Wagyu cattle have been improved from indigenous cattle raised in Japan since the country was opened 100 years ago. Characteristics of the breed were formed during that period. Here, the process of the breeding is described, and recent topics about breeding studies are discussed.
Kim, Jaemin; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwai, Okeyo Ally; Dessie, Tadelle; Bashir, Salim; Diallo, Boubacar; Agaba, Morris; Kim, Kwondo; Kwak, Woori; Sung, Samsun; Seo, Minseok; Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Kwon, Taehyung; Taye, Mengistie; Song, Ki-Duk; Lim, Dajeong; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Yoon, Duhak; Oh, Sung Jong; Kemp, Stephen; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal
The history of African indigenous cattle and their adaptation to environmental and human selection pressure is at the root of their remarkable diversity. Characterization of this diversity is an essential step towards understanding the genomic basis of productivity and adaptation to survival under African farming systems. We analyze patterns of African cattle genetic variation by sequencing 48 genomes from five indigenous populations and comparing them to the genomes of 53 commercial taurine breeds. We find the highest genetic diversity among African zebu and sanga cattle. Our search for genomic regions under selection reveals signatures of selection for environmental adaptive traits. In particular, we identify signatures of selection including genes and/or pathways controlling anemia and feeding behavior in the trypanotolerant N'Dama, coat color and horn development in Ankole, and heat tolerance and tick resistance across African cattle especially in zebu breeds. Our findings unravel at the genome-wide level, the unique adaptive diversity of African cattle while emphasizing the opportunities for sustainable improvement of livestock productivity on the continent.
Gao, Yahui; Gautier, Mathieu; Ding, Xiangdong; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Xi; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Junya; Ye, Shaohui; Gou, Xiao; Han, Jianlin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Zhang, Yi
Indigenous Chinese cattle combine taurine and indicine origins and occupy a broad range of different environments. By 50 K SNP genotyping we found a discontinuous distribution of taurine and indicine cattle ancestries with extremes of less than 10% indicine cattle in the north and more than 90% in
This study was conducted in order to document and preserve valuable indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. Data were collected from thirty (30) cattle farms from three locations: Gbindi (16 farms), Sackelereh (7 farms), and Flamansa (7 farms) in ...
A comparison of productivity and adaptability of indigenous (Boran and Small East African Zebu) and the exotic (Sahiwal and Ayrshire) cattle on Kenyan ranches located in semi-arid areas of the Rift Valley Provinces was done. Data sets of the cattle breeds over the 1979-1993 period on Deloraine, Elkarama, Ilkerin, ...
Sera from 78 indigenous cattle were tested, by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT), for neosporosis. In vitro cultured Neospora caninum was used as antigen. Antibodies to Neospora at titres 1/640 and above were detected in two samples (2.6%), a titre considered diagnostic for the disease. All the other serum ...
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important zoonosis that affects uman, wildlife and livestock. A cross sectional study was carried out between December 2012 and January 2013 to establish the prevalence of bTB and the associated risk factors among ive and slaughter indigenous cattle in ...
Ludwig, A; Alderson, L; Fandrey, E; Lieckfeldt, D; Soederlund, T K; Froelich, K
The White Park Cattle (WPC) is an indigenous ancient breed from the British Isles which has a long-standing history in heroic sagas and documents. The WPC has retained many primitive traits, especially in their grazing behaviour and preferences. Altogether, the aura of this breed has led to much speculation surrounding its origin. In this study, we sequenced the mitogenomes from 27 WPC and three intronic fragments of genes from the Y chromosome of three bulls. We observed six novel mitogenomic lineages that have not been found in any other cattle breed so far. We found no evidence that the WPC is a descendant of a particular North or West European branch of aurochs. The WPC mitogenomes are grouped in the T3 cluster together with most other domestic breeds. Nevertheless, both molecular markers support the primitive position of the WPC within the taurine breeds. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.
Nov 28, 2011 ... domestic horse breeds, polymorphism was reported in one horse Y-specific microsatellite (Ling et al., 2010). Iran has a long history in horse domestication and breeding (Andrews and Legates, 1962; Tavakkolian,. 1999). Iranian horse breeds may be classified into 4 main groups according to their origins ...
Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexan parasite which may cause abortion in cattle. This study investigated occurrences of antibodies against N. caninum in Iranian native cattle. From September 2010 to September 2011, blood samples (n=768 of native cows were collected randomly from different rural regions of Hamedan (n=400 and Kurdistan provinces (n=368 located to the western part of Iran. All the samples were evaluated for IgG antibodies against N. caninum using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The IgG antibodies to N. caninum were found in 14.2% (n=109/768 of serum samples (95% CI: 11.74 - 16.66. There was a significant difference between seropositivity and abortion history (p<0.0001, OR=2.9, unlike to age groups (p=0.105. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in Iranian native cattle. In conclusion, N. caninum is an important factor in abortion in Iranian native cattle. Further comprehensive studies and designing control strategies for improving management in cattle farms are highly recommended.
M. Grema; M. Grema; A. Traoré; A. Traoré; M. Issa; M. Hamani; M. Abdou; A. Soudré; M. Sanou; M. Sanou; R. Pichler; H. H. Tamboura; Y. Alhassane; K. Periasamy
The diversity of cattle in Niger is predominantly represented by three indigenous breeds: Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri. This study aimed at characterizing the genetic diversity and relationship of Niger cattle breeds using short tandem repeat (STR) marker variations. A total of 105 cattle from all three breeds were genotyped at 27 STR loci. High levels of allelic and gene diversity were observed with an overall mean of 8.7 and 0.724 respectively. The mean inbreeding esti...
Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae
At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers.
Full Text Available At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers.
Pham, Lan Doan; Do, Duy Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Trong
Cattle play a very important role in agriculture and food security in Vietnam. A high level of cattle diversity exists and serves different needs of Vietnamese cattle keepers but has not yet been molecularly characterized. This study evaluates the genetic diversity and structure of Vietnamese...... indigenous cattle populations, using microsatellite markers. A total of 410 individuals from six indigenous cattle populations and an exotic breed was characterized using 27 microsatellite markers A total of 362 alleles was detected and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 (INRA005 and ILSTS005......) to 17 (ETH185). The level of gene diversity was high indicated by a mean expected heterozygosity (He) across populations and loci of 0.73. Level of inbreeding (mean FIS=0.05) and genetic differentiation (mean FST=0.04) was moderate. The phylogenetic tree based on Reynolds genetic distance reflected...
Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C
Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds.
Vahidi, S.M.F.; Faruque, M.O.; Falahati Anbaran, M.; Afraz, F.; Mousavi, S.M.; Boettcher, P.; Joost, S.; Han, J.L.; Colli, L.; Periasamy, K.; Negrini, R.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.
Full text: Iranian livestock diversity is still largely unexplored, in spite of the interest in the populations historically reared in this country located near the Fertile Crescent, a major livestock domestication centre. In this investigation, the genetic diversity and differentiation of 10 Iranian indigenous fat-tailed sheep breeds were investigated using 18 microsatellite markers. Iranian breeds were found to host a high level of diversity. This conclusion is substantiated by the large number of alleles observed across loci (average 13.83, range 7–22) and by the high within-breed expected heterozygosity (average 0.75, range 0.72–0.76). Iranian sheep have a low level of genetic differentiation, as indicated by the analysis of molecular variance, which allocated a very small proportion (1.67%) of total variation to the between-population component, and by the small fixation index (FST = 0.02). Both Bayesian clustering and principal coordinates analysis revealed the absence of a detectable genetic structure. Also, no isolation by distance was observed through comparison of genetic and geographical distances. In spite of high within-breed variation, signatures of inbreeding were detected by the FIS indices, which were positive in all and statistically significant in three breeds. Possible factors explaining the patterns observed, such as considerable gene flow and inbreeding probably due to anthropogenic activities in the light of population management and conservation programmes are discussed. (author)
Mahmoudi, Bizhan; Panahi, Bahman; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolgasem; Daliri, Morteza; Babayev, Majnoun Sh
Genetic analyses, structure, and bottlenecks were examined in six populations of Iranian indigenous goat using 13 microsatellite loci. The overall heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC), and Shannon index values were 0.80, 0.74, and 2.14, respectively, indicating high genetic diversity. Both a phylogenetic tree and factorial correspondence analysis grouped the populations into two major clusters. Signatures for bottleneck events in the populations were examined by two methods, which suggested that bottlenecks had occurred in two Tali and Markhoz populations, whereas other populations (Raeini, Korki jonobe Khorasan, Lori, and Najdi) showed no signature of a genetic bottleneck in the recent past. The results showed that Iranian goats have high genetic diversity and may be of value to alternative breeding and conservation programs.
Full Text Available The diversity of cattle in Niger is predominantly represented by three indigenous breeds: Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri. This study aimed at characterizing the genetic diversity and relationship of Niger cattle breeds using short tandem repeat (STR marker variations. A total of 105 cattle from all three breeds were genotyped at 27 STR loci. High levels of allelic and gene diversity were observed with an overall mean of 8.7 and 0.724 respectively. The mean inbreeding estimate within breeds was found to be moderate with 0.024, 0.043 and 0.044 in Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri cattle respectively. The global F statistics showed low genetic differentiation among Niger cattle with about 2.6 % of total variation being attributed to between-breed differences. Neighbor-joining tree derived from pairwise allele sharing distance revealed Zebu Arabe and Kuri clustering together while Zebu Bororo appeared to be relatively distinct from the other two breeds. High levels of admixture were evident from the distribution of pairwise inter-individual allele sharing distances that showed individuals across populations being more related than individuals within populations. Individuals were assigned to their respective source populations based on STR genotypes, and the percent correct assignment of Zebu Bororo (87.5 to 93.8 % was consistently higher than Zebu Arabe (59.3 to 70.4 % and Kuri (80.0 to 83.3 % cattle. The qualitative and quantitative tests for mutation drift equilibrium revealed absence of genetic bottleneck events in Niger cattle in the recent past. High genetic diversity and poor genetic structure among indigenous cattle breeds of Niger might be due to historic zebu–taurine admixture and ongoing breeding practices in the region. The results of the present study are expected to help in formulating effective strategies for conservation and genetic improvement of indigenous Niger cattle breeds.
Nyamushamba, G B; Mapiye, C; Tada, O; Halimani, T E; Muchenje, V
The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.
G. B. Nyamushamba
Full Text Available The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.
Full Text Available Although a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified from the bovine genome-sequencing project, few of these have been validated at large in Bos indicus breeds. We have genotyped 192 animals, representing 5 cattle populations of Ethiopia, with the Illumina Bovine 8K SNP BeadChip. These include 1 Sanga (Danakil, 3 zebu (Borana, Arsi and Ambo, and 1 zebu × Sanga intermediate (Horro breeds. The Hanwoo (Bos taurus was included for comparison purposes. Analysis of 7,045 SNP markers revealed that the mean minor allele frequency (MAF was 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.21, 0.23, and 0.29 for Ambo, Arsi, Borana, Danakil, Horro, and Hanwoo, respectively. Significant differences of MAF were observed between the indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations and Hanwoo breed (p < 0.001. Across the Ethiopian cattle populations, a common variant MAF (≥0.10 and ≤0.5 accounted for an overall estimated 73.79% of the 7,045 SNPs. The Hanwoo displayed a higher proportion of common variant SNPs (90%. Investigation within Ethiopian cattle populations showed that on average, 16.64% of the markers were monomorphic, but in the Hanwoo breed, only 6% of the markers were monomorphic. Across the sampled Ethiopian cattle populations, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.314 and 0.313, respectively. The level of SNP variation identified in this particular study highlights that these markers can be potentially used for genetic studies in African cattle breeds.
Kumar, Amod; Gaur, Gyanendra Kumar; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Panigrahi, Manjit; Ghosh, Shrikant; Saravanan, B C; Bhushan, Bharat; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Sulabh, Sourabh; Priya, Bhuvana; V N, Muhasin Asaf; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Wani, Sajad Ahmad; Sahu, Amit Ranjan; Sahoo, Aditya Prasad
Bovine tropical theileriosis is an important haemoprotozoan disease associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. It is one of the major constraints of the livestock development programmes in India and Southeast Asia. Indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) are reported to be comparatively less affected than exotic and crossbred cattle. However, genetic basis of resistance to tropical theileriosis in indigenous cattle is not well documented. Recent studies incited an idea that differentially expressed genes in exotic and indigenous cattle play significant role in breed specific resistance to tropical theileriosis. The present study was designed to determine the global gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from indigenous (Tharparkar) and cross-bred cattle following in vitro infection of T. annulata (Parbhani strain). Two separate microarray experiments were carried out each for cross-bred and Tharparkar cattle. The cross-bred cattle showed 1082 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Out of total DEGs, 597 genes were down-regulated and 485 were up-regulated. Their fold change varied from 2283.93 to -4816.02. Tharparkar cattle showed 875 differentially expressed genes including 451 down-regulated and 424 up-regulated. The fold change varied from 94.93 to -19.20. A subset of genes was validated by qRT-PCR and results were correlated well with microarray data indicating that microarray results provided an accurate report of transcript level. Functional annotation study of DEGs confirmed their involvement in various pathways including response to oxidative stress, immune system regulation, cell proliferation, cytoskeletal changes, kinases activity and apoptosis. Gene network analysis of these DEGs plays an important role to understand the interaction among genes. It is therefore, hypothesized that the different susceptibility to tropical theileriosis exhibited by indigenous and crossbred cattle
Chopra, A; Gupta, I D; Verma, A; Chakravarty, A K; Vohra, V
Lactoferrin (Lf) gene promoter was screened for the presence of single nucleotide polymphism in indigenous and crossbred cattle from North India and to evaluate its association with Mastitis. Study revealed the presence of genetic variation in regulatory region of bovine Lactoferrin gene using PCR-RFLP technique. Three genotypes namely GG, GH and HH were identified. A single nucleotide change, from guanine to adenine at 25th position was found to be significantly associated (pmastitis in indigenous Sahiwal and crossbred Karan Fries cattle maintained at organised herd of National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. A non-significant association was observed between subclinical mastitis, somatic cell score (SCS), and GG genotype in Karan Fries cattle, however, a lower SCS was observed in animals having GG genotype. Overall a lower incidence of clinical mastitis was recorded in those animals having GG genotype of Lf in Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) cattle. The SNP identified in the promoter region may effect expression lactoferrin protein, which may lead to different levels of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of Lf gene. Results from this study indicated the probable role played by Lactoferrin promoter to serve as candidate gene for mastitis susceptibility among indigenous and crossbred milch cattle.
Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles
Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (p<0.001) associated with seropositive herds. These findings add critical evidence to existing information on the widespread occurrence of brucellosis among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda and could guide allocation of meagre resources for awareness creation
Tan, H.S.; Ismaya, K.H.; Sulong, A.
A study was conducted to monitor the reproductive performance of Kedah Kelantan (KK) and Brahman cattle maintained under similar environmental and management conditions on commercial farms in Malaysia. This allowed the physiological differences affecting reproductive efficiency to be identified in both pubertal and adult stock. The results revealed that the Brahman breed exhibited a better growth rate but poorer post-partum fertility than the KK. It appears that Brahman cattle require feed supplementation around the time of calving in order to reduce the duration of post-partum anoestrus. Both breeds exhibited late onset of puberty (on average at 25-36 months of age), although some animals initiated sexual activity at a much earlier age; this suggests that better selection as well as nutritional supplementation and possibly endocrine manipulation are necessary management inputs. Although the Brahman shows excellent potential in terms of performance per animal, the greater carrying capacity of the KK and its greater adaptiveness to local conditions indicate that this indigenous animal still has a major role to play in livestock production in Malaysia. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs
Ramljak, J; Ivanković, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I
It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Lemecha, H; Mulatu, W; Hussein, I; Rege, E; Tekle, T; Abdicho, S; Ayalew, W
A comparative study on the response of four indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia, namely Abigar, Horro, Sheko and Gurage, to natural challenge of trypanosomosis in the Tolley-Gullele area of the Ghibe valley has been undertaken from August 2000 until August 2004. Fifty female yearlings each of Horro, Sheko and Abigar and 31 of the Gurage were purchased from their natural habitats and introduced in to medium to high tsetse-trypanosomosis challenge area of the Ghibe valley. While the natural habitats of first three breeds are naturally infested with tsetse flies and trypanosomosis, that of the Gurage is known to be very minimal, if any, and hence the Gurage breed was used in this study as the known susceptible breed. During the study animal health, production performance and tsetse fly situation were monitored monthly. The Sheko breed has manifested very significantly (p<0.001) high overall average packed cell volume (PCV) values (25%) compared to that of Abigar (24%), Horro (23%) and Gurage (22%). It also had the lowest mean trypanosome prevalence rate of 9% against 23% of Horro, 26% of Abigar and 27% of Gurage, and the least number of Berenil treatments (1.36) compared to Abigar (4.0), Horro (4.6) and Gurage (6.7). While the Abigar manifested high sensitivity and frequent death to PCV depression, the Horro showed strong resilience to PCV depression and better response to Berenil treatment assistance. At this stage the Sheko breed was also found to be equal to the other breeds in its reproductive performance. These results need to be substantiated with further in-depth investigation including immune response, animal behavior and environmental influences.
Naserkheil, Masoumeh; Miraie-Ashtiani, Seyed Reza; Nejati-Javaremi, Ardeshir; Son, Jihyun; Lee, Deukhwan
The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of milk protein yields in Iranian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 1,112,082 test-day milk protein yield records of 167,269 first lactation Holstein cows, calved from 1990 to 2010, were analyzed. Estimates of the variance components, heritability, and genetic correlations for milk protein yields were obtained using a random regression test-day model. Milking times, herd, age of recording, year, and month of recording were included as fixed effects in the model. Additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects for the lactation curve were taken into account by applying orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the fourth order in the model. The lowest and highest additive genetic variances were estimated at the beginning and end of lactation, respectively. Permanent environmental variance was higher at both extremes. Residual variance was lowest at the middle of the lactation and contrarily, heritability increased during this period. Maximum heritability was found during the 12th lactation stage (0.213±0.007). Genetic, permanent, and phenotypic correlations among test-days decreased as the interval between consecutive test-days increased. A relatively large data set was used in this study; therefore, the estimated (co)variance components for random regression coefficients could be used for national genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Iran.
Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Vanvanhossou, Fridaïus Ulrich Sèyi
The objective of this study was to characterize the declining Somba cattle population in its production system context. Two-hundred-twenty-four (224) cattle farm-households were surveyed in the Boukombe district, the natural habitat of the breed in North-West Benin. Information on their socioeconomic characteristics and on their herd management practices were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 15 body measurements were recorded from 102 adult cattle. Three types of breeders were distinguished: the owners-herders (54.0 %); the absentee owners (40.2 %) and the professional herders (5.8 %). The average cattle herd sizes were 4.7 ± 3.70 and 58.6 ± 22.83 heads for owner-managed and entrusted herds, respectively. Offtakes were more associated with sociocultural purposes (75.5 %) than market. While crop farming was the main occupation and income source of their owners, the Somba cattle were used for ploughing during the rainy season. In contrast to the widely accepted belief that this indigenous genetic resource is mainly threatened by crossbreeding and/or replacement, our findings suggest high mortalities due to diseases, feed and water shortages and poor reproduction management as the main causes of the decline of this cattle population. Somba cattle generally have short horns and a small body size. However, bulls have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) longer horns (21.2 ± 16.44 cm against 13.9 ± 7.21 cm), higher height at withers (99.7 ± 6.97 cm against 95.9 ± 5.76 cm) and body length (149.7 ± 12.87 cm against 146.8 ± 11.01 cm) than cows. All surveyed farmers expressed their willingness and readiness to participate in and contribute materially or financially to any program towards a sustainable use and preservation of this breed which they perceived as hardy and embedded in their culture. We therefore argue that strategies for its sustainable use and conservation should consist of simultaneously
Full Text Available Background and Objective: The use of lactobacilli as probiotics requires the application of accurate and reliable methods for the detection and identification of bacteria at the strain level. Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR, a DNA fingerprinting technique, has been successfully used as a powerful molecular typing method to determine taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships among bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate and detect the genetic diversity of lactobacilli species isolated from different sources in Iran. Material and Methods: Twenty strains were isolated from Iranian traditional yoghurt, cheese, and Tarkhineh. PCR-mediated amplification was carried out by degenerate primers. Sequencing was performed after purification of the PCR product. The rep-PCR fingerprinting by (GTG 5 oligonucleotide primers was conducted for the discrimination and genotypic grouping of isolates. Results: Isolates were deposited as novel stains of lactobacillus casei, brevis, plantarum, and Entrococcus facium in GenBank. Clustering methods were performed on molecular data by NTSYS software, which was also supported by PCO ordination plot. The rep-PCR profiles showed that the 20 isolates produced different banding patterns. In UPGMA dendrogram, three main clusters were formed. Conclusion: According to our findings, rep-PCR appeared to be a very practical method and highly sensitive in the discrimination of the lactobacillus species. The results of sequencing corresponded to the clustering in dendrogram.
. The platelet-rich plasma and the leucocyte layers were collected. The plasma was washed with 30 ml T-Wash (0.9%. NaCl, 10 mM EDTA) and centrifuged at 145 x g for 15 min at room temperature to remove any leu- cocytes or erythrocytes.
Mouiche, M. M. M.; Bayang, H. N.; Assana, E.; Feussom, K. J. M.; Manchang, T. K.; Zoli, P. A.
A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was conducted on cattle in the North and Adamawa Regions of Cameroon to investigate the status of bovine brucellosis and identify potential risk factors. The diagnosis was carried out using the Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and indirect ELISA (i-ELISA), while questionnaires were used to evaluate risk factors for bovine brucellosis in cattle. The Bayesian approach was used to evaluate the diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity. The overall individual level (n = 1031) and herd level (n = 82) seroprevalence were 5.4% (0.4–10.5) and 25.6% (16.2–35.0), respectively. Bayesian analysis revealed sensitivity of 58.3% (26.4–92.7) and 89.6% (80.4–99.4) and specificity of 92.1% (88.7–95.2) and 95.7% (91.1–99.7) for RBPT and i-ELISA, respectively. Management related factors such as region, locality, herd size, and knowledge of brucellosis and animal related factors such as sex and age were significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis. Zoonotic brucellosis is a neglected disease in Cameroon. The study highlights the need for control measures and the need to raise public awareness of the zoonotic occurrence and transmission of bovine brucellosis in the country. An integrated disease control strategy mimicking the one health approach involving medical personnel, veterinarians, related stakeholders, and affected communities cannot be overemphasized. PMID:29535853
Full Text Available A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was conducted on cattle in the North and Adamawa Regions of Cameroon to investigate the status of bovine brucellosis and identify potential risk factors. The diagnosis was carried out using the Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT and indirect ELISA (i-ELISA, while questionnaires were used to evaluate risk factors for bovine brucellosis in cattle. The Bayesian approach was used to evaluate the diagnostic tests’ sensitivity and specificity. The overall individual level (n=1031 and herd level (n=82 seroprevalence were 5.4% (0.4–10.5 and 25.6% (16.2–35.0, respectively. Bayesian analysis revealed sensitivity of 58.3% (26.4–92.7 and 89.6% (80.4–99.4 and specificity of 92.1% (88.7–95.2 and 95.7% (91.1–99.7 for RBPT and i-ELISA, respectively. Management related factors such as region, locality, herd size, and knowledge of brucellosis and animal related factors such as sex and age were significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis. Zoonotic brucellosis is a neglected disease in Cameroon. The study highlights the need for control measures and the need to raise public awareness of the zoonotic occurrence and transmission of bovine brucellosis in the country. An integrated disease control strategy mimicking the one health approach involving medical personnel, veterinarians, related stakeholders, and affected communities cannot be overemphasized.
Prastowo, S.; Widi, TSM; Widyas, N.
Hybrid vigor or heterosis is the phenomenon where a crossbreed progeny has better performance compared to its parents. Heterosis can be quantified relative to the mid-parents value or relative to one of its parent’s population average by crossing two breeds. Crossbreeding is aimed to increase the production performance of local breeds. According to the Indonesian government policy, crossbreeding program is one of main strategies to achieve meat self-sufficiency. We explore the possibilities observing of heterosis exhibited by crossing Bali and Peranakan Onggole (PO) cattle as local breed with the exotic breed based on the published data. In this paper, growth and reproductive traits from Bali and PO from year 2000-2010 were used for analysis. Moreover, Limousine and Simmental exotic breed data were collected from official information of artificial insemination (AI) centre. Data in growth trait (chest girth, mature weight, weaning weight and yearling weight) in all breeds and their crosses were then analysed using standard heterosis estimation method. Result, shows that crossbred offspring perform better in the growth trait in relative to Bali and PO as local breed. Specifically in Bali crossed with PO, the offspring shown better estimated heterosis effect in yearling weight compared to both parents. Despite heterosis were observed in some traits, careful planning of crossbreeding program is a must in order to avoid the loss of genetic variance.
Aug 4, 2008 ... This study describes genetic variability in the leptin in Iranian native, Brown Swiss and Holstein cattle. (Bos Indicus and Bos Taurus). This is the first study of genetic polymorphism of the leptin gene in. Iranian native cattle. We examined exon 2 of the leptin gene from 587 individuals in six different.
Full Text Available Khuzestan is a southwestern province of Iran with proximity to the Persian Gulf and the international border with Iraq where harsh climate seriously affects this oil-rich region. In a search for causative agents of bovine tuberculosis (bTB, slaughterhouse specimens (lymph nodes from 32 tuberculin-positive cows originating from 17 farms were cultured on Lowenstein–Jensen slopes. This was further extended with bacterial culture of postmortem material from 6 trapped feral mice straying on the same farm premises. Twenty-five bovine and 2 murine acid-fast isolates were consequently obtained with all of them confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB complex bacteria by IS6110-PCR experiment. Spoligotyping and RD4 typing of the 2 murine and some of the collected bovine isolates left no doubt that Mycobacterium bovis is the principle and possibly the single culprit in bTB in this region. It does not come as a surprise as previous exhaustive works have shown in the Iranian environment other members of MTB complex than M. bovis are very unlikely to have any role in the epidemiology of bTB.
Among the characteristics attributed to indigenous African cattle, especially the zebus and their derivatives are tolerance to climatic stresses, especially to heat, genetic adaptation to poor quality forages and resistance to pest and diseases. As a result of natural selection, indigenous cattle (Sanga breeds) which evolved in.
Kouris-Blazos, A; Wahlqvist, M L
Between 1988 and 1993 the International Union of Nutritional Sciences Committee 'Nutrition and Ageing' established the international 'Food Habits in Later Life' (FHILL) Program.1,2 The FHILL program documented current and distant past food habits of more than 2000 Caucasian and Asian elderly people, which also included 54 older Aboriginal Australians in a community called Junjuwa in the Fitzroy Valley, Kimberley region, Western Australia. The program primarily used a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to collect food intake data. However, in some communities this was neither practical nor feasible due to differences in cultural interpretation of questions relating to 'time', 'frequency' and 'quantity'. To overcome this hurdle, FHILL was coupled to a qualitative socioanthropological methodolgy known as RAP 'Rapid Assessment Procedures'. This paper reviews published qualitative data using RAP to describe distant past food intake on cattle stations prior to the 1960s 1 and food intake of Aborigines aged 50 years and over in 1988 in Junjuwa.4 Aboriginal food habits on cattle stations prior to the 1960s appeared to be more nutrient dense, due to greater food variety and higher intakes of lean fresh and salted buffalo meat (probably high in omega-3 fatty acids), offal, vegetables and bush foods; buffalo fat was rationed and used in meat stews. High intakes of tea and sugar appears to have remained unchanged. Food intake was more or less constant from day to day in contrast to the 'feast' and 'famine' days observed in the community studied in 1988, which was related to the pension cycle. In contrast to the more varied cattle station diet, the community-dwelling older Aborigines in 1988 consumed more than 50% of their total energy intake from three foods: sugar, fatty beef/lamb and white flour (damper). Exploring distant past food intake on cattle stations has helped explain desirable and undesirable food preferences of the older Aborigines in 1988. For example, the
Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal
Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...
Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...
We examined exon 2 of the leptin gene from 587 individuals in six different populations of Iranian native cattles (86 Sarabi, 66 Taleshi, 94 Sistani, 76 Golpayegani, 104 Brown Swiss and 161 Holstein cattle) using PCR-RFLP method. Analysis of the frequencies of the various alleles in each breed indicated that allele C in ...
Caseins amount to nearly 80% of the protein output in cow milk. Caseins are biologically important proteins and they are also a raw material for the cheese making industry. The aim of this study was to identify kappa-casein genotype in Holstein and Iranian native cattle. DNA was extracted from 457 blood samples of 247 ...
Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata; Roy, Krisna
A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were...
It is well known that goat can tolerate harsh conditions; however there are little information about its reproduction functions such as testis histomorphometry and efficiency of sertoli cells. This study aimed to estimate germ cell types and number per sertoli cell of an indigenous Iranian goat (Lori goat). Semen was collected ...
Sep 6, 2010 ... 2Department of Animal Science, faculty of agriculture, University of Arak, Arak, Iran. . Accepted 10 May, 2010. Blood samples were collected from a total 816 sheep of both sexes in three Iranian fat-tailed breeds. (Sangsari, Makoei, indigenous sheep on firoozkouh mountain) serum, plasma and erythrocyte ...
Geertz, Armin W.
Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....
The present study investigated the occurrence of autosomal recessive genetic disease, citrullinaemia, in Khuzestan native cows and Iranian Holstein cattle. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood of the cows (n = 330). The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was ...
Sithembile Olga Makina
Full Text Available Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA including Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47, Bonsmara (n=44, Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29. Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR, expected heterozygosity (He and inbreeding coefficient (f. Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei’s genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE. Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner to 1.73 (Nguni. Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He=0.24 and the Drakensberger cattle (He=0.30 had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of South African cattle breeds.
Full Text Available The Busha is an indigenous breed of cattle in many Balkan countries. It has been bred for centuries. It belongs to primitive shorthorn cattle (Bos brachyceros europaeus. These cattle used to be the dominant and most important breed in almost all Balkan countries until the 1950s and 1960s, but today in lowland areas where intensive farming is practiced they have already been replaced by more productive and specialized breeds of cattle. In Macedonia this breed has officially been classified as a triple purpose breed (raised for meat, milk and draft but considering its low production capabilities it is more similar to some primitive draft breeds. This breed is part of the National Biodiversity Program for the conservation of indigenous breeds of animals in the Republic of Macedonia. Economic, cultural and scientific reasons underlie the need to protect the biological diversity of autochthonous breeds of cattle such as the Busha. The aim of the research was to establish a gene bank for different strains of adult Busha cattle in the Republic of Macedonia. To this end, 998 samples of blood, 1100 hair coat samples and 958 doses of semen were collected from adult Busha cattle. Also, a phenotypic characterization was done on adult Busha cattle for their major productive and morphological traits. During the last few years, there have been certain negative trends in the population size of Busha cattle in accordance with the decline of the rural population in the hills and uplands and young people's disinterest in rearing indigenous breeds of cattle such as the Busha.
Before the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iranian graduate students and academics frequently studied or worked in the United States. That year, for example, the 51,300 Iranian students in the United States were the single largest group of foreign students in the country. Many, if not most, Iranian professors received their doctorates from American…
Mycobacterium bovis is the aetiological agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife and livestock. A study to detect BTB in live buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and evaluation of diagnostics was conducted in buffaloes and indigenous cattle in Mikumi ecosystem. Gamma interferon (γIFN) and BovidTB Stat-Pak tests were used ...
The milk composition of free-ranging indigenous African cattle breeds was analysed. These breeds were chosen because they have not been bred specifically for milk production and might be considered the closest to a “natural” or “wild type” of the Bos species. It was found that the nutrient composition of the milk of these ...
The aim of this study was to investigate population structure and genetic trends based on pedigree and performance records of five indigenous African beef cattle breeds (Afrikaner, Boran, Drakensberger, Nguni and Tuli) in South Africa. Pedigree completeness over six generations was higher than 88.5% in the first ...
Xu, Yao; Jiang, Yu; Shi, Tao; Cai, Hanfang; Lan, Xianyong; Zhao, Xin; Plath, Martin; Chen, Hong
Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus) and Qinchuan (Bos taurus) are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 ...
Harvey, John F.
Discusses the state of Iranian libraries since the revolution: the printing industry flourishes because of obsolete copyright laws, and the government is attempting to dewesternize media and education. Also considered are budget cuts, the revolution's cost to libraries, and its effect on individual librarians. (SW)
Harvey, John F.
Summarizes the development of Iranian library and information science education from the 1930s to the present, including the period of continuing education and university department development prior to the Islamic Revolution and the post revolutionary period of reorganization. The discussion includes an assessment of accomplishments and problems…
Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike
to understand indigenous youths’ own conception of storytelling the paper presents empirical data from a study with indigenous Khoisan children in Namibia. This is followed by a discussion of an effort of digitizing indigenous intangible cultural heritage in relation to technologies’ embodied bias...
The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...
Autosomal markers and mtDNA have been used in horse phylogenetic studies. These studies display evolutionary events that happened in both sexes or only in females. It is necessary to investigate genetic diversity in Y-specific markers for clarifying contribution of males in horse domestication. The Y chromosome ...
Full Text Available A total of 2 160 cattle, comprising adults and calves of exotic, crossbred and indigenous breeds, were examined for tick infestation between 1996 and 2000. Of these, 1 417 (65.6% were infested with ticks, with a total of 220 (61% from exotic breeds, 262 (72% were crossbred and 172 (48% were indigenous adult cattle. Calves of exotic, crossbred and indigenous breeds were infested with ticks at the following rates: 246 (68%, 294 (82% and 223 (62%, respectively. Higher infestation levels were noted with Rhipicephalus microplus which affected 912 (64.3% animals, in comparison to Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum which affected 302 (21.3%. Rhipicephalus infestation was more extensive than that with genus Hyalomma.
Le Guelte, Georges
This article proposes an overview of the Iranian nuclear issue. The author first recalls that Iran has launched a nuclear program during the 1970's with the objective of building several nuclear power stations for electricity production. He evokes contracts signed by the Shah and the consequences of the Islamic revolution after which Iranian governments thought it was absurd to leave these constructions unfinished. The author outlines the several mistakes made by Western countries in their relationship with Iran, and those made by Iran (development of hidden nuclear program for example), which altogether leaded to the present crisis. The author discusses some legal aspects, notably the fact that Iran signed very early the NPT (non proliferation Treaty) as other countries who posses nuclear weapons, did not. He outlines the political challenges at different scales, regional as well as international, and finally discusses the uncertain perspectives
Mohammad Taghi Massoudieh
Full Text Available Although Iranian regional music, like Iranian traditional[*] music, is basically monophonic and follows the rules of heterophony, we occasionally run across polyphonic pieces, although most have been unwittingly formed as such. This study shows that these polyphonic pieces could be found in the following forms: 1. The meeting of two vocal parts, where the second singer starts singing before the melody is completed by the first. 2. Imitations, as a result of singing the same melody by a few singers who consecutively start singing with some delay between their parts. 3. Simultaneous playing of variants of the same melody by two players (variant heterophony. 4. Changing between the soloist and the chorus (in the responsorial form or between one chorus and another (in an antiphoner[**] where a chorus begins the next part of the lyrics before the soloist or the other chorus is finished with their own part. 5. Polyphony resulting from the playing of a melody by a few singers where each singer sings the melody based on their own voice register depending on their physiological features. 6. Accompanying the first singer using alternate changes to the drone note or following the up-going or down-going movement of the melody in playing the tamira (in Lorestan, the dotār (in Khorasan and tamderā (in Turkman leads to the conscious parallelism of two voices. The radif of traditional music and the Iranian regional music, like those of other Middle East countries, is monophonic and follows the forms of heterophony; that is, the same melody is played and changed by two or more players. The change of a specific melody by two players, or a player and a singer, sometimes leads to the simultaneous playing of two different notes. Such an interference or combination of two sounds is a matter of heterophony, and by no means of harmony or accord. Interference of notes or combinations of notes in heterophony are not predictable. Since the melody is played extempore
Amineh, M.P.; Eisenstadt, S.N.
The Iranian Islamic Revolution, the only continual regime constituted by a modern fundamentalist movement, shares many of the characteristics of the Great revolutions. The causes of the Iranian Revolution are indeed very similar to those of the classical ones—namely the breakdown of a modernizing
Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the Iranian foreign policy through the case of Iranian nuclear program. The paper aims to assess foreign policy orientations and compares actions of the last three Iranian presidents, Mohammad Khatami, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and current Hassan Rouhani in dealing with the international community (IC in pursuing its nuclear program. This assessment would not be complete without reference to the Iranian supreme leader Ali Khamenei who is actual head of the state and the most powerful political authority. This paper also relates Iranian foreign policy expectation to competing theories of international relations to identify the most dominant or the most consistent policy orientation. Its aim is to strengthen realist and power-based explanations that have dominated the discourse on Middle Eastern in general and Iranian foreign policy in particular. In this context, a number of questions will be addressed here. To what extend was Iranian negotiation with the IC over its nuclear program consistent throughout these three presidencies? What has changed, if anything, from Iranian foreign policy perspective and why? Can Iranian foreign policy behavior on this specific topic and in this specific time be explained through any international relations theory? As there are many other questions, so there are many theories to examine and explain true Iranian intentions, those below the surface of declared goals (Hadzikadunic, 2014. The methods employed in answering these questions are largely structured around a chronological account and comparative approach. It is also based on the analysis of foreign policy discourse and the assessment of key decision makers.
Mott, G Adam; Wilson, Raymond; Fernando, Anuruddika; Robinson, Ailie; MacGregor, Paula; Kennedy, David; Schaap, Dick; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Matthews, Keith R
Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.
G Adam Mott
Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.
Full Text Available This paper reports trichotillomania in eight Iranian children (7 girls and 1 boy .It is rarely seen in children and adolescents. Although some subjects are psychiatrically normal, but some suffer from depressive disorder, neurosis, or personality problems. Separation from key figure, denial of femininity/and inadequate mother-child relationship play important roles either in the etiology of trichotillomania or psychiatric disorders. Finally therapeutic interventi.ons according to the cultural factors were mentioned. Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry, Tehran Univer sity. Formerly, chief, Child Psychiatric Dept. Roozbeh Hospital Teheran University, Medical School.
Withen, K.B.; Brüniche-Olsen, A.; Pedersen, Bo Vest
A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically cha...
Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335
This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.
Chanzanagh, Hamid Ebadollahi; Piri, Akbar; Garjan, Elham Abbaszadeh
Like the disabled in other cultures, Iranian disabled confront numerous difficulties in their everyday life. They are constantly rejected in different fields of social life by Iranian culture, and as a result Iranian disabled find themselves in an inappropriate cultural /social circumstance. This research is focused on Iranian disabled and host culture in one of northern Iranian provinces, Gilan (Rasht city) to explain living experiences of Iranian disabled as abandoned individuals in Iranian...
Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Ehsan; Haghighi, Ali; Taghipour, Niloofar; Keshavarz, Akbar; Mohebi, Seyed Reza; Zali, Mohammad Reza; Xiao, Lihua
Cryptosporidium is an intestinal parasite associated with severe acute diarrhea in humans and animals. To investigate subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from humans and cattle in Iran, 47 Cryptosporidium parvum (22 from children and 25 from cattle) and three Cryptosporidium hominis from children were characterized by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Nine subtypes (two of C. hominis and seven of C. parvum) in four subtype families were identified. Cattle were mainly infected with C. parvum IIa subtypes and humans mostly with the C. parvum IIa and IId subtypes. Consequently, cattle could be a source of human infection with C. parvum IIa in Iran. However, the occurrence of subtype IId families in Iranian children, suggests that other infection sources might also be involved in C. parvum transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first published record and description of Cryptosporidium subtypes in Iran. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. Biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. In this study, two Iranian indigenous strains of B. bassiana (B. bassiana 5197 and B. bassiana Evin were selected and grown on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of two Iranian Ixodidae members (H. anatolicum anatolicum Koch 1844, and H. marginatum Koch 1844 by dipping method.Methods: Two Iranian strains of Beauveria bassiana (Beauveria bassiana 5197 and Beauveria bassiana Evin were selected and were grown successfully on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of Iranian Ixodidae members such as, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and H. marginatum by dipping method (these ticks were grown up at laboratory conditions during 2002 up to 2003 and still it is continued .Results: There was no effect of strain 5197 on mortality or fecundity rates for ticks. There was acute phase sign of paralysis in test group after dipping ticks in suspension made from Evin strain of B. bassiana. In addition, the test groups were totally died after four months, but the control groups survived for six months.Conclusion: High concentration of fungal spores is needed for inducing fungal infection. Additional study using different strains and fungi on Iranian ticks is proposed.
The former group is tax- onomically classified as Bos taurus and is exotic to. Southern Africa. ..... en uitdagings in die Landbou. Simposium, 27 Maart 1981. MUGGLI, N. & HOHENBOKEN,. W., 1983. Inheritance of maternal immunoglobin. G 1 concentration by the bovine neonate. Proc. 15th Int. Congr. Genet. (New Delhi), 1 ...
Genetic diversity is the basis for present day diversified living systems and future genetic improvement needs. This diversity should be properly utilized, improved and conserved. Conservation and improvement strategies ought to be based on proper genetic characterization in association with phenotypic characterization.
stimulated electrically (500 V 12,5Hz for 2 min, polarity changes per 30 s). The right wingrib (ribs 11, 12, 13) was removed for determining the intramuscular fat of the longis- simus thoracis. Cooking loss (Naude, 1974), shear force and free water were determined on the longissimus thoracis of the left primerib (ribs 8, 9, 10).
... and both the Bovine de Tete and the Angone breeds, whereas the smallest genetic distance was observed between the Bovine de Tete and the Angone. These results show the intermediate relationship of Bovine de Tete with the Angone and Landim breeds and show that the Bovine de Tete is an admixture of taurine and ...
Oct 4, 2007 ... Genetic diversity is the basis for present day diversified living systems and future genetic improvement needs. This diversity should be properly utilized, improved and conserved. Conservation and improvement strategies ought to be based on proper genetic characterization in association with phenotypic ...
1ARC Animal Improvement Institute, P/Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa; 2Veterinary Faculty, Eduardo Montlana University,. C.P. 257, Maputo, Mozambique; 3German ... histories and thereby illuminate human migrations, identify breeds potentially useful in breeding programmes and aid in understanding domestication.
sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 92. Genetic ... both the Bovine de Tete and the Angone breeds, whereas the smallest genetic distance was observed between the ... This study is the first to examine genetic relationships between the Landim, Bovine.
Sullivan, Corrinne Tayce
Colonialist views of Indigenous bodies and sexualities continue to affect Indigenous peoples worldwide. For Indigenous Australians, this burden has resulted in repression and oppression of power, sex and desire. Focusing on the sexual intimacies of Indigenous Australian women, this paper provides an account of the dominant Australian historical discourses, finding that Indigenous women were viewed as exotic, erotic, something to be desired, yet simultaneously something to be feared. Our sexualities were described as savage, promiscuous and primitive and we were often viewed as prostitutes with our voices and views constrained by patriarchal and imperial regimes of power. But within this context, Indigenous women fought back through both individual and collective acts of agency. This paper demonstrates how Indigenous Australian women's agency not as a new phenomenon but rather as a position that disrupts the popular discourses of exploitation and victimhood that have been persistently perpetrated against Indigenous women.
Radhika, G; Aravindakshan, T V; Jinty, S; Ramya, K
The legendary Vechur cattle of Kerala, described as a very short breed, and the crossbred (CB) Sunandini cattle population exhibited great phenotypic variation; hence, the present study attempted to analyze the genetic diversity existing between them. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellites were chosen from FAO-ISAG panel and amplified from genomic DNA isolated from blood samples of 30 Vechur and 64 unrelated crossbred cattle, using fluorescent labeled primers. Both populations revealed high genetic diversity as evidenced from high observed number of alleles, Polymorphic Information Content and expected heterozygosity. Observed heterozygosity was lesser (0.699) than expected (0.752) in Vechur population which was further supported by positive F IS value of 0.1149, indicating slight level of inbreeding in Vechur population. Overall, F ST value was 0.065, which means genetic differentiation between crossbred and Vechur population was 6.5%, indicating that the crossbred cattle must have differentiated into a definite population that is different from the indigenous Vechur cows. Structure analysis indicated that the two populations showed distinct differences, with two underlying clusters. The present study supports the separation between Taurine and Zebu cattle and throws light onto the genetic diversity and relationship between native Vechur and crossbred cattle populations in Kerala state.
Lock, Mark J; Thomas, David P; Anderson, Ian P; Pattison, Philippa
OBJECTIVE; To determine and describe the features of Indigenous participation in an informal national Indigenous health policy network. A questionnaire was administered during 2003-04. Through a snowball nomination process a total of 227 influential persons were identified. Of these, 173 received surveys of which 44 were returned, a return rate of 25%. These data were analysed to detect the existence of network groups; measure the degree of group interconnectivity; and measure the characteristics of bonds between influential persons. Demographic information was used to characterise the network and its groups. Indigenous people were integral to the network due to their high representation, their distribution throughout the 16 groups, and the interconnections between the groups. The network was demographically diverse and multiple relational variables were needed to characterise it. Indigenous and non-Indigenous people had strong ties in this network. Social network methods made visible an informal network where Indigenous and non-Indigenous people relate in a complex socio-political environment to influence national Indigenous health policy. What is known about the topic? The participation of Indigenous people is acknowledged as important in health, but there is criticism of the lack of real opportunities for Indigenous people to participate in national Indigenous health policy processes.
Donna L. M. Kurtz
Full Text Available Increasing Indigenous health care professional presence in health care aims to reduce health inequities of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Nurses are the largest health professional group and nurse graduates the main source of recruitment. The quality of graduate transition to practice is evident in the literature; however, little is reported about Indigenous new graduates. We describe using Indigenous methodology and two-eyed seeing (Indigenous and Western perspectives in exploring Indigenous transition experiences. Talking circles provided a safe environment for nurses, nurse educators and students, health managers, and policy makers to discuss Indigenous new graduate case scenarios. The methodology was critical in identifying challenges faced, recommendations for change, and a new collective commitment for cultural safety education, and ethical and respectful relationships within education, practice, and policy.
Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda
Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…
Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.
The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)
Full Text Available Teaching English in an Iranian and Islamic culture poses complex questions for both teachers and learners. In this paper, the authors intend to shed light on what it means to teach English as a foreign language (TEFL in an Islamic-Iranian context. Having reviewed the colonial and postmodern views of English language teaching, the authors took a look beyond the current state of TEFL in Iran, which is marked by its continuing global tendency, and into the future with an emphasis on the importance of including the local specificities of the Iranian culture and religion. The status of the TEFL in Iran and the direction it should take in the future are accompanied by offering some solutions to inherent problems. Iranian TEFL is introduced as the successful assertion of Iranian local culture against the cultural and ideological domination of the West, which can be an antidote to the harshness of all marginalizations Iranians have suffered for centuries.
Taye, Mengistie; Lee, Wonseok; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Dessie, Tadelle; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwai, Okeyo Ally; Kemp, Stephen; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal
As African indigenous cattle evolved in a hot tropical climate, they have developed an inherent thermotolerance; survival mechanisms include a light-colored and shiny coat, increased sweating, and cellular and molecular mechanisms to cope with high environmental temperature. Here, we report the positive selection signature of genes in African cattle breeds which contribute for their heat tolerance mechanisms. We compared the genomes of five indigenous African cattle breeds with the genomes of four commercial cattle breeds using cross-population composite likelihood ratio (XP-CLR) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) statistical methods. We identified 296 (XP-EHH) and 327 (XP-CLR) positively selected genes. Gene ontology analysis resulted in 41 biological process terms and six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Several genes and pathways were found to be involved in oxidative stress response, osmotic stress response, heat shock response, hair and skin properties, sweat gland development and sweating, feed intake and metabolism, and reproduction functions. The genes and pathways identified directly or indirectly contribute to the superior heat tolerance mechanisms in African cattle populations. The result will improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms of heat tolerance in African cattle breeds and opens an avenue for further study. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Sarfati, Diana; Garvey, Gail; Robson, Bridget; Moore, Suzanne; Cunningham, Ruth; Withrow, Diana; Griffiths, Kalinda; Caron, Nadine R; Bray, Freddie
It is estimated that there are 370 million indigenous peoples in 90 countries globally. Indigenous peoples generally face substantial disadvantage and poorer health status compared with nonindigenous peoples. Population-level cancer surveillance provides data to set priorities, inform policies, and monitor progress over time. Measuring the cancer burden of vulnerable subpopulations, particularly indigenous peoples, is problematic. There are a number of practical and methodological issues potentially resulting in substantial underestimation of cancer incidence and mortality rates, and biased survival rates, among indigenous peoples. This, in turn, may result in a deprioritization of cancer-related programs and policies among these populations. This commentary describes key issues relating to cancer surveillance among indigenous populations including 1) suboptimal identification of indigenous populations, 2) numerator-denominator bias, 3) problems with data linkage in survival analysis, and 4) statistical analytic considerations. We suggest solutions that can be implemented to strengthen the visibility of indigenous peoples around the world. These include acknowledgment of the central importance of full engagement of indigenous peoples with all data-related processes, encouraging the use of indigenous identifiers in national and regional data sets and mitigation and/or careful assessment of biases inherent in cancer surveillance methods for indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
M. M. Hossain
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find out the causes and factors affecting the dairy cattle mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of dairy cattle mortality on the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF in Bangladesh was carried out between 1992 and 2007. Sixteen years of data on mortality of dairy cattle were analyzed for the effects of year, season, age, sex, breed, and etiology on mortality rate. Results: The average overall mortality rate was 5.60% and on average, female cattle (55.71% were found to die more than males (44.29%. Mortality was more in crossbred cattle than in indigenous breed. Higher mortality of cattle was observed in rainy season (37.98% followed by winter (33.03% and summer (28.99%. The major causes of death were diseases of the respiratory tract, mainly pneumonia (39.91%. Tuberculosis was the second most common cause of mortality accounting for 20.58% of deaths. The other major cause of death was disease of the alimentary tract, mainly enteritis (15.58%. Other causes of death occurred in the following frequencies: malnutrition (5.91%, debility (4.43%, hairball (3.35%, tympanitis (2.56%, babesiosis (2.27%, internal haemorrhage (2.16%, black quarter (1.76%, and foot and mouth disease (1.48%. Conclusions: Of the four potential risk factors investigated, age was the most important factor and significantly associated with mortality. During the first month of life, calves had a higher risk of mortality than adults.
The civil nuclear constitutes an alibi for Iran which the real aim is the access to the military nuclear power. It was probably the initial goal, before and after the 1979 revolution. The provocative speech of Iranian rulers on Israel constitute a reason to enrich uranium at military ends. But it appears that's not the only reason for Iran to pursue its nuclear program. Will not be efficient to begin sincere negotiations with Iran and to engage a policy of denuclearization of the region? Moreover the international interferences on the Iranian matters could be detrimental. Indeed, democratic freedoms won't spread in Iran, if the great decisions that concern the country don't take into account the national willing
May, Stephen; Aikman, Sheila
Discusses common issues in indigenous education worldwide: indigenous peoples' struggle for control of their education, which is inevitably situated in larger indigenous struggles for self-determination and social justice; revitalization and transmission of indigenous cultures and languages; problems of defining "indigenous;" and the legitimacy of…
Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour
Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...
This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.
project. Indigenous textile industries in Africa and Middle East can process natural fibers into yarn (Figure 3.5a) and then fabric (Figure 3.5b). The...Strategies were devised for development of inorganic binders using simply processed indigenous raw materials which are abundantly available in Africa...gypsum, limestone, and soda ash. Various indigenous plant extracts are also considered as additives in inorganic binders to impart foaming, set
Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…
South Africa, 1996; National .... Indigenous Knowledge as systems that enable the continuous inte- gration of 'information' be they ... to the integration of Indigenous Knowledge Systems in education are analysed. •. Indigenous Knowledge ...
Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad
Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hamid Ebadollahi Chanzanagh
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate presence of nationalhistorical events in Iraniancollective memory. According to social theorists remembering is a socialphenomenon which occurs in social cadres. In Iranian social context, ethnicity,generation, religion and education are important social cadres of memory. 384national samples from three different ethnicities,Azeri, Gilaki and Kurd, werechosen by quota sampling. Results of survey indicated three social cadres ofgeneration, religion and education explained remembering national historicalevents and Iranian collective memory is basically rooted in national historicalevents rather than ethnic one. ‘The 1979 Islamic revolution’, ‘Iran’s oilnationalization and the following 1953 Iranian coupd’état’ from the last centuryevents and ‘Iranian constitutional revolution’, ‘Russo-Persian wars’ from prior tothe last century events are the most important national events remembered byIranian.
Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…
Full Text Available During the twentieth century, indigenous peoples have often embraced the category of indigenous while also having to face the ambiguities and limitations of this concept. Indigeneity, whether represented by indigenous people themselves or others, tends to face a “double bind”, as defined by Gregory Bateson, in which “no matter what a person does, he can’t win.” One exit strategy suggested by Bateson is meta-communication—communication about communication—in which new solutions emerge from a questioning of system-internal assumptions. We offer case studies from Ecuador, Peru and Alaska that chart some recent indigenous experiences and strategies for such scenarios.
Siyamak Nayyeri Fallah; Akram Khalili; Mohamad Tajuddin Mohamad Rasdi
The role of value of privacy in shaping Iranian culture is vital. In contrary to modern middle-class Iranian high density vertical development housing, this cultural principle plays a great role in shaping spatial organization of Iranian traditional housing. The aim of this study is to establish a framework to improve spatial organization of modern Iranian high density vertical development (HDVD) housing through lessons learnt from traditional Iranian housing. In this regard, to reach the aim...
Support for indigenous peoples has been increasing over the last few decades. This can be seen internationally, as well as in several domestic contexts. The support for indigenous people has been linked to the increasingly prominent impetus to conserve the Earth’s biodiversity and environment.
Lilian Alessa; Carlos Andrade; Phil Cash Cash; Christian P. Giardina; Matt Hamabata; Craig Hammer; Kai Henifin; Lee Joachim; Jay T. Johnson; Kekuhi Kealiikanakaoleohaililani; Deanna Kingston; Andrew Kliskey; Renee Pualani Louis; Amanda Lynch; Daryn McKenny; Chels Marshall; Mere Roberts; Taupouri Tangaro; Jyl Wheaton-Abraham; Everett. Wingert
This policy brief explores the use and expands the conversation on the ability of geospatial technologies to represent Indigenous cultural knowledge. Indigenous peoples' use of geospatial technologies has already proven to be a critical step for protecting tribal self-determination. However, the ontological frameworks and techniques of Western geospatial...
Indigenous knowledge (IK) can act as a powerful tool in a learning environment to teach students. Conventional curricula, and achievement tests in many countries, however, do not support students' learning based on their IK. Learning environments need to be adapted to help students build on their indigenous communities' knowledge, and by recognizing students' culture and value systems. Edu...
Tonmyr, Lil; Blackstock, Cindy
This commentary highlights indigenous public health research from a special issue of the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction dealing with child maltreatment, mental health, substance abuse and gambling. We focus on the emerging and growing research movement in Indigenous research through three important themes: 1) worldview and…
As indigenous communities begin to develop language revitalization programs, they inevitably must face the decision of whether to incorporate written forms of their historically oral languages into their efforts. This paper argues that as indigenous people go about the decision-making process, they must be aware of the implications of relying on a…
With an increased interest in the revitalization of Indigenous languages and cultural practices worldwide, there is also an increased need to develop tools to support Indigenous language learners and instructors. The purpose of this article is to presents such a tool called ANA 'OLELO, designed specifically to assess Hawaiian language proficiency.…
Support for indigenous peoples has been increasing over the last few decades. This can be seen internationally, as well as in several domestic contexts. The support for indigenous people has been linked to the increasingly prominent impetus to conserve the Earth’s biodiversity and environment.
Hanna, Philippe; Langdon, Esther Jean; Vanclay, Frank
Protests to claim rights are a common practice among Indigenous peoples of the world, especially when their interests conflict with those of nation states and/or multinational corporations regarding the use of their lands and resources. Drawing on a case study of the National Indigenous Mobilization
Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.
Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
Spiritual development is one of the most important aspects of socialization that has attracted the attention of researchers. It is needed to train nursing student and novice nurses to provide high-quality care for patients. There is ambiguity in the definition of spiritual development and its relations, especially in the eastern countries. To explore the concept of spiritual development in Iranian nurses. Qualitative content analysis approach. Data were gathered from semi-structured interviews. Participants and research context: The participants were 17 Iranian Muslim nurses selected using a purposeful sampling. The place of interviews was on their choice. Ethical considerations: Based on the principles of the Helsinki declaration, the focus was on preserving the participants' autonomy, confidentiality, and anonymity. The participants were told the study purposes and trends, and their rights were emphasized; they were then asked to sign written consent forms. Formal research approval was obtained from Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Ethical approval was granted by the University Ethics Committee before the study was conducted (K/92 etc). Three themes for spiritual development were defined: obligation to religion, commitment to ethics, and commitment to law. From the results, factors such as connection to the limitless divine power, personal and society-oriented ethical codes, and commitment to the law are proposed. There are some differences between these findings and previous study, especially in the relation of the spirituality, religion, and law. Some studies, mostly Iranian, support these findings partially. The results suggest that it is better to teach nursing education based on humanistic principles, ethics, and law to the new generation of nurses to improve community health and development. More studies are needed to examine the relation between these themes.
Wright, Jason T.
One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.
Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers
Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.
S. Jegaveera Pandian
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results: In this study, it was found that the seroprevalence of L. hardjo was 9.11% and that of B. abortus was 12.2% in Bihar. Indigenous cattle were found to be less susceptible to leptospirosis and brucellosis even though they accounted for 83.11% of the study population. Conclusion: Although there was no acute disease, antibodies detected against L. hardjo and B. abortus in the cattle population indicated the presence of chronic and subclinical infection, which could challenge the fertility of the animals.
Full Text Available Bali cattle is very popular Indonesian local beef related to their status in community living process of farmers in Indonesia, especially as providers of meat and exotic animal. Bali cattle were able to adapt the limited environment and becoming local livestock that existed until recently. In our early study by microsatellites showed that Bali cattle have specific allele. In this study we analyzed the variance of partly sex related Y (SRY gene sequence in Bali cattle bull as a source of cement for Artificial Insemination (AI. Blood from 17 two location of AI center, Singosari, Malang and Baturiti, Bali was collected and then extracted to get the DNA genome. PCR reaction was done to amplify partially of SRY gene segment and followed by sequencing PCR products to get the DNA sequence of SRY gene. The SRY gene sequence was used to determine the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship. We found that Bali cattle bull from Singosari has relatively closed genetic relationship with Baturiti. It is also supported that in early data some Bali bulls of Singosari were came from Baturiti. It has been known that Baturiti is the one source of Bali cattle bull with promising genetic potential. While, in general that Bali bull where came from two areas were not different on reproductive performances. It is important to understand about the genetic variation of Bali cattle in molecular level related to conservation effort and maintaining the genetic characters of the local cattle. So, it will not become extinct or even decreased the genetic quality of Indonesian indigenous cattle. Key Words : Bali cattle, SRY gene, artificial insemination, phylogenetic, allele Animal Production 13(3:150-155 (2011
Sharma, Rekha; Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, Manishi; Ahlawat, Sonika; Maitra, Avishek; Pandey, Ashwni Kumar; Tantia, Madhu Sudan
Indian agriculture is an economic symbiosis of crop and livestock production with cattle as the foundation. Sadly, the population of indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) is declining (8.94% in last decade) and needs immediate scientific management. Genetic characterization is the first step in the development of proper management strategies for preserving genetic diversity and preventing undesirable loss of alleles. Thus, in this study we investigated genetic diversity and relationship among eleven Indian cattle breeds using 21 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial D loop sequence. The analysis of autosomal DNA was performed on 508 cattle which exhibited sufficient genetic diversity across all the breeds. Estimates of mean allele number and observed heterozygosity across all loci and population were 8.784 ± 0.25 and 0.653 ± 0.014, respectively. Differences among breeds accounted for 13.3% of total genetic variability. Despite high genetic diversity, significant inbreeding was also observed within eight populations. Genetic distances and cluster analysis showed a close relationship between breeds according to proximity in geographic distribution. The genetic distance, STRUCTURE and Principal Coordinate Analysis concluded that the Southern Indian Ongole cattle are the most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. Sequencing of hypervariable mitochondrial DNA region on a subset of 170 cattle revealed sixty haplotypes with haplotypic diversity of 0.90240, nucleotide diversity of 0.02688 and average number of nucleotide differences as 6.07407. Two major star clusters for haplotypes indicated population expansion for Indian cattle. Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes show a similar pattern of genetic variability and genetic differentiation. Various analyses concluded that the Southern breed 'Ongole' was distinct from breeds of Northern/ Central India. Overall these results provide basic information about genetic diversity and structure of Indian cattle which
kantanen, J; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik
Blood samples were collected from 743 animals from 15 indigenous, 2 old imported, and 3 commercial North European cattle breeds. The samples were analyzed for 11 erythrocyte antigen systems, 8 proteins, and 10 microsatellites, and used to assess inter- and intrabreed genetic variation and genetic...... drift-based genetic distance estimates. The breeds were classified on the basis of the tree topology into four major breed groups, defined as Northern indigenous breeds, Southern breeds, Ayrshire and Friesian breeds, and Jersey. Grouping of Nordic breeds was supported by documented breed history...
Full Text Available This study investigates the level of Narcissism among 185 Iranian auditors groups and narcissism has been used to describe people behavior in people groups. The present study uses a questionnaire to measure Narcissism and to examine the hypotheses of the paper analysis of variance and T-test are used. The results of testing hypotheses show that the level of narcissism was significantly different in auditors groups in private sector. However, in public sector, the difference between narcissistic personality in auditors’ groups is not significant. Results of the study also indicated that, in private sector, narcissistic personality in young generation of auditors was higher than audit old generation. These results confirm previous studies on narcissism indicating that narcissistic behavior was high among young generation. We suggest the Iranian association of certified public accountants (IACPA to review the ethical training needs for auditors. In addition, audit firms can provide a system to increase interaction among old generations of auditors with young generation of auditors.
Full Text Available Banks are the most important tool for preparing and supplying money in each country. In recent years, by institution of the new private banks and privatization of the governmental banks, banking competition has become very complex. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors on return on assets and return on equities on 18 selected Iranian firms over the period 2002-2011. Using different regression models, the study studies the effects of total assets, debt ratio, etc. on return of assets (ROA and return on equities (ROE on selected eighteen Iranian banks as statistical community. The study considers total assets, ownership ratio, deposits to assets ratio, and loans to assets ratio as independent variables, and ROE and ROA as dependent variables. The results indicate that the private banks returns were better than governmental banks and the commercial banks’ returns were better than special banks. There is a reverse relationship between logarithm of total assets and ownership ratio with profitability based on return of assets.
Full Text Available The paper begins by noting the low level of reference to Indigenous Australians in the Commonwealth Constitution at the start of Federation, and goes on to discuss the limits to what was achieved by the 1967 amendments. The situation represents a marked contrast with the USA and Canada in terms of treaties and constitutional recognition. In Australia, particularly during the period of the ‘Reconciliation’ process in the 1990s, important steps were taken by Indigenous Australians to identify items of ‘unfinished business’ in a ‘Statement of Indigenous Rights’. But there has been limited progress to meet these aspirations. And Australian law still lacks a tradition of recognition of human rights generally, let alone Indigenous rights. International law, too, largely lacked recognition of human rights, generally prior to the adoption in 1945 of the Charter of the United Nations. The brief references in the Charter were subsequently developed in a range of declarations and of treaties. These applied to people generally, with scant reference to Indigenous peoples. But, since the 1970s, there has been growing international recognition of the rights of Indigenous peoples under existing declarations and treaties. Since the 1990s, in particular, the UN system has established specific mechanisms for addressing such issues. On 13 September 2007, the General Assembly finally adopted a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
Catherine E. Gordon
Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.
Stokka, G L; Lechtenberg, K; Edwards, T; MacGregor, S; Voss, K; Griffin, D; Grotelueschen, D M; Smith, R A; Perino, L J
This article examines the various causes of lameness in feedlot cattle, with an emphasis on clinical signs, treatment, and prevention. Specific conditions are discussed, including interdigital necrobacillosis, laminitis, feedlot injuries, and feedlot lameness associated with Mycoplasma bovis. Immune management of the foot is also reviewed.
Full Text Available Studies on enhancing biomethanation were performed to ascertain whether amending lignocellulosic biomass waste with indigenous microbial-cellulases systems will improve biomethane output. To evaluate this, gastrointestinal contents of slaughtered beef cattle were treated with inocula derived from the guts of giant African land snail ( Archachatina marginata and worker termites ( Coptotermes formosanus , individually as well as combined. The fed-batch method operating at prevailing ambient room temperatures (30 ± 2EC for a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 60 days was adopted. Feedstock slurry without amendment, amended with Archachatina marginata -derived inoculum, amended with Coptotermes formosanus -derived inoculum, and amended with Archachatina marginata : Coptotermes formosanus (50 : 50% mixed inocula yielded cumulative biomethane of 65.26 ml/g VS, 63.21 ml/g VS, 125.99 ml/g VS, and 97.16 ml/g VS, respectively. Physicochemical analysis of feedstock and digestates revealed increased reductions in lignin, hemicelluloses, and celluloses (lignocelluloses in trials amended with microbial-cellulases systems. This study revealed that among the experiments assayed, the trial amended with the cellulases system from Coptotermes formosanus yielded the highest cumulative biomethane.
The number of Iranian immigrants in Canada has been increasing since 1979. This study is the result of a review of 111 charts of Iranian patients who were referred for psychiatric treatment between 1985 and 1988. Ninety-eight percent of them arrived in Canada after the Iranian revolution, which started in 1979, and the Iran-Iraq war of 1980. Ten percent were experiencing trauma as a result of their involvement with the revolutionary government or the war. The symptoms were in accordance with the DSM-III-R criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Sixty percent met the criteria for adjustment disorder with depressed or anxious mood. Six percent had been subjected to physical and psychological torture and confinement. This is the first study that looks at the prevalence of psychiatric illness among Iranians and illustrates the effect of migration and displacement in the integrity of the psychic life of this population.
Full Text Available Tehran as a symbol of Iranian modernity has been considered in many Iranian fiction films. Representation of Tehran in cinema can be the representation of Iranian modernity revolution. This study focuses on the representation of urban image in Iranian fiction films through critical theories such as Simmel or Benjamin opinions. In this article we discus about the mediator role of cinema for representing the Urban life Image and confliction of modernity in Iran.Meanwhile some megalopolis such as Paris, Berlin, Moscow, New York and sanpitersboorg est.…have had great opportunity for understanding confliction of modernity in their situation, Tehran has never have that chance. Regarding to this vacuum we want to explain the role of Iranian fiction films for understanding the entrance of modernity consequences in different eras. We believed that fiction films can represent confliction of city and village, represent of modern dualities, non cohesive rationality and many other gaps in Iranian modernity that we have to know.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the current situation of livestock production in Thailand, genetic diversity and evaluation, as well as management strategies for animal genetic resources focusing on pigs and cattle. Sustainable conservation of indigenous livestock as a genetic resource and vital components within the agricultural biodiversity domain is a great challenge as well as an asset for the future development of livestock production in Thailand.
Full Text Available Objectives: Stigma is a negative value. Many behaviors are to ward Stigmatized people. Down syndrome is one of conditions with Stigma. The aim of this study is to determine the sources of labeling in iranian Down syndrome. Methods: The View of 105 Down syndrome families concerning stigma were conducted. All of Down syndrome was under 50 years. Results: A fair proportion of Down syndrome families perceived that stigma had a negative effect from social. Causes of stigma are different. Stigma due social interaction, Media and health professionals are significant than others. Discussion: The diagnostic label of Down syndrome may render the person and his family vulnerable to stigmatization. The most causes of stigma were determined therefore, in the destigmatization programs, they must be attended. Stigma must be detected, too.
Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education.
Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.
Full Text Available Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.
Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter
, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While......, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make...... negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values....
Liang, J.B.; Pimpa, O.; Abdullah, N.; Jelan, Z.A.; Nolan, J.V.
Two experiments were conducted in order to develop equations for predicting rumen microbial protein production for indigenous Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle and swamp buffaloes in Malaysia, using urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion rates. Endogenous PD excretion rates determined by a fasting procedure for KK cattle and swamp buffalo were 275 and 370 μmol/kg W 0.75 /day, respectively. Urinary PD excretion rate per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) for KK cattle was higher than that for swamp buffalo, reconfirming the earlier findings. Glomerular filtration rate, allantoin and uric acid tubular load and PD re-absorption rate for swamp buffalo were generally higher than those for KK cattle. However, due to the large variations among animals within species, these parameters were not significantly different between species. Nevertheless, the higher PD reabsorption in swamp buffalo provides support for the earlier postulation that the lower urinary PD excretion rate of swamp buffalo was due to their higher recycling of plasma PD as compared to KK cattle. Labelled 8- 14 C uric acid was used to estimate the ratio of renal to non-renal PD excretion. The recovery rates of the radioactive tracer via the renal route for both species were much lower than values reported previously for unlabelled PD for European cattle. (author)
Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique. Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases.
S V Subramanian
Full Text Available Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities.Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances.Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.30. They are also more likely to smoke and (especially drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.95 compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups.Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous populations, reiterating the overall importance of
Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Subramanyam, Malavika
Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities. Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances.Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.30). They are also more likely to smoke and (especially) drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.95) compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups. Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous populations, reiterating the overall importance of socioeconomic status
Wojcieszak, M.; Brouillette, A.; Smith, B.
The Iran Media Program conducted a survey of Iranian journalists living and working outside Iran. Our aim was to examine more closely the role and relationship between Iranian reporters abroad and their international and domestic audiences, as well as to broaden our knowledge of the Iranian diaspora
Frisch, J.E.; Vercoe, J.E.
Improvement in productivity of cattle in some areas of tropical Africa is likely to be related mainly to improvement in environmental conditions, including the implementation of effective vaccination programmes and an increased availability of feed. In other areas, scope also exists to increase output by increasing the genetic potential of indigenous breeds and animals. The variation within indigenous breeds in resistance to environmental stresses and in genetic potentials could be exploited by within-breed selection but responses are likely to be slow. Initial attempts at genetic improvements should therefore concentrate on utilizing between-breed variation in these traits by identifying breeds with the required attributes and crossing them to the breed under improvement. Increases in milk yield and size are mainly dependent on the successful implementation of cross-breeding programmes aimed at maintaining high resistance to environmental stresses while also increasing genetic potentials up to the level that can be supported by the available nutrition. The most suitable combination of breeds to be used in these crosses is not known at present. However, in areas of high trypanosome challenge, crosses between trypanotolerant breeds from East and West Africa may be the best option. In areas of lower trypanosome challenge but where high levels of other environmental stresses exist, crosses between indigenous and Indian breeds may be the most appropriate. Only in those areas where parasite and disease challenge is low and the plane of nutrition is high will crosses to higher yielding European Bos taurus breeds be suitable. Improved standards of living of sections of society and increases in population have contributed to increased demand for cattle products. If this demand is to be met from African sources, output must be increased. Some of the ways in which this may be achieved are considered in the paper. (author)
Rabbani D.1 PhD,
Full Text Available Aims Heavy metals in the environment are toxic to plants, animals and human. This study aimed to investigate concentration of Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in Iranian and non- Iranian rice which have been sold in Kashan City, Iran shops. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, 126 samples from 42 trademarks (15 Iranian and 27 non-Iranian rice were collected from Kashan shopping centers. At first each sample was ashed, and then they have been dissolved with nitric acid. Heavy metal concentration was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using One-sample and Independent T-tests. Findings Arsenic was not found in any of rice samples. There was a significant difference between Pb concentration in both Iranian and non-Iranian rice samples. There was not a significance difference between Cd concentration in Iranian (p=0.823 and non-Iranian (p=0.346 rice samples according to Iran national standards but there was a significant difference between Cd concentration in both Iranian (p=0.001 and non-Iranian (p=0.001 rice samples according to WHO and FAO standards. Conclusion Consumed rice pollution with Pb is considerable but with Cd is low. Arsenic concentration in Iranian and non-Iranian rice is less than Iran national and WHO/FAO standards.
Abraha, Solomon; Belihu, Kelay; Bekana, Merga; Lobago, Fikre
This study was conducted in South Wollo Zone of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, to assess the milk yield and reproductive performance of indigenous and crossbred cattle under smallholder management conditions. Questionnaire survey was used to collect retrospective data on the performance of dairy cattle in 186 households. Thirty two postpartum cows (16 indigenous and 16 crossbred) were selected purposively and monitored for five months and milk samples were collected twice per week from each cow to determine postpartum ovarian activity using ELISA techniques. Daily milk yields at all stages of lactation were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in crossbred than indigenous cows. Crossbred cows had significantly (P < 0.01) longer lactation length and shorter age at first calving, while calving interval was significantly shorter in cows that gave previous calves during the wet season than the dry season. Only six cows (18.8%) showed heat signs on an average of 136 days postpartum of which one was a crossbred and five were indigenous. While, 11 cows (34.3%) resumed ovarian activity until 150(th) day postpartum among which three were crossbred and eight were indigenous.
Ford, James D
Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research.
Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an initial theoretical grounding to assess a practical project: a new software application that attempts to be a beneficial resource in the field of Indigenous representation. As a starting point, we are concerned to provide a theoretical ground for considering the inherited and shifting spaces of Indigenous media representation. To this end, this paper reconsiders the strengths and weaknesses of debates surrounding the ‘Indigenous public sphere’. This is used as grounds for critically understanding the relations that constitute this field. Following this, we consider how a more materialist approach to publics might enable a productive reconceptualization, and in particular how digital media initiatives and shifting news markets may be contributing to change. Finally, drawing on this model, we outline both the ‘Wakul app’ project, and how this framework might inform an assessment of its impact.
This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.
Whitinui, Paul; McIvor, Onowa; Robertson, Boni; Morcom, Lindsay; Cashman, Kimo; Arbon, Veronica
There is an Indigenous resurgence in education occurring globally. For more than a century Euro-western approaches have controlled the provision and quality of education to, and for Indigenous peoples. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA) established in 2012, is a grass-roots movement of Indigenous scholars passionate about making a…
Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Raeisian Parvari, Mozhgan
One of the main elements of economic sanctions against Iran due to its nuclear and military programs is crude oil exportation restrictions in addition to investment in Iranian energy related projects. Senders of such sanction are interested in understanding the impacts of such embargos on international oil prices. We apply unrestricted vector autoregressive (VAR) model, using impulse response functions (IRF) and variance decomposition analysis (VDA) tools with annual data from 1965 to 2012 to analyze the dynamic response of international oil prices to Iranian oil export sanction. Controlling for the supply of non-Iranian oil, the world GDP per capita, and post-Islamic revolution exogenous dummy variables, we show that international oil prices respond negatively and statistically significant to increasing shock in absolute negative changes of the Iranian oil exports – our proxy of Iran oil sanctions – following the first 2 years after shock. The main reason is the positive response of the non-Iranian oil supply to negative shocks in Iranian oil exports, filling the missing supply of Iranian oil in international markets. - Highlights: • We analyze the interconnections between Iranian oil supply and global oil prices. • We use VAR modeling and annual data from 1965 to 2012 for the case of Iran. • There are no inflationary effects of Iranian oil sanction on world oil prices. • Non-Iranian oil supply offsets the missing Iranian oil in the market
Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih
Full Text Available Stephanofilariasis which is called as Cascado is characterized by dermatitis in cattle. This disease is caused by nematode from the genus of Stephanofilaria and transmitted by the fly vector. In general, the disease is characterized by pruritis, loss of hair, ulceration, exudation and haemorrhage depending on the stage of infection. Control of the disease could be done by drug treatment of the infected animals and eradication of the fly vector periodically. The disease easily spreads, therefore farmers and the veterinary officers in the fields should pay attention on this disease.
Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.
Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.
We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue...
Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein
The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary
Bunten, Alexis Celeste
Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…
The study concluded that indigenous control methods were well established and utilized by the respondents. It is recommended that laws banning bush burning and indiscriminate tree felling be re-enforced in order to preserve indigenous herbs to avert possible extinction. Indigenous knowledge system should be ...
Whether to pursue international legal measures to extend intellectual property rights to cover indigenous knowledge or to treat it as a public good is the subject of debate. This paper makes the case that investing indigenous knowledge as a public good is an ethical position compatible with the idea that indigenous and ...
McGloin, Colleen; Carlson, Bronwyn L.
Language use changes over time. In Indigenous contexts, language alters to suit the shifting nature of cultural expression as this might fit with Indigenous peoples' preference or as a consequence of changes to outdated and colonial modes of expression. For students studying in the discipline of Indigenous Studies, learning to use appropriate…
Indigenous knowledge transfer is becoming an increasingly important issue in the development fraternity as development practitioners seek answers to develop indigenous communities. This article reports on the findings of a study that was aimed at establishing how indigenous knowledge can be preserved and transferred ...
Entrepreneurs use their competencies to discover and exploit opportunities for doing business. Both entrepreneurial competencies and performance expectedly depend on social circumstances, and specifically differ between natives and emigrants. Here the question is, how do entrepreneurs in Iran...... and in the Iranian diaspora differ in their competencies and performance? A representative survey of people in Iran and around the world identified entrepreneurs 1639 natives in Iran and Iranians in the diaspora, who were intending to start, starting or operating a business. Statistical analysis shows...
Karimzadeh, Mansoureh; Salsabili, Nasser; Akbari Asbagh, Firouzeh; Teymouri, Robab; Pourmand, Golamreza; Soleimanieh Naeini, Tahereh
Worldwide, infertility affects 10%-15% of couples and most of them seek medical help including Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatments. Undergoing ART treatments create many physical and emotional burdens. This study examined the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile males and females as well as their spouses, unlike previous studies that examined mainly females with infertility. Subjects in this descriptive analytical design were recruited from the IVF Department of Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital and the Rouyesh Infertility Treatment Center of Tehran, Iran between Aug 2014 and Sep 2015. Overall, 256 couples (64% response rate), consisting of 78 infertile male and their spouses and 50 infertile female and their spouses, were included in this research. The psychological disorders were measured by the Persian version of Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised and Cattle Inventory. Psychological disorders of infertile couples are significantly associated with increasing age, higher education, longer duration of infertility and unemployment ( P ART treatments.
Gandrup, Tobias; Jespersgaard Jakobsen, Line
This project is set out to analyse the negotiation of indigeneity. This will be done by unfolding the semiotic practices of two organisations that represents indigenous interests in contemporary Peruvian politics. It examines the rise of the term indigeneity in international politics through the emergence of an international framework and asks to how this has shaped political possibilities for the local indigenous organisations to represent the indigenous interests. The analysis shows that th...
Indigenous resistance to colonisation is a key theme in Australian Indigenous frontier histories, although most knowledge on these events is drawn from non-indigenous sources of information and framed within Western historiographies that can mask continuities between past and present. This thesis develops a decolonising framework to look at how Indigenous cultural producers are redressing this rift through retellings of their stories of Indigenous resistance leaders like Pemulwuy (Bidjigal), ...
... surveillance system at slaughter plants: Canada and Mexico. (b) Brucellosis. All cattle over 6 months of age... agrees to share any findings of brucellosis in U.S. origin cattle with APHIS; (v) Cattle exported... a country that does not require cattle from the United States to be tested for brucellosis as...
West, R; Gamble, J; Kelly, J; Milne, T; Duffy, E; Sidebotham, M
Evidence is emerging of the benefits to students of providing continuity of midwifery care as a learning strategy in midwifery education, however little is known about the value of this strategy for midwifery students. To explore Indigenous students' perceptions of providing continuity of midwifery care to Indigenous women whilst undertaking a Bachelor of Midwifery. Indigenous Bachelor of Midwifery students' experiences of providing continuity of midwifery care to Indigenous childbearing women were explored within an Indigenous research approach using a narrative inquiry framework. Participants were three Indigenous midwifery students who provided continuity of care to Indigenous women. Three interconnected themes; facilitating connection, being connected, and journeying with the woman. These themes contribute to the overarching finding that the experience of providing continuity of care for Indigenous women creates a sense of personal affirmation, purpose and a validation of cultural identity in Indigenous students. Midwifery philosophy aligns strongly with the Indigenous health philosophy and this provides a learning platform for Indigenous student midwives. Privileging Indigenous culture within midwifery education programs assists students develop a sense of purpose and affirms them in their emerging professional role and within their community. The findings from this study illustrate the demand for, and pertinence of, continuity of care midwifery experiences with Indigenous women as fundamental to increasing the Indigenous midwifery workforce in Australia. Australian universities should provide this experience for Indigenous student midwives. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yin, J Kevin; Beard, Frank; Wesselingh, Steve; Cowie, Benjamin; Ward, James; Macartney, Kristine
Abstract Objective To quantify the disparity in incidence of hepatitis B between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia, and to estimate the potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults. Methods Using national data on persons with newly acquired hepatitis B disease notified between 2005 and 2012, we estimated incident infection rates and rate ratios comparing indigenous and non-indigenous people, with adjustments for underreporting. The potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults was projected using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation model. Findings Of the 54 522 persons with hepatitis B disease notified between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012, 1953 infections were newly acquired. Acute hepatitis B infection notification rates were significantly higher for indigenous than non-indigenous Australians. The rates per 100 000 population for all ages were 3.6 (156/4 368 511) and 1.1 (1797/168 449 302) for indigenous and non-indigenous people respectively. The rate ratio of age-standardized notifications was 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.7–4.3). If 50% of non-immune indigenous adults (20% of all indigenous adults) were vaccinated over a 10-year programme a projected 527–549 new cases of acute hepatitis B would be prevented. Conclusion There continues to be significant health inequity between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in relation to vaccine-preventable hepatitis B disease. An immunization programme targeting indigenous Australian adults could have considerable impact in terms of cases of acute hepatitis B prevented, with a relatively low number needed to vaccinate to prevent each case. PMID:27821885
Full Text Available Fertility rate is an economically important trait in sheep, which is influenced by genetic and environment. So far, three genes have been identified that affects this trait, one of them would be the BMP family, the most famous one is BMP15. Different mutations in the BMP15 gene, increases reproductive performance and growth rate in sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic and phylogenetic of BMP15 gene sequence in Iranian Sangsari sheep. For this purpose, the blood samples from 20 animal of Damghan station were collected. After DNA extracting, a segment of 222 bp of exon 2 of BMP15 gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Then, all of the PCR products were sequenced. The results showed existence of four haplotypes and three significant mutations of the gene that which one of them was seen for first. In order to determine the genetic distance of Sansari sheep with other animals especially sheep breeds about 103 sequences were taken from Genebank, Then, phylogenetic trees were drawn. Genetic distances and nucleotide differences were calculated. The results showed that goat, cattle and buffalo have minimum genetic distance and monkey, human and mouse have maximum distance with Sangsari sheep and native Hindi and Kashmiri sheep have not any differences with Iranian Sangsari sheep.
Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with ...
... as determined by a Steering Committee of experts drawn from government agencies, universities and research institutions all over the country. It is expected to generate a body of evidence that will aid Chinese policymakers to develop and implement effective policies for enhancing indigenous innovations in the west.
Malala (Mike) Misa; Agnes M. Vargo
Agroforestry exists in American Samoa as a system where indigenous trees and natural vegetation used for food, fuelwood, crafts and medicine are incorporated with traditional staple crops and livestock on a set piece of land, usually a mountainous slope. Most agroforests are taro-based (Colocasia esculenta). While nutritional, cultural, social,...
An ethnomedicinal study was conducted in the remote Hindukush-Himalayan valleys of Utror and Gabral, during which 36 common folk medicinal recipes of the area were documented. The indigenous methods of medicinal plants collection and their further processing were also explored. It was also observed that huge ...
Kirmayer, Laurence J; Dandeneau, Stéphane; Marshall, Elizabeth; Phillips, Morgan Kahentonni; Williamson, Karla Jessen
The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice.
Ring, Ian; Arambula Solomon, Teshia G.; Gachupin, Francine C.; Smylie, Janet; Cutler, Tessa Louise; Waldon, John A.
Inaccuracies in the identification of Indigenous status and the collection of and access to vital statistics data impede the strategic implementation of evidence-based public health initiatives to reduce avoidable deaths. The impact of colonization and subsequent government initiatives has been commonly observed among the Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The quality of Indigenous data that informs mortality statistics are similarly connected to these distal processes, which began with colonization. We discuss the methodological and technical challenges in measuring mortality for Indigenous populations within a historical and political context, and identify strategies for the accurate ascertainment and inclusion of Indigenous people in mortality statistics. PMID:25211754
Maasz, Donovan; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Stanley, Colin
Indigenous Knowledge (IK) preservation and management has been taken up as a serious endeavor by various governments who have realized the value of IK as well as the opportunities given by emerging technologies. Considering the various phases and activities of indigenous knowledge management which...... the indigenous knowledge digitization process, namely, codesign, conceptualization, collection, correction, curation, circulation, and creation of knowledge. We exemplify the application of the model with technologies currently developed under an indigenous knowledge holder’s toolkit promoting the agency...... of digitalizing indigenous knowledge across the phases....
Hansen, Annette Skovsted
The re-vitalization of indigenous languages depend on political and legal support and the imple-mentation of language rights depend on knowledge of vocabulary and grammar structures of the individual languages. Throughout the nineteenth century world, compilers of dictionaries adapted indigenous...... languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995...
The possibility of teaching communication strategies and the feasibility of incorporating them into school syllabi have been a controversial issue. In the current study, 60 Iranian students were divided into two thirty-member classes; then two different textbooks, one with specific CS and the other without them, were chosen to be taught in the…
Hedayati, Nasibeh; Kuusisto, Elina; Gholami, Khalil; Tirri, Kirsi
This article examines Iranian secondary students' (N = 336) life purposes. Economic and hedonistic life goals were the most valued. Relationships in terms of having a family and children were also appreciated. In the students' views, religiousness was associated with social goals such as helping others in need and volunteering in the community.…
Yahaghi, Bamdad R
A collection of problems from a competition for college students organised by the Iranian Mathematical Society. It compiles problems from these competitions between 1973 and 2007 and provides solutions to most of them. It is suitable for students of mathematics preparing for competitions and for advanced studies.
Carr, William G.; Carr, Elizabeth
During a 16-day examination of recent innovations in Iranian education, two institutions were most closely examined: 1) The Army of Knowledge was created in 1962 as a crash program concentrating mainly on the elementary and secondary education of rural and village children where the population is dispersed, living standards low, and four out of…
Pliskin, K L
Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients.
... property; liquidation of blocked property. Subpart C--General Definitions 560.301 Effective date. 560.302... (``Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and Iranian Financial Institutions''), and subsections 1245(c...) provides that the President shall, pursuant to IEEPA, block and prohibit all transactions in all property...
Resistance of human and food spoilage pathogens to antimicrobial agents and the side effects of chemical agents or preservative for human is caused for finding natural new antimicrobial agents, especially among the medicinal plants. This review introduces the methods that are used for antimicrobial evaluations and synergistic activities and the antimicrobial potential of some Iranian medicinal plants.
Schripsema, Auke; Meijer, Ben
An important objective of the Iranian agricultural policy is to improve the productivity of the food supply chains and to safeguard food security1. Addressing the issue of postharvest losses will contribute to achieving these objectives. The application of existing agro logistic knowledge and
Oct 25, 2010 ... 1Genetic Research Group, Molecular and Bioinformatics Unit, Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health ... GSTM1 (odds ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.27 - 1.08) genes and higher risk of prostate cancer among Iranian ..... transferase; mechanism and relevance to variations in human risk.
Karami, Sareh; Ghahremani, Mehdi
Using a grounded theory approach to the study of historical texts and an expert interview, this study investigates culturally embedded conceptions of giftedness as evidenced in one of the most important Iranian literary canons, "The Gulistan", to guide the development of education and programming for gifted and talented students in Iran.…
... Wolbachia 16S rDNA gene. PCR product was directly sequenced and the alignment of the sequence with similar sequences in GenBank showed high similarity with 16S rDNA gene of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. Key words: Wolbachia, Iranian scorpion, 16S rDNA gene, Hemiscorpius lepturus.
The general frustration among Iranian students at Southwestern College and other colleges in Oklahoma City were revealed last February in an angry confrontation at the College. Political tensions, racial prejudice of Americans, language barriers, and problems of cultural adjustment are some causes of their frustration. (JMD)
Dargahi, H; Alirezaie, S; Shaham, G
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is defined as "individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate, promotes the effective functioning of organization". OCB, enhance job satisfaction among nursing employees. According to several findings, nurses' OCB have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. This research is aimed to study OCB among Iranian nurses. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 510 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran to be selected by stratified random sampling. The respondents were asked to complete Netemeyer's organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire that encompassed four dimensions of OCB including Sportsmanship, Civil Virtue, Conscientiousness, Altruism and selected each item of OCB dimensions and identified their attitudes about OCB items were observed in hospitals of Tehran. The data was analyzed by T-test, ANOVA and Pearson statistical methods. The results of this research showed that most of the nurses who studied in this study, had OCB behaviors. Also, we found that there was significant correlation between Iranian nurses' marriage status, qualifications and gender with sportsmanship, altruism and civic virtue. This research demonstrates the existence of OCB among Iranian nurses that are essential in developing patient - oriented behavior. The results can be used to develop further nursing management strategies for enhancement of OCB. Finally, the present study indicates new possibilities for future researches such as analysis and comparison of OCB between different hospitals and how nursing policy-makers can enhance these behaviors in Iranian hospitals.
Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard
In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. There is a serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role modeling by parents - mainly fathers - and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4 and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use - mostly opium - was between 1.2 and 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level.
Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Zehtabchi, Samira; Fini, Ismail Azizi
The holistic approach views the human as a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual being. Evidence suggests that among these dimensions, the spiritual one is largely ignored in healthcare settings. This study aimed to evaluate Iranian nurses' perceived professional competence in spiritual care, the relationship between perceived competence and nurses' personal characteristics, and barriers to provide spiritual care. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2014. Participants and research context: The study population consisted of nurses working in teaching hospitals in Kashan city. Using a stratified, systematic random method, 250 samples were selected from a total of 1400 nurses. An indigenous instrument was used to assess the nurses' competencies in spiritual care. Ethical considerations: A research ethics committee approved the study. All the participants were briefed on the study aims, were assured of the confidentiality of their personal information, and signed a written informed consent. Among a total of 250 nurses, 239 answered the questionnaire completely, and in total, 23%, 51%, and 26% had poor, moderate, and favorable competence in spiritual care, respectively. No significant differences were found between the mean competence scores of spiritual care in terms of gender, marital status, employment status, and level of qualification. Significant difference was found between nurses' overall score of competence in spiritual care and receiving training on spiritual care, nurses' position, and the ward they worked in. Confirming the findings of the international literature, this study puts light on the situation of nurses' perceived competence and barriers to providing spiritual care in Iran as an eastern and Islamic context. Three-quarters of the nurses had moderate or unfavorable competence in spiritual care. Due to the crucial role of spiritual care in quality of care and patient satisfaction, nurses should be trained and supported to provide spiritual care.
Zuhura I. Kimera
Full Text Available Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required.
Panigrahi, Manjit; Sharma, Arjava; Bhushan, Bharat
Crossbred cattle are more prone to mastitis in comparison to indigenous cattle. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes pathogen ligands, for example, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli and mediates signaling to initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. Mutations in TLR4 can compromise the host immune response to certain pathogens, so it may be a potential candidate for marker assisted selection to enhance mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Hence, in this study role of bovine TLR4 gene in mastitis resistance was investigated by association as well as expression profiling analysis in crossbred cattle. The animals were divided into mastitis affected and unaffected groups on the basis of history of animals and California Mastitis Test (CMT). PCR-SSCP and Sequence analysis revealed three genotypes of coreceptor binding region 1 (CRBR1) fragment of TLR4 gene namely AA, AB, and BB in both groups of cattle. The logistic regression model did not show any significant effect of these genotypes on the occurrence of clinical mastitis. Moreover, in vitro challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with LPS failed to show any association of the genotypes with TLR4 gene expression. In a nutshell, in the present study enough evidence was not found for association of the SNP variants of CRBR1 fragment of TLR4 gene with mastitis susceptibility in crossbred cattle.
Liu Wenping; Du Jingling
The article explains the significance of Library Science Indigenization, Answer some misunderstanding of Library Science Indigenization,reveals express form of Library Science Indigenization, Discusses criteria of Library Science Indigenization, finally give some suggestions and methods of Library Science Indigenization. (authors)
The paper discusses the dissemination and use of indigenous knowledge. It highlighted the type and sources of indigenous knowledge in Nigeria. Means and tools for creating and exchanging indigenous knowledge, the likely situations under which indigenous knowledge could be used and how indigenous knowledge ...
Marchand, Dawn Marie
Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…
... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not... cattle. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate in accordance with § 78.7. (c) Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate in accordance with § 78.8(a) or (b). (d...
The Indigenous education agenda in Australia remains focused on mainstream schooling contexts. Although overlooked in Indigenous education discourse, flexi schools appear to be engaging with disproportionately high numbers of Indigenous students and staff. The educative roles of Indigenous peoples in broader Indigenous education discourse are…
Siyamak Nayyeri Fallah
Full Text Available The role of value of privacy in shaping Iranian culture is vital. In contrary to modern middle-class Iranian high density vertical development housing, this cultural principle plays a great role in shaping spatial organization of Iranian traditional housing. The aim of this study is to establish a framework to improve spatial organization of modern Iranian high density vertical development (HDVD housing through lessons learnt from traditional Iranian housing. In this regard, to reach the aim through qualitative approach and case study strategy, this value of the Iranian traditional housing was investigated. The data collection methods to collect data from middle-class traditional and modern high-density vertical development (HDVD housing, were multiple tactics as direct observation, open-ended expert interview, semi-structured and focus group interviewing, taking photo, and plan layout. As conclude, it was reached that privacy as a principle governing all aspects of life has had deep impacts on spatial organization of traditional Iranian housing. Thus through using the spatial concept of privacy learnt from traditional Iranian housing can formulate recommendations to betterment spatial organization of middle-class modern Iranian HDVD housing.
Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs
Mártin César Tempass
Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.
Full Text Available Abstract Abstract: This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of an emergent global discourse of indigeneity to offer an oppositional praxis in the face of the depredations of settler colonialism in post-apartheid South Africa. Self-conscious articulations of indigeneity, we argue, reveal the fraught relationship between increasingly hegemonic and narrow understandings of the indigenous and the carceral logic of apartheid. We examine this by focusing on the meanings and attachments forged through indigenous plants in two realms: the world of indigenous gardening practised by white suburban dwellers and that of subsistence farming undertaken by rural black women. This juxtaposition reveals that in contrast to the pervasive resurrection of colonial time that defines metropolitan indigenous gardening, the social relations of a subsistence cultivator challenge the confines of colonial temporality, revealing a creative mode of dissent structured around dreams, ancestral knowledge, and the commons. Our exploration of struggles around botanical indigeneity suggests that anticolonial modes of indigeneity do not necessarily inhere in recognisable forms and that studies of the indigenous need to proceed beyond those that bear familial resemblance to emergent global understandings.
Arezoo Molavi Vardanjani
Full Text Available This paper discusses the theoretical and pedagogical issues in EFL learning and instruction to explore the research problem ‘the EFL teaching deficiencies in Iranian classrooms’. The primary aim of this study is to provide a solid overview of the second language teaching methods and approaches in the context of English as a foreign language in Iran. The theoretical issues discussed include research on the nature of the two commonly used Grammar Translation Method (GTM and Communicative Language Teaching approaches (CLT, the methodology and strategies employed in Iranian EFL classrooms and evaluating the students’ achievement from the point of view of language teachers and learners. To fulfill the aims of the study, a modified version of a BALLI questionnaire was employed. Results show that in spite of its deficiencies, both teachers and students still prefer to use the traditional GTM.
Full Text Available Background: A supportive needs assessment is an essential component of any care program. There is no research evidence regarding the supportive care needs of cancer patients in Iran or other Middle Eastern countries. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in a referral medical center in the northwest of Iran. A total of 274 cancer patients completed the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-59. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: In 18 items of the SCNS, more than 50% of the participants reported that their needs were unmet. Most frequently, unmet needs were related to the health system, information, physical, and daily living domains, and most met needs were related to sexuality, patient care, and support domains. Conclusions: Iranian cancer patients experience many unmet needs and there is an urgent need for establishing additional supportive care services in Iran.
Iranian political strategy wants to be presented as a political break, with a Pan-Islamic vocation. Brought about by Ayatollah Khomeyni, this political philosophy has produced the intended effects, as seen with the return of more moderate policies. Khomeyni's death confronted the Islamic Republic with a choice: Hachemi Rasfandjani put Iran back into the international scene by conciliating pragmatism with ideological values. In 2005, M. Ahmadinejad came to power. His declarations concerning the Hebrew State and his position on nuclear weapons pose the question as to whether or not Iran is reverting to an export policy of revolution. It is important to place these elements in the historical context of the Islamic Republic so as to see if Iranian foreign policy is again taking an ideological turn or if it is continuing down the lane of pragmatism
Heather A. Knauer
Full Text Available Parenting may be influenced by ethnicity; marginalization; education; and poverty. A critical but unexamined question is how these factors may interact to compromise or support parenting practices in ethnic minority communities. This analysis examined associations between mothers’ stimulating parenting practices and a range of child-level (age; sex; and cognitive and socio-emotional development; household-level (indigenous ethnicity; poverty; and parental education; and community-level (economic marginalization and majority indigenous population variables among 1893 children ages 4–18 months in poor; rural communities in Mexico. We also explored modifiers of associations between living in an indigenous community and parenting. Key findings were that stimulating parenting was negatively associated with living in an indigenous community or family self-identification as indigenous (β = −4.25; SE (Standard Error = 0.98; β = −1.58; SE = 0.83 respectively. However; living in an indigenous community was associated with significantly more stimulating parenting among indigenous families than living in a non-indigenous community (β = 2.96; SE = 1.25. Maternal education was positively associated with stimulating parenting only in indigenous communities; and household crowding was negatively associated with stimulating parenting only in non-indigenous communities. Mothers’ parenting practices were not associated with child sex; father’s residential status; education; or community marginalization. Our findings demonstrate that despite greater community marginalization; living in an indigenous community is protective for stimulating parenting practices of indigenous mothers.
Knauer, Heather A; Ozer, Emily J; Dow, William; Fernald, Lia C H
Parenting may be influenced by ethnicity; marginalization; education; and poverty. A critical but unexamined question is how these factors may interact to compromise or support parenting practices in ethnic minority communities. This analysis examined associations between mothers' stimulating parenting practices and a range of child-level (age; sex; and cognitive and socio-emotional development); household-level (indigenous ethnicity; poverty; and parental education); and community-level (economic marginalization and majority indigenous population) variables among 1893 children ages 4-18 months in poor; rural communities in Mexico. We also explored modifiers of associations between living in an indigenous community and parenting. Key findings were that stimulating parenting was negatively associated with living in an indigenous community or family self-identification as indigenous (β = -4.25; SE (Standard Error) = 0.98; β = -1.58; SE = 0.83 respectively). However; living in an indigenous community was associated with significantly more stimulating parenting among indigenous families than living in a non-indigenous community (β = 2.96; SE = 1.25). Maternal education was positively associated with stimulating parenting only in indigenous communities; and household crowding was negatively associated with stimulating parenting only in non-indigenous communities. Mothers' parenting practices were not associated with child sex; father's residential status; education; or community marginalization. Our findings demonstrate that despite greater community marginalization; living in an indigenous community is protective for stimulating parenting practices of indigenous mothers.
Brophey, Alison; Raptis, Helen
Insensitive research approaches have resulted in damaged relationships between non-Indigenous researchers and Indigenous communities, prompting scholars and funding agencies to call for more culturally compatible research methods. This paper addresses the qualities, skills and knowledge developed by six non-Indigenous researchers as they…
Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Nelson, Genevieve F.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.; McInerney, Dennis M.
This research explored gender and cross-cultural similarities and differences in the motivational profiles of Indigenous Papua New Guinean (PNG) and Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Secondary students (N = 1,792) completed self-report motivational measures. Invariance testing demonstrated that the Inventory of School Motivation…
Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Han, Feifei
The study investigated the impact of professional development (PD) in Indigenous teaching on teachers' psychological and behavioural aspects, and Indigenous students' learning engagement. Adopting a multiple-indicator-multiple-indicator-cause model, frequency of PD was found to have positive paths to teachers' self-concept in Indigenous teaching…
Indigenous knowledge is multidimensional encompassing the beliefs, practices, arts, spirituality and other forms of traditional and cultural experiences that belong to Indigenous communities globally. In order to protect, preserve and recognize the knowledge of the Indigenous people of Fiji, known as the iTaukei, the University of Fiji has…
This paper compares the rate of biogas production of cattle dung and a mixture of plantain peels with cattle dung. 18kg of cattle dung mixed with 36kg of water were charged to a digester while 9kg each of cattle dung and plantain peels mixed together with 36kg of water were charged to a separate digester. Both digesters ...
Ansari-Renani, H. R
This paper assesses the cashmere quality in different Iranian cashmere goat breeds to determine the scope for improvement of fiber quality. In April 2009 midside cashmere samples were taken from a total of 168 male and female cashmere goats of 1, 2, 3, and 4 yr of age. The goats were randomly chosen from Raeini, Birjandi, and Nadoushan breeds respectively from Kerman, South Khorasan, and Yazd provinces. Cashmere yield (CY) was determined from the percentage of weight of dehaired cashmere to w...
Full Text Available Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ∼24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region.
Although most biomedical journals have adopted the authorship criteria established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) in 1985, little is known about the extent Iranian researchers are familiar with these criteria. The study seeks to evaluate the number of authors fulfilling ICMJE authorship criteria (considering the names mentioned in the byline of 12 issues of the Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) journal), and to determine the type of contribution made by each author. The fulfilment of authorship criteria and contribution percentage of each researcher were evaluated according to their position in the bylines of 12 issues of the Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) journal published from January 2005 to October 2007. We asked corresponding authors to answer our questionnaire which was designed to assess authorship criteria and contribution. A total of 576 researchers' names were in the studied article bylines. The ratio of authors to articles was 3.48 in 2005, 4.06 in 2006, and 5.59 in 2007. Sixty three out of 128 corresponding authors (49.21%) responded to our questionnaire, so we evaluated 296 researchers' names, from which 186 authors (62.83%) met the authorship criteria; 110 authors (37.17%) were identified as guest authors, 97 of which deserved to be mentioned in the acknowledgement section. The major criteria used for authors order was their participation in research projects in addition to article writing, mostly determined by the corresponding author. Two authors (0.67%) whose names were not mentioned in the articles were considered to be ghost writers as the articles were based on the results of their thesis. It is essential to make Iranian researchers familiar with ICMJE authorship criteria and to encourage applying the criteria in scientific writing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
nuclear programs costs and centrality to Iran’s development goals. Iran’s nuclear program had become a domestic political football .”246 1...Ecuador, Brazil and Eastern European countries are stepping in to meet Iranian needs following the departure of Western businesses.484 These needs...its private sector) such as Turkey, Venezuela, Ecuador, Brazil , and Eastern Europe must also cooperate by not filling trading vacuums left by
Entrepreneurs face different sort of difficulties especially with customers, organizations and employees. Emotional intelligence which is the ability to understand and control the emotions is an important factor to help entrepreneurs end up challenges to the result they prefer. So it is assumed that entrepreneurs especially those who have passed the first challenging years of starting a new business, have high emotional intelligence. In this study the Iranian established ...
Organ shortage for transplantation remains a worldwide serious problem for kidney patients with end-stage renal failure, and several countries have tried different models to address this issue. Iran has 20 years of experience with one such model that involves the active role of the government and charity foundations. Patients with a desperate demand for a kidney have given rise to a black market of brokers and other forms of organ commercialism only accessible to those with sufficient financial resources. The current Iranian model has enabled most of the Iranian kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of socioeconomic class, to have access to kidney transplantation. The Iranian government has committed a large budget through funding hospital and staff at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education by supporting the brain death donation (BDD) program or redirecting part of the budget of living unrelated renal donation (LURD) to the BDD program. It has been shown that it did not prevent the development and progression of a BDD program. However, the LURD program is characterized by several controversial procedures (e.g., confrontation of donor and recipient at the end of the evaluation procedure along with some financial interactions) that should be ethically reviewed. Operational weaknesses such as the lack of a registration system and long-term follow-up of the donors are identified as the 'Achilles heel of the model'.
Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642
Stoddard, Pamela; Handley, Margaret A; Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Schillinger, Dean
In many high-income countries, indigenous populations bear a higher burden of obesity and diabetes than non-indigenous populations. Less is known about these patterns in lower- and middle-income countries. We assessed the hypothesis that obesity and diabetes were less prevalent among indigenous than non-indigenous adults in Mexico, home to the largest indigenous population in Latin America. We investigated socioeconomic explanations for differences. In a related line of inquiry, we examine whether adults in communities with higher versus lower percentages of indigenous residents were buffered against these conditions. We assessed whether differences were partially explained by lower development in higher-indigenous communities. Obesity was based on measured height and weight, and diabetes on a diagnosis from a healthcare professional. The analysis for obesity included 19 577 adults aged 20 and older from the Mexican Family Life Survey (2002), a nationally representative survey of Mexican households and communities; for diabetes, we restricted analysis to adults with health insurance. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate the odds of obesity and diabetes by indigenous status and community percent indigenous. Results suggest that indigenous adults had significantly lower odds of obesity and diabetes than non-indigenous adults. This advantage was not explained by the lower socioeconomic status of indigenous individuals. A higher percentage of indigenous individuals in communities provided protection against obesity, although not for diabetes. Differences for obesity were not accounted for by community development. Findings suggest that an opportunity may exist to prevent disparities in obesity and diabetes from developing by indigenous characteristics in Mexico. Identifying the sources of protective effects of individual and community indigenous characteristics relative to these health conditions should be a priority, given global implications for
Some activities that showed unethical practices against cattle during loading, transportation and off-loading were considered in this paper. Three major cattle market centres (Akinyele, Bodija and Oranyan) in Ibadan metropolis were used. Eighty (80) structured questionnaires were randomly administered to the cattle ...
... has no significant effect on induced cervix penetration by OT. Therefore, this dose is the applicable dose for the cervix dilation and transcervical artificial insemination and embryo recovery in Iranian ewes. Key words: Iranian ewes, oxytocin, cervical dilation, transcervical artificial insemination, transcervical embryo transfer.
Background: Sexual health education for Iranian engaged couples is always ignored in the premarital education program. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the necessity of sexual health education for Iranian engaged couples. Materials and methods: This qualitative study was conducted in Rasht, Iran.
Neghad, Hossein Hashem
This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University) in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT…
plot to assassinate Adel al-Jubair, the Saudi ambassador to the United States, in November 2011, suggests an even greater willingness to court risk...Iranian nation is not a nation that would bear bullying. The Iranian nation is a strong nation. The Islamic Republic’s system is a deep-rooted and
Adugna, K E; Agga, G E; Zewde, G
Bovine brucellosis, an important bacterial zoonosis, is usually associated with intensive systems of production. A cross-sectional study was conducted in western Ethiopia to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in cattle undertraditional extensive husbandry. Sera collected from 1,152 cattle originating from 164 herds were screened, using the Rose Bengal test, and all positive sera were then examined, using complement fixation as a confirmatory test. Based on the results of two-step testing, the apparent seroprevalences were 1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5%, 1.7%) at the animal level and 4.9% (95% CI: 1.6%, 8.2%) at the herd level. A random-effects binary logistic regression model was used to examine potential risk factors, using 'herd' as a random effect. Herd size (p = 0.009) and abortion (p = 0.015) were significant risk factors for animal-level seropositivity, after controlling for other factors. Although bovine brucellosis was found at a low prevalence in the indigenous cattle population, the disease should be considered in any future expansion of dairy cattle production involving improved breeds.
Full Text Available Aim: One of the major biochemical aspects of thermoregulation is equilibrium of ion gradient across biological membranes. Na+/K+-ATPase, a member of P type-ATPase family, is a major contributor to the mechanism that actively controls crossmembrane ion gradient. Thus, we examined ATP1A1 gene that encodes alpha-1 chain of Na+/K+-ATPase, for genetic polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 Vrindavani (composite cross strain of Hariana x Holstein-Friesian/Brown Swiss/Jersey and 64 Tharparkar (indigenous cattle were screened for genetic polymorphism in ATP1A1 gene, using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. For association studies, rectal temperature (RT and respiration rate (RR of all animals were recorded twice daily for 3 seasons. Results: A SNP (C2789A was identified in exon 17 of ATP1A1 gene. Three genotypes namely CC, CA, and AA were observed in both, Vrindavani and Tharparkar cattle. The gene frequencies in Tharparkar and Vrindavani for allele A were 0.51 and 0.48, and for allele C were 0.49 and 0.52, respectively, which remained at intermediate range. Association study of genotypes with RT and RR in both cattle population revealed that the animals with genotype CC exhibited significantly lower RT and higher heat tolerance coefficient than CA and AA genotypes. Conclusion: Differential thermoregulation between different genotypes of ATP1A1 gene indicate that the ATP1A1 gene could be potentially contributing to thermotolerance in both, Tharparkar, an indigenous breed and Vrindavani, a composite crossbred cattle.
Moore, Suzanne P; Green, Adèle C; Bray, Freddie; Coory, Michael; Garvey, Gail; Sabesan, Sabe; Valery, Patricia C
While Indigenous people in Queensland have lower colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality than the rest of the population, CRC remains the third most frequent cancer among Australian Indigenous people overall. This study aimed to investigate patterns of care and survival between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians with CRC. Through a matched-cohort design we compared 80 Indigenous and 85 non-Indigenous people all diagnosed with CRC and treated in Queensland public hospitals during 1998-2004 (frequency matched on age, sex, geographical remoteness). We compared clinical and treatment data (Pearson's chi-square) and all-cause and cancer survival (Cox regression analysis). Indigenous patients with CRC were not significantly more likely to have comorbidity, advanced disease at diagnosis or less treatment than non-Indigenous people. There was also no statistically significant difference in all-cause survival (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.69, 1.89) or cancer survival (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.60, 1.69) between the two groups. Similar CRC mortality among Indigenous and other Australians may reflect both the lower incidence and adequate management. Increasing life expectancy and exposures to risk factors suggests that Indigenous people are vulnerable to a growing burden of CRC. Primary prevention and early detection will be of paramount importance to future CRC control among Indigenous Australians. Current CRC management must be maintained and include prevention measures to ensure that predicted increases in CRC burden are minimized. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Michael J. Hathaway
Full Text Available This article explores how global environmental organizations unintentionally fostered the notion of indigenous people and rights in a country that officially opposed these concepts. In the 1990s, Beijing declared itself a supporter of indigenous rights elsewhere, but asserted that, unlike the Americas and Australia, China had no indigenous people. Instead, China described itself as a land of “ethnic minority” groups, not indigenous groups. In some sense, the state’s declaration appeared effective, as none of these ethnic minority groups launched significant grassroots efforts to align themselves with the international indigenous rights movement. At the same time, as international environmental groups increased in number and strength in 1990s China, their policies were undergoing significant transformations to more explicitly support indigenous people. This article examines how this challenging situation arose, and discusses the unintended consequences after a major environmental organization, The Nature Conservancy (TNC, carried out a project using the language of indigeneity in China.
Full Text Available Abstract Background South Hungary is being monitored for the northward spreading of thermophilic ixodid species, therefore ticks were collected from cattle and wild ruminants (red, fallow and roe deer in the autumn of 2011. Findings Besides indigenous species (1185 Dermacentor reticulatus and 976 Ixodes ricinus, two Hyalomma marginatum rufipes males were found on two cows, in September eight days apart. Conclusions This is the northernmost autochthonous infestation of the type host (cattle with H. m. rufipes, vector of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. The present findings are suggestive of the moulting success of this Afro-Mediterranean tick species in a continental climate in Central Europe.
New research will help indigenous peoples in Latin America tackle the inequity, racial discrimination, and other barriers they face in accessing their right to health care. Geographic and language barriers, combined with ethnic and racial discrimination, are some of the reasons why indigenous peoples experience social ...
The use of indigenous research ethics has a possibility of contextualising indigenous research. Orthodox research is guided by ethical principles which are meant to protect the institution or researcher and the participants. Despite the existence of the ethical pronouncements, literature has shown that research has proven to ...
Indigenous local communities have coexisted with their natural biological resources for millennia. This has entailed that the local people use a great deal of conservation methods to ensure that this coexistence does indeed exist to this present date. Invariably, as this happened, a huge wealth of sophisticated indigenous ...
In Africa there are a number of languages spoken, some of which have their own indigenous scripts that are used for writing. In this paper we assess these languages and present an in-depth script analysis for the Amharic writing system, one of the well-known indigenous scripts of Africa. Amharic is the official and working ...
Indigenous games are an integral component of indigenous knowledge systems. These and other games in general are usually viewed from the narrow perspective of play, enjoyment and recreation. Even though these are important, there is more to games than just the three aesthetic aspects. Analysis of games reveals ...
The aim of the study was to document and analyze indigenous Zulu games for possible curriculum enrichment of physical education in schools and the promotion of cross-cultural interaction between learners. This necessitated the identification and description of indigenous Zulu games in order to assess their potential in
The purpose was to discover what aspects of indigenous leadership and cultural resources might be accessed and developed to influence individual behaviour as well as the prevailing community norms, values, sanctions and social controls that are related to sexual behaviour. The indigenous leaders participating in the ...
Leder, Gilah; Forgasz, Helen
In this paper we report trends over time of performance of non-Indigenous and Indigenous students on the Numeracy component of the NAPLAN tests. Possible links between student performance on the NAPLAN Numeracy test and the four components--Reading, Writing, Spelling, and Grammar--of the NAPLAN Literacy test were also explored. While the…
Dec 5, 2011 ... motility rates of South African indigenous goats. Reduction in the sperm cell motility after freeze/thawing is still a problem and requires further research on the diluents and techniques that give protection to sperm cells during cryopreservation. Key words: Cryopreservation, semen characteristics, indigenous ...
... South African Environmental Education Policy Initiative (EEPI), and the NGO Form Principles, is seen as a key process that could enhance Indigenous Knowledge in formal education. The article further argues that the production of Indigenous Knowledge is contextually grounded through social constructivist approaches.
Frequencies of Some Morphological Features in Indigenous Chickens of South- Western Nigeria. ... Knowledge and well documentation of the potentials of indigenous chickens can help provide crucial information for a comprehensive breeding policy and full utilization of the animal. Keywords: Characterization ...
The current wave of interest in indigenous knowledge (IK) is mainly due to growing acknowledgement of the limitation on the part of conventional science in addressing environmental issues. Because indigenous people are keen observers of the climate system, from their many years of close interaction with the ...
This study was aimed at conducting ophthalmic sonographic examination of Nigerian indigenous dogs to provide baseline information on some major ocular parameters. Healthy eyes of eighty (80) indigenous dogs were used for the study. The dogs were adequately restrained physically and the structure of the ocular ...
Objective: To report cases of clinical otosclerosis histologically confirmed among indigenous South African blacks. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Referral tertiary center, MEDUNSA, Garankuwa Hospital, South Africa. Subjects: All fifteen indigenous South African blacks diagnosed with clinical otosclerosis at ...
Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven
Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…
This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.
This paper seeks to understand the nature of knowledge, introduce the concept of indigenous knowledge, provide some idea of the status of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) in Tanzania, explore how IK is linked to peace and consider the way ahead, recognizing some of the obstacles and discussing how knowledge may be ...
Focus and Scope. Welcome to Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS). The name Indilinga: stands for the "circular orientation" of indigenous African communities which is exhibited in their material culture and behaviour. The journal has been motivated by the need for a dependable expression ...
The conservation of the genetic variability of the indigenous angiosperm community is a sine qua non. A survey of indigenous angiosperm biodiversity of the Olabisi Onabanjo University permanent site was undertaken. Plants collected were dried, poisoned and mounted on herbarium sheets, proper identification and ...
Uses stories of U.S. and Canadian indigenous individuals who defended their lands against uranium mining and hydroelectric development to contrast the thinking of indigenous people (natural law as pre-eminent, spiritual practice, intergenerational residency in the same place) with industrial thinking (man's dominion over nature, linear thinking,…
Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...
indigenous vegetables, leaves and fruits from the wild to feed their families. Indigenous. By Adebooye Odunayo Clement, Olanike Fasilat Deji, Adeolu Babatunde Ayanwale, ... seed treatment and pest control. The project has supported improved production, processing, preservation and marketing of the vegetables.
Chemical composition of Ricinodendron heudelotii: An indigenous fruit tree in southern Cameroon. T. Tiki Manga, J. M. Fondoun, J. Kengue, C. Thiengang. Abstract. An ethnobotanical survey and germplasm collection of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) (an indigenous fruit tree) were carried out in six provinces of the humid ...
Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…
This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa's traditional medicine. It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa's traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness. Certain types of Africa's traditional ...
Sicat, Lolita V.; David, Ma. Elena D.
This analytical study analyzed the performance in Basic Mathematics of the indigenous students, the Aeta students (Grade 6) of Sta. Juliana Elementary School, Capas, Tarlac, and the APC students of Malaybalay City, Bukidnon. Results were compared with regular students in rural, urban, private, and public schools to analyze indigenous students'…
Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…
As demonstrated in Colombia, the enumeration of specific environmental rights in their newest Constitution has effectively acknowledged indigenous rights and specific autonomy in land rights to their communities, thus requiring equal treatment and guaranteeing respect for indigenous cultures. Is constitutional recognition ...
In Northern Sotho, a separate colour lexicon is distinguished, containing terms which are believed to be used exclusively as colour terms to describe not only the colours, but also the colour patterning found among domestic animals, particularly cattle. According to current literature, the use of these terms is restricted to the ...
Harrold, Timothy C; Randall, Deborah A; Falster, Michael O; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Louisa R
To quantify the independent roles of geography and Indigenous status in explaining disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospital (PPH) admissions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Analysis of linked hospital admission data for New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for the period July 1 2003 to June 30 2008. Age-standardised admission rates, and rate ratios adjusted for age, sex and Statistical Local Area (SLA) of residence using multilevel models. PPH diagnoses accounted for 987,604 admissions in NSW over the study period, of which 3.7% were for Indigenous people. The age-standardised PPH admission rate was 76.5 and 27.3 per 1,000 for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people respectively. PPH admission rates in Indigenous people were 2.16 times higher than in non-Indigenous people of the same age group and sex who lived in the same SLA. The largest disparities in PPH admission rates were seen for diabetes complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and rheumatic heart disease. Both rates of PPH admission in Indigenous people, and the disparity in rates between Indigenous than non-Indigenous people, varied significantly by SLA, with greater disparities seen in regional and remote areas than in major cities. Higher rates of PPH admission among Indigenous people are not simply a function of their greater likelihood of living in rural and remote areas. The very considerable geographic variation in the disparity in rates of PPH admission between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people indicates that there is potential to reduce unwarranted variation by characterising outlying areas which contribute the most to this disparity.
The perception that Indigenous Australians were primitive hunters and gatherers who lived in a nomadic 'Stone Age' culture resonates through most narratives found on Indigenous people in pre-colonial times. This narrative is better placed in the realm of myth; I contest claims that the life expectancy of Indigenous Australians was only forty years in pre-colonial times, by providing suggestive evidence that there is a strong probability that longevity favoured Indigenous Australians in comparison to many poorer sectors of the European population living in slum habitats. As well, I will challenge notions that Indigenous Australians were more violent than supposedly 'civilised' nations. Finally I express the hope that future researchers will revisit archival sources to develop a more nuanced perspective on the past.
Babar, S.M.; Hussain, M.; Mahmood, T.
Environmental pollution control is the most important and highly discussed issue at the international level. Our and our's next generation survival highly depends on environment. Environmental security is not less important than territorial security. Living in the Competitive trade, Business and Commerce era. WTO threats of globalization to countries like Pakistan require sharp and immediate actions. SOS(Save our Sole) steps should be taken in Environmental Education in order to reorganizing values and clarifying Concepts to develop the necessary skills and attitude necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatidness among masses, the Cultures and Ecosystem. Historical backgrounds along with different approaches were discussed particularly reference to Pakistan. In this presentation a new but indigenous idea is flashed to improve the environment education system in poor third world countries including Pakistan. Instead of imported ideas, previous implemented as such, indigenous approach highly Perfumed with Islamic, Ideological and cultural blends will do the right job in right direction if employed with true sense of commitment. (author)
Victor H. Sundquist
Full Text Available The 2009 Iranian Presidential Elections represented one of the most contentious displays of the evolving Iranian democracy since the 1979 Islamic Revolution that led to the removal of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi – the nation’s last shah. This tumultuous political event not only exposed a growing rift between the political and religious ruling elite in that country; it also led to the emergence of an opposition movement that would later be known as the Green Revolution. Viewed through a Western political lens, this revolution represented yet another opportunity for the demise of the ruling Iranian Islamic Regime. Recently, some scholars have questioned whether this movement was ever intended to topple the government in the first place, and have argued instead that it represented the beginning of a long-term civil rights push. To better understand why the Green Movement emerged one must first understand what the original intent of the movement was, as well as the political factors that led to its rapid growth. In order to answer these questions, this article will compare and contrast identified similarities and differences between the 1979 Islamic Revolution and 2009 Green Movement in order to isolate the true intent behind this perceived Iranian political revolt.
Horner, R F
The history, appearance and clinical course of a low incidence, chronic skin disease in beef cattle is reported. Calves were affected from 3 months of age and the condition persisted into adulthood. The infection was caused by Dermatophilus congolensis and resulted in severe crusting of the skin. Sheep were kept on the farm until 4 years ago. The method of diagnosis is discussed.
Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene
Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were......, piloerection, was also significant but seemed difficult to use as it changed rapidly; p
Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.
Full Text Available This review article examines the role of selenium (Se and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.
In this paper an interview with director of the Nabucco project, Reinhard Mitchek is published. There is extract from this interview: Iranian gas is a politically sensitive topic Europe cannot avoid I believe that it will become a topic in Europe in the medium to long term. Shouldn't Europe declare that it needs Iranian gas? Otherwise Russia or China may take over. I do not want to advise the European Commission via the media. Iranian gas would bring the Nabucco project closer to reality. A common European Union (EU) foreign policy and common foreign energy policy in particular will be of major importance. We of course need competition in the EU gas sector. But that is a business topic. The political issue is the competitiveness of Europe as an entity competing for energy sources with other regions. The European Union keeps repeating that the Nabucco project has high priority. But what steps has it undertaken to support it? The Commissioner for Energy, Andris Piebalgs, and the Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, visited Central Asia and supported the export of gas to Europe. That is exactly what Russia does and with more success. We will see. Naturally - these countries have a history of relationships with Russia. Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan have been exporting gas to Russia. But in the meantime these countries also want to extend their export portfolio. We think that through the Trans-Caspian pipeline and the existing gas pipeline connecting Azerbaijan with Turkey, gas from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan will also get to Nabucco. (authors)
Kazemian, H.; Ghannadi Maraghe, M.
Full text: The zeolite researches in Iran is a relatively new subject which has started about 10 years ago. The motivation for this scientific and interesting field was provided after discovery of significant deposits of natural zeolites in different regions of Iran as well as further developments of research institutions and the national concern to environmental protection especially the wastewater clean-up in point of view of recycling of such waste water to compensate some needs to water in other utilizations. This paper intends to review and describes scientific researches which have done on using zeolites in the field of nuclear waste treatment in Iran to introduce the potential resources to the world in more details. Zeolite tuffs are widely distributed in huge deposits in different regions of Iran. So far, the clinoptilolite tuffs are the most abundant natural zeolite which exist with zeolite content of 65%- 95%. Nowadays several different types of Iranian natural zeolites are characterized in point of view of chemical composition, type of structure, chemical, thermal, and radiation resistance using different instrumental and classical methods such as; X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluoresce (XRF), thermal methods of analysis (TA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analytical chemistry and radioanalytical methods as well as different ion-exchange techniques (e.g.3-7). The ability of Iranian natural clinoptilolite for removal of some fission products from nuclear wastewaters have been investigated. The selectivity of all investigated zeolites toward radiocesium and radiostrontium have been promising (e.g. 8-10). The successful synthesize of P zeolite from Iranian clinoptilolite-reach tuffs under different conditions were performed. The compatibility of zeolites with glass and cement matrices, for final disposal of radwaste, as well as their selectivity toward most dangerous heat generating radionuclides (e.g. 137 Cs and 90 Sr) is very important in using
Aramoana, Jaclyn; Alley, Patrick; Koea, Jonathan B
Progress has been made in Australia and New Zealand to increase the numbers of indigenous students (Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and Maori) entering primary medical qualification courses. In New Zealand, up to 20 Maori are graduating annually, with similar numbers possible in Australia, creating a potential opportunity to develop an indigenous surgical workforce. A literature review identified factors utilized by medical schools to attract indigenous students into medical careers and the interventions necessary to ensure successful graduation. A further search identified those factors important in encouraging indigenous medical graduates to enter specialist training programmes and achieve faculty appointments. All medical schools have utilized elements of a 'pipeline approach' encompassing contact with students at secondary school level to encourage aspirational goals and assist with suitable subject selection. Bridging courses can ensure students leaving school have appropriate skill sets before entering medical degree courses. Extensive practical help is available during primary medical qualification study. The elements necessary for primary medical qualification success - dedicated and focused study, developing appropriate skill sets, mentoring, support, and an institutional and collegial commitment to success - are also the elements required for postgraduate achievement. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) is primarily involved in training rather than service provision. The increasing numbers of indigenous medical graduates in both Australia and New Zealand represent an opportunity for the College to contribute to improving indigenous health status by implementing specific measures to increase numbers of indigenous surgeons. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Scientific journals are the most credible and updated information resources for valid information in the various fields of science and technology. The present study investigates the status of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information to the world of science. Total 163 Iranian medical journals accredited by national medical journals commission of Iranian ministry of health and medical education were evaluated through a cross-sectional study. The results were represented in descriptive statistics in the form of table and chart. The study showed that 89.6% of Iranian medical journals were covered by regional information databases. Web of Science database indexed 22 (13.5%) Iranian journals in the field of medical science. Only six (6.7%) journals were indexed by Medline. Fifty-eight (35.6%) journals were in English, 102 (62.6%) in Persian, and three (1.8%) were bilingual which published their articles both in Persian and English languages. The highest Impact factor belonged to Iranian Journal of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Improving scientific credibility of Iranian scholarly journals and their influence in disseminating medical information calls for a precise scientific and executive administration in publishing standards and also in the quality of content.
In 2000, we asked a nationally representative sample of 2,532 Iranian adults "which of the following best describes you: I am an Iranian, above all; I am a Muslim, above all; I am an Arab, a Kurd, a Turk, a Baluch, etc., above all?" We also asked them how proud they are to be Iranian; (1) very proud, (2) proud, (3) not proud, and (4) not proud at all. In the 2005 survey of a nationally representative sample of 2,667 Iranian adults, we asked these questions again. The first question was intended to measure national identity and the second national pride. The results showed that between the two surveys the percent of Iranians who defined themselves as "Iranians, above all" went up significantly-from 35% in 2000 to 42% in 2005. Those who said that they were very proud to be Iranian, on the other hand, went down considerably-from 89% in 2000 to 64% in 2005. What is more, national identity and national pride displayed opposing relationships with the norms and values that were rigorously promoted by Iran's religious regime and these relationships grew stronger between 2000 and 2005. The feeling of national pride was positively linked to attitudes toward gender inequality, religiosity, and religious intolerance, but negatively to attitudes toward the West, while national identity had just the opposite relationships with these variables.
Lane, Temryss MacLean
Indigenous women stand in solidarity on the frontline of refusal, protecting their ancestral homelands and their ways of life across North America and beyond. The Indigenous stand-off at Standing Rock in opposition to the Dakota Access Pipeline inspires this photo series of vignettes where Indigenous voices accompany images of Indigenous women in…
This thesis argues that Indigenous sentencing courts have played a vital role in Australia’s criminal justice system, as they allow for greater Indigenous participation in the delivery of justice to Indigenous communities and seek to establish a more productive relationship between the criminal justice system and Indigenous peoples.
... study revealed that there was no cultivation of indigenous crops in the urban areas. In the rural areas, cultivation of indigenous crops was limited to a number of species and restricted to household consumption. Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, consumption, indigenous and traditional plant foods, cultivation, consumer.
Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.
Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…
Some research studies in South Africa have shown that existing intellectual property laws have managed to protect Indigenous Knowledge held by indigenous people. However, more needs to be done, particularly regarding the recognition of indigenous laws when protecting Indigenous Knowledge in research publications ...
Pandya, R. E.; Bennett, B.
Historically, the goal of broadening participation in the geosciences has been expressed and approached from the viewpoint of the majority-dominated geoscience community. The need for more students who are American Indian, Native Hawaiian, or Alaska Native is expressed in terms of the need to diversify the research community, and strategies to engage more students are often posed around the question “what can we do to get more indigenous students interested in coming to our institutions to do geosciences?” This approach can lead to neglecting indigenous ways of knowing, inadvertently prioritizes western values over traditional ones, and doesn’t necessarily honor tribal community’s desire to hold on to their talented youth. Further, while this approach has resulted in some modest success, the overall participation in geoscience by students from indigenous backgrounds remains low. Many successful programs, however, have tried an alternate approach; they begin by approaching the geosciences from the viewpoint of indigenous communities. The questions they ask center around how geosciences can advance the priorities of indigenous communities, and their approaches focus on building capacity for the geosciences within indigenous communities. Most importantly, perhaps, these efforts originate in Tribal communities themselves, and invite the geoscience research community to partner in projects that are rooted in indigenous culture and values. Finally, these programs recognize that scientific expertise is only one among many skills indigenous peoples employ in their relation with their homelands. Climate change, like all things related to the landscape, is intimately connected to the core of indigenous cultures. Thus, emerging concerns about climate change provide a venue for developing new, indigenous-centered, approaches to the persistent problem of broadening participation in the geoscience. This presentation will highlight three indigenous-led efforts in to
Li, Peter Ping
It has long been recognized that indigenous research should be helpful, if not essential, for an adequate understanding of local phenomena. The indigenous approach is consistent with, but extends beyond, the repeated calls for contextualizing management and organization research. However, the cha...... for indigenous research on Chinese management. To illustrate the framework, I show the value of yin-yang thinking by developing a cognitive frame, Yin-Yang Balance, to illustrate the unique and novel features of local perspective, including its application to case study method....
Adams, Jon; Valery, Patricia C; Sibbritt, David; Bernardes, Christina M; Broom, Alex; Garvey, Gail
The cancer toll on Indigenous Australians is alarming with overall cancer incidence and mortality rates higher and the 5-year survival rate lower for Indigenous Australians compared with non-Indigenous Australians. Meanwhile, a range of approaches to health and illness-including both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and traditional Indigenous medicine (TM)-are used by cancer patients. Little work has focused on Indigenous cancer patients with regard to CAM/TM use. This article reports findings from the first examination of the prevalence and profile of TM/CAM use and users among Indigenous Australians with cancer. A structured questionnaire was administered via face-to-face interviews to 248 Indigenous Australian cancer patients diagnosed with a range of cancer types. All received treatment and were recruited from 1 of 4 large hospitals located in Queensland, Australia. A substantial percentage (18.7%) of Indigenous cancer patients use at least one TM/CAM for support with their care, including traditional Indigenous therapy use (2.8%), visiting a traditional Indigenous practitioner (2.8%), CAM use (10.7%), visiting a CAM practitioner (2.4%), and attending relaxation/meditation classes (4.0%). Having a higher level of educational attainment was positively associated with CAM practitioner consultations (P = .015). Women with breast cancer were more likely to attend relaxation/meditation classes (P = .019). Men with genital organ cancer were more likely to use traditional Indigenous therapies (P = .017) and/or CAM (P = .002). A substantial percentage of Indigenous Australians reported using TM/CAM for their cancer care, and there is a need to expand examination of this area of health care using large-scale studies focusing on in-depth specific cancer(s). © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most
Full Text Available Recent political events have created a political and social climate in the United States that promotes prejudice against Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Muslim peoples. In this study, we were interested in investigating two major questions: (1 How much ethnic harassment do Iranian-American men and women from various religious backgrounds (Muslim, Jewish, or no religious affiliation at all perceive in their day-to-day interactions? (2 To what extent does the possession of stereotypical Middle Eastern, Iranian, or Muslim traits (an accent, dark skin, wearing of religious symbols, traditional garb, etc. spark prejudice and thus the perception of ethnic harassment? Subjects were recruited from two very different sources: (1 shoppers at grocery stores in Iranian-American neighborhoods in Los Angeles, and (2 a survey posted on an online survey site. A total of 338 Iranian-Americans, ages 18 and older, completed an in-person or online questionnaire that included the following: a request for demographic information, an assessment of religious preferences, a survey of how “typically” Iranian-American Muslim or Iranian-American Jewish the respondents’ traits were, and the Ethnic Harassment Experiences Scale. One surprise was that, in general, our participants reported experiencing a great deal of ethnic harassment. As predicted, Iranian-American Muslim men perceived the most discrimination—far more discrimination than did American Muslim women. Overall, there were no significant differences between the various religious groups. All felt discriminated against. Iranian-American men and women, whose appearance was stereotypically Middle Eastern (i.e., they wore Middle Eastern clothing, who had sub-ethnic identification, and who had lower family income, generally reported experiencing the most prejudice.
This paper traces the history of the Anglo-Iranian oil dispute. It is short-sighted to consider the Anglo-Iranian oil dispute just as a contest between Musaddiq and the AIOC: it is of wider and greater significance. The dispute illustrates a transitional phase in the difficult process of the adjustment of relations between industrialized and less developed societies for the exploitation of raw materials. Oil was already becoming a political and economic factor at the end of the Qajar period and became important during the reign of Riza Shah with his emphasis on a national program of modernization. After more attention had been focused on it during the second world war it was inevitable that it would increase in influence. The issues of the oil dispute referred back to the concessional controversies of the late nineteenth century in tobacco, mining, communications, utilities, banking even gambling, with their political and social implications; and they referred forward to the issues of the sovereignty of national resources, the transfer of technology and economic growth in relation to the standard of living. These are aspects of the North-South debate, which have yet to be satisfactorily resolved
H. R. Ansari-Renani
Full Text Available This paper assesses the cashmere quality in different Iranian cashmere goat breeds to determine the scope for improvement of fiber quality. In April 2009 midside cashmere samples were taken from a total of 168 male and female cashmere goats of 1, 2, 3, and 4 yr of age. The goats were randomly chosen from Raeini, Birjandi, and Nadoushan breeds respectively from Kerman, South Khorasan, and Yazd provinces. Cashmere yield (CY was determined from the percentage of weight of dehaired cashmere to weight of shorn fibre. Cashmere fiber diameter was analyzed using a projection microscope instrument. A general linear model including sex and age as fixed effects and breed as random effect was used to analyze the data and measure the relationships between different cashmere characteristics and fleece attributes. The overall means ± standard deviations were for cashmere yield (CY 51.4%±1.5%, mean fiber diameter (MFD 18.7±0.2 µm, coefficient of variation of fiber diameter (CVFD 19.1%±0.3% and staple length (SL 42.8±1.6 mm. One year old goats had finer cashmere than older goats. CVFD were higher in males and CY and SL were higher in young animals. Iranian cashmere goat breeds have an excellent SL but are relatively coarse. Given the differences between goats there seems to be substantial scope to improve the commercial value of cashmere.
On 1st and 4th March respectively, CERN received visits from Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, and Reza Mansouri, Deputy Minister for Science, Research and Technology of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Asset Issekeshev and his delegation came to CERN with the aim of learning "the European way of building strong and effective ties between science and the industrial sector". Welcomed by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, he visited the ATLAS assembly hall and the CLIC installations before signing the visitors' book. After a short visit to Point 5 (CMS), Reza Mansouri met CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, before talking to Iranian PhD students working on their theses at CERN. Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, signs the visitors' book, watched by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General.From left to right: Mojtaba Mohammadi and Majid Hashemi (Iranian PhD students at CERN); Dr Daniel Denegri (CMS), Professor Re...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper identifies the views of Iranian clinical nurses regarding the utilization of nursing research in practice. There is a need to understand what restricts Iranian clinical nurses to use research findings. The aim of this study was to identify practicing nurses' view of aspects which they perceived constrain them from research utilization that summarizes and uses research findings to address a nursing practice problem. Methods Data were collected during 6 months by means of face-to face interviews follow by one focus group. Analysis was undertaken using a qualitative content analysis. Results Findings disclosed some key themes perceived by nurses to restrict them to use research findings: level of support require to be research active, to be research minded, the extent of nurses knowledge and skills about research and research utilization, level of educational preparation relating to using research, administration and executive challenges in clinical setting, and theory-practice gap. Conclusion This study identifies constraints that require to be overcome for clinical nurses to actively get involved in research utilization. In this study nurses were generally interested to use research findings. However they felt restricted because of lack of time, lack of peer and manager support and limited knowledge and skills of the research process. This study also confirms that research utilization and the change to research nursing practice are complex issues which require both organizational and educational efforts.
For those who see the trend of progress and movement of the Iranian space endeavor from the outside, it can be difficult to understand what goes on behind the scenes. However, for one who observes these events firsthand, they take on a very different meaning. In this book, the author brings new and different profiles of Iran’s space endeavor to light. Iran claims to be the ninth leading country in the world capable of manufacturing satellites and launching them, plans to land an astronaut on the Moon within a decade, and says its own president plans to be the first Iranian astronaut to travel into space. The author explains in this book that not all of these claims are quite as they seem. In addition to technical explanations, the book also includes historical, legal, social and cultural aspects of Iran’s space program as well. It is the author’s goal to create a tangible feeling of Iran’s space endeavor for the readers.
Justo, Edward R; Reeves, Benjamin M; Ware, Robert S; Johnson, Janelle C; Karl, Tom R; Alphonso, Nelson D; Justo, Robert N
Population-based registries report 95% 5-year survival for children undergoing surgery for CHD. This study investigated paediatric cardiac surgical outcomes in the Australian indigenous population. All children who underwent cardiac surgery between May, 2008 and August, 2014 were studied. Demographic information including socio-economic status, diagnoses and co-morbidities, and treatment and outcome data were collected at time of surgery and at last follow-up. A total of 1528 children with a mean age 3.4±4.6 years were studied. Among them, 123 (8.1%) children were identified as indigenous, and 52.7% (62) of indigenous patients were in the lowest third of the socio-economic index compared with 28.2% (456) of non-indigenous patients (p⩽0.001). The indigenous sample had a significantly higher Comprehensive Aristotle Complexity score (indigenous 9.4±4.2 versus non-indigenous 8.7±3.9, p=0.04). The probability of having long-term follow-up did not differ between groups (indigenous 93.8% versus non-indigenous 95.6%, p=0.17). No difference was noted in 30-day mortality (indigenous 3.2% versus non-indigenous 1.4%, p=0.13). The 6-year survival for the entire cohort was 95.9%. The Cox survival analysis demonstrated higher 6-year mortality in the indigenous group - indigenous 8.1% versus non-indigenous 5.0%; hazard ratio (HR)=2.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.1, 4.2; p=0.03. Freedom from surgical re-intervention was 79%, and was not significantly associated with the indigenous status (HR=1.4; 95% CI: 0.9, 1.9; p=0.11). When long-term survival was adjusted for the Comprehensive Aristotle Complexity score, no difference in outcomes between the populations was demonstrated (HR=1.6; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.2; p=0.19). The indigenous population experienced higher late mortality. This apparent relationship is explained by increased patient complexity, which may reflect negative social and environmental factors.
.... In addition, a number of structural changes are occurring in the cattle and beef industry. All these elements, and more, could be considered in developing a logical framework to explain cattle prices and producers' incomes...
Gina Escobar Cuero
Full Text Available Indigenous peoples are one of the most vulnerable groups within Colombia’s internally displaced population, and a lack of understanding of their culture and needs constitutes a major challenge to their protection and assistance.
Abstract. Book Title: Indigeneity, Globalization, and African Literature: Personally Speaking. Book Author: Tanure Ojaide. Hampshire & New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2015. 291 pp. ISBN: 978-1-13754-220-5.
wedding) ceremonies play an integral role as a conduit through which knowledge in the form of cultural values, customs and traditions is transmitted. Indigenous music performed at ubwinga ceremonies is based on mfunkutu, while contemporary ...
. The name Indilinga: stands for the "circular orientation" of indigenous African communities which is exhibited in their material culture and behaviour. The journal has been motivated by the need for a dependable expression for critical and ...
Subramanian, S.V. Venkata; Smith, George Davey; Subramanyam, Malavika
Editors' Summary Background. In many parts of the world the majority of the population are the descendants of immigrants who arrived there within the last few hundred years. Living alongside of them, and in a minority, are the so-called indigenous (or aboriginal) people who are the descendants of people who lived there in more ancient times. It is estimated that there are 300 million indigenous people worldwide. They are frequently marginalized from the rest of the population, their human rig...
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.
Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana; Hristov Slavča; Davidović Vesna; Relić Renata; Stanković Branislav
Behavior of cattle is a simple and easily established indicator of their health condition, production characteristics and welfare, showing whether and how the animal has adapted to the maintenance conditions. Essentially, all forms of cattle behavior are accompanied by certain physiological changes in the organism, and the basic moving forces of behavior are congenital. The moving forces of behavior of cattle are narrowed down to a certain number of biological needs (the need for food, water,...
Veronica S. Lestari; Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin; Aslina Asnawi
The aim of this study was to know biosecurity adoption on beef cattle farms. This research was conducted for a month at Barru regency, South Sulawesi province, which famous asone of beef cattle breeding villages in Indonesia. Sample was choosed through random sampling. Total sampel was 30 beef cattle farmers. Data were collected through observation and interview. Biosecurity measures consisted of 35 indicators which was grouped into 4 namely: management practice, sanitation, disease and disea...
Determination of histamine in Iranian cheese using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Mojtaba Rashedi, Mohsen Panahi Dorcheh, Mohammad Salajegheh, Amin Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Hajimirzaei, Ebrahim Rahimi ...
Full Text Available Behavior of cattle is a simple and easily established indicator of their health condition, production characteristics and welfare, showing whether and how the animal has adapted to the maintenance conditions. Essentially, all forms of cattle behavior are accompanied by certain physiological changes in the organism, and the basic moving forces of behavior are congenital. The moving forces of behavior of cattle are narrowed down to a certain number of biological needs (the need for food, water, sexual and other biological needs and congenital urges and instincts, such as the combative and maternal instincts. Cattle are grazing animals and they cannot exhibit all their congenital natural activities of behavior under intensive maintenance conditions. Different internal and external stimuli influence the types of behavior of cattle, changing the motivational activities of their organism. In the course of domestication, certain forms of behavior of cattle have sustained changes, some have adapted to the new conditions, and new ones have appeared as well. The social, reproductive, maternal, and feeding behavior of cattle in closed maintenance conditions has not changed fundamentally, but the model of its manifesting has changed. Furthermore, certain disorders in the behavior of cattle also appear as a consequence of the maintenance conditions, and they can also be of hereditary character. In order to promote welfare, cattle should be enabled to exhibit their natural behavior, but they should also be provided with an environment that has natural characteristics.
Ghazinoory, Sepehr; Ghazinoori, Soroush; Azadegan-Mehr, Mandana
Recently, a few of scientific journals raise serious questions about scientific ethics and moral judgment of some of the Iranian government's senior executives in their papers. Plagiarism, under any circumstances is not justified, and we do not intend to justify it in this note. However, we find it useful in understanding why otherwise respected, responsible individuals may engage in plagiarism by terse review of the history Iranian academia.
Iranian legislator didn′t specify a kind of physician′s acquittal which received from the patient knowingly and is based on his/her free will. There are also some medical and legal gaps. Patients are not often informed of all exact and scientific information and results of their treatments. Furthermore, the forms prepared to receive the patient′s consent do not provide what Iranian legislator meant.
Salehi, Alireza; Alembizar, Faranak; Hosseinkhani, Ayda
Studying the history of science could help develop an understanding of the contributions made by ancient nations towards scientific advances. Although Iranians had an important impact on the improvement of science, the history of Iranian medicine seems not to have been given enough attention by historians. The present study focused on the history of anesthesia and pain management in Iranian medical history. In this regard, related books such as Avesta and Shahnameh were studied in order to obtain the history of anesthesiology in Iranian pre Islamic era. This subject was also studied in the famous books of Rhazes, Haly Abbas, Avicenna, Jorjani, MomenTunekaboni and Aghili from different times of the Islamic era. Scientific data bases such as PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched using key words "Iranian", "Persian", "pain management" and "anesthesia". It was discovered that pain management and anesthesiology were well known to the Iranians. Rhazes and Avicenna had innovations in this regard. Fourteen Mokhader (anesthetic) herbs, which were included in the collection of the previous knowledge of the 18th century entitled Makhzan al-Advieyh and used as the Persian Materia Medica, were identified and listed. This study introduces the history of anesthesiology and pain management at different periods in the history of Iran.
Effective population size is an important parameter for the assessment of genetic diversity within a livestock population and its development over time. If pedigree information is not available, linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis might offer an alternative perspective for the estimation of effecti...
Boris Arkadievich Shenderov
Full Text Available This review introduces and discusses data regarding fundamental and applied investigations in mammalian epigenomics and gut microbiota received over the last 10 years. Analysis of these data enabled the author first to come to the conclusion that the multiple low molecular weight substances of indigenous gut microbiota origin should be considered one of the main endogenous factors actively participating in epigenomic mechanisms that responsible for the mammalian genome reprogramming and post-translated modifications. Gut microecological imbalance coursed by various biogenic and abiogenic agents and factors can produce the different epigenetic abnormalities and the onset and progression of metabolic diseases associated. The author substantiates the necessity to create an international project ‘Human Gut Microbiota and Epigenomics’ that facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists and clinicians engaged in host microbial ecology, nutrition, metagenomics, epigenomics and metabolomics investigations as well as in diseases prevention and treatment. Some priority scientific and applied directions in the current omic technologies coupled with gnotobiological approaches are suggested that can open a new era in characterizing the role of the symbiotic microbiota small metabolic and signal molecules in the host epigenomics. Although discussed subject is only at an early stage its validation can open novel approaches in drug discovery studies.
Full Text Available Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120
Hilhorst, Dorothea; Baart, Judith; Haar, van der Gemma; Leeftink, Floor Maria
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to debates on the value of indigenous knowledge for disaster risk reduction. Recent international policy papers advocate the importance of indigenous knowledge and calls for its recognition. The paper aims to explore these issues in the
Angell, Blake; Laba, Tracey-Lea; Lung, Tom; Brown, Alex; Eades, Sandra; Usherwood, Tim; Peiris, David; Billot, Laurent; Hillis, Graham; Webster, Ruth; Tonkin, Andrew; Reid, Christopher; Molanus, Barbara; Rafter, Natasha; Cass, Alan; Patel, Anushka; Jan, Stephen
In spite of bearing a heavier burden of death, disease and disability, there is mixed evidence as to whether Indigenous Australians utilise more or less healthcare services than other Australians given their elevated risk level. This study analyses the Medicare expenditure and its predictors in a cohort of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The healthcare expenditure of participants of the Kanyini Guidelines Adherence with the Polypill (GAP) pragmatic randomised controlled trial was modelled using linear regression methods. 535 adult (48% Indigenous) participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were recruited through 33 primary healthcare services (including 12 Aboriginal Medical Services) across Australia. There was no significant difference in the expenditure of Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants in non-remote areas following adjustment for individual characteristics. Indigenous individuals living in remote areas had lower MBS expenditure ($932 per year P Indigenous determine the level of Medicare expenditure for each person. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 126080005833347.
Mika, Carl; Stewart, Georgina; Watson, Ka'imi; Silva, Keola; Martin, Brian; Matapo, Jacoba; Galuvao, Akata
In this commentary, various expert authors offer their ideas on indigenous research in the philosophy of education and PESA's role from an indigenous perspective. Georgiana Stewart is the first author to step forward and explain that education is based on knowledge, and so education is centrally concerned with literacy and identity. Stewart goes…
The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…
Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia
During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods.
Blunden, Sarah; Chervin, Ronald D
Sleep problems in Australian children are common and consequential but have not been investigated in Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (indigenous) children. This study compares sleep in indigenous and non-indigenous children and investigates potential effects on school performance and daytime behaviour. Subjects included 25 indigenous and 25 non-indigenous children (mean standard deviation (SD) age = 8.8 (1.4 years), range 7-11.11 years), in six Northern Territory primary schools. Parents completed the Sleep Disorders Scale for Children which produces a T-score (mean = 50 (SD = 10)) for behavioural sleep disorders, sleep disordered breathing, parasomnias, excessive daytime sleepiness and night sweating. Behaviour and school grades were assessed with the parent-reported Child Behaviour Checklist. Behavioural sleep problems of initiating and maintaining sleep, or parasomnias were commonly reported by both groups (24-40%), with indigenous children under 9 years reporting the most problems. No between-group differences were found in school performance. Significant relationships between sleep quality and behaviours were found, particularly for indigenous children. These data suggest that substantial numbers of Australian children - more than one third in this pilot sample - may suffer from significant sleep problems. To the extent that sleep problems may impair prefrontal cortical function, emotional regulation, and control of behaviour, confirmation of current findings could have particular import for indigenous children.
Full Text Available Patient's preoccupations with perceived defect in appearance or excessive concern about minimal flaws are among diagnostic criteria of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. Sufferers usually seek cosmetic procedures such as orthodontic treatment. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of BDD among a sample of Iranian orthodontic patients. A total of 270 orthodontic patients were evaluated with BDD-YBOCS questionnaire for the diagnosis of BDD. Fifteen patients (5.5% were screened positive for BDD. BDD was more frequent among females, singles and in younger patients. Most of the BDD patients experienced multiple previous orthodontic evaluations. The relative high prevalence of BDD among orthodontic patients in Iran offers that orthodontists should take psychologically based problems such as BDD into account while evaluating patient's orthodontic problems.
Full Text Available Email has become a widespread medium of communication between students and their instructors, however; there is a limited amount of research on instructional role and uses of email in academic context. The present study investigated the communication strategies in email messages sent by Iranian EFL students to their male instructors in relation to their socioeconomic status (such as family income and education level. Moreover, the relationships between communication strategies and gender were examined. Email message sent by male and female students to their male instructors during the academic year 2012-2013 were analyzed for communication strategies (requesting, negotiating, reporting, social. The results of quantitative and qualitative statistics revealed that there were significant relationships between communication strategies and participants’ socioeconomic status. In addition, there were significant relationships between communication strategies and gender.
Full Text Available This paper examined some common problems involving prepositions in learning a second language. Many students learning English as a foreign language commonly commit mistakes in prepositions. The aim of this paper is to survey the causes of errors in the use of prepositions that are frequently made by Iranian students. A diagnostic test (35 Multiple choice item was constructed to test the students proficiency in using these prepositions. The prepositions selected for this purpose were; to, in, at, on, with, of, from, for, about, during, into under, over and by. This test was given to a group of 35 intermediate students. The results indicated that the errors committed by the students were due to both Inter-lingual and Intra-lingual interferences. It is hoped that this research will help teachers of English Language to be aware of these problems and re-evaluate their teaching approach.
Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah
Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .
Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah
Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cláudia Pereira Antunes
Full Text Available The education in the indigenous schools, even though it is build within the legal framework of the State and a modern concept of education, demands new comprehensions from the western society not only in its relation with the indigenous education, but also in its relation with the indigenous people. Because of its condition as a mediator between two different forms of thinking, the indigenous school also represents a fertile ground to think about the western conceptions of education. This article is dedicated to a deeper reflection about some aspects of the relation between the western society, based on rationality and science, and the indian people in the construction of the indigenous schools.
Najafi, A R; Rahimpour, M R; Jahanmiri, A H; Roostaazad, R; Arabian, D; Soleimani, M; Jamshidnejad, Z
The potential of an indigenous bacterial strain isolated from an Iranian oil field for the production of biosurfactant was investigated in this study. After isolation, the bacterium was characterized to be Paenibacillus alvei by biochemical tests and 16S ribotyping. The biosurfactant, which was produced by this bacterium, was able to lower the surface tension of media to 35 mN/m. Accordingly, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and FT-IR has been carried out to determine compositional analysis of the produced biosurfactant. After all the tests related to characterization of the biosurfactant produced by the isolated bacterium, it was characterized as lipopeptide derivative. The combination of central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM) was exploited to optimize biosurfactant production. Therefore, variations of four impressive parameters, pH, temperature, glucose and salinity concentrations were selected for optimization of growth conditions. The empirical model developed through RSM in terms of effective operational factors mentioned above was found to be adequate to describe the biosurfactant production. A maximum reduction in surface tension was obtained under the optimal conditions of 13.03 g/l glucose concentration, 34.76 °C, 51.39 g/l total salt concentration and medium pH 6.89. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sigrid Fry-Revere's The Kidney Sellers: A Journey of Discovery in Iran, an allegedly first-hand examination of the Iranian paid kidney donation model, has been criticized by Koplin in an essay formerly published in the Monash Bioethics Review. Koplin especially challenges Fry-Revere's claim that financially compensating kidney vendors might facilitate altruistic kidney donation. The current situation in Iran, according to Koplin, suggests that the market model has undermined altruistic donation. On this point, this commentary tries to show that healthcare policymakers in Iran no longer see the Iranian paid kidney donation model as a sustainable and ethically justifiable status quo. Briefly touching on the criticisms that have been made even by some positive commentators of the Iranian model, this commentary aims to call attention to the fact that the current dynamic within healthcare policymaking in Iran seeks primarily to decrease its reliance on the organ market instead of revising and modifying it. This complicates the plausibility of any kind of extrapolation, replication or extracting empirical support from the Iranian model to create organ markets in other countries, for example, as Fry-Revere suggests to conduct a trial of a financially incentivized kidney donation scheme in the US. The conclusion is that the Iranian healthcare system should tackle the organ shortage through increasing altruistic living and postmortem kidney donations. This might also provide, finally, a space for conducting extensive and long-term follow-up studies on well-being, satisfaction and social integration of Iranian kidney vendors.
Full Text Available This article charts Iran’s relations with Central Asia following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. This event gave Iran a new set of neighbours to the north, and this came at a time when Iran was undergoing changes in the direction of its foreign policy from radical idealistic goals, such as the export of the Islamic Revolution, to more pragmatic aims, including giving priority to its own national interests and pursuing good neighbourly relations. Since 1991, Iran has attempted to develop relations towards the Central Asian states, both bilaterally and through various regional fora. Iran’s actions have been based, in part, on a greater commitment to regionalism that has been evident in Iranian foreign policy since the early 1990s. This has focused on cultivating economic, infrastructural and cultural links with the region, rather than any form of ideological crusade, and has helped reduce Iran’s international isolation. Following a historical contextualisation and explanation of the place that the lands of Central Asia hold in the Iranian geopolitical imagination, the article explores the key concerns of Iran in the region. It will examine Iran’s position on what it perceives as being the key issues shaping its Central Asian diplomacy, namely regional economic cooperation, pipeline politics, the status of the Caspian Sea, security cooperation and cultural diplomacy. This provides a revealing case study of how Iran perceives itself as a vital player in the region, seeking to emphasise the benefits of its geostrategic location, relative stability, and increasing international role following the nuclear deal.
... IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY. 32. HOMA SHIPPING COMPANY LIMITED, Diagoras House, 7th Floor, 16 Panteli Katelari... IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY. 108. COURAGE (f.k.a. HOMA) (5IM 596) Crude Oil Tanker Tanzania flag; Former Vessel...
Ali Mohammad Foroughmand
Conclusion: The examined STR loci in this study have proven a relatively high genetic variation in the Iranian population. The data could be used for construction of a forensic genetic database for the Iranian population.
Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.
Möller, Holger; Falster, Kathleen; Ivers, Rebecca; Jorm, Louisa
Indigenous children suffer a disproportionally high burden of unintentional injuries. A more detailed understanding of the underlying causes, risk factors and gaps in research is required to inform prevention efforts and direct future research. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the evidence regarding differences in rates of unintentional injuries between indigenous and non-indigenous children and to identify leading causes and underlying risk factors contributing to these differences. We systematically searched the literature including 10 electronic databases, institutional websites and reference lists of relevant studies. Due to the substantial heterogeneity between studies, results were summarised in a narrative synthesis and no meta-analysis was carried out. A total of 39 studies were included in this review. Most studies were descriptive and only five adjusted for potential confounding in the analysis. Indigenous to non-indigenous rate ratios for morbidity and mortality for unintentional injury ranged from 1.2 to 2.3 and 1.8 to 8.2, respectively. The difference varied greatly by cause of injury and between studies, ranging from a reduced risk of hospitalisation due to fall injuries to a 17-fold increased risk of mortality due to pedestrian injuries. Burns, poisoning and transport injuries were the major contributors to the increased injury burden in indigenous children. The studies offered only limited insight into the underlying causes of these differences, but socioeconomic status and parents' educational attainment were contributing factors. Indigenous children experience a significantly higher burden of morbidity and mortality from unintentional injuries across different indigenous communities worldwide. Most of these injuries are highly preventable, presenting substantial potential to improve indigenous child health. However, there is limited evidence to illuminate the underlying risk factors for unintentional injuries in indigenous
Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.
Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study theefficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of thesetwo breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with anaverage body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively.They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard,soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h postfeeding,being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding ata level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acidwere 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. Inaddition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. RumenpH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while thePO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similarefficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.
Mai, Hassan M; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N
Reproductive diseases limit the productivity of cattle worldwide and represent an important obstacle to profitable cattle enterprise. In this study, herd brucellosis and bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC) status, and demographic and management variables were determined and related to predicted calving rate (PrCR) of cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, Nigeria. Serum samples, preputial scrapings, questionnaire data, trans-rectal palpation and farm records were used from 271 herds. The Rose-Bengal plate test and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for Brucella serology and culture and identification from preputial samples for BGC. A herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. The PrCR was determined as the number of calvings expected during the previous 6 and next 6 months as a percentage of the number of postpubertal heifers and cows in the herd. A multilevel linear regression model was used to estimate the herd-level effect of Brucella abortus seropositivity, Campylobacter fetus infection and other factors on calculated PrCR. The reproductive performance of the cattle herds was generally poor: Only 6.5% of the nursing cows were pregnant and 51.1% were non-pregnant and acyclic; the mean annual PrCR was 51.4%. Brucella abortus and C. fetus infection of herds were independently associated with absolute reduction in PrCR of 14.9% and 8.4%, respectively. There was also a strong negative association between within-herd Brucella seroprevalence and PrCR. Presence of small ruminants, animal introduction without quarantine and the presence of handling facilities were associated with lower PrCR, whereas larger herd size, supplementary feeding, routine mineral supplementation and care during parturition were associated with higher PrCR. Brucellosis and BGC may be largely responsible for the poor reproductive performance of indigenous Nigerian cattle. Farmer education and measures to improve the fertility of
Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8). The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for.
A study was carried out on the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infection in naturally infected cattle in Ogbomoso area of Oyo State using standard parasitological techniques. The results indicated that out of the 1000 cattle examined, 30(3%) were infected and parasites identified were Haemonchus contortus.
being trained on the new, cutting edge technologies in Canada. Empowering women to tackle cattle lung ... family's nutrition. We would like our cattle to be vaccinated so that we do not lose milk and the income we get from sales of milk. Halima Omar, Hidaya. Enhanced participation of women smallholder farmers in vaccine.
Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo
Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242
Dec 12, 2011 ... (MDH) ruled out cross-contamination among cell lines. Karyotyping showed that the proportion of cells ... Key words: Piedmontese cattle, fibroblast line, biological characterization. INTRODUCTION. With high-yield ... Piedmontese cattle, originated in Piedmont region of northern Italy, has been distributed in ...
It is a well-known fact that among the various ethnic groups composing the Mughal nobility, Iranian people, that is, Persian-speaking people from the Iranian region, had considerable influence on the politics, economy and society of the Mughal empire. An accurate and detailed knowledge of these Iranian elements is indispensable for historians interested in any field of Mughal history. At the same time, the question of Iranian emigration certainly cannot be overlooked even by those whose main ...
Full Text Available The School of Public Policy (SPP at the University of Calgary organized a conference to announce the establishment of its Indigenous Policy program and to share knowledge and stories about policy issues critical to Indigenous Peoples in Canada. The conference, titled “Beyond Reconciliation,” was held at the University of Calgary Downtown Campus on Nov. 21, 2016 and was attended by 73 participants. This included Indigenous elders, chiefs and leaders, and members of Indigenous organizations, including a women’s group. Also included were members of universities and academic institutions, including students; industry representatives from the oil and gas, pipeline, forestry, electricity, legal and financial sectors; as well as representatives from government and regulatory agencies. The purpose of the conference was established with the following abstract, which was circulated to speakers and participants: The School of Public Policy is establishing a new Indigenous Policy program in order to produce widely disseminated research and engage in outreach that covers an array of policy areas, such as health, education, self-government, and natural resource development. The program will directly engage Indigenous communities in the search for original, long-term, and evidence-based solutions, as part of an effort to improve our national capacity in problem-solving and policy development. The conference will provide a platform to launch the program, showcasing preliminary research and providing a venue for discussion of policy solutions. The conference included three moderated panel sessions and a keynote speaker.1 The first panel considered business and entrepreneurship in Indigenous communities; the second panel showcased case studies that are examining the experiences of Indigenous communities with natural resource development projects, and particularly their experiences with consultation and engagement. The final panel focused on ways of
Duah, Kingsley K; Essuman, Edward K; Olympio, Osca S; Akwetey, Worlah; Gyimah, Vida; Yeboah, Jeremiah O
Commercial poultry production, although fairly well developed, continues to develop rapidly in Africa and other areas of the world. The local chickens, which may perhaps be harnessed and exploited for poverty alleviation, form part of the many local assets of underprivileged people living in the rural areas. In view of this, the study aims to investigate consumer acceptability of indigenous chicken meats using survey and sensory evaluation. The survey is comprised mainly of interviewing market women and supplying birds to them for sale in order to find answers to questions related to marketability or otherwise of the naked-neck, frizzled naked-neck, and normal-feathered cockerels. An experiment was carried out to evaluate consumers' preference of the 3 genotypes, namely NanaFf, Nanaff, and nanaff. The birds used were of the fourth generation (F4) offspring of crosses between local heterozygous naked neck (Nana) and heterozygous frizzled (Ff) males and hybrid commercial Lohmann females. Three hundred (300) cockerels that were 11 wk old crossbreds (100 of each of the 3 genotypic groups) were randomly housed in 15 open-sided, deep-litter pens with 20 cockerels in each pen in a completely randomized design for 9 wk. Burgers were prepared from the breast muscle of the carcass for sensory evaluation. The results from the survey indicated that a majority (91.7%) of the respondents admitted that they would readily accept to sell the naked-neck cockerels. Also, at almost all the sales points, the Nanaff was first to be sold out, followed by the nanaff feathered with the NanaFf being the last both before and during the major season's sales. The results from the sensory evaluation indicated that the burgers from nanaff and NanaFf birds had significantly (P marketability.
Corman, Victor Max; Grundhoff, Adam; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Gmyl, Anatoly; Wollny, Robert; Dei, Dickson; Ritz, Daniel; Binger, Tabea; Adankwah, Ernest; Marfo, Kwadwo Sarfo; Annison, Lawrence; Annan, Augustina; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Becher, Paul; Drosten, Christian
ABSTRACT The hepatitis C virus (HCV; genus Hepacivirus) is a highly relevant human pathogen. Unique hepaciviruses (HV) were discovered recently in animal hosts. The direct ancestor of HCV has not been found, but the genetically most closely related animal HVs exist in horses. To investigate whether other peridomestic animals also carry HVs, we analyzed sera from Ghanaian cattle for HVs by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Nine of 106 specimens from different sampling sites contained HV RNA (8.5%) at median viral loads of 1.6 × 105 copies/ml. Infection seemed unrelated to cattle age and gender. Near-full-genome sequencing of five representative viruses confirmed taxonomic classifications. Cattle HVs formed two distinct phylogenetic lineages that differed by up to 17.7% on the nucleotide level in the polyprotein-encoding region, suggesting cocirculation of different virus subtypes. A conserved microRNA122-binding site in the 5′ internal ribosomal entry site suggested liver tropism of cattle HVs. Phylogenetic analyses suggested the circulation of HVs in cattle for several centuries. Cattle HVs were genetically highly divergent from all other HVs, including HCV. HVs from genetically related equine and bovine hosts were not monophyletic, corroborating host shifts during the evolution of the genus Hepacivirus. Similar to equine HVs, the genetic diversity of cattle HVs was low compared to that of HCV genotypes. This suggests an influence of the human-modified ecology of peridomestic animals on virus diversity. Further studies should investigate the occurrence of cattle HVs in other geographic areas and breeds, virus pathogenicity in cattle, and the potential exposure of human risk groups, such as farmers, butchers, and abattoir workers. IMPORTANCE HCV (genus Hepacivirus) is a major human pathogen, causing liver failure and cancer. Unique hepaciviruses (HVs) were discovered over the last few years in animals, but the direct ancestor of HCV has not been found. The
Asizua, Denis; Mpairwe, Denis; Kabi, Fred
Beef production in Uganda is progressing from the traditional pastoral practices to sedentary semi-intensive systems. Consequently, farmers are continuously crossbreeding the indigenous cattle with exotic genotypes to improve meat yield. This study was conducted on-farm to evaluate the effects...... of feeding systems and feeding durations on performance of three locally available genotypes. A 2×3×3 factorial experiment was used to randomly allot 108 young bulls (9–15 months old), 36 for each of the three genotypes; Ankole x Holstein Friesian (AXF) (175±22 kg), pure Boran (208±34 kg) and a composite...
Steenkamp, Malinda; Boyle, Jacqueline; Kildea, Sue; Moore, Vivienne; Davies, Michael; Rumbold, Alice
The teenage pregnancy rate is high among Indigenous Australian women, yet little is known about their pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, against a background of extreme social disadvantage, the relative importance of age as a risk factor for adverse outcomes among Indigenous pregnancies is unclear. We compared perinatal outcomes for Indigenous teenagers (Indigenous women (20-34 years), and described outcomes in subgroups of teenagers. Data were analyzed for 2421 singleton births to Indigenous women aged Indigenous women. Rather, they are having babies in disadvantaged circumstances within a system challenged to support them socially and clinically. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mahdavi Zafarghandi, Amir; Jodai, Hojat
This study intends to represent attitudes toward English and English learning at an Iranian military university. Iranian military staff is required to study English in a social environment where there is little immediate need or opportunity to use the language for real communicative purposes.The subjects included 34 Iranian military personnel who…
... Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized. 535.528 Section 535.528 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY IRANIAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 535.528 Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized. (a...
were aligned using Clustral X1.81 together and with three sequences of similar region of P. loosi isolates available in Genbank database (Isolate T from ... The results indicated that very short genetic distance exist among the Iranian isolates and between the Iranian isolates and isolate T from Serilanka whereas the Iranian ...
Ramezani, Afsaneh Effatdokht; Dehgahi, Meysam; Hashemi, Hanie
This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students…
Storytelling, in its various forms, has often been described as a practice with great emancipatory potential. In turn, Indigenous knowledge shows great promise in guiding a participatory action research (PAR) methodology. Yet these two approaches are rarely discussed in relation to one another, nor, has much been written in terms of how these two approaches may work synergistically toward a decolonizing research approach. In this article, I report on a community-driven knowledge translation activity, the Peoples’ International Health Tribunal, as an exemplar of how narrative and PAR approaches, guided by local Indigenous knowledge, have great potential to build methodologically and ethically robust research processes. Implications for building globally relevant research alliances and scholarship are further discussed, particularly in relation to working with Indigenous communities. PMID:28462305
Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas; Pişkinsüt Şengüler, Ece
Migrants may become entrepreneurs in their host countries. They may utilize their dual embeddedness in both the home country and the host country, and also use transnational links to gain a competitive advantage in exporting compared to indigenous entrepreneurs. Migrant entrepreneurs’ advantage may......, however, be contingent on attributes such as gender and education, especially among the first generation of migrants, in that being male and educated is more advantageous for migrants than for indigenous entrepreneurs. A representative sample of 50,371 entrepreneurs establishing or operating enterprises...... around the world was surveyed in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which reports on migration and exporting. Hierarchical linear modeling shows that migrant entrepreneurs export more than indigenous entrepreneurs, especially in the first generation, and especially among educated and male migrants...
Pyper, Evelyn; Henry, David; Yates, Erika A; Mecredy, Graham; Ratnasingham, Sujitha; Slegers, Brian; Walker, Jennifer D
Indigenous data governance principles assert that Indigenous communities have a right to data that identifies their people or communities, and a right to determine the use of that data in ways that support Indigenous health and self-determination. Indigenous-driven use of the databases held at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) has resulted in ongoing partnerships between ICES and diverse Indigenous organizations and communities. To respond to this emerging and complex landscape, ICES has established a team whose goal is to support the infrastructure for responding to community-initiated research priorities. ICES works closely with Indigenous partners to develop unique data governance agreements and supports processes, which ensure that ICES scientists must work with Indigenous organizations when conducting research that involves Indigenous peoples. © 2018 Longwoods Publishing.
Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems ... These conflicts are not only aggravated by ethnic and religious tensions, but also have generic economic and political foundation. ... Keywords: Cooperation and integration, indigenous dispute settlement, conflict resolution, peace, cohesiveness and stability.
Full Text Available This paper describes the features required of OWL (Web Ontology Language) to realise and enhance Indigenous Knowledge (IK) digital repositories. Several needs for Indigenous Knowledge management systems (IKMSs) are articulated, based on extensive...
Vargas, Julio; Landi, Vincenzo; Martínez, Amparo; Gómez, Mayra; Camacho, María Esperanza; Álvarez, Luz Ángela; Aguirre, Lenin; Delgado, Juan Vicente
Macabea cattle are the only Bos taurus breed that have adapted to the wet tropical conditions of the Amazon. This breed has integrated into the culture of the indigenous Shuar-Asuar nations probably since its origins, being one of the few European zoogenetic resources assimilated by the deep-jungle Amazon communities. Despite its potential for local endogenous sustainable development, this breed is currently endangered. The present study used molecular genetics tools to investigate the within- and between-breeds diversity, in order to characterize the breed population, define its associations with other breeds, and infer its origin and evolution. The within-breed genetic diversity showed high values, as indicated by all genetic parameters, such as the mean number of alleles (MNA = 7.25±2.03), the observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.72±0.02) and the expected heterozygosity (He = 0.72±0.02). The between-breeds diversity analysis, which included factorial correspondence analysis, Reynolds genetic distance, neighbor-joining analysis, and genetic structure analysis, showed that the Macabea breed belongs to the group of the American Creoles, with a Southern-Spain origin. Our outcomes demonstrated that the Macabea breed has a high level of purity and null influences of exotic cosmopolitan breeds with European or Asiatic origin. This breed is an important zoogenetic resource of Ecuador, with relevant and unique attributes; therefore, there is an urgent need to develop conservation strategies for the Macabea breed.
Thomas D. Hall
Full Text Available This paper explores the past, present, and future resistance of indigenous peoples to capitalist expansion. The central argument is that the survival of indigenous peoples, their identities, and their cultures, constitutes strong antisystemic resistance against global capitalism and against the deepening and the broadening of modern world-systemic or globalization processes. Furthermore, we argue that recent events often touted as turning points in historythe collapse of the Soviet Union, the 9-11 attack on the twin towers, and even the war on Iraqare at most blips on the radar in a larger trajectory of change and resistance. Rather, the important features of indigenous survival are: (1 Indigenous peoples, despite an immense variety of forms of cultural and social organization, represent non-capitalist forms of organization. Their continued survival challenges the fundamental premises of capitalism and its increasingly global culture. (2 Indigenous peoples challenges to global domination succeed less on economic, political, or military force, and more as fundamental challenges to the underpinnings of the logic of capitalism and the interstate system. (3 In order to learn from these resistance models, it is necessary to ground our understanding in two seemingly antithetical forms of knowledge: (a information arising from indigenous cultures and values and (b research about how the longue duree of the world-system shapes the form and timing of such movements. (4 Indigenous successes may serve as models and/ or inspirations for other forms of resistance. An important task is to discover what is unique to indigenous resistance and to specify what indigenous resistance has in common with other forms of resistance.
Michael Hugo Meadows
Full Text Available Indigenous communities in Australia have fought for access to the airwaves, despite resistance from the dominant European population. The uncertainty of the government policymaking process has created challenges for Indigenous media producers in appropriating a range of media technologies to serve Indigenous interests. Indigenous-produced media provides a first level of service to communities across the continent but the struggle to maintain this complex communication system continues.
Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Vogrin, Sara; Leslie, William D; Kinsella, Rita; Toombs, Maree; Duque, Gustavo; Hosking, Sarah M; Holloway, Kara L; Doolan, Brianna J; Williams, Lana J; Page, Richard S; Pasco, Julie A; Quirk, Shae E
Compared to non-indigenous populations, indigenous populations experience disproportionately greater morbidity, and a reduced life expectancy; however, conflicting data exist regarding whether a higher risk of fracture is experienced by either population. We systematically evaluate evidence for whether differences in fracture rates at any skeletal site exist between indigenous and non-indigenous populations of any age, and to identify potential risk factors that might explain these differences. On 31 August 2016 we conducted a comprehensive computer-aided search of peer-reviewed literature without date limits. We searched PubMed, OVID, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and reference lists of relevant publications. The protocol for this systematic review is registered in PROSPERO, the International Prospective Register of systematic reviews (CRD42016043215). Using the World Health Organization reference population as standard, hip fracture incidence rates were re-standardized for comparability between countries. Our search yielded 3227 articles; 283 potentially eligible articles were cross-referenced against predetermined criteria, leaving 27 articles for final inclusion. Differences in hip fracture rates appeared as continent-specific, with lower rates observed for indigenous persons in all countries except for Canada and Australia where the opposite was observed. Indigenous persons consistently had higher rates of trauma-related fractures; the highest were observed in Australia where craniofacial fracture rates were 22-times greater for indigenous compared to non-indigenous women. After adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical risk factors, approximately a three-fold greater risk of osteoporotic fracture and five-fold greater risk of craniofacial fractures was observed for indigenous compared to non-indigenous persons; diabetes, substance abuse, comorbidity, lower income, locality, and fracture history were independently associated with an increased risk of fracture
Melissa Volpato Curi
Full Text Available This paper aims to characterize the common or customary law of indigenous peoples in order to identify the legal pluralism existent in Brazil. Whereas each society presents its own social organization; positive law -- written, codified and founded on the state -- is not the only source of law, neither the safest or fairest manner to sort societies. The orality and the absence of the state in form of entity, which characterize customary law, give dynamism to indigenous societies and sort these communities based on the social body’s inherent rules.
Cecília José Veríssimo
Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size
Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis
Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in nursing practice, especially Iranian nurses, which were published between 2000 and 2013. In this regard, we searched databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Google, BMJ, PMC, and MEDLINE. The majority of the studies (60%) had analyzed the effect of coping strategies, experiences and perception of job-related stresses in Iranian nurses working in hospitals. In some of the reviewed studies (60%), the majority of the samples enrolled Iranian nurses. Forty percent of studies selected a maximum sample size of 565 (44%) participants in 2011. Nursing stress scale employed at 30% of the studies was the most commonly used strategy. This reviewed studies also revealed a combined measurement (60% of studies), based on categorical stress measurement, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction methods. Three studies explored the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. For instance, the majority (74.4%) of nurses reported job satisfaction. Effect of coping strategies and job satisfaction on Iranian nurses is a well-accepted issue and has important positive outcomes on several areas of health discipline.
... sampled plot (p > 0.05). At this point of endangerment of the indigenous tree species, there is therefore a need for conservation strategies for future use of these indigenous trees and to reduce the effect of global warming on the earth surface. Keywords: Quantitative assessment, Global warming, Indigenous, Conservation, ...
Boiling, roasting, drying and frying were reported as the most preferred preparation methods of different indigenous foods. Silos, sacs, open traditional tray and large clay pots were reported to be the most used methods to store different indigenous foods. Most of the indigenous foods were prepared and stored using the ...
This paper draws on a case study of a small alternative Indigenous school in Queensland, Australia. From the perspective of several of the school's Indigenous Elders, the paper foregrounds the significance of group differentiation at the school on the basis of Indigenous representation. However, it also considers how such…
Mills, Kathy A.; Davis-Warra, John; Sewell, Marlene; Anderson, Mikayla
This research describes some of the salient features of Indigenous ways of working with multimodal literacies in digital contexts of use that emerged within an Indigenous school community with the oversight of Aboriginal Elders. This is significant because the use of multimodal literacy practices among a growing number of Indigenous school…
Indigenous games in South Africa risk extinction. The threat is created by the fact that old people in South Africa do not have enough time to transfer their skills and knowledge of indigenous games to the younger generation. The focus of this article is on identifying some of the problem areas regarding indigenous games.
Boelens, R.A.; Duarte, B.; Manosalvas Nicolalde, R.; Mena Vásconez, P.A.; Roa Avendaño, T.; Vera-Delgado, J.
This paper examines the threats to Indigenous water rights and territories in the Andean countries. It analyzes how water and water rights are embedded in Indigenous territories, and how powerful actors and intervention projects tend to undermine local societies and indigenous livelihoods by
Full Text Available The formal reconciliation process in Australia was conducted between 1991 and 2000 and aimed to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples by 2001. In this paper, I detail the failure of both this reconciliation process and governments, in particular the Howard Government, to recognise Indigenous rights, such as sovereignty, a treaty, self-determination and land rights.
Hohepa, Margie Kahukura (Ngapuhi)
Educational leadership, it is argued, must play a critical role in improving student outcomes, especially those of minoritized and Indigenous students. In the process of improving education and schooling for Indigenous students, Indigenous educational leadership needs to be considered alongside educational leadership more generally. This article…
long consultative process. Ultimately, a continental, multi-sectoral and an Inter-, Transand Multi-disciplinary (MIT) approaches might be the most appropriate in the protection of the IKS and the needs and interests of indigenous medical practitioners. Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, indigenous medicine practioners, ...
The study indicates that 81.3% of the interviewees supports the making of fire belts as one of their respected indigenous ways of managing the reserve and in that respect, 98.4% affirm that indigenous knowledge supports development. It is recommended that their indigenous knowledge on natural resources management ...
Indigenous counselling has not been given attention in Nigeria's school counselling programme. This counselling gap was created by European colonialism, which succeeded in developing in the minds of the African that anything indigenous is local, unscientific and unorthodox. Indigenous counselling is one of the ...
Recent writings on indigenous knowledge systems question the value of framing development planning in terms of the traditional knowledge and skills of indigenous people. Such thinking has brought about the notion of using indigenous knowledge as a significant resource, which could contribute to the increased ...
Ma Rhea, Zane
This paper examines the Australian government's Indigenous policy by interrogating the concept of partnership between governments and Indigenous communities through three examples. Increasingly, the Australian federal government is focusing attention on the poor literacy and numeracy outcomes for Indigenous children in remote and very remote…
Flint, Philip James
Indigenous people experience higher levels of intellectual disability (ID) than the general population. Individuals with intellectual disability also experience higher levels of psychopathology than members of the general population. There is limited data on intellectual disability and the prevalence and nature of psychopathology among Indigenous adults with intellectual disability. This research aimed to provide a profile of Indigenous adults with intellectual disability and investigat...
Five indigenous fruit varieties were being gathered, and guavas were the most popular. Consumption of up to 9 varieties of indigenous vegetables was observed, with cow peas, jute mallow and amaranths reporting more than 50% consumption. Six varieties of indigenous fruits had been consumed. The low accessibility to ...
In this article, I analyze how indigenous authorities in Guatemala negotiate citizenship at the local level within the larger context of indigenous claim making in Latin America. I argue that the construction of citizenship at the local level is not only framed by models imposed on indigenous
Smith, Linda Tuhiwai
One emergent issue in relation to research on Indigenous epistemologies and education concerns the extent to which Indigenous epistemologies lead to new kinds of educational experiences and outcomes and pose new research questions. This commentary responds to the sense of limits and possibilities for Indigenous education that are raised by the…
Full Text Available A wide range of population, 4% to 30%, suffers from tinnitus that is defined as perception of sound without apparent acoustic stimulus. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population; Tehran province. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2009, recruiting 3207 individuals (age range, 7-98 who were residing in Tehran province, Iran. Participants were asked to fill two questionnaires; the validated Persian version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and another one that was specifically designed for this study. Prevalence of tinnitus and its association factors were evaluated. 3207 participants enrolled into our study comprising 1429 (44.7% male and 1765 (55.3% female with mean age of 55.01±17.85. Of total of 3207 participants, 146 (4.6% had tinnitus consisting of 80 male (54.8% and 66 (45.2% female participants. It showed a rising trend with increasing age that was especially significant after the sixth decade of life (P=0.001. The analysis showed mean TQ global score of 35.96±25.52 that was significantly different between male and female participants (P=0.051 and had no significant correlation with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.10. The tinnitus intensity was moderate to very severe in 95 (56.1% of the participants. Its severity level was not significantly different between men and women (P=0.09. Tinnitus intensity had no significant association with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.31. Patients with higher TQ global score had higher tinnitus intensities (P=0.001. The annoyance level was significantly different between men and women (P=0.04 and its impact on the participants daily routine functions were significantly higher in men (P=0.003. Given the results of the study, demonstrating that prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population (Tehran province was lower than the other countries and had a direct correlation with increasing age only after the sixth
Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered
Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus and Qinchuan (Bos taurus are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 to 12 fold on average of 97.86% and 98.98% coverage of genomes, respectively. Comparison with the Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1 reference assembly yielded 9,010,096 SNPs for Nanyang, and 6,965,062 for Qinchuan cattle, 51% and 29% of which were novel SNPs, respectively. A total of 154,934 and 115,032 small indels (1 to 3 bp were found in the Nanyang and Qinchuan genomes, respectively. The SNP and indel distribution revealed that Nanyang showed a genetically high diversity as compared to Qinchuan cattle. Furthermore, a total of 2,907 putative cases of copy number variation (CNV were identified by aligning Nanyang to Qinchuan genome, 783 of which (27% encompassed the coding regions of 495 functional genes. The gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that many CNV genes were enriched in the immune system and environment adaptability. Among several CNV genes related to lipid transport and fat metabolism, Lepin receptor gene (LEPR overlapping with CNV_1815 showed remarkably higher copy number in Qinchuan than Nanyang (log2 (ratio = -2.34988; P value = 1.53E-102. Further qPCR and association analysis investigated that the copy number of the LEPR gene presented positive correlations with transcriptional expression and phenotypic traits, suggesting the LEPR CNV may contribute to the higher fat deposition in muscles of Qinchuan cattle. Our findings provide evidence that the distinct phenotypes of Nanyang and Qinchuan breeds may be due to the different genetic variations including SNPs
Aug 4, 2009 ... marker systems. β-Lactoglobulin is the major milk whey protein in the ruminants. Studies have indicated that ... Najdi cattle and buffalo. The genotype frequencies of AA, AB, and BB in Najdi cattle and buffalo were 0, ... Agarose (2.5%) electrophoresis patterns of 247 bp PCR products of β- lactoglobulin gene ...
The Human Genome Project (HGP) refers to the international scientific research program, formally begun in October 1990 and completed in 2003, mainly designated to discover all the human genes, analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of all human genes and also making them accessible for further biological and medical investigations. With the appropriate rationale approach, a similar study has been held in Iran. The study of human genome among Iranian ethnicities (IHGP) has been attempted formally in 2000 through a detailed and fully programmed research among all the major ethnic groups by more than 1,900 samples from all over Iran based on the main demographical and anthropological findings and formally known criteria considered for the international HGP. This paper overviewed the process of the research in the terms of program goals, primary data collection, research designation and methodology and also practical aspects and primary findings of the Iranian genome project and its progress during a nearly 5-year period.
Lopes da Silva, Aracy
Adult education for indigenous peoples in Brazil was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations engaged in adult education for Brazil's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy and…
Armour, Danielle; Warren, Elizabeth; Miller, Jodie
Indigenous teacher assistants (ITAs) are often employed in schools to assist in addressing educational issues relating to Indigenous students. While, this practice has occurred for over 40 years in most Australian states, little has been written about their contribution in assisting Indigenous students to learn. This paper explores the influence…
Cheraghali, Abdol Majid
Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.
Nahidi, Shizar; Blignault, Ilse; Hayen, Andrew; Razee, Husna
This study investigated psychological distress in Iranian international students at UNSW Australia, and explored the psychosocial factors associated with high levels of distress. A total of 180 Iranian international students pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate degrees during 2012/2013 completed an email questionnaire containing socio-demographic items and five standardized and validated scales. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the predictors of psychological distress. Compared to domestic and international students at two other Australian universities, a significantly smaller proportion of Iranian international students scored as distressed on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Greater levels of psychological distress were associated with being female, poorer physical health, less social support, less religious involvement and spirituality, and negative attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help. Findings from this growing group of international students can help inform culturally competent mental health promotion and service provision in their host countries.
Full Text Available Concentration is among the key indicators of market structure. The number of manufacturers and distribution of market between firms with different sizes can be examined using concentration index. In this paper, the concentration ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Hall-Tiedman Index, comprehensive industrial concentration index, entropy and Hannah-Kay index were used during 1996, 2011, 2006 and 2011. The main objective of the present study is to measure concentration in the Iranian car market and show its changes during 1996-2011. The results indicated a high concentration in the Iranian automotive industry. Even with the advent of new firms to the Iranian automotive industry and increased total production, there has been a constant concentration in the automotive industry.
Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.
Full Text Available Afghanistan is still not a stable state with strong central government controlling the whole state territory even after eleven years since American intervention and following the pursuit of reconstruction by allied forces. One of the main causes of this situation consists in interferences of foreign powers, which have their own particular and often mutually incompatible interests in Afghanistan. One of the most important external powers in the country is Iran. Therefore, Iranian involvement in Afghanistan is the main topic of this text. The main goal of this article is to identify and interpret major methods of Iranian enforcement of its plans in Afghanistan and also the characterization of those plans. The important issue of this text is also an understanding of effects of Iranian activities in Afghanistan and whether those actions have positive or rather negative contribution.
Soltani Arabshahi, SeyyedKamran; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardakani, MohammadReza; Bigdeli, Shoaleh
The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application of evidence and documents. In this study, criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts' views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.
Background Studies throughout North America and Europe have documented adverse perinatal outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities. Nonetheless, the contrast in newborn characteristics between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Latin America has been poorly characterized. This is due to many challenges, including a lack of vital registration information on ethnicity. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in anthropometric measures at birth in Chilean indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous children over a 5-year period. Methods We examined weight and length at birth using information available through a national data base of all birth records for the years 2000 through 2004 (n = 1,166.513). Newborns were classified ethnically according to the origins of the parents' last names. Result The average birthweight was stable over the 5 year period with variations of less than 20 g in each group, and with mean values trivially higher in indigenous newborns. The proportion weighing less than 2500 g at birth increased modestly from 5.2% to 5.6% in non-indigenous newborns whereas the indigenous births remained constant at 5.2%. In multiple regression analyses, adjusting flexibly for gestational age and maternal characteristics, the occurrence of an indigenous surname added only 14 g to an average infant's birthweight while holding other factors constant. Results for length at birth were similar, and adjusted time trend variation in both outcomes was trivially small after adjustment. Anthropometric indexes at birth in Chile are quite favorable by international standards. Conclusion There is only a trivial degree of ethnic disparity in these values, in contrast to conditions for ethnic minorities in other countries. Moreover, these values remained roughly constant over the 5 years of observation in this study. PMID:20598150
Sharon L. Brennan-Olsen
Conclusions: The observed paucity of data and suggestion of continent-specific differences indicate an urgent need for further research regarding indigenous status and fracture epidemiology and aetiology. Our findings also have implications for communities, governments and healthcare professionals to enhance the prevention of trauma-related fractures in indigenous persons, and an increased focus on modifiable lifestyle behaviours to prevent osteoporotic fractures in all populations.
Hosein H E Y D A R I
Full Text Available The main drop - out reasons from the sport of roller skating amongst Iranian youth skaters has been examined. A questionnaire with 53 items (adopted from Enoksen, 2011 representing seven subscales namel y: training factors and facilities, executive factors and team, education and work obligations, motivational aspects, social - cultural environment, choice of other sport activities and interests and economic factors was especially developed for this researc h. Responses were measured on a Likert scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” in relation to each statement. In all 11 2 skaters predominantly male (mean age 17.1, SD = 1.63 with a mean = 5.43 years of experience (SD = 2.92 that had di scontinued in the past two years completed the questionnaire. Results of one sample t - tests showed that all factors expect “social - cultural environment” are significant indicators for drop out from skating with “economical factors” scoring the highest rank ing. Correlational analysis showed that younger participants agree more strongly th at “executive factors and team” and “education and work obligations” were the best predictors of drop out. Those with fewer years of experience considered “training factors and facilities”, “motivational aspects and social and cultural environment” as more likely reasons for quitting. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Hamid Reza Baradaran
Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.
Khadigeh Mirzaii Najmabadi
Full Text Available Khadigeh Mirzaii NajmabadiShahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, IranObjectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a multimodal intervention (including the Women’s Wellness Program on increasing levels of physical activity in Iranian midlife women.Study design: This 12-week study was conducted in women aged 50–65 years living in the general population. Women who were allocated to the intervention group (n = 40 received an intervention, which combined a multimodal program of physical activity and health education. Women in the control group continued their normal physical activities (n = 45.Mean outcome measure: The women completed a questionnaire that included measures for items of interest for this analysis, such as menopausal status, sociodemographic, and exercise and activity levels.Results: Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention was effective in improving women’s physical activity. The test showed that there was a significant difference between intervention and control in current vigorous activity.Conclusion: Physical activity should be encouraged for prevention and reduction of risks for chronic disease and for improvement of health in midlife women. The multimodal intervention program may offer implications for designing and implementing exercise interventions in further studies.Keywords: midlife women, intervention, physical activity, menopause
Khajouei, Reza; Salehi, Fatemeh
We examined the health lit- eracy status of high school students in Kerman, Iran. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at high schools in Kerman. Data concerning 3 dimensions of health literacy (health knowledge, health skills and health be- haviors) were collected from 312 students using an adapted version of a valid and reliable questionnaire developed by the Ministry of Health of China. Data analysis was performed by descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis using SPSS version 22. The average age of the students was 16 ± 3 years and 50% (N = 156) of them were girls. Twenty-nine percent of students gained a health literacy score between 37 and 47 (adequate). A statistically significant relationship was found between health literacy and type of school (p health literacy requiring serious interventions by authorities and policy-makers. Incorporating subjects such as mental health, prevention of addiction, and puberty and sexual health into educational curricula can improve Iranian students' health literacy.
Full Text Available The Globalization accelerated the paradoxical processes of modernization by introducing the cultural homogenizations and heterogenizations: construction and deconstruction of local-communitarian identities. This is why we are facing on the one hand, the increasing of local identities and visions and on the other hand, the interference, sometimes in a conflicted way, of the latter forms with the national and global identities. In this context, the Iranian problematic is discussed by an urban anthropological theoretical approach. The main concern in this article is the everyday life styles as the most important means of the cultural identity formation and their self expressions. Social constructed space as Lefebvre put it, and Cultural Studies tradition of everyday life, have been the starting points of this paper aiming to analyze the cultural resistance phenomenon expressed in physical and bodily spaces as well as in social and intercultural relations in domains such as age, ethnics and gender. These identity schemes have been taken as minority situations when they express in a way or other, some sort of cultural or social resistance facing a dominant pattern and by this way the paper try to present some practical and applied solutions to decrease the social tensions.
A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi
Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .
Full Text Available Abstract: Despite the importance of body satisfaction on one’s self image and well-being, little has been written about body image or how it affects people in Iran. The aim of this study is to assess body dissatisfaction and its risk factors in the general Iranian population. The sample size for this cross-sectional study included approximately 1,200 participants (both male and female and was conducted in 2011. Body dissatisfaction (based on the Figure Rating Scale, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI and use of the media were recorded. Nearly two thirds of the participants were included in the middle age group and roughly half of them had a university education. Approximately two thirds of the participants were satisfied with their body. The mean score of body dissatisfaction in women was greater than men (p < 0.0001. Age, gender, marital status and BMI had a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction. The finding of this study demonstrates that in Iran, body dissatisfaction and it consequences must be addressed. While the prevalence and pattern of body dissatisfaction in Iran is as high as other Asian countries, considering cultural variation within Asian countries is also important.
Safadel, N; Dahim, P; Anjarani, S; Rahnamaye Farzami, M; Samiee, S Mirab; Amini, R; Farsi, Sh; Mahdavi, S; Khodaverdian, K; Rashed Marandi, F
After four years of publishing the Iranian National Laboratory Standard and following a strategic plan to implement its requirements, it was decided to review the taken actions, evaluating the achievements and the failures, as well as analyzing the gaps and planning the interventional activities to resolve the problems. A thorough evaluation revealed that the progress of implementation process varies considerably in different provinces, as well as in laboratories in different public and private sectors. Diversity and heterogeneousity of laboratories throughout the country is one of unresolvable problems. Although we encounter shortage of resources in the country, improper allocation or distribution of resources and budgets make the problems more complicated. Inadequacy of academic training in laboratory sciences has resulted in necessity of holding comprehensive post-graduate training courses. Revising academic curriculum of laboratory sciences could be mostly helpful, moreover there should be organized, training courses with pre-determined practical topics. providing specific technical guidelines, to clarify the required technical details could temporarily fill the training gaps of laboratory staff. Inadequate number of competent auditors was one of the difficulties in universities. Another important challenge returns to laboratory equipment, developing the national controlling system to manage the laboratory equipment in terms of quality and accessibility has been planned in RHL. At last cultural problems and resistance to change are main obstacles that have reduced the pace of standardization, it needs to rationalize the necessity of establishing laboratory standards for all stakeholders.
Aghababaei, Naser; Tabik, Mohammad Taghi
While the role of some personality traits has been comprehensively explored, scientific study of others, such as patience has been neglected. Psychologists have paid scant attention to patience as a personality trait, character strength or virtue. The current study examined the relationship between patience and life satisfaction, mental health, and personality. A sample of 252 Iranian college students (129 females and 123 males) completed the 3-factor patience scale, satisfaction with life scale, general health questionnaire, anxiety and depression scales and mini international personality item pool-big five. The three types of patience (interpersonal, life hardship, and daily hassles) were associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression, anxiety and psychological dysfunction. Patience also showed moderate relationship with the Big-Five factors of personality. After controlling the personality factors, patience managed to explain additional unique variance in life satisfaction and mental health indicators. Patience is a unique predictor of mental well-being. It is suggested that long-term patience is more important for depression and general health, whereas short-term patience is more beneficial for hedonic well-being.
Full Text Available Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection, is endemic in Southeast Asia. Currently, incidences have been increasing among adults. There have been no published reports of dengue fever from Iran. Widespread connection between different countries may predispose them for acquisition of infection. The patient was a 58-year-old Iranian woman with acute unexplained high-grade fever for 4 days, associated with skin rash, after returning from Southeast Asia. CBC showed WBC = 1600/mm 3 and platelet count 99,000/mm 3 . The patient also had hematuria. ELISA immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to dengue and serum RT-PCR for dengue virus was positive. The patient managed with conservative treatment and due to good general condition and improvement specific antiviral treatment was not started. She became afebrile at the 3 rd day of hospitalization and discharged with good general condition on fourth day. She was afebrile after two weeks follow-up. Dengue fever has been increasing among adults. It should be suspected, when a patient presents with acute febrile illness and skin rashes returning from endemic region. Conservative treatment may be conducted in uncomplicated cases .
Motlagh, Farzaneh Gholami; Karimi, Mahboubeh; Hasanpour, Marzieh
Background: The negative attitudes and behaviors of Iranian nursing students impede learning and threaten their progression and retention in nursing programs. The need to understand students’ perception and experiences of nursing provide knowledge about effectiveness of nursing education program as well as their professional identity. The purpose of this study was to discover experiences of nursing students. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study, twelve senior nursing students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (School of Nursing and Midwifery) were participated. Data was collected via unstructured in-depth interview, and thematic analysis method was used for analyzing the data. Findings: The findings from this study revealed that the nursing students in Iran experienced altered experiences during their education program as positive and negative. Two major themes were constructed from the thematic analysis of the transcripts: professional dimensions and professional conflicts. Conclusions: Regarding the findings, positive experiences of students have leaded them to acceptance and satisfaction of nursing and negative experiences to rejection and hating of nursing and lack of adaptation with their professional roles. Therefore, it is recommended that revision and improvement in nursing education program is essential to facilitate positive experiences and remove negative experiences of nursing student’s educational environment. PMID:23833591
Khami, Mohammad Reza; Yazdani, Reza; Afzalimoghaddam, Mohammad; Razeghi, Samaneh; Moscowchi, Anahita
More than 18,000 patients need medical emergencies management in dental offices in Iran annually. The present study investigates medical emergencies management among Iranian dentists. From the list of the cell phone numbers of the dentists practicing in the city of Tehran, 210 dentists were selected randomly. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument. The questionnaire requested information on personal and professional characteristics of the dentists, as well as their knowledge and self-reported practice in the field of medical emergency management, and availability of required drugs and equipments to manage medical emergencies in their offices. Totally, 177 dentists (84%) completed the questionnaire. Less than 60% of the participants were knowledgeable about characteristics of hypoglycemic patient, chest pain with cardiac origin, and true cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practice. Regarding practice, less than one quarter of the respondents acquired acceptable scores. In regression models, higher practice scores were significantly associated with higher knowledge scores (p < 0.001). The results call for a need to further education on the subject for dentists. Continuing education and changing dental curriculum in the various forms seems to be useful in enhancement of the self-reported knowledge and practice of dentists. To successful control of medical emergencies in the dental office, dentists must be prepared to recognize and manage a variety of such conditions. In addition to dentist's knowledge and skill, availability of necessary equipments and trained staff is also of critical importance.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between presence of haptoglobin phenotypes and hypertension in indigenous Zambian patients attending outpatient medical clinic at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Methodology: The study was a descriptive, noninterventional, ...
The genetic structure of Nigerian indigenous pigs (NIP) and crossbred pigs were investigated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A total of 79 NIP blood samples were collected from three different locations within South-western Nigeria namely, Igbara Odo, Ekiti State (33 samples), Ogbooro, Oyo State (30 samples), ...
On the basis of literature from various fields an attempt is made to construct a holistic conceptual framework for reflection by LIS professionals. Some examples from South African projects are given to illustrate the possible roles of LIS in the preservation, development and promotion of indigenous languages. Innovation ...
Ackehurst, Maree; Polvere, Rose-Anne; Windley, Georgina
Indigenous educational and employment disadvantage is a much researched and discussed subject. The latest Prime Minister's Closing the Gap report (DPM&C 2017) shows that, while the gap is slowly decreasing in regard to participation in tertiary education, reducing employment disparity, particularly in remote areas, lags behind. This is despite…
Indigenous Community Insurance (Iddirs) as an Alternative Health Care Financing Shimeles O. et al. 53 ... 1.57 million urban and 9.50 million rural households of. Ethiopia. .... vs. 35.7%). The reasons for such preference were courteous service (16.1%) and physical accessibility. (16.1%) of the health facilities among others.
Full Text Available This article comments on Indigenous Australian art from an intercultural perspective. The painting Bush Tomato Dreaming (1998, by the Anmatyerre artist Lucy Ngwarai Kunoth serves as model case for my argument that art expresses existential social knowledge. In consequence, I will argue that social theory and art theory together provide tools for intercultural understanding and competence.
Dean SPGS NAU
content analysis on the dance Ekeleke. Our findings reveal the ... Indigenous dance is also an integral part of African culture because movements play vital .... would not be to replicate or re-stage the performance, but to transmit the knowledge accurately within a cultural, social and educational context of the dance. (29) ...
It is also pertinent to assess the effect of exogenous media on the indigenous media with regards to rural ... adopted modernization and social change theories as well as impact assessment model. Sampling was by .... resources to develop rural communities had created several conflicts. International communities had long ...
This study was conducted in order to identify indigenous microorganisms which have the capability to degrade biodiesel contaminated sites. Bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characterization in which nine bacteria were isolated from the site, Staphylococcus aureus and ...
Maria Yolanda Teran
Full Text Available This article is about Indigenous peoples’ involvement in the Nagoya Protocol negotiations from 2006 to 2010, as well as in its implementation to stop biopiracy in order to protect Pachamama, Mother Earth, and to ensure our survival and the survival of coming generations. The Nagoya Protocol is an international instrument that was adopted in Nagoya, Japan in October 2010 by the Conference of Parties (COP 10 and ratified by 51 countries in Pyeongchang, South Korea in October 2014 at COP 12. This protocol governs access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization (access and benefit sharing [ABS]. It has several articles related to Indigenous peoples and traditional knowledge, as well as: The interrelation and inseparable nature between genetic resources and traditional knowledge; The diversity of circumstances surrounding traditional knowledge ownership, including by country; The identification of traditional knowledge owners; The declaration of Indigenous peoples' human rights; and The role of women in the biodiversity process. In addition, this protocol lays out obligations on access, specifically participation in equitable benefit sharing, the accomplishment of prior and informed consent, and the mutually agreed terms and elaboration of a national legal ABS framework with the participation of Indigenous peoples and local communities in order to have well-defined roles, responsibilities, and times of negotiations.
Huss, Hans Henrik
The pathogenic bacteria indigenous to the aquatic and general environment are listed. Their distribution in nature, prevalence in seafood and the possibilities for growth of these organisms in various types of products are outlined These data, combined with what is known regarding the epidemiology...
This three-year research study examined the influence of interactive technologies on the math achievement of Indigenous students in Years 4, 5, 6 and 7 technology-equipped classrooms in a rural elementary school in British Columbia, Canada. Using a mixed-methods approach, the researcher conducted semistructured interviews and collected math…
Indigenous knowledge (IK) has faced and is still facing threats of extinction owing to lack of or inadequate documentation of its processes and usefulness. Researches in IK have, for many years, suffered a herculean task of data elicitation which in essence has negatively affected its documentation. This study was carried ...
Milman, N; Byg, K E; Mulvad, G
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate iron status in indigenous Greenlanders and its relationship to gender, age and intake of traditional Greenlandic foods. Methods: Serum ferritin, serum transferrin saturation and haemoglobin were evaluated in a population survey in 1993-1994 comprising 224 Greenlandic...
In this article we set out by problematising poverty, pointing out that poverty has been elaborately defined by people who do not find themselves in poverty situations. Given the complex and varied nature of poverty and socio-economic living conditions of people defined as indigenous and poor, we advocate for approaches ...
Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina
As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing…
Based on the above observations, this paper advocates the use and teaching of indigenous languages (Igbo) not only from primary and post-primary level but more importantly at the tertiary level- where there are untold number of undergraduates preparing to face the reality of life. The work collected five Igbo proverbs, ...
M.V.C. Falanruw; Francis Ruegorong
On Yap Island, indigenous management of the fallow in shifting agriculture has resulted in the development of site-stable taro patch and tree garden agroforestry systems. These systems are relatively sustainable and supportive of household economies , with some surplus for local market sales. however, a broad range of crops whose harvest is complementary to those...
Although indigenous agricultural knowledge is of immense value in improving food production, ..... “local herbs are crushed and mixed with water to activate hormones that increase milk production (locally called ..... researcher does not understand the local languages), memory failure on the part of the resource persons as ...
Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in milk coagulation and cheese ripening. To select strains showing interesting industrial features, two indigenous lactobacilli (Lactobacillus brevis and. Lactobacillus plantarum) were studied for aminopeptidase activity. Cell and cells free extract were tested for leucyl ...
This book brings together very insightful analyses of indigenous experience and strategies in the context of globalization from several continents and a number of theoretical perspectives. There are broad similarities making this a common struggle but the solutions arise from people solving problems in local contexts.
The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phytoremediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in remediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three ...
Studies of cultural tourism and indigenous identity are fraught with questions concerning exploitation, entitlement, ownership and authenticity. Unease with the idea of leveraging a group identity for commercial gain is ever-present. This anthology articulates some of these debates from a multitude
... the people of this country should harness a synergy between indigenous health care systems, scientific research and modern health care methods. This article attempts to address the historical evolution of health care methods in South Africa, its effect on the community as well as challenges facing the health professions.
This paper critically examines the integration of Ogiek's Indigenous Knowledge in Adult Environmental Education through ODL Strategies for Sustainable Conservation of Mau Forest in Kenya. An ethno-historical approach was employed in the design, instrumentation, data collection, analysis and interpretation. To achieve ...
The study examined indigenous communication, religion and education as determinants of attitudes towards STIs/HIV/AIDS education in Igando Community Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 195 people was randomly selected from the population. The study used four hypotheses to test the respondents' attitude to the use of ...
African indigenous knowledge: scientific or unscientific? ... Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ... Meanwhile, the attainment of such a sophisticated status in Western scientific research has been facilitated by its experimental methodology which has made possible the transfer of knowledge from one ...
These programs, partly funded by Mexico's Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT) (National council of science and technology), have considerably improved the participation of indigenous people in the country's education system. However, there continue to be important challenges in advancement ...
... in Ado-Ekiti, and the challenges of indigenous language policy implementation in Nigerian early childhood/pre-primary schools. The study identified some problems, which include lack of teachers specialized in Child Education, proliferation of private schools, and lack of adequate supervision by the appropriate body.
About 170 plants were produced from a single nodal bud of L. cornuta after 60 days. A reproducible protocol was established for in vitro propagation of L. cornuta, an important indigenous vegetable with high medicinal value. Keywords: Launaea cornuta, tissue culture, micropropagation, axillary buds, tissue culture ...
This paper is a report on the theoretical origins of a decolonizing research sensibility called Indigenous Metissage. This research praxis emerged parallel to personal and ongoing inquiries into historic and current relations connecting Aboriginal peoples and Canadians in the place now called Canada. I frame the colonial frontier origins of these…
Tropical countries are rich in biodiversity. For centuries, local/indigenous populations have used biodiversity as food, medicines, building materials and for other purposes. Traditional knowledge has been practised and passed on from one generation to another, and is intertwined with cultural and spiritual values. However ...
Curriculum 2005 (DoE, 1995) foregrounds indigenous knowledge systems as one of the themes that should be integrated across the curriculum. There is a move towards designing curricula that consider learners' cultural backgrounds, hence the emphasis on incorporating informal knowledge in the curriculum. This article ...
Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) are part and parcel of the individual practising within a specific community and environmental context. Westerners tend to view IKS as the African equivalent of Western science, technology and rationality. Such view is wrong as it can harm the place of IKS in traditional African ...
This study investigated the application of indigenous knowledge among livestock farmers in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. A structured questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty four respondents in the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
This article is based on the study that examined the application of indigenous knowledge in the management of drought. For purposes of manageability, it focused on Msinga village in KwaZulu-Natal, paying specific attention to droughts that have been recorded and that prevail in the area and the manner in which people ...
A postcolonial critical perspective is introduced to indicate the absolutisms on both sides and the tendency towards cultural and historical fixities. An attempt is also made to locate the border space of Indigenous Knowledge inquiry amidst present realities without becoming prone to new imbued epistemological fixities.
Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin
In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...
Drawing from papers presented at the five "Stabilizing Indigenous Languages" symposia held since 1994, this paper recommends strategies for language revitalization at various stages of language loss. Based on a study of minority languages worldwide, Joshua Fishman postulated a continuum of eight stages of language loss, ranging from the…
Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems ... The World Economic Forum describes water security as “the gossamer” linking global economic challenges such as: the systemic web of food, energy, climate, economic growth and human security livelihoods in rural areas are at risk due to poor access and ...
Use of FBG sensors for real time health monitoring of various civil engineering structures is well-established in western world since last decade, whereas in the Indian context this technology is still in a nascent stage. In this paper, performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG sensors for the application of health ...
In the 1970s, the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis invaded the South African coast and spread rapidly to dominate much of the West Coast, indicating either the opportunity to occupy a vacant niche or its superior competitive capability over indigenous species. In Namaqualand on the West Coast it appears to ...
South African Journal of Education; 2013; 33(4). 1. Art. #845, 15 pages, ... the direct participation of teachers in planning, researching, and developing learning and teaching materials (LTSMs), with a view .... come across vast amounts of accumulated knowledge, traditional skills, and technology of Cofimvaba's indigenous.
adequate attentions are not given to the teaching of literature in indigenous languages in primary schools. During its period in ... literature as studied in school, reveal that its adequate teaching and learning right from primary level of education will have ... is like removing his soul. Education in the mother tongue removes all ...
Indigenous people around the world both in developed and developing countries have long been marginalized by governments and /or by other privileged social groups from main stream social, political and economic activities. As a result they suffer indignity because their legitimate human rights are violated by way of ...
The results indicated highly significantly different (P<0.01), proportions of lean and fat significantly (P<0.05) different proportions of bone and skin in the carcasses of IND and LWXLD pig. The LWXLD pigs had more lean, and bone, less fat and skin, than the indigenous pigs. Carcass conformation was also clearly different in ...
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Sarkar, P.K.; Nout, M.J.R.
This book details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. The book discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant
Abstract. The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phytoremediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in remediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three ...
Indigenous communication, religion and education as determinants of attitudes towards STIs/HIV/AIDS education in Igando community, Lagos State, Nigeria. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.
Indigenous knowledge is the knowledge that people in a given community have developed overtime, and continues to develop. It is based on the experience, often tested over centuries of use, adapted to local culture and environment, dynamic and changing. People have an intimate knowledge of many aspects of their ...
Indigenous knowledge (IK) systems are very important for the communities from which they come from. Such knowledge dictates how people behave generally, how they relate with the land and other resources that they have, and how they make sense of the world around them. IK's importance is seemingly being ...
Full Text Available There are mismatches between indigenous knowledge (IK) and the media, representations and abstractions used to gather and depict IK in an increasing number of projects in Africa. We describe new studies that continue our efforts to digitally extend...
KEY DESCRIPTORS: Indigenous knowledge, Natural Resources Management, Environmental. Degradation .... The training programmes come with cost and the few who are able to understand, use it to the detriment of ... on Biological Diversity and the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (Hobart,. 1993).
This research undertook the study of ectoparasites and haemoparasites found on and in the body of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus). Six hundred and nineteen ectoparasites were collected from 375 chicken from 28 households in and around Ibadan city between February and November, 1999. Of these, 455 ...
The study was carried out to characterize two indigenous chickens of Nigeria using protein markers; haemolglobin (HB) and carbonic anhydrase (CA). Separation of the two proteins was achieved by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and direct gene counting method was employed to interpret the result. Palentological ...
A study to evaluate four indigenous chicken – namely: Horasi, Kuchi, Naked neck and Frizzled in order to obtain grand-parent and parent stocks was carried out at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Mpwapwa district of Dodoma, Tanzania. The perfomance of the ecotypes were compared so as to come out with the best ...
aromatic rice from Bihar had to be grouped separately being genotypically different from other cultivars. It could be concluded that microsatellite markers could efficiently identify indigenous non- Basmati aromatic rice genotypes which can help in genetic conservation management and support intellectual property protection ...
This paper discusses an experience of relying on indigenous knowledge to resolve a communal conflict between two Nigerian local communities. The authors were working in one of the communities when conflict erupted, and had to initiate moves to restore peace and normality. They relied largely on information on the ...
The paper discusses the history of newspapers that are in indigenous languages in Swaziland and looks at the role that they play in informing society. It argues that the newspaper is the main means for making people get involved in governance because it makes people know what is happening around them. It states that ...
The implementation of intercultural health programs, often understood as the integration of indigenous and biomedical models of medicine, is a common challenge in many countries. Currently there is great interest in implementing intercultural health programs in Peru and throughout the Latin American region. This project ...
Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in milk coagulation and cheese ripening. To select strains showing interesting industrial features, two indigenous lactobacilli (Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum) were studied for aminopeptidase activity. Cell and cells free extract were tested for leucyl aminopeptidase ...
Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping
In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China.
F GOL BIDI
Full Text Available Introduction. Dental stones are widely used in dentistry and the success or failure of many dental treatments depend on the accuracy of these gypsums. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of Iranian dental stones and comparison between Iranian and foreign ones. In this investigation, consistency and setting time were compared between Pars Dendn, Almas and Hinrizit stones. The latter is accepted by ADA (American Dental Association. Consistency and setting time are 2 of 5 properties that are necessitated by both ADA specification No. 25 and Iranian Standard Organization specification No. 2569 for evaluation of dental stones. Methods. In this study, the number and preparation of specimens and test conditions were done according to the ADA specification No. 25 and all the measurements were done with vicat apparatus. Results. The results of this study showed that the standard consistency of Almas stone was obtained by 42ml water and 100gr powder and the setting time of this stone was 11±0.03 min. Which was with in the limits of ADA specification (12±4 min. The standard consistency of Pars Dandan stone was obrianed by 31ml water and 100 gr powder, but the setting time of this stone was 5± 0.16 min which was nt within the limits of ADA specification. Discussion: Comparison of Iranian and Hinrizit stones properties showed that two probable problems of Iranian stones are:1- Unhemogrnousity of Iranian stoned powder was caused by uncontrolled temperature, pressure and humidity in the production process of stone. 2- Impurities such as sodium chloride was responsible fo shortening of Pars Dendens setting time.
Population genetic variability was relatively high when compared to other African breeds. Only 4.5% of the total genetic variation could be ... The results support the hypothesis of the Bovino de Tete cattle being a result of crossbreeding between Sanga and Zebu breeds. This study presents the first extensive information on ...
Barker, Brittany; Goodman, Ashley; DeBeck, Kora
In Canada, Indigenous youth suicide represents one of several health disparities burdening Indigenous populations, and like many other of these disparities, can be understood as an expression of societal, historical, cultural and familial trauma. As the number of Indigenous youth who take their own lives every year in Canada continues to far exceed national averages, it appears that conventional suicide prevention efforts remain ineffective among this population. A growing body of research argues that conventional interventions, largely rooted in Western individual-level behavioural change frameworks, are culturally discordant with Indigenous paradigms. In response, some Indigenous communities are turning to cultural revitalization as a holistic community-driven response to suicide prevention and treatment. The following commentary explores the emerging evidence base for "culture as treatment" - a novel approach to suicide that emphasizes the significance of interconnectedness in healing, alongside the revitalization of traditional values to reclaim community wellness. In doing so, we seek to contribute to a changing discourse surrounding Indigenous youth suicide by acknowledging culture as strength against this national crisis.
de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Neto, Marcos Chiquitelli; de França Carvalho Fonsêca, Vinícius
This work aimed at characterizing the thermal balance of Nellore cattle from the system of indirect calorimetry using a facial mask. The study was conducted at the Animal Biometeorology Laboratory of the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil. Five male Nellore weighing 750 ± 62 kg, at similar ages and body conditions were distributed in four 5 × 5 Latin squares (5 days of records and five schedules) during 20 days. Physiological and environmental measurements were obtained from the indirect calorimetry system using a facial mask. Respiratory parameters, hair coat, skin, and rectal temperature were continuously recorded. From this, metabolic heat production, sensible and latent ways of heat transfer were calculated. Metabolic heat production had an average value of 146.7 ± 0.49 W m-2 and did not change (P > 0.05) over the range of air temperature (24 to 35 °C). Sensible heat flow reached 60.08 ± 0.81 W m-2 when air temperature ranged from 24 to 25 °C, being negligible in conditions of temperature above 33 °C. Most of the heat produced by metabolism was dissipated by cutaneous evaporation when air temperature was greater than 30 °C. Respiratory parameters like respiratory rate and ventilation remained stable (P > 0.05) in the range of temperature studied. Under shade conditions and air temperature range from 24 to 35 °C, metabolic heat production, respiratory rate, and ventilation of mature Nellore cattle remain stable, which is indicative of low energetic cost to the thermoregulation.
P. Guru Vishnu
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal profile of indigenous pigs by computing morphometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cytogenetic study was carried out in 60 indigenous pigs to analyze the chromosomal profile by employing the short term peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique. Results: The modal chromosome number (2n in indigenous pigs was found to be 38 and a fundamental number of 64 as in the exotic. First chromosome was the longest pair, and thirteenth pair was the second largest while Y-chromosome was the smallest in the karyotype of the pig. The mean relative length, arm ratio, centromeric indices and morphological indices of chromosomes varied from 1.99±0.01 to 11.23±0.09, 1.04±0.05 to 2.95±0.02, 0.51±0.14 to 0.75±0.09 and 2.08±0.07 to 8.08±0.15%, respectively in indigenous pigs. Sex had no significant effect (p>0.05 on all the morphometric measurements studied. Conclusion: The present study revealed that among autosomes first five pairs were sub metacentric, next two pairs were sub telocentric (6-7, subsequent five pairs were metacentric (8-12 and remaining six pairs were telocentric (13-18, while both allosomes were metacentric. The chromosomal number, morphology and various morphometric measurements of the chromosomes of the indigenous pigs were almost similar to those established breeds reported in the literature.
Lakhani, Ali; Townsend, Clare; Bishara, Jason
To identify the types of research focusing on Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) amongst Indigenous people in order to (i) synthesise their findings and (ii) ascertain where research gaps exist. A systematic review using the PRISMA approach was employed. Eight databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature published at any date. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The majority of studies focused on the prevalence or incidence of TBI amongst Indigenous people (n = 15). Twelve of these found Indigenous people had a higher prevalence or incidence of TBI compared to non-Indigenous people. Under-researched areas include (with number of articles identified in brackets): Indigenous level of injury or recovery (n = 2), neuropsychological assessment and TBI (n = 3), Indigenous perspectives of TBI (n = 2), Indigenous intervention for TBI (n = 1), and rehabilitation for TBI (n = 4). Published studies demonstrate that Indigenous people have a higher prevalence or incidence of TBI compared to non-Indigenous people. Limited studies explore culturally appropriate rehabilitation and intervention methods and Indigenous understandings of TBI. It is imperative that future research consider the nature and efficacy of culturally appropriate approaches and their contribution towards better outcomes for Indigenous people with TBI, and their families and communities.
Melissa J. Stoneham
Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.
Luis Fernando ANGOSTO FERRÁNDEZ
Full Text Available This article examines the Venezuelan regional elections of 2008 as a contextual event for the analysis of electoral strategies and results associated with the indigenous representation. Three factors intertwined in the electoral moment are analyzed: 1. the existence of minimum guaranteed representation for indigenous population in legislative organs; 2. the participation of indigenous candidates and electors; 3. the maneuvers of political parties and civil organizations that attempt to channel and/or benefit from such indigenous representation and participation. The description of the electoral context facilitates the identification of factors that, beyond the normative structure of the State, condition the agency of individuals and parties involved in electoral processes. Among those factors are the symbolic value of indigeneity in the current process of national identity re-definition, the interest of political parties in controlling the vote of the indigenous representation and the tendency towards the consolidation of professionalized elites within the indigenous activism.
Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.
Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Economies of scale in genomics promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be transferred across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying mult...
Cattle fever ticks (CFT) Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus are invasive livestock pests that are endemic to Mexico and invasive along the Texas – Mexico border. Acaricide resistance, alternate wildlife hosts, and pathogenic landscape forming weeds present challenges for sustainable...
Full Text Available By analyzing the forms and contents of the presentations made by indigenous performers and writers at the I Literary Party of Indigenous Poetics, this article exposes the challenges faced by traditional genre theories in tackling indigenous narratives and analyses how this “crisis” contributes to widening hierarchical and Western biased conceptions. On a stage open to contemporary indigenous expression, as is the literary party, the concepts of performance and storytelling, with the social function of maintaining tradition, continuous learning and transformation, better define this indigenous expression.
Foreman, Joshua; Xie, Jing; Keel, Stuart; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Sandhu, Sukhpal Singh; Ang, Ghee Soon; Fan Gaskin, Jennifer; Crowston, Jonathan; Bourne, Rupert; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed
To conduct a nationwide survey on the prevalence and causes of vision loss in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based survey. Indigenous Australians aged 40 years or older and non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older. Multistage random-cluster sampling was used to select 3098 non-Indigenous Australians and 1738 Indigenous Australians from 30 sites across 5 remoteness strata (response rate of 71.5%). Sociodemographic and health data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Trained examiners conducted standardized eye examinations, including visual acuity, perimetry, slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure, and fundus photography. The prevalence and main causes of bilateral presenting vision loss (visual acuity Indigenous Australians and 6.5% (95% CI, 5.3-7.9) in non-Indigenous Australians. Vision loss was 2.8 times more prevalent in Indigenous Australians than in non-Indigenous Australians after age and gender adjustment (17.7%, 95% CI, 14.5-21.0 vs. 6.4%, 95% CI, 5.2-7.6, P Indigenous Australians, the leading causes of vision loss were uncorrected refractive error (61.3%), cataract (13.2%), and age-related macular degeneration (10.3%). In Indigenous Australians, the leading causes of vision loss were uncorrected refractive error (60.8%), cataract (20.1%), and diabetic retinopathy (5.2%). In non-Indigenous Australians, increasing age (odds ratio [OR], 1.72 per decade) and having not had an eye examination within the past year (OR, 1.61) were risk factors for vision loss. Risk factors in Indigenous Australians included older age (OR, 1.61 per decade), remoteness (OR, 2.02), gender (OR, 0.60 for men), and diabetes in combination with never having had an eye examination (OR, 14.47). Vision loss is more prevalent in Indigenous Australians than in non-Indigenous Australians, highlighting that improvements in eye healthcare in Indigenous communities are required. The leading causes of
The nutrition of dairy cattle in relation to milk production forms an integral part of bigger businesses with livestock farming. This Bachelor thesis introduces a division of dairy cattle to categories according to the milk production and the number of days during the dry period at the same time. Furthermore, the nutrients needed for the milk production are mentioned. For individual nutrients, there are the standards of individual fodder and needs of the dairy cows in relation to their weight...
Chopyk, Jessica; Moore, Ryan M; DiSpirito, Zachary; Stromberg, Zachary R; Lewis, Gentry L; Renter, David G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Moxley, Rodney A; Wommack, K Eric
Since 1982, specific serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been recognized as significant foodborne pathogens acquired from contaminated beef and, more recently, other food products. Cattle are the major reservoir hosts of these organisms, and while there have been advancements in food safety practices and industry standards, STEC still remains prevalent within beef cattle operations with cattle hides implicated as major sources of carcass contamination. To investigate whether the composition of hide-specific microbial communities are associated with STEC prevalence, 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) bacterial community profiles were obtained from hide and fecal samples collected from a large commercial feedlot over a 3-month period. These community data were examined amidst an extensive collection of prevalence data on a subgroup of STEC that cause illness in humans, referred to as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Fecal 16S rRNA gene OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were subtracted from the OTUs found within each hide 16S rRNA amplicon library to identify hide-specific bacterial populations. Comparative analysis of alpha diversity revealed a significant correlation between low bacterial diversity and samples positive for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and/or the non-O157 groups: O26, O111, O103, O121, O45, and O145. This trend occurred regardless of diversity metric or fecal OTU presence. The number of EHEC serogroups present in the samples had a compounding effect on the inverse relationship between pathogen presence and bacterial diversity. Beta diversity data showed differences in bacterial community composition between samples containing O157 and non-O157 populations, with certain OTUs demonstrating significant changes in relative abundance. The cumulative prevalence of the targeted EHEC serogroups was correlated with low bacterial community diversity on pre-harvest cattle hides. Understanding the relationship between indigenous hide
Full Text Available Morphological characterization of Madura cattle in Madura islands was done as an input for "action plans" of national animals genetic resources management according to the global system ofFAO. Assessments were done in Sumenep District and Pamekasan District, East Java. According to the body measurements, Madura cattle can be classified as a small to medium type with withers height of about 120 cm. Because of potential productivity in the limitation of environmental resources, Madura cattle can be classified as a "superior" cattle . Body measurements of Madura cattle in the present study were relatively the same with those of 50 years ago, indicating that there is no breeding improvement activities except natural selection . The variability of body measurements is relatively narrow . Improving productivity by outbreeding is needed . To conserve the unique germ plasm of the Indonesian genotype, such as Madura cattle and a possibility to improve their productivity by a complete prevention of cross breeding in the Madura islands needs further evaluation .
Ogilvie, T.H.; Butler, D.G.; Gartley, C.J.; Dohoo, I.R.
A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). The mean percent dry matter content of the cattle feces changed significantly (Pmetabolic alkalosis as determined by base excess values. The base excess values remained elevated for 24 hours in the MgO treated group compared to only 12 hours after MgSO4 administration. Following MgO administration, mean hydrogen ion concentration (pH), bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3-]) and base excess were 7.44, 33.3 mmol/L and +8.0 respectively compared to 7.38, 27 mmol/L and +3.0 after MgSO4. Since the oral use of MgO in normal cattle causes a greater and more prolonged metabolic alkalosis compared to MgSO4, MgO is contraindicated as a cathartic in normal cattle or in cattle with abomasal abnormalities characterized by pyloric obstruction and metabolic alkalosis. PMID:6883181
Abdullah M Bamualim
Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.
Andrei Cristian Grădinaru
Full Text Available The paper aims to review literature data with respect to Romanian native cattle breeds which are considered at risk of extinction. In the last decades, the number of individuals of Romanian indigenous cows decreased significantly, as a consequence of the intensification and specialization of animal productions and agriculture modernization. Some of the native cattle breeds are already lost, due to their crossing with improved breeds. However, after the accession of Romania to the European Union, various preservation programs were initiated, and most of them included biochemical research and studies of molecular or quantitative genetics. All these, associated with the application of reproduction biotechnologies, give a chance to these animals, which are extremely valuable in terms of their genetic resistance to diseases and environmental factors. The reviewed literature on Romanian indigenous endangered cattle breeds confirms that these animals are carriers of a valuable gene pool, which can be kept and bred while applying different reproductive biotechnologies. Consequently, this paper raises awareness on two issues: the decrease of genetic diversity in two Romanian native cow breeds threatened with extinction (Grey Steppe and Romanian Pinzgauer; and the benefits of genetic diversity of the two breeds.
Schuch, Helena S; Haag, Dandara G; Kapellas, Kostas; Arantes, Rui; Peres, Marco A; Thomson, W M; Jamieson, Lisa M
To compare the magnitude of relative oral health inequalities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous persons from Brazil, New Zealand and Australia. Data were from surveys in Brazil (2010), New Zealand (2009) and Australia (2004-06 and 2012). Participants were aged 35-44 years and 65-74 years. Indigenous and non-Indigenous inequalities were estimated by prevalence ratios (PR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for sex, age and income. Outcomes included inadequate dentition, untreated dental caries, periodontal disease and the prevalence of "fair" or "poor" self-rated oral health in Australia and New Zealand, and satisfaction with mouth/teeth in Brazil (SROH). Irrespective of country, Indigenous persons had worse oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts in all indicators. The magnitude of these ratios was greatest among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, who, after adjustments, had 2.77 times the prevalence of untreated dental caries (95% CI 1.76, 4.37), 5.14 times the prevalence of fair/poor SROH (95% CI 2.53, 10.43). Indigenous people had poorer oral health than their non-Indigenous counterparts, regardless of setting. The magnitude of the relative inequalities was greatest among Indigenous Australians for untreated dental decay and poor SROH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Souza, Maximiliano Loiola Ponte de; Onety, Ricardo Tadeu da Silva
to describe suicide characteristics and mortality rates among indigenous and non-indigenous people in Roraima, Brazil. descriptive study using data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) about the suicides in individuals over 10 years old, recorded in the period from 2009 to 2013; suicide mortality rates were adjusted by sex and age. 170 suicide cases were reported, being 17.1% among indigenous people; median ages were 24 years among indigenous and 29 among non-indigenous people; four municipalities concentrated 25/29 of the suicides among indigenous people; the 141 suicides among non-indigenous people were distributed in 13/15 municipalities in the state; suicide mortality rates were 15.0/100,000 among indigenous people and 8.6/100,000 among non-indigenous people. ethnic-racial peculiarities stood out in suicide mortality; among the indigenous people, rates were higher, younger ages prevailed and deaths were concentrated in a smaller number of municipalities, when compared to non-indigenous people.
Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Chalak, Mahjabin; Montazeralfaraj, Razieh; Dehghani Tafti, Arefeh
In recent decades, patient safety has become a high priority health system issue, due to the high potential of occurring adverse events in health facilities. This study was aimed to survey patient safety culture in 2 Iranian educational hospitals. In a descriptive, cross-sectional survey, a hospital survey on patient safety culture, was used in two teaching hospitals in Yazd, Iran during 2012. Study population was comprised of the same hospitals' nurses. Stratified-random sampling method was used and distributed among a total of 340 randomly-selected nurses from different units. From all distributed questionnaires, 302 ones were answered completely and afterwards analyzed using SPSS 17. Dimensional- and item-level positive scores were used for results reporting. Additionally descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), independent sample t-test and ANOVA were sued for data analyzing. Research findings demonstrated that both hospitals had low to average scores in all dimensions of patient safety culture. Non-punitive response to error, staffing and frequency of events reported had the lowest positive scores of patient safety dimensions with scores 15.26, 19.26, 16.65, 30 and 32.87, 31.10 respectively in Shahid Sadoughi and Shahid Rahnemoon Hospitals. Also only 29.20 and 28.80 percent of nurses in Shahid Sadoughi and Shahid Rahnemoon Hospitals, respectively, evaluated the patient safety grade of their hospital as "excellent" and "very good". Indeed, the studied hospitals had a statistical difference in 3 dimensions of patient safety culture (frequency of events reported, organizational learning and staffing). (P ≤ 0.05). Our study results were indicating of the challenge of weak patient safety culture, in educational hospitals. Therefore, the issue should be integrated to all policy makers and managerial initiatives in our health system, as a top priority.
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BACKGROUND: Data on age in developing countries are subject to errors, particularly in circumstances where literacy levels are not high. A common error in age reporting is the tendency of rounding the ages to the nearest figure ending in ‘0’ or ‘5’ or to a lesser extent, to the nearest even number. Because of this tendency, commonly known as “digital preference”, age heaping occurs at certain ages. The aim of this study was to study this phenomenon and both Myers’ and Whipple’s Indexes were employed to identify the digit preference in Iranian national census, 2005.
METHODS: Myers’ and Whipple’s Indexes were employed to study the pattern of digit preference. The Myers' Blended Index shows heaping at ages ending in 0 and 5 years, and the pattern of heaping is pronounced for both urban and rural populations.
RESULTS: The quality of age reporting for the 2005 census data was poor if compared to the 1995 census data. Digit preference occurred most often in the female population compared to male one, and in rural areas compared to urban ones.
CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that both males and females tend to misreport their ages before age 60 especially in rural areas. So, whenever any data gathering regarding age information occurs, the ID card should be used regardless of person's self report.
Since August 2005, Iran's campaign to enrich uranium and acquire other technologies and practical experience that would enable it to produce nuclear weapons has gained momentum. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and militant elements in Iran's ruling circle pointedly continue to defy international demands to cease uranium enrichment while the International Atomic Energy Agency's doubts about the peacefulness of Iran's past nuclear activities remain unresolved - according to the IAEA, Iran has not provided adequate cooperation to help resolve these doubts. This obstinate stance, paired with an aggressive posture toward Israel, has heightened Ahmadinejad's popularity in the wider Arab world, including among Sunnis. The popularity of Iran's defiant position has, in turn, hardened Iran's resistance to international policy objectives to constrain the nuclear program. This essay explores five broad pathways by which Iran and the international community can try to resolve the nuclear standoff. It emphasizes that the Bush Administration after years of indecision has invested seriously in a diplomatic strategy to induce Iran to forego uranium enrichment and is prepared to pursue behavior change rather than regime change in Iran. However, Iranian resistance continues to raise the prospect that the international community will favor the competing approach of capitulation, which in turn would re-raise the prospects of military attack. 1. Capitulate to Iran and Welcome Limited Uranium Enrichment; 2. Offer Sanctions and Positive Incentives To Persuade Iran Not to Produce Nuclear Fuel (for an agreed substantial period of time); 3. Attack Iran's Nuclear Facilities and/or Military Assets; 4. Foster Regime Change in Iran; 5. Try Options 1 or 2, While Strengthening Deterrence and Containment. (author)
Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Abedian, Kobra
One proposed strategy to improve youth health is needs assessment, a process for determining and addressing the needs of individual groups. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes and perceptions of Iranian university students toward reproductive health needs, in order to promote the provision of reproductive health services. Using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 548 students who were randomly selected from eight universities in Sari City, Iran. Topics covered the participants' attitudes towards reproductive health needs as well as their opinion about proper sources of information in this area, as measured using a 5-point Likert scale. The mean age of participants was 21.57 years, and 57.82% were female. The maximum score of perceived reproductive health needs was related to "Be informed about appropriate behavior with my spouse", and the majority of students (82.82%) supported family-based reproductive health education with emphasis on the mothers' role. Although 65.14% of the participants agreed that "When a young has been raped, it's better that she/he counsel with her/his family", 11.67% of them stated that she/he must hide the problem. Finally, we found that 60.40% of the students preferred someone in a health care center as the one to explain how to use any contraception that may be provided for them. Taken as a whole, these findings support the critical importance of programming for university students as part of a comprehensive strategy to improve the health and development of young adults.
Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn
Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...
[Mahmoud S. K., Khorrami A., Rafeey M., Ghergherehchi R. and Sima M. D. 2017 Molecular analysis of glycogen storage disease type Ia in Iranian Azeri ... G6PC gene; Azeri Turkish; glycogen storage disease type Ia; novel mutation; Azeri Turkish sequencing. ... Approximately 5 ml of intravenous blood samples were col-.
Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...
Hyoscyamus sp. is well known as a natural source of two main tropan alkaloids including hyoscyamine and scopolamine. The environmental conditions make a very wide diversity of this herb in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity within a set of 45 Iranian accessions of Hyoscyamus sp. using ...
This may occur by mutations and extinction of elements during evolution. The identification of these retrotransposable elements for the first time in Iranian river buffalo represents an important step towards the understanding of mechanisms of genome evolution within the species and perhaps will be useful in other related ...
Mehdizadeh, Narjes; Scott, Gill
Despite the important contribution of the adjustment of international students to successful academic performance in the host country, little research has been done in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to collect factual information about adjustment problems of Iranian international students in Scotland, such as psycho-social and…
Although Podoces pleskei is the only endemic bird of Iran, little information exists on its ecological features, population dynamics and threats that concern it. This species occurs in desert and semi desert areas, mostly on the Iranian plateau, though its range spreads southeast ward to the Iran- Pakistan border.
Oil workers played a pivotal role during the Iranian Revolution of 1978-1979. Involving tens of thousands of workers, oil strikes paralyzed the state and paved the way for the Shah's downfall. Various accounts of these strikes, however, ignore the subjectivity and agency of the oil workers by
This article examines the recent developments and changes concerning Iranian music education from the constitutional revolution of 1905 to 2014. This concentrates on the five major chronological events referred to as Nationalism, Modernism, Conservatism, Neo-Traditionalism (Shirin-navazi) and Revivalism of the Traditions. This provides a source of…
Oil workers played a pivotal role during the Iranian Revolution of 1978–1979. Involving tens of thousands of workers, oil strikes paralyzed the state and paved the way for the Shah’s downfall. Various accounts of these strikes, however, ignore the subjectivity and agency of the oil workers by
Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…
Abdolsalehi-Najafi, Emon; Beckman, Linda J
Although the experience of sex guilt has been considered among a variety of ethnic groups, the area has not yet been empirically explored among Iranian American women. The present study investigated the relationship between sexual self-schema (i.e., beliefs about the sexual aspects of oneself), acculturation, and sex guilt, and it further examined the association between sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian American women. A total of 65 Iranian American women, with a mean age of 31.3 years (SD = 11.7), completed five self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicated a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-schema and sex guilt. More specifically, women who endorsed negative self-views regarding their sexual self reported higher levels sex guilt. Results revealed that acculturation was unrelated to sex guilt, when the effect of being Muslim or non-Muslim was controlled. Women with high sex guilt reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Moreover, analyses for mediation effects supported sex guilt as a partially mediating variable between sexual self-schema and life satisfaction. Levels of sex guilt were higher among Muslim women when compared to women of other religious affiliations. Additionally, Muslim women appeared to be significantly less acculturated to Western ideals than other religious groups. The present findings suggest that mental health professionals who provide services to Iranian American women need to consider the negative effects of sex guilt, particularly among Muslim women.
Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad
Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. This case-control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35-75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;"Healthy pattern"and "Iranian pattern". Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05-2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.
Full Text Available Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC.Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases. Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI=1.05–2.19 while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47.Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.
Determination of histamine in Iranian cheese using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Mojtaba Rashedi1*, Mohsen Panahi Dorcheh2, Mohammad Salajegheh2, Amin Mohammadi2,. Mohammad Reza Hajimirzaei2 and Ebrahim Rahimi1,3. 1Young Researchers Club, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ...
Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan
In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…
Full Text Available Teacher self-disclosure (TSD as a communication behavior can influence students' learning by increasing their engagement and class participation as well as helping them establish effective interpersonal relationships. Owning to its context-sensitive and culture-dependent nature, however, TSD topics, purposes, and considerations may vary cross-culturally. This study was an attempt to explore Iranian EFL teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD as well as to investigate whether there was a significant difference between male and female teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD. To this end, the Appropriateness of Teacher Self-Disclosure Scale was distributed among 68 Iranian EFL teachers (34 females and 34 males from six language institutes. The results of the study indicated the extent to which the Iranian EFL teachers perceived TSD topics, purposes, and considerations to be appropriate or inappropriate. Furthermore, the study found convergence and divergence between male and female teachers' perceptions in terms of the topics used in TSD, the purposes TSD serves in classroom, and considerations the teachers take into account when practicing TSD. The results of the study suggest that Iranian EFL teachers can practice TSD as a pedagogical tool to enhance learning although they should be wary of its consequences in some aspects as TSD is contingent upon context and culture.
Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid
Root cause analysis (RCA) has been widely used for retrospective investigations of patient safety incidents. To increase patient safety competencies, RCA has recently been introduced in Iranian hospitals. The aims of the current study were to explore team members' experiences and perceptions of RCA and to identify the challenges and benefits of using it in Iranian hospitals from their perspective. A qualitative study was conducted consisting of 32 semi-structured interviews with health professionals who participated in the national training programme and were involved in RCA investigations. Data were analysed using the thematic analysis method. The participants encountered a range of obstacles while conducting RCA, including time constraints, a lack of resources, the blame culture and unsupportive colleagues. They stressed the need for further leadership support and cultural change within the Iranian healthcare system to facilitate the application of RCA. RCA was perceived as a beneficial analytical tool that improved patient care, fostered teamwork and communication among staff and promoted safety culture. This study concluded that applying RCA in the Iranian healthcare setting has had a significant impact on improving commitment to safety. However, the general adoption of this method is hindered by the lack of workplace and system supports. To maximize profits from RCA, clinical leaders must assign a high priority to RCA investigations and support RCA team efforts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.