Holstein cows-Farzin showed that only half of the twin cows are prone to reproduce in the next period. It is also reported a greater number of insemination per conception in twin compared to single cows. In addition, it has been reported that the twin was more than 15 days from calving to first services. Average twin cows experiencing 1.7 times more death and removal
Tan, H.S.; Ismaya, K.H.; Sulong, A.
A study was conducted to monitor the reproductive performance of Kedah Kelantan (KK) and Brahman cattle maintained under similar environmental and management conditions on commercial farms in Malaysia. This allowed the physiological differences affecting reproductive efficiency to be identified in both pubertal and adult stock. The results revealed that the Brahman breed exhibited a better growth rate but poorer post-partum fertility than the KK. It appears that Brahman cattle require feed supplementation around the time of calving in order to reduce the duration of post-partum anoestrus. Both breeds exhibited late onset of puberty (on average at 25-36 months of age), although some animals initiated sexual activity at a much earlier age; this suggests that better selection as well as nutritional supplementation and possibly endocrine manipulation are necessary management inputs. Although the Brahman shows excellent potential in terms of performance per animal, the greater carrying capacity of the KK and its greater adaptiveness to local conditions indicate that this indigenous animal still has a major role to play in livestock production in Malaysia. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs
Ramljak, J; Ivanković, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I
It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Dash, S; Singh, A; Bhatia, A K; Jayakumar, S; Sharma, A; Singh, S; Ganguly, I; Dixit, S P
In total 52 samples of Sahiwal ( 19 ), Tharparkar ( 17 ), and Gir ( 16 ) were genotyped by using BovineHD SNP chip to analyze minor allele frequency (MAF), genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium among these cattle. The common SNPs of BovineHD and 54K SNP Chips were also extracted and evaluated for their performance. Only 40%-50% SNPs of these arrays was found informative for genetic analysis in these cattle breeds. The overall mean of MAF for SNPs of BovineHD SNPChip was 0.248 ± 0.006, 0.241 ± 0.007, and 0.242 ± 0.009 in Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Gir, respectively, while that for 54K SNPs was on lower side. The average Reynold's genetic distance between breeds ranged from 0.042 to 0.055 based on BovineHD Beadchip, and from 0.052 to 0.084 based on 54K SNP Chip. The estimates of genetic diversity based on HD and 54K chips were almost same and, hence, low density chip seems to be good enough to decipher genetic diversity of these cattle breeds. The linkage disequilibrium started decaying (r 2 < 0.2) at 140 kb inter-marker distance and, hence, a 20K low density customized SNP array from HD chip could be designed for genomic selection in these cattle else the 54K Bead Chip as such will be useful.
Forutan, M; Ansari Mahyari, S; Sargolzaei, M
Calf and heifer survival are important traits in dairy cattle affecting profitability. This study was carried out to estimate genetic parameters of survival traits in female calves at different age periods, until nearly the first calving. Records of 49,583 female calves born during 1998 and 2009 were considered in five age periods as days 1-30, 31-180, 181-365, 366-760 and full period (day 1-760). Genetic components were estimated based on linear and threshold sire models and linear animal models. The models included both fixed effects (month of birth, dam's parity number, calving ease and twin/single) and random effects (herd-year, genetic effect of sire or animal and residual). Rates of death were 2.21, 3.37, 1.97, 4.14 and 12.4% for the above periods, respectively. Heritability estimates were very low ranging from 0.48 to 3.04, 0.62 to 3.51 and 0.50 to 4.24% for linear sire model, animal model and threshold sire model, respectively. Rank correlations between random effects of sires obtained with linear and threshold sire models and with linear animal and sire models were 0.82-0.95 and 0.61-0.83, respectively. The estimated genetic correlations between the five different periods were moderate and only significant for 31-180 and 181-365 (r(g) = 0.59), 31-180 and 366-760 (r(g) = 0.52), and 181-365 and 366-760 (r(g) = 0.42). The low genetic correlations in current study would suggest that survival at different periods may be affected by the same genes with different expression or by different genes. Even though the additive genetic variations of survival traits were small, it might be possible to improve these traits by traditional or genomic selection. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Vanvanhossou, Fridaïus Ulrich Sèyi
The objective of this study was to characterize the declining Somba cattle population in its production system context. Two-hundred-twenty-four (224) cattle farm-households were surveyed in the Boukombe district, the natural habitat of the breed in North-West Benin. Information on their socioeconomic characteristics and on their herd management practices were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 15 body measurements were recorded from 102 adult cattle. Three types of breeders were distinguished: the owners-herders (54.0 %); the absentee owners (40.2 %) and the professional herders (5.8 %). The average cattle herd sizes were 4.7 ± 3.70 and 58.6 ± 22.83 heads for owner-managed and entrusted herds, respectively. Offtakes were more associated with sociocultural purposes (75.5 %) than market. While crop farming was the main occupation and income source of their owners, the Somba cattle were used for ploughing during the rainy season. In contrast to the widely accepted belief that this indigenous genetic resource is mainly threatened by crossbreeding and/or replacement, our findings suggest high mortalities due to diseases, feed and water shortages and poor reproduction management as the main causes of the decline of this cattle population. Somba cattle generally have short horns and a small body size. However, bulls have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) longer horns (21.2 ± 16.44 cm against 13.9 ± 7.21 cm), higher height at withers (99.7 ± 6.97 cm against 95.9 ± 5.76 cm) and body length (149.7 ± 12.87 cm against 146.8 ± 11.01 cm) than cows. All surveyed farmers expressed their willingness and readiness to participate in and contribute materially or financially to any program towards a sustainable use and preservation of this breed which they perceived as hardy and embedded in their culture. We therefore argue that strategies for its sustainable use and conservation should consist of simultaneously
Verma, Nishant; Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Verma, Archana; Kumar, Rakesh; Das, Ramendra; Vineeth, M R
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are expressed in response to heat stress, and the polymorphism in HSP genes at single-nucleotide level has been reported to be associated with heat tolerance and production performance traits in cattle. HSPB8 gene has been mapped on Bos taurus autosome 17 (BTA-17) spanning nearly 13,252 bp and comprising three exons and two introns. The present study was conducted in Sahiwal cows (n = 108) reared in subtropical climate with the objectives to identify SNPs in all three exons and part of intron 1 of HSPB8 gene and to analyze their association with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal cows. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded once during probable extreme hours in different seasons or Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), i.e., winter, spring, and summer. Heat tolerance coefficient (HTC) was also calculated to check the adaptability of the animals during the period of heat stress. The comparative sequence analysis revealed a total two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., g.507G>A in exon 1 and g.881T>C in intron 1 of HSPB8 gene. Out of these two identified SNPs, only one SNP, i.e., g.507G>A, was found to be significantly associated with heat tolerance indicator traits (RR, RT, and HTC) in Sahiwal cows. The perusal of results across different seasons showed the significant (P A SNP of HSPB8 gene. However, in case of another SNP, i.e., g.881T>C, located on intron 1, the RR, RT, and HTC were having non-significant association with the different genotypes, i.e., TT and TC. These findings may partly suggest that GA genotype of SNP g.507G>A of HSPB8 gene has a probable role in heat tolerance in Sahiwal cattle and can therefore be utilized as a marker in propagation of thermo-tolerance cattle in hot tropical and subtropical climate. Nevertheless, the involvement of other regulatory mechanisms cannot be overruled.
Prastowo, S.; Widi, TSM; Widyas, N.
Hybrid vigor or heterosis is the phenomenon where a crossbreed progeny has better performance compared to its parents. Heterosis can be quantified relative to the mid-parents value or relative to one of its parent’s population average by crossing two breeds. Crossbreeding is aimed to increase the production performance of local breeds. According to the Indonesian government policy, crossbreeding program is one of main strategies to achieve meat self-sufficiency. We explore the possibilities observing of heterosis exhibited by crossing Bali and Peranakan Onggole (PO) cattle as local breed with the exotic breed based on the published data. In this paper, growth and reproductive traits from Bali and PO from year 2000-2010 were used for analysis. Moreover, Limousine and Simmental exotic breed data were collected from official information of artificial insemination (AI) centre. Data in growth trait (chest girth, mature weight, weaning weight and yearling weight) in all breeds and their crosses were then analysed using standard heterosis estimation method. Result, shows that crossbred offspring perform better in the growth trait in relative to Bali and PO as local breed. Specifically in Bali crossed with PO, the offspring shown better estimated heterosis effect in yearling weight compared to both parents. Despite heterosis were observed in some traits, careful planning of crossbreeding program is a must in order to avoid the loss of genetic variance.
Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal
Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...
Three indigenous Mozambican cattle breeds, namely the Angone, Landim and Bovino de Tete were characterized using six proteins, 13 autosomal microsatellite loci and one Y-specific microsatellite locus (INRA124). The Mashona breed from Zimbabwe was also studied to elucidate the origin of the Bovino de Tete cattle.
Full Text Available Khuzestan is a southwestern province of Iran with proximity to the Persian Gulf and the international border with Iraq where harsh climate seriously affects this oil-rich region. In a search for causative agents of bovine tuberculosis (bTB, slaughterhouse specimens (lymph nodes from 32 tuberculin-positive cows originating from 17 farms were cultured on Lowenstein–Jensen slopes. This was further extended with bacterial culture of postmortem material from 6 trapped feral mice straying on the same farm premises. Twenty-five bovine and 2 murine acid-fast isolates were consequently obtained with all of them confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB complex bacteria by IS6110-PCR experiment. Spoligotyping and RD4 typing of the 2 murine and some of the collected bovine isolates left no doubt that Mycobacterium bovis is the principle and possibly the single culprit in bTB in this region. It does not come as a surprise as previous exhaustive works have shown in the Iranian environment other members of MTB complex than M. bovis are very unlikely to have any role in the epidemiology of bTB.
Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...
Rezaei, Davood; Niloufari, Morteza; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: email@example.com, email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email: email@example.com
With the coming shortage of fossil fuels it is important to develop energy efficient buildings to reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. In Iran, traditional homes have been built in a sustainable manner to withstand the high climate diversity of the country. The aim of this paper is to present the different methods used in Iranian traditional architecture. Among the architectural principles is appropriate orientation of the building to allow the capture of solar energy and at the same time protect against the cold wind. In addition, indigenous materials were used in the constructions to provide the highest degree of comfort possible with minimal damage to the environment. Finally, Iranian traditional architecture took advantage of the soil's constant temperature by building a Shvadan which is an underground space beneath the house. This article highlighted the different Iranian traditional methods which can create a sustainable architecture.
Dressing percentage and Carcass characteristics of four Indigenous cattle breeds in Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Their feed intake, live and carcasses weights and the weights of their major carcass components and ...
Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata; Roy, Krisna
A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were exam...
It is well known that goat can tolerate harsh conditions; however there are little information about its reproduction functions such as testis histomorphometry and efficiency of sertoli cells. This study aimed to estimate germ cell types and number per sertoli cell of an indigenous Iranian goat (Lori goat). Semen was collected ...
Lu, Flora; Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard E; Mena, Carlos F; Erlien, Christine M; Bremner, Jason; Barbieri, Alisson; Walsh, Stephen J
To examine differences in land use and environmental impacts between colonist and indigenous populations in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon, we combined data from household surveys and remotely sensed imagery that was collected from 778 colonist households in 64 colonization sectors, and 499 households from five indigenous groups in 36 communities. Overall, measures of deforestation and forest fragmentation were significantly greater for colonists than indigenous peoples. On average, colonist households had approximately double the area in agriculture and cash crops and 5.5 times the area in pasture as indigenous households. Nevertheless, substantial variation in land-use patterns existed among the five indigenous groups in measures such as cattle ownership and use of hired agricultural labor. These findings support the potential conservation value of indigenous lands while cautioning against uniform policies that homogenize indigenous ethnic groups.
Geertz, Armin W.
Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....
Kastens, Terry L.; Schroeder, Ted C.
Cattle feeders appear irrational when they place cattle on feed when projected profit is negative. Long futures positions appear to offer superior returns to cattle feeding investment. Cattle feeder behavior suggests that they believe a downward bias in live cattle futures persists and that cattle feeders use different expectations than the live cattle futures market price when making placement decisions. This study examines feeder cattle placement determinants, comparing performance of expec...
Sithembile Olga Makina
Full Text Available Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA including Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47, Bonsmara (n=44, Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29. Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR, expected heterozygosity (He and inbreeding coefficient (f. Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei’s genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE. Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner to 1.73 (Nguni. Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He=0.24 and the Drakensberger cattle (He=0.30 had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of South African cattle breeds.
Full Text Available The Busha is an indigenous breed of cattle in many Balkan countries. It has been bred for centuries. It belongs to primitive shorthorn cattle (Bos brachyceros europaeus. These cattle used to be the dominant and most important breed in almost all Balkan countries until the 1950s and 1960s, but today in lowland areas where intensive farming is practiced they have already been replaced by more productive and specialized breeds of cattle. In Macedonia this breed has officially been classified as a triple purpose breed (raised for meat, milk and draft but considering its low production capabilities it is more similar to some primitive draft breeds. This breed is part of the National Biodiversity Program for the conservation of indigenous breeds of animals in the Republic of Macedonia. Economic, cultural and scientific reasons underlie the need to protect the biological diversity of autochthonous breeds of cattle such as the Busha. The aim of the research was to establish a gene bank for different strains of adult Busha cattle in the Republic of Macedonia. To this end, 998 samples of blood, 1100 hair coat samples and 958 doses of semen were collected from adult Busha cattle. Also, a phenotypic characterization was done on adult Busha cattle for their major productive and morphological traits. During the last few years, there have been certain negative trends in the population size of Busha cattle in accordance with the decline of the rural population in the hills and uplands and young people's disinterest in rearing indigenous breeds of cattle such as the Busha.
The aim of this study was to investigate population structure and genetic trends based on pedigree and performance records of five indigenous African beef cattle breeds (Afrikaner, Boran, Drakensberger, Nguni and Tuli) in South Africa. Pedigree completeness over six generations was higher than 88.5% in the first ...
Mycobacterium bovis is the aetiological agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife and livestock. A study to detect BTB in live buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and evaluation of diagnostics was conducted in buffaloes and indigenous cattle in Mikumi ecosystem. Gamma interferon (γIFN) and BovidTB Stat-Pak tests were used ...
Before the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iranian graduate students and academics frequently studied or worked in the United States. That year, for example, the 51,300 Iranian students in the United States were the single largest group of foreign students in the country. Many, if not most, Iranian professors received their doctorates from American…
Xu, Yao; Jiang, Yu; Shi, Tao; Cai, Hanfang; Lan, Xianyong; Zhao, Xin; Plath, Martin; Chen, Hong
Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus) and Qinchuan (Bos taurus) are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 ...
Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike
to understand indigenous youths’ own conception of storytelling the paper presents empirical data from a study with indigenous Khoisan children in Namibia. This is followed by a discussion of an effort of digitizing indigenous intangible cultural heritage in relation to technologies’ embodied bias...
Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael
The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…
Harvey, John F.
Discusses the state of Iranian libraries since the revolution: the printing industry flourishes because of obsolete copyright laws, and the government is attempting to dewesternize media and education. Also considered are budget cuts, the revolution's cost to libraries, and its effect on individual librarians. (SW)
Harvey, John F.
Summarizes the development of Iranian library and information science education from the 1930s to the present, including the period of continuing education and university department development prior to the Islamic Revolution and the post revolutionary period of reorganization. The discussion includes an assessment of accomplishments and problems…
The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...
These studies display evolutionary events that happened in both sexes or only in females. ... The lack of polymorphisms could be as a result of lower contribution of stallions to the gene pools of the domestic horses compared to the mares because a sex bias is towards females due to a special breeding strategy (in which a ...
Le Guelte, Georges
This article proposes an overview of the Iranian nuclear issue. The author first recalls that Iran has launched a nuclear program during the 1970's with the objective of building several nuclear power stations for electricity production. He evokes contracts signed by the Shah and the consequences of the Islamic revolution after which Iranian governments thought it was absurd to leave these constructions unfinished. The author outlines the several mistakes made by Western countries in their relationship with Iran, and those made by Iran (development of hidden nuclear program for example), which altogether leaded to the present crisis. The author discusses some legal aspects, notably the fact that Iran signed very early the NPT (non proliferation Treaty) as other countries who posses nuclear weapons, did not. He outlines the political challenges at different scales, regional as well as international, and finally discusses the uncertain perspectives
Mohammad Taghi Massoudieh
Full Text Available Although Iranian regional music, like Iranian traditional[*] music, is basically monophonic and follows the rules of heterophony, we occasionally run across polyphonic pieces, although most have been unwittingly formed as such. This study shows that these polyphonic pieces could be found in the following forms: 1. The meeting of two vocal parts, where the second singer starts singing before the melody is completed by the first. 2. Imitations, as a result of singing the same melody by a few singers who consecutively start singing with some delay between their parts. 3. Simultaneous playing of variants of the same melody by two players (variant heterophony. 4. Changing between the soloist and the chorus (in the responsorial form or between one chorus and another (in an antiphoner[**] where a chorus begins the next part of the lyrics before the soloist or the other chorus is finished with their own part. 5. Polyphony resulting from the playing of a melody by a few singers where each singer sings the melody based on their own voice register depending on their physiological features. 6. Accompanying the first singer using alternate changes to the drone note or following the up-going or down-going movement of the melody in playing the tamira (in Lorestan, the dotār (in Khorasan and tamderā (in Turkman leads to the conscious parallelism of two voices. The radif of traditional music and the Iranian regional music, like those of other Middle East countries, is monophonic and follows the forms of heterophony; that is, the same melody is played and changed by two or more players. The change of a specific melody by two players, or a player and a singer, sometimes leads to the simultaneous playing of two different notes. Such an interference or combination of two sounds is a matter of heterophony, and by no means of harmony or accord. Interference of notes or combinations of notes in heterophony are not predictable. Since the melody is played extempore
Amineh, M.P.; Eisenstadt, S.N.
The Iranian Islamic Revolution, the only continual regime constituted by a modern fundamentalist movement, shares many of the characteristics of the Great revolutions. The causes of the Iranian Revolution are indeed very similar to those of the classical ones—namely the breakdown of a modernizing
Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad
While assuming that civil nuclear means progress, and that military nuclear means danger, the author explains why Iran had decided to perform nuclear research and to implement electro-nuclear science, why Iran emphasises its willingness to develop uranium enrichment, what is the Iranian policy in terms of civil nuclear industry, why Iran does not want any shift of its nuclear programme towards military purposes
G Adam Mott
Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.
Willham, R L
The purpose of this essay is to develop a historic perspective of the beef cattle population and the legion of people directing its genetic change so that future leadership can increase the rate of breeding technology assimilation. Use of cattle for beef to feed millions is relatively recent. The beef industry of the United States has a rich, romantic heritage that combined Spanish exploitation with British tradition. Spanish cattle became adapted as the Texas longhorn and the European cattle became indigenous. Breeds developed in Britain replaced both. The Zebu was introduced to produce cattle adapted to the Gulf Coast. Selection for early maturity in the British breeds promoted by livestock shows was ended by the dwarf gene. The Charolais breed demonstrated growth potential. Then in 1967, Continental European breeds were imported, given an array of biological types from which to select. Beef cattle breeding research expanded after the second world war through the three regional projects. Performance Registry International was the focal point for performance. The Beef Improvement Federation produced guidelines for recording beef performance including those for national sire evaluation. U.S. Meat Animal Research Center evaluated the several newly introduced breeds. To date, breeding researchers have developed breeding technology for the use by breeder. The major breed association are keeping and utilizing performance records. The genetic structure of the beef breeds is being altered by the use of AI such that genetic change can be made rapidly by the use of superior sires evaluated on their progeny in many herds.
The term indigenous, long used to distinguish between those who are "native" and their "others" in specific locales, has also become a term for a geocultural category, presupposing a world collectivity of "indigenous peoples" in contrast to their various "others." Many observers have noted that the stimuli for internationalization of the indigenous category originated principally from particular nation-states-Anglo-American settler colonies and Scandinavia. All, I argue, are relevantly political cultures of liberal democracy and weighty (in different ways) in international institutional affairs. However, international indigeneity has not been supported in any unqualified way by actions taken in the name of several nation-states that were among its main points of origin. In fact, staunch resistance to the international indigenous project has recently come from four of them. In 2007, the only four voting countries to reject the main product of international indigenist activity over the past 30 years, the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, were Australia, the United States, Canada, and New Zealand. In these locations, forms of "indigenous relationship" emerged that launched international indigeneity and that strongly influenced international perceptions of what "indigeneity" is and who "indigenous peoples" may be. Some other countries say the model of indigenous relationship that they see represented by the "establishing" set is inapplicable to themselves (but have nonetheless had to take notice of expanding internationalist indigenism). The apparently paradoxical rejection of the draft declaration by the establishing countries is consistent with the combination of enabling and constraining forces that liberal democratic political cultures offer.
Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the Iranian foreign policy through the case of Iranian nuclear program. The paper aims to assess foreign policy orientations and compares actions of the last three Iranian presidents, Mohammad Khatami, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and current Hassan Rouhani in dealing with the international community (IC in pursuing its nuclear program. This assessment would not be complete without reference to the Iranian supreme leader Ali Khamenei who is actual head of the state and the most powerful political authority. This paper also relates Iranian foreign policy expectation to competing theories of international relations to identify the most dominant or the most consistent policy orientation. Its aim is to strengthen realist and power-based explanations that have dominated the discourse on Middle Eastern in general and Iranian foreign policy in particular. In this context, a number of questions will be addressed here. To what extend was Iranian negotiation with the IC over its nuclear program consistent throughout these three presidencies? What has changed, if anything, from Iranian foreign policy perspective and why? Can Iranian foreign policy behavior on this specific topic and in this specific time be explained through any international relations theory? As there are many other questions, so there are many theories to examine and explain true Iranian intentions, those below the surface of declared goals (Hadzikadunic, 2014. The methods employed in answering these questions are largely structured around a chronological account and comparative approach. It is also based on the analysis of foreign policy discourse and the assessment of key decision makers.
Kastens, Terry L.; Schroeder, Ted C.
Cattle feeders appear irrational when they place cattle on feed when projected profits are negative. Long futures positions appear to offer superior returns to cattle feeding investment. Cattle feeder behavior suggests that they believe a downward bias in live cattle futures persists and that cattle feeders use different information than the live cattle futures market price when making placement decisions. This paper examines feeder cattle placement determinants and compares performance of ex...
Full Text Available This paper reports trichotillomania in eight Iranian children (7 girls and 1 boy .It is rarely seen in children and adolescents. Although some subjects are psychiatrically normal, but some suffer from depressive disorder, neurosis, or personality problems. Separation from key figure, denial of femininity/and inadequate mother-child relationship play important roles either in the etiology of trichotillomania or psychiatric disorders. Finally therapeutic interventi.ons according to the cultural factors were mentioned. Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry, Tehran Univer sity. Formerly, chief, Child Psychiatric Dept. Roozbeh Hospital Teheran University, Medical School.
Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular parasite which causes the toxoplasmosis in humans and warm-blooded animals. Red meat is an important source for transmission of the infection to humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma among imported and indigenous cattle in the Sistan region.Methods: One hundred samples from slaughtered cattle were collected from two abattoirs of Zabol and Zahedan, South East of Iran in 2015. Each sample was a mixture of three muscle, including tongue, cardiac, and triceps. Additional data of each cattle, including sex, breed, age, indigenous or imported, location of slaughter, management practices, and feeding system were obtained through observations and interviews. Infection by T. gondii was determined by PCR method.Results: The prevalence of Toxoplasma in indigenous cattle was 6% and in imported cattle was 26%, and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.006. Moreover, the prevalence of Toxoplasma was statistically associated with management practices (P=0.01 and feeding system (P=0.001. However, relationship between the prevalence of Toxoplasma with age, breed, sex, and location of slaughter was not statistically significant.Conclusion: Since the prevalence of Toxoplasma among imported cattle is higher than indigenous cattle, so strict supervision for importing livestock from neighboring countries is necessary.
Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.
This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.
Withen, K.B.; Brüniche-Olsen, A.; Pedersen, Bo Vest
A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...
Purwantara, B; Noor, R R; Andersson, G; Rodriguez-Martinez, H
Bali cattle still represents 27% of the total cattle population in Indonesia, and it is considered the pillar breed for small farmers. Moreover, it is a breed of evolutionary importance regarding its direct ancestry from Banteng. However, there is a need for the establishment of a rational system for the evaluation of breeding soundness for indigenous Bali bulls to be used as sires for artificial insemination breeding programmes. Moreover, there is a need for cryobanking of well-identified genetic resources pertaining their use in evolutionary research and application as essential germplasm in breeding programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Background: Chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. Biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. In this study, two Iranian indigenous strains of B. bassiana (B. bassiana 5197 and B. bassiana Evin were selected and grown on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of two Iranian Ixodidae members (H. anatolicum anatolicum Koch 1844, and H. marginatum Koch 1844 by dipping method.Methods: Two Iranian strains of Beauveria bassiana (Beauveria bassiana 5197 and Beauveria bassiana Evin were selected and were grown successfully on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of Iranian Ixodidae members such as, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and H. marginatum by dipping method (these ticks were grown up at laboratory conditions during 2002 up to 2003 and still it is continued .Results: There was no effect of strain 5197 on mortality or fecundity rates for ticks. There was acute phase sign of paralysis in test group after dipping ticks in suspension made from Evin strain of B. bassiana. In addition, the test groups were totally died after four months, but the control groups survived for six months.Conclusion: High concentration of fungal spores is needed for inducing fungal infection. Additional study using different strains and fungi on Iranian ticks is proposed.
stimulated electrically (500 V 12,5Hz for 2 min, polarity changes per 30 s). The right wingrib (ribs 11, 12, 13) was removed for determining the intramuscular fat of the longis- simus thoracis. Cooking loss (Naude, 1974), shear force and free water were determined on the longissimus thoracis of the left primerib (ribs 8, 9, 10).
... and both the Bovine de Tete and the Angone breeds, whereas the smallest genetic distance was observed between the Bovine de Tete and the Angone. These results show the intermediate relationship of Bovine de Tete with the Angone and Landim breeds and show that the Bovine de Tete is an admixture of taurine and ...
Radhika, G; Aravindakshan, T V; Jinty, S; Ramya, K
The legendary Vechur cattle of Kerala, described as a very short breed, and the crossbred (CB) Sunandini cattle population exhibited great phenotypic variation; hence, the present study attempted to analyze the genetic diversity existing between them. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellites were chosen from FAO-ISAG panel and amplified from genomic DNA isolated from blood samples of 30 Vechur and 64 unrelated crossbred cattle, using fluorescent labeled primers. Both populations revealed high genetic diversity as evidenced from high observed number of alleles, Polymorphic Information Content and expected heterozygosity. Observed heterozygosity was lesser (0.699) than expected (0.752) in Vechur population which was further supported by positive F IS value of 0.1149, indicating slight level of inbreeding in Vechur population. Overall, F ST value was 0.065, which means genetic differentiation between crossbred and Vechur population was 6.5%, indicating that the crossbred cattle must have differentiated into a definite population that is different from the indigenous Vechur cows. Structure analysis indicated that the two populations showed distinct differences, with two underlying clusters. The present study supports the separation between Taurine and Zebu cattle and throws light onto the genetic diversity and relationship between native Vechur and crossbred cattle populations in Kerala state.
Clinical diagnosis was made using signs of oral and feet lesions causing severe anorexia and lameness respectively in affected animals and calves. Feet lesions were found to be similar to those in exotic animals with sloughing of hoof unlike in indigenous cattle that often are interdigital granulomatous lesions. Mortality ...
Donna L. M. Kurtz
Full Text Available Increasing Indigenous health care professional presence in health care aims to reduce health inequities of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Nurses are the largest health professional group and nurse graduates the main source of recruitment. The quality of graduate transition to practice is evident in the literature; however, little is reported about Indigenous new graduates. We describe using Indigenous methodology and two-eyed seeing (Indigenous and Western perspectives in exploring Indigenous transition experiences. Talking circles provided a safe environment for nurses, nurse educators and students, health managers, and policy makers to discuss Indigenous new graduate case scenarios. The methodology was critical in identifying challenges faced, recommendations for change, and a new collective commitment for cultural safety education, and ethical and respectful relationships within education, practice, and policy.
Full Text Available Middle Eastern Muslim men have been historically subjected to stereotypical representations in the West. Although these men are categorically hypervisible for Western audiences as a similar type, among them Iranian men in particular, have been subject to a specific kind of marginalization. Following the 1979 Islamic revolution and the American hostage crisis in Iran, Iranian men and masculinity have become hypervisible as violent and religiously fanatic. While Western discourses of representation contributed greatly to the construction and representation of this specific kind of masculinity which marginalized and stigmatized Iranian men, Iranians themselves, have played a significant role in reaffirming this view. Ironically, contributing most to the reinforcement of this discourse has been Iranian women’s narratives in English in the West, in the form of memoirs and fictional accounts. These popular accounts have played a significant part in marginalizing and emphasizing a hypervisible and stereotypical representation of Iranian men. This paper considers the representation of Iranian men and masculinity as presented through Iranian women’s narratives in the West in English. By drawing on specific narratives and accounts, it examines how socio-political and historical contexts both in the West and in Iran, have led to Iranian women’s representation of Iranian men hypervisibly. Then, through an examination of some narratives by Iranian men, this paper examines how such representations have led to emphasizing the discourse of exclusion and otherness of Iranian men in the West, hampering the actual smooth integration of diasporic Iranian men into their adopted homes.
Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.
The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)
Full Text Available Teaching English in an Iranian and Islamic culture poses complex questions for both teachers and learners. In this paper, the authors intend to shed light on what it means to teach English as a foreign language (TEFL in an Islamic-Iranian context. Having reviewed the colonial and postmodern views of English language teaching, the authors took a look beyond the current state of TEFL in Iran, which is marked by its continuing global tendency, and into the future with an emphasis on the importance of including the local specificities of the Iranian culture and religion. The status of the TEFL in Iran and the direction it should take in the future are accompanied by offering some solutions to inherent problems. Iranian TEFL is introduced as the successful assertion of Iranian local culture against the cultural and ideological domination of the West, which can be an antidote to the harshness of all marginalizations Iranians have suffered for centuries.
Sarfati, Diana; Garvey, Gail; Robson, Bridget; Moore, Suzanne; Cunningham, Ruth; Withrow, Diana; Griffiths, Kalinda; Caron, Nadine R; Bray, Freddie
It is estimated that there are 370 million indigenous peoples in 90 countries globally. Indigenous peoples generally face substantial disadvantage and poorer health status compared with nonindigenous peoples. Population-level cancer surveillance provides data to set priorities, inform policies, and monitor progress over time. Measuring the cancer burden of vulnerable subpopulations, particularly indigenous peoples, is problematic. There are a number of practical and methodological issues potentially resulting in substantial underestimation of cancer incidence and mortality rates, and biased survival rates, among indigenous peoples. This, in turn, may result in a deprioritization of cancer-related programs and policies among these populations. This commentary describes key issues relating to cancer surveillance among indigenous populations including 1) suboptimal identification of indigenous populations, 2) numerator-denominator bias, 3) problems with data linkage in survival analysis, and 4) statistical analytic considerations. We suggest solutions that can be implemented to strengthen the visibility of indigenous peoples around the world. These include acknowledgment of the central importance of full engagement of indigenous peoples with all data-related processes, encouraging the use of indigenous identifiers in national and regional data sets and mitigation and/or careful assessment of biases inherent in cancer surveillance methods for indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taye, Mengistie; Lee, Wonseok; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Dessie, Tadelle; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwai, Okeyo Ally; Kemp, Stephen; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal
As African indigenous cattle evolved in a hot tropical climate, they have developed an inherent thermotolerance; survival mechanisms include a light-colored and shiny coat, increased sweating, and cellular and molecular mechanisms to cope with high environmental temperature. Here, we report the positive selection signature of genes in African cattle breeds which contribute for their heat tolerance mechanisms. We compared the genomes of five indigenous African cattle breeds with the genomes of four commercial cattle breeds using cross-population composite likelihood ratio (XP-CLR) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) statistical methods. We identified 296 (XP-EHH) and 327 (XP-CLR) positively selected genes. Gene ontology analysis resulted in 41 biological process terms and six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Several genes and pathways were found to be involved in oxidative stress response, osmotic stress response, heat shock response, hair and skin properties, sweat gland development and sweating, feed intake and metabolism, and reproduction functions. The genes and pathways identified directly or indirectly contribute to the superior heat tolerance mechanisms in African cattle populations. The result will improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms of heat tolerance in African cattle breeds and opens an avenue for further study. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Ismail A. Abaker
Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, during the period from June to September 2015, to study the prevalence of bovine tropical theileriosis. Materials and Methods: Apparently, healthy cattle of different age groups, different breeds, and from both sexes were randomly selected from seven locations. Three age groups of cattle were selected, group one <1 year old, group two 1-3 years old, and group three older than 3 years. These cattle were indigenous and cross (Friesian X zebu. A total of 150 blood samples were collected for blood smears, blood in EDTA tubes, and serum samples as well as ticks infesting cattle. Three diagnostic techniques were used such as blood smear, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Of 150 samples, 11 (7.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.1-5.5 were positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in the blood smears, 70 (46.7%, 95% CI: 35.7-57.7 were positive for Theileria annulata antibodies in the IFAT, and of 100 samples, 39 (39%, 95% CI: 46.6-31.4 were positive for T. annulata using PCR. The prevalence of T. annulata was higher in indigenous breed than cross cattle by the three diagnostic techniques. The highest prevalence of T. annulata was recorded among cattle older than 3 years old. There were three genera and ten species of ticks found feeding on cattle. These were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedrii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma truncatum, Amblyomma variegatum, and Amblyomma lepidum. Conclusion: The study concluded that tropical theileriosis is prevalent among dairy cattle in Nyala. H. anatolicum was found in very low numbers, suggesting other ticks may play a role in the transmission of the disease. Molecular characterization of T. annulata is recommended for accurate mapping of the disease and evaluates the magnitude problem of
Crytzer, Kurt S
.... The Iranians refuse to fold to international pressures concerning their nuclear program, covertly and overtly back radical Shiite Groups, and respond with ever increasing confidence to any international...
This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.
The civil nuclear constitutes an alibi for Iran which the real aim is the access to the military nuclear power. It was probably the initial goal, before and after the 1979 revolution. The provocative speech of Iranian rulers on Israel constitute a reason to enrich uranium at military ends. But it appears that's not the only reason for Iran to pursue its nuclear program. Will not be efficient to begin sincere negotiations with Iran and to engage a policy of denuclearization of the region? Moreover the international interferences on the Iranian matters could be detrimental. Indeed, democratic freedoms won't spread in Iran, if the great decisions that concern the country don't take into account the national willing
Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour
Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...
Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour
Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of the most famous ancient textbooks of Iranian traditional medicine from different centuries. This books includeThe Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (the first version of Beirut), Zakhire Kharazmshahi by Jurjani (the scanned version of Bonyade Farhang-e Iran), Malfaregh by Razes (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences), and Aqili’s cure by Aqili (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences). Results: This study found that in Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts, insomnia was called sahar and even though many factors induce insomnia, most of them act through causing brain dystemperament. Conclusions: The brain dystemperament is considered one of the main causes of insomnia and insomnia can be well managed with an organized line of treatment, by correcting the brain dystemperament through elimination of causes. This study helps to find new solutions to treat insomnia. PMID:24829786
Full Text Available During the twentieth century, indigenous peoples have often embraced the category of indigenous while also having to face the ambiguities and limitations of this concept. Indigeneity, whether represented by indigenous people themselves or others, tends to face a “double bind”, as defined by Gregory Bateson, in which “no matter what a person does, he can’t win.” One exit strategy suggested by Bateson is meta-communication—communication about communication—in which new solutions emerge from a questioning of system-internal assumptions. We offer case studies from Ecuador, Peru and Alaska that chart some recent indigenous experiences and strategies for such scenarios.
Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…
Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad
Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hamid Ebadollahi Chanzanagh
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate presence of nationalhistorical events in Iraniancollective memory. According to social theorists remembering is a socialphenomenon which occurs in social cadres. In Iranian social context, ethnicity,generation, religion and education are important social cadres of memory. 384national samples from three different ethnicities,Azeri, Gilaki and Kurd, werechosen by quota sampling. Results of survey indicated three social cadres ofgeneration, religion and education explained remembering national historicalevents and Iranian collective memory is basically rooted in national historicalevents rather than ethnic one. ‘The 1979 Islamic revolution’, ‘Iran’s oilnationalization and the following 1953 Iranian coupd’état’ from the last centuryevents and ‘Iranian constitutional revolution’, ‘Russo-Persian wars’ from prior tothe last century events are the most important national events remembered byIranian.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…
Hanna, Philippe; Langdon, Esther Jean; Vanclay, Frank
Protests to claim rights are a common practice among Indigenous peoples of the world, especially when their interests conflict with those of nation states and/or multinational corporations regarding the use of their lands and resources. Drawing on a case study of the National Indigenous Mobilization
The thesis (working title: 'Indigenous Education and Heritage Revitalization') focuses on the (possible) roles of tangible and intangible cultural heritage in the education of indigenous peoples in Taiwan, against the background of worldwide discussions and studies of the possibilities to create and
Lilian Alessa; Carlos Andrade; Phil Cash Cash; Christian P. Giardina; Matt Hamabata; Craig Hammer; Kai Henifin; Lee Joachim; Jay T. Johnson; Kekuhi Kealiikanakaoleohaililani; Deanna Kingston; Andrew Kliskey; Renee Pualani Louis; Amanda Lynch; Daryn McKenny; Chels Marshall; Mere Roberts; Taupouri Tangaro; Jyl Wheaton-Abraham; Everett. Wingert
This policy brief explores the use and expands the conversation on the ability of geospatial technologies to represent Indigenous cultural knowledge. Indigenous peoples' use of geospatial technologies has already proven to be a critical step for protecting tribal self-determination. However, the ontological frameworks and techniques of Western geospatial...
Wilde, de W.J.J.O.
A short revision of the indigenous Old World taxa in Passifiora in the form of a key, the enumeration of synonyms, descriptions, and an index accounting for all names proposed for the area. Examined specimens, distributional areas, and some notes are given. In the Old World 20 indigenous species are
Support for indigenous peoples has been increasing over the last few decades. This can be seen internationally, as well as in several domestic contexts. The support for indigenous people has been linked to the increasingly prominent impetus to conserve the Earth’s biodiversity and environment.
Wright, Jason T.
One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.
Wang Shi Chang
Full Text Available Twenty buffaloes and twenty Vietnamese yellow cattle from peri-urban Hue city were kept indoor and used for measurement of effect of environmental temperature (To and humidity (H%. The To and H% were recorded by thermo-hygrometers for temperature and humidity index (THI measurement. Breathing rate was observed by moving rate of diaphragm, heart beat rhythms was calculated by stethoscope around 3 to 4 ribs and body To tested by 42oC thermo-meters in animal rectums. The results showed that the To in the area studied varied widely during the day and when To increased H% often decreased. During the study period the average To changed from 24oC in February to 39oC in May. The H% varied from 57 to 86. The environmental To and H% had very little effect on body To for both types of animals (37oC to 39oC but there were changes in heart beat from 42 to 45 in cattle but from 44 to 57 in buffaloes. In warmest period with high H% (THI 83 breathing rates in cattle varied from 18 to 21 while in buffaloes from 20 to 35 and in May it increased to 50. At the warmest time of the day the heart beat in cattle were 42 while in buffaloes 57. The breathing rate in cattle only increased when ambient To was above 39 degrees. The results clearly showed that buffaloes were easily stressed when To and H% increased. Buffaloes need water and swamps to help to avoid heat stress while indigenous cattle are much better adapted to high environmental To and H%.
Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.
Full Text Available Bali cattle is very popular Indonesian local beef related to their status in community living process of farmers in Indonesia, especially as providers of meat and exotic animal. Bali cattle were able to adapt the limited environment and becoming local livestock that existed until recently. In our early study by microsatellites showed that Bali cattle have specific allele. In this study we analyzed the variance of partly sex related Y (SRY gene sequence in Bali cattle bull as a source of cement for Artificial Insemination (AI. Blood from 17 two location of AI center, Singosari, Malang and Baturiti, Bali was collected and then extracted to get the DNA genome. PCR reaction was done to amplify partially of SRY gene segment and followed by sequencing PCR products to get the DNA sequence of SRY gene. The SRY gene sequence was used to determine the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship. We found that Bali cattle bull from Singosari has relatively closed genetic relationship with Baturiti. It is also supported that in early data some Bali bulls of Singosari were came from Baturiti. It has been known that Baturiti is the one source of Bali cattle bull with promising genetic potential. While, in general that Bali bull where came from two areas were not different on reproductive performances. It is important to understand about the genetic variation of Bali cattle in molecular level related to conservation effort and maintaining the genetic characters of the local cattle. So, it will not become extinct or even decreased the genetic quality of Indonesian indigenous cattle. Key Words : Bali cattle, SRY gene, artificial insemination, phylogenetic, allele Animal Production 13(3:150-155 (2011
Sharma, Rekha; Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, Manishi; Ahlawat, Sonika; Maitra, Avishek; Pandey, Ashwni Kumar; Tantia, Madhu Sudan
Indian agriculture is an economic symbiosis of crop and livestock production with cattle as the foundation. Sadly, the population of indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) is declining (8.94% in last decade) and needs immediate scientific management. Genetic characterization is the first step in the development of proper management strategies for preserving genetic diversity and preventing undesirable loss of alleles. Thus, in this study we investigated genetic diversity and relationship among eleven Indian cattle breeds using 21 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial D loop sequence. The analysis of autosomal DNA was performed on 508 cattle which exhibited sufficient genetic diversity across all the breeds. Estimates of mean allele number and observed heterozygosity across all loci and population were 8.784 ± 0.25 and 0.653 ± 0.014, respectively. Differences among breeds accounted for 13.3% of total genetic variability. Despite high genetic diversity, significant inbreeding was also observed within eight populations. Genetic distances and cluster analysis showed a close relationship between breeds according to proximity in geographic distribution. The genetic distance, STRUCTURE and Principal Coordinate Analysis concluded that the Southern Indian Ongole cattle are the most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. Sequencing of hypervariable mitochondrial DNA region on a subset of 170 cattle revealed sixty haplotypes with haplotypic diversity of 0.90240, nucleotide diversity of 0.02688 and average number of nucleotide differences as 6.07407. Two major star clusters for haplotypes indicated population expansion for Indian cattle. Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes show a similar pattern of genetic variability and genetic differentiation. Various analyses concluded that the Southern breed 'Ongole' was distinct from breeds of Northern/ Central India. Overall these results provide basic information about genetic diversity and structure of Indian cattle which
Full Text Available Bovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by obligate intracellular parasites related to the genus Theileria. Cellular immune responses protect cattle against pathogens through the activation of immune cells. Nowadays, live, attenuated vaccine of Theileria annulata (T. annulata is being produced in Iran and is recommended for active cattle immunization. Detection of the immunogenic antigens and epitopes recognized by CD8+ T Lymphocytes is vital for the development of recombinant and subunit vaccines. Herein, sequences of the genes encoding Ta9, which is an important antigen recognized by bovine CD8+ T cells specific for T. annulata, in Iranian S15 vaccine strains, several Iranian isolates, as well as reference Ta9 DNA sequences registered in GeneBank were compared through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The obtained data from DNA sequences were analyzed by using "Nucleotide", "Blast n", "BioEdit" and "IEDB" softwares. The results showed high level of variation in nucleotides and amino acids level. The observed polymorphism in Ta9 gene sequences of Iranian vaccine strains and some isolates from Iran demonstrated that this antigen contains polymorphic sequences and is active along with the specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC of the host. Polymorphic sequences and specific epitopes of Ta9 gene for CD8+ T cell provides an explanation for incomplete protection observed after inoculation of heterologous parasites in vaccinated cattle. These results have important implications for the application of Ta9 antigen for developing novel subunit vaccines.
S. Jegaveera Pandian
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results: In this study, it was found that the seroprevalence of L. hardjo was 9.11% and that of B. abortus was 12.2% in Bihar. Indigenous cattle were found to be less susceptible to leptospirosis and brucellosis even though they accounted for 83.11% of the study population. Conclusion: Although there was no acute disease, antibodies detected against L. hardjo and B. abortus in the cattle population indicated the presence of chronic and subclinical infection, which could challenge the fertility of the animals.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare Iranian elderly with the youth and middle aged population in terms of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Iranian elderly METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the information from the third phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Male and female residents of Isfahan who aged over 19 years were selected by multistage cluster random sampling. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, health status, medical history, medications used, as well as waist circumference, weight, height and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was completed for all participants. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all subjects and examined for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals aged over 60 years was significantly higher than those under 60 (49.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively; P < 0.001. It was also more prevalent among elderly females than in males (59.2% vs. 39.8%, respectively; P < 0.005. Some anthropometric measures such as height, body mass index, abdominal circumference, waist-hip ratio, and waist to height ratio were significantly different in men and women below 60 years in comparison with those over 60 years (P < 0.05. Moreover, there were significant differences in most studied parameters between the elderly and non-elderly women (P < 0.001. Based on the findings of this study, the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were significantly more prevalent in men and women over 60 years. T-test and Mann-Whitney were used for quantitative data and the square-chi test is performed for qualitative data. CONCLUSION: This study showed that metabolic syndrome has a relatively high prevalence in Iranian elderly people (especially in women. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of the complication are recommended among this high-risk group. Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Elderly, Iran
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Massage training and how the body is influenced by massage are common issues which are seriously under study and discussion in Iranian traditional medicine. Iranian physicians considered motion and massage as major principles of health maintenance.In this study, we examined the available literature of traditional medicine to evaluate location, purpose and use of massage therapy in Iranian medicine in comparison with other popular conventional styles.The aim of Iranian massage is to regulate the core body temperature and aid to eliminate the waste products from the body. This type of massage is divided into five categories including solid, soft, moderate, great and aggressive, based on the intensity, speed, duration and techniques of massage.Iranian physicians proposed general body massage or massage of a particular area based on subjective complaints. They recommended specific massages in particular groups including children, pregnant women, the elderly and athletes. In some cases, the effects of these recommendations have been studied in clinical trials.Conclusion: It seems that the major difference between Iranian massage and other styles of massage is special attention of Iranian massage to the individual circumstances, and the cause of the problem rather than technique of the massage.
Full Text Available The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to identify items of ‘unfinished business’ in a ‘Statement of Indigenous Rights’. But there has been limited progress to meet these aspirations. And Australian law still lacks a tradition of recognition of human rights generally, let alone Indigenous rights. International law, too, largely lacked recognition of human rights, generally prior to the adoption in 1945 of the Charter of the United Nations. The brief references in the Charter were subsequently developed in a range of declarations and of treaties. These applied to people generally, with scant reference to Indigenous peoples. But, since the 1970s, there has been growing international recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples under existing declarations and treaties. Since the 1990s, in particular, the UN system has established specific mechanisms for addressing such issues. On 13 September 2007, the General Assembly finally adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
Catherine E. Gordon
Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.
www.iucc.ac.il/academia (accessed May 10, 2009), video . 2 Kenneth Katzman, “Iran’s Activities and Influence in Iraq,” (Washington, D.C...population at large. The Iranian ulama play a significant role in Iraq because Iranian religious men dominate the Shia clergy in Iraq. The majority of the...University Press, 2004. Banuazizi, Ali. Iranian Nationality and the Persian Language. Washington, D.C.: Mage Publishers, 1992. Bell, Gertrude. The
Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij
champions. However, recently growing number of Chinese companies are seeking to create a foundation for growth and development based on innovation. As a result of this, many of them spread their operations to the countries of the traditional industrial ‘triad’ of North America, Europe and Japan to capture...... a foothold in these markets and to tap into the advanced technologies and concepts originating from this developed context. Another category of Chinese companies includes those who seek to move from routine transactional tasks to more innovation-intensive concepts while remaining in China and relying...... on their own in-house resources. The development and implementation of indigenous innovation solutions for these companies is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Therefore, by employing an explorative case of a Chinese company behind an innovative logistics concept...
Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.
We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue....... Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research....
Weny, Geoffrey; Okwee-Acai, James; Okech, Samuel George; Tumwine, Gabriel; Ndyanabo, Susan; Abigaba, Salvatory; Goldberg, Tony L
Livestock production is a major sector of the Ugandan economy. Ugandan ruminant livestock (principally cattle and goats) are susceptible to hemoparasites that can cause serious clinical disease and production losses. Kibale National Park, in western Uganda, is a protected forest ecosystem surrounded by small-scale farms where cattle and goats are raised. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cattle and goats in this area and diagnosed hemoparasite infections by microscopy. We collected data on animal characteristics and management practices to assess risk factors associated with infection. We studied 186 cattle and 317 goats from 20 villages, including 16 villages directly adjacent to Kibale and 4 villages ≥3 km from the park boundary. Hemoparasites detected in cattle and goats were of the genera Theileria, Anaplasma, and Trypanosoma with a prevalence of 15.1%, 1.6%, and 4.3% respectively in cattle, and 10%, 6.0%, and 0.0%, respectively in goats. Trypanosomes infected approximately 8% of cattle in villages bordering Kibale but were never detected in cattle in "control" villages ≥3 km from the park. Trypanosomes were approximately 7 times more likely to infect animals in households that did not provide veterinary care to their animals than in households that provided routine veterinary care. Within cattle, Theileria infections were approximately 7 times more likely to occur in cross-bred cattle than in indigenous pure breeds. Anaplasma infections were approximately 3.5 times more likely to occur in cattle than in goats (no goats were diagnosed with Trypanosoma infection). These data suggest that proximity to the park, provision of veterinary care, and breed are significant risk factors for hemoparasites in this population of ruminants, and that, in general, cattle are more susceptible than goats.
Full Text Available This study investigates the level of Narcissism among 185 Iranian auditors groups and narcissism has been used to describe people behavior in people groups. The present study uses a questionnaire to measure Narcissism and to examine the hypotheses of the paper analysis of variance and T-test are used. The results of testing hypotheses show that the level of narcissism was significantly different in auditors groups in private sector. However, in public sector, the difference between narcissistic personality in auditors’ groups is not significant. Results of the study also indicated that, in private sector, narcissistic personality in young generation of auditors was higher than audit old generation. These results confirm previous studies on narcissism indicating that narcissistic behavior was high among young generation. We suggest the Iranian association of certified public accountants (IACPA to review the ethical training needs for auditors. In addition, audit firms can provide a system to increase interaction among old generations of auditors with young generation of auditors.
Stokka, G L; Lechtenberg, K; Edwards, T; MacGregor, S; Voss, K; Griffin, D; Grotelueschen, D M; Smith, R A; Perino, L J
This article examines the various causes of lameness in feedlot cattle, with an emphasis on clinical signs, treatment, and prevention. Specific conditions are discussed, including interdigital necrobacillosis, laminitis, feedlot injuries, and feedlot lameness associated with Mycoplasma bovis. Immune management of the foot is also reviewed.
Julian, R J; Harrison, K B
A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.
Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex
The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.
Burger, Julian; Kapron, Mary
This paper identifies the principal concerns of indigenous peoples with regard to current international treaties on certain psychoactive substances and policies to control and eradicate their production, trafficking, and sale. Indigenous peoples have a specific interest in the issue since their traditional lands have become integrated over time into the large-scale production of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis crops, in response to high demand from the American and European markets, among others. As a consequence, indigenous peoples are persecuted because of their traditional use of these and other plant-based narcotics and hallucinogens. They are also victims of the drug producers who remove them from their lands or forcibly recruit them into the production process. As indigenous peoples are caught in the violent world of illicit drug production, law enforcement often targets them first, resulting in disproportionate rates of criminalization and incarceration.
Indigenous Technological Innovation : Capability and Competitiveness in China's ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.
The number of Iranian immigrants in Canada has been increasing since 1979. This study is the result of a review of 111 charts of Iranian patients who were referred for psychiatric treatment between 1985 and 1988. Ninety-eight percent of them arrived in Canada after the Iranian revolution, which started in 1979, and the Iran-Iraq war of 1980. Ten percent were experiencing trauma as a result of their involvement with the revolutionary government or the war. The symptoms were in accordance with the DSM-III-R criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Sixty percent met the criteria for adjustment disorder with depressed or anxious mood. Six percent had been subjected to physical and psychological torture and confinement. This is the first study that looks at the prevalence of psychiatric illness among Iranians and illustrates the effect of migration and displacement in the integrity of the psychic life of this population.
Presents three major types of language awareness elicited during a pilot study, using data collection instruments, such as interviews and tape recordings of the conversations of two groups of Iranian children living in the United Kingdom. (Author/VWL)
... designated Iranian financial institution, NIOC, or NICO in a direct customer relationship generally would be... relationship. (e) Impact. The impact of the transaction(s) or financial services on the objectives of the...
Full Text Available Tehran as a symbol of Iranian modernity has been considered in many Iranian fiction films. Representation of Tehran in cinema can be the representation of Iranian modernity revolution. This study focuses on the representation of urban image in Iranian fiction films through critical theories such as Simmel or Benjamin opinions. In this article we discus about the mediator role of cinema for representing the Urban life Image and confliction of modernity in Iran.Meanwhile some megalopolis such as Paris, Berlin, Moscow, New York and sanpitersboorg est.…have had great opportunity for understanding confliction of modernity in their situation, Tehran has never have that chance. Regarding to this vacuum we want to explain the role of Iranian fiction films for understanding the entrance of modernity consequences in different eras. We believed that fiction films can represent confliction of city and village, represent of modern dualities, non cohesive rationality and many other gaps in Iranian modernity that we have to know.
This article examines to what extent the recently adopted United Nations Declarations on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples participate to the development of indigenous peoples' international human rights.
Hariansyah, A. R.; Raharjo, A.; Zainuri, A.; Parwoto, Y.; Prasetiyo, D.; Prastowo, S.; Widyas, N.
Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) is Indonesian indigenous cattle with having superior genetics potential on fitness traits in tropical environment and low feed quality. Bali Cattle Breeding Center Pulukan Indonesia conducted progeny test per annum in order to select bulls using offspring’s phenotype. This paper aimed to estimate the genetic parameters of yearling weight in Bali cattle progeny test populations and to observe the variation between periods in the above breeding center. Data were collected from the year of 2013 to 2014. There were four bulls (3 tests, 1 AI control) in 2013 and five bulls (4 tests, 1 AI) in 2014. Thirty breeding females were allocated per paddock per bull and allowed to mate naturally. In total 80 and 104 offspring’s records were obtained from 2013 and 2014 data, respectively. We built half-sib family model to estimate the additive genetic variance due to the sire and later estimate the breeding value (EBV) of each sire. Results showed that in 2013 the heritability (h2) for yearling weight was 0.19 while in 2014 was 0.79. In both years, tested bulls had higher EBV compared to the control bulls. The remarkable difference of heritability between years was due to the variations among bull candidates which might differ every year with regards to their origins. The fact that the EBV of tested bulls were higher than the control bulls gave us insight that despite the conservation policy and the continuous departure of Bali cattle bulls outside the Island, the population could still maintain its genetic quality.
Full Text Available Objectives: Stigma is a negative value. Many behaviors are to ward Stigmatized people. Down syndrome is one of conditions with Stigma. The aim of this study is to determine the sources of labeling in iranian Down syndrome. Methods: The View of 105 Down syndrome families concerning stigma were conducted. All of Down syndrome was under 50 years. Results: A fair proportion of Down syndrome families perceived that stigma had a negative effect from social. Causes of stigma are different. Stigma due social interaction, Media and health professionals are significant than others. Discussion: The diagnostic label of Down syndrome may render the person and his family vulnerable to stigmatization. The most causes of stigma were determined therefore, in the destigmatization programs, they must be attended. Stigma must be detected, too.
Liang, J.B.; Pimpa, O.; Abdullah, N.; Jelan, Z.A.; Nolan, J.V.
Two experiments were conducted in order to develop equations for predicting rumen microbial protein production for indigenous Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle and swamp buffaloes in Malaysia, using urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion rates. Endogenous PD excretion rates determined by a fasting procedure for KK cattle and swamp buffalo were 275 and 370 μmol/kg W 0.75 /day, respectively. Urinary PD excretion rate per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) for KK cattle was higher than that for swamp buffalo, reconfirming the earlier findings. Glomerular filtration rate, allantoin and uric acid tubular load and PD re-absorption rate for swamp buffalo were generally higher than those for KK cattle. However, due to the large variations among animals within species, these parameters were not significantly different between species. Nevertheless, the higher PD reabsorption in swamp buffalo provides support for the earlier postulation that the lower urinary PD excretion rate of swamp buffalo was due to their higher recycling of plasma PD as compared to KK cattle. Labelled 8- 14 C uric acid was used to estimate the ratio of renal to non-renal PD excretion. The recovery rates of the radioactive tracer via the renal route for both species were much lower than values reported previously for unlabelled PD for European cattle. (author)
Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique. Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases.
Full Text Available The paper is initiated to design appropriate conservation strategies and breeding scheme for Fogera cattle breed that will be used as a guide for other Ethiopian indigenous cattle breed. Two types of data, on-farm and on-station, were used; the on-farm data was collected from three districts, namely, Fogera, Dera, and Bahir Dar Zuria; those are expected as the home of the breed. A total of 150 farmers, which are knowledgeable and having at least one cattle of Fogera phenotype in their herd, were purposively selected and interviewed. Additionally, farmer’s focus group discussion (FGD was conducted to capture the historical background, population, and distribution of the breed. SPSS (version 16 and index method was used to analyze the quantitative and scoring data’s, respectively. A meeting at national and regional level was also conducted to evaluate the existing conservation strategy and to identify the major stakeholders for the strategy. The main reasons to conserve Fogera breed are due to presence of interrelated constraints, presence of unique traits of the breed, better attitude of farmers, and decreasing population trend of the breed. Community-based in situ conservation strategy, to ensure the participation of the community, was designed for the breed. With the conservation strategy, related activities like feed development, animal health interventions, market linkage, and development of cooperatives will be implemented to improve the working environment. The stakeholders that are identified as an actor in the strategy should realize their honest participation for the sustainability of conservation and improvement of the breed.
Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education.
Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.
Full Text Available Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.
kantanen, J; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik
Blood samples were collected from 743 animals from 15 indigenous, 2 old imported, and 3 commercial North European cattle breeds. The samples were analyzed for 11 erythrocyte antigen systems, 8 proteins, and 10 microsatellites, and used to assess inter- and intrabreed genetic variation and genetic......, allelic diversity has been reduced in several breeds, which was explained by limited effective population sizes over the course of man-directed breed development and demographic bottlenecks of indigenous breeds. A tree showing genetic relationships between breeds was constructed from a matrix of random...... drift-based genetic distance estimates. The breeds were classified on the basis of the tree topology into four major breed groups, defined as Northern indigenous breeds, Southern breeds, Ayrshire and Friesian breeds, and Jersey. Grouping of Nordic breeds was supported by documented breed history...
Hopkins, Shelley; Sampson, Geoff P; Hendicott, Peter L; Wood, Joanne M
Little is known about the prevalence of refractive error, binocular vision, and other visual conditions in Australian Indigenous children. This is important given the association of these visual conditions with reduced reading performance in the wider population, which may also contribute to the suboptimal reading performance reported in this population. The aim of this study was to develop a visual profile of Queensland Indigenous children. Vision testing was performed on 595 primary schoolchildren in Queensland, Australia. Vision parameters measured included visual acuity, refractive error, color vision, nearpoint of convergence, horizontal heterophoria, fusional vergence range, accommodative facility, AC/A ratio, visual motor integration, and rapid automatized naming. Near heterophoria, nearpoint of convergence, and near fusional vergence range were used to classify convergence insufficiency (CI). Although refractive error (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p = 0.04) and strabismus (Indigenous, 0%; non-Indigenous, 3%; p = 0.03) were significantly less common in Indigenous children, CI was twice as prevalent (Indigenous, 10%; non-Indigenous, 5%; p = 0.04). Reduced visual information processing skills were more common in Indigenous children (reduced visual motor integration [Indigenous, 28%; non-Indigenous, 16%; p < 0.01] and slower rapid automatized naming [Indigenous, 67%; non-Indigenous, 59%; p = 0.04]). The prevalence of visual impairment (reduced visual acuity) and color vision deficiency was similar between groups. Indigenous children have less refractive error and strabismus than their non-Indigenous peers. However, CI and reduced visual information processing skills were more common in this group. Given that vision screenings primarily target visual acuity assessment and strabismus detection, this is an important finding as many Indigenous children with CI and reduced visual information processing may be missed. Emphasis should be placed on identifying
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights... Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 562 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...--IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Subpart A--Relation of This Part to Other Laws and...
Wojcieszak, M.; Brouillette, A.; Smith, B.
The Iran Media Program conducted a survey of Iranian journalists living and working outside Iran. Our aim was to examine more closely the role and relationship between Iranian reporters abroad and their international and domestic audiences, as well as to broaden our knowledge of the Iranian diaspora
Frisch, J.E.; Vercoe, J.E.
Improvement in productivity of cattle in some areas of tropical Africa is likely to be related mainly to improvement in environmental conditions, including the implementation of effective vaccination programmes and an increased availability of feed. In other areas, scope also exists to increase output by increasing the genetic potential of indigenous breeds and animals. The variation within indigenous breeds in resistance to environmental stresses and in genetic potentials could be exploited by within-breed selection but responses are likely to be slow. Initial attempts at genetic improvements should therefore concentrate on utilizing between-breed variation in these traits by identifying breeds with the required attributes and crossing them to the breed under improvement. Increases in milk yield and size are mainly dependent on the successful implementation of cross-breeding programmes aimed at maintaining high resistance to environmental stresses while also increasing genetic potentials up to the level that can be supported by the available nutrition. The most suitable combination of breeds to be used in these crosses is not known at present. However, in areas of high trypanosome challenge, crosses between trypanotolerant breeds from East and West Africa may be the best option. In areas of lower trypanosome challenge but where high levels of other environmental stresses exist, crosses between indigenous and Indian breeds may be the most appropriate. Only in those areas where parasite and disease challenge is low and the plane of nutrition is high will crosses to higher yielding European Bos taurus breeds be suitable. Improved standards of living of sections of society and increases in population have contributed to increased demand for cattle products. If this demand is to be met from African sources, output must be increased. Some of the ways in which this may be achieved are considered in the paper. (author)
Bahbahani, Hussain; Salim, Bashir; Almathen, Faisal; Al Enezi, Fahad; Mwacharo, Joram M; Hanotte, Olivier
Butana and Kenana are two types of zebu cattle found in Sudan. They are unique amongst African indigenous zebu cattle because of their high milk production. Aiming to understand their genome structure, we genotyped 25 individuals from each breed using the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip. Genetic structure analysis shows that both breeds have an admixed genome composed of an even proportion of indicine (0.75 ± 0.03 in Butana, 0.76 ± 0.006 in Kenana) and taurine (0.23 ± 0.009 in Butana, 0.24 ± 0.006 in Kenana) ancestries. We also observe a proportion of 0.02 to 0.12 of European taurine ancestry in ten individuals of Butana that were sampled from cattle herds in Tamboul area suggesting local crossbreeding with exotic breeds. Signatures of selection analyses (iHS and Rsb) reveal 87 and 61 candidate positive selection regions in Butana and Kenana, respectively. These regions span genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with biological pathways that are important for adaptation to marginal environments (e.g., immunity, reproduction and heat tolerance). Trypanotolerance QTL are intersecting candidate regions in Kenana cattle indicating selection pressure acting on them, which might be associated with an unexplored level of trypanotolerance in this cattle breed. Several dairy traits QTL are overlapping the identified candidate regions in these two zebu cattle breeds. Our findings underline the potential to improve dairy production in the semi-arid pastoral areas of Africa through breeding improvement strategy of indigenous local breeds.
Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an initial theoretical grounding to assess a practical project: a new software application that attempts to be a beneficial resource in the field of Indigenous representation. As a starting point, we are concerned to provide a theoretical ground for considering the inherited and shifting spaces of Indigenous media representation. To this end, this paper reconsiders the strengths and weaknesses of debates surrounding the ‘Indigenous public sphere’. This is used as grounds for critically understanding the relations that constitute this field. Following this, we consider how a more materialist approach to publics might enable a productive reconceptualization, and in particular how digital media initiatives and shifting news markets may be contributing to change. Finally, drawing on this model, we outline both the ‘Wakul app’ project, and how this framework might inform an assessment of its impact.
Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems ... Yet in Africa, where traditional religions and thought systems of the indigenous people of Africa were formerly ... and the active participation of respondents in the research process.
Indigenous games are an integral component of indigenous knowledge systems. ... and national activities; mathematical concepts associated with the games; possibilities and implications for general classroom ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Faculty of Education, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, Unisa, 0003 South Africa ... Indigenous Knowledge also termed Traditional, Endogenous or Classical .... its civilisation, carries both its indigenous and modern knowledge systems.
This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.
Curriculum enrichment through indigenous Zulu games. ... 1997). The aim of the study was to document and analyze indigenous Zulu games for possible curriculum enrichment of physical ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
Cordia millenii, Ficus spp, Markhamia lutea and Albizia spp are the most commonly used indigenous ... activities like construction of roads and expansion of ranches and ... impact of traditional uses of indigenous tress on the sustainability.
Whitinui, Paul; McIvor, Onowa; Robertson, Boni; Morcom, Lindsay; Cashman, Kimo; Arbon, Veronica
There is an Indigenous resurgence in education occurring globally. For more than a century Euro-western approaches have controlled the provision and quality of education to, and for Indigenous peoples. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA) established in 2012, is a grass-roots movement of Indigenous scholars passionate about making a…
Hristov, Peter; Sirakova, Daniela; Mitkov, Ivan; Spassov, Nikolai; Radoslavov, Georgi
The present study aimed to compare mitochondrial diversity among Balkan Neolithic/Chalcolithic cattle and present day Shorthorn Rhodopean cattle (Busha) to throw a new insight into European cattle domestication. The results showed that both ancient- and present-day samples belonged to the macrohaplogroup T. From the 28 sequences (8 ancient and 20 modern), the T1 and T2 haplogroup represent about 3.6% (1/28; 1/28). The T3 haplogroup was with the highest frequency - 57% (16/28). Based on the SNPs on 16057A and 16133C, the new T6 haplogroup was proposed. This haplogroup represents 75% from the ancient and 20% from the present day Bulgarian brachicerous cattle population. The survey in GenBank data base did not find a similar motif, except for the recent Serbian Busha cattle. Overall, these results showed that: (i) The newly named T6 haplogroup is Balkan specific; (ii) The T6 haplogroup survives in present day Bulgarian rhodopean cattle; (iii) The Balkan brachicerous cattle is the oldest European cattle breed.
Rabbani D.1 PhD,
Full Text Available Aims Heavy metals in the environment are toxic to plants, animals and human. This study aimed to investigate concentration of Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in Iranian and non- Iranian rice which have been sold in Kashan City, Iran shops. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, 126 samples from 42 trademarks (15 Iranian and 27 non-Iranian rice were collected from Kashan shopping centers. At first each sample was ashed, and then they have been dissolved with nitric acid. Heavy metal concentration was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using One-sample and Independent T-tests. Findings Arsenic was not found in any of rice samples. There was a significant difference between Pb concentration in both Iranian and non-Iranian rice samples. There was not a significance difference between Cd concentration in Iranian (p=0.823 and non-Iranian (p=0.346 rice samples according to Iran national standards but there was a significant difference between Cd concentration in both Iranian (p=0.001 and non-Iranian (p=0.001 rice samples according to WHO and FAO standards. Conclusion Consumed rice pollution with Pb is considerable but with Cd is low. Arsenic concentration in Iranian and non-Iranian rice is less than Iran national and WHO/FAO standards.
Intensive care units (ICUs) provides intensive treatment medicine to avoid complications such as malnutrition, infection and even death. As very little is currently known about the nutritional practices in Iranian ICUs, this study attempted to assess the various aspects of current nutrition support practices in Iranian ICUs. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 150 critically ill patients at 18 ICUs in 12 hospitals located in 2 provinces of Iran from February 2015 to March 2016. Data were collected through interview with supervisors of ICUs, medical record reviews and direct observation of patients during feeding. Our study showed that hospital-prepared enteral tube feeding formulas are the main formulas used in Iranian hospitals. None of the dietitians worked exclusively an ICU and only 30% of patients received diet counselling. Regular monitoring of nutritional status, daily energy and protein intake were not recorded in any of the participating ICUs. Patients were not monitored for anthropometric measurements such as mid-arm circumference (MAC) and electrolyte status. The nasogastric tube was not switched to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy (PEG/PEGJ) in approximately 85% of patients receiving long-term enteral nutrition (EN) support. Our findings demonstrated that the quality of nutritional care was inappropriate in Iranian ICUs and improvement of nutritional care services within Iranian ICUs is necessary. PMID:29713622
Li, Peter Ping
It has long been recognized that indigenous research should be helpful, if not essential, for an adequate understanding of local phenomena. The indigenous approach is consistent with, but extends beyond, the repeated calls for contextualizing management and organization research. However, the cha......It has long been recognized that indigenous research should be helpful, if not essential, for an adequate understanding of local phenomena. The indigenous approach is consistent with, but extends beyond, the repeated calls for contextualizing management and organization research. However...
Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein
The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary
Bunten, Alexis Celeste
Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…
Gandrup, Tobias; Jespersgaard Jakobsen, Line
This project is set out to analyse the negotiation of indigeneity. This will be done by unfolding the semiotic practices of two organisations that represents indigenous interests in contemporary Peruvian politics. It examines the rise of the term indigeneity in international politics through the emergence of an international framework and asks to how this has shaped political possibilities for the local indigenous organisations to represent the indigenous interests. The analysis shows that th...
Roos, de A.P.W.
The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and
Transsexuality in Iran has gained much attention and media coverage in the past few years, particularly in its questionable depiction as a permitted loophole for homosexuality, which is prohibited under Iran's Islamic-inspired legal system. Of course, attention in the West is also encouraged by the “shock” that sex change is available in Iran, a country that Western media and society delights in portraying as monolithically repressive. As a result, Iranian filmmakers inevitably have their own agendas, which are unsurprisingly brought into the film making process—from a desire to sell a product that will appeal to the Western market, to films that endorse specific socio-political agendas. This paper is an attempt to situate sex change and representations of sex change in Iran within a wider theoretical framework than the frequently reiterated conflation with homosexuality, and to open and engage with a wider debate concerning transsexuality in Iran, as well as to specifically analyze the representation of transexuality, in view of its current prominent presence in media.
Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.
Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Raeisian Parvari, Mozhgan
One of the main elements of economic sanctions against Iran due to its nuclear and military programs is crude oil exportation restrictions in addition to investment in Iranian energy related projects. Senders of such sanction are interested in understanding the impacts of such embargos on international oil prices. We apply unrestricted vector autoregressive (VAR) model, using impulse response functions (IRF) and variance decomposition analysis (VDA) tools with annual data from 1965 to 2012 to analyze the dynamic response of international oil prices to Iranian oil export sanction. Controlling for the supply of non-Iranian oil, the world GDP per capita, and post-Islamic revolution exogenous dummy variables, we show that international oil prices respond negatively and statistically significant to increasing shock in absolute negative changes of the Iranian oil exports – our proxy of Iran oil sanctions – following the first 2 years after shock. The main reason is the positive response of the non-Iranian oil supply to negative shocks in Iranian oil exports, filling the missing supply of Iranian oil in international markets. - Highlights: • We analyze the interconnections between Iranian oil supply and global oil prices. • We use VAR modeling and annual data from 1965 to 2012 for the case of Iran. • There are no inflationary effects of Iranian oil sanction on world oil prices. • Non-Iranian oil supply offsets the missing Iranian oil in the market
Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter
the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...
Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with ...
... as determined by a Steering Committee of experts drawn from government agencies, universities and research institutions all over the country. It is expected to generate a body of evidence that will aid Chinese policymakers to develop and implement effective policies for enhancing indigenous innovations in the west.
An ethnomedicinal study was conducted in the remote Hindukush-Himalayan valleys of Utror and Gabral, during which 36 common folk medicinal recipes of the area were documented. The indigenous methods of medicinal plants collection and their further processing were also explored. It was also observed that huge ...
Maasz, Donovan; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Stanley, Colin
Indigenous Knowledge (IK) preservation and management has been taken up as a serious endeavor by various governments who have realized the value of IK as well as the opportunities given by emerging technologies. Considering the various phases and activities of indigenous knowledge management which...... the indigenous knowledge digitization process, namely, codesign, conceptualization, collection, correction, curation, circulation, and creation of knowledge. We exemplify the application of the model with technologies currently developed under an indigenous knowledge holder’s toolkit promoting the agency...... of digitalizing indigenous knowledge across the phases....
Full Text Available Fertility rate is an economically important trait in sheep, which is influenced by genetic and environment. So far, three genes have been identified that affects this trait, one of them would be the BMP family, the most famous one is BMP15. Different mutations in the BMP15 gene, increases reproductive performance and growth rate in sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic and phylogenetic of BMP15 gene sequence in Iranian Sangsari sheep. For this purpose, the blood samples from 20 animal of Damghan station were collected. After DNA extracting, a segment of 222 bp of exon 2 of BMP15 gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Then, all of the PCR products were sequenced. The results showed existence of four haplotypes and three significant mutations of the gene that which one of them was seen for first. In order to determine the genetic distance of Sansari sheep with other animals especially sheep breeds about 103 sequences were taken from Genebank, Then, phylogenetic trees were drawn. Genetic distances and nucleotide differences were calculated. The results showed that goat, cattle and buffalo have minimum genetic distance and monkey, human and mouse have maximum distance with Sangsari sheep and native Hindi and Kashmiri sheep have not any differences with Iranian Sangsari sheep.
Engelhardt, W. von; Weyreter, H.; Heller, R.; Lechner, M.; Schultka, W.
Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)
M. Mahfuza Khatun
Full Text Available In order to develop specific genetic markers and determine the genetic diversity of Bangladeshi native cattle (Pabna, Red Chittagong and exotic breeds (Sahiwal, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed using 12 primers. Genomic DNA was extracted from 20 cattle (local and exotic blood samples and extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Among the random primers three were matched and found to be polymorphic. Genetic relations between cattle’s were determined by RAPD polymorphisms from a total of 66.67%. Statistical analysis of the data, estimating the genetic distances between cattle and sketching the cluster trees were estimated by using MEGA 5.05 software. Comparatively highest genetic distance (0.834 was found between RCC-82 and SL-623. The lowest genetic distance (0.031 was observed between M-1222 and M-5730. The genetic diversity of Red Chittagong and Sahiwal cattle was relatively higher for a prescribed breed. Adequate diversity in performance and adaptability can be exploited from the study results for actual improvement accruing to conservation and development of indigenous cattle resources.
The possibility of teaching communication strategies and the feasibility of incorporating them into school syllabi have been a controversial issue. In the current study, 60 Iranian students were divided into two thirty-member classes; then two different textbooks, one with specific CS and the other without them, were chosen to be taught in the…
Carr, William G.; Carr, Elizabeth
During a 16-day examination of recent innovations in Iranian education, two institutions were most closely examined: 1) The Army of Knowledge was created in 1962 as a crash program concentrating mainly on the elementary and secondary education of rural and village children where the population is dispersed, living standards low, and four out of…
Pliskin, K L
Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients.
cultivated to counterbalance other actors in the system who opposed Khamenei’s ascension, based on his weak religious credentials.42 These security...trumped up religious infraction.256 The bonyads are the Iranian economy’s dominating revenue generating entity outside the oil sector,257 mushrooming in
Pliskin, K L
Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients. PMID:1413773
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Shokri, Omid
The purpose of this study was to validate the Iranian version of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Participants were 376 (42% males) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment in the overall sample as well as in gender subgroups. Convergent…
Tehrani, Mohammad Dadkhah; Rezaei, Omid; Dezhara, Salman; Kafrani, Reza Soltani
This study investigated the different primary and secondary strategies the Iranian EFL students use in different situations and the effect of gender on this. A questionnaire was developed based on Sugimoto's (1995) to compare the apology strategies used by male and female students, only gender was examined as a variable. The results showed that…
Dargahi, H; Alirezaie, S; Shaham, G
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is defined as "individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate, promotes the effective functioning of organization". OCB, enhance job satisfaction among nursing employees. According to several findings, nurses' OCB have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. This research is aimed to study OCB among Iranian nurses. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 510 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran to be selected by stratified random sampling. The respondents were asked to complete Netemeyer's organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire that encompassed four dimensions of OCB including Sportsmanship, Civil Virtue, Conscientiousness, Altruism and selected each item of OCB dimensions and identified their attitudes about OCB items were observed in hospitals of Tehran. The data was analyzed by T-test, ANOVA and Pearson statistical methods. The results of this research showed that most of the nurses who studied in this study, had OCB behaviors. Also, we found that there was significant correlation between Iranian nurses' marriage status, qualifications and gender with sportsmanship, altruism and civic virtue. This research demonstrates the existence of OCB among Iranian nurses that are essential in developing patient - oriented behavior. The results can be used to develop further nursing management strategies for enhancement of OCB. Finally, the present study indicates new possibilities for future researches such as analysis and comparison of OCB between different hospitals and how nursing policy-makers can enhance these behaviors in Iranian hospitals.
Hedayati, Nasibeh; Kuusisto, Elina; Gholami, Khalil; Tirri, Kirsi
This article examines Iranian secondary students' (N = 336) life purposes. Economic and hedonistic life goals were the most valued. Relationships in terms of having a family and children were also appreciated. In the students' views, religiousness was associated with social goals such as helping others in need and volunteering in the community.…
... Wolbachia 16S rDNA gene. PCR product was directly sequenced and the alignment of the sequence with similar sequences in GenBank showed high similarity with 16S rDNA gene of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. Key words: Wolbachia, Iranian scorpion, 16S rDNA gene, Hemiscorpius lepturus.
Akila, Natarajan; Chander, Mahesh
A study was conducted to determine the management practices followed by the farmers for draught cattle in Tamil Nadu state, India. Methods of procurement of animals, use of female animals, breeds preferred, housing, health, disposal of animals, feeding, shoeing, purchase of animal-drawn implements and their maintenance were all assessed with 210 farmers from seven districts across different agro-climatic zones in Tamil Nadu. The results revealed that 86 % of the respondents purchased the draught cattle from the livestock markets, most were bullocks but 20 small farmers and 5 medium farmers used female animals for ploughing. Among the indigenous breeds, Kangeyam (33 %) and Hallikar (30 %) breeds were the most popular for work. Most farmers (69 %) provided a mixed type of housing (provision of housing only during the night time and the rainy season) for their draught cattle. The major health problem reported by 63 % of respondents was pyrexia. Almost all farmers sold their animals at the age of 8-10 years. The feeding practices for draught cattle were poor especially with the small farmers. The cattle were fed with mainly paddy straw and rice bran. Oilcakes and cotton seeds were given to the animals which work throughout the year mainly for ploughing and carting. The draught cattle were first shod at around 2.5 years of age. The majority of the farmers (71 %) used the traditional animal-drawn implements made by local artisans, and the farmers were not aware of the new implements to reduce the drudgery of work cattle, designed by the Agricultural Machinery Research Centre and Agricultural Engineering Departments located in India.
Sadeghi Pour Roudsari HR
Full Text Available We studied fertility indices of Iranian and non-Iranian populations which were covered by 23 Rays health houses. This cross-sectional study aimed to prove the effect of increasing number of non-Iranian immigrants on health indices of the area covered by Tehran university of medical sciences and health services, consequently giving attention to specific health programs. The data collection method was census of permanent residents of the villages by means of vital horoscopes. 8494 of 27611 persons were non-Iranian. Dependency ratio and natural growth rate was 75%, 1.14% in Iranians and 98%, 1.74% in non-Iranians, respectively. Mortality in non-Iranians was 1.24 times more than Iranians. General fertility rate in Iranians was 60 and in non-Iranians was 110 live births in 1000 women of child bearing age. Total fertility rate in Iranians was 1.73 and in non-Iranians 3.27 neonates for each woman. Age-specific fertility rates were absolutely higher in non-Iranians. Gross eproductive rate was 0.87 in Iranians and 1.59 in non-Iranians. Mean number of girls born by a non-Iranian mother will be double times of an Iranian mother (P<0.01. Modern contraceptive methods coverage was 70% in Iranian couples and less than 40% in non-Iranian couples. 96.94% of Iranian deliveries and 70.9% of non-Iranian deliveries were safe (P<0.01.
Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Zehtabchi, Samira; Fini, Ismail Azizi
The holistic approach views the human as a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual being. Evidence suggests that among these dimensions, the spiritual one is largely ignored in healthcare settings. This study aimed to evaluate Iranian nurses' perceived professional competence in spiritual care, the relationship between perceived competence and nurses' personal characteristics, and barriers to provide spiritual care. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2014. Participants and research context: The study population consisted of nurses working in teaching hospitals in Kashan city. Using a stratified, systematic random method, 250 samples were selected from a total of 1400 nurses. An indigenous instrument was used to assess the nurses' competencies in spiritual care. Ethical considerations: A research ethics committee approved the study. All the participants were briefed on the study aims, were assured of the confidentiality of their personal information, and signed a written informed consent. Among a total of 250 nurses, 239 answered the questionnaire completely, and in total, 23%, 51%, and 26% had poor, moderate, and favorable competence in spiritual care, respectively. No significant differences were found between the mean competence scores of spiritual care in terms of gender, marital status, employment status, and level of qualification. Significant difference was found between nurses' overall score of competence in spiritual care and receiving training on spiritual care, nurses' position, and the ward they worked in. Confirming the findings of the international literature, this study puts light on the situation of nurses' perceived competence and barriers to providing spiritual care in Iran as an eastern and Islamic context. Three-quarters of the nurses had moderate or unfavorable competence in spiritual care. Due to the crucial role of spiritual care in quality of care and patient satisfaction, nurses should be trained and supported to provide spiritual care.
Cindy Smithers Graeme
Full Text Available Employing a reflexive and co-constructed narrative analysis, this article explores our experiences as a non-Indigenous doctoral student and a First Nations research assistant working together within the context of a community-based participatory Indigenous geography research project. Our findings revealed that within the research process there were experiences of conflict, and opportunities to reflect upon our identity and create meaningful relationships. While these experiences contributed to an improved research process, at a broader level, we suggest that they also represented our personal stories of reconciliation. In this article, we share these stories, specifically as they relate to reconciliatory processes of re-education and cultural regeneration. We conclude by proposing several policy recommendations to support research as a pathway to reconciliation in Canada.
Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of discourses of the movement for national reconciliation prevailing within the Australian socio-political context since the inception of the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation in 1991, to the national apology delivered by the Prime Minister Kevin Rudd on 13th February 2008. It provides an framework for the various discourses of reconciliation, by exploring and analysing the accrued meanings to such terms such as ‘genuine’, substantive or ‘true’ reconciliation; the Howard’s Government’s ‘practical reconciliation’ and the Rudd government’s great attempt at ‘symbolic’ reconciliation in the national apology to Indigenous Australians. In the changing political context in Australia today this paper revisits the debates on reconciliation, and endeavours to locate the movement solidly within a human rights framework that includes first nation rights. This requires an examination of the roots of the reconciliation movement including community attitudes to reconciliation and the nature of the peoples’ movement as well as the differing perspectives of policy makers, politicians and of course, Indigenous peoples. It asks crucial questions about the progress of reconciliation and the type of reconciliation mainstream Australians will accept. In truth therefore, was the ‘National Apology’ a grand symbolic gesture by mainstream Australia to maintain the status quo and divert our eyes from the more searching questions of the ‘unfinished business’ of ‘substantive’ reconciliation which encompasses first nations rights for Indigenous peoples.
Marchand, Dawn Marie
Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…
Liu Wenping; Du Jingling
The article explains the significance of Library Science Indigenization, Answer some misunderstanding of Library Science Indigenization,reveals express form of Library Science Indigenization, Discusses criteria of Library Science Indigenization, finally give some suggestions and methods of Library Science Indigenization. (authors)
Zuhura I. Kimera
Full Text Available Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required.
Kimera, Zuhura I; Mdegela, Robinson H; Mhaiki, Consolatha J N; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mabiki, Faith; Nonga, Hezron E; Mwesongo, James
Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required.
Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.
Panigrahi, Manjit; Sharma, Arjava; Bhushan, Bharat
Crossbred cattle are more prone to mastitis in comparison to indigenous cattle. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands, for example, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli and mediates signaling to initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Mutations in TLR4 can compromise the host immune response to certain pathogens, so it may be a potential candidate for marker assisted selection to enhance mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Hence, in this study role of bovine TLR4 gene in mastitis resistance was investigated by association as well as expression profiling analysis in crossbred cattle. The animals were divided into mastitis affected and unaffected groups on the basis of history of animals and California Mastitis Test (CMT). PCR-SSCP and Sequence analysis revealed three genotypes of coreceptor binding region 1 (CRBR1) fragment of TLR4 gene namely AA, AB, and BB in both groups of cattle. The logistic regression model did not show any significant effect of these genotypes on the occurrence of clinical mastitis. Moreover, in vitro challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with LPS failed to show any association of the genotypes with TLR4 gene expression. In a nutshell, in the present study enough evidence was not found for association of the SNP variants of CRBR1 fragment of TLR4 gene with mastitis susceptibility in crossbred cattle.
Khodakaram-Tafti, A; Hashemnia, M; Razavi, S M; Sharifiyazdi, H; Nazifi, S
Among the 16 species of Eimeria from goats, Eimeria arloingi and Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae are regarded as the most pathogenic species in the world and cause clinical caprine coccidiosis. E. arloingi is known to be an important cause of coccidiosis in Iranian kids. Molecular analyses of two portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1) and 18S rDNA) were used for the genetic characterization of the E. arloingi. Comparison of the sequencing data of E. arloingi obtained in the present study (ITS1: KC507793 and 18S rDNA: KC507792) with other Eimeria species in the GenBank database revealed a particularly close relationship between E. arloingi and Eimeria spp. from the cattle and sheep. The phylogram based on the ITS1 sequences shows that the E. arloingi, Eimeria bovis, and Eimeria zuernii formed a distinct group separate from the other remaining Eimeria spp. in cattle and poultry. In pairwise alignment, 18S rDNA sequence derived from E. arloingi showed 99% similarity to Eimeria ahsata with differences observed at only three nucleotides. This study showed that the ITS1 and 18S rDNA gene are useful genetic markers for the specific identification and differentiation of Eimeria spp. in ruminants.
In 2010 and 2011, foreign businesses and governments welcomed measures believed to dramatically reform a highly controversial branch of China’s indigenous innovation policy which provided government procurement preferences to applicants who can meet restrictive indigenous intellectual property (IP) rights requirements. However, this article describes specific examples of (what can be labeled) China’s “indigenous IP policy” that are still very much in force, in particular several programs link...
The Indigenous education agenda in Australia remains focused on mainstream schooling contexts. Although overlooked in Indigenous education discourse, flexi schools appear to be engaging with disproportionately high numbers of Indigenous students and staff. The educative roles of Indigenous peoples in broader Indigenous education discourse are…
Full Text Available Abstract Abstract: This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of an emergent global discourse of indigeneity to offer an oppositional praxis in the face of the depredations of settler colonialism in post-apartheid South Africa. Self-conscious articulations of indigeneity, we argue, reveal the fraught relationship between increasingly hegemonic and narrow understandings of the indigenous and the carceral logic of apartheid. We examine this by focusing on the meanings and attachments forged through indigenous plants in two realms: the world of indigenous gardening practised by white suburban dwellers and that of subsistence farming undertaken by rural black women. This juxtaposition reveals that in contrast to the pervasive resurrection of colonial time that defines metropolitan indigenous gardening, the social relations of a subsistence cultivator challenge the confines of colonial temporality, revealing a creative mode of dissent structured around dreams, ancestral knowledge, and the commons. Our exploration of struggles around botanical indigeneity suggests that anticolonial modes of indigeneity do not necessarily inhere in recognisable forms and that studies of the indigenous need to proceed beyond those that bear familial resemblance to emergent global understandings.
Indigenous knowledge is multidimensional encompassing the beliefs, practices, arts, spirituality and other forms of traditional and cultural experiences that belong to Indigenous communities globally. In order to protect, preserve and recognize the knowledge of the Indigenous people of Fiji, known as the iTaukei, the University of Fiji has…
Heather A. Knauer
Full Text Available Parenting may be influenced by ethnicity; marginalization; education; and poverty. A critical but unexamined question is how these factors may interact to compromise or support parenting practices in ethnic minority communities. This analysis examined associations between mothers’ stimulating parenting practices and a range of child-level (age; sex; and cognitive and socio-emotional development; household-level (indigenous ethnicity; poverty; and parental education; and community-level (economic marginalization and majority indigenous population variables among 1893 children ages 4–18 months in poor; rural communities in Mexico. We also explored modifiers of associations between living in an indigenous community and parenting. Key findings were that stimulating parenting was negatively associated with living in an indigenous community or family self-identification as indigenous (β = −4.25; SE (Standard Error = 0.98; β = −1.58; SE = 0.83 respectively. However; living in an indigenous community was associated with significantly more stimulating parenting among indigenous families than living in a non-indigenous community (β = 2.96; SE = 1.25. Maternal education was positively associated with stimulating parenting only in indigenous communities; and household crowding was negatively associated with stimulating parenting only in non-indigenous communities. Mothers’ parenting practices were not associated with child sex; father’s residential status; education; or community marginalization. Our findings demonstrate that despite greater community marginalization; living in an indigenous community is protective for stimulating parenting practices of indigenous mothers.
Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Nelson, Genevieve F.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.; McInerney, Dennis M.
This research explored gender and cross-cultural similarities and differences in the motivational profiles of Indigenous Papua New Guinean (PNG) and Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Secondary students (N = 1,792) completed self-report motivational measures. Invariance testing demonstrated that the Inventory of School Motivation…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic research has potential benefits for improving health, such as identifying molecular characteristics of a disease, understanding disease prevalence and treatment, and developing treatments tailored to patients based on individual genetic characteristics of their disease. Indigenous people are often targeted for genetic research because genes are easier to study in communities that practice endogamy. Therefore, populations perceived to be more homogenous, such as Indigenous peoples, are ideal for genetic studies. While Indigenous communities remain the focal point of many genomic studies, some result in harm and unethical practice. Unfortunately, the harms of poorly formulated and unethical research involving Indigenous people have created barriers to participation that prevent critical and lifesaving research. These harms have led a number of Indigenous communities to develop guidelines for engaging with researchers to assist in safely bridging the gap between genetic research and Indigenous peoples.SPECIFIC AIMS: The specific aims of this study were: (1 to conduct an international review and comparison of Indigenous research guidelines that highlight topics regarding genetics and use of biological samples and identify commonalities and differences among ethical principles of concern to Indigenous peoples; and (2 develop policy recommendations for Indigenous populations interested in creating formal policies around the use of genetic information and protection of biological samples using data from specific aim 1.METHODS: A comparative analysis was performed to identify best research practices and recommendations for Indigenous groups from four countries: Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. The analysis examined commonalities in political relationships, which support self-determination among these Indigenous communities to control their data. Current international Indigenous guidelines were analyzed to review
The importance of indigenous games: The selected cases of Indigenous games in South Africa. ... do not have enough time to transfer their skills and knowledge of indigenous games to the younger generation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Integrating indigenous games and knowledge into Physical Education: Implications for ... The aim of this study was to analyse indigenous Zulu games towards integrating indigenous game skill and knowledge ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Siyamak Nayyeri Fallah
Full Text Available The role of value of privacy in shaping Iranian culture is vital. In contrary to modern middle-class Iranian high density vertical development housing, this cultural principle plays a great role in shaping spatial organization of Iranian traditional housing. The aim of this study is to establish a framework to improve spatial organization of modern Iranian high density vertical development (HDVD housing through lessons learnt from traditional Iranian housing. In this regard, to reach the aim through qualitative approach and case study strategy, this value of the Iranian traditional housing was investigated. The data collection methods to collect data from middle-class traditional and modern high-density vertical development (HDVD housing, were multiple tactics as direct observation, open-ended expert interview, semi-structured and focus group interviewing, taking photo, and plan layout. As conclude, it was reached that privacy as a principle governing all aspects of life has had deep impacts on spatial organization of traditional Iranian housing. Thus through using the spatial concept of privacy learnt from traditional Iranian housing can formulate recommendations to betterment spatial organization of middle-class modern Iranian HDVD housing.
Arezoo Molavi Vardanjani
Full Text Available This paper discusses the theoretical and pedagogical issues in EFL learning and instruction to explore the research problem ‘the EFL teaching deficiencies in Iranian classrooms’. The primary aim of this study is to provide a solid overview of the second language teaching methods and approaches in the context of English as a foreign language in Iran. The theoretical issues discussed include research on the nature of the two commonly used Grammar Translation Method (GTM and Communicative Language Teaching approaches (CLT, the methodology and strategies employed in Iranian EFL classrooms and evaluating the students’ achievement from the point of view of language teachers and learners. To fulfill the aims of the study, a modified version of a BALLI questionnaire was employed. Results show that in spite of its deficiencies, both teachers and students still prefer to use the traditional GTM.
Full Text Available Background: A supportive needs assessment is an essential component of any care program. There is no research evidence regarding the supportive care needs of cancer patients in Iran or other Middle Eastern countries. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in a referral medical center in the northwest of Iran. A total of 274 cancer patients completed the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-59. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: In 18 items of the SCNS, more than 50% of the participants reported that their needs were unmet. Most frequently, unmet needs were related to the health system, information, physical, and daily living domains, and most met needs were related to sexuality, patient care, and support domains. Conclusions: Iranian cancer patients experience many unmet needs and there is an urgent need for establishing additional supportive care services in Iran.
Rafiee, Laleh; Saadat, Mostafa
Consanguineous marriage--marriage between relatives--has received a great deal of attention as a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians living in Frydoonshahr (Isfahan province, central Iran). Data on consanguineous marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 646. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples. First cousin marriages (14.2%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by second cousin (7.0%), beyond second cousin (1.5%) and first cousin once removed (0.6%). The mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was calculated as 0.0104 for the population. The present study shows that the study population, as other Iranian populations, has a high level of consanguinity.
Iranian political strategy wants to be presented as a political break, with a Pan-Islamic vocation. Brought about by Ayatollah Khomeyni, this political philosophy has produced the intended effects, as seen with the return of more moderate policies. Khomeyni's death confronted the Islamic Republic with a choice: Hachemi Rasfandjani put Iran back into the international scene by conciliating pragmatism with ideological values. In 2005, M. Ahmadinejad came to power. His declarations concerning the Hebrew State and his position on nuclear weapons pose the question as to whether or not Iran is reverting to an export policy of revolution. It is important to place these elements in the historical context of the Islamic Republic so as to see if Iranian foreign policy is again taking an ideological turn or if it is continuing down the lane of pragmatism
This paper compares the rate of biogas production of cattle dung and a mixture of plantain peels with cattle dung. 18kg of cattle dung mixed with 36kg of water were charged to a digester while 9kg each of cattle dung and plantain peels mixed together with 36kg of water were charged to a separate digester. Both digesters ...
Full Text Available Bovine trichomoniasis is a venereal disease caused by the protozoa Tritrichomonas foetus. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of T. foetus in cattle and associated risk factors. A total of 200 samples from 183 cows and 17 bulls were collected from Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Bangladesh Agricultural University; Mymensingh district and Regional station of Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute in Shahjadpur, Sirajgonj during the period from March 2015 to May 2016. Among 200 cattle, 65 were indigenous, 100 were Holstein cross and 35 were Shahiwal cross bred. The collected samples were vaginal and uterine washing, aborted foetus and semen. The samples were collected from vagina and uterus by flashing with phosphate buffer solution by artificial insemination tube connected with 20 ml syringe. The samples were examined for T. foetus under microscope. The samples were examined on the same day of collection. Out of 200 samples examined, 3 (1.5% were found infected with T. foetus protozoa. Among these 3 positive cases of tritrichomoniasis, one was detected in aborted foetal materials and other two were detected in vaginal washings. We did not find any T. foetus in the semen samples from the bulls. Therefore, bulls represent zero prevalence of T. foetus. During the study period the examined animals were categorized into three age groups viz. 40, 60 and 100 cattle for below 3 years, over 3 years to below 6 years and over 6 years to ten years, respectively. The prevalence rate was found in adult cattle over 6 years (>610 years was 2.00%, over 3 years (>36 years was 1.66% and below 3 years (<3 years was 0%. In the study, prevalence rate of cross bred animals were 2.22% and no infection was found in indigenous bred. So, this preliminary study indicates that a low prevalence rate of bovine trichomoniasis present in cattle in this study area. Further investigation using serological and molecular method will help to detect precisely the
Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs
Hamta Hadian; Mohamad Reza Boroumand; Saeed Amirnejad; Masoud Najafi
This study, which is a strategic study with a mixed research approach aimed to identify obstacles facing the academies of Iranian Basketball Federation. The population comprises board of directors and committees responsible for Education and Talent Spotting Association, academy administrators, physical education instructors, qualified experts, professors, coaches, referees and heads of delegations who were asked via interviews and questionnaire (exploratory manner) to state internal and exter...
Does the Iranian programme violate the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)? Iran is a signatory to the NPT and whilst certainly within its rights in developing civil nuclear energy, this is not so for the development of nuclear weapons in order to become a regional power which Iran is already not far from becoming. In the face of diverging opinions among the major interested parties (including the UN, United States, EU, Russia and China), how might this crisis be resolved? (author)
A Rahmani; R Mohammadian; C Ferguson; L Golizadeh; M Zirak; H Chavoshi
Objectives: To investigate the level and determinants of posttraumatic growth in Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-correlational design study was conducted within a university-affiliated oncology hospital in Iran. A convenience sample of 450 patients with a definitive diagnosis of cancer of any type completed a demographic questionnaire and a posttraumatic growth inventory. Some disease-related information was obtained from patients′ medical records. Results: Th...
Rahmani, Azad; Sattarzadeh, Nilofar; Gholizadeh, Leila; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Allahbakhshian, Atefeh; Hassankhani, Hadi
Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women's viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9%) was positive. 36 (15.1%) women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4%) did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2%) said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1%) believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.
Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women′s viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. Aim: To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. 0 Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. 0 Results: Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9% was positive. 36 (15.1% women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4% did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2% said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1% believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Conclusion: Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.
Shirani, Kobra; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Azar-Khiavi, Kamal Razavi; Moghaddam, Zohreh Samie; Karimi, Gholamreza
Herbal distillates have been used as beverages, for flavoring, or as phytomedicines in many countries for a long time. Recently, the occurrence of blindness after drinking herbal distillates has created concerns in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of methanol in herbal distillates produced in Iran. Eighty-four most commonly used herbal distillates purchased from herbal distillate factories were analyzed for methanol contents by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection, with ethanol as internal standard. In 15 herbal distillates, the methanol concentration was below the limit of quantitation. The methanol concentrations in all samples ranged from 43 to 277 mg/L. Forty-five samples contained methanol in excess of the Iranian standard. The maximum concentration was found in an herbal distillate of Mentha piperita (factory E) (277±12), and the minimum in a distillate of Carum carvi (factory B) (42.6 ± 0.5). Since the 45 Iranian herbal distillates containing methanol levels were beyond the legal limits according to the Iranian standard, it seems necessary to monitor the amount of methanol and give a warning to watch out for the latent risk problem of methanol uptake, and establish a definitive relationship between the degree of intoxication observed and the accumulation of methanol in the blood.
Memarian, R; Ahmadi, F; Vaismoradi, M
Although greater emphasis has been placed on leadership skills in nursing management in the last decade, the concepts are often confused or used erroneously by Iranian nurses. At the same time we have observed that wide variations in nurses' clinical practice appeared to be related to the presence or absence of leadership skills among senior nurses. To begin to identify the concepts used for expressing leadership in nursing within the Iranian cultural context. A qualitative approach was adopted using content analysis of semi-structured interviews carried out with 10 nurse managers from hospitals in Teheran. The data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Fifty-five primary codes were identified from the respondents' experiences and from these three main themes were abstracted for describing the leadership concept. These were 'personality traits', 'being a model', and 'being a spiritual guide for the nursing profession'. Implementing the culture of patient safety and dignity needs leadership. From Iranian nurse managers' perspectives a leader as a spiritual guide should empower nurses spiritually; it means he/she has a vision for nursing; has clear and explicit objectives; and has a commitment to nursing. Nurses who are confident about the underlying concepts of leadership in their culture can help to adapt nursing to an ever-changing healthcare environment.
The purpose was to discover what aspects of indigenous leadership and cultural resources might be accessed and developed to influence individual behaviour as well as the prevailing community norms, values, sanctions and social controls that are related to sexual behaviour. The indigenous leaders participating in the ...
Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…
LaFrance, Joan; Nichols, Richard
The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), comprising 34 American Indian tribally controlled colleges and universities, has undertaken a comprehensive effort to develop an "Indigenous Framework for Evaluation" that synthesizes Indigenous ways of knowing and Western evaluation practice. To ground the framework, AIHEC engaged…
Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; Kobayashi, Audrey; James, Carl; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.
This article is based on data from a four-year national study of racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian universities. Its main conclusion is that whether one examines representation in terms of numbers of racialized and Indigenous faculty members and their positioning within the system, their earned income as compared to white faculty, their…
The use of indigenous research ethics has a possibility of contextualising indigenous research. Orthodox research is guided by ethical principles which are meant to protect the institution or researcher and the participants. Despite the existence of the ethical pronouncements, literature has shown that research has proven to ...
This study was aimed at conducting ophthalmic sonographic examination of Nigerian indigenous dogs to provide baseline information on some major ocular parameters. Healthy eyes of eighty (80) indigenous dogs were used for the study. The dogs were adequately restrained physically and the structure of the ocular ...
Dudley, Mary Jo
Describes the effects on indigenous communities of Bolivia's recent Popular Participation Laws, which relocated political and financial decision making to the municipal level; community efforts toward cultural maintenance and nonformal agricultural education; the activism of indigenous university students; and the dual discrimination suffered by…
This paper seeks to understand the nature of knowledge, introduce the concept of indigenous knowledge, provide some idea of the status of Indigenous ... African professionals, scholars, researchers, policy makers and activists attempting to understand or promote IK run the risk of a cool reception, ridicule or even outright ...
Focus and Scope. Welcome to Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS). The name Indilinga: stands for the "circular orientation" of indigenous African communities which is exhibited in their material culture and behaviour. The journal has been motivated by the need for a dependable expression ...
Objective: To report cases of clinical otosclerosis histologically confirmed among indigenous South African blacks. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Referral tertiary center, MEDUNSA, Garankuwa Hospital, South Africa. Subjects: All fifteen indigenous South African blacks diagnosed with clinical otosclerosis at ...
Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands
The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the
Appanna, Subhashni Devi
Some Indigenous students are at risk of academic failure and science teachers have a role in salvaging these equally able students. This article firstly elucidates the research entailed in Indigenous science education in Australia and beyond. Secondly, it reviews the cultural and language barriers when learning science, faced by middle and senior…
Haptoglobin Phenotypes and Hypertension in Indigenous Zambians at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. MM Phiri, T Kaile, FM Goma. Abstract. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between presence of haptoglobin phenotypes and hypertension in indigenous Zambian patients ...
This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa's traditional medicine. It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness. Certain types of Africa's traditional ...
Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven
Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…
Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…
The conservation of the genetic variability of the indigenous angiosperm community is a sine qua non. A survey of indigenous angiosperm biodiversity of the Olabisi Onabanjo University permanent site was undertaken. Plants collected were dried, poisoned and mounted on herbarium sheets, proper identification and ...
Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...
Smith, Linda Tuhiwai
From the vantage point of indigenous peoples, the term "research" is inextricably linked to European imperialism and colonialism. In this book, an indigenous researcher calls for the decolonization of research methods. The first part of the book critically examines the historical and philosophical bases of Western research; Western…
the attention of decision-makers yet it forms part of discussions in such fora as the Convention .... neem tree under the millet heads when they lay them on the ground to dry. .... There is a close competition between the conventional and indigenous practices, .... Figure 3: Most Effective Indigenous Management Practices.
Harrold, Timothy C; Randall, Deborah A; Falster, Michael O; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R
To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity.
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals...
Hansen, Annette Skovsted
The re-vitalization of indigenous languages depend on political and legal support and the imple-mentation of language rights depend on knowledge of vocabulary and grammar structures of the individual languages. Throughout the nineteenth century world, compilers of dictionaries adapted indigenous...... languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995......–2004. This article focuses on dictionaries of the languages of the Ainu populations in the borderlands between the nation-states Japan and Russia. The main argument is that the Ainu Cultural Promotion Act promulgated in 1997 had a significant impact on the production and purpose of Ainu dictionaries...
Ivers, Rebecca; Clapham, Kathleen; Senserrick, Teresa; Lyford, Marilyn; Stevenson, Mark
Injury prevention in Indigenous communities in Australia is a continuing national challenge, with Indigenous fatality rates due to injury three times higher than the general population. Suicide and transport are the leading causes of injury mortality, and assault, transport and falls the primary causes of injury morbidity. Addressing the complex range of injury problems in disadvantaged Indigenous communities requires considerable work in building or enhancing existing capacity of communities to address local safety issues. Poor data, lack of funding and absence of targeted programs are some of the issues that impede injury prevention activities. Traditional approaches to injury prevention can be used to highlight key areas of need, however adaptations are needed in keeping with Indigenous peoples' holistic approach to health, linked to land and linked to community in order to address the complex spiritual, emotional and social determinants of Indigenous injury.
Babar, S.M.; Hussain, M.; Mahmood, T.
Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)
Neghad, Hossein Hashem
This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University) in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT…
Marzban, Amin; Barati, Hossein; Moinzadeh, Ahmad
The present study aimed to explore how tolerant of ambiguity Iranian EFL learners at university level are and if gender plays a role in this regard. To this end, upon filling in the revised SLTAS scale of ambiguity tolerance 194 male and female Iranian teacher trainees were assigned to three ambiguity tolerance groups; namely, high, moderate and…
Felipe Ferreira Vander Velden
Full Text Available This paper discuss the introduction of European domestic animals in indigenous villages in the Amazon, with particular stress on groups in Rondonia, specially the Karitiana, a Tupi-Arikém-speaking people that lives in the north of that state. In what concerns the history of Brazilian territorial conquest, marked by the ‘frentes pastoris’’ great narrative, and the present expansion – material and also ideological – of husbandry throughout Amazonia, this article points to many questions about the position of these animals – above all cattle – in indigenous peoples’ symbolical and material universes. Suggests new investigative possibilities, that inquires not only implemented experiences with animal husbandry in indigenous villages, but also desires and projects designed to future implementations.
Victor H. Sundquist
Full Text Available The 2009 Iranian Presidential Elections represented one of the most contentious displays of the evolving Iranian democracy since the 1979 Islamic Revolution that led to the removal of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi – the nation’s last shah. This tumultuous political event not only exposed a growing rift between the political and religious ruling elite in that country; it also led to the emergence of an opposition movement that would later be known as the Green Revolution. Viewed through a Western political lens, this revolution represented yet another opportunity for the demise of the ruling Iranian Islamic Regime. Recently, some scholars have questioned whether this movement was ever intended to topple the government in the first place, and have argued instead that it represented the beginning of a long-term civil rights push. To better understand why the Green Movement emerged one must first understand what the original intent of the movement was, as well as the political factors that led to its rapid growth. In order to answer these questions, this article will compare and contrast identified similarities and differences between the 1979 Islamic Revolution and 2009 Green Movement in order to isolate the true intent behind this perceived Iranian political revolt.
Aramoana, Jaclyn; Alley, Patrick; Koea, Jonathan B
Progress has been made in Australia and New Zealand to increase the numbers of indigenous students (Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and Maori) entering primary medical qualification courses. In New Zealand, up to 20 Maori are graduating annually, with similar numbers possible in Australia, creating a potential opportunity to develop an indigenous surgical workforce. A literature review identified factors utilized by medical schools to attract indigenous students into medical careers and the interventions necessary to ensure successful graduation. A further search identified those factors important in encouraging indigenous medical graduates to enter specialist training programmes and achieve faculty appointments. All medical schools have utilized elements of a 'pipeline approach' encompassing contact with students at secondary school level to encourage aspirational goals and assist with suitable subject selection. Bridging courses can ensure students leaving school have appropriate skill sets before entering medical degree courses. Extensive practical help is available during primary medical qualification study. The elements necessary for primary medical qualification success - dedicated and focused study, developing appropriate skill sets, mentoring, support, and an institutional and collegial commitment to success - are also the elements required for postgraduate achievement. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) is primarily involved in training rather than service provision. The increasing numbers of indigenous medical graduates in both Australia and New Zealand represent an opportunity for the College to contribute to improving indigenous health status by implementing specific measures to increase numbers of indigenous surgeons. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
This paper discusses the individual, family, household and area level characteristics associated with preschool attendance for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians (aged three to five years who are not at school). Controlling for these factors explains all of the difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous attendance rates for…
Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.
Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…
Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.
Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…
Srirattana, Kanokwan; McCosker, Kieren; Schatz, Tim; St John, Justin C
Cattle are bred for, amongst other factors, specific traits, including parasite resistance and adaptation to climate. However, the influence and inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are not usually considered in breeding programmes. In this study, we analysed the mtDNA profiles of cattle from Victoria (VIC), southern Australia, which is a temperate climate, and the Northern Territory (NT), the northern part of Australia, which has a tropical climate, to determine if the mtDNA profiles of these cattle are indicative of breed and phenotype, and whether these profiles are appropriate for their environments. A phylogenetic tree of the full mtDNA sequences of different breeds of cattle, which were obtained from the NCBI database, showed that the mtDNA profiles of cattle do not always reflect their phenotype as some cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes had Bos indicus mtDNA, whilst some cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes had Bos taurus mtDNA. Using D-loop sequencing, we were able to contrast the phenotypes and mtDNA profiles from different species of cattle from the 2 distinct cattle breeding regions of Australia. We found that 67 of the 121 cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes from NT (55.4%) had Bos taurus mtDNA. In VIC, 92 of the 225 cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes (40.9%) possessed Bos indicus mtDNA. When focusing on oocytes from cattle with the Bos taurus phenotype in VIC, their respective oocytes with Bos indicus mtDNA had significantly lower levels of mtDNA copy number compared with oocytes possessing Bos taurus mtDNA (P cattle with a Bos taurus phenotype. The phenotype of cattle is not always related to their mtDNA profiles. MtDNA profiles should be considered for breeding programmes as they also influence phenotypic traits and reproductive capacity in terms of oocyte quality.
Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.
Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to
Diehl, Eliana Elisabeth; Langdon, Esther Jean; Dias-Scopel, Raquel Paiva
Indigenous community health workers are part of a strategy developed by Brazil in the last two decades to promote a special healthcare model for indigenous peoples. Their role is designed to deal with various aspects of the special health policy, including the link between the heath team and the community and mediation between scientific and indigenous medical knowledge. Despite a significant increase in the number of indigenous community health workers in recent years, an evaluation of their responsibilities and contributions to the success of special care had not been conducted previously. This article, based on a literature review and original research by the authors, analyzes the role of the indigenous community health workers vis-à-vis their training and participation in health teams in different contexts in Brazil. Considering the importance assigned to the role of indigenous community health workers, this analysis reveals various ambiguities and contradictions that hinder both their performance and their potential contribution to the special health services.
Ashrafi, Farzad; Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hafez; Shokraneh, Farhad; Valinejadi, Ali; Johari, Karim; Saemi, Nazanin; Zali, Alireza; Mohaghegh, Niloofar; Ashayeri, Hassan
The purpose of this study is to analyse Iranian scientific publications in the neuroscience subfields by librarians and neuroscientists, using Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) via Web of Science data over the period, 2002-2008. Data were retrieved from the SCIE. Data were collected from the 'subject area' of the database and classified by neuroscience experts into 14 subfields. To identify the citation patterns, we applied the 'impact factor' and the 'number of publication'. Data were also analysed using HISTCITE, Excel 2007 and SPSS. Seven hundred and thirty-four papers have been published by Iranian between 2002 and 2008. Findings showed a growing trend of neuroscience papers in the last 3 years with most papers (264) classified in the neuropharmacology subfield. There were fewer papers in neurohistory, psychopharmacology and artificial intelligence. International contributions of authors were mostly in the neurology subfield, and 'Collaboration Coefficient' for the neuroscience subfields in Iran was 0.686 which is acceptable. Most international collaboration between Iranians and developed countries was from USA. Eighty-seven percent of the published papers were in journals with the impact factor between 0 and 4; 25% of papers were published by the researchers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Progress of neuroscience in Iran is mostly seen in the neuropharmacology and the neurology subfields. Other subfields should also be considered as a research priority by health policymakers. As this study was carried out by the collaboration of librarians and neuroscientists, it has been proved valuable for both librarians and policymakers. This study may be encouraging for librarians from other developing countries. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.
In this paper an interview with director of the Nabucco project, Reinhard Mitchek is published. There is extract from this interview: Iranian gas is a politically sensitive topic Europe cannot avoid I believe that it will become a topic in Europe in the medium to long term. Shouldn't Europe declare that it needs Iranian gas? Otherwise Russia or China may take over. I do not want to advise the European Commission via the media. Iranian gas would bring the Nabucco project closer to reality. A common European Union (EU) foreign policy and common foreign energy policy in particular will be of major importance. We of course need competition in the EU gas sector. But that is a business topic. The political issue is the competitiveness of Europe as an entity competing for energy sources with other regions. The European Union keeps repeating that the Nabucco project has high priority. But what steps has it undertaken to support it? The Commissioner for Energy, Andris Piebalgs, and the Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, visited Central Asia and supported the export of gas to Europe. That is exactly what Russia does and with more success. We will see. Naturally - these countries have a history of relationships with Russia. Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan have been exporting gas to Russia. But in the meantime these countries also want to extend their export portfolio. We think that through the Trans-Caspian pipeline and the existing gas pipeline connecting Azerbaijan with Turkey, gas from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan will also get to Nabucco. (authors)
D'Angelo, A; Bellino, C; Bertone, I; Cagnotti, G; Iulini, B; Miniscalco, B; Casalone, C; Gianella, P; Cagnasso, A
Large animals have a relatively high seizure threshold, and in most cases seizures are acquired. No published case series have described this syndrome in cattle. To describe clinical findings and outcomes in cattle referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Turin (Italy) because of seizures. Client-owned cattle with documented evidence of seizures. Medical records of cattle with episodes of seizures reported between January 2002 and February 2014 were reviewed. Evidence of seizures was identified based on the evaluation of seizure episodes by the referring veterinarian or 1 of the authors. Animals were recruited if physical and neurologic examinations were performed and if diagnostic laboratory test results were available. Forty-three of 49 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 8 months. Thirty-one animals were male and 12 were female. Piedmontese breed accounted for 39/43 (91%) animals. Seizures were etiologically classified as reactive in 30 patients (70%) and secondary or structural in 13 (30%). Thirty-six animals survived, 2 died naturally, and 5 were euthanized for reasons of animal welfare. The definitive cause of reactive seizures was diagnosed as hypomagnesemia (n = 2), hypocalcemia (n = 12), and hypomagnesemia-hypocalcemia (n = 16). The cause of structural seizures was diagnosed as cerebrocortical necrosis (n = 8), inflammatory diseases (n = 4), and lead (Pb) intoxication (n = 1). The study results indicate that seizures largely are reported in beef cattle and that the cause can be identified and successfully treated in most cases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Kazemian, H.; Ghannadi Maraghe, M.
Full text: The zeolite researches in Iran is a relatively new subject which has started about 10 years ago. The motivation for this scientific and interesting field was provided after discovery of significant deposits of natural zeolites in different regions of Iran as well as further developments of research institutions and the national concern to environmental protection especially the wastewater clean-up in point of view of recycling of such waste water to compensate some needs to water in other utilizations. This paper intends to review and describes scientific researches which have done on using zeolites in the field of nuclear waste treatment in Iran to introduce the potential resources to the world in more details. Zeolite tuffs are widely distributed in huge deposits in different regions of Iran. So far, the clinoptilolite tuffs are the most abundant natural zeolite which exist with zeolite content of 65%- 95%. Nowadays several different types of Iranian natural zeolites are characterized in point of view of chemical composition, type of structure, chemical, thermal, and radiation resistance using different instrumental and classical methods such as; X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluoresce (XRF), thermal methods of analysis (TA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analytical chemistry and radioanalytical methods as well as different ion-exchange techniques (e.g.3-7). The ability of Iranian natural clinoptilolite for removal of some fission products from nuclear wastewaters have been investigated. The selectivity of all investigated zeolites toward radiocesium and radiostrontium have been promising (e.g. 8-10). The successful synthesize of P zeolite from Iranian clinoptilolite-reach tuffs under different conditions were performed. The compatibility of zeolites with glass and cement matrices, for final disposal of radwaste, as well as their selectivity toward most dangerous heat generating radionuclides (e.g. 137 Cs and 90 Sr) is very important in using
Full Text Available Itineraries have been an important source of knowing cultural and social characteristics of societies, but this has been involved with some limitations in understanding, knowledge and interpretation. In fact, travel diaries are a kind of narrative. This narrative is restricted by time, place, situation and events.This article studies itineraries written by foreigners about Iranians and their cultural – social characters. This narrative has a pathological aspect, being dominant aspect in foreign travel diaries. Certainly, they present a biased and presupposed picture of our history, but they could be very instructive.
Land is the foundation for the economic sustenance of indigenous peoples and for the continued survival of their cultures. One of the major problems faced by indigenous peoples is the dispossession of their traditional lands and territories. The activities of business interests and economic development projects in indigenous territories – such as forest logging and infrastructure projects - and the environmental implications of such activities, often constitute a great threat to the livelihoo...
Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC) in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in t...
In 2000, we asked a nationally representative sample of 2,532 Iranian adults "which of the following best describes you: I am an Iranian, above all; I am a Muslim, above all; I am an Arab, a Kurd, a Turk, a Baluch, etc., above all?" We also asked them how proud they are to be Iranian; (1) very proud, (2) proud, (3) not proud, and (4) not proud at all. In the 2005 survey of a nationally representative sample of 2,667 Iranian adults, we asked these questions again. The first question was intended to measure national identity and the second national pride. The results showed that between the two surveys the percent of Iranians who defined themselves as "Iranians, above all" went up significantly-from 35% in 2000 to 42% in 2005. Those who said that they were very proud to be Iranian, on the other hand, went down considerably-from 89% in 2000 to 64% in 2005. What is more, national identity and national pride displayed opposing relationships with the norms and values that were rigorously promoted by Iran's religious regime and these relationships grew stronger between 2000 and 2005. The feeling of national pride was positively linked to attitudes toward gender inequality, religiosity, and religious intolerance, but negatively to attitudes toward the West, while national identity had just the opposite relationships with these variables.
Bayat, Mohammad; Shariati, Mahsa; Rajaeirad, Fatemeh; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Davoudmanesh, Zeinab
Facial anthropometric measurement is considered an essential concern of surgeons, orthodontists, artists and forensic scientists. The aim of this study is to investigate facial anthropometric norms of the young Iranian population. The study participants consisted of 200 healthy Iranian students (100 males, 100 females) aged 18-25 years old. Twenty-three liner and four angular measurements were investigated twice by a dentist. Independent-samples t test was used to compare indices between males and females and also between countries. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. It was found that the mean measurements of c'-sn' of both sides, nasolabial angle, trichion-gnathion, tragion-tragion and gnathion-gnathion were statistically greater in Iranian males than in females ( p < 0.05). Comparing Iranian anthropometric norms with North American Whites, Malays, Turkish and African American women demonstrated that there were statistically significant differences in most anthropometric measurements between Iranians and other populations ( p < 0.05). In Iranians, mean measurements of c'-sn' of the right and left sides, nasolabial angle, trichion-gnathion, tragion-tragion and gnathion-gnathion were greater in men than in women. Comparing Iranian males and females with different ethnicities indicated several interracial differences, which should be taken into consideration when dealing with patients or also practitioners originated in this region.
Scientific journals are the most credible and updated information resources for valid information in the various fields of science and technology. The present study investigates the status of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information to the world of science. Total 163 Iranian medical journals accredited by national medical journals commission of Iranian ministry of health and medical education were evaluated through a cross-sectional study. The results were represented in descriptive statistics in the form of table and chart. The study showed that 89.6% of Iranian medical journals were covered by regional information databases. Web of Science database indexed 22 (13.5%) Iranian journals in the field of medical science. Only six (6.7%) journals were indexed by Medline. Fifty-eight (35.6%) journals were in English, 102 (62.6%) in Persian, and three (1.8%) were bilingual which published their articles both in Persian and English languages. The highest Impact factor belonged to Iranian Journal of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Improving scientific credibility of Iranian scholarly journals and their influence in disseminating medical information calls for a precise scientific and executive administration in publishing standards and also in the quality of content.
Ronny Alejandro Leiva
Chilean indigenous institutions recently joined the Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (no. 169) of the International Labor Organization (ILO) to its administrative structure. Prior to this, indigenous law 19.253 indigenous organizations were created in order to foster the participation of these peoples. Convention No. 169 and other international instruments on indigenous rights enshrine the right to participation through their own representative institut...
Schroeder, Ted C.; Albright, Martin L.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Mintert, James R.
Cattle feeders face risks from fluctuating fed cattle, feeder cattle, and feed prices and cattle performance. Closeout data on 7293 pens of steers are studied to determine the relative impacts of prices and animal performance on cattle feeding profits and cost of gain. Results indicate the importance of managing price risk.
Pringle, Kirsty G; de Meaultsart, Celine Corbisier; Sykes, Shane D; Weatherall, Loretta J; Keogh, Lyniece; Clausen, Don C; Dekker, Gus A; Smith, Roger; Roberts, Claire T; Rae, Kym M; Lumbers, Eugenie R
The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women. Non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, had higher uAGT/creatinine levels than non-Indigenous non-pregnant women (P pregnant women with pregnancy complications, uAGT/creatinine was suppressed in the third trimester (P pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, there was no change in uAGT/creatinine with gestational age and uAGT/creatinine was lower in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters than in non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (P pregnant women may reflect subclinical renal dysfunction which limits the ability of the kidney to maintain sodium balance and could indicate an increased risk of pregnancy complications and/or future renal disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Maharajh, Dheepak M
Full Text Available advantages. Approximately 30% of South African environments favourable for isolating algae have been sampled. Samples were enriched, purified and assessed for lipid content, resulting in a database of indigenous algae. Positive isolates were grown under...
Herbal-based and plant-derived products can be exploited with sustainable comparative and competitive advantage. This review presents some indigenous African plants with chemotherapeutic properties and possible ways of developing them into potent pharmacological agents using biotechnological approaches.
Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge for sustainable food security in Uganda. ... University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal ... Moreover, small-scale farmers should be involved in agricultural extension services ...
knowledge research approaches in a school-based collaborative project of the .... ticipate in informal employment; however, they manage to provide for their families. ... Entitled “Promoting and learning from Cofimvaba community's indigenous.
harvesting and storage of indigenous root crops and animals. .... sample of 351 informants who were selected using random, purposive and snowball sampling ... The farmers in Soroti also spray crops with human and animal urine, dust.
Indigenous and traditional African vegetables (AITVs) are important sources of ... and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ... size and cost, retailer storage, remainders, processing and less common AITVs.
Indigenous knowledge system should ... Therefore, ignoring these local knowledge practices by the ..... International Journal of Science and Rural Development. ... Ethno-medicine: Its potential in the health care system, Canoe Press.
challenges) in society, sometimes it is marginalized in education because it is seen as non-scientific and non-engaging in formal education. Using the capability approach to human development, this paper investigates the link between indigenous ...
Supporting indigenous women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics careers in Mexico and Central ... ROSSA's latest bulletin puts a focus on women. ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.
Dean SPGS NAU
dance performance presents Ekwe people; situated in Isu local government ... Indigenous dance is not a luxury… it is part of each .... symbols for certain brand products in adverts. ... music, costumes, make-up, set lights and any other effects.
Leaving no one behind: can (indigenous) education ensure effective gender ... in the distribution of socio-economic and political benefits, depict that additional ... of gender equality and equity and explores in different ways the relationships ...
This paper traces the history of the Anglo-Iranian oil dispute. It is short-sighted to consider the Anglo-Iranian oil dispute just as a contest between Musaddiq and the AIOC: it is of wider and greater significance. The dispute illustrates a transitional phase in the difficult process of the adjustment of relations between industrialized and less developed societies for the exploitation of raw materials. Oil was already becoming a political and economic factor at the end of the Qajar period and became important during the reign of Riza Shah with his emphasis on a national program of modernization. After more attention had been focused on it during the second world war it was inevitable that it would increase in influence. The issues of the oil dispute referred back to the concessional controversies of the late nineteenth century in tobacco, mining, communications, utilities, banking even gambling, with their political and social implications; and they referred forward to the issues of the sovereignty of national resources, the transfer of technology and economic growth in relation to the standard of living. These are aspects of the North-South debate, which have yet to be satisfactorily resolved
For those who see the trend of progress and movement of the Iranian space endeavor from the outside, it can be difficult to understand what goes on behind the scenes. However, for one who observes these events firsthand, they take on a very different meaning. In this book, the author brings new and different profiles of Iran’s space endeavor to light. Iran claims to be the ninth leading country in the world capable of manufacturing satellites and launching them, plans to land an astronaut on the Moon within a decade, and says its own president plans to be the first Iranian astronaut to travel into space. The author explains in this book that not all of these claims are quite as they seem. In addition to technical explanations, the book also includes historical, legal, social and cultural aspects of Iran’s space program as well. It is the author’s goal to create a tangible feeling of Iran’s space endeavor for the readers.
Somayeh Tayefeh Aliakbarkhani
Full Text Available As Iran is one of the richest pistachio germplasms a few studies have been conducted on different sexes of pistachio trees, in areas where this crop emerged. To this end, 40 male and female Iranian pistachio genotypes from Feizabad region, Khorasan, Iran; were evaluated using morphological characters and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. For morphological assessments, 54 variables were considered to investigate similarities between and among the studied genotypes. Morphological data indicated relative superiority in some female genotypes (such as Sefid 1, Sefid Sabuni 2, Garmesiah, and Ghermezdorosht Z regarding characters such as halfcrackedness, the percentages of protein and fat content. 115 polymorphic bands were recorded with 92.83% average polymorphism among all primers. The total resolving power (Rp of the primers was 74.54. The range of genetic similarity varied from about 0.31 to about 0.70. Genotypes were segregated into eight groups at the similarity limit of 0.41. Results of present investigation could be helpful for strategic decisions for maintaining Iranian pistachio genotypes.
On 1st and 4th March respectively, CERN received visits from Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, and Reza Mansouri, Deputy Minister for Science, Research and Technology of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Asset Issekeshev and his delegation came to CERN with the aim of learning "the European way of building strong and effective ties between science and the industrial sector". Welcomed by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, he visited the ATLAS assembly hall and the CLIC installations before signing the visitors' book. After a short visit to Point 5 (CMS), Reza Mansouri met CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, before talking to Iranian PhD students working on their theses at CERN. Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, signs the visitors' book, watched by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General.From left to right: Mojtaba Mohammadi and Majid Hashemi (Iranian PhD students at CERN); Dr Daniel Denegri (CMS), Professor Re...
Rahmani, A; Mohammadian, R; Ferguson, C; Golizadeh, L; Zirak, M; Chavoshi, H
To investigate the level and determinants of posttraumatic growth in Iranian cancer patients. This descriptive-correlational design study was conducted within a university-affiliated oncology hospital in Iran. A convenience sample of 450 patients with a definitive diagnosis of cancer of any type completed a demographic questionnaire and a posttraumatic growth inventory. Some disease-related information was obtained from patients' medical records. The mean of posttraumatic growth reported by participants was 76.1. There was a statistically significant association between experience of posttraumatic growth and age (r = - 0.21, P=0.001), education at university level (F = 8.9, P=0.001) and history of treatment by radiotherapy (t = 2.1, P=0.03). The findings of this study suggest that Iranian cancer patients experience a moderate to high level of posttraumatic growth and confirm the hypothesis that the level of posttraumatic growth in non-Western cancer patients is more than that of Western cancer patients. Although, assessing the reasons for this difference needs more investigations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper identifies the views of Iranian clinical nurses regarding the utilization of nursing research in practice. There is a need to understand what restricts Iranian clinical nurses to use research findings. The aim of this study was to identify practicing nurses' view of aspects which they perceived constrain them from research utilization that summarizes and uses research findings to address a nursing practice problem. Methods Data were collected during 6 months by means of face-to face interviews follow by one focus group. Analysis was undertaken using a qualitative content analysis. Results Findings disclosed some key themes perceived by nurses to restrict them to use research findings: level of support require to be research active, to be research minded, the extent of nurses knowledge and skills about research and research utilization, level of educational preparation relating to using research, administration and executive challenges in clinical setting, and theory-practice gap. Conclusion This study identifies constraints that require to be overcome for clinical nurses to actively get involved in research utilization. In this study nurses were generally interested to use research findings. However they felt restricted because of lack of time, lack of peer and manager support and limited knowledge and skills of the research process. This study also confirms that research utilization and the change to research nursing practice are complex issues which require both organizational and educational efforts.
Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.
Doyle, Kerrie; Hungerford, Catherine
Indigenous Australians have higher levels of mental illness, self-harm, suicide and substance abuse than non-Indigenous Australians, as well as more frequent contact with the criminal justice system. These indices point to the need for strong leadership to support Close the Gap programmes that have now been implemented across Australia. This article considers leadership as a journey of learning for Australian Indigenous leaders. Through the use of story, it is suggested that a situational leadership approach, incorporating the principles of mindfulness, provides the most appropriate framework for Indigenous leaders who work with Indigenous communities. Flexible approaches are needed to meet the needs of diverse Indigenous populations, and address the complex challenges involved, including lateral violence. Such flexibility will enable Indigenous leaders and communities to work together to achieve improvements in the health outcomes, not only for Indigenous Australians, but also for Indigenous populations worldwide.
Nikolakis, William D.; Grafton, R. Quentin; To, Hang
Drawing upon on the literature on Indigenous values to water, water markets and the empirical findings from a survey of 120 Indigenous and non-Indigenous respondents across northern Australia, the paper makes important qualitative and statistical comparisons between Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets. The study is the first comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets based on the same survey instrument. Key results from Indigenous respondents include: (1) water markets are held to be an acceptable approach to managing water; (2) markets must be carefully designed to protect customary and ecological values; (3) the allocation of water rights need to encompass equity considerations; and (4) water and land rights should not be separated even if this enhances efficiency, as it runs counter to Indigenous holistic values. Overall, the survey results provide the basis for a proposed adaptive decision loop, which allows decision makers to incorporate stakeholder values in water markets.
Full Text Available Periodic evaluation and monitoring the health and economic outcome of joint replacement surgery is a common and popular process under the territory of joint registries in many countries. In this article we introduce the methodology used for the foundation of the National Iranian Joint Registry (IJR with a joint collaboration of the Social Security Organization (SSO and academic research departments considering the requirements of the Iran’s Ministry of Health and Education.
Full Text Available Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.
Burm, Sarah; Burleigh, Dawn
Identifying as non-Indigenous, we are often left considering our positionality and identity in Indigenous education, how we have come to be invested in this area of research, and what we see as our contribution. In conversation with one another, we realized we choose to share certain stories and not others about our experiences working in…
Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia
During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods.
Mika, Carl; Stewart, Georgina; Watson, Ka'imi; Silva, Keola; Martin, Brian; Matapo, Jacoba; Galuvao, Akata
In this commentary, various expert authors offer their ideas on indigenous research in the philosophy of education and PESA's role from an indigenous perspective. Georgiana Stewart is the first author to step forward and explain that education is based on knowledge, and so education is centrally concerned with literacy and identity. Stewart goes…
Apr 17, 2008 ... ... Iranian Trichoderma isolates in the control of soil borne plant pathogenic ... Although in many cases, these pesticides appear to be the most ... pathogens and nematodes by microorganisms has been considered a more ...
Conclusion The 40-item AAMI consisting of six factors in the present study not only was shown to be reliable, valid and appropriate for Iranian older adults but was also confirmed to have both subjective and objective dimensions.
Felter, Joseph H; Fishman, Brian
.... Second, Iran uses the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and Qods Force (QF) to provide aid in the form of paramilitary training, weapons, and equipment to various Iraqi militant groups, including Moqtada al-Sadr's Jaysh al-Mahdi (JAM...
Introduction. Child abuse and neglect consists of any acts of commission ... of different types of child maltreatment in Iranian kids according to the reports of their caregivers. .... used to measure verbal and symbolic acts by the parents intended ...
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The qualitative modeling process of this research, which was carried out in the grounded theory ... for insurers in the insurance industry of Iran (according to Iranian- Islamic characteristics).
Full Text Available Muscularity is a potential indicator for the selection of more productive cattle. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL for traits related to muscularity is useful to identify the genomic regions where the genes affecting muscularity reside. QTL analysis from a Limousin-Jersey double backcross herd was conducted using QTL Express software with cohort and breed as the fixed effects. Nine QTL suggested to have an association with muscularity were identified on cattle chromosomes BTA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 14 and 17. The myostatin gene is located at the centromeric end of chromosome 2 and not surprisingly, the Limousin myostatin F94L variant accounted for the QTL on BTA2. However, when the myostatin F94L genotype was included as an additional fixed effect, the QTL on BTA17 was also no longer significant. This result suggests that there may be gene(s that have epistatic effects with myostatin located on cattle chromosome 17. Based on the position of the QTL in base pairs, all the genes that reside in the region were determined using the Ensembl data base (www.ensembl.org. There were two potential candidate genes residing within these QTL regions were selected. They were Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1 and similar to follistatin-like 5 (FSTL5. (JIIPB 2010 Vol 20 No 1: 1-10
Reza Vaseghi; Hamed Barjesteh; Sedigheh Shakib
The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual) Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Pref...
Iranian legislator didn′t specify a kind of physician′s acquittal which received from the patient knowingly and is based on his/her free will. There are also some medical and legal gaps. Patients are not often informed of all exact and scientific information and results of their treatments. Furthermore, the forms prepared to receive the patient′s consent do not provide what Iranian legislator meant.
Ghazinoory, Sepehr; Ghazinoori, Soroush; Azadegan-Mehr, Mandana
Recently, a few of scientific journals raise serious questions about scientific ethics and moral judgment of some of the Iranian government's senior executives in their papers. Plagiarism, under any circumstances is not justified, and we do not intend to justify it in this note. However, we find it useful in understanding why otherwise respected, responsible individuals may engage in plagiarism by terse review of the history Iranian academia.
Cláudia Pereira Antunes
Full Text Available The education in the indigenous schools, even though it is build within the legal framework of the State and a modern concept of education, demands new comprehensions from the western society not only in its relation with the indigenous education, but also in its relation with the indigenous people. Because of its condition as a mediator between two different forms of thinking, the indigenous school also represents a fertile ground to think about the western conceptions of education. This article is dedicated to a deeper reflection about some aspects of the relation between the western society, based on rationality and science, and the indian people in the construction of the indigenous schools.
Foulds, Heather J A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Warburton, Darren E R
Limited understanding of Indigenous adults' cardiovascular structure and function exists despite high rates of cardiovascular disease. This investigation characterised cardiovascular structure and function among young Indigenous adults and compared to age- and sex-matched European descendants. Echocardiographic assessments included apical two- and four-chamber images, parasternal short-axis images and Doppler. Analyses included cardiac volumes, dimensions, velocities and strains. Cardiovascular structure and function were similar between Indigenous (n=10, 25 ± 3 years, 4 women) and European-descendant (n=10, 24 ± 4 years, 4 women,) adults, though European descendants demonstrated greater systemic vascular resistance (18.19 ± 3.94 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 vs. 15.36 ± 2.97 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 , p=0.03). Among Indigenous adults, women demonstrated greater arterial elastance (0.80 ± 0.15 mmHg·mL -1 ·m -2 vs. 0.55 ± 0.17 mmHg·mL -1 ·m -2 , p=0.02) and possibly greater systemic vascular resistance (17.51 ± 2.20 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 vs. 13.93 ± 2.61 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 , p=0.07). Indigenous men had greater cardiac size, dimensions and output, though body size differences accounted for cardiac size differences. Similar cardiac rotation and strains were observed across sexes. Arterial elastance and cardiac size were different between Indigenous men and women while cardiovascular structure and function may be similar between Indigenous and European descendants.
Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.
Salehi, Alireza; Alembizar, Faranak; Hosseinkhani, Ayda
Studying the history of science could help develop an understanding of the contributions made by ancient nations towards scientific advances. Although Iranians had an important impact on the improvement of science, the history of Iranian medicine seems not to have been given enough attention by historians. The present study focused on the history of anesthesia and pain management in Iranian medical history. In this regard, related books such as Avesta and Shahnameh were studied in order to obtain the history of anesthesiology in Iranian pre Islamic era. This subject was also studied in the famous books of Rhazes, Haly Abbas, Avicenna, Jorjani, MomenTunekaboni and Aghili from different times of the Islamic era. Scientific data bases such as PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched using key words "Iranian", "Persian", "pain management" and "anesthesia". It was discovered that pain management and anesthesiology were well known to the Iranians. Rhazes and Avicenna had innovations in this regard. Fourteen Mokhader (anesthetic) herbs, which were included in the collection of the previous knowledge of the 18th century entitled Makhzan al-Advieyh and used as the Persian Materia Medica, were identified and listed. This study introduces the history of anesthesiology and pain management at different periods in the history of Iran.
M. M. Majidi
Full Text Available Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is cultivated in a wide range of geographical conditions in the world from Africa to Europe, India and China. Previous studies have shown that diversity in indigenous Iranian germplasm is limited for some traits therefore germplasm collections from other origins need to be considered. An experiment was conducted to evaluate agronomic and morphological traits of 100 Iranian and exotic safflower genotypes during 2011- 2012 at the Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, using a simple lattice design of 10 × 10. The results of analysis of variance showed that the differences among genotypes were highly significant (p < 0.01 for days to flowering, seed yield, plant height, number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head, 1000-seed weight, oil content and harvest index, indicating high variability in the studied germplasm. The highest and lowest heritabilities were observed for 1000-seed weight and seed yield, respectively, indicating that indirect improving for seed yield would be more beneficial. Genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficients showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and harvest index had significantly positive correlations with seed yield. The results of stepwise regression and path analysis showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and 1000-seed weight are the most important components of seed yield, among which, number of heads per plant had the greatest direct positive effect on seed yield. These traits could be used as criteria for indirect selection in safflower breeding programs. Factor analysis recognized three factors which explained 72.56 percent of total variations. These factors were defined as phenological, physiological source and efficiency factors. Cluster analysis based on the agronomic and morphological traits grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Iranian accessions were clearly discriminated from
Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa
"Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania.
Full Text Available The School of Public Policy (SPP at the University of Calgary organized a conference to announce the establishment of its Indigenous Policy program and to share knowledge and stories about policy issues critical to Indigenous Peoples in Canada. The conference, titled “Beyond Reconciliation,” was held at the University of Calgary Downtown Campus on Nov. 21, 2016 and was attended by 73 participants. This included Indigenous elders, chiefs and leaders, and members of Indigenous organizations, including a women’s group. Also included were members of universities and academic institutions, including students; industry representatives from the oil and gas, pipeline, forestry, electricity, legal and financial sectors; as well as representatives from government and regulatory agencies. The purpose of the conference was established with the following abstract, which was circulated to speakers and participants: The School of Public Policy is establishing a new Indigenous Policy program in order to produce widely disseminated research and engage in outreach that covers an array of policy areas, such as health, education, self-government, and natural resource development. The program will directly engage Indigenous communities in the search for original, long-term, and evidence-based solutions, as part of an effort to improve our national capacity in problem-solving and policy development. The conference will provide a platform to launch the program, showcasing preliminary research and providing a venue for discussion of policy solutions. The conference included three moderated panel sessions and a keynote speaker.1 The first panel considered business and entrepreneurship in Indigenous communities; the second panel showcased case studies that are examining the experiences of Indigenous communities with natural resource development projects, and particularly their experiences with consultation and engagement. The final panel focused on ways of
Living in a compassionate community is not a new practice in First Nations communities; they have always recognized dying as a social experience. First Nations hold extensive traditional knowledge and have community-based practices to support the personal, familial, and community experiences surrounding end-of-life. However, western health systems were imposed and typically did not support these social and cultural practices at end of life. In fact, the different expectations of western medicine and the community related to end of life care has created stress and misunderstanding for both. One solution is for First Nations communities to develop palliative care programs so that people can receive care at home amongst their family, community and culture. Our research project "Improving End-of-Life Care in First Nations Communities" (EOLFN) was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research [2010-2015] and was conducted in partnership with four First Nations communities in Canada (see www.eolfn.lakeheadu.ca). Results included a community capacity development approach to support Indigenous models of care at end-of-life. The workshop will describe the community capacity development process used to develop palliative care programs in First Nations communities. It will highlight the foundation to this approach, namely, grounding the program in community values and principles, rooted in individual, family, community and culture. Two First Nations communities will share stories about their experiences developing their own palliative care programs, which celebrated cultural capacity in their communities while enhancing medical palliative care services in a way that respected and integrated with their community cultural practices. This workshop shares the experiences of two First Nations communities who developed palliative care programs by building upon community culture, values and principles. The underlying model guiding development is shared.
Full Text Available The main focus of this study, which is of the most important and most frequent speech acts used in multicultural settings, is the speech act of apology. It probes native Persian-speaking ESL university students’ apology and non-apology strategies based on Cohen and Olshtain’s (1981 frame work to evince variations ascribed to gender, mother tongue, and culture. The results of this survey reveal that Iranian male and female respondents use different percentages of apology and non-apology strategies. Considering significance levels, in general, except for a few strategies, there is no statistically significant difference between the groups considering the number and type of strategies used.
Full Text Available Email has become a widespread medium of communication between students and their instructors, however; there is a limited amount of research on instructional role and uses of email in academic context. The present study investigated the communication strategies in email messages sent by Iranian EFL students to their male instructors in relation to their socioeconomic status (such as family income and education level. Moreover, the relationships between communication strategies and gender were examined. Email message sent by male and female students to their male instructors during the academic year 2012-2013 were analyzed for communication strategies (requesting, negotiating, reporting, social. The results of quantitative and qualitative statistics revealed that there were significant relationships between communication strategies and participants’ socioeconomic status. In addition, there were significant relationships between communication strategies and gender.
Keshavarzi, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Ali; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard
Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk...... factors and their interactions for abortion in Iranian dairy herds. Based on data from 6 commercial herds, logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for abortion. The basic time unit used in the study was a 3-week period corresponding to an estrus cycle. Thus, stage of lactation...... factors were herd effect, pregnancy stage, previous abortion, calving month, cumulative fat corrected milk (FCM) yield level, mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk, accumulated number of mastitis and all 2-way interactions. Pregnancy tests were performed between 35 and 50 days after insemination. Abortion...
Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah
Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .
Zarkesh, J.; Akbarnejad, M. M. [NIOC Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasheh, F. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badakhshan, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)
Upgrading heavy crude oil to light crude oil is one of the most important refining processes. Familiarity with the kinetics and related kinetic models is one of the important aspects of developing expertise in this field. This joint study between the NIOC Institute of Research of the Petroleum Industry and Sharif University was undertaken to determine the most appropriate upgrading process for Iranian heavy feed stock and to predict the conversion and product distribution in commercial hydrocracking units. The study involved the evaluation of stoichiometry of the hydrocracking process, focusing on the catalytic hydrocracking of furfural extract (a by-product of the lubricating oil plant) of the Tehran refinery. A pilot plant reactor was used. Good correspondence between model predictions and theoretical values was obtained.
Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah
Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Najafi, A R; Rahimpour, M R; Jahanmiri, A H; Roostaazad, R; Arabian, D; Soleimani, M; Jamshidnejad, Z
The potential of an indigenous bacterial strain isolated from an Iranian oil field for the production of biosurfactant was investigated in this study. After isolation, the bacterium was characterized to be Paenibacillus alvei by biochemical tests and 16S ribotyping. The biosurfactant, which was produced by this bacterium, was able to lower the surface tension of media to 35 mN/m. Accordingly, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and FT-IR has been carried out to determine compositional analysis of the produced biosurfactant. After all the tests related to characterization of the biosurfactant produced by the isolated bacterium, it was characterized as lipopeptide derivative. The combination of central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM) was exploited to optimize biosurfactant production. Therefore, variations of four impressive parameters, pH, temperature, glucose and salinity concentrations were selected for optimization of growth conditions. The empirical model developed through RSM in terms of effective operational factors mentioned above was found to be adequate to describe the biosurfactant production. A maximum reduction in surface tension was obtained under the optimal conditions of 13.03 g/l glucose concentration, 34.76 °C, 51.39 g/l total salt concentration and medium pH 6.89. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Afonso, G. B.
We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.
Kandasamy, Y; Smith, R; Wright, I M R; Lumbers, E R
Rates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among Indigenous groups in Australia exceed non-Indigenous rates eight-fold. Using kidney volume as a surrogate for nephron number, we carried out a study to determine if Indigenous neonates have a smaller kidney volume (and thus a reduced nephron number) from birth compared with non-Indigenous neonates. We recruited term and preterm neonates (Indigenous) and 39 term (13 Indigenous) neonates. TKV of Indigenous neonates was significantly lower at 32 weeks [12.0 (2.0) v. 15.4 (5.1) ml; P=0.03] and 38 weeks CA [18.6 (4.0) v. 22.6 (5.9) ml; P=0.04] respectively. Term Indigenous neonates also had smaller kidney volumes compared with non-Indigenous neonates. Despite a smaller kidney volume (and reduced nephron number), Indigenous neonates did not have a significantly lower eGFR. Indigenous neonates achieve similar eGFRs to Non-Indigenous neonates, presumably through a higher single nephron filtration rate. This places Indigenous neonates at a greater risk of long-term kidney damage later in life.
Ajallouyan, Mohammad; Radfar, Shokofeh; Nouhi, Sima; Tavallaie, Seid Abbas; Amirsalari, Susan; Yousefi, Jaleh; Hasanali Fard, Mahdieh
It seems that there is a relationship between consanguinity and profound hearing loss but there is little data about the association of consanguinity and hearing loss in Iran. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the causes of profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss among Iranian samples who are candidates for cochlear implantation. This study was retrospective, analytical, and designed to collect information about profound hearing impaired cases referred to the Baqiyatallah Cochlear implantation center using enumeration. A total of 310 children with profound hearing impairments participated in this study. They were aged from 6 months to 4 years old. The study was done between January 2007 and April 2009. Chi-square tests were used to show whether there was any statistical difference between the incidence of marital consanguinity of their parents and the normal population. Sixty-five percent of those 310 children had parents who had married with their relatives. Of the 203 (65%) parents that had consanguineous marriages, 132 were first cousins, which includes the children of two brothers (37 [11.8%] patrilateral parallel cousins), the children of two sisters (38 [12.2%] multi-lateral parallel cousins), or the children of a brother and a sister (57 [18.3%] cross cousins). Fifty-four (17.4%) of the parents were second cousins and 17 (5.2%) were beyond second cousins. Also, hearing loss etiology was obvious in 237 (76.3%) of the patients with profound hearing loss but was unknown in 73 (23.7%). Hereditary was identified as the most common cause in 33% of the cases. Our data demonstrated a 65% occurrence of consanguineous marriage among the parents of deaf children, which is statistically different from the percentage of consanguineous marriage among Iranian population (38%). This indicates an obvious relationship between severe hearing loss and consanguineous marriage.
Full Text Available This article charts Iran’s relations with Central Asia following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. This event gave Iran a new set of neighbours to the north, and this came at a time when Iran was undergoing changes in the direction of its foreign policy from radical idealistic goals, such as the export of the Islamic Revolution, to more pragmatic aims, including giving priority to its own national interests and pursuing good neighbourly relations. Since 1991, Iran has attempted to develop relations towards the Central Asian states, both bilaterally and through various regional fora. Iran’s actions have been based, in part, on a greater commitment to regionalism that has been evident in Iranian foreign policy since the early 1990s. This has focused on cultivating economic, infrastructural and cultural links with the region, rather than any form of ideological crusade, and has helped reduce Iran’s international isolation. Following a historical contextualisation and explanation of the place that the lands of Central Asia hold in the Iranian geopolitical imagination, the article explores the key concerns of Iran in the region. It will examine Iran’s position on what it perceives as being the key issues shaping its Central Asian diplomacy, namely regional economic cooperation, pipeline politics, the status of the Caspian Sea, security cooperation and cultural diplomacy. This provides a revealing case study of how Iran perceives itself as a vital player in the region, seeking to emphasise the benefits of its geostrategic location, relative stability, and increasing international role following the nuclear deal.
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Ali Mohammad Foroughmand
Conclusion: The examined STR loci in this study have proven a relatively high genetic variation in the Iranian population. The data could be used for construction of a forensic genetic database for the Iranian population.
Crain, Robert L.
This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…
Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo
Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece
Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may......, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...
Storytelling, in its various forms, has often been described as a practice with great emancipatory potential. In turn, Indigenous knowledge shows great promise in guiding a participatory action research (PAR) methodology. Yet these two approaches are rarely discussed in relation to one another, nor, has much been written in terms of how these two approaches may work synergistically toward a decolonizing research approach. In this article, I report on a community-driven knowledge translation activity, the Peoples’ International Health Tribunal, as an exemplar of how narrative and PAR approaches, guided by local Indigenous knowledge, have great potential to build methodologically and ethically robust research processes. Implications for building globally relevant research alliances and scholarship are further discussed, particularly in relation to working with Indigenous communities. PMID:28462305
Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. ... Resource conservation and utilisation through indigenous knowledge in a tribal community of Orissa, ... \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the ...
Jun 6, 2016 ... Demand for fresh indigenous vegetables in Nigeria has increased ... greater returns from indigenous vegetables compared to conventional vegetables. ... In Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, monocropping of a single, non-edible variety ...
In the 1990s, indigenous knowledge has been fertile ground for research, and ... research and will appeal to both seasoned development professional as well as ... indigenous-knowledge issues with the University of Indonesia, the Institute of ...
Pyper, Evelyn; Henry, David; Yates, Erika A; Mecredy, Graham; Ratnasingham, Sujitha; Slegers, Brian; Walker, Jennifer D
Indigenous data governance principles assert that Indigenous communities have a right to data that identifies their people or communities, and a right to determine the use of that data in ways that support Indigenous health and self-determination. Indigenous-driven use of the databases held at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) has resulted in ongoing partnerships between ICES and diverse Indigenous organizations and communities. To respond to this emerging and complex landscape, ICES has established a team whose goal is to support the infrastructure for responding to community-initiated research priorities. ICES works closely with Indigenous partners to develop unique data governance agreements and supports processes, which ensure that ICES scientists must work with Indigenous organizations when conducting research that involves Indigenous peoples. © 2018 Longwoods Publishing.
Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture .... For example, the National Corporation for Indigenous Development (CONADI) ... Institute for Agriculture Development (INDAP), and applied research on ...
vernacular mass media and the Kenyan indigenous languages. ... African indigenous languages had, "against all odds", survived as media of communication ..... regulations should, of course, primarily ensure quality and ethical journalism.
Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. ... halting the spread of HIV and AIDS in South Africa: The case of Soshanguve township in the ... Tourism policies and management practices as perceived by indigenous people in ...
A Physical Education Curriculum Enriched With Indigenous Zulu Games For Improved Social Development ... Therefore, it was necessary to assess these indigenous Zulu games' potential in obtaining overt ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Full Text Available This paper describes the features required of OWL (Web Ontology Language) to realise and enhance Indigenous Knowledge (IK) digital repositories. Several needs for Indigenous Knowledge management systems (IKMSs) are articulated, based on extensive...
Very little has been written on indigenous rights in South-East Asia. This article attempts to address issues concerning indigenous land rights in the region, arguing that there is a clear gap between the existing situation and the relevant standards of the international human rights system. After a short overview of the international human rights framework currently binding South-East Asian states, the article analyses issues of indigenous land ownership and control by indigenous peoples ove...
Dubertret , Fabrice
This document is a draft. It aims at providing a basis for discussion between the different organizations and indigenous land and resources rights experts involved in the wider project of building a world atlas of indigenous territories.; This working paper describes the process of establishing a global categorization of indigenous land and resources rights. From the analysis of a great variability of legislations regarding indigenous territories, common considered topics are identified, such...
Razvi, M.A.N.; Jayasekharan, T.; Thankarajan, K.; Guhagarkar, M.B.; Dixit, M.N.; Bhale, G.L.
Design, fabrication and performance testing of an indigenously built Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) is presented in this report. The instrument is totally indigenous, but for the laser components consisting of the excimer laser and tunable dye lasers. Constructional details of atomic beam source and linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are included. Finally, commissioning and performance testing of the instrument is described. Mass resolving power of 400 and a detection limit of 100 atoms has been achieved using this RIMS set-up. (author)
Dodgson, Joan E; Struthers, Roxanne
Marginalization may affect health care delivery. Ways in which indigenous women experienced marginalization were examined. Data from 57 indigenous women (18 to 65 years) were analyzed for themes. Three themes emerged: historical trauma as lived marginalization, biculturalism experienced as marginalization, and interacting within a complex health care system. Experienced marginalization reflected participants' unique perspective and were congruent with previous research. It is necessary for health care providers to assess the detrimental impact of marginalization on the health status of individuals and/or communities.
Ramezani, Afsaneh Effatdokht; Dehgahi, Meysam; Hashemi, Hanie
This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students…
Ersanli, Ercümend; Mameghani, Shiva Saeighi
In the present study, the Tolerance Scale developed by Ersanli (2014) was adapted to the Iranian culture, and its validity and reliability were investigated in the case of Iranian college students. The participants consisted of 552 Iranian college students (62% male, M = 20.84, S.D.: 1.53) selected using the convenience sampling method. The sample…
Amir H. Pakpour, PhD
Conclusion: The results provide evidence for good reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the PEDT. The questionnaire therefore represents a suitable tool for screening PE in Iranian men. Pakpour AH, Yekaninejad MS, Nikoobakht MR, Burri A, and Fridlund B. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Sex Med 2014;2:31–40.
Mahdavi Zafarghandi, Amir; Jodai, Hojat
This study intends to represent attitudes toward English and English learning at an Iranian military university. Iranian military staff is required to study English in a social environment where there is little immediate need or opportunity to use the language for real communicative purposes.The subjects included 34 Iranian military personnel who…
Bambang Ngaji Utomo
Full Text Available The characterization is main activities in order to identify important trait of Katingan cattle. Information of its phenotypic characteristic is not available yet. The aim of the study is to describe the qualitative characteristic of Katingan cattle. Three location of the study were sub-district of Tewah Sanggalang Garing (Pendahara Village, sub-district of Pulau Malan (Buntut Bali Village, and sub-district of Katingan Tengah (Tumbang Lahang Village. The samples of Katingan cattle were taken as many as possible based on the field conditions to observe pattern of colour, growth of horn and gibbosity appear among two horns. General characteristic of Katingan cattle was various in colours of coat, having horns, humped and dewlop. The main characteristics were expressed at female of Katingan cattle. There were six variations of horn shape at female, however the growth of arching forwards was dominant (78.4%. Horn shape of male was generally grown upside (98.3%. Gibbosity was founded among horn only at female cattle (92.6%. There were 9 combinations of coat colour of female Katingan Cattle, those were brown reddish (27%, brown whitish (14.1%, brown like colour of Bali cattle (13.8%, black (12.5%, brown dull (9.6%, brown sorrel (9.3%, blackish (7.1%, white brownish (5.5% and white grayish (4.5%. Male of Katingan cattle had eight colour combinations, those were brown whitish (14.8%, brown whitish and reddish (14.8%, brown reddish (13.1%, blackish (12.3%, brown whiteish with black withers (10.7%, brown sorrel (9.8% and brown sorrel with black withers (7.8%. Based on qualitative analysis, the Katingan cattle had variations in coat of colour, growth of horn and the gibbosity. The variation of coat colour had potentially selection related to the value of cultural.
Carter, Jennifer; Hollinsworth, David
Australian universities are increasingly embedding Indigenous content and perspectives within curriculum to promote Indigenous cultural competency. We present teaching challenges in an Indigenous geography course designed to present an engaged, intercultural learning experience. We critically reflect on student evaluations, informal discussions…
What is the relationship between Indigenous peoples and violent reactions to contemporary states? This research explores differing, culturally informed notions of attachment to land or place territory. Mechanistic ties and organic ties to land are linked to a key distinction between Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous peoples. Utilizing the…
Full Text Available The formal reconciliation process in Australia was conducted between 1991 and 2000 and aimed to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples by 2001. In this paper, I detail the failure of both this reconciliation process and governments, in particular the Howard Government, to recognise Indigenous rights, such as sovereignty, a treaty, self-determination and land rights.
Indigenous counselling has not been given attention in Nigeria's school counselling programme. This counselling gap was created by European colonialism, which succeeded in developing in the minds of the African that anything indigenous is local, unscientific and unorthodox. Indigenous counselling is one of the ...
Hohepa, Margie Kahukura (Ngapuhi)
Educational leadership, it is argued, must play a critical role in improving student outcomes, especially those of minoritized and Indigenous students. In the process of improving education and schooling for Indigenous students, Indigenous educational leadership needs to be considered alongside educational leadership more generally. This article…
In 1982 the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, initiated a co-ordinated research programme with the aim of stimulating studies to characterize and improve the reproductive performance of indigenous cattle under the diverse environmental and management conditions prevailing in developing countries. This publication represents the results of the five year co-ordinated research programme, individual papers being essentially a synthesis of the work presented by the participants of the programme at the final research co-ordination meeting held in Vienna from 5 to 9 September 1988. Concurrently with the above mentioned research co-ordination meeting, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division held a consultants meeting on the interaction between reproduction, disease, nutrition and the environment, and on field reproductive management strategies. The papers presented by the consultants as well as their recommendations are included in this publication. These recommendations will form the basis of the future direction of livestock reproduction research programmes supported by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. Refs, figs and tabs
Vargas, Julio; Landi, Vincenzo; Martínez, Amparo; Gómez, Mayra; Camacho, María Esperanza; Álvarez, Luz Ángela; Aguirre, Lenin; Delgado, Juan Vicente
Macabea cattle are the only Bos taurus breed that have adapted to the wet tropical conditions of the Amazon. This breed has integrated into the culture of the indigenous Shuar-Asuar nations probably since its origins, being one of the few European zoogenetic resources assimilated by the deep-jungle Amazon communities. Despite its potential for local endogenous sustainable development, this breed is currently endangered. The present study used molecular genetics tools to investigate the within- and between-breeds diversity, in order to characterize the breed population, define its associations with other breeds, and infer its origin and evolution. The within-breed genetic diversity showed high values, as indicated by all genetic parameters, such as the mean number of alleles (MNA = 7.25±2.03), the observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.72±0.02) and the expected heterozygosity (He = 0.72±0.02). The between-breeds diversity analysis, which included factorial correspondence analysis, Reynolds genetic distance, neighbor-joining analysis, and genetic structure analysis, showed that the Macabea breed belongs to the group of the American Creoles, with a Southern-Spain origin. Our outcomes demonstrated that the Macabea breed has a high level of purity and null influences of exotic cosmopolitan breeds with European or Asiatic origin. This breed is an important zoogenetic resource of Ecuador, with relevant and unique attributes; therefore, there is an urgent need to develop conservation strategies for the Macabea breed.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows: (1...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized slaughtering...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from the...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from a...
Armour, Danielle; Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie
Indigenous teacher assistants (ITAs) are often employed in schools to assist in addressing educational issues relating to Indigenous students. While, this practice has occurred for over 40 years in most Australian states, little has been written about their contribution in assisting Indigenous students to learn. This paper explores the influence…
Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis
Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in nursing practice, especially Iranian nurses, which were published between 2000 and 2013. In this regard, we searched databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Google, BMJ, PMC, and MEDLINE. The majority of the studies (60%) had analyzed the effect of coping strategies, experiences and perception of job-related stresses in Iranian nurses working in hospitals. In some of the reviewed studies (60%), the majority of the samples enrolled Iranian nurses. Forty percent of studies selected a maximum sample size of 565 (44%) participants in 2011. Nursing stress scale employed at 30% of the studies was the most commonly used strategy. This reviewed studies also revealed a combined measurement (60% of studies), based on categorical stress measurement, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction methods. Three studies explored the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. For instance, the majority (74.4%) of nurses reported job satisfaction. Effect of coping strategies and job satisfaction on Iranian nurses is a well-accepted issue and has important positive outcomes on several areas of health discipline.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in normal Iranian eyes and compare endothelial cell characteristics in the Iranian population with data available in the literature for American and Indian populations. Methods Specular microscopy was performed in 525 eyes of normal Iranian people aged 20 to 85 years old. The studied parameters including mean endothelial cell density (MCD, mean cell area (MCA and coefficient of variation (CV in cell area were analyzed in all of the 525 eyes. Results MCD was 1961 ± 457 cell/mm2 and MCA was 537.0 ± 137.4 μm2. There was no statistically significant difference in MCD, MCA and CV between genders (Student t-test, P = 0.85, P = 0.97 and P = 0.15 respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD with age (P r = -0.64. The rate of cell loss was 0.6% per year. There was also a statistically significant increase in MCA (P r = 0.56 and CV (P r = 0.30 from 20 to 85 years of age. Conclusion The first normative data for the endothelium of Iranian eyes seems to confirm that there are no differences in MCD, MCA and CV between genders. Nevertheless, the values obtained in Iranian eyes seem to be different to those reported by the literature in Indian and American populations.
Cecília José Veríssimo
Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size
S. V. Singh
Full Text Available A total of 829 serum samples belonging to domestic livestock (Cattle, buffaloes, goat and sheep and driven from different parts of North India between 2005 to 2008, were screened to estimate the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP infection using 'indigenous absorbed ELISA kit'. Seroprevalence of MAP in the domestic livestock was 23.1%. Prevalence was higher in large ruminants (24.1% as compared to small ruminants (22.5%. Highest seropositivity was in cattle (26.9%, followed by goats (23.9%, buffaloes (20.2%, and sheep (19.0%. In cattle region-wise, 25.8, 29.1 and 30.7% animals were positive from Mathura (UP, Rohtak (Haryana, and Bareilly (UP regions, respectively. In buffaloes, the highest prevalence was found at Bareilly (26.6% followed by Rohtak (20.0% and Bhaghpat (18.4% regions. In goats, 19.6, 37.5, 40.0 and 21.9% animals were positive from Mathura (farm herd, Etawah, Agra and Ajmer (farmers herd regions, respectively. In sheep, prevalence of MAP was 25.5 and 16.3% in Mathura and Mannavanur regions, respectively. In sheep, prevalence was higher in Northern region as compared to the Southern region of the country. The present study showed that the prevalence of MAP in domestic livestock was moderately higher; therefore there is an urgent need to control the disease at National level in order to improve per animal productivity in the country.
Jay Maddock; Nicole K. Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Genetic research has potential benefits for improving health, such as identifying molecular characteristics of a disease, understanding disease prevalence and treatment, and developing treatments tailored to patients based on individual genetic characteristics of their disease. Indigenous people are often targeted for genetic research because genes are easier to study in communities that practice endogamy. Therefore, populations perceived to be more homogenous, such as Indigenous ...
Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures at birth in Chilean indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous children over a 5-year period. Methods We examined weight and length at birth using information available through a national data base of all birth records for the years 2000 through 2004 (n = 1,166.513). Newborns were classified ethnically according to the origins of the parents' last names. Result The average birthweight was stable over the 5 year period with variations of less than 20 g in each group, and with mean values trivially higher in indigenous newborns. The proportion weighing less than 2500 g at birth increased modestly from 5.2% to 5.6% in non-indigenous newborns whereas the indigenous births remained constant at 5.2%. In multiple regression analyses, adjusting flexibly for gestational age and maternal characteristics, the occurrence of an indigenous surname added only 14 g to an average infant's birthweight while holding other factors constant. Results for length at birth were similar, and adjusted time trend variation in both outcomes was trivially small after adjustment. Anthropometric indexes at birth in Chile are quite favorable by international standards. Conclusion There is only a trivial degree of ethnic disparity in these values, in contrast to conditions for ethnic minorities in other countries. Moreover, these values remained roughly constant over the 5 years of observation in this study. PMID:20598150
Full Text Available A wide range of population, 4% to 30%, suffers from tinnitus that is defined as perception of sound without apparent acoustic stimulus. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population; Tehran province. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2009, recruiting 3207 individuals (age range, 7-98 who were residing in Tehran province, Iran. Participants were asked to fill two questionnaires; the validated Persian version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and another one that was specifically designed for this study. Prevalence of tinnitus and its association factors were evaluated. 3207 participants enrolled into our study comprising 1429 (44.7% male and 1765 (55.3% female with mean age of 55.01±17.85. Of total of 3207 participants, 146 (4.6% had tinnitus consisting of 80 male (54.8% and 66 (45.2% female participants. It showed a rising trend with increasing age that was especially significant after the sixth decade of life (P=0.001. The analysis showed mean TQ global score of 35.96±25.52 that was significantly different between male and female participants (P=0.051 and had no significant correlation with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.10. The tinnitus intensity was moderate to very severe in 95 (56.1% of the participants. Its severity level was not significantly different between men and women (P=0.09. Tinnitus intensity had no significant association with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.31. Patients with higher TQ global score had higher tinnitus intensities (P=0.001. The annoyance level was significantly different between men and women (P=0.04 and its impact on the participants daily routine functions were significantly higher in men (P=0.003. Given the results of the study, demonstrating that prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population (Tehran province was lower than the other countries and had a direct correlation with increasing age only after the sixth
This paper discusses an experience of relying on indigenous knowledge to resolve a communal conflict between two Nigerian local communities. The authors were working in one of the communities when conflict erupted, and had to initiate moves to restore peace and normality. They relied largely on information on the ...
With the advancement of modern scientific methods and technology, most of these indigenous biological resources are being developed into commercial products, largely without benefiting the very communities that have sustainably managed them over many generations. This paper examines current regulatory ...
This research undertook the study of ectoparasites and haemoparasites found on and in the body of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus). Six hundred and nineteen ectoparasites were collected from 375 chicken from 28 households in and around Ibadan city between February and November, 1999. Of these, 455 ...
The study was carried out to characterize two indigenous chickens of Nigeria using protein markers; haemolglobin (HB) and carbonic anhydrase (CA). Separation of the two proteins was achieved by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and direct gene counting method was employed to interpret the result. Palentological ...
A study to evaluate four indigenous chicken – namely: Horasi, Kuchi, Naked neck and Frizzled in order to obtain grand-parent and parent stocks was carried out at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Mpwapwa district of Dodoma, Tanzania. The perfomance of the ecotypes were compared so as to come out with the best ...
An ethnobotanical survey and germplasm collection of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) (an indigenous fruit tree) were carried out in six provinces of the humid rainforest zone in southern Cameroon. Fruit samples were collected at 40-50 km intervals along the main road network of the zone, from homegardens, food crop as ...
Construction projects' high uncertainty rates make them unattractive to non-risk takers. Construction companies are therefore necessarily risk takers, albeit, to varying degrees. This study made an inquiry into the risk management (RM) practices of multinational and indigenous construction companies (MCCs and ICCs, ...
A child inherits from his or family those sets of meaning, quali- ties of style, modes of ... of experience and trial-and-error problem solving by groups of people working to .... indigenous capitals of the past and relinquishes all that is de- skilling or ...
Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina
As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…
In the 1970s, the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis invaded the South African coast and spread rapidly to dominate much of the West Coast, indicating either the opportunity to occupy a vacant niche or its superior competitive capability over indigenous species. In Namaqualand on the West Coast it appears to ...
This study investigated the application of indigenous knowledge among livestock farmers in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. A structured questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty four respondents in the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
The study examined indigenous communication, religion and education as determinants of attitudes towards STIs/HIV/AIDS education in Igando Community Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 195 people was randomly selected from the population. The study used four hypotheses to test the respondents' attitude to the use of ...
Jan 24, 2011 ... The production of Nigerian indigenous yoghurt (kindirmo) using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and. Streptococcus thermophilus mutants as starter culture was investigated. The results of milk fermentations using L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus mutant isolates when compared with their wild- type strains ...
Huss, Hans Henrik
The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology...
Indigenous people around the world both in developed and developing countries have long been marginalized by governments and /or by other privileged social groups from main stream social, political and economic activities. As a result they suffer indignity because their legitimate human rights are violated by way of ...
The implementation of intercultural health programs, often understood as the integration of indigenous and biomedical models of medicine, is a common challenge in many countries. Currently there is great interest in implementing intercultural health programs in Peru and throughout the Latin American region. This project ...
Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.
This three-year research study examined the influence of interactive technologies on the math achievement of Indigenous students in Years 4, 5, 6 and 7 technology-equipped classrooms in a rural elementary school in British Columbia, Canada. Using a mixed-methods approach, the researcher conducted semistructured interviews and collected math…
M.V.C. Falanruw; Francis Ruegorong
On Yap Island, indigenous management of the fallow in shifting agriculture has resulted in the development of site-stable taro patch and tree garden agroforestry systems. These systems are relatively sustainable and supportive of household economies , with some surplus for local market sales. however, a broad range of crops whose harvest is complementary to those...
multifaceted, multi-sectorial and widely a participatory process in which the .... Important colours used to communicate different meanings among Mbano people are .... of two local government areas – Isiala-Mbano and Ehime-Mbano. ..... view. Again, 190 respondents believed that indigenous communication can assist the.
The production of Nigerian indigenous yoghurt (kindirmo) using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus mutants as starter culture was investigated. The results of milk fermentations using L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus mutant isolates when compared with their wildtype strains (control) indicated that the ...
... the people of this country should harness a synergy between indigenous health care systems, scientific research and modern health care methods. This article attempts to address the historical evolution of health care methods in South Africa, its effect on the community as well as challenges facing the health professions.
Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.
Studies of cultural tourism and indigenous identity are fraught with questions concerning exploitation, entitlement, ownership and authenticity. Unease with the idea of leveraging a group identity for commercial gain is ever-present. This anthology articulates some of these debates from a multitude
Full Text Available The IDRC-funded project 'Empowering Indigenous Peoples and Knowledge Systems Related to Climate Change and Intellectual Property Rights' is part of the Open and Collaborative Science in Development Network (OCSDNet. The project “examiners processes of open and collaborative science related to indigenous peoples’ knowledge, climate change and intellectual property rights”. Natural Justice, the lead organisation has a strong ethical stance on the agency and control over knowledge being vested with the contributing project participants, communities of the Nama and Griqua peoples of the Western Cape of South Africa. The project focuses on questions of how climate change is affecting these communities, how do they produce and maintain knowledge relating to climate change, how that knowledge is characterised and shared (or not with wider publics, and how legal frameworks promote or hinder the agenda of these indigenous communities and their choices to communicate and collaborate with wider publics. Indigenous Knowledge is an area where ethical issues of informed consent, historical injustice, non-compatible epistemologies and political, legal, and economic issues all collide in ways that challenge western and Anglo-American assumptions about data sharing. The group seeks to strongly model and internally critique their own ethical stance in the process of their research, through for instance, using community contracts and questioning institutional informed consent systems.
Anthias, Penelope Fay
A growing body of literature examines how the rise of “neo-extractivist” states in Latin America is reconfiguring the relationship between resources, nation, territory, and citizenship. However, the implications for indigenous territorial projects remain underexplored. Ethnographic research in th...... challenge resistance narratives and resource-curse theories, revealing how resources act as conduits for deeper postcolonial struggles over territory, sovereignty, and citizenship....
The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phytoremediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in remediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three ...
Manu'atu, Linita; Kepa, Mere
This paper, written from the perspectives of indigenous Maori and Tongan researchers, critiques the Auckland Secondary Schools Principals Association's (ASSPA) perspective that culture disrupts students' schooling. It discusses the relations of schooling to the cultural and political forces inside and outside of school; the relations of indigenous…
Use of FBG sensors for real time health monitoring of various civil engineering structures is well-established in western world since last decade, whereas in the Indian context this technology is still in a nascent stage. In this paper, performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG sensors for the application of health ...
Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...
Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...
Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper L
The article presents in-situ findings of introducing a tablet prototype, with touch interaction and 3D graphical visualizations, to empower knowledgeable village elders in Namibia to locally re-create a 3D graphical context for previously recorded video clips of indigenous practices and narratives...
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE VARIETIES OF. ETHIOPIA. Abera Gure1,2, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi1* and Taddese Wondimu Godeto1, ...
Jane Felipe Beltrão
Full Text Available Considering the frequent rights violations perpetrated against indigenous peoples, which affect people and territories, compromising their lives and even their right to mourn the dead, it is imperative to understand the care and concerns of the indigenous towards life and death. Thus, we propose to analyze ethnographic narratives about the Apinayé, Ka'apor, Tapirapé, Tembé, Tenetehara, Terena and Asurini, in order to discuss the caring of people, considering the context of funerary rituals. The texts analyzed are able to reveal: (1 the existence (or not of the practice; (2 the specific contexts in which the funeral rites are (or not practiced; and (3 the meanings that the practice gain in ethnically differentiated societies. The narratives of indigenous peoples are included in order to attempt to make the peoples that nowadays find themselves accused by both the media and (reportedly pro-life organizations “be heard”. Therefore, using the classical literature we study the heritage of ritual practices, which besides confering dignity to the dead, indicate that life is the greater good among indigenous peoples.
Full Text Available Abstract The study of inequities in health is a critical component of monitoring government obligations to uphold the rights of Indigenous Peoples. In Aotearoa/New Zealand the indigenous Māori population has a substantially younger age structure than the non-indigenous population making it necessary to account for age differences when comparing population health outcomes. An age-standardised rate is a summary measure of a rate that a population would have if it had a standard age structure. Changing age standards have stimulated interest in the potential impact of population standards on disparities data and consequently on health policy. This paper compares the age structure of the Māori and non-Māori populations with two standard populations commonly used in New Zealand: Segi's world and WHO world populations. The performance of these standards in Māori and non-Māori mortality data was then measured against the use of the Māori population as a standard. It was found that the choice of population standard affects the magnitude of mortality rates, rate ratios and rate differences, the relative ranking of causes of death, and the relative width of confidence intervals. This in turn will affect the monitoring of trends in health outcomes and health policy decision-making. It is concluded that the choice of age standard has political implications and the development and utilisation of an international indigenous population standard should be considered.
Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in milk coagulation and cheese ripening. To select strains showing interesting industrial features, two indigenous lactobacilli (Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum) were studied for aminopeptidase activity. Cell and cells free extract were tested for leucyl aminopeptidase ...
In this article, I explore the relationship between housing, home and health amongst Indigenous homeless people living in the Canadian North. In particular, I examine the ways in which Indigenous homemaking practices conflict with housing policy, and exacerbate individual pathways to homelessness....... I argue that integral components in northern Indigenous conceptualizations of home and, in turn, health are not only unrecognized in housing policy, but actively discouraged. The potential for homemaking to inform health and housing policy speaks to the relevance of cultural safety not only...... to Indigenous health services, but also to a comprehensive framing of Indigenous health....
Indigenous peoples often have the worst health status in comparison to non-indigenous people in their own nations; urgent action to address the health inequities for indigenous people is required. The role of rehabilitation in addressing health and disability inequities is particularly important due to the health need of indigenous peoples; the unequal distribution of health determinants; and disparities in access to, quality of care through and outcomes following rehabilitation. This article will present a perspective for Māori, the indigenous peoples of New Zealand, on a framework for improving rehabilitation services for Māori and ultimately their health and wellbeing.
Kesler, Dylan C; Walker, Robert S
The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.
Dylan C Kesler
Full Text Available The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.
Barker, Brittany; Goodman, Ashley; DeBeck, Kora
In Canada, Indigenous youth suicide represents one of several health disparities burdening Indigenous populations, and like many other of these disparities, can be understood as an expression of societal, historical, cultural and familial trauma. As the number of Indigenous youth who take their own lives every year in Canada continues to far exceed national averages, it appears that conventional suicide prevention efforts remain ineffective among this population. A growing body of research argues that conventional interventions, largely rooted in Western individual-level behavioural change frameworks, are culturally discordant with Indigenous paradigms. In response, some Indigenous communities are turning to cultural revitalization as a holistic community-driven response to suicide prevention and treatment. The following commentary explores the emerging evidence base for "culture as treatment" - a novel approach to suicide that emphasizes the significance of interconnectedness in healing, alongside the revitalization of traditional values to reclaim community wellness. In doing so, we seek to contribute to a changing discourse surrounding Indigenous youth suicide by acknowledging culture as strength against this national crisis.
Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus and Qinchuan (Bos taurus are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 to 12 fold on average of 97.86% and 98.98% coverage of genomes, respectively. Comparison with the Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1 reference assembly yielded 9,010,096 SNPs for Nanyang, and 6,965,062 for Qinchuan cattle, 51% and 29% of which were novel SNPs, respectively. A total of 154,934 and 115,032 small indels (1 to 3 bp were found in the Nanyang and Qinchuan genomes, respectively. The SNP and indel distribution revealed that Nanyang showed a genetically high diversity as compared to Qinchuan cattle. Furthermore, a total of 2,907 putative cases of copy number variation (CNV were identified by aligning Nanyang to Qinchuan genome, 783 of which (27% encompassed the coding regions of 495 functional genes. The gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that many CNV genes were enriched in the immune system and environment adaptability. Among several CNV genes related to lipid transport and fat metabolism, Lepin receptor gene (LEPR overlapping with CNV_1815 showed remarkably higher copy number in Qinchuan than Nanyang (log2 (ratio = -2.34988; P value = 1.53E-102. Further qPCR and association analysis investigated that the copy number of the LEPR gene presented positive correlations with transcriptional expression and phenotypic traits, suggesting the LEPR CNV may contribute to the higher fat deposition in muscles of Qinchuan cattle. Our findings provide evidence that the distinct phenotypes of Nanyang and Qinchuan breeds may be due to the different genetic variations including SNPs
Aug 4, 2009 ... Blood samples were supplied from 80 Najdi cattle and 80 buffalo from different cities of Khouzestan province. ... The allele B of β-Lactoglobulin occurred at a higher frequency than the allele A in both. Najdi cattle and buffalo. .... that of the B allele in both groups of animals studied. Expected heterozygosity ...
Willems, Catherine; Stassijns, Gaetane; Cornelis, Wim; D'Août, Kristiaan
This study investigates biomechanical implications of walking with indigenous "Kolhapuri" footwear compared to barefoot walking among a population of South Indians. Ten healthy adults from South India walked barefoot and indigenously shod at voluntary speed on an artificial substrate. The experiment was repeated outside, on a natural substrate. Data were collected from (1) a heel-mounted 3D-accelerometer recording peak impact at heel contact, (2) an ankle-mounted 3D-goniometer (plantar/dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion), and (3) sEMG electrodes at the m. tibialis anterior and the m. gastrocnemius medialis. Data show that the effect of indigenous footwear on the measured variables, compared to barefoot walking, is relatively small and consistent between substrates (even though subjects walked faster on the natural substrate). Walking barefoot, compared to shod walking yields higher impact accelerations, but the differences are small and only significant for the artificial substrate. The main rotations of the ankle joint are mostly similar between conditions. Only the shod condition shows a faster ankle rotation over the rapid eversion motion on the natural substrate. Maximal dorsiflexion in late stance differs between the footwear conditions on an artificial substrate, with the shod condition involving a less dorsiflexed ankle, and the plantar flexion at toe-off is more extreme when shod. Overall the activity pattern of the external foot muscles is similar. The indigenous footwear studied (Kolhapuri) seems to alter foot biomechanics only in a subtle way. While offering some degree of protection, walking in this type of footwear resembles barefoot gait and this type of indigenous footwear might be considered "minimal". © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also presented Fumonisin B1 and B2. The work also describes preventive possibilities and protection of animal health from the effects of mycotoxins.
For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book...... traces this to the ability of indigenous peoples to create consensus among themselves; the establishment of an indigenous caucus; and the construction of a global indigenousness in a continuously developing process in which contentious relationships and symbols have been constructed, reformulated......, negotiated and re-negotiated internally and with the states. In this process 'indigenous peoples' developed as a category and an evolving concept. Dahl looks into the ability of different indigenous representatives to make an impact on the UN processes and use achievements for purposes at home. Combining...
Luis Fernando ANGOSTO FERRÁNDEZ
Full Text Available This article examines the Venezuelan regional elections of 2008 as a contextual event for the analysis of electoral strategies and results associated with the indigenous representation. Three factors intertwined in the electoral moment are analyzed: 1. the existence of minimum guaranteed representation for indigenous population in legislative organs; 2. the participation of indigenous candidates and electors; 3. the maneuvers of political parties and civil organizations that attempt to channel and/or benefit from such indigenous representation and participation. The description of the electoral context facilitates the identification of factors that, beyond the normative structure of the State, condition the agency of individuals and parties involved in electoral processes. Among those factors are the symbolic value of indigeneity in the current process of national identity re-definition, the interest of political parties in controlling the vote of the indigenous representation and the tendency towards the consolidation of professionalized elites within the indigenous activism.
Melissa J. Stoneham
Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.
Full Text Available Afghanistan is still not a stable state with strong central government controlling the whole state territory even after eleven years since American intervention and following the pursuit of reconstruction by allied forces. One of the main causes of this situation consists in interferences of foreign powers, which have their own particular and often mutually incompatible interests in Afghanistan. One of the most important external powers in the country is Iran. Therefore, Iranian involvement in Afghanistan is the main topic of this text. The main goal of this article is to identify and interpret major methods of Iranian enforcement of its plans in Afghanistan and also the characterization of those plans. The important issue of this text is also an understanding of effects of Iranian activities in Afghanistan and whether those actions have positive or rather negative contribution.
Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.
Cheraghali, Abdol Majid
Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.
Rezaei, Davood; Toufani, Sargol; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: email@example.com, email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email: email@example.com
The energy crisis and climate change give new importance to sustainable architecture which reduces the negative impacts that buildings can have on the environment. In ancient times, architects did not have access to modern equipment and had to use natural energies to provide pleasant indoor conditions. Iran has various climatic zones and Iranian traditional architecture relied on a variety of solutions to provide for human comfort. The aim of this study is to present those solutions used in traditional Iranian architecture. This paper presents the use of the energy of the earth depth and other methods such as Syzan, a cellar, Shvadan, pool house, Zmhryr in addition to the sunken garden, which taps geothermal energy by constructing a courtyard lower than street level. This document showed that traditional Iranian architectural strategies are efficient in providing sustainable buildings and could be applied in the design of new construction.
Soltani Arabshahi, SeyyedKamran; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardakani, MohammadReza; Bigdeli, Shoaleh
The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application of evidence and documents. In this study, criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts' views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Iranian propolis on some microorganisms using disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the propolis was also investigated using thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric methods. Ethanol extract of propolis showed activity only against Gram-positives and fungi, whereas no activity was observed against Gram-negatives. Thin layer chromatography screening revealed the presence of pinocembrine, caffeic acid, kaempferol, phenethyl caffeate, chrysin, and galangin in Iranian propolis. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents were 7.3% and 36%, respectively, which suggests that the strong antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis may be due to high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.
Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.
Aghababaei, Naser; Tabik, Mohammad Taghi
While the role of some personality traits has been comprehensively explored, scientific study of others, such as patience has been neglected. Psychologists have paid scant attention to patience as a personality trait, character strength or virtue. The current study examined the relationship between patience and life satisfaction, mental health, and personality. A sample of 252 Iranian college students (129 females and 123 males) completed the 3-factor patience scale, satisfaction with life scale, general health questionnaire, anxiety and depression scales and mini international personality item pool-big five. The three types of patience (interpersonal, life hardship, and daily hassles) were associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression, anxiety and psychological dysfunction. Patience also showed moderate relationship with the Big-Five factors of personality. After controlling the personality factors, patience managed to explain additional unique variance in life satisfaction and mental health indicators. Patience is a unique predictor of mental well-being. It is suggested that long-term patience is more important for depression and general health, whereas short-term patience is more beneficial for hedonic well-being.
Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid
BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples. PMID:24829531
A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi
Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .
Full Text Available Comparative studies have demonstrated that the themes for corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives are different among nations and geographic regions based on their cultural, political, legal, social, and economic contexts. In this research, which was conducted on 56 corporations from IMI100 (100 Iranian companies with highest annual sales, ranked by Industrial Management Institute or IMI, CSR themes in priority have been identified. Data collected from a semistructured questionnaire and some complementary interviews were analyzed against the results of a reference study over 100 companies from developed countries. The resulted themes, some of which may have several subthemes, were developed in three economic, environmental, and social categories. Beside these qualitative findings, two indices are constructed for indicating the “importance” of and “contribution” to each theme. The results and discussions are supposed to help business leaders, international companies inside Iran, governmental authorities, and researchers to improve CSR discussions and practices in the country where CSR undergoes a less structured platform.
Full Text Available The Globalization accelerated the paradoxical processes of modernization by introducing the cultural homogenizations and heterogenizations: construction and deconstruction of local-communitarian identities. This is why we are facing on the one hand, the increasing of local identities and visions and on the other hand, the interference, sometimes in a conflicted way, of the latter forms with the national and global identities. In this context, the Iranian problematic is discussed by an urban anthropological theoretical approach. The main concern in this article is the everyday life styles as the most important means of the cultural identity formation and their self expressions. Social constructed space as Lefebvre put it, and Cultural Studies tradition of everyday life, have been the starting points of this paper aiming to analyze the cultural resistance phenomenon expressed in physical and bodily spaces as well as in social and intercultural relations in domains such as age, ethnics and gender. These identity schemes have been taken as minority situations when they express in a way or other, some sort of cultural or social resistance facing a dominant pattern and by this way the paper try to present some practical and applied solutions to decrease the social tensions.
Hamid Reza Baradaran
Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.
Full Text Available Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection, is endemic in Southeast Asia. Currently, incidences have been increasing among adults. There have been no published reports of dengue fever from Iran. Widespread connection between different countries may predispose them for acquisition of infection. The patient was a 58-year-old Iranian woman with acute unexplained high-grade fever for 4 days, associated with skin rash, after returning from Southeast Asia. CBC showed WBC = 1600/mm 3 and platelet count 99,000/mm 3 . The patient also had hematuria. ELISA immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to dengue and serum RT-PCR for dengue virus was positive. The patient managed with conservative treatment and due to good general condition and improvement specific antiviral treatment was not started. She became afebrile at the 3 rd day of hospitalization and discharged with good general condition on fourth day. She was afebrile after two weeks follow-up. Dengue fever has been increasing among adults. It should be suspected, when a patient presents with acute febrile illness and skin rashes returning from endemic region. Conservative treatment may be conducted in uncomplicated cases .
Ensiyeh Mohebbi Kian
Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. Statistical Analysis: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed. Conclusion: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples.
Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid
Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. P surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples.
Khadigeh Mirzaii Najmabadi
Full Text Available Khadigeh Mirzaii NajmabadiShahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, IranObjectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a multimodal intervention (including the Women’s Wellness Program on increasing levels of physical activity in Iranian midlife women.Study design: This 12-week study was conducted in women aged 50–65 years living in the general population. Women who were allocated to the intervention group (n = 40 received an intervention, which combined a multimodal program of physical activity and health education. Women in the control group continued their normal physical activities (n = 45.Mean outcome measure: The women completed a questionnaire that included measures for items of interest for this analysis, such as menopausal status, sociodemographic, and exercise and activity levels.Results: Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention was effective in improving women’s physical activity. The test showed that there was a significant difference between intervention and control in current vigorous activity.Conclusion: Physical activity should be encouraged for prevention and reduction of risks for chronic disease and for improvement of health in midlife women. The multimodal intervention program may offer implications for designing and implementing exercise interventions in further studies.Keywords: midlife women, intervention, physical activity, menopause
Full Text Available Since the appearance of “Audio-lingual Method”, the issue of foreign accent has been the focus of many researchers and many teachers attempted to sound as native like as possible to better teach native English accent. The present study attempted to uncover the Iranian EFL teachers’ perceptions on accent, the way they viewed their own accent, and how English accent can be improved. Totally 50 male and female teachers with different age range, qualifications, teaching and learning experiences participated in the study. The data of the study were collected using Teachers’ Perceptions of Accent Questionnaire developed by the researcher and semi-structured interviews. Based on the analysis performed on the data collected through questionnaires and interviews, it was found that teachers care about learning accent and they considered it valuable and important. They admitted that they have foreign accent to some degree and they did not seem to be happy with foreign accent and were more in favour of native like accent. Regarding the strategies to improve English accent, they mentioned techniques like listening to authentic language, understanding pronunciation rules, and comparing people’s accent with their own accent, watching English movies, noticing stress, and pronunciation patterns, imitating, speaking with native people, using books, and recording and monitoring their own speeches.
Hosein H E Y D A R I
Full Text Available The main drop - out reasons from the sport of roller skating amongst Iranian youth skaters has been examined. A questionnaire with 53 items (adopted from Enoksen, 2011 representing seven subscales namel y: training factors and facilities, executive factors and team, education and work obligations, motivational aspects, social - cultural environment, choice of other sport activities and interests and economic factors was especially developed for this researc h. Responses were measured on a Likert scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” in relation to each statement. In all 11 2 skaters predominantly male (mean age 17.1, SD = 1.63 with a mean = 5.43 years of experience (SD = 2.92 that had di scontinued in the past two years completed the questionnaire. Results of one sample t - tests showed that all factors expect “social - cultural environment” are significant indicators for drop out from skating with “economical factors” scoring the highest rank ing. Correlational analysis showed that younger participants agree more strongly th at “executive factors and team” and “education and work obligations” were the best predictors of drop out. Those with fewer years of experience considered “training factors and facilities”, “motivational aspects and social and cultural environment” as more likely reasons for quitting. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Khami, Mohammad Reza; Yazdani, Reza; Afzalimoghaddam, Mohammad; Razeghi, Samaneh; Moscowchi, Anahita
More than 18,000 patients need medical emergencies management in dental offices in Iran annually. The present study investigates medical emergencies management among Iranian dentists. From the list of the cell phone numbers of the dentists practicing in the city of Tehran, 210 dentists were selected randomly. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument. The questionnaire requested information on personal and professional characteristics of the dentists, as well as their knowledge and self-reported practice in the field of medical emergency management, and availability of required drugs and equipments to manage medical emergencies in their offices. Totally, 177 dentists (84%) completed the questionnaire. Less than 60% of the participants were knowledgeable about characteristics of hypoglycemic patient, chest pain with cardiac origin, and true cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practice. Regarding practice, less than one quarter of the respondents acquired acceptable scores. In regression models, higher practice scores were significantly associated with higher knowledge scores (p < 0.001). The results call for a need to further education on the subject for dentists. Continuing education and changing dental curriculum in the various forms seems to be useful in enhancement of the self-reported knowledge and practice of dentists. To successful control of medical emergencies in the dental office, dentists must be prepared to recognize and manage a variety of such conditions. In addition to dentist's knowledge and skill, availability of necessary equipments and trained staff is also of critical importance.
Valizadeh, Leila; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Rahmani, Azad; Howard, Fuchsia; Nikanfar, Ali-Reza; Ferguson, Caleb
This study explored Iranian patients' experiences of cancer disclosure, paying particular attention to the ways of disclosure. Twenty cancer patients were invited to participate in this qualitative inquiry by research staff in the clinical setting. In-depth, semistructured interview data were analyzed through content analysis. The rigor of the study was established by principles of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Four themes emerged: the atmosphere of non-disclosure, eventual disclosure, distress in knowing, and the desire for information. Non-disclosure was the norm for participants, and all individuals involved made efforts to maintain an atmosphere of non-disclosure. While a select few were informed of their diagnosis by a physician or another patient, the majority eventually became aware of their diagnosis indirectly by different ways. All participants experienced distress after disclosure. The participants wanted basic information about their prognosis and treatments from their treating physicians, but did not receive this information, and encountered difficulty accessing information elsewhere. These challenges highlight the need for changes in current medical practice in Iran, as well as patient and healthcare provider education. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract: Despite the importance of body satisfaction on one’s self image and well-being, little has been written about body image or how it affects people in Iran. The aim of this study is to assess body dissatisfaction and its risk factors in the general Iranian population. The sample size for this cross-sectional study included approximately 1,200 participants (both male and female and was conducted in 2011. Body dissatisfaction (based on the Figure Rating Scale, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI and use of the media were recorded. Nearly two thirds of the participants were included in the middle age group and roughly half of them had a university education. Approximately two thirds of the participants were satisfied with their body. The mean score of body dissatisfaction in women was greater than men (p < 0.0001. Age, gender, marital status and BMI had a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction. The finding of this study demonstrates that in Iran, body dissatisfaction and it consequences must be addressed. While the prevalence and pattern of body dissatisfaction in Iran is as high as other Asian countries, considering cultural variation within Asian countries is also important.
Full Text Available By analyzing the forms and contents of the presentations made by indigenous performers and writers at the I Literary Party of Indigenous Poetics, this article exposes the challenges faced by traditional genre theories in tackling indigenous narratives and analyses how this “crisis” contributes to widening hierarchical and Western biased conceptions. On a stage open to contemporary indigenous expression, as is the literary party, the concepts of performance and storytelling, with the social function of maintaining tradition, continuous learning and transformation, better define this indigenous expression.
F GOL BIDI
Full Text Available Introduction. Dental stones are widely used in dentistry and the success or failure of many dental treatments depend on the accuracy of these gypsums. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of Iranian dental stones and comparison between Iranian and foreign ones. In this investigation, consistency and setting time were compared between Pars Dendn, Almas and Hinrizit stones. The latter is accepted by ADA (American Dental Association. Consistency and setting time are 2 of 5 properties that are necessitated by both ADA specification No. 25 and Iranian Standard Organization specification No. 2569 for evaluation of dental stones. Methods. In this study, the number and preparation of specimens and test conditions were done according to the ADA specification No. 25 and all the measurements were done with vicat apparatus. Results. The results of this study showed that the standard consistency of Almas stone was obtained by 42ml water and 100gr powder and the setting time of this stone was 11±0.03 min. Which was with in the limits of ADA specification (12±4 min. The standard consistency of Pars Dandan stone was obrianed by 31ml water and 100 gr powder, but the setting time of this stone was 5± 0.16 min which was nt within the limits of ADA specification. Discussion: Comparison of Iranian and Hinrizit stones properties showed that two probable problems of Iranian stones are:1- Unhemogrnousity of Iranian stoned powder was caused by uncontrolled temperature, pressure and humidity in the production process of stone. 2- Impurities such as sodium chloride was responsible fo shortening of Pars Dendens setting time.
Full Text Available This study aims to explore the non functional shopping motives among Iranian consumers. In addition, the effects of marital status, gender, age and residential region as an indicator for social class on the non-functional shopping motives are investigated. This paper uses a self-reported and 15 items questionnaire. The analysis is done based on 363 returned and usable questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of variance is applied for this study. MANOVA results show that marital status, gender, age and region have different significant effects on the non-functional shopping motives among Iranian consumers.
Glerup, Karina Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene
selected andfifteen different behaviours were scored, subsequently a clinical examination was performed to allocatethe cows to a pain and non-pain group. The animals were then treated with an analgesic or a placebo andafter a resting period the cows were re-scored by two observers blinded to the treatment...... group but not after placebo treatment (p = 0.06); the pain score did not differ significantly before compared to after treatment with analgesic or placebo for the non-pain group (p = 0.2; p = 0.1). A second study was conducted to further validate the Cow Pain Scale. Cows from two herds were randomly......Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we areable to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aimof constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...
de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Neto, Marcos Chiquitelli; de França Carvalho Fonsêca, Vinícius
This work aimed at characterizing the thermal balance of Nellore cattle from the system of indirect calorimetry using a facial mask. The study was conducted at the Animal Biometeorology Laboratory of the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil. Five male Nellore weighing 750 ± 62 kg, at similar ages and body conditions were distributed in four 5 × 5 Latin squares (5 days of records and five schedules) during 20 days. Physiological and environmental measurements were obtained from the indirect calorimetry system using a facial mask. Respiratory parameters, hair coat, skin, and rectal temperature were continuously recorded. From this, metabolic heat production, sensible and latent ways of heat transfer were calculated. Metabolic heat production had an average value of 146.7 ± 0.49 W m-2 and did not change ( P > 0.05) over the range of air temperature (24 to 35 °C). Sensible heat flow reached 60.08 ± 0.81 W m-2 when air temperature ranged from 24 to 25 °C, being negligible in conditions of temperature above 33 °C. Most of the heat produced by metabolism was dissipated by cutaneous evaporation when air temperature was greater than 30 °C. Respiratory parameters like respiratory rate and ventilation remained stable ( P > 0.05) in the range of temperature studied. Under shade conditions and air temperature range from 24 to 35 °C, metabolic heat production, respiratory rate, and ventilation of mature Nellore cattle remain stable, which is indicative of low energetic cost to the thermoregulation.
Dec 12, 2011 ... 1Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China. ... Piedmontese cattle were obtained from the Institute of Animal ..... organotypical brain slice model. ... Mitosis enhances.
Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.
Giaretta,Paula R.; Panziera,Welden; Galiza,Glauco J.A.; Brum,Juliana S.; Bianchi,Ronaldo M.; Hammerschmitt,Márcia E.; Bazzi,Talissa; Barros,Claudio S.L.
Senecio spp. poisoning is the main cause of cattle mortality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. This paper reports an outbreak of seneciosis in cattle with high prevalence of photosensitization, where 83 out of 162 cows (51.3%) presented this clinical sign. The outbreak occurred in September 2013, affecting adult cows that were held in a 205 hectare-pasture from April to October 2013 with abundant Senecio brasiliensis infestation. Main clinical signs were weight loss, excessive lacri...
The nutrition of dairy cattle in relation to milk production forms an integral part of bigger businesses with livestock farming. This Bachelor thesis introduces a division of dairy cattle to categories according to the milk production and the number of days during the dry period at the same time. Furthermore, the nutrients needed for the milk production are mentioned. For individual nutrients, there are the standards of individual fodder and needs of the dairy cows in relation to their weight...
Abdullah M Bamualim
Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.
Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.
Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.
Full Text Available Morphological characterization of Madura cattle in Madura islands was done as an input for "action plans" of national animals genetic resources management according to the global system ofFAO. Assessments were done in Sumenep District and Pamekasan District, East Java. According to the body measurements, Madura cattle can be classified as a small to medium type with withers height of about 120 cm. Because of potential productivity in the limitation of environmental resources, Madura cattle can be classified as a "superior" cattle . Body measurements of Madura cattle in the present study were relatively the same with those of 50 years ago, indicating that there is no breeding improvement activities except natural selection . The variability of body measurements is relatively narrow . Improving productivity by outbreeding is needed . To conserve the unique germ plasm of the Indonesian genotype, such as Madura cattle and a possibility to improve their productivity by a complete prevention of cross breeding in the Madura islands needs further evaluation .
In Algeria, the epidemiology of cattle abortions is not well understood. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate the prevalence of abortion in 75 Algerian cattle herds and correlate its possible association with brucellosis positivity and some managerial risk factors. The cattle abortion herd prevalence was 41.33% [95% CI 30.16-52.5%]. As for brucellosis, the serological evidence of brucellosis exposure was observed in 9 out of 75 herds accounting for 12% [95% CI 4.65-19.35] herd seroprevalence. The risk factor analysis using the univariable analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression did confirm that brucellosis positivity (OR = 5.19), mixed herd (OR = 2.5), contact with other herd (OR = 2.91), presence of dog in the herd (OR = 2.89), imported cattle (OR = 1.91), and farmers with less than 2 years' experience (OR = 2.69) as risk factors for abortion in Algerian cattle herds. Targeting these factors using a comprehensive control measure is needed to improve animal welfare and reduce economic losses associated with abortion in dairy cattle.
Tollefson, D; Bloss, E; Fanning, A; Redd, J T; Barker, K; McCray, E
The burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the estimated 370 million indigenous peoples worldwide is unknown. To conduct a literature review to summarize the TB burden in indigenous peoples, identify gaps in current knowledge, and provide the foundation for a research agenda prioritizing indigenous health within TB control. A systematic literature review identified articles published between January 1990 and November 2011 quantifying TB disease burden in indigenous populations worldwide. Among the 91 articles from 19 countries included in the review, only 56 were from outside Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. The majority of the studies showed higher TB rates among indigenous groups than non-indigenous groups. Studies from the Amazon generally reported the highest TB prevalence and incidence, but select populations from South-East Asia and Africa were found to have similarly high rates of TB. In North America, the Inuit had the highest reported TB incidence (156/100000), whereas the Metis of Canada and American Indians/Alaska Natives experienced rates of indigenous groups. Where data exist, indigenous peoples were generally found to have higher rates of TB disease than non-indigenous peoples; however, this burden varied greatly. The paucity of published information on TB burden among indigenous peoples highlights the need to implement and improve TB surveillance to better measure and understand global disparities in TB rates.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assess the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous children and actions to control it. METHODS: An epidemiological study was performed with 356 children from 0 to 14 years of age in Rondônia State, Amazon, Brazil, during the period 1997-2006. Cases of TB reported to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System were divided into indigenous and non-indigenous categories and analyzed according to sex, age group, place of residence, clinical form, diagnostic tests and treatment outcome. A descriptive analysis of cases and hypothesis test (χ² was carried out to verify if there were differences in the proportions of illness between the groups investigated. RESULTS: A total of 356 TB cases were identified (125 indigenous, 231 non-indigenous of which 51.4% of the cases were in males. In the indigenous group, 60.8% of the cases presented in children aged 0-4 years old. The incidence mean was much higher among indigenous; in 2001, 1,047.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants were reported in children aged < 5 years. Pulmonary TB was reported in more than 80% of the cases, and in both groups over 70% of the cases were cured. Cultures and histopathological exams were performed on only 10% of the patients. There were 3 cases of TB/HIV co-infection in the non-indigenous group and none in the indigenous group. The case detection rate was classified as insufficient or fair in more than 80% of the indigenous population notifications, revealing that most of the diagnoses were performed based on chest x-ray. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study proved useful in demonstrating inequalities in health between indigenous and non-indigenous populations and was superior to the conventional analyses performed by the surveillance services, drawing attention to the need to improve childhood TB diagnosis among the indigenous population.
Ignacio César Cruz Islas
Full Text Available Mexican migration to other countries, primarily United States, is a phenomenon that has been studied from different approaches. It is an important flow of people who, for decades, has left Mexico in search of employment opportunities and higher income. This is due to the weakness of opportunities structure present in Mexico, predominantly in rural areas, as well as budget constraints that prevent households to improve their living conditions. Remittances from other countries, in turn, are an alternative for families to address the lack of employment opportunities and income in their homeland, as well as life-deficit conditions. To see how remittances impact on living conditions of indigenous population, in this paper we analyze living conditions of indigenous households.
Caroline Hermínio Maldonado
Full Text Available The works of authors memoir, researched this, depict the lifestyles Guarani and conflicts involving territorial disputes between the eighteenth and mid-twentieth century. They report experiences and seek their opinion about the relationship between indigenous people and migrants, as the authors themselves, who came to southern Ontario then on business and looking for productive land. From these works it is understood as the Indians managed to hide the regional history and justify their judgments about this population without considering the culture and without social organization. The research is to understand the phenomenon of invisibility to which they are subject, not only the Guarani, but the other indigenous peoples today the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.
Full Text Available This study was conducted in the country of Zambia, Southern Africa, to investigate the occurrence of endo-parasites in indigenous Zambian dogs. Faecal samples were collected from 41 indigenous Zambian dogs from different areas of the Mbabala region in the Southern province of Zambia during the “hot wet” season, although at the time that the samples were collected, the country was experiencing a drought. Faecal samples were analysed using the concentration flotation method with zinc sulphate for the determination of the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The most prevalent parasites were species from the family Ancylostomatidae (65.0 % infection rate which followed by: Isospora canis (9.8 %, Dipylidium caninum (4.8 %, and Toxascaris leonina (2.4 %. There were in addition, two cases of co-infections with the family Ancylostomatidae and D. caninum, as well as the family Ancylostomatidae and I. canis.
Globalisation is often viewed as a threat to cultural and linguistic diversity and therefore is a central concern of educational practices and policy. The present study challenges this common view by demonstrating that local communities can use global means to support and enhance their specific practices and policies. An historical exploration of education policy in Mexico reveals that there has been a continuing struggle by indigenous peoples to maintain locally relevant modes of teaching. Indigenous peoples have increasingly used technology to maintain their languages and local cultural practices. Such accentuation of the local in a global context is exemplified by the people of Chiapas: They live in subsistence-type communities, yet their recent education movements and appeals to international solidarity (such as in the Zapatista rebellion) have employed computer-aided technologies.
Full Text Available Proponents of the discipline of Native Studies (in its various guises have attempted to produce a methodologically and theoretically distinctive body of scholarship to justify its existence in the field of academia. Critiquing Duane Champagne’s recent article published in a flagship journal for North American Native Studies, I argue that while establishing Native Studies as a discipline has little or nothing to do with securing Native Studies departments on university campuses, a place nonetheless exists for these departments. Marrying Native Studies literature on the importance of producing tribally specific knowledge with Australian-based Whiteness Studies literature focusing on the utility of indigeneity for denaturalising white privilege, I argue that the discipline of Native Studies should justify itself departmentally by teaching about the complex forms of local indigeneity upon which white privilege is reproduced.
This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs
Full Text Available Most part of indigenous adults in the Guarani communities of Mato Grosso do Sul is bilingual and has one of the indigenous languages, Guarani Kaiowá or Guarani Ñandeva, as their mother tongue and Portuguese as a second language; only a few elderly and young children still who do not go to school speak only the mother tongue. In this paper, we try to verify which impression the speakers have for each of these languages and the importance they attribute to each one of them. Data analysis showed that the mother tongue is closely related to the expression of their traditional culture; in general, the indigenous claim their languages are being transmitted to new generations, and therefore preserved in an appropriate manner in the two communities. The Portuguese is also considered very important by all informants and the main motivation for its teaching/learning is the need to contact with the non-indigenous population. These results may help us understand issues related to the future of these indigenous languages and Portuguese language in the investigated communities.
Since August 2005, Iran's campaign to enrich uranium and acquire other technologies and practical experience that would enable it to produce nuclear weapons has gained momentum. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and militant elements in Iran's ruling circle pointedly continue to defy international demands to cease uranium enrichment while the International Atomic Energy Agency's doubts about the peacefulness of Iran's past nuclear activities remain unresolved - according to the IAEA, Iran has not provided adequate cooperation to help resolve these doubts. This obstinate stance, paired with an aggressive posture toward Israel, has heightened Ahmadinejad's popularity in the wider Arab world, including among Sunnis. The popularity of Iran's defiant position has, in turn, hardened Iran's resistance to international policy objectives to constrain the nuclear program. This essay explores five broad pathways by which Iran and the international community can try to resolve the nuclear standoff. It emphasizes that the Bush Administration after years of indecision has invested seriously in a diplomatic strategy to induce Iran to forego uranium enrichment and is prepared to pursue behavior change rather than regime change in Iran. However, Iranian resistance continues to raise the prospect that the international community will favor the competing approach of capitulation, which in turn would re-raise the prospects of military attack. 1. Capitulate to Iran and Welcome Limited Uranium Enrichment; 2. Offer Sanctions and Positive Incentives To Persuade Iran Not to Produce Nuclear Fuel (for an agreed substantial period of time); 3. Attack Iran's Nuclear Facilities and/or Military Assets; 4. Foster Regime Change in Iran; 5. Try Options 1 or 2, While Strengthening Deterrence and Containment. (author)
Since August 2005, Iran's campaign to enrich uranium and acquire other technologies and practical experience that would enable it to produce nuclear weapons has gained momentum. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and militant elements in Iran's ruling circle pointedly continue to defy international demands to cease uranium enrichment while the International Atomic Energy Agency's doubts about the peacefulness of Iran's past nuclear activities remain unresolved - according to the IAEA, Iran has not provided adequate cooperation to help resolve these doubts. This obstinate stance, paired with an aggressive posture toward Israel, has heightened Ahmadinejad's popularity in the wider Arab world, including among Sunnis. The popularity of Iran's defiant position has, in turn, hardened Iran's resistance to international policy objectives to constrain the nuclear program. This essay explores five broad pathways by which Iran and the international community can try to resolve the nuclear standoff. It emphasizes that the Bush Administration after years of indecision has invested seriously in a diplomatic strategy to induce Iran to forego uranium enrichment and is prepared to pursue behavior change rather than regime change in Iran. However, Iranian resistance continues to raise the prospect that the international community will favor the competing approach of capitulation, which in turn would re-raise the prospects of military attack. 1. Capitulate to Iran and Welcome Limited Uranium Enrichment; 2. Offer Sanctions and Positive Incentives To Persuade Iran Not to Produce Nuclear Fuel (for an agreed substantial period of time); 3. Attack Iran's Nuclear Facilities and/or Military Assets; 4. Foster Regime Change in Iran; 5. Try Options 1 or 2, While Strengthening Deterrence and Containment. (author)
Limaye, P.K.; Soni, N.L.; Agrawal, R.G.
Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)
Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin
In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....
Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.
This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.
Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.
This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.
Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rodil, Kasper
Digital re-presentation of indigenous knowledge remains an absurdity as long as we fail to deconstruct the prevalent design paradigm and techniques continuously re-framing technology within a western epistemology. This paper discusses key challenges in attempts of co-constructing a digital......’s views are brought to light within the design interactions. A new digital reality is created at the periphery of the situated knowledge through continuous negotiations and joint meaning making....
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the probiotics species used in functional food products. These bacteria or their purified bacteriocins are used as biological preservatives in the food industry. The first step in production of an array of probiotic products is optimizing production in fermentors. This study aimed to examine factors affecting the in vitro growth optimization of Lactobacillus plantarum T5JQ301796.1 in a lab scale fermentor.Materials and Methods: Following 24 hours of anaerobic culture of the lactobacillus at 37°C, the pre-culture was ready and was inoculated to a 5 liter fermentor at 37°C and stirred at 40 rpm. Then factors affecting lactobacillus growth including carbon and nitrogen sources and pH were studied. The results were interpreted using response surface methodology (RSM, and optimal conditions for the equipment were determined.Results and Conclusion: For optimal growth of Lactobacillus plantarum T5JQ301796.1 in lab scale fermentor, the optimal conditions were 25.96 gl-1 of glucose, 1.82% of yeast extract, pH of 7.26, and stirring at 40 rpm at optimum temperature between 37-40°C. In this condition, maximum viable cell in the batch fermentation was 1.25×1010 CFU ml-1. Application of central composite design for the growth optimization of this bacterium led to maximum viable cells equal to 1.25×1010 CFU ml-1. So the mentioned features can lead to optimum industrial scale production and usage of this probiotic strain in probiotic products.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn
Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...
Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor
Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…
Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad
Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. This case-control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35-75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;"Healthy pattern"and "Iranian pattern". Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05-2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.
Full Text Available Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC.Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases. Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI=1.05–2.19 while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47.Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.
Esmaeeli, Hadiseh; Abasi, Maasumeh; Soori, Afshin
This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students' subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students' first drafts, revisions, and reviewers' comments were…
Oil workers played a pivotal role during the Iranian Revolution of 1978-1979. Involving tens of thousands of workers, oil strikes paralyzed the state and paved the way for the Shah's downfall. Various accounts of these strikes, however, ignore the subjectivity and agency of the oil workers by
Oil workers played a pivotal role during the Iranian Revolution of 1978–1979. Involving tens of thousands of workers, oil strikes paralyzed the state and paved the way for the Shah’s downfall. Various accounts of these strikes, however, ignore the subjectivity and agency of the oil workers by
Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…
Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...
Mazdeh, Mohammad Mahdavi; Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Hesamamiri, Roozbeh; Zahedi, Mohammad-Reza; Elahi, Behin
The purpose of this study is to propose a framework to evaluate the entrepreneurship intensity (EI) of Iranian state universities. In order to determine EI, a hybrid multi-method framework consisting of Delphi, Analytic Network Process (ANP), and VIKOR is proposed. The Delphi method is used to localize and reduce the number of criteria extracted…
Chahardahcheriki, Mitra Abdolahi; Shahi, Sakine
The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of globalization of important indicators of education system in Iran including teaching approaches, educational tools and facilities, curriculums and contents, and education management. Findings suggest that the situation of Iranian education system has some distance with the globalized level and…
Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity.
Abbas V. Kazemi
Full Text Available In this article, we studied student dissertations in cultural studies departments and articles of two important journals (Iranian Journal of Cultural Research and Quarterly Journal of Iranian Association for Cultural Studies & Communication. Our main questions are how the condition of reception possibility is assumed in Iranian cultural studies? How we can classify our audiences? In particular, how and who is the audience in Iran? This analysis shows that most of the Iranian cultural studies oriented to urban middle class of Tehran, instead of lower middle class or labor class. The result demonstrates that, most of scholars consider audience as an active subject that resists against text massages. Hence, they overlook the role of ideology and power in construction of subject and audience. As if, a type of optimistic cultural studies was adapted in an authoritarian political context. This approach on resistance is called resistance ideology by the authors; a situation in which we believe resistance is a sort of relieving and appeasing drug for critical cultural scholars.
Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 1. Screening for genomic rearrangements at BRCA1 locus in Iranian women with breast cancer using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Vahid R. Yassaee Babak Emamalizadeh Mir Davood Omrani. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 1 ...
As environmental factors are important in the development of asthma, genetic factors could have a critical role in the expression of the disease. Hence, we carried out a systematic review to assess the susceptible genes for asthma in Iranian population. We conducted a literature search by using the electronic database ...
Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.
Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…
15. Barbara opall -rome, “Israeli Defenses to Use artificial Intelligence,” Defense News, 21 January 2008 (http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i...iv Iranian Power Structure ................................................................10 iv v iv v...former requires a deep understanding of Iran’s power structures and the grievances that thwart rapprochement to determine with whom and about what
The purpose of this study is to investigate locally designed ELT textbooks in the light of multiple intelligences theory. Three textbooks (grade 1.2.3) used in guidance school of Iranian educational system were analyzed using MI checklist developed by Botelho, Mario do Rozarioand. Catered for kinds of intelligences in the activities and exercises…
such as steel making vessels and rotary cement kilns (Jankanovic and Vumberkovic ... Grain size and boundaries, impurities and/or additives, porosity ... Na2CO3, is necessary for this process due to its pH increasing ... Figure 1. Index map showing the locations of major Iranian .... white oil as collector and foaming agent.
Full Text Available Assistive technologies have always opened new horizons in human's life, posed solutions to problemsand brought relief and prosperity for human beings. Iranian judicial authorities have recently recognizedthe importance of medical technologies. Accordingly, Iranian legal system has recognized surrogacy anda surrogacy contract seems unavoidable for surrogacy to be legally valid, socially acceptable andreligiously legitimate. As a legal defense of including a typical surrogacy contract in contract law, thisreview studies the four building blocks of a valid contract: the intention and consent of parties, theirlegal capacity, the subject of the contract and its legitimacy. Discussing related Iranian Acts concerningcontracts and responsibilities of parties, the authors of the present article deal with main commitmentsand responsibilities of the parties to a typical surrogacy contract: infertile couples, surrogate, fertilityclinic or medical institute, and surrogate's husband. The authors conclude that a surrogacy contract isaccepted based on article 10 of Iranian Civil Act 1928, pose some suggestions to be included in such acontract, and emphasize that a specific Act concerning surrogacy should be approved to cover rights andlegal needs of all parties to a surrogacy contract.
Dec 15, 2009 ... defining the functional composition of their genome. Microsatellites have been .... species such as fishes (Hsu et al., 2004; Sanches and. JR, 2006; Chung-Jian ... Phylogenetic study of the Iranian buffalo by microsatellite ... Molecular Ecology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences,. University of Hull ...
Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan
In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…
Ghaemi, Farid; Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat
Reading comprehension has won much effort on the part of teachers, testers, and researchers in Iran due to the fact that the immediate need of Iranian students at different university levels is the ability to read in order to get new information on the topic they are studying. The question raised is how much reading practice can move learners…
In this phenomenological study, thematic analysis was used to gain a better understanding of the lived experience of six Iranian-Americans who migrate Iran for safety and a better life. The researcher assessed the participants' journey phase by phase, to get a deeper understanding of the phenomenon. Overall, emigrating from Iran had both negative…
This article examines the recent developments and changes concerning Iranian music education from the constitutional revolution of 1905 to 2014. This concentrates on the five major chronological events referred to as Nationalism, Modernism, Conservatism, Neo-Traditionalism (Shirin-navazi) and Revivalism of the Traditions. This provides a source of…
Honari, A.; van Bezouw, M.J.; Namazie, Pari
In light of increasing migration in Europe, the aim of the current study is to gather a better understanding of the societal position, societal and political participation, and embeddedness of migrants in Western European countries. The Iranian migrant community is used as a case study. The research
Full Text Available Different genres of underground music are important issues in Iranian youth culture. The purpose of this research was to study masculinity in Iranian- Persian rap music. Therefore, Persian rap music as a part of Iranian popular culture, between 2001 and 2011 was analyzed. We used qualitative research approach. The main method used in this study, was "Constructive Grounded Theory ". So instead of using existing theories as a theoretical framework, the researcher sought to generate local theory from research field. Thus, using theoretical sampling, data compiled from various sources. The multiple data collection techniques such as interviews, observation, online observation, collecting documents and texts were used. Then all the data was coded with using open, axial and selective coding methods. Finally, 62 concepts and 16 categories derived from data and "plural form of masculinity in Iranian-Persian rap music" was defined as the core category. Then according to paradigmatic model, "Substantive Theory" emerged from the data, was presented as "story" and "visual model". Finally seven questions of Strauss and Corbin about the experience in research has been assessed to evaluating research.
Although Podoces pleskei is the only endemic bird of Iran, little information exists on its ecological features, population dynamics and threats that concern it. This species occurs in desert and semi desert areas, mostly on the Iranian plateau, though its range spreads southeast ward to the Iran- Pakistan border.
Background: Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation ...
The present study attempted to investigate the status of pragmatics among Iranian EFL learners. Status of pragmatics was analyzed in terms of the amount of pragmatic knowledge EFL learners believed to have and the amount of pragmatic knowledge they believed to receive from teachers, classmates, course books, and exams. Additionally, attempts were…
Full Text Available Dengue virus sequences used in this study were obtained from two Iranian patients who were both with a history of traveling to Malaysia. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree demonstrated that two sequences were grouped into dengue virus 1. Specifically, strains IranDF1 and Iran-DF2 clustered in genotype I and III, respectively.
Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.
Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…
Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa
Iranian universities have recently displayed a growing interest in integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) into teaching/learning English. The English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context, however, is not keeping pace with the current changes since EAP courses are strictly text-based and exam-oriented, and little research has thus…
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Iranian restaurant food samples: Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, SCCmec phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance. ... TetK (80.72 %), linA (67.46 %), aadA1 (62.65 %), and msrA (55.42 %) were the most frequently identified resistance genes. SCCmec V (57.83%) ...
Abdolsalehi-Najafi, Emon; Beckman, Linda J
Although the experience of sex guilt has been considered among a variety of ethnic groups, the area has not yet been empirically explored among Iranian American women. The present study investigated the relationship between sexual self-schema (i.e., beliefs about the sexual aspects of oneself), acculturation, and sex guilt, and it further examined the association between sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian American women. A total of 65 Iranian American women, with a mean age of 31.3 years (SD = 11.7), completed five self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicated a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-schema and sex guilt. More specifically, women who endorsed negative self-views regarding their sexual self reported higher levels sex guilt. Results revealed that acculturation was unrelated to sex guilt, when the effect of being Muslim or non-Muslim was controlled. Women with high sex guilt reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Moreover, analyses for mediation effects supported sex guilt as a partially mediating variable between sexual self-schema and life satisfaction. Levels of sex guilt were higher among Muslim women when compared to women of other religious affiliations. Additionally, Muslim women appeared to be significantly less acculturated to Western ideals than other religious groups. The present findings suggest that mental health professionals who provide services to Iranian American women need to consider the negative effects of sex guilt, particularly among Muslim women.
Calumpang, S.M.F.; Medina, M.J.B.; Tejada, A.W.
A survey of cattle dip facilities and current practices employed was done. Coumaphos and ethion were the commonly used acaricides in the four respondent stock farms. The behavior of coumaphos in a simulated model cattle dip was monitored using radiotracer techniques. Degradation was rapid, resulting in the formation of potasan metabolite and bound residues in the sediment. A rapid field method for the detection of organophosphate pesticides was used in monitoring the degradation of coumaphos in a cattle dip. The sensitivity of the method is comparable to the conventional HPLC method employed. This rapid field method can easily be used by cattle ranch owners to monitor coumaphos content of the vat facility so that recharging could be made in order to prevent the onset of resistance development in cattle tick. (author)
Lee, Huei; Yen, Chiung-Fen; Aikenhead, Glen S.
This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students' non-Indigenous teacher played a central role in developing a science module `Measuring Time' that combined Amis knowledge and Western science knowledge. The study identified two cultural worldview perspectives on time; for example, the place-based cyclical time held by the Amis, and the universal rectilinear time presupposed by scientists. Students' pre-instructional fragmented concepts from both knowledge systems became more informed and refined through their engagement in `Measuring Time'. Students' increased interest and pride in their Amis culture were noted.