WorldWideScience

Sample records for indian terrestrial vertebrates

  1. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  2. Mapping and Quantifying Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast functions of ecosystems is critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, species, ecosystem), biodiversity has always been difficult to measure precisely, especially within a systematic manner and over multiple scales. In answer to this challenge, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has created a partnership with other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and Non-Governmental Organizations to develop the EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas), an online national Decision Support Tool that allows users to view and analyze the geographical description of the supply and demand for ecosystem services, as well as the drivers of change. As part of the EnviroAtlas, an approach has been developed that uses deductive habitat models for all terrestrial vertebrates of the conterminous United States and clusters them into biodiversity metrics that relate to ecosystem service-relevant categories. Metrics, such as species and taxon richness, have been developed and integrated with other measures of biodiversity. Collectively, these metrics provide a consistent scalable process from which to make geographic comparisons, provide thematic assessments, and to monitor status and trends in biodiversity. The national biodiversity component operates across approximatel

  3. Mapping and Quantifying Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast functions of ecosystems is critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, species, ecosystem), biodiversity has always been difficult to measure precisely, especially within a systematic manner and over multiple scales. In answer to this challenge, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has created a partnership with other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and Non-Governmental Organizations to develop the EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas), an online national Decision Support Tool that allows users to view and analyze the geographical description of the supply and demand for ecosystem services, as well as the drivers of change. As part of the EnviroAtlas, an approach has been developed that uses deductive habitat models for all terrestrial vertebrates of the conterminous United States and clusters them into biodiversity metrics that relate to ecosystem service-relevant categories. Metrics, such as species and taxon richness, have been developed and integrated with other measures of biodiversity. Collectively, these metrics provide a consistent scalable process from which to make geographic comparisons, provide thematic assessments, and to monitor status and trends in biodiversity. The national biodiversity component operates across approximatel

  4. Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Mary Higby

    2011-05-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils -- i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record -- hold the greatest potential for understanding aspects of the biology of long-extinct animals and are the best targets for the search for endogenous biomolecules. Yet the modes of preservation of these labile components, and exactly what remains of the original composition, are not well understood. Here, I review a selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates, examine chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation, explore the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies, and suggest clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation of these well-preserved tissues.

  5. Threats from climate change to terrestrial vertebrate hotspots in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Maiorano

    Full Text Available We identified hotspots of terrestrial vertebrate species diversity in Europe and adjacent islands. Moreover, we assessed the extent to which by the end of the 21(st century such hotspots will be exposed to average monthly temperature and precipitation patterns which can be regarded as extreme if compared to the climate experienced during 1950-2000. In particular, we considered the entire European sub-continent plus Turkey and a total of 1149 species of terrestrial vertebrates. For each species, we developed species-specific expert-based distribution models (validated against field data which we used to calculate species richness maps for mammals, breeding birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Considering four global circulation model outputs and three emission scenarios, we generated an index of risk of exposure to extreme climates, and we used a bivariate local Moran's I to identify the areas with a significant association between hotspots of diversity and high risk of exposure to extreme climates. Our results outline that the Mediterranean basin represents both an important hotspot for biodiversity and especially for threatened species for all taxa. In particular, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas host particularly high species richness as measured over all groups, while the eastern Mediterranean basin is particularly rich in amphibians and reptiles; the islands (both Macaronesian and Mediterranean host the highest richness of threatened species for all taxa occurs. Our results suggest that the main hotspots of biodiversity for terrestrial vertebrates may be extensively influenced by the climate change projected to occur over the coming decades, especially in the Mediterranean bioregion, posing serious concerns for biodiversity conservation.

  6. Climate and topography explain range sizes of terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Li, Xianping; Sandel, Brody; Blank, David; Liu, Zetian; Liu, Xuan; Yan, Shaofei

    2016-05-01

    Identifying the factors that influence range sizes of species provides important insight into the distribution of biodiversity, and is crucial for predicting shifts in species ranges in response to climate change. Current climate (for example, climate variability and climate extremes), long-term climate change, evolutionary age, topographic heterogeneity, land area and species traits such as physiological thermal limits, dispersal ability, annual fecundity and body size have been shown to influence range size. Yet, few studies have examined the generality of each of these factors among different taxa, or have simultaneously evaluated the strength of relationships between range size and these factors at a global scale. We quantify contributions of these factors to range sizes of terrestrial vertebrates (mammals, birds and reptiles) at a global scale. We found that large-ranged species experience greater monthly extremes of maximum or minimum temperature within their ranges, or occur in areas with higher long-term climate velocity and lower topographic heterogeneity or lower precipitation seasonality. Flight ability, body mass and continent width are important only for particular taxa. Our results highlight the importance of climate and topographic context in driving range size variation. The results suggest that small-range species may be vulnerable to climate change and should be the focus of conservation efforts.

  7. A National System to Map and Quantify Terrestrial Vertebrate ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiversity is crucial for the functioning of ecosystems and the products and services from which we transform natural assets of the Earth for human survival, security, and well-being. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is absolutely critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment now and into the future. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, species, ecosystem), biodiversity has always been difficult to measure precisely, especially within a systematic manner and over multiple scales.Nevertheless, the need to measure and assess occurrence of biodiversity, changes over time and space, agents of change, and consequences for the provision of ecosystem services for human livelihood remains important. In answer to this challenge, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has created a partnership with other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and Non-Governmental Organizations to develop the EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas), an online national Decision Support Tool that allows users to view and analyze the geographical description of the supply and demand for ecosystem services, as well as the drivers of change. As part of the EnviroAtlas, an approach has been developed that uses deductive habitat models for all the terrestrial vertebrates of the conterminous United States and cluste

  8. Devonian tides: a driver for the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Hannah; Green, Mattias

    2017-04-01

    The Devonian era saw one of the biggest evolutionary phases for Vertebrates, branching off from lobed-finned fish (sarcopterygians) to develop limbs enabling the transition from a marine to a terrestrial life. It has recently been suggested that the evolutionary pressure came from unusually large semidiurnal tides at the time, leaving individuals stranded in rock pools for up to a fortnight. It was therefore advantageous if the organism had some form of mechanism to transition between these pools, and so brought about the development of limbs. Here, we simulate the tides from the Devonian using the dedicated tidal model OTIS and a series of Devonian plate reconstructions. The reconstructions span the entire Devonian era (410 Mya - 340 Mya) and comprise of Classic and Alternative models of the Devonian. The results shows that as Gondwana and Laurasia collided, the ocean basin between them did go through several resonances, indeed producing unusually large local tides and associated spring-neap cycles. This not only support the idea that tides produced the pressure for the evolution of tetrapods, but can also have contributed to the vast areas of anoxia implied by the sediments from the period which led to mass extinction events during the late Devonian.

  9. Checklist of the terrestrial vertebrates of the Guiana Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Distributions are given for 1850 species of terrestrial vertebrates in the Guiana Shield region of northeastern South America, with introductory text by the authors of each section. Distributions cover the three Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana), and the states of the Venezuelan Guayna (Amazonas, Bolivar, and Delta Amacuro), and in some cases the states of the Brazilian portion of the Guiana Shield (Amazonas, Roraima, Para, and Amapa), and the Colombian portion of the Guiana Shield. The first section is a checklist of amphibians of the Guiana Shield, by J. Celsa Sefiaris and Ross MacCulloch, detailing the distribution of 269 species. The second section is a checklist of the reptiles of the Guiana Shield by Teresa C. S. de Avila Pires, detailing the distribution of 295 species. The third section is a checklist of the birds of the Guiana Shield, by Chris Milensky, Wiltshire Hinds, Alexandre Aleixo, and Maria de Fatima C. Lima, detailing the distribution of 1004 species. The fourth section is a checklist of the mammals of the Guiana Shield, by Burton K. Lim, Mark D. Engstrom, and Jose Ochoa G., detailing the distribution of 282 species.

  10. Use of Non-Wildlife Passages Across a High Speed Railway by Terrestrial Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Crema, Giulia; Delibes, M.

    1996-01-01

    Seventeen culverts and pathway passages across a high speed railway were monitored for one year in order to determine factors influencing their use by terrestrial vertebrates. 2. Carnivores, lagomorphs, small mammals and reptiles used the passages. Crossing rates generally reflected the spatiotemporal variation in vertebrate abundance and activity, suggesting that the passages could be valuable in allowing movement across the railway. 3. Wild ungulates known to be present did not use the pass...

  11. Reproductive costs in terrestrial male vertebrates: insights from bird studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleu, Josefa; Gamelon, Marlène; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2016-01-27

    Reproduction requires resources that cannot be allocated to other functions resulting in direct reproductive costs (i.e. trade-offs between current reproduction and subsequent survival/reproduction). In wild vertebrates, direct reproductive costs have been widely described in females, but their occurrence in males remains to be explored. To fill this gap, we gathered 53 studies on 48 species testing direct reproductive costs in male vertebrates. We found a trade-off between current reproduction and subsequent performances in 29% of the species and in every clade. As 73% of the studied species are birds, we focused on that clade to investigate whether such trade-offs are associated with (i) levels of paternal care, (ii) polygyny or (iii) pace of life. More precisely for this third question, it is expected that fast species (i.e. short lifespan, early maturity, high fecundity) pay a cost in terms of survival, whereas slow species (with opposite characteristics) do so in terms of fecundity. Our findings tend to support this hypothesis. Finally, we pointed out the potential confounding effects that should be accounted for when investigating reproductive costs in males and strongly encourage the investigation of such costs in more clades to understand to what extent our results are relevant for other vertebrates.

  12. Oldest pathology in a tetrapod bone illuminates the origin of terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Peter J; Walmsley, Christopher W; Phillips, Matthew J; Quayle, Michelle R; Boisvert, Catherine A; McHenry, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    The origin of terrestrial tetrapods was a key event in vertebrate evolution, yet how and when it occurred remains obscure, due to scarce fossil evidence. Here, we show that the study of palaeopathologies, such as broken and healed bones, can help elucidate poorly understood behavioural transitions such as this. Using high-resolution finite element analysis, we demonstrate that the oldest known broken tetrapod bone, a radius of the primitive stem tetrapod Ossinodus pueri from the mid-Viséan (333 million years ago) of Australia, fractured under a high-force, impact-type loading scenario. The nature of the fracture suggests that it most plausibly occurred during a fall on land. Augmenting this are new osteological observations, including a preferred directionality to the trabecular architecture of cancellous bone. Together, these results suggest that Ossinodus, one of the first large (>2m length) tetrapods, spent a significant proportion of its life on land. Our findings have important implications for understanding the temporal, biogeographical and physiological contexts under which terrestriality in vertebrates evolved. They push the date for the origin of terrestrial tetrapods further back into the Carboniferous by at least two million years. Moreover, they raise the possibility that terrestriality in vertebrates first evolved in large tetrapods in Gondwana rather than in small European forms, warranting a re-evaluation of this important evolutionary event.

  13. Movement in a gravitational field: The question of limb interarticular coordination in terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legreneur, Pierre; Bels, Vincent; Monteil, Karine; Laurin, Michel

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated that interarticular coordination of terrestrial tetrapods emerges from an environment highly constrained by friction and the gravitational field. We briefly review recent works on the jumping behavior in squamates, lemurs and amphibians. We then explore previously published work as well as some unpublished experimental data on human jumping. Finally, we end by inferring locomotion in some of the first limbed vertebrates using a simulation procedure. All these data show that despite changes in shape, structure, and motor controls of taxa, the same spatio-temporal sequence of joint displacements always occurs when the movement is executed in a terrestrial environment. Comparison with aquatic locomotion argues for the hypothesis that this pattern emerged in early terrestrial tetrapods as a response to the gravitational constraint and the terrestrial frictional environment.

  14. The oldest caseid synapsid from the Late Pennsylvanian of Kansas, and the evolution of herbivory in terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Robert R; Fröbisch, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The origin and early evolution of amniotes (fully terrestrial vertebrates) led to major changes in the structure and hierarchy of terrestrial ecosystems. The first appearance of herbivores played a pivotal role in this transformation. After an early bifurcation into Reptilia and Synapsida (including mammals) 315 Ma, synapsids dominated Paleozoic terrestrial vertebrate communities, with the herbivorous caseids representing the largest vertebrates on land. Eocasea martini gen. et sp. nov., a small carnivorous caseid from the Late Carboniferous, extends significantly the fossil record of Caseidae, and permits the first clade-based study of the origin and initial evolution of herbivory in terrestrial tetrapods. Our results demonstrate for the first time that large caseid herbivores evolved from small, non-herbivorous caseids. This pattern is mirrored by three other clades, documenting multiple, independent, but temporally staggered origins of herbivory and increase in body size among early terrestrial tetrapods, leading to patterns consistent with modern terrestrial ecosystem.

  15. The Chemical and Evolutionary Ecology of Tetrodotoxin (TTX Toxicity in Terrestrial Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Hanifin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is widely distributed in marine taxa, however in terrestrial taxa it is limited to a single class of vertebrates (Amphibia. Tetrodotoxin present in the skin and eggs of TTX-bearing amphibians primarily serves as an antipredator defense and these taxa have provided excellent models for the study of the evolution and chemical ecology of TTX toxicity. The origin of TTX present in terrestrial vertebrates is controversial. In marine organisms the accepted hypothesis is that the TTX present in metazoans results from either dietary uptake of bacterially produced TTX or symbiosis with TTX producing bacteria, but this hypothesis may not be applicable to TTX-bearing amphibians. Here I review the taxonomic distribution and evolutionary ecology of TTX in amphibians with some attention to the origin of TTX present in these taxa.

  16. Conservation of Terrestrial Vertebrates in a Global Hotspot of Karst Area in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenhua; Tang, Songhua; Jiang, Zhigang; Chen, Jing; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang

    2016-05-26

    The karst area of southwest China (KASC) is the largest piece of karst landscape on the earth and a global biodiversity hot-spot with high concentrations of endemic species. Although a number of nature reserves (NRs) have been established across the region, the representativeness of biodiversity of the NR system is still unknown. Based on comprehensive literature and field surveys, and intensive consultations with zoologists and wildlife managers, we compiled distributions of 1,204 terrestrial vertebrate species and 271 NRs in KASC. We found Jinxiu, Mengla, Hekou, and Jinghong have the richest amphibian species; Jinxiu has the highest species richness of reptiles; Jinghong, Menghai, and Mengla have the largest numbers of avian species; whereas, Mengla, Longzhou, and Ningming have the greatest mammalian diversity in the region. Gap analysis among NR system, species richness pattern, and five biogeographic indicators found insufficient representation of the NR system on territorial vertebrate diversity. The conservation effectiveness in Guizhou Province was much lower than that in Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces. Under-representation and over-representation simultaneously occurred in many of the ecoregions, elevation classes, vegetation types, landcover categories, and human disturbance intensity gradients. For conservation of terrestrial vertebrates in KASC, several suggestions were presented in this study.

  17. Environmental Contaminants and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Effects on Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The desire of resource managers, risk assessors, and the general public to better understand the consequences of environmental contamination has produced a strong and growing need for information on the effects of contaminants on populations and groups of species, and over moderate to large areas of land or water. However, the problems associated with research involving populations and groups of species or large and complex geographic areas, especially in terrestrial environments, are well known within the scientific community. With the previous thoughts in mind, an interactive symposium was held at the University of Maryland in October 1998. The purpose of the symposium was to review and critically evaluate our understanding of the effects of contaminants on terrestrial vertebrates at levels of organization above that of the individual. Invited background and technical presentations provided a common baseline of information for symposium participants. Discussion groups were then asked to critically evaluate the topics of two technical sessions. Several presentations of recent or ongoing research provided participants with examples of current approaches to assessments of the effects of contaminants on terrestrial vertebrates at the population or higher level of organization. The book consists of 10 chapters written by presenters at the symposium and three chapters conveying the reports of discussion group.

  18. Axial allometry in a neutrally buoyant environment: effects of the terrestrial-aquatic transition on vertebral scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K E; Pierce, S E

    2016-03-01

    Ecological diversification into new environments presents new mechanical challenges for locomotion. An extreme example of this is the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle. Here, we examine the implications of life in a neutrally buoyant environment on adaptations of the axial skeleton to evolutionary increases in body size. On land, mammals must use their thoracolumbar vertebral column for body support against gravity and thus exhibit increasing stabilization of the trunk as body size increases. Conversely, in water, the role of the axial skeleton in body support is reduced, and, in aquatic mammals, the vertebral column functions primarily in locomotion. Therefore, we hypothesize that the allometric stabilization associated with increasing body size in terrestrial mammals will be minimized in secondarily aquatic mammals. We test this by comparing the scaling exponent (slope) of vertebral measures from 57 terrestrial species (23 felids, 34 bovids) to 23 semi-aquatic species (pinnipeds), using phylogenetically corrected regressions. Terrestrial taxa meet predictions of allometric stabilization, with posterior vertebral column (lumbar region) shortening, increased vertebral height compared to width, and shorter, more disc-shaped centra. In contrast, pinniped vertebral proportions (e.g. length, width, height) scale with isometry, and in some cases, centra even become more spool-shaped with increasing size, suggesting increased flexibility. Our results demonstrate that evolution of a secondarily aquatic lifestyle has modified the mechanical constraints associated with evolutionary increases in body size, relative to terrestrial taxa.

  19. Ontogenetic niche shifts in dinosaurs influenced size, diversity and extinction in terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Daryl; Carbone, Chris; Müller, Dennis W H; Clauss, Marcus

    2012-08-23

    Given the physiological limits to egg size, large-bodied non-avian dinosaurs experienced some of the most extreme shifts in size during postnatal ontogeny found in terrestrial vertebrate systems. In contrast, mammals--the other dominant vertebrate group since the Mesozoic--have less complex ontogenies. Here, we develop a model that quantifies the impact of size-specific interspecies competition on abundances of differently sized dinosaurs and mammals, taking into account the extended niche breadth realized during ontogeny among large oviparous species. Our model predicts low diversity at intermediate size classes (between approx. 1 and 1000 kg), consistent with observed diversity distributions of dinosaurs, and of Mesozoic land vertebrates in general. It also provides a mechanism--based on an understanding of different ecological and evolutionary constraints across vertebrate groups--that explains how mammals and birds, but not dinosaurs, were able to persist beyond the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, and how post-K-T mammals were able to diversify into larger size categories.

  20. Potential effects of ongoing and proposed hydropower development on terrestrial biological diversity in the Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Maharaj K; Grumbine, R Edward

    2012-12-01

    Indian Himalayan basins are earmarked for widespread dam building, but aggregate effects of these dams on terrestrial ecosystems are unknown. We mapped distribution of 292 dams (under construction and proposed) and projected effects of these dams on terrestrial ecosystems under different scenarios of land-cover loss. We analyzed land-cover data of the Himalayan valleys, where dams are located. We estimated dam density on fifth- through seventh-order rivers and compared these estimates with current global figures. We used a species-area relation model (SAR) to predict short- and long-term species extinctions driven by deforestation. We used scatter plots and correlation studies to analyze distribution patterns of species and dams and to reveal potential overlap between species-rich areas and dam sites. We investigated effects of disturbance on community structure of undisturbed forests. Nearly 90% of Indian Himalayan valleys would be affected by dam building and 27% of these dams would affect dense forests. Our model projected that 54,117 ha of forests would be submerged and 114,361 ha would be damaged by dam-related activities. A dam density of 0.3247/1000 km(2) would be nearly 62 times greater than current average global figures; the average of 1 dam for every 32 km of river channel would be 1.5 times higher than figures reported for U.S. rivers. Our results show that most dams would be located in species-rich areas of the Himalaya. The SAR model projected that by 2025, deforestation due to dam building would likely result in extinction of 22 angiosperm and 7 vertebrate taxa. Disturbance due to dam building would likely reduce tree species richness by 35%, tree density by 42%, and tree basal cover by 30% in dense forests. These results, combined with relatively weak national environmental impact assessment and implementation, point toward significant loss of species if all proposed dams in the Indian Himalaya are constructed. ©2012 Society for Conservation

  1. Survey of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation 1995 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail, E.R.; Mitchell, J.M.; Webb, J.W.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1995-11-01

    This progress report discusses surveys of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) from October 1994 through September 1995. These surveys are important to help avoid or minimize potential impacts of projects on the ORR to species listed as threatened, endangered, or in need of management by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency. Currently, there are 69 species of federally or state-listed terrestrial vertebrates that may occur in Tennessee. Not all of these are expected to occur on the ORR, nor do resources permit comprehensive sampling for all of them over the entire ORR. To effectively organize sampling efforts, listed animal species that might be present were targeted using a prioritization system based on historical and recent sightings, species distributions, literature reviews, and personal communications. Sampling was conducted during the time of the year when each targeted species would most likely be encountered. Several trapping and surveying methods were used, including pitfall traps, Sherman traps, seining, artificial covers, and cave and avian surveys.

  2. Adaptive Evolution of Skin in Terrestrial Vertebrates and Possible Involvement of Endogenous Retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The first terrestrial vertebrates emerged from water and adapted to living on land approximately 360 million years ago (late Devonian). In particular, amphibians are thought to have surface epithelia that changed from multilayered epithelia into keratinized stratified squamous epithelia by acquiring stratum corneum (SC), which is composed of several dead cell layers that serve as an air liquid interface barrier. Then, reptiles appeared and became a major terrestrial vertebrate group approximately 340 million years ago by forming hard SC. About 220 million years ago, mammals radiated by acquiring soft and moisturized SC, and endogenous retroviruses were thought to be actively integrated into mammalian genomes. Skin ASpartic Protease (SASPase)/ASPRV1 is the mammalian-specific endogenous retroviral-derived protease. SASPase-deficient mice had dry skin and aberrant accumulation of profilaggrin, which is another mammalian-specific gene that regulates SC barrier function and is a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis. These findings indicate that the retroviral element SASPase was integrated into the first mammalian species and was involved in the adaptive evolution of mammals, as it facilitates moisturization of skin SC. It is possible that other uncharacterized endogenous retroviruses were also involved in epidermal barrier function.

  3. Beta Diversity in a Highly Heterogeneous Area: Disentangling Species and Taxonomic Dissimilarity for Terrestrial Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Patrón, Jaime M; Goyenechea, Irene; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl; Castillo-Cerón, Jesús; Manriquez, Norma; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto E; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo; Zuria, Iriana; Moreno, Claudia E

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying differences in species composition among communities provides important information related to the distribution, conservation and management of biodiversity, especially when two components are recognized: dissimilarity due to turnover, and dissimilarity due to richness differences. The ecoregions in central Mexico, within the Mexican Transition Zone, have outstanding environmental heterogeneity and harbor huge biological richness, besides differences in the origin of the biota. Therefore, biodiversity studies in this area require the use of complementary measures to achieve appropriate information that may help in the design of conservation strategies. In this work we analyze the dissimilarity of terrestrial vertebrates, and the components of turnover and richness differences, among six ecoregions in the state of Hidalgo, central Mexico. We follow two approaches: one based on species level dissimilarity, and the second on taxonomic dissimilarity. We used databases from the project "Biodiversity in the state of Hidalgo". Our results indicate that species dissimilarity is higher than taxonomic dissimilarity, and that turnover contributes more than richness differences, both for species and taxonomic total dissimilarity. Moreover, total dissimilarity, turnover dissimilarity and the dissimilarity due to richness differences were positively related in the four vertebrate groups. Reptiles had the highest values of dissimilarity, followed by mammals, amphibians and birds. For reptiles, birds, and mammals, species turnover was the most important component, while richness differences had a higher contribution for amphibians. The highest values of dissimilarity occurred between environmentally contrasting ecoregions (i.e., tropical and temperate forests), which suggests that environmental heterogeneity and differences in the origin of biotas are key factors driving beta diversity of terrestrial vertebrates among ecoregions in this complex area.

  4. Inner architecture of vertebral centra in terrestrial and aquatic mammals: a two-dimensional comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Maitena; Laurin, Michel; Jacques, Florian; Pellé, Eric; Dabin, Willy; de Buffrénil, Vivian

    2013-05-01

    Inner vertebral architecture is poorly known, except in human and laboratory animals. In order to document this topic at a broad comparative level, a 2D-histomorphometric study of vertebral centra was conducted in a sample of 98 therian mammal species, spanning most of the size range and representing the main locomotor adaptations known in therian taxa. Eleven variables relative to the development and geometry of trabecular networks were extracted from CT scan mid-sagittal sections. Phylogeny-informed statistical tests were used to reveal the respective influences of phylogeny, size, and locomotion adaptations on mammalian vertebral structure. The use of random taxon reshuffling and squared change parsimony reveals that 9 of the 11 characteristics (the two exceptions are total sectional area and structural polarization) contain a phylogenetic signal. Linear discriminant analyses suggest that the sampled taxa can be arranged into three categories with respect to locomotion mode: a) terrestrial + flying + digging + amphibious forms, b) coastal oscillatory aquatic taxa, and c) pelagic oscillatory aquatic forms represented by oceanic cetaceans. Pairwise comparison tests and linear regressions show that, when specific size increases, the length of trabecular network (Tt.Tb.Le), as well as trabecular proliferation in total sections (Pr.Tb.Tt), increase with positive allometry. This process occurs in all locomotion categories but is particularly pronounced in pelagic oscillators. Conversely, mean trabecular width has a lesser increase with size in pelagic oscillators. Trabecular orientation is not influenced by size. All tests were corrected for multiple testing. By using six structural variables or indices, locomotion mode can be predicted with a 97.4% success rate for terrestrial forms, 66.7% for coastal oscillatory, and 81.3% for pelagic oscillatory. The possible functional meaning of these results and their potential use for paleobiological inference of locomotion in

  5. Massive increase in visual range preceded the origin of terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIver, Malcolm A; Schmitz, Lars; Mugan, Ugurcan; Murphey, Todd D; Mobley, Curtis D

    2017-03-21

    The evolution of terrestrial vertebrates, starting around 385 million years ago, is an iconic moment in evolution that brings to mind images of fish transforming into four-legged animals. Here, we show that this radical change in body shape was preceded by an equally dramatic change in sensory abilities akin to transitioning from seeing over short distances in a dense fog to seeing over long distances on a clear day. Measurements of eye sockets and simulations of their evolution show that eyes nearly tripled in size just before vertebrates began living on land. Computational simulations of these animal's visual ecology show that for viewing objects through water, the increase in eye size provided a negligible increase in performance. However, when viewing objects through air, the increase in eye size provided a large increase in performance. The jump in eye size was, therefore, unlikely to have arisen for seeing through water and instead points to an unexpected hybrid of seeing through air while still primarily inhabiting water. Our results and several anatomical innovations arising at the same time suggest lifestyle similarity to crocodiles. The consequent combination of the increase in eye size and vision through air would have conferred a 1 million-fold increase in the amount of space within which objects could be seen. The "buena vista" hypothesis that our data suggest is that seeing opportunities from afar played a role in the subsequent evolution of fully terrestrial limbs as well as the emergence of elaborated action sequences through planning circuits in the nervous system.

  6. Survey of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.M.; Vail, E.R.; Webb, J.W.; Evans, J.W. [and others

    1996-07-01

    This document is the final report on surveys of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) conducted from October 1994 through May 1996. The surveys were undertaken to gain information that could help prevent or minimize the potential impacts of projects on the ORR to species listed by the state or federal government as endangered, threatened, or in need of management; federal species of concern were also included. The results of the survey will assist in the effective management of the natural resources of the ORR. Currently, there are 69 species of federal or state listed terrestrial vertebrates (20 reptiles and amphibians, 20 mammals, and 29 birds) that may occur in Tennessee. Listed animal species that might be present on the ORR were targeted for survey using a prioritization system based on historical and recent sightings, known species distributions, presence of suitable habitat, literature reviews, and personal communications. Survey methods included trapping, seining, monitoring of artificial covers, active searching, and avian surveys. Surveys were conducted during the time of year when each targeted species was most likely to be encountered. The surveys confirmed the presence of 20 threatened and endangered species on the ORR. This report also includes some ancillary information. Records are provided for nonlisted species (44 species of reptiles and amphibians, 155 species of birds, and 28 species of mammals). Categorization of survey sites into 1 or more of 19 habitat types, which are briefly described, is presented. Notes are summarized on the occurrence of threatened and endangered species on the ORR. Finally, this report also lists threatened and endangered species not found that might be located by additional surveys, recommends three survey areas for natural-area status due to wildlife value, and suggests several avenues for future work.

  7. Survey of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.M.; Vail, E.R.; Webb, J.W.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Restoration Div.

    1996-05-01

    Surveys of protected terrestrial vertebrates on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were conducted from October 1994 through May 1996. The surveys were undertaken to help avoid or minimize the potential impacts of projects on the ORR to species listed by the state or federal government as endangered, threatened, or in need-of-management; federal species of concern were included. Results of the survey will also assist in effectively managing the ORR. Currently, there are 69 species of federal- or state-listed terrestrial vertebrates (20 reptiles and amphibians, 20 mammals, and 29 birds) that may occur in Tennessee. Listed animal species that might be present on the ORR were targeted for survey using a prioritization system based on historical and recent sightings, known species distributions, presence of suitable habitat, literature reviews, and personal communications. Survey methods included trapping, seining, monitoring artificial covers, active searching, and avian surveys. Surveys were conducted during the time of year when each targeted species was most likely to be encountered. The report also includes ancillary information. Records are provided for nonlisted species (44 species of reptiles and amphibians, 155 species of birds, and 28 species of mammals). Categorization of survey sites into 1 or more of 19 habitat types, which are briefly described, is presented. Notes are summarized on the occurrence of threatened and endangered species on the ORR. The report also lists threatened and endangered species not found that might be located by additional surveys, recommends three survey areas for natural-area status due to wildlife value, and suggests several avenues for future work.

  8. [The origin and evolution of parasitism on terrestrial vertebrates in insects, mites, and ticks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S

    2006-01-01

    Coexistence of terrestrial vertebrates and arthropods has been continuing over 200 million years; various forms of parasitism originated independently in various groups of arthropods during this period. The association of Acari and insects with nests and shelters of their hosts (nidicoly) played the main role in the origin of parasitism in these major groups of arthropods. The primary step in the evolution of parasitism was the permanent habitation in nests and borrows of mammals and birds in Mesozoic era. The second step was a substitution of various forms of schizophagy by the regular feeding on products of vital activity and dead parts of host body. The next step was the feeding on various body parts of vertebrate hosts, namely skin, hair, feathers, external excreta, and drops of blood. The final step was the development of the ability to damage skin and suck out the blood of vertebrates. In some taxa of astigmatid mites the parasitism on birds originated from phoresy: hypopi (heteromorphous deutonymphs) obtained the ability to absorb the liquid nutrients from hair follicles and subcutaneous tissues through the cuticle. The development of haematophagous feeding on mammals in several families of Diptera was the second way of the origin of parasitism. Highly mobile dipterans with the piercing-sucking or licking mouthparts were able to change easily from the accidental puncturing of the host skin or licking of the blood, pus, and mucus to the obligatory haematophagy. The evolution of some arthropod taxa did not went beyond a primary domination of spatial relations, as in many astigmatid mites, or trophic relations in the form of micropredatory, as in the haematophagous Diptera.

  9. Diversity of limb-bone safety factors for locomotion in terrestrial vertebrates: evolution and mixed chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blob, Richard W; Espinoza, Nora R; Butcher, Michael T; Lee, Andrew H; D'Amico, Angela R; Baig, Faraz; Sheffield, K Megan

    2014-12-01

    During locomotion over land, vertebrates' limb bones are exposed to loads. Like most biological structures, limb bones have a capacity to withstand greater loads than they usually experience, termed a safety factor (SF). How diverse are limb-bone SFs, and what factors correlate with such variation? We have examined these questions from two perspectives. First, we evaluated locomotor SF for the femur in diverse lineages, including salamanders, frogs, turtles, lizards, crocodilians, and marsupials (opossums). Comparisons with values for hind-limb elements in running birds and eutherian mammals indicate phylogenetic diversity in limb-bone SF. A high SF (∼7) is primitive for tetrapods, but low magnitudes of load and elevated strength of bones contribute to different degrees across lineages; moreover, birds and eutherians appear to have evolved lower SFs independently. Second, we tested the hypothesis that SFs would be similar across limb bones within a taxon by comparing data from the humerus and femur of alligators. Both in bending and in torsion, we found a higher SF for the humerus than for the femur. Such a "mixed chain" of different SFs across elements has been predicted if bones have differing variabilities in load, different costs to maintain, or high SF values in general. Although variability in load is similar for the humerus and femur, a high SF may be less costly for the humerus because it is smaller than the femur. The high SFs of alligators also might facilitate differences in SF among their limb bones. Beyond these specific findings, however, a more general implication of our results is that evaluations of the diversity of limb-bone SFs can provide important perspective to direct future research. In particular, more complete understanding of variation in SF could provide insight into factors that promoted the evolutionary radiation of terrestrial locomotor function in vertebrates.

  10. Hotspots of species richness, threat and endemism for terrestrial vertebrates in SW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, López-López; Luigi, Maiorano; Alessandra, Falcucci; Emilio, Barba; Luigi, Boitani

    2011-09-01

    The Mediterranean basin, and the Iberian Peninsula in particular, represent an outstanding "hotspot" of biological diversity with a long history of integration between natural ecosystems and human activities. Using deductive distribution models, and considering both Spain and Portugal, we downscaled traditional range maps for terrestrial vertebrates (amphibians, breeding birds, mammals and reptiles) to the finest possible resolution with the data at hand, and we identified hotspots based on three criteria: i) species richness; ii) vulnerability, and iii) endemism. We also provided a first evaluation of the conservation status of biodiversity hotspots based on these three criteria considering both existing and proposed protected areas (i.e., Natura 2000). For the identification of hotspots, we used a method based on the cumulative distribution functions of species richness values. We found no clear surrogacy among the different types of hotspots in the Iberian Peninsula. The most important hotspots (considering all criteria) are located in the western and southwestern portions of the study area, in the Mediterranean biogeographical region. Existing protected areas are not specifically concentrated in areas of high species richness, with only 5.2% of the hotspots of total richness being currently protected. The Natura 2000 network can potentially constitute an important baseline for protecting vertebrate diversity in the Iberian Peninsula although further improvements are needed. We suggest taking a step forward in conservation planning in the Mediterranean basin, explicitly considering the history of the region as well as its present environmental context. This would allow moving from traditional reserve networks (conservation focused on "patterns") to considerations about the "processes" that generated present biodiversity.

  11. Geographic range did not confer resilience to extinction in terrestrial vertebrates at the end-Triassic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunhill, Alexander M; Wills, Matthew A

    2015-08-11

    Rates of extinction vary greatly through geological time, with losses particularly concentrated in mass extinctions. Species duration at other times varies greatly, but the reasons for this are unclear. Geographical range correlates with lineage duration amongst marine invertebrates, but it is less clear how far this generality extends to other groups in other habitats. It is also unclear whether a wide geographical distribution makes groups more likely to survive mass extinctions. Here we test for extinction selectivity amongst terrestrial vertebrates across the end-Triassic event. We demonstrate that terrestrial vertebrate clades with larger geographical ranges were more resilient to extinction than those with smaller ranges throughout the Triassic and Jurassic. However, this relationship weakened with increasing proximity to the end-Triassic mass extinction, breaking down altogether across the event itself. We demonstrate that these findings are not a function of sampling biases; a perennial issue in studies of this kind.

  12. Contaminant exposure and potential effects on terrestrial vertebrates residing in the National Capital Region network and Mid-Atlantic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Part of the mission of the National Park Service is to preserve the natural resources, processes, systems, and associated values of its units in an unimpaired condition. Environmental contamination and pollution processes are well recognized stressors addressed by its management policies and plans. A recent study indicates that contemporary terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data are lacking for 59 of 126 Park Service units located in coastal watersheds exhibiting serious water quality problems or high vulnerability to pollution. Based upon these findings, a more in-depth evaluation of contaminant threats and ecotoxicological data gaps related to terrestrial vertebrates was undertaken at 23 Inventory and Monitoring National Park units in National Capital Region and Mid-Atlantic Networks.

  13. Use of retrospective data to assess ecotoxicological monitoring needs for terrestrial vertebrates residing in Atlantic coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J.B.; Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    The 'Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates' (CEE-TV) database contains 4,336 records of ecotoxicological information for free-ranging amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals residing in Atlantic and Florida Gulf coast estuaries and their drainages. To identify spatial data gaps, those CEE-TV records for which the specific study location were known (n=2,740) were combined with watershed and wildlife management unit boundaries using Geographic Information Systems software. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Index of Watershed Indicators (IWI), which classifies watersheds based on water quality and their vulnerability to pollution, was used to prioritize these data gaps. Of 136 watersheds in the study area, 15 that are classified by the IWI as having water quality problems or high vulnerability to pollution lacked terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological monitoring or research in the past decade. Older studies within some of these watersheds documented high levels of contaminants in wildlife tissues. Of 90 National Wildlife Refuge units, 42 without current data fall within watersheds of concern. Of 40 National Park units larger than 1 km2, 17 without current data fall within watersheds of concern. Issues encountered in this analysis highlighted the need for spatially and temporally replicated field monitoring programs that utilize random sampling. Without data from such studies, it will be difficult to perform unbiased assessments of regional trends in contaminant exposure and effects in terrestrial vertebrates.

  14. Eimeria that infect fish are diverse and are related to, but distinct from, those that infect terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Kálmán; Ostoros, Györgyi; Dunams-Morel, Detiger; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2012-12-01

    The Eimeria are ubiquitous parasites (Phylum: Apicomplexa; family: Coccidia) of the gut epithelium of vertebrates which complete their development in a single host species and whose sporocysts may be recognized by the presence of a Stieda body through which their sporozoites excyst. Their diversity and relationship to other kinds of coccidia have been successfully explored by molecular systematic studies based on the sequencing the 18S ribosomal DNA. To date, most attention has been paid to the diversity and evolutionary relationships of Eimeria spp. parasitizing terrestrial vertebrates, most especially those species infecting domesticated birds and mammals. Regrettably, no Eimeria have yet been considered from the Earth's first vertebrates: the fish. If Eimeria first evolved in fish, then extant piscine parasites should comprise a deeply branching assemblage at the base of well-constructed phylogenetic trees. Here, we sequenced portions of ribosomal DNA from several such isolates (from Eimeria anguillae, Eimeria daviesae, Eimeria percae, Eimeria variabilis, Eimeria rutili and Eimeria nemethi) and compared them to one another as well as to other available sequences from the parasites of fish and terrestrial vertebrates, in order to better understand their diversity and origins. By establishing that such piscine parasites comprise a deeply branching clade at the base of the Eimeriidae, these data substantiate the hypothesis that Eimeria may have originated in fish. Plainly, a great deal of coccidian diversity awaits future discovery and description.

  15. Photographic identification of individuals of a free-ranging, small terrestrial vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treilibs, Claire E; Pavey, Chris R; Hutchinson, Mark N; Bull, C Michael

    2016-02-01

    Recognition of individuals within an animal population is central to a range of estimates about population structure and dynamics. However, traditional methods of distinguishing individuals, by some form of physical marking, often rely on capture and handling which may affect aspects of normal behavior. Photographic identification has been used as a less-invasive alternative, but limitations in both manual and computer-automated recognition of individuals are particularly problematic for smaller taxa (photographic identification for individuals of a free-ranging, small terrestrial reptile using (a) independent observers, and (b) automated matching with the Interactive Individual Identification System (I(3)S Pattern) computer algorithm. We tested the technique on individuals of an Australian skink in the Egernia group, Slater's skink Liopholis slateri, whose natural history and varied scale markings make it a potentially suitable candidate for photo-identification. From 'photographic captures' of skink head profiles, we designed a multi-choice key based on alternate character states and tested the abilities of observers - with or without experience in wildlife survey - to identify individuals using categorized test photos. We also used the I(3)S Pattern algorithm to match the same set of test photos against a database of 30 individuals. Experienced observers identified a significantly higher proportion of photos correctly (74%) than those with no experience (63%) while the I(3)S software correctly matched 67% as the first ranked match and 83% of images in the top five ranks. This study is one of the first to investigate photo identification with a free-ranging small vertebrate. The method demonstrated here has the potential to be applied to the developing field of camera-traps for wildlife survey and thus a wide range of survey and monitoring applications.

  16. Gene expression in chicken reveals correlation with structural genomic features and conserved patterns of transcription in the terrestrial vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisheng Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chicken is an important agricultural and avian-model species. A survey of gene expression in a range of different tissues will provide a benchmark for understanding expression levels under normal physiological conditions in birds. With expression data for birds being very scant, this benchmark is of particular interest for comparative expression analysis among various terrestrial vertebrates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a gene expression survey in eight major chicken tissues using whole genome microarrays. A global picture of gene expression is presented for the eight tissues, and tissue specific as well as common gene expression were identified. A Gene Ontology (GO term enrichment analysis showed that tissue-specific genes are enriched with GO terms reflecting the physiological functions of the specific tissue, and housekeeping genes are enriched with GO terms related to essential biological functions. Comparisons of structural genomic features between tissue-specific genes and housekeeping genes show that housekeeping genes are more compact. Specifically, coding sequence and particularly introns are shorter than genes that display more variation in expression between tissues, and in addition intergenic space was also shorter. Meanwhile, housekeeping genes are more likely to co-localize with other abundantly or highly expressed genes on the same chromosomal regions. Furthermore, comparisons of gene expression in a panel of five common tissues between birds, mammals and amphibians showed that the expression patterns across tissues are highly similar for orthologous genes compared to random gene pairs within each pair-wise comparison, indicating a high degree of functional conservation in gene expression among terrestrial vertebrates. CONCLUSIONS: The housekeeping genes identified in this study have shorter gene length, shorter coding sequence length, shorter introns, and shorter intergenic regions, there seems

  17. Retrospective ecotoxicological data and current information needs for terrestrial vertebrates residing in coastal habitat of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eisenreich, K.M.; Golden, N.H.; McKernan, M.A.; Hothem, R.L.; Custer, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Contaminant Exposure and Effects?Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) database was developed to conduct simple searches for ecotoxicological information, examine exposure trends, and identify significant data gaps. The CEE-TV database contains 16,696 data records on free-ranging amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals residing in estuarine and coastal habitats of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Great Lakes. Information in the database was derived from over 1800 source documents, representing 483 unique species (about 252,000 individuals), with sample collection dates spanning from 1884 to 2003. The majority of the records contain exposure data (generally contaminant concentrations) on a limited number (n=209) of chlorinated and brominated compounds, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, economic poisons, metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons, whereas only 9.3% of the records contain biomarker or bioindicator effects data. Temporal examination of exposure data provides evidence of declining concentrations of certain organochlorine pesticides in some avian species (e.g., ospreys, Pandion haliaetus), and an apparent increase in the detection and possibly the incidence of avian die-offs related to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. To identify spatial data gaps, 11,360 database records with specific sampling locations were combined with the boundaries of coastal watersheds, and National Wildlife Refuge and National Park units. Terrestrial vertebrate ecotoxicological data were lacking in 41.9% of 464 coastal watersheds in the continental United States. Recent (1990?2003) terrestrial vertebrate contaminant exposure or effects data were available for only about half of the National Wildlife Refuge and National Park units in the geographic area encompassed by the database. When these data gaps were overlaid on watersheds exhibiting serious water quality problems and/or high vulnerability to pollution, 72 coastal watersheds, and 76 National

  18. Predator-prey interactions amongst Permo-Triassic terrestrial vertebrates as a deterministic factor influencing faunal collapse and turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, J; Botha-Brink, J; Codron, D; Huttenlocker, A K; Angielczyk, K D

    2017-01-01

    Unlike modern mammalian communities, terrestrial Paleozoic and Mesozoic vertebrate systems were characterized by carnivore faunas that were as diverse as their herbivore faunas. The comparatively narrow food base available to carnivores in these paleosystems raises the possibility that predator-prey interactions contributed to unstable ecosystems by driving populations to extinction. Here, we develop a model of predator-prey interactions based on diversity, abundance and body size patterns observed in the Permo-Triassic vertebrate fossil record of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Our simulations reflect empirical evidence that despite relatively high carnivore: herbivore species ratios, herbivore abundances were sufficient for carnivores to maintain required intake levels through most of the Karoo sequence. However, high mortality rates amongst herbivore populations, even accounting for birth rates of different-sized species, are predicted for assemblages immediately preceding the end-Guadalupian and end-Permian mass extinctions, as well as in the Middle Triassic when archosaurs replaced therapsids as the dominant terrestrial fauna. These results suggest that high rates of herbivore mortality could have played an important role in biodiversity declines leading up to each of these turnover events. Such declines would have made the systems especially vulnerable to subsequent stochastic events and environmental perturbations, culminating in large-scale extinctions.

  19. Water availability not fruitfall modulates the dry season distribution of frugivorous terrestrial vertebrates in a lowland Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Omar Stalin Landázuri; Norris, Darren; Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes de; Michalski, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial vertebrate frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests. Previous studies show that the meso-scale distribution of this group is only weakly explained by variables such as altitude and tree basal area in lowland Amazon forests. For the first time we test whether seasonally limiting resources (water and fallen fruit) affect the dry season distribution in 25 species of terrestrial vertebrates. To examine the effects of the spatial availability of fruit and water on terrestrial vertebrates we used a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera-traps within 25km2 of lowland Amazon forest. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of four variables (altitude, distance to large rivers, distance to nearest water, and presence vs absence of fruits) on the number of photos on five functional groups (all frugivores, small, medium, large and very large frugivores) and on seven of the most abundant frugivore species (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina, Mazama americana, Mazama nemorivaga, Myoprocta acouchy, Pecari tajacu and Psophia crepitans). A total of 279 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 900 camera-trap days. For most species and three functional groups, the variation in the number of photos per camera was significantly but weakly explained by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 6.2 to 48.8%). Generally, we found that the presence of water availability was more important than the presence of fallen fruit for the groups and species studied. Medium frugivores, large-bodied frugivores, and two of the more abundant species (C. paca and P. crepitans) were recorded more frequently closer to water bodies; while none of the functional groups nor the most abundant species showed any significant relationship with the presence of fallen fruit. Two functional groups and two of the seven most common frugivore species assessed in the GLMs showed significant results with species

  20. Jumping sans legs: does elastic energy storage by the vertebral column power terrestrial jumps in bony fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Perlman, Benjamin M; Gibb, Alice C; Long, John H

    2014-02-01

    Despite having no obvious anatomical modifications to facilitate movement over land, numerous small fishes from divergent teleost lineages make brief, voluntary terrestrial forays to escape poor aquatic conditions or to pursue terrestrial prey. Once stranded, these fishes produce a coordinated and effective "tail-flip" jumping behavior, wherein lateral flexion of the axial body into a C-shape, followed by contralateral flexion of the body axis, propels the fish into a ballistic flight-path that covers a distance of multiple body lengths. We ask: how do anatomical structures that evolved in one habitat generate effective movement in a novel habitat? Within this context, we hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the axial skeleton play a critical role in producing effective overland movement, and that tail-flip jumping species demonstrate enhanced elastic energy storage through increased body flexural stiffness or increased body curvature, relative to non-jumping species. To test this hypothesis, we derived a model to predict elastic recoil work from the morphology of the vertebral (neural and hemal) spines. From ground reaction force (GRF) measurements and high-speed video, we calculated elastic recoil work, flexural stiffness, and apparent material stiffness of the body for Micropterus salmoides (a non-jumper) and Kryptolebias marmoratus (adept tail-flip jumper). The model predicted no difference between the two species in work stored by the vertebral spines, and GRF data showed that they produce the same magnitude of mass-specific elastic recoil work. Surprisingly, non-jumper M. salmoides has a stiffer body than tail-flip jumper K. marmoratus. Many tail-flip jumping species possess enlarged, fused hypural bones that support the caudal peduncle, which suggests that the localized structures, rather than the entire axial skeleton, may explain differences in terrestrial performance.

  1. Morphometric analysis of diameter and relationship of vertebral artery with respect to transverse foramen in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binit Sureka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the location, origin, size and relationship of the vertebral artery and the transverse foramina in the lower cervical spine by computed tomographic angiography (CTA measurements in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of multi-detector CT (MDCT cerebral angiography scans was done between June 2011 and February 2014. A total of 120 patients were evaluated. The diameter of the vertebral artery (AL and the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and the medial (M, lateral (L, anterior (A, and posterior (P borders of transverse foramen were studied. In addition, the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and pedicle (h was also analyzed. Statistical Analysis: The means and their standard deviations (SD were calculated in both the sexes. The t-tests were performed to look for significant sexual difference. Results: The largest vertebral artery diameter (AL was at level C7 on the right side (3.5 ± 0.8 and at the level of C5 on the left side (3.7 ± 0.4. Statistically significant difference between males and females were seen at levels C4, C5, and C7. The diameter of the vertebral artery was smaller in females than males. The L value was greater than other parameters (M, A, P at the same level in all the measurements. The h value was greatest at C6 level and shortest at C5. Conclusion: CTA is necessary before pedicle screw fixation due to variation in measurements at all levels. The highest potential risk of vertebral artery injury during cervical pedicle screw implantation may be at C5, then at C4, and the safest is at C7.

  2. Source habitats for terrestrial vertebrates of focus in the interior Columbia basin: broadscale trends and management implications. Volume 1—Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Richard S. Holthausen; Barbara C. Wales; Christina D. Hargis; Victoria A. Saab; Danny C. Lee; Wendel J. Hann; Terrell D. Rich; Mary M. Rowland; Wally J. Murphy; Michelle R. Eames

    2000-01-01

    We defined habitat requirements (source habitats) and assessed trends in these habitats for 91 species of terrestrial vertebrates on 58 million ha (145 million acres) of public and private lands within the interior Columbia basin (hereafter referred to as the basin). We also summarized knowledge about species-road relations for each species and mapped source habitats...

  3. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described in a series of appendices. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. ...

  4. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands—the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: the relationship of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities and structural conditions (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jack Ward Thomas; Ralph G. Anderson

    1984-01-01

    The relationships of terrestrial vertebrates to plant communities, structural conditions, and special habitats in the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon are described. The importance of habitat components to wildlife and the predictability of management activities on wildlife are examined in terms of managed rangelands. The paper does not provide guidelines but rather...

  5. An assessment of non-volant terrestrial vertebrates response to wind farms--a study of small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopucki, Rafał; Mróz, Iwona

    2016-02-01

    The majority of studies on the effects of wind energy development on wildlife have been focused on birds and bats, whereas knowledge of the response of terrestrial, non-flying vertebrates is very scarce. In this paper, the impact of three functioning wind farms on terrestrial small mammal communities (rodents and shrews) and the population parameters of the most abundant species were studied. The study was carried out in southeastern Poland within the foothills of the Outer Western Carpathians. Small mammals were captured at 12 sites around wind turbines and at 12 control sites. In total, from 1200 trap-days, 885 individuals of 14 studied mammal species were captured. There was no difference in the characteristics of communities of small mammals near wind turbines and within control sites; i.e. these types of sites were inhabited by a similar number of species of similar abundance, similar species composition, species diversity (H' index) and species evenness (J') (Pielou's index). For the two species with the highest proportion in the communities (Apodemus agrarius and Microtus arvalis), the parameters of their populations (mean body mass, sex ratio, the proportion of adult individuals and the proportion of reproductive female) were analysed. In both species, none of the analysed parameters differed significantly between sites in the vicinity of turbines and control sites. For future studies on the impact of wind turbines on small terrestrial mammals in different geographical areas and different species communities, we recommend the method of paired 'turbine-control sites' as appropriate for animal species with pronounced fluctuations in population numbers.

  6. Crucial advantages of tail use in the evolution of vertebrate terrestrial locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Henry; McInroe, Benjamin; Kawano, Sandy; Blob, Rick; Goldman, Daniel

    In the invasion of terrestrial environment, the first tetrapods faced the challenge of locomotion on flowable substrates (e.g. sand and mud), sometimes oriented at inclines. Although the morphology of many early tetrapods is known, robotic studies have revealed that effective locomotion on these substrates also depends strongly upon kinematics; slight differences in movements of the same appendage can lead to success or failure. Using a model organism (the mudskipper) and a robotic physical model, we demonstrate how muscular tails provided critical locomotor advantages on granular substrates that the first invaders of land likely encountered. Mudskippers use their tails for additional propulsion with increasing frequency as the slope of the granular material increases, and the decline in locomotor performance with slope is shallower when the tail is used. Experiments with a robotic model of the mudskipper showed that, while the tail did not always provide a benefit to locomotion, use of the tail made the robot's performance more robust, achieving effective locomotion on a wider range of slopes, limb postures and foot placements. These results suggest that, rather than simply being an inert appendage, the tails of early tetrapods were vital to their first forays into terrestrial habitats.

  7. Pervasive influence of large-scale climate in the dynamics of a terrestrial vertebrate community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forchhammer Mads C

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale climatic variability has been implicated in the population dynamics of many vertebrates throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but has not been demonstrated to directly influence dynamics at multiple trophic levels of any single system. Using data from Isle Royale, USA, comprising time series on the long-term dynamics at three trophic levels (wolves, moose, and balsam fir, we analyzed the relative contributions of density dependence, inter-specific interactions, and climate to the dynamics of each level of the community. Results Despite differences in dynamic complexity among the predator, herbivore, and vegetation levels, large-scale climatic variability influenced dynamics directly at all three levels. The strength of the climatic influence on dynamics was, however, strongest at the top and bottom trophic levels, where density dependence was weakest. Conclusions Because of the conflicting influences of environmental variability and intrinsic processes on population stability, a direct influence of climate on the dynamics at all three levels suggests that climate change may alter stability of this community. Theoretical considerations suggest that if it does, such alteration is most likely to result from changes in stability at the top or bottom trophic levels, where the influence of climate was strongest.

  8. Coccidian parasites of fish encompass profound phylogenetic diversity and gave rise to each of the major parasitic groups in terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dunams-Morel, Detiger; Ostoros, Gyorgyi; Molnár, Kálmán

    2016-06-01

    Fish are the oldest and most diverse group of vertebrates; it therefore stands to reason that fish may have been the original hosts for many types of extant vertebrate parasites. Here, we sought to determine whether coccidian parasites of fish are especially diverse. We therefore sampled such parasites from thirty-nine species of fish and tested phylogenetic hypotheses concerning their relationships, using 18S rDNA. We found compelling phylogenetic support for distinctions among at least four lineages of piscine parasites presently ascribed to the genus Goussia. Some, but not all parasites attributed to Eimeria were confirmed as such. Major taxonomic revisions are likely justified for these parasites of fish, which appear to have given rise to each of the major lineages of coccidian parasites that subsequently proliferated in terrestrial vertebrates, including those such as Toxoplasma gondii that form tissue cysts in intermediate hosts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. MORPHOMETRIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ARTICULAR FACETS OF THE THORACOLUMBAR VERTEBRAL COLUMN IN NORTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimpi Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The articular processes of thoracolumbar vertebral column play an important role in weight transmission and determining the range and direction of movements between any two vertebrae. Size of these facets has been correlated with the magnitude of stress imposed on them. Purpose of study: The present study has been conducted on the articular processes of 510 vertebrae (thoracic: 360; lumbar:150 with the aim to provide high quality data sets for constructing the models of spine to study mechanics of spinal instrumentation. The length , width and the distance between the right & left superior & inferior articular processes have been measured with the vernier callipers. The presence/ absence of mamillary tubercle has been observed in the present study. Results: The length of thoracic SAFs was almost same at all levels whereas that of the lumbar SAFs increased gradually from L1-L5. However the width showed a variable trend. In case of thoracic IAFs both these parameters showed a variable trend. Whereas in lumbar region, these increased gradually from L1-L5. The distance between two inferior articular processes was more than that between two superior articular processes at almost all levels except T1-T3 & L1-L4 where reverse was true. The mamillary tubercle/process was altogether absent from T-1 to T-8. From T-9 to T-11, the number of vertebral column showing mamillary tubercle increased from 4-19. However at T-12, it was seen in 29 Vertebral columns. In lumbar region, it was well developed in all vertebrae and termed as mamillary process. Conclusion: The measurements obtained by present study reveals the importance of articular facets in understanding basic spinal mechanics and its application with respect to weight transmission.

  10. On how much biodiversity is covered in Europe by national protected areas and by the Natura 2000 network: insights from terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, L; Amori, G; Montemaggiori, A; Rondinini, C; Santini, L; Saura, S; Boitani, L

    2015-08-01

    The European Union has made extensive biodiversity conservation efforts with the Habitats and Birds Directives and with the establishment of the Natura 2000 network of protected areas, one of the largest networks of conservation areas worldwide. We performed a gap analysis of the entire Natura 2000 system plus national protected areas and all terrestrial vertebrates (freshwater fish excluded). We also evaluated the level of connectivity of both systems, providing therefore a first estimate of the functionality of the Natura 2000 system as an effective network of protected areas. Together national protected areas and the Natura 2000 network covered more than one-third of the European Union. National protected areas did not offer protection to 13 total gap species (i.e., species not covered by any protected area) or to almost 300 partial gap species (i.e., species whose representation target is not met). Together the Natura 2000 network and national protected areas left 1 total gap species and 121 partial gap species unprotected. The terrestrial vertebrates listed in the Habitats and Birds Directives were relatively well covered (especially birds), and overall connectivity was improved considerably by Natura 2000 sites that act as stepping stones between national protected areas. Overall, we found that the Natura 2000 network represents at continental level an important network of protected areas that acts as a good complement to existing national protected areas. However, a number of problems remain that are mainly linked to the criteria used to list the species in the Habitats and Birds Directives. The European Commission initiated in 2014 a process aimed at assessing the importance of the Birds and Habitats Directives for biodiversity conservation. Our results contribute to this assessment and suggest the system is largely effective for terrestrial vertebrates but would benefit from further updating of the species lists and field management.

  11. COMPARATIVE, QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CHEMOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION AMONG NORTH INDIAN TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashwani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, Several medicinal plant species are used in herbal drug industries, whereas Tribulus terrestris extract has an ancient tradition in folk medicine and in ayurveda as a diuretic, mood enhancer, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory agent. Due to few phytochemical and pharmacological studies, there are no quality criteria for this Tribulus terrestris species as raw material. In this work, we present unique fingerprints of six samples of Tribulus terrestris population relating to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloid and saponins. Qualitative analysis of the phytochemicals of methanolic extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and tannins in all the plants. Quantitative analysis showed that the crude saponin was the major phytochemical constituent present in highest percentage followed by crude tannin in all six plants. These chemical characterizations can provide, for example, authentication of samples, detection of adulterations, and differentiation between closely related species.

  12. Indian monsoon variability at different time scales: Marine and terrestrial proxy records

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patnaik, R.; Gupta, A.K.; Naidu, P.D.; Yadav, R.R.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Kumar, M.

    , Akli Formation (early Eocene ligtes of Rajasthan), contain large number of fossil plants derived from tropical- subtropical rainforests (Prasad et al., 2009; Saxena and Trivedi, 2009; Tripathi et al. 2009; Trivedi, 2009). Besides a diverse...). The diversity and ecomorphological aspects of fossil murine rodents of Siwalik indicate that monsoon probably initiated in the Indian subcontinent around 14 Ma ago. The present day climatic zonations cannot be directly applied to the Late Miocene; because...

  13. A sedimentary record of middle Holocene precipitation and terrestrial vertebrates from Great Cistern Blue Hole (Abaco Island), The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Winkler, T. S.; Donnelly, J. P.; Albury, N. A.; Steadman, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Sinkholes and blueholes provide sheltered basins on carbonate landscapes for sediments and fossils to accumulate and remain protected from reworking by coastal processes. These sedimentary archives can span hundreds to thousands of years and may contain detailed records of environmental change and landscape evolution. Great Cistern Blue Hole on Great Abaco Island in the northern Bahamas provides such an archive. Today situated a few meters above sea level in the coastal zone, Great Cistern was likely located further inland prior to a geometric change to the local coastline and during lower sea-level. To explore the long-term record of environmental change in this region, sediment cores were collected between 2014 and 2015 that yielded an 8,000-year record of continuous sedimentation. Visual inspection of the core revealed multiple intervals dominated by coarse-grained sediment that subsequent microscopic examination identified as fragments of calcite rafts. Calcite rafts (common in caves) precipitate at an air-groundwater interface in quiescent environments from the offgassing of calcium carbonate saturated groundwater. The recurrent precipitation of calcite rafts in a sinkhole potentially reflects intervals of increased discharge of the local coastal aquifer in response to increased precipitation. The onset, peak, and decline of the calcite raft deposits are consistent with other precipitation proxy records from the Caribbean region, suggesting that the deposition is providing direct evidence for middle Holocene precipitation patterns in the northern Bahamas. In addition, numerous vertebrate bones have accumulated in Great Cistern including those of a Bahamian Boa (age: 7ka yBP), a species of crocodile no longer present on Abaco Island (age: 2ka yBP), and pre-European contact human remains (age: 600 yBP). As the project continues, other bones will be identified that may serve to enhance our knowledge of human and animal activity on the island.

  14. Turbines and terrestrial vertebrates: variation in tortoise survivorship between a wind energy facility and an adjacent undisturbed wildland area in the desert southwest (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Arundel, Terry; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David F.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18 year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  15. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E; Ennen, Joshua R; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R; Murphy, Mason O; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V; Price, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  16. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R.; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  17. A Survey of Small Terrestrial Vertebrates after the Earthquake in Wolong National Nature Reserve%卧龙自然保护区震后小型陆栖脊椎动物调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨程; 施小刚; 金森龙; 王茂麟; 胡强; 彭晓辉

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of steady,sensitive and efficient indication of environment,small terrestrial vertebrates can be used as an important pointer to the ecological environment changes.In this study,investigations were conducted on the distribution of small terrestrial vertebrates in the natural bamboo grove and man-made bamboo grove by means of the method of drift fences and pitfall traps,aiming to make assessment of small terrestrial vertebrates resources and the ecological environment of Wolong. A total of 15 species(2 amphibian species,1 reptile species,and 12 small mammal species),belonging to 7 families and 5 orders,were recorded in the study area.The number of the collected sample individuals came to 316.%小型陆栖脊椎动物是一类稳定、灵敏、高效的环境指示动物,将它们作为生态环境变化的指针具有诸多的优越性。通过围栏陷阱法对卧龙自然保护区内小型陆栖脊椎动物在原始竹林与人工竹林中的分布情况展开调查,进而对保护区内小型陆栖脊椎动物资源现状进行评估,并科学地评估我区震后的生态环境。本次调查共记录到小型陆栖脊椎动物物种5目7科15种,其中两栖类2目2科2种,爬行类1目1科1种,小型兽类2目4科12种。采集的样品数量达到316只。

  18. Vertebrados terrestres de la Reserva Nacional Río Clarillo, Chile central: representatividad y conservación Terrestrial vertebrates of the Río Clarillo National Reserve, central Chile: representation and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN A. DÍAZ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos la representatividad, distribución y perspectivas de conservación de los vertebrados terrestres de la Reserva Nacional Río Clarillo, Chile central. Mediante recorridos periódicos realizados entre 1987 y 1996, determinamos la riqueza y distribución altitudinal de los vertebrados terrestres en esta Reserva. Registramos 127 especies (22 mamíferos, 85 aves, 15 reptiles y cinco anfibios, que representan el 69 % del total de especies que por su distribución geográfica y tipo de hábitat podrían habitar este lugar. De éstas, 32 especies (25 % están catalogadas con problemas de conservación. La riqueza de vertebrados decrece con la altitud, desde 101 especies a los 870 m hasta ocho especies a los 3.050 m. La riqueza de vertebrados se concentró bajo los 1.600 m, albergando 109 especies, 55 de las cuales no se registraron a mayor altitud. En cambio, sobre los 1.600 m se registraron 57 especies. Paradójicamente sólo el 31 % de la superficie de la Reserva está bajo los 1.600 m. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la superficie de la Reserva no es suficiente para albergar poblaciones viables de la mayoría de los vertebrados registrados. Alrededor de la Reserva existen propiedades privadas con grandes extensiones de bosques esclerófilos bajo los 1.600 m, los cuales podrían actuar como fuentes y la Reserva como sumidero de vertebrados. Por lo tanto, sugerimos desarrollar estrategias de conservación en estas áreas y realizar monitoreos para determinar si las poblaciones de vertebrados mas sensibles están aumentando o disminuyendo, tanto dentro como fuera de la ReservaWe analyzed the representation, distribution and conservation perspectives of terrestrial vertebrates in the Río Clarillo National Reserve, central Chile. During periodical surveys conducted between 1987 and 1996, we determined the composition and altitudinal distribution of the terrestrial vertebrates in this Reserve. We recorded 127 species (22 mammals, 85 birds, 15

  19. Late Paleocene–early Eocene carbon isotope stratigraphy from a near-terrestrial tropical section and antiquity of Indian mammals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Samanta; A Sarkar; M K Bera; Jyotsana Rai; S S Rathore

    2013-02-01

    Late Paleocene to early Eocene (∼56 to 51 Ma) interval is characterized by five distinct transient warming (hyperthermal) events (Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), H1/ETM2/ELMO, H2, I1 and I2) in a super greenhouse globe associated with negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). Although well-documented marine records exist at different latitudes, terrestrial PETM sections are rare. In particular, almost no terrestrial records of either the PETM or early Eocene hyperthermals (EEHs) are yet available from the tropics. Further, evolution of modern order of mammals near the PETM has been recorded in many northern continents; however, the response of mammals in the tropics to these warming events is unknown. A tropical terrestrial record of these hyperthermal/CIE events, encompassing the earliest modern order mammal bearing horizon from India, can therefore be vital in understanding climatic and biotic evolution during the earliest Cenozoic time. Here, for the first time, we report high resolution carbon isotope (13C) stratigraphy, nannofossil, and Sr isotope ratio of marine fossil carbonate from the Cambay Shale Formation of Western India. The record shows complete preservation of all the above CIE events, including the PETM, hitherto unknown from the equatorial terrestrial records. 13C chemostratigraphy further suggests that at least the present early Eocene mammal-bearing horizon, recently discovered at Vastan, does not support the `out of India' hypothesis of earliest appearance of modern mammals and subsequent dispersal to the Holarctic continents.

  20. Late Paleocene-early Eocene carbon isotope stratigraphy from a near-terrestrial tropical section and antiquity of Indian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, A.; Sarkar, A.; Bera, M. K.; Rai, Jyotsana; Rathore, S. S.

    2013-02-01

    Late Paleocene to early Eocene (~56 to 51 Ma) interval is characterized by five distinct transient warming (hyperthermal) events (Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), H1/ETM2/ELMO, H2, I1 and I2) in a super greenhouse globe associated with negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). Although well-documented marine records exist at different latitudes, terrestrial PETM sections are rare. In particular, almost no terrestrial records of either the PETM or early Eocene hyperthermals (EEHs) are yet available from the tropics. Further, evolution of modern order of mammals near the PETM has been recorded in many northern continents; however, the response of mammals in the tropics to these warming events is unknown. A tropical terrestrial record of these hyperthermal/CIE events, encompassing the earliest modern order mammal bearing horizon from India, can therefore be vital in understanding climatic and biotic evolution during the earliest Cenozoic time. Here, for the first time, we report high resolution carbon isotope ( δ 13C) stratigraphy, nannofossil, and Sr isotope ratio of marine fossil carbonate from the Cambay Shale Formation of Western India. The record shows complete preservation of all the above CIE events, including the PETM, hitherto unknown from the equatorial terrestrial records. δ 13C chemostratigraphy further suggests that at least the present early Eocene mammal-bearing horizon, recently discovered at Vastan, does not support the `out of India' hypothesis of earliest appearance of modern mammals and subsequent dispersal to the Holarctic continents.

  1. Coccidian parasites of fish encompass profound phylogenetic diversity and gave rise to each of the major parasitic groups in terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidian paraasites are ubiquitous single-celled protists that cause enteric disease in all manner of vertebrate hosts. These include infections of wildlife, livestock, and people, resulting in a variety of disease outcomes. The diversity and relationships among these diverse parasites is best kn...

  2. Research information needs on terrestrial vertebrate species of the interior Columbia basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins: a research, development, and application database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    1997-01-01

    Research information needs on selected invertebrates and all vertebrates of the interior Columbia River basin and adjacent areas in the United States were collected into a research, development, and application database as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. The database includes 482 potential research study topics on 232 individual...

  3. Variations of the Indian summer monsoon over the Mio-Pliocene recorded in the Bengal Fan (IODP Exp354): implications for the evolution of the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Valier; Feakins, Sarah; Karkabi, Elias; Ponton, Camilo; Galy, Albert; France-Lanord, Christian

    2017-04-01

    A pressing challenge in climate research is understanding the temporal evolution of the Indian monsoon system; its response to global and regional climatic controls (including warming); as well as implications in terms of vegetation (C4 expansion), erosion of the Himalaya and carbon sequestration in the Bengal Fan. Studies on climate dynamics have recently offered new insights into the mechanistic controls on the monsoon: the tectonic boundary of the Himalaya is implicated as the major control on Indian summer monsoon dynamics today. Since this region has been uplifted since at least the late Oligocene, it is possible to test the response of monsoon precipitation to global and regional climate change, and also understand feedbacks on the climate system via carbon sequestration in the Bengal Fan. The evidence for monsoon intensity changes across the Miocene and Pliocene is currently incomplete given temporal uncertainty and diagenesis in terrestrial records; biases in the records reconstructed from the distal fan; and conflicting evidence from wind speed and aridity metrics for a stronger or weaker monsoon. Our alternative approach is therefore to study the basin-wide hydrological changes recorded in a multi-proxy, multi-site study of the marine sediments of the Bengal Fan recovered during IODP expedition 354. In turbiditic sediments of Himalayan origin, the late Miocene C4 expansion was found in all three long records recovered during expedition 354 (i.e. at sites U1451, U1450 and U1455, from East to West) based on stable carbon isotope composition of terrestrial leaf-wax compounds. Cores from sites U1455 (a reoccupation of DSDP Leg 22 Site 218) provide the highest resolution record of the C4 transition, which appears to occur abruptly within a relatively continuous series of turbiditic sequences. Bio- and magneto-stratigraphic dating of these records by members of Expedition 354 science party is underway and will provide the best stratigraphic constraint of the C4

  4. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  5. Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) program of the Department of Interior is focused to identify and understand effects of contaminant...

  6. Wildlife Habitat Models for Terrestrial Vertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project developed habitat capability models for representative wildlife species. It was part of a project led by the University of Massachusetts Amherst to...

  7. Vertebral Pnomocyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Karadeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The pneumatocyst in the spine is a rare condition and is usually discovered incidentally in patients being examined for unrelated problems. Intraosseous gas collection is occured in different pathologic conditions, containing osteomyelitis with gas-forming organisms, vertebral collapse due to osteonecrosis, and postoperative and posttraumatic conditions.  

  8. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Unni, Krishnan K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral

  9. New early Eocene vertebrate assemblage from western India reveals a mixed fauna of European and Gondwana affinities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thierry Smith; Kishor Kumar; Rajendra S. Rana; Annelise Folie; Floréal Solé; Corentin Noiret; Thomas Steeman; Ashok Sahni; Kenneth D. Rose

    2016-01-01

    The Ypresian Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan and Mangrol lignite mines in Gujarat, western India, has yielded a rich vertebrate fauna with numerous taxa of European affinities. Here we report a new, approximately contemporary vertebrate assemblage from two fossiliferous layers in the nearby mine of Tadkeshwar. These layers have yielded a similar mammal fauna with the co-occurrence of the perissodactyl-like cambaytheriid Cambaytherium thewissi, the adapoid primates Marcgodinotius indicus and cf. Asiadapis cambayensis, and the hyaenodontid Indohyaenodon raoi. The presence of these species in both Vastan and Tadkeshwar mines and at different levels suggests that the deposits between the two major lignite seams represent a single land mammal age. Apart from the aforementioned species there is a new, smaller species of Cambaytherium, and a new genus and species of esthonychid tillodont. This fauna also contains the first large early Eocene vertebrates from India, including an unidentified Cor-yphodon-like pantodont, a dyrosaurid crocodyliform and a new giant madtsoiid snake. Among the Tadkeshwar vertebrates several taxa are of Gondwana affinities, such as Pelomedusoides turtles, dyr-osaurids, and large madtsoiids, attesting that the early Eocene was a crucial period in India during which Laurasian taxa of European affinities co-existed with relict taxa from Gondwana before the India-Asia collision. Our results suggest that terrestrial faunas could have dispersed to or from Europe during ep-isodes of contact between the Indian subcontinent and different island blocks along the northern margin of the Neotethys, such as the KohistaneLadakh island-arc system. Gondwana taxa might represent remnants of ghost lineages shared with Madagascar, which reached the Indian subcontinent during the late Cretaceous; alternatively they might have come from North Africa and passed along the southern margin of the Neotethys to reach the Indian subcontinent. These dispersals would have

  10. New early Eocene vertebrate assemblage from western India reveals a mixed fauna of European and Gondwana affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ypresian Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan and Mangrol lignite mines in Gujarat, western India, has yielded a rich vertebrate fauna with numerous taxa of European affinities. Here we report a new, approximately contemporary vertebrate assemblage from two fossiliferous layers in the nearby mine of Tadkeshwar. These layers have yielded a similar mammal fauna with the co-occurrence of the perissodactyl-like cambaytheriid Cambaytherium thewissi, the adapoid primates Marcgodinotius indicus and cf. Asiadapis cambayensis, and the hyaenodontid Indohyaenodon raoi. The presence of these species in both Vastan and Tadkeshwar mines and at different levels suggests that the deposits between the two major lignite seams represent a single land mammal age. Apart from the aforementioned species there is a new, smaller species of Cambaytherium, and a new genus and species of esthonychid tillodont. This fauna also contains the first large early Eocene vertebrates from India, including an unidentified Coryphodon-like pantodont, a dyrosaurid crocodyliform and a new giant madtsoiid snake. Among the Tadkeshwar vertebrates several taxa are of Gondwana affinities, such as Pelomedusoides turtles, dyrosaurids, and large madtsoiids, attesting that the early Eocene was a crucial period in India during which Laurasian taxa of European affinities co-existed with relict taxa from Gondwana before the India-Asia collision. Our results suggest that terrestrial faunas could have dispersed to or from Europe during episodes of contact between the Indian subcontinent and different island blocks along the northern margin of the Neotethys, such as the Kohistan–Ladakh island-arc system. Gondwana taxa might represent remnants of ghost lineages shared with Madagascar, which reached the Indian subcontinent during the late Cretaceous; alternatively they might have come from North Africa and passed along the southern margin of the Neotethys to reach the Indian subcontinent. These

  11. Comparison of serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol and lipoproteins in captive marine mammals (bottlenose dolphins, spotted seals and West Indian manatees) and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Kawauchi, Rieko; Tsunokawa, Masatoshi; Ueda, Keiichi; Uchida, Eiji; Oikawa, Shin; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kawajiri, Takaaki; Uchida, Senzo; Nagahata, Hajime

    2009-04-01

    Concentrations of serum lipid components, lipid peroxide (LPO) and alpha-tocopherol and electrophoretic patterns of lipoproteins in serum samples obtained from captive marine mammals and terrestrial mammals were compared. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, free fatty acid, and phospholipid in fish-eating animals were significantly higher than those in manatees and cows. Serum LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the fish-eating animals were also significantly higher than those in manatees, cows and dogs. Different patterns of densitometric scans of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and a significantly lower percentage of LDL were demonstrated in the dolphins compared with the seals, cow and dogs. The concentration of LPO was significantly correlated with triglyceride and phospholipid concentrations in serum from the dolphins. These results suggest that triglyceride and phospholipid are susceptible to oxidative reaction in fish-eating animals. Evaluation of serum lipids, LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations is needed for nutritional husbandry for fish-eating animals.

  12. Optimization of Aquatic-Terrestrial Ecosystem in Relation to Soil Nitrogen Status for the Cultivation of Fish and Aquatic Food Crops of the Indian Subtropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Puste

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study was undertaken during wet and postwet seasons to improve the perennial and alternate submerged saucer-shaped ponded lands (tal and semi-tal lands in the coasts and northeastern plains of the Indian subtropics through pisciculture and cultivation of starch- and protein-rich aquatic food crops like water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Roxb. and makhana or fox nut (Euryale ferox Salisb.. The study revealed that the physico-chemical properties of soils (pH, organic C, organic matter, available N, P, and K as well as quality of water (pH, EC, BOD, COD, CO3+, HCO3�, NO3-N, SO4-S, and Cl�, growing fish, makhana, and water chestnut was remarkably influenced by different moisture regimes and exhibited a significant improvement of soil health. The amount of organic C, available N, P, and K content were found significantly highest in the treatment where makhana was grown under alternate flooding and drying situation with a depth >2 m as compared to other treatments. Such enrichment of soil fertility, particularly in available N and P content, might be due to the accumulation of considerable amounts of biomass and fish excreta and their subsequent decomposition in situ in the soils. Therefore, the present study suggests that the N-enriched soil may effectively be utilized further for growing subsequent arable crops surroundings during summer season, which not only saves the amount of applied N fertilizer but also increases the apparent N efficiency with simultaneous increase in yield, and would benefit the farmers in this region.

  13. Vertebrados terrestres registrados mediante foto-trampeo en arroyos estacionales y cañadas con agua superficial en un hábitat semiárido de Baja California Sur, México Terrestrial vertebrates recorded by camera traps in areas with seasonal streams and creeks of superficial waters in a semiarid habitat of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Mesa-Zavala

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los cuerpos de agua superficial (CAS permanentes o efímeros (pozas, tinajas, escurrimientos, etc. que se encuentran en depresiones del terreno, como arroyos y cañadas, son soporte fundamental para el ecosistema en zonas áridas. Mediante el uso de cámaras-trampa, en este estudio se identifican especies de vertebrados terrestres silvestres presentes en 4 sitios con agua superficial, en el extremo sur de la sierra El Mechudo, Baja California Sur, y se analiza el uso de los CAS por las especies en los periodos de actividad. En cada sitio se caracterizó el hábitat (topografía, vegetación y agua. Los 4 sitios mostraron diferencias en sus características ambientales. Se identificaron 41 especies de vertebrados terrestres (3 reptiles, 31 aves y 7 mamíferos. Se encontraron también varias especies de murciélagos que no fueron identificadas. La riqueza de especies y frecuencia de visita fue diferente en cada sitio. Con excepción de 3 especies de mamíferos, el horario de actividad fue similar en los 4 sitios. La presente investigación aporta información sobre la importancia de los CAS en zonas semiáridas, describiendo el hábitat, las especies y su comportamiento, elementos básicos para la conservación y manejo de los recursos naturales.Permanent or ephemeral water ponds (puddles, catchments, drains, and so on located on ground depressions, such as streams and creeks, are a fundamental support for ecosystems in dry areas. This study identified the species of native terrestrial vertebrates in 4 sites in the southernmost part of the Sierra El Mechudo, B.C.S., including how such species use these bodies of water based on the periods of species activity. Habitats were characterized in 4 sites (topography, vegetation, and water sources; camera-traps were placed around water ponds from March to October 2007. The 4 sites differed in their environmental characteristics. Overall, there were 41 species of terrestrial vertebrates (3 reptiles, 31

  14. Imaging of vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures.

  15. [Complex forms of behavior in a series of vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliukova, I V

    1978-01-01

    Within evolutionary line of vertebrates, correlation between the degree of differentiation of the brain and peculiarities of the formation of complex behavioural acts may be observed. Gradual evolution in the organization of complex motor food-searching conditioned reflexes and the capacity to visual discrimination was revealed in phylogenetic line of vertebrates: elasmobranchs (rays and sharks), marine teleosts, reptiles (terrestrial tortoises), insectivores (hedgehogs), rodents (rats) and primates (lower monkeys).

  16. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-03-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and strongly dependent on interaural transmission attenuation. Even though the tympanic middle ear has originated independently in the major tetrapod groups, in each group the ancestral condition probably was that the two middle ears were exposed in the mouth cavity with relatively high interaural transmission. Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural transmission and functionally isolated pressure receiver ears in the mammals. Since some of the binaural interaction already takes place at the eardrum in animals with strongly coupled ears, producing enhanced interaural time and level differences, the subsequent neural processing may be simpler. In robotic simulations of lizards, simple binaural subtraction (EI cells, found in brainstem nuclei of both frogs and lizards) produces strongly lateralized responses that are sufficient for steering the animal robustly to sound sources.

  17. Abrupt and gradual extinction among Late Permian land vertebrates in the Karoo basin, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Peter D; Botha, Jennifer; Buick, Roger; De Kock, Michiel O; Erwin, Douglas H; Garrison, Geoffrey H; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Smith, Roger

    2005-02-04

    The Karoo basin of South Africa exposes a succession of Upper Permian to Lower Triassic terrestrial strata containing abundant terrestrial vertebrate fossils. Paleomagnetic/magnetostratigraphic and carbon-isotope data allow sections to be correlated across the basin. With this stratigraphy, the vertebrate fossil data show a gradual extinction in the Upper Permian punctuated by an enhanced extinction pulse at the Permian-Triassic boundary interval, particularly among the dicynodont therapsids, coinciding with negative carbon-isotope anomalies.

  18. Indian Writers and Indian Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Anna Lee

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of popular Indian stereotypes and counter-stereotypes in literature, based on the thesis that the introduction of the literature of the American Indian, traditional and modern, will help to increase the Indian child's pride in his culture and add to the understanding of the non-Indian child. (EH)

  19. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  20. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  1. Modular evolution of the Cetacean vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholtz, Emily A

    2007-01-01

    Modular theory predicts that hierarchical developmental processes generate hierarchical phenotypic units that are capable of independent modification. The vertebral column is an overtly modular structure, and its rapid phenotypic transformation in cetacean evolution provides a case study for modularity. Terrestrial mammals have five morphologically discrete vertebral series that are now known to be coincident with Hox gene expression patterns. Here, I present the hypothesis that in living Carnivora and Artiodactyla, and by inference in the terrestrial ancestors of whales, the series are themselves components of larger precaudal and caudal modular units. Column morphology in a series of fossil and living whales is used to predict the type and sequence of developmental changes responsible for modification of that ancestral pattern. Developmental innovations inferred include independent meristic additions to the precaudal column in basal archaeocetes and basilosaurids, stepwise homeotic reduction of the sacral series in protocetids, and dissociation of the caudal series into anterior tail and fluke subunits in basilosaurids. The most dramatic change was the novel association of lumbar and anterior caudal vertebrae in a module that crosses the precaudal/caudal boundary. This large unit is defined by shared patterns of vertebral morphology, count, and size in all living whales (Neoceti).

  2. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  3. Identifying osteoporotic vertebral fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis per se is not a harmful disease. It is the sequela of osteoporosis and most particularly the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture that makes osteoporosis a serious medical condition. All of the preventative measures, investigations, treatment and research into osteoporosis have one primary goal and that is to prevent the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture. Vertebral fracture is by far and away the most prevalent osteoporotic fracture. The significance and diagnosis of vertebral f...

  4. A National System to Map and Quantify Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiversity is crucial for the functioning of ecosystems and the products and services from which we transform natural assets of the Earth for human survival, security, and well-being. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is a...

  5. Mapping and Quantifying Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity at a National Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast functions of ecosystems is critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, spec...

  6. A National Approach to Map and Quantify Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiversity is crucial for the functioning of ecosystems and the products and services from which we transform natural assets of the Earth for human survival, security, and well-being. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is a...

  7. A National System to Map and Quantify Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiversity is crucial for the functioning of ecosystems and the products and services from which we transform natural assets of the Earth for human survival, security, and well-being. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is a...

  8. Mapping and Quantifying Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity at a National Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast functions of ecosystems is critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, spec...

  9. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  10. Vertebral Fracture Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral Fracture Prediction A method of processing data derived from an image of at least part of a spine is provided for estimating the risk of a future fracture in vertebraeof the spine. Position data relating to at least four neighbouring vertebrae of the spine is processed. The curvature...

  11. ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS IN CONDUIT OF VERTEBRAL ARTERY IN ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND: The 1 st cervical vertebra is named as atlas. It differs from all the other vertebrae in having no body and no spine. The atlas consists of two bulky lateral masses, connected to each other in front by a short anterior arch, and behind by a long curved posterior arch it thus forms a ring of bone. The posterior arch forms three - fifths of the atlantal ring. At the r oot of the arch the superior surface of posterior arch bears a wide groove for the vertebral artery, venous plexus and the C1 nerve immediately behind the lateral mass. In few cases this groove is converted into the completely or partially posterior/latera l vertebral artery foramen. AIM : This study was carried out to know the variations in posterior vertebral artery groove in atlas vertebra for clinical and surgical purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is based on the observation of the 300 mac erated Human atlas vertebrae of North Indian present in the Anthropology Museum of Department of Anatomy, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur. The atlases were randomly selected the age and sex were not taken into consideration. RESULTS: We observed the complete posterior vertebral artery foramen in 8% specimen (2.33% bilateral and 5.67% unilateral. In 3.33% it was found on left side and 2.33% on right side. Incidence of incomplete posterior vertebral artery foramen was observed in 9.33% (1.33% bilateral and 8% u nilateral. In 5% it was found on left side and 3% on right side. The bilateral presence of complete or incomplete lateral vertebral artery foramen was nil. The unilateral presence of complete or incomplete lateral vertebral artery foramen was found equal in frequency i.e. 0.67%. The unilateral presence of complete lateral vertebral artery foramen on either side was found in 0.33% specimen whereas the incomplete lateral vertebral artery foramen was found only on left side (0.67%. CONCLUSION : The presence o f complete/incomplete posterior or lateral

  12. Predicting vertebral bone strength by vertebral static histomorphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between static histomorphometry and bone strength of human lumbar vertebral bone. The ability of vertebral histomorphometry to predict vertebral bone strength was compared with that of vertebral densitometry, and also with histomorphometry and bone strength...... of the entire vertebral bodies (L-2) were used for histomorphometry. The other iliac crest biopsies and the L-3 were destructively tested by compression. High correlation was found between BV/TV or Tb.Sp and vertebral bone strength (absolute value of r = 0.86 in both cases). Addition of Tb.Th significantly...... of improving the prediction of bone strength of the vertebral body. The correlations between BV/TV of L-2 and bone strength of L-3 were comparable with the correlation obtained by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), peripheral QCT (pQCT), and dual-energy X-ray absorptrometry (DEXA) of L-3 and bone strength...

  13. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  14. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chhatre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae, commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  15. Building the Vertebrate Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The vertebrate body can be subdivided along the antero-posterior (AP) axis into repeated structures called segments. This periodic pattern is established during embryogenesis by the somitogenesis process. Somites are generated in a rhythmic fashion from the paraxial mesoderm and subsequently differentiate to give rise to the vertebrae and skeletal muscles of the body. Somite formation involves an oscillator-the segmentation clock-whose periodic signal is converted into the periodic array of somite boundaries. This clock drives the dynamic expression of cyclic genes in the presomitic mesoderm and requires Notch and Wnt signaling. Microarray studies of the mouse presomitic mesoderm transcriptome reveal that the segmentation clock drives the periodic expression of a large network of cyclic genes involved in cell signaling. Mutually exclusive activation of the Notch/FGF and Wnt pathways during each cycle suggests that coordinated regulation of these three pathways underlies the clock oscillator. In humans, mutations in the genes associated to the function of this oscillator such as Dll3 or Lunatic Fringe result in abnormal segmentation of the vertebral column such as those seen in congenital scoliosis. Whereas the segmentation clock is thought to set the pace of vertebrate segmentation, the translation of this pulsation into the reiterated arrangement of segment boundaries along the AP axis involves dynamic gradients of FGF and Wnt signaling. The FGF signaling gradient is established based on an unusual mechanism involving mRNA decay which provides an efficient means to couple the spatio-temporal activation of segmentation to the posterior elongation of the embryo. Another striking aspect of somite production is the strict bilateral symmetry of the process. Retinoic acid was shown to control aspects of this coordination by buffering destabilizing effects from the embryonic left-right machinery. Defects in this embryonic program controlling vertebral symmetry might lead

  16. An assessment of wetland nature reserves and the protection of China’s vertebrate diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, R; Zheng, Y.; Lei, T; Cui, G.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed all 148 wetland nature reserves in China and the distribution of the four taxa of endemic and threatened terrestrial vertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. Assessment of the wetland nature reserves was combined with the governmental list of the endemic and threatened vertebrates to identify the richness of the species. Species richness was scored as high, medium or low using a factor analysis method, and 31 wetland ecosystems were marked as high protection areas. Th...

  17. A checklist of the vertebrates of Kerala State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Nameer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the first publication on vertebrates of India (Blanford 1888–1890, a huge wealth of information has been compiled on the vertebrate fauna of various biogeographic zones of the country, especially the Western Ghats.  The state of Kerala comprising of a land area of 38,863km2, 590km coastline, an intricate system of backwaters along the coast, tropical moist forests of the Western Ghats, the highly undulating terrain, and the tropical monsoon is a unique geographical and environmental entity rich in biodiversity.  A region-specific checklist that summarises and documents the current status of vertebrate diversity provides benchmark data for documentation and appreciation of biodiversity at regional level.  Further, with the current rate of global biodiversity loss and concordant conservation efforts, the taxonomic community has a greater responsibility to make scientific information available to scientists, policy makers, politicians, research students and all relevant stakeholders, an attempt that has been made in the present paper.  The State of Kerala has 1847 species of vertebrates in 330 families and 81 orders, of which 386 are endemic to the Western Ghats region (of the Western Ghats - Sri Lanka Hotspot, and 205 species as threatened. Six hundred and eighty species of vertebrates of Kerala have been listed in the various schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, while 148 are listed in the different appendices of CITES.  

  18. A checklist of the vertebrates of Kerala State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Nameer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the first publication on vertebrates of India (Blanford 1888–1890, a huge wealth of information has been compiled on the vertebrate fauna of various biogeographic zones of the country, especially the Western Ghats.  The state of Kerala comprising of a land area of 38,863km2, 590km coastline, an intricate system of backwaters along the coast, tropical moist forests of the Western Ghats, the highly undulating terrain, and the tropical monsoon is a unique geographical and environmental entity rich in biodiversity.  A region-specific checklist that summarises and documents the current status of vertebrate diversity provides benchmark data for documentation and appreciation of biodiversity at regional level.  Further, with the current rate of global biodiversity loss and concordant conservation efforts, the taxonomic community has a greater responsibility to make scientific information available to scientists, policy makers, politicians, research students and all relevant stakeholders, an attempt that has been made in the present paper.  The State of Kerala has 1847 species of vertebrates in 330 families and 81 orders, of which 386 are endemic to the Western Ghats region (of the Western Ghats - Sri Lanka Hotspot, and 205 species as threatened. Six hundred and eighty species of vertebrates of Kerala have been listed in the various schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, while 148 are listed in the different appendices of CITES.  

  19. SECONDARY VERTEBRAL MALIGNOMA - RADIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade R. Babic

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral bones are among the bones of osteoarticular system which are most often affected by secondary malignoma.In the paper we present radiodiagnostical aspects of secondary malignoma in vertebral bones by conventional radiograms, and we illustrate and describe radiodiagnostic characteristics of the osteoplastic, osteolytic and osteolytic-osteoplastic metastasis.Author conclude that the diagnosis of metastasis in vertebral bones is always important for TNM classification, and that their character often points to the primary locus of malignoma.

  20. Radiotherapy of vertebral hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atushi; Sido, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Akiba, Hidenari; Morita, Kazuo [Dept. of Radiology, Sapporo Medical Univ., School of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Between 1975 and 1996, 14 patients (11 females, 3 males) with vertebral hemangioma received treatment with radiotherapy. Thirteen patients had a history of back pain or lumbago and 2 patients had neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment or paraplegia. The standard dose administered was 36 Gy in 18 fractions (five treatments per week). In the 13 patients with pain, this was completely or partially relieved. The condition of a man with hypesthesia of the legs deteriorated and a woman with paraplegia who was treated with decompressive laminectomy followed by radiotherapy recovered completely after irradiation. CT scan before irradiation showed thickened trabeculae as small punctate areas of sclerosis in all patients. At MR imaging before irradiation, T2-weighted MR images showed areas of high intensity in all patients and MR images demonstrated lesion enhancement. However, none of the patients who were treated successfully with radiation demonstrated any changes of the affected vertebra in the conventional radiographic films, CT scan or MR imaging, even 5 years after irradiation. Radiological imaging is indispensable for the diagnosis of vertebral hemangiomas but does not appear to be useful for evaluating the effects of radiotherapy. (orig.).

  1. Indian Summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  2. Spermatogenesis in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudney, J

    1995-12-15

    Spermatogenesis appears to be a fairly conserved process throughout the vertebrate series. Thus, spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes that undergo meiosis to produce spermatids which enter spermiogenesis where they undergo a morphological transformation into spermatozoa. There is, however, variation amongst the vertebrates in how germ cell development and maturation is accomplished. This difference can be broadly divided into two distinct patterns, one present in anamniotes (fish, amphibia) and the other in amniotes (reptiles, birds, mammals). For anamniotes, spermatogenesis occurs in spermatocysts (cysts) which for most species develop within seminiferous lobules. Cysts are produced when a Sertoli cell becomes associated with a primary spermatogonium. Mitotic divisions of the primary spermatogonium produce a cohort of secondary spermatogonia that are enclosed by the Sertoli cell which forms the wall of the cyst. With spermatogenic progression a clone of isogeneic spermatozoa is produced which are released, by rupture of the cyst, into the lumen of the seminiferous lobule. Following spermiation, the Sertoli cell degenerates. For anamniotes, therefore, there is no permanent germinal epithelium since spermatocysts have to be replaced during successive breeding seasons. By contrast, spermatogenesis in amniotes does not occur in cysts but in seminiferous tubules that possess a permanent population of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia which act as a germ cell reservoir for succeeding bouts of spermatogenic activity. There is, in general, a greater variation in the organization of the testis and pattern of spermatogenesis in the anamniotes compared to amniotes. This is primarily due to the fact there is more reproductive diversity in anamniotes ranging from a relatively unspecialized condition where gametes are simply released into the aqueous environment to highly specialized strategies involving internal fertilization. These differences are obviously reflected in the

  3. Vertebral contour in spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Rho, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Choi, H. Y.; Kim, B. K. [Wallace memorial Baptist Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    The defect in the pars interarticularis of spondylolisthesis may be dependent on contributing factors related to trauma and stress to which the neural arch is subjected, superimposed on a hereditary diasthesis. Posterior wedging of 5th lumber vertebral body in lumbosacral spondylolisthesis together with the degree of slip have been measured. The average wedging in spondylolisthesis is significantly greater than patient without this condition, and forms a characteristic radiological sign. The degree of wedging and slip show a statistically valid correlation. The diagnosis of spondylolisthesis is becoming more prevalent as the complexity of our society result in the increasing use of roentgenography of the lumbar spine. Isolated lateral deviation and rotation of spinous process seen in anteroposterior radiographs of the lumbar spine seems to be associated with pathology in the pars interarticularis.

  4. Chemical ecology of vertebrate carrion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebrate carrion is a nutrient-rich, ephemeral resource that is utilized by many different organisms ranging from vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers to microbes. The organisms that consume carrion play an important ecological role, as decomposition is vital to ecosystem function. Without the...

  5. Opportunistic Identification of Vertebral Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are powerful predictors of future fracture, so, their identification is important to ensure that patients are commenced on appropriate bone protective or bone-enhancing therapy. Risk factors (e.g., low bone mineral density and increasing age) and symptoms (back pain, loss of height) may herald the presence of vertebral fractures, which are usually confirmed by performing spinal radiographs or, increasingly, using vertebral fracture assessment with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanners. However, a large number (30% or more) of vertebral fractures are asymptomatic and do not come to clinical attention. There is, therefore, scope for opportunistic (fortuitous) identification of vertebral fractures from various imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide scans) performed for other clinical indications and which include the spine in the field of view, with midline sagittal reformatted images from computed tomography having the greatest potential for such opportunistic detection. Numerous studies confirm this potential for identification but consistently find underreporting of vertebral fractures. So, a valuable opportunity to improve the management of patients at increased risk of future fracture is being squandered. Educational training programs for all clinicians and constant reiteration, stressing the importance of the accurate and clear reporting of vertebral fractures ("you only see what you look for"), can improve the situation, and automated computer-aided diagnostic tools also show promise to solve the problem of this underreporting of vertebral fractures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The Indian Jihadist Movement: Evolution and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Muslims have sought em- ployment opportunities. The Gulf employment boom for Indian Muslims led it to become a place for recruiting and indoctrinating...Vicky Nanjappa, “Darabanga—Yasin’s Baby ,” Journalism for Vertebrates, August 29, 2013, avail- able at <http://vickynanjapa.wordpress.com/2013/08/29...darabanga-yasins- baby />; Neeraj Chauhan, “Investigators suspect role of first IM module,” The Times of India, August 6, 2012. 53 Rajesh Ahuja, “IM

  7. Comparative anatomy: all vertebrates do have vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Philippe

    2011-09-13

    In contrast to lampreys and jawed vertebrates, hagfishes were thought to lack vertebrae. Now, long overlooked vertebral rudiments have been analysed in hagfish, suggesting that vertebrae existed in the last common ancestor of all vertebrates.

  8. Behavioral fever in ectothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakus, Krzysztof; Ronsmans, Maygane; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Fever is an evolutionary conserved defense mechanism which is present in both endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. Ectotherms in response to infection can increase their body temperature by moving to warmer places. This process is known as behavioral fever. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms of induction of fever in mammals. We further discuss the evolutionary conserved mechanisms existing between fever of mammals and behavioral fever of ectothermic vertebrates. Finally, the experimental evidences supporting an adaptive value of behavioral fever expressed by ectothermic vertebrates are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lungfish axial muscle function and the vertebrate water to land transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Horner

    Full Text Available The role of axial form and function during the vertebrate water to land transition is poorly understood, in part because patterns of axial movement lack morphological correlates. The few studies available from elongate, semi-aquatic vertebrates suggest that moving on land may be powered simply from modifications of generalized swimming axial motor patterns and kinematics. Lungfish are an ideal group to study the role of axial function in terrestrial locomotion as they are the sister taxon to tetrapods and regularly move on land. Here we use electromyography and high-speed video to test whether lungfish moving on land use axial muscles similar to undulatory swimming or demonstrate novelty. We compared terrestrial lungfish data to data from lungfish swimming in different viscosities as well as to salamander locomotion. The terrestrial locomotion of lungfish involved substantial activity in the trunk muscles but almost no tail activity. Unlike other elongate vertebrates, lungfish moved on land with a standing wave pattern of axial muscle activity that closely resembled the pattern observed in terrestrially locomoting salamanders. The similarity in axial motor pattern in salamanders and lungfish suggests that some aspects of neuromuscular control for the axial movements involved in terrestrial locomotion were present before derived appendicular structures.

  10. Lungfish Axial Muscle Function and the Vertebrate Water to Land Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Angela M.; Jayne, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    The role of axial form and function during the vertebrate water to land transition is poorly understood, in part because patterns of axial movement lack morphological correlates. The few studies available from elongate, semi-aquatic vertebrates suggest that moving on land may be powered simply from modifications of generalized swimming axial motor patterns and kinematics. Lungfish are an ideal group to study the role of axial function in terrestrial locomotion as they are the sister taxon to tetrapods and regularly move on land. Here we use electromyography and high-speed video to test whether lungfish moving on land use axial muscles similar to undulatory swimming or demonstrate novelty. We compared terrestrial lungfish data to data from lungfish swimming in different viscosities as well as to salamander locomotion. The terrestrial locomotion of lungfish involved substantial activity in the trunk muscles but almost no tail activity. Unlike other elongate vertebrates, lungfish moved on land with a standing wave pattern of axial muscle activity that closely resembled the pattern observed in terrestrially locomoting salamanders. The similarity in axial motor pattern in salamanders and lungfish suggests that some aspects of neuromuscular control for the axial movements involved in terrestrial locomotion were present before derived appendicular structures. PMID:24788982

  11. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  12. Lymphatic regulation in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2013-08-01

    All vertebrate animals share in common the production of lymph through net capillary filtration from their closed circulatory system into their tissues. The balance of forces responsible for net capillary filtration and lymph formation is described by the Starling equation, but additional factors such as vascular and interstitial compliance, which vary markedly among vertebrates, also have a significant impact on rates of lymph formation. Why vertebrates show extreme variability in rates of lymph formation and how nonmammalian vertebrates maintain plasma volume homeostasis is unclear. This gap hampers our understanding of the evolution of the lymphatic system and its interaction with the cardiovascular system. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate lymphatic system is not clear, but recent advances suggest common developmental factors for lymphangiogenesis in teleost fishes, amphibians, and mammals with some significant changes in the water-land transition. The lymphatic system of anuran amphibians is characterized by large lymphatic sacs and two pairs of lymph hearts that return lymph into the venous circulation but no lymph vessels per se. The lymphatic systems of reptiles and some birds have lymph hearts, and both groups have extensive lymph vessels, but their functional role in both lymph movement and plasma volume homeostasis is almost completely unknown. The purpose of this review is to present an evolutionary perspective in how different vertebrates have solved the common problem of the inevitable formation of lymph from their closed circulatory systems and to point out the many gaps in our knowledge of this evolutionary progression.

  13. Axial dynamics during locomotion in vertebrates lesson from the salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Ijspeert, Auke; Lamarque, Stéphanie; Ryczko, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    Much of what we know about the flexibility of the locomotor networks in vertebrates is derived from studies examining the adaptation of limb movements during stepping in various conditions. However, the body movements play important roles during locomotion: they produce the thrust during undulatory locomotion and they help to increase the stride length during legged locomotion. In this chapter, we review our current knowledge about the flexibility in the neuronal circuits controlling the body musculature during locomotion. We focus especially on salamander because, as an amphibian, this animal is able to display a rich repertoire of aquatic and terrestrial locomotor modes.

  14. The vertebrate fauna from the stipite layers of the Grands Causses (Middle Jurassic, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eKnoll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The stipites are Bathonian (Middle Jurassic coals that formed in an everglades-like environment and are now exposed in the Grands Causses (southern France. The vertebrate assemblage of the stipites and of the transitional layers to the carbonates in which they are interspersed are reviewed. To date, only small-sized and isolated vertebrate bones, teeth, and scales have been recovered. These record the presence of sharks (Hybodus, Asteracanthus, bony fishes (Lepidotes, Pycnodontiformes, Caturus, Aspidorhynchus, amphibians (Anura, Albanerpetontidae, and reptiles (Crocodylomorpha, Ornithischia, Theropoda. Despite its relatively limited taxonomic diversity, the vertebrate assemblage from the stipites and from their associated layers is notable for being one of the few of this age with both terrestrial and marine influences. Compared to other approximately coeval formations in Western Europe, the stipites vertebrate assemblage is surpassed in diversity only by those from the British Isles.

  15. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma.

  16. Pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Singh, Hukum; Khwaja, Geeta; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of the spine that remain asymptomatic in most cases and incidentally encountered on imaging. Rarely, altered hemodynamic and hormonal changes during pregnancy may expand these benign lesions resulting in severe cord compression. The management of symptomatic vertebral hemangioma during pregnancy is controversial as modalities like radiotherapy and embolization are not suitable and surgery during pregnancy has a risk of preterm labor. Few cases of pregnancy related symptomatic vertebral hemangioma with marked epidural component have been reported in the literature. We report a case of 23-year-old primigravida who developed rapidly progressive paraparesis at 28 weeks of gestation and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed upper thoracic vertebral hemangioma with extensive extra-osseous extension and spinal cord compression. Laminectomy and surgical decompression of the cord was performed at 32 weeks of the pregnancy. There was significant improvement in muscle power after a week of surgery. Six weeks postoperatively she delivered a full term normal baby with subsequent improvement of neurologic deficit. Repeat MRI of dorsal spine performed at 3 months postoperatively showed reduced posterior and anterior epidural components of vertebral hemangioma.

  17. [Serine proteinases of lower vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzeĭskaia, M V

    1986-01-01

    Recent data on the effect of serine proteinases of lower vertebrates are generalized. Hydrolysis specificity and kinetics of different synthetic substrates, dependence of the activity of enzymes on pH, their irreversible inhibition by chloromethyl ketones of amino acids and peptides as well as high-molecular proteinase inhibitors are considered in detail. The data testify to the fact that chymotrypsins and trypsins of higher vertebrates and serine proteinases of lower vertebrates act as an acid-base catalysis. Enzymes in the pyloric cacca of fishes are in the state of proenzymes and are transformed into an active form with the aid of their own proteolytic factors. The esterase and proteolytic activity of fish proteinases is concentrated in the same active site and reaches the highest values at pH 7,8. New data are presented on particularities of the lower vertebrate proteinases, on the similarity and differences in their specificity. A distinct difference is shown in the nature of the binding site of the active centre in a number of serine proteinases of fishes as compared to chymotrypsin and trypsin of higher vertebrates.

  18. Building Terrestrial Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; O`brien, David P; Raymond, Sean N; Walsh, Kevin J; 10.1146/annurev-earth-042711-105319

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews our current understanding of terrestrial planets formation. The focus is on computer simulations of the dynamical aspects of the accretion process. Throughout the chapter, we combine the results of these theoretical models with geochemical, cosmochemical and chronological constraints, in order to outline a comprehensive scenario of the early evolution of our Solar System. Given that the giant planets formed first in the protoplanetary disk, we stress the sensitive dependence of the terrestrial planet accretion process on the orbital architecture of the giant planets and on their evolution. This suggests a great diversity among the terrestrial planets populations in extrasolar systems. Issues such as the cause for the different masses and accretion timescales between Mars and the Earth and the origin of water (and other volatiles) on our planet are discussed at depth.

  19. Coreless Terrestrial Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, L

    2008-01-01

    Differentiation in terrestrial planets is expected to include the formation of a metallic iron core. We predict the existence of terrestrial planets that have differentiated but have no metallic core--planets that are effectively a giant silicate mantle. We discuss two paths to forming a coreless terrestrial planet, whereby the oxidation state during planetary accretion and solidification will determine the size or existence of any metallic core. Under this hypothesis, any metallic iron in the bulk accreting material is oxidized by water, binding the iron in the form of iron oxide into the silicate minerals of the planetary mantle. The existence of such silicate planets has consequences for interpreting the compositions and interior density structures of exoplanets based on their mass and radius measurements.

  20. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10-23 Hz-1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of

  1. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10(-23) Hz(-1/2) above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of

  2. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Harms

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10^–23 Hz^–1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our

  3. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  4. Jim Crow, Indian Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, Orlan J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews history of voting rights for Indians and discusses a 1986 decision calling for election reform in Big Horn County, Montana, to eliminate violations of the voting rights of the county's Indian citizens. Notes that positive effects--such as election of the county's first Indian commissioner--co-exist with enduring anti-Indian sentiment. (JHZ)

  5. Accidental capture of vertebrates in small mammal studies in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a list of vertebrate species caught accidentally by live-traps while conducting capture and recapture studies with small mammals in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Twentytwo terrestrial vertebrate species were registered: two amphibians, four reptiles, thirteen birds and three mammals. The use of vegetable baits as attractive smells, for example banana and peanut butter, was of great value in terms of the capture of a great diversity of species belonging to a wide range of feeding habitats, including insectivores and carnivores, probably attracted by arthropods that had fed on the baits.

  6. The terrestrial silica pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C Carey

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si cycling controls atmospheric CO(2 concentrations and thus, the global climate, through three well-recognized means: chemical weathering of mineral silicates, occlusion of carbon (C to soil phytoliths, and the oceanic biological Si pump. In the latter, oceanic diatoms directly sequester 25.8 Gton C yr(-1, accounting for 43% of the total oceanic net primary production (NPP. However, another important link between C and Si cycling remains largely ignored, specifically the role of Si in terrestrial NPP. Here we show that 55% of terrestrial NPP (33 Gton C yr(-1 is due to active Si-accumulating vegetation, on par with the amount of C sequestered annually via marine diatoms. Our results suggest that similar to oceanic diatoms, the biological Si cycle of land plants also controls atmospheric CO(2 levels. In addition, we provide the first estimates of Si fixed in terrestrial vegetation by major global biome type, highlighting the ecosystems of most dynamic Si fixation. Projected global land use change will convert forests to agricultural lands, increasing the fixation of Si by land plants, and the magnitude of the terrestrial Si pump.

  7. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...

  8. A global evaluation of metabolic theory as an explanation for terrestrial species richness gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, Bradford A.; Albuquerque, Fabio S.; Araújo, Miguel B.

    2007-01-01

    We compiled 46 broadscale data sets of species richness for a wide range of terrestrial plant, invertebrate, and ectothermic vertebrate groups in all parts of the world to test the ability of metabolic theory to account for observed diversity gradients. The theory makes two related predictions: (...

  9. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  10. Vertebrate Embryonic Cleavage Pattern Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasley, Andrew; Chavez, Shawn; Danilchik, Michael; Wühr, Martin; Pelegri, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns. The nearly universal influence of cell shape on orientation and positioning of spindles and cleavage furrows and the mechanisms that mediate this influence are discussed. We discuss in particular models of aster and spindle centering and orientation in large embryonic blastomeres that rely on asymmetric internal pulling forces generated by the cleavage furrow for the previous cell cycle. Also explored are mechanisms that integrate cell division given the limited supply of cellular building blocks in the egg and several-fold changes of cell size during early development, as well as cytoskeletal specializations specific to early blastomeres including processes leading to blastomere cohesion. Finally, we discuss evolutionary conclusions beginning to emerge from the contemporary analysis of the phylogenetic distributions of cleavage patterns. In sum, this chapter seeks to summarize our current understanding of vertebrate early embryonic cleavage patterns and their control and evolution.

  11. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  12. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  13. Vertebral Geometry Parameters Can Predict Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Tofighi

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: Vertebral fractures are common fractures in postmenopausal women. There was a correlation between verte¬bral height and fractures. Vertebral geometric parameters especially height T score can be used for fracture screening.

  14. Early development of the vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaal, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The segmental organization of the vertebrate body is most obviously visible in the vertebral column, which consists of a series of vertebral bones and interconnecting joints and ligaments. During embryogenesis, the vertebral column derives from the somites, which are the primary segments of the embryonic paraxial mesoderm. Anatomical, cellular and molecular aspects of vertebral column development have been of interest to developmental biologists for more than 150 years. This review briefly summarizes the present knowledge on early steps of vertebral column development in amniotes, starting from sclerotome formation and leading to the establishment of the anatomical bauplan of the spine composed of vertebral bodies, vertebral arches, intervertebral discs and ribs, and their specific axial identities along the body axis.

  15. Vertebrate predators have minimal cascading effects on plant production or seed predation in an intact grassland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Maron; Dean E. Pearson

    2011-01-01

    The strength of trophic cascades in terrestrial habitats has been the subject of considerable interest and debate. We conducted an 8-year experiment to determine how exclusion of vertebrate predators, ungulates alone (to control for ungulate exclusion from predator exclusion plots) or none of these animals influenced how strongly a three-species assemblage of rodent...

  16. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the β-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of

  17. Interventional Management of Vertebral Body Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Ethan A.; Ahn, Sun Ho

    2013-01-01

    Metastases to the vertebral column are often due to hypervascular primary tumors, the most common of which is renal cell carcinoma. Clinical symptoms attributed to vertebral body metastases include localized pain, mechanical instability of the vertebral column, and neurologic deficits resulting from mass effect. Treatment options include targeted radiotherapy, percutaneous vertebral augmentation with or without thermal ablation, and surgical resection with subsequent fusion. Overall, surgical...

  18. Ancient Grandeur of the Vertebrate Neuropeptide Y System Shown by the Coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larhammar, Dan; Bergqvist, Christina A

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) family receptors and peptides have previously been characterized in several tetrapods, teleost fishes, and in a holocephalan cartilaginous fish. This has shown that the ancestral NPY system in the jawed vertebrates consisted of the peptides NPY and peptide YY (PYY) and seven G-protein-coupled receptors named Y1-Y8 (Y3 does not exist). The different vertebrate lineages have subsequently lost or gained a few receptor genes. For instance, the human genome has lost three of the seven receptors while the zebrafish has lost two and gained two receptor genes. Here we describe the NPY system of a representative of an early diverging lineage among the sarcopterygians, the West Indian Ocean coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae. The coelacanth was found to have retained all seven receptors from the ancestral jawed vertebrate. The receptors display the typical characteristics found in other vertebrates. Interestingly, the coelacanth was found to have the local duplicate of the PYY gene, called pancreatic polypeptide, previously only identified in tetrapods. Thus, this duplication took place very early in the sarcopterygian lineage, before the origin of tetrapods. These findings confirm the ancient complexity of the NPY system and show that mammals have lost more NPY receptors than any other vertebrate lineage. The coelacanth has all three peptides found in tetrapods and has retained the ancestral jawed vertebrate receptor repertoire with neither gains or losses.

  19. Ancient grandeur of the vertebrate neuropeptide Y system shown by the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLarhammar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide Y (NPY family receptors and peptides have previously been characterized in several tetrapods, teleost fishes and in a holocephalan cartilaginous fish. This has shown that the ancestral NPY system in the jawed vertebrates consisted of the peptides NPY and PYY and seven G-protein-coupled receptors named Y1-Y8 (Y3 does not exist. The different vertebrate lineages have subsequently lost or gained a few receptor genes. For instance, the human genome has lost three of the seven receptors while the zebrafish has lost two and gained two receptor genes. Here we describe the NPY system of a representative of an early diverging lineage among the sarcopterygians, the West Indian Ocean coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae. The coelacanth was found to have retained all seven receptors from the ancestral jawed vertebrate. The receptors display the typical characteristics found in other vertebrates. Interestingly, the coelacanth was found to have the local duplicate of the PYY gene, called pancreatic polypeptide, previously only identified in tetrapods. Thus, this duplication took place very early in the sarcopterygian lineage, before the origin of tetrapods. These findings confirm the ancient complexity of the NPY system and show that mammals have lost more NPY receptors than any other vertebrate lineage. The coelacanth has all three peptides found in tetrapods and has retained the ancestral jawed vertebrate receptor repertoire with neither gains or losses.

  20. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  1. Solar-Terrestrial Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    observed. We worked out a polar theory that incorporates molecular ions and shows that they are expected to be associated with large outflow speeds...because of the change in the mean molecular degrees of freedom of the plasma. We calculated vertical cutoff rigidities for spacecraft altitudes and...E. Lamanna, Societa Italiana di Fisica , Bologna, Italy, 1997.) Shea, M.A., and D.F. Smart, Overview of the Effects of Solar Terrestrial Phenomena

  2. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Harms, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of terrestrial gravity fluctuations will have great impact on the future development of GW detectors and high-precision gravimetry in general, and many open questions need to be answered still as emphasized in this article.

  3. 'Wildlife 2001: Populations', an International Conference on Population Dynamics and Management of Vertebrates

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Reginald

    1992-01-01

    In 1984, a conference called Wildlife 2000: Modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates, was held at Stanford Sierra Camp at Fallen Leaf Lake in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. The conference was well-received, and the published volume (Verner, J. , M. L. Morrison, and C. J. Ralph, editors. 1986. Wildlife 2000: modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, USA) proved to be a landmark publication that received a book award by The Wildlife Society. Wildlife 2001: populations was a followup conference with emphasis on the other major biological field of wildlife conservation and management, populations. It was held on July 29-31, 1991, at the Oakland Airport Hilton Hotel in Oakland, California, in accordance with our intent that this conference have a much stronger international representation than did Wildlife 2000. The goal of the conference was to bring together an international group of specialists to address the state ...

  4. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability.

  5. Indian Graphic Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Sarain

    1979-01-01

    Noting Indian tribes had invented ways to record facts and ideas, with graphic symbols that sometimes reached the complexity of hieroglyphs, this article illustrates and describes Indian symbols. (Author/RTS)

  6. Himalayan glaciation and its effects on terrestrial and freshwater animal life in Peninsular India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hora, Sunder Lal

    1949-01-01

    One of the most remarkable features of the zoogeography of India is the occurrence of the so-called Malayan element in the freshwater and terrestrial fauna of the Indian Peninsula. This element is rich in species and genera of practically all groups of non-marine animals which are found in the hills

  7. Space Weather Research: Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Choudhary, R. K.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Manoharan, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather, just like its meteorological counterpart, is of extreme importance when it comes to its impact on terrestrial near- and far-space environments. In recent years, space weather research has acquired an important place as a thrust area of research having implications both in space science and technology. The presence of satellites and other technological systems from different nations in near-Earth space necessitates that one must have a comprehensive understanding not only of the origin and evolution of space weather processes but also of their impact on technology and terrestrial upper atmosphere. To address this aspect, nations across the globe including India have been investing in research concerning Sun, solar processes and their evolution from solar interior into the interplanetary space, and their impact on Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In India, over the years, a substantial amount of work has been done in each of these areas by various agencies/institutions. In fact, India has been, and continues to be, at the forefront of space research and has ambitious future programs concerning these areas encompassing space weather. This review aims at providing a glimpse of this Indian perspective on space weather research to the reader and presenting an up-to-date status of the same.

  8. Hypoxia, global warming, and terrestrial late Permian extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Raymond B; Ward, Peter D

    2005-04-15

    A catastrophic extinction occurred at the end of the Permian Period. However, baseline extinction rates appear to have been elevated even before the final catastrophe, suggesting sustained environmental degradation. For terrestrial vertebrates during the Late Permian, the combination of a drop in atmospheric oxygen plus climate warming would have induced hypoxic stress and consequently compressed altitudinal ranges to near sea level. Our simulations suggest that the magnitude of altitudinal compression would have forced extinctions by reducing habitat diversity, fragmenting and isolating populations, and inducing a species-area effect. It also might have delayed ecosystem recovery after the mass extinction.

  9. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Box jellyfish have an impressive set of 24 eyes of four different types, including eyes structurally similar to those of vertebrates and cephalopods [1, 2]. However, the known visual responses are restricted to simple phototaxis, shadow responses, and object avoidance responses [3-8], and it has...... been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type...

  10. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  11. Osteomielitis vertebral piógena Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Perrotti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La osteomielitis vertebral piógena (OVP es una localización poco frecuente (2-7% Se confirma con el aislamiento de un microorganismo de una vértebra, disco intervertebral, absceso epidural o paravertebral. Se describe una serie de casos por la infrecuente presentación de esta enfermedad, que puede ser consulta inicial en los servicios de clínica médica y por su sintomatología inespecífica que supone una dificultad diagnóstica. Tanto la columna lumbar como la dorsal fueron los sitios más afectados. El dolor dorsolumbar y la paraparesia fueron los síntomas más frecuentes de presentación. En ocho pacientes se aislaron Staphylococcus aureus, en uno Escherichia coli y en el restante Haemophylus sp. Se observó leucocitosis sólo en tres pacientes, y en dos velocidad de sedimentación globular mayor de 100 mm/h. Los diez pacientes presentaron imágenes características de osteomielitis vertebral piógena en la resonancia nuclear magnética. Dentro de las complicaciones, los abscesos paravertebrales y epidurales fueron los más frecuentes (en cinco enfermos. Además, un paciente presentó empiema pleural. De los diez pacientes de esta serie, siete recibieron inicialmente tratamiento médico empírico y luego específico para el germen aislado. En los restantes el tratamiento fue guiado de acuerdo al antibiograma. A dos enfermos fue necesario realizarles laminectomía descompresiva por compromiso de partes blandas y a otros dos estabilización quirúrgica por inestabilidad espinal, observándose buena evolución en todos los casos. Esta serie demuestra que, ante un paciente con dolor dorsolumbar y síntomas neurológicos se deberá tener en cuenta esta entidad para evitar un retraso en el tratamiento.Pyogenic osteomyelitis seldom affects the spine (2-7%. It is diagnosed by the isolation of a bacterial agent in the vertebral body, the intervertebral disks or from paravertebral or epidural abscesses. We report a retrospective study of ten

  12. Terrestrial Plume Impingement Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Masten Space Systems proposes to create a terrestrial plume impingement testbed for generating novel datasets for extraterrestrial robotic missions. This testbed...

  13. Heinrich event 4 characterized by terrestrial proxies in southwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. López-García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heinrich event 4 (H4 is well documented in the North Atlantic Ocean as a cooling event that occurred between 39 and 40 Ka. Deep-sea cores around the Iberian Peninsula coastline have been analysed to characterize the H4 event, but there are no data on the terrestrial response to this event. Here we present for the first time an analysis of terrestrial proxies for characterizing the H4 event, using the small-vertebrate assemblage (comprising small mammals, squamates and amphibians from Terrassa Riera dels Canyars, an archaeo-palaeontological deposit located on the seaboard of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. This assemblage shows that the H4 event is characterized in northeastern Iberia by harsher and drier terrestrial conditions than today. Our results were compared with other proxies such as pollen, charcoal, phytolith, avifauna and large-mammal data available for this site, as well as with the general H4 event fluctuations and with other sites where H4 and the previous and subsequent Heinrich events (H5 and H3 have been detected in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions of the Iberian Peninsula. We conclude that the terrestrial proxies follow the same patterns as the climatic and environmental conditions detected by the deep-sea cores at the Iberian margins.

  14. Early vertebrate origin and diversification of small transmembrane regulators of cellular ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkmajer, Sergej; Kirchner, Henriette; Lundell, Leonidas S; Zelenin, Pavel V; Zierath, Juleen R; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2017-07-15

    Small transmembrane proteins such as FXYDs, which interact with Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase, and the micropeptides that interact with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase play fundamental roles in regulation of ion transport in vertebrates. Uncertain evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships among these regulators of ion transport have led to inconsistencies in their classification across vertebrate species, thus hampering comparative studies of their functions. We discovered the first FXYD homologue in sea lamprey, a basal jawless vertebrate, which suggests small transmembrane regulators of ion transport emerged early in the vertebrate lineage. We also identified 13 gene subfamilies of FXYDs and propose a revised, phylogeny-based FXYD classification that is consistent across vertebrate species. These findings provide an improved framework for investigating physiological and pathophysiological functions of small transmembrane regulators of ion transport. Small transmembrane proteins are important for regulation of cellular ion transport. The most prominent among these are members of the FXYD family (FXYD1-12), which regulate Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase, and phospholamban, sarcolipin, myoregulin and DWORF, which regulate the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase (SERCA). FXYDs and regulators of SERCA are present in fishes, as well as terrestrial vertebrates; however, their evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships are obscure, thus hampering comparative physiological studies. Here we discovered that sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a representative of extant jawless vertebrates (Cyclostomata), expresses an FXYD homologue, which strongly suggests that FXYDs predate the emergence of fishes and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Using a combination of sequence-based phylogenetic analysis and conservation of local chromosome context, we determined that FXYDs markedly diversified in the lineages leading to cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) and

  15. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2, temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1), and

  16. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eve R; Gracheva, Elena O; Bagriantsev, Slav N

    2016-05-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates.

  17. Avascular necrosis of a vertebral body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Sheng-li; SHI Wei; HE Xi-jing

    2009-01-01

    @@ Avascular necrosis of a vertebral body,a relatively uncommon entity,is caused by malicgnancy,infection,radiation,systemic stemid treatment,trauma,and the ike.1 Vertebral osteonecrosis induced by trauma is called Kümmell's disease,because it was initially described by Hermann KLimmell of Germany in 1891.2 This paper reported a young female with posttraumatic vertebral osteonecrosis and analyzed the causes.She was treated by thoracoscopic Surgery successfully.

  18. Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eve R.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has endowed vertebrates with the remarkable tactile ability to explore the world through the perception of physical force. Yet the sense of touch remains one of the least well understood senses at the cellular and molecular level. Vertebrates specializing in tactile perception can highlight general principles of mechanotransduction. Here, we review cellular and molecular adaptations that underlie the sense of touch in typical and acutely mechanosensitive vertebrates. PMID:27053733

  19. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature......, ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species. Further, we analyze rates of measured emission of aerobically produced CH4 in pectin and in plant tissues from different studies and argue that pectin is very far from the sole contributing precursor. Hence, scaling up of aerobic CH4 emission needs to take...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  20. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2007-12-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

  1. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  2. Terrestrial Coordinate Systems and Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A terrestrial reference system (TRS) is a spatial reference system corotating with the Earth in its DIURNAL MOTION in space. In such a system, the positions of points anchored on the Earth's solid surface have coordinates which have only small variations with time, as a result of geophysical effects (tectonic or tidal deformations; see TECTONICS, EARTH'S INTERIOR, TIDES). A terrestrial reference ...

  3. Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Gary W.; Fuller, Pam L.

    2011-01-01

    At least 1,065 introduced vertebrate species have been introduced in the United States and its territories, including at least 86 mammalian, 127 avian, 179 reptilian/amphibian, and 673 fish species. Examples in each major taxonomic group include domestic cat, small Indian mongoose, red fox, goat, pig, rabbit, rats, house mouse, gray squirrel, nutria, starling, Indian common myna, red-vented bulbul, brown treesnake, red-eared slider, brown trout, tilapia, and grass carp. We briefly review some of these species and the types of damage they cause. We then review the basic types of methods used for control or eradication of each taxonomic group, including physical, chemical, biological, and cultural methods. We discuss some of the challenges in managing these species, including issues with the use of toxicants, land access, public attitudes, and monitoring difficulties. Finally, we list some ongoing research and future research needs, including improved detection methods, improved attractants, improved barriers, improved capture methods, fertility control, and risk assessment methods.

  4. Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. WITMER, Pam L. FULLER

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available At least 1,065 introduced vertebrate species have been introduced in the United States and its territories, including at least 86 mammalian, 127 avian, 179 reptilian/amphibian, and 673 fish species. Examples in each major taxonomic group include domestic cat, small Indian mongoose, red fox, goat, pig, rabbit, rats, house mouse, gray squirrel, nutria, starling, Indian common myna, red-vented bulbul, brown treesnake, red-eared slider, brown trout, tilapia, and grass carp. We briefly review some of these species and the types of damage they cause. We then review the basic types of methods used for control or eradication of each taxonomic group, including physical, chemical, biological, and cultural methods. We discuss some of the challenges in managing these species, including issues with the use of toxicants, land access, public attitudes, and monitoring difficulties. Finally, we list some ongoing research and future research needs, including improved detection methods, improved attractants, improved barriers, improved capture methods, fertility control, and risk assessment methods [Current Zoology 57 (5: 559–567, 2011].

  5. Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary W. WITMER; Pam L. FULLER

    2011-01-01

    Abstract At least 1,065 introduced vertebrate species have been introduced in the United States and its territories,including at least 86 mammalian,127 avian,179 reptilian/amphibian,and 673 fish species.Examples in each major taxonomic group include domestic cat,small Indian mongoose,red fox,goat,pig,rabbit,rats,house mouse,gray squirrel,nutria,starling,Indian common myna,red-vented bulbul,brown treesnake,red-eared slider,brown trout,tilapia,and grass carp.We briefly review some of these species and the types of damage they cause.We then review the basic types of methods used for control or eradication of each taxonomic group,including physical,chemical,biological,and cultural methods.We discuss some of the challenges in managing these species,including issues with the use of toxicants,land access,public attitudes,and monitoring difficulties.Finally,we list some ongoing research and future research needs,including improved detection methods,improved attractants,improved barriers,improved capture methods,fertility control,and risk assessment methods [Current Zoology 57 (5):559-567,2011].

  6. What is the general action of ghrelin for vertebrates? - comparisons of ghrelin's effects across vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya

    2013-01-15

    Ten years and more passed since ghrelin was discovered. Various physiological actions of ghrelin have been documented in both mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates. Do these actions have any commonality? In this review, we focused on several effects of ghrelin, and compared the effect across vertebrates. We would like to discuss possible general function of ghrelin in vertebrates.

  7. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting® (VBS), OsseoFix® and Spine Jack®. VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix® and Spine Jack® are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix® has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting® and Spine Jack®, the OsseoFix® has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack® is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors. PMID:27683690

  8. Vertebral Geometry Parameters Can Predict Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Tofighi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate vertebral geometry changes and determine cutoff value of vertebral height to predict fractures. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 280 postmenopausal women recruited .In all subjects bone mineral density and radiog¬raphy of the lumbar spine performed. Lateral radiographs were evaluated for identification of vertebral fractures, using a validated semiquantitative method. T-score of vertebral height was calculated based on data extracted from Iranian Multi¬center Osteoporosis Study. ROC curve used to determine cut off value of vertebral height T-score to predict fractures. Results: The mean of age and BMI were 55.34±8.7 years and 27.73±5 kg/m2, respectively. Among osteoporotic women, 59.8% had one or more vertebral fractures and 23.8% had at least 2 fractures. In fracture group the T-score of spine and femur BMD was lower than the others. The mean of vertebral height in women without fractures was 12.94±0.6 cm, and in the patient with 4 or more fractures was12.3, thus every fracture accompany with 1.2% decreases in the height of vertebrae. The prevalence of vertebral fracture in osteoporotic patients was 71.4% and in healthy cases 39.5%. Better estimation of vertebral height T score in ROC curve was less than -0.7.The sensitivity and specificity of the cut off value were 81.3% and 52.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Vertebral fractures are common fractures in postmenopausal women. There was a correlation between verte¬bral height and fractures. Vertebral geometric parameters especially height T score can be used for fracture screening.

  9. Building the backbone: the development and evolution of vertebral patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Angeleen; Kishida, Marcia G; Kimmel, Charles B; Keynes, Roger J

    2015-05-15

    The segmented vertebral column comprises a repeat series of vertebrae, each consisting of two key components: the vertebral body (or centrum) and the vertebral arches. Despite being a defining feature of the vertebrates, much remains to be understood about vertebral development and evolution. Particular controversy surrounds whether vertebral component structures are homologous across vertebrates, how somite and vertebral patterning are connected, and the developmental origin of vertebral bone-mineralizing cells. Here, we assemble evidence from ichthyologists, palaeontologists and developmental biologists to consider these issues. Vertebral arch elements were present in early stem vertebrates, whereas centra arose later. We argue that centra are homologous among jawed vertebrates, and review evidence in teleosts that the notochord plays an instructive role in segmental patterning, alongside the somites, and contributes to mineralization. By clarifying the evolutionary relationship between centra and arches, and their varying modes of skeletal mineralization, we can better appreciate the detailed mechanisms that regulate and diversify vertebral patterning.

  10. Vertebral osteomyelitis: clinical features and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren Gök, S; Kaptanoğlu, E; Celikbaş, A; Ergönül, O; Baykam, N; Eroğlu, M; Dokuzoğuz, B

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to describe clinical and diagnostic features of vertebral osteomyelitis for differential diagnosis and treatment. This is a prospective observational study performed between 2002 and 2012 in Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey. All the patients with vertebral osteomyelitis were followed for from 6 months to 3 years. In total, 214 patients were included in the study, 113 out of 214 (53%) were female. Out of 214 patients, 96 (45%) had brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis (BVO), 63 (29%) had tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis (TVO), and 55 (26%) had pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO). Mean number of days between onset of symptoms and establishment of diagnosis was greater with the patients with TVO (266 days) than BVO (115 days) or PVO (151 days, p 15 mm, sensitivity was 0.66, specificity was 0.97, positive predictive value was 0.89, negative predictive value was 0.88, and receiver operating characteristics area was 0.8. Tuberculous and brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis remained the leading causes of vertebral osteomyelitis with delayed diagnosis. In differential diagnosis of vertebral osteomyelitis, consumption of unpasteurized cheese, dealing with husbandry, sweating, arthralgia, hepatomegaly, elevated alanine transaminase, and lumbar involvement in magnetic resonance imaging were found to be predictors of BVO, thoracic involvement in magnetic resonance imaging and tuberculin skin test > 15 mm were found to be predictors of TVO, and history of spinal surgery and leucocytosis were found to be predictors of PVO.

  11. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  12. The evolution of adaptive immunity in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Masayuki; Das, Sabyasachi; Guo, Peng; Cooper, Max D

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 500 million years ago, two types of recombinatorial adaptive immune systems (AISs) arose in vertebrates. The jawed vertebrates diversify their repertoire of immunoglobulin domain-based T and B cell antigen receptors mainly through the rearrangement of V(D)J gene segments and somatic hypermutation, but none of the fundamental AIS recognition elements in jawed vertebrates have been found in jawless vertebrates. Instead, the AIS of jawless vertebrates is based on variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that are generated through recombinatorial usage of a large panel of highly diverse leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) sequences. Whereas the appearance of transposon-like, recombination-activating genes contributed uniquely to the origin of the AIS in jawed vertebrates, the use of activation-induced cytidine deaminase for receptor diversification is common to both the jawed and jawless vertebrates. Despite these differences in anticipatory receptor construction, the basic AIS design featuring two interactive T and B lymphocyte arms apparently evolved in an ancestor of jawed and jawless vertebrates within the context of preexisting innate immunity and has been maintained since as a consequence of powerful and enduring selection, most probably for pathogen defense purposes.

  13. The MHC molecules of nonmammalian vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Skjoedt, K; Salomonsen, J

    1990-01-01

    to develop. There is no molecular evidence yet to decide whether vertebrate immune systems (and particularly the MHC molecules) are evolutionarily related to invertebrate allorecognition systems, and the functional evidence can be interpreted either way. Even among the vertebrates, there is great...

  14. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  15. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunxia; Wei, Donglei; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Tao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided.

  16. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  17. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  18. Contrasting biogeography of endemic and alien terrestrial species in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà, Montserrat

    2006-01-01

    Endemics and alien organisms can be considered two faces of the same coin, since management of both groups of taxa have strongly interrelated conservation implications. Islands are rich in endemic species and are also very vulnerable to biological invasions. We analysed the biogeography and taxonomy of endemic and alien terrestrial species in the Canary Islands including fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, arthropods, molluscs, annelids and vertebrates. By using the plant dataset we ...

  19. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  20. Pima Indian Legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anna Moore

    The stated purpose of this book is to preserve in writing some of the Pima Indian legends that had been verbally passed from generation to generation in the past. This collection of 23 legends, which were originally used to instruct the young people of the tribe, presents in story form various aspects of American Indian life--including…

  1. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  2. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  3. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  4. Radiocarbon dating of terrestrial carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Rink, W. Jack; Thompson, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbonates encompass a wide range of materials that potentially could be used for radiocarbon (14C) dating. Biogenic carbonates, including shells and tests of terrestrial and aquatic gastropods, bivalves, ostracodes, and foraminifera, are preserved in a variety of late Quaternary deposits and may be suitable for 14C dating. Primary calcareous deposits (marls, tufa, speleothems) and secondary carbonates (rhizoliths, fracture fill, soil carbonate) may also be targeted for dating when conditions are favorable. This chapter discusses issues that are commonly encountered in 14C dating of terrestrial carbonates, including isotopic disequilibrium and open-system behavior, as well as methods used to determine the reliability of ages derived from these materials. Recent methodological advancements that may improve the accuracy and precision of 14C ages of terrestrial carbonates are also highlighted.

  5. Atmospheric Circulation of Terrestrial Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Merlis, Timothy M; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of planets around other stars began with the study of gas giants, but is now extending to the discovery and characterization of super-Earths and terrestrial planets. Motivated by this observational tide, we survey the basic dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation of terrestrial exoplanets, and discuss the interaction of their circulation with the hydrological cycle and global-scale climate feedbacks. Terrestrial exoplanets occupy a wide range of physical and dynamical conditions, only a small fraction of which have yet been explored in detail. Our approach is to lay out the fundamental dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation on terrestrial planets--broadly defined--and show how they can provide a foundation for understanding the atmospheric behavior of these worlds. We first survey basic atmospheric dynamics, including the role of geostrophy, baroclinic instabilities, and jets in the strongly rotating regime (the "extratropics") and the role of the Hadle...

  6. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  7. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  8. Antibody Isotype Switching in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Kate; Hackney, Jason; Payandeh, Jian; Zarrin, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    The humoral or antibody-mediated immune response in vertebrates has evolved to respond to diverse antigenic challenges in various anatomical locations. Diversification of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) constant region via isotype switching allows for remarkable plasticity in the immune response, including versatile tissue distribution, Fc receptor binding, and complement fixation. This enables antibody molecules to exert various biological functions while maintaining antigen-binding specificity. Different immunoglobulin (Ig) classes include IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, and IgA, which exist as surface-bound and secreted forms. High-affinity autoantibodies are associated with various autoimmune diseases such as lupus and arthritis, while defects in components of isotype switching are associated with infections. A major route of infection used by a large number of pathogens is invasion of mucosal surfaces within the respiratory, digestive, or urinary tract. Most infections of this nature are initially limited by effector mechanisms such as secretory IgA antibodies. Mucosal surfaces have been proposed as a major site for the genesis of adaptive immune responses, not just in fighting infections but also in tolerating commensals and constant dietary antigens. We will discuss the evolution of isotype switching in various species and provide an overview of the function of various isotypes with a focus on IgA, which is universally important in gut homeostasis as well as pathogen clearance. Finally, we will discuss the utility of antibodies as therapeutic modalities.

  9. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  10. Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis A; Tewksbury, Joshua J; Huey, Raymond B; Sheldon, Kimberly S; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Haak, David C; Martin, Paul R

    2008-05-06

    The impact of anthropogenic climate change on terrestrial organisms is often predicted to increase with latitude, in parallel with the rate of warming. Yet the biological impact of rising temperatures also depends on the physiological sensitivity of organisms to temperature change. We integrate empirical fitness curves describing the thermal tolerance of terrestrial insects from around the world with the projected geographic distribution of climate change for the next century to estimate the direct impact of warming on insect fitness across latitude. The results show that warming in the tropics, although relatively small in magnitude, is likely to have the most deleterious consequences because tropical insects are relatively sensitive to temperature change and are currently living very close to their optimal temperature. In contrast, species at higher latitudes have broader thermal tolerance and are living in climates that are currently cooler than their physiological optima, so that warming may even enhance their fitness. Available thermal tolerance data for several vertebrate taxa exhibit similar patterns, suggesting that these results are general for terrestrial ectotherms. Our analyses imply that, in the absence of ameliorating factors such as migration and adaptation, the greatest extinction risks from global warming may be in the tropics, where biological diversity is also greatest.

  11. Epidemiology of acute vertebral osteomyelitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, M R; Wagn, P; Bengtsson, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of acute, non-tuberculous, hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis in Denmark during 1978-1982. 137 patients fulfilled the criteria for acute vertebral osteomyelitis. The incidence was 5/mill/year. There were no cases in the age group 20-29 years. The highest incidence......-1993, the relative number of reported patients with vertebral osteomyelitis had increased in the age group 20-49 years, compared to 1978-1982, but the incidence was highest in the group aged 60-79 years....

  12. Segmental patterning of the vertebrate embryonic axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dequéant, Mary-Lee; Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    The body axis of vertebrates is composed of a serial repetition of similar anatomical modules that are called segments or metameres. This particular mode of organization is especially conspicuous at the level of the periodic arrangement of vertebrae in the spine. The segmental pattern is established during embryogenesis when the somites--the embryonic segments of vertebrates--are rhythmically produced from the paraxial mesoderm. This process involves the segmentation clock, which is a travelling oscillator that interacts with a maturation wave called the wavefront to produce the periodic series of somites. Here, we review our current understanding of the segmentation process in vertebrates.

  13. Pulmonary Embolism with Vertebral Augmentation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of an aging American population on the rise, osteoporotic vertebral fractures are becoming a common occurrence, resulting in an increase in vertebral augmentation procedures and associated complications such as cement leakage, vertebral compressions, and pulmonary embolism. We describe a patient who presented with respiratory distress three years following kyphoplasty of the lumbar vertebra. Computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest confirmed the presence of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA cement in the lung fields and pulmonary vessels. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature identifying effective management strategies for the treatment of vertebroplasty-associated pulmonary embolism.

  14. The first record of a trans-oceanic sister-group relationship between obligate vertebrate troglobites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosanta Chakrabarty

    Full Text Available We show using the most complete phylogeny of one of the most species-rich orders of vertebrates (Gobiiformes, and calibrations from the rich fossil record of teleost fishes, that the genus Typhleotris, endemic to subterranean karst habitats in southwestern Madagascar, is the sister group to Milyeringa, endemic to similar subterranean systems in northwestern Australia. Both groups are eyeless, and our phylogenetic and biogeographic results show that these obligate cave fishes now found on opposite ends of the Indian Ocean (separated by nearly 7,000 km are each others closest relatives and owe their origins to the break up of the southern supercontinent, Gondwana, at the end of the Cretaceous period. Trans-oceanic sister-group relationships are otherwise unknown between blind, cave-adapted vertebrates and our results provide an extraordinary case of Gondwanan vicariance.

  15. The first record of a trans-oceanic sister-group relationship between obligate vertebrate troglobites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P; Sparks, John S

    2012-01-01

    We show using the most complete phylogeny of one of the most species-rich orders of vertebrates (Gobiiformes), and calibrations from the rich fossil record of teleost fishes, that the genus Typhleotris, endemic to subterranean karst habitats in southwestern Madagascar, is the sister group to Milyeringa, endemic to similar subterranean systems in northwestern Australia. Both groups are eyeless, and our phylogenetic and biogeographic results show that these obligate cave fishes now found on opposite ends of the Indian Ocean (separated by nearly 7,000 km) are each others closest relatives and owe their origins to the break up of the southern supercontinent, Gondwana, at the end of the Cretaceous period. Trans-oceanic sister-group relationships are otherwise unknown between blind, cave-adapted vertebrates and our results provide an extraordinary case of Gondwanan vicariance.

  16. Regional data to support biodiversity assessments: terrestrial vertebrate and butterfly data from the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darren J. Bender; Curtis H. Flather; Kenneth R. Wilson; Gordon C. Reese

    2005-01-01

    Spatially explicit data on the location of species across broad geographic areas greatly facilitate effective conservation planning on lands managed for multiple uses. The importance of these data notwithstanding, our knowledge about the geography of biodiversity is remarkably incomplete. An important factor contributing to our ignorance is that much of the...

  17. Biological and Ecological Characteristics of Terrestrial Vertebrate Species Residing in Estuaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) program is designed to assess and monitor the effects of environmental contaminants on biological...

  18. A National Approach to Map and Quantify Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity within an Ecosystem Services Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiversity is crucial for the functioning of ecosystems and the products and services from which we transform natural assets of the Earth for human survival, security, and well-being. The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is a...

  19. An assessment of wetland nature reserves and the protection of China’s vertebrate diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun, R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed all 148 wetland nature reserves in China and the distribution of the four taxa of endemic and threatened terrestrial vertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. Assessment of the wetland nature reserves was combined with the governmental list of the endemic and threatened vertebrates to identify the richness of the species. Species richness was scored as high, medium or low using a factor analysis method, and 31 wetland ecosystems were marked as high protection areas. The relationship between the threatened species and the endemic species in the reserves was also analyzed. We found that both richness patterns were similar. Based on the richness study, a nature reserve classification system with corresponding

  20. The American Indian Development Bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

  1. Some Resources in Indian Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marken, Jack W.

    This paper discusses some of the resources in the literature by and about the American Indian and lists numerous anthologies and bibliographies in this area. More than 40 publications are listed, including "Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian,""American Indian Almanac,""Ethnographic Bibliography of North America,""American Indian Prose…

  2. Planar cell polarity signaling in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chonnettia; Chen, Ping

    2007-02-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the polarization of a field of cells within the plane of a cell sheet. This form of polarization is required for diverse cellular processes in vertebrates, including convergent extension (CE), the establishment of PCP in epithelial tissues and ciliogenesis. Perhaps the most distinct example of vertebrate PCP is the uniform orientation of stereociliary bundles at the apices of sensory hair cells in the mammalian auditory sensory organ. The establishment of PCP in the mammalian cochlea occurs concurrently with CE in this ciliated epithelium, therefore linking three cellular processes regulated by the vertebrate PCP pathway in the same tissue and emerging as a model system for dissecting PCP signaling. This review summarizes the morphogenesis of this model system to assist the interpretation of the emerging data and proposes molecular mechanisms underlying PCP signaling in vertebrates.

  3. Sleep and orexins in nonmammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Although a precise definition of "sleep" has yet to be established, sleep-like behaviors have been observed in all animals studied to date including mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates. Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides that are involved in the regulation of many physiological functions, including feeding, thermoregulation, cardiovascular control, as well as the control of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. To date, the knowledge on the functions of orexins in nonmammalian vertebrates is still limited, but the similarity of the structures of orexins and their receptors among vertebrates suggest that they have similar conserved physiological functions. This review describes our current knowledge on sleep in nonmammalian vertebrates (birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish) and the possible role of orexins in the regulation of their energy homeostasis and arousal states.

  4. [Osteocyte-network in various vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    2012-05-01

    Since aquatic and land vertebrates live in different habitats,the morphology and function of bone might be greatly affected by the habitats of each vertebrate. We histologically investigated the bones of various vertebrates including teleost fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. Teleost fishes exhibited either bones contained many osteocytes (cellular bone) or bones have few osteocytes (acellular bone) . The development of osteocyte lacunocanalicular system in the cellular bone of the fish is poor compared to those in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. Bones in Xenopus laevis, a freshwater species, exhibited well-developed lacunocanalicular systems as well as those in reptiles and mammals. These studies indicates that the osteocyte lacunocanalicular system differs between teleost fishes and land vertebrates, but this is not directly related to aquatic habitat.

  5. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...

  6. A Case of Aerococcus Urinae Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Michael; Slim, Jihad; Sison, Raymund; Marton, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Aerococcus urinae is an aerobic, alpha hemolytic gram positive coccus bacterium that grows in pairs or clusters. We report the first case of vertebral osteomyelitis due to A. urinae. This has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:26069429

  7. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. RFamide peptides in early vertebrate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro Katrine Sandvik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RFamides (RFa are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play.

  9. Recombination drives vertebrate genome contraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwoong Nam

    Full Text Available Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process.

  10. [Indian workers in Oman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  11. Indian concepts on sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

  12. Vertebrate paleontological exploration of the Upper Cretaceous succession in the Dakhla and Kharga Oases, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Hesham M.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Kora, Mahmoud; Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Faris, Mahmoud; Ouda, Khaled; El-Dawoudi, Iman; Saber, Sara; El-Sayed, Sanaa

    2016-05-01

    The Campanian and Maastrichtian stages are very poorly documented time intervals in Africa's record of terrestrial vertebrate evolution. Upper Cretaceous deposits exposed in southern Egypt, near the Dakhla and Kharga Oases in the Western Desert, preserve abundant vertebrate fossils in nearshore marine environments, but have not yet been the focus of intensive collection and description. Our recent paleontological work in these areas has resulted in the discovery of numerous new vertebrate fossil-bearing localities within the middle Campanian Qusier Formation and the upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian Duwi Formation. Fossil remains recovered from the Campanian-aged Quseir Formation include sharks, rays, actinopterygian and sarcopterygian fishes, turtles, and rare terrestrial archosaurians, including some of the only dinosaurs known from this interval on continental Africa. The upper Campanian/lower Maastrichtian Duwi Formation preserves sharks, sawfish, actinopterygians, and marine reptiles (mosasaurs and plesiosaurs). Notably absent from these collections are representatives of Mammalia and Avialae, both of which remain effectively undocumented in the Upper Cretaceous rocks of Africa and Arabia. New age constraints on the examined rock units is provided by 23 nannofossil taxa, some of which are reported from the Duwi Formation for the first time. Fossil discoveries from rock units of this age are essential for characterizing the degree of endemism that may have developed as the continent became increasingly tectonically isolated from the rest of Gondwana, not to mention for fully evaluating origin and diversification hypotheses of major modern groups of vertebrates (e.g., crown birds, placental mammals).

  13. Homeotic transformations and number changes in the vertebral column of Triturus newts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Slijepčević

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We explored intraspecific variation in vertebral formulae, more specifically the variation in the number of thoracic vertebrae and frequencies of transitional sacral vertebrae in Triturus newts (Caudata: Salamandridae. Within salamandrid salamanders this monophyletic group shows the highest disparity in the number of thoracic vertebrae and considerable intraspecific variation in the number of thoracic vertebrae. Triturus species also differ in their ecological preferences, from predominantly terrestrial to largely aquatic. Following Geoffroy St. Hilaire’s and Darwin’s rule which states that structures with a large number of serially homologous repetitive elements are more variable than structures with smaller numbers, we hypothesized that the variation in vertebral formulae increases in more elongated species with a larger number of thoracic vertebrae. We furthermore hypothesized that the frequency of transitional vertebrae will be correlated with the variation in the number of thoracic vertebrae within the species. We also investigated potential effects of species hybridization on the vertebral formula. The proportion of individuals with a number of thoracic vertebrae different from the modal number and the range of variation in number of vertebrae significantly increased in species with a larger number of thoracic vertebrae. Contrary to our expectation, the frequencies of transitional vertebrae were not correlated with frequencies of change in the complete vertebrae number. The frequency of transitional sacral vertebra in hybrids did not significantly differ from that of the parental species. Such a pattern could be a result of selection pressure against transitional vertebrae and/or a bias towards the development of full vertebrae numbers. Although our data indicate relaxed selection for vertebral count changes in more elongated, aquatic species, more data on different selective pressures in species with different numbers of vertebrae in

  14. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  15. Vertebral morphometry: current methods and recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G. [University of Foggia, Department of Radiology, Foggia (Italy); Scientific Institute Hospital, Department of Radiology, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Diacinti, D. [University La Sapienza, Department of Radiology, Roma (Italy); Kuijk, C. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aparisi, F. [Hospital Dr Peset, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Valencia (Spain); Krestan, C. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Adams, J.E. [University, Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, Manchester (United Kingdom); Link, T.M. [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Vertebral fractures are the hallmark of osteoporosis and are associated with increased morbility and mortality. Because a majority of vertebral fractures often occur in absence of specific trauma and are asymptomatic, their identification is radiographic. The two most widely used methods to determine the severity of vertebral fractures are the visual semiquantitative (SQ) assessment and the morphometric quantitative approach, involving the measurements of vertebral body heights. The measurements may be made on conventional spinal radiographs (MRX: morphometric X-ray radiography) or on images obtained from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (MXA: morphometric X-ray absorptiometry).The availability of a rapid, low-dose method for assessment of vertebral fractures, using advanced fan-beam DXA devices, provides a practical method for integrated assessment of BMD and vertebral fracture status. The visual or morphometric assessment of lateral DXA spine images may have a potential role for use as a prescreening tool, excluding normal subjects prior to performing conventional radiographs. (orig.)

  16. Nanotechnology for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chunxia Gao,1,* Donglei Wei,1,* Huilin Yang,1 Tao Chen,2 Lei Yang1,3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Orthopaedic Institute, First Affiliated Hospital, 2Robotics and Microsystems Center, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, 3Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Osteoporosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of aged people worldwide, with severe consequences including vertebral fractures that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To augment or treat osteoporotic vertebral fractures, a number of surgical approaches including minimally invasive vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been developed. However, these approaches face problems and difficulties with efficacy and long-term stability. Recent advances and progress in nanotechnology are opening up new opportunities to improve the surgical procedures for treating osteoporotic vertebral fractures. This article reviews the improvements enabled by new nanomaterials and focuses on new injectable biomaterials like bone cements and surgical instruments for treating vertebral fractures. This article also provides an introduction to osteoporotic vertebral fractures and current clinical treatments, along with the rationale and efficacy of utilizing nanomaterials to modify and improve biomaterials or instruments. In addition, perspectives on future trends with injectable bone cements and surgical instruments enhanced by nanotechnology are provided. Keywords: nanomaterials, osteoporosis, vertebral fracture, kyphoplasty, bone cement, pedicle screw, radiopacifier

  17. Simulations for terrestrial planets formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the formation of terrestrial planets in the late stage of planetary formation is investigated using the two-planet model.At that time,the protostar formed for about 3 Ma and the gas disk dissipated.In the model,the perturbations from Jupiter and Saturn are considered.Variations of the mass of outer planet,and the initial eccentricities and inclinations of embryos and planetesimals are also considered.Our results show that,terrestrial planets are formed in 50 Ma,and the accretion rate is about 60%-80%.In each simulation,3-4 terrestrial planets are formed inside"Jupiter"with masses of 0.15 -3.6M⊕.In the 0.5-4 AU,when the eccentricities of planetesimals are excited,planetesimals are able to accrete material from wide radial direction.The plenty of water material of the terrestrial planet in the Habitable Zone may be transferred from the farther places by this mechanism.Accretion could also happen a few times between two major planets only if the outer planet has a moderate mass and the small terrestrial planet could survive at some resonances over time scale of 10 8 a.In one of our simulations,commensurability of the orbital periods of planets is very common.Moreover,a librating-circulating 3:2 configuration of mean motion resonance is found.

  18. Simulations for terrestrial planets formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Niu; JI JiangHui

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the formation of terrestrial planets in the late stage of planetary formation is Investigated using the two-planet model. At that time, the protostar formed for about 3 Ma and the gas disk dissipated. In the model, the perturbations from Jupiter and Saturn are considered. Variations of the mass of outer planet, and the initial eccentricities and inclinations of embryos and planetesimals are also considered. Our results show that, terrestrial planets are formed in 50 Ma, and the accretion rate is about 60%-80%. In each simulation, 3-4 terrestrial planets are formed inside "Jupiter" with masses of 0.15-3.6 M(⊙). In the 0.5-4 AU, when the eccentricities of planetesimals are excited, planetesimals are able to accrete material from wide radial direction. The plenty of water material of the terrestrial planet in the Habitable Zone may be transferred from the farther places by this mechanism. Accretion could also happen a few times between two major planets only if the outer planet has a moderate mass and the small terrestrial planet could survive at some resonances over time scale of 108a. In one of our simulations, commensurability of the orbital periods of planets is very common. Moreover, a librating-circulating 3:2 configuration of mean motion resonance is found.

  19. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin; Banks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  20. Indian Ocean margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The most important biogeochemical transformations and boundary exchanges in the Indian Ocean seem to occur in the northern region, where the processes originating at the land-ocean boundary extend far beyond the continental margins. Exchanges across...

  1. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations.

  2. Indian Cosmological Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper, third in the series on Indian tradition of physics, describes conceptions of the cosmos with ideas that are clearly spelt out in texts such as Yoga Vasishtha.In particular, the conception of multiple universes that occurs often in this text will be examined in the framework of the Indian physics. The other surprising concepts that are discussed include flow of time and its variability with respect to different observers, and the possibility of passage across universes.

  3. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  4. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... network of scientists, conservation organizations, government agencies, Permanent Participants Arctic community experts and leaders. Using an ecosystem-based monitoring approach which includes species, ecological functions, ecosystems, their interactions, and potential drivers, the CBMP focuses...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP...

  5. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  6. Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M; De Thomasis, R; Tenaglia, R L

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a 72-h-lasting priapism that occurred after the assumption of a Herbal supplement based on Tribulus terrestris, which is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. The patient underwent a cavernoglandular shunt (Ebbehoj shunt) in order to obtain complete detumescence, from which derived negative post-episode outcomes on sexual function. All patients consuming non-FDA-approved alternative supplements such as Tribulus terrestris should be warned about the possible serious side effects.

  7. Evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Menaker

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian organization means the way in which the entire circadian system above the cellular level is put together physically and the principles and rules that determine the interactions among its component parts which produce overt rhythms of physiology and behavior. Understanding this organization and its evolution is of practical importance as well as of basic interest. The first major problem that we face is the difficulty of making sense of the apparently great diversity that we observe in circadian organization of diverse vertebrates. Some of this diversity falls neatly into place along phylogenetic lines leading to firm generalizations: i in all vertebrates there is a "circadian axis" consisting of the retinas, the pineal gland and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, ii in many non-mammalian vertebrates of all classes (but not in any mammals the pineal gland is both a photoreceptor and a circadian oscillator, and iii in all non-mammalian vertebrates (but not in any mammals there are extraretinal (and extrapineal circadian photoreceptors. An interesting explanation of some of these facts, especially the differences between mammals and other vertebrates, can be constructed on the assumption that early in their evolution mammals passed through a "nocturnal bottleneck". On the other hand, a good deal of the diversity among the circadian systems of vertebrates does not fall neatly into place along phylogenetic lines. In the present review we will consider how we might better understand such "phylogenetically incoherent" diversity and what sorts of new information may help to further our understanding of the evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

  8. Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dapeng; Huang, Yonghui; Yang, Huilin; Chen, Qi; Sun, Taicun; Wu, Yan; Li, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) are common in the elderly population and often involve the thoracolumbar vertebrae. Clinical symptoms of OVCFs include severe pain, loss of vertebral height, progressive kyphosis and increased mortality. Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty is a recently developed OVCFs treatment modality, with few systematic studies present in the literature. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty for treating thoracolumbar OVCFs. Sixteen elderly patients (55-85 years) with solitary thoracolumbar OVCFs were treated with this procedure and followed-up (10-27 months). The amount of injected bone cement and operative time, preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scores, anterior and middle vertebral body heights, local kyphosis angle, and complications was analysed. The results showed that the method provided long-term pain relief and restoration of the vertebral body height and spinal alignment. No serious complications occurred, but two patients experienced recompression of the vertebral body, and one patient experienced cement leakage into a disc. In conclusion, Jack vertebral dilator kyphoplasty is a safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for treatment of OVCFs.

  9. Evolutionary genomics and adaptive evolution of the Hedgehog gene family (Shh, Ihh and Dhh) in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jarvis, Erich D; Zhang, Guojie; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) gene family codes for a class of secreted proteins composed of two active domains that act as signalling molecules during embryo development, namely for the development of the nervous and skeletal systems and the formation of the testis cord. While only one Hh gene is found typically in invertebrate genomes, most vertebrates species have three (Sonic hedgehog--Shh; Indian hedgehog--Ihh; and Desert hedgehog--Dhh), each with different expression patterns and functions, which likely helped promote the increasing complexity of vertebrates and their successful diversification. In this study, we used comparative genomic and adaptive evolutionary analyses to characterize the evolution of the Hh genes in vertebrates following the two major whole genome duplication (WGD) events. To overcome the lack of Hh-coding sequences on avian publicly available databases, we used an extensive dataset of 45 avian and three non-avian reptilian genomes to show that birds have all three Hh paralogs. We find suggestions that following the WGD events, vertebrate Hh paralogous genes evolved independently within similar linkage groups and under different evolutionary rates, especially within the catalytic domain. The structural regions around the ion-binding site were identified to be under positive selection in the signaling domain. These findings contrast with those observed in invertebrates, where different lineages that experienced gene duplication retained similar selective constraints in the Hh orthologs. Our results provide new insights on the evolutionary history of the Hh gene family, the functional roles of these paralogs in vertebrate species, and on the location of mutational hotspots.

  10. Evolutionary genomics and adaptive evolution of the Hedgehog gene family (Shh, Ihh and Dhh in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Pereira

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (Hh gene family codes for a class of secreted proteins composed of two active domains that act as signalling molecules during embryo development, namely for the development of the nervous and skeletal systems and the formation of the testis cord. While only one Hh gene is found typically in invertebrate genomes, most vertebrates species have three (Sonic hedgehog--Shh; Indian hedgehog--Ihh; and Desert hedgehog--Dhh, each with different expression patterns and functions, which likely helped promote the increasing complexity of vertebrates and their successful diversification. In this study, we used comparative genomic and adaptive evolutionary analyses to characterize the evolution of the Hh genes in vertebrates following the two major whole genome duplication (WGD events. To overcome the lack of Hh-coding sequences on avian publicly available databases, we used an extensive dataset of 45 avian and three non-avian reptilian genomes to show that birds have all three Hh paralogs. We find suggestions that following the WGD events, vertebrate Hh paralogous genes evolved independently within similar linkage groups and under different evolutionary rates, especially within the catalytic domain. The structural regions around the ion-binding site were identified to be under positive selection in the signaling domain. These findings contrast with those observed in invertebrates, where different lineages that experienced gene duplication retained similar selective constraints in the Hh orthologs. Our results provide new insights on the evolutionary history of the Hh gene family, the functional roles of these paralogs in vertebrate species, and on the location of mutational hotspots.

  11. Evolutionary Genomics and Adaptive Evolution of the Hedgehog Gene Family (Shh, Ihh and Dhh) in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana; Johnson, Warren E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Zhang, Guojie; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) gene family codes for a class of secreted proteins composed of two active domains that act as signalling molecules during embryo development, namely for the development of the nervous and skeletal systems and the formation of the testis cord. While only one Hh gene is found typically in invertebrate genomes, most vertebrates species have three (Sonic hedgehog – Shh; Indian hedgehog – Ihh; and Desert hedgehog – Dhh), each with different expression patterns and functions, which likely helped promote the increasing complexity of vertebrates and their successful diversification. In this study, we used comparative genomic and adaptive evolutionary analyses to characterize the evolution of the Hh genes in vertebrates following the two major whole genome duplication (WGD) events. To overcome the lack of Hh-coding sequences on avian publicly available databases, we used an extensive dataset of 45 avian and three non-avian reptilian genomes to show that birds have all three Hh paralogs. We find suggestions that following the WGD events, vertebrate Hh paralogous genes evolved independently within similar linkage groups and under different evolutionary rates, especially within the catalytic domain. The structural regions around the ion-binding site were identified to be under positive selection in the signaling domain. These findings contrast with those observed in invertebrates, where different lineages that experienced gene duplication retained similar selective constraints in the Hh orthologs. Our results provide new insights on the evolutionary history of the Hh gene family, the functional roles of these paralogs in vertebrate species, and on the location of mutational hotspots. PMID:25549322

  12. Environmental and economic impact of alien terrestrial arthropods in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Vaes-Petignat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades abundance and importance of invasive alien species has grown continuously due to the undiminished growth of global trade. In most cases, arthropod introductions were unintended and occurred as hitchhikers or contaminants. Alien arthropods can have significant environmental impacts and can be economically costly. To measure these impacts, we expand the generic impact scoring system initially developed for mammals and birds, and applied it to terrestrial arthropods. The scoring of the 77 most widely distributed arthropod species alien to Europe revealed the mite Varroa destructor as the most harmful species, followed by the Chinese longhorn beetle Anoplophora chinensis and the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. The highest environmental impact is through herbivory, disease transmission, and ecosystem impacts. The highest economic impact is on agriculture and human infrastructure. The generic impact scoring system allows comparing impact scores of vertebrates and arthropods, thus serving as a background for decision making processes of policies and stakeholders.

  13. The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R.; Emry, Robert J.

    1996-06-01

    The transition from the Eocene to the Oligocene epoch, occurring approximately 47 to 30 million years ago, was the most dramatic episode of climatic and biotic change since the demise of the dinosaurs. The mild tropical climates of the Paleocene and early Eocene were replaced by modern climatic conditions and extremes, including glacial ice in Antarctica. The first part of this book summarizes the latest information in the dating and correlation of the strata of late middle Eocene through early Oligocene age in North America. The second part reviews almost all the important terrestrial reptiles and mammals found near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, in the White River Chronofauna--from the turtles, snakes and lizards to the common rodents, carnivores, oreodonts and deer of the Badlands. This is the first comprehensive treatment of these topics in over sixty years, and will be invaluable to vertebrate paleontologists, geologists, mammalogists and evolutionary biologists.

  14. Evolution of innate and adaptive immune systems in jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Because jawless vertebrates are the most primitive vertebrates, they have been studied to gain understanding of the evolutionary processes that gave rise to the innate and adaptive immune systems in vertebrates. Jawless vertebrates have developed lymphocyte-like cells that morphologically resemble the T and B cells of jawed vertebrates, but they express variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) instead of the T and B cell receptors that specifically recognize antigens in jawed vertebrates. These VLRs act as antigen receptors, diversity being generated in their antigen-binding sites by assembly of highly diverse leucine-rich repeat modules. Therefore, jawless vertebrates have developed adaptive immune systems based on the VLRs. Although pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Rig-like receptors (RLRs), and their adaptor genes are conserved in jawless vertebrates, some transcription factor and inflammatory cytokine genes in the TLR and RLR pathways are not present. However, like jawed vertebrates, the initiation of adaptive immune responses in jawless vertebrates appears to require prior activation of the innate immune system. These observations imply that the innate immune systems of jawless vertebrates have a unique molecular basis that is distinct from that of jawed vertebrates. Altogether, although the molecular details of the innate and adaptive immune systems differ between jawless and jawed vertebrates, jawless vertebrates have developed versions of these immune systems that are similar to those of jawed vertebrates.

  15. Post-traumatic Vertebral Compression Fracture Treated with Minimally Invasive Biologic Vertebral Augmentation for Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, John C; Maziad, Ali M

    2011-12-01

    In the United States, there is a high incidence of motor vehicle and sports injuries among the active population causing symptomatic post-traumatic vertebral compression fracture. At our institution, 28 cases of painful post-traumatic vertebral compression fractures (PPT-VCFs) were successfully treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (VA) for stabilization and reconstruction with intravertebral polyethylene mesh sac (OptiMesh®, Spineology, Inc., Stillwater, MN) and biological morcelized bone graft. The surgical approach provides an efficacious and controlled minimally invasive delivery mechanism to stabilize and reconstruct VCFs, as well as avoiding serious complications from Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. The construct for biological bone graft/vertebral augmentation is osteoconductive and osteoinductive, and is used to create biologic vertebral stabilization and reconstruction. The adjacent vertebra integrity is protected by the construct with similar elasticity and physical characteristics of the biologic morcelized bone, more matched to that of adjacent bone than PMMA. The surgical techniques are described herein.

  16. Vertebrate extracellular preovulatory and postovulatory egg coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkhorst, Ellen; Selwood, Lynne

    2008-11-01

    Extracellular egg coats deposited by maternal or embryonic tissues surround all vertebrate conceptuses during early development. In oviparous species, the time of hatching from extracellular coats can be considered equivalent to the time of birth in viviparous species. Extracellular coats must be lost during gestation for implantation and placentation to occur in some viviparous species. In the most recent classification of vertebrate extracellular coats, Boyd and Hamilton (Cleavage, early development and implantation of the egg. In: Parkes AS (ed.), Marshall's Physiology of Reproduction, vol. 2, 3rd ed. London: Longmans, Green & Co; 1961:1-126) defined the coat synthesized by the oocyte during oogenesis as primary and the coat deposited by follicle cells surrounding the oocyte as secondary. Tertiary egg coats are those synthesized and deposited around the primary or secondary coat by the maternal reproductive tract. This classification is difficult to reconcile with recent data collected using modern molecular biological techniques that can accurately establish the site of coat precursor synthesis and secretion. We propose that a modification to the classification by Boyd and Hamilton is required. Vertebrate egg coats should be classed as belonging to the following two broad groups: the preovulatory coat, which is deposited during oogenesis by the oocyte or follicle cells, and the postovulatory coats, which are deposited after fertilization by the reproductive tract or conceptus. This review discusses the origin and classification of vertebrate extracellular preovulatory and postovulatory coats and illustrates what is known about coat homology between the vertebrate groups.

  17. Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca variations in environmental and biological sources: A survey of marine and terrestrial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Stephanie; Clementz, Mark T.

    2012-10-01

    The relative concentrations of strontium to calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) in mammalian bioapatite are common biogeochemical indicators for trophic level and/or dietary preferences in terrestrial foodwebs; however, similar research in marine foodwebs is lacking. This study combined environmental and biological Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca data from both terrestrial and marine settings from 62 published books, reports, and studies along with original data collected from 149 marine mammals (30 species) and 83 prey items (18 species) and found that variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of biological and environmental samples are appreciably different in terrestrial and marine systems. In terrestrial systems, environmental sources account for most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios. In contrast, environmental sources in marine systems (i.e., seawater) are comparatively invariant, meaning most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios originate from biological processes. Marine consumers, particularly non-mammalian and mammalian vertebrates, show evidence of biopurification of Ca relative to Sr and Ba, similar to what is observed in terrestrial systems; however, unlike terrestrial systems, variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of environmental sources are overprinted by bioaccumulation of Sr and Ba at the base of marine foodwebs. This demonstrates that in marine systems, spatial or temporal differences may have little to no effect on Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of marine vertebrates, making Sr/Ca, and to a lesser extent Ba/Ca, potentially useful global proxies for trophic level and dietary preferences of marine vertebrates.

  18. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  19. Chitin is endogenously produced in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W Joyce; Fernandez, Javier G; Sohn, Joel J; Amemiya, Chris T

    2015-03-30

    Chitin, a biopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is abundant in invertebrates and fungi and is an important structural molecule [1, 2]. There has been a longstanding belief that vertebrates do not produce chitin; however, we have obtained compelling evidence to the contrary. Chitin synthase genes are present in numerous fishes and amphibians, and chitin is localized in situ to the lumen of the developing zebrafish gut, in epithelial cells of fish scales, and in at least three different cell types in larval salamander appendages. Chitin synthase gene knockdowns and various histochemical experiments in zebrafish further authenticated our results. Finally, a polysaccharide was extracted from scales of salmon that exhibited all the chemical hallmarks of chitin. Our data and analyses demonstrate the existence of endogenous chitin in vertebrates and suggest that it serves multiple roles in vertebrate biology.

  20. The efficacy of radiotherapy for vertebral hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczyk, L; Ficek, K; Trela, K; Spindel, J

    2001-01-01

    Vertebral hemangiomas are benign, slowly growing tumors sometimes causing local pain in the spine and/or neurologic disorders. The present paper includes 14 cases of painful vertebral hemangiomas treated by radiotherapy. All patients were irradiated using standard fractionation scheme with a total dose 20-30 Gy. One month after the treatment complete pain relief was noted in 36% of cases, five months later in 67% of cases, but in the remaining cases partial pain relief was noted. No correlation between treatment outcome and different biological and technical factors was found. No dose-response relationship was noted. The results suggest that anti-inflamatory effect of radiation plays the major role in this kind of treatment and that radiotherapy for vertebral hemangiomas is easy, short and highly effective analgetic treatment modality.

  1. The vertebral column of Australopithecus sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott A; Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Frater, Nakita; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Two partial vertebral columns of Australopithecus sediba grant insight into aspects of early hominin spinal mobility, lumbar curvature, vertebral formula, and transitional vertebra position. Au. sediba likely possessed five non-rib-bearing lumbar vertebrae and five sacral elements, the same configuration that occurs modally in modern humans. This finding contrasts with other interpretations of early hominin regional vertebral numbers. Importantly, the transitional vertebra is distinct from and above the last rib-bearing vertebra in Au. sediba, resulting in a functionally longer lower back. This configuration, along with a strongly wedged last lumbar vertebra and other indicators of lordotic posture, would have contributed to a highly flexible spine that is derived compared with earlier members of the genus Australopithecus and similar to that of the Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton.

  2. Mitochondrial genome organization and vertebrate phylogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Sérgio Luiz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of DNA sequencing techniques the organization of the vertebrate mitochondrial genome shows variation between higher taxonomic levels. The most conserved gene order is found in placental mammals, turtles, fishes, some lizards and Xenopus. Birds, other species of lizards, crocodilians, marsupial mammals, snakes, tuatara, lamprey, and some other amphibians and one species of fish have gene orders that are less conserved. The most probable mechanism for new gene rearrangements seems to be tandem duplication and multiple deletion events, always associated with tRNA sequences. Some new rearrangements seem to be typical of monophyletic groups and the use of data from these groups may be useful for answering phylogenetic questions involving vertebrate higher taxonomic levels. Other features such as the secondary structure of tRNA, and the start and stop codons of protein-coding genes may also be useful in comparisons of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.

  3. A paleontological perspective of vertebrate origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Early Cambrian Haikouichthys and Haikouella have been claimed to be related to contribute in an important way to our understanding of vertebrate origin, but there have been heated debates about how exactly they are to be interpreted. New discoveries of numerous specimens of Haikouichthys not only confirm the identity of previously described structures such as the dorsal and the ventral fins, and chevron-shaped myomeres, but also reveal many new important characteristics, including sensory organs of the head (e.g. large eyes), and a prominent notochord with differentiated vertebral elements. This "first fish" appears, however, to retain primitive reproductive features of acraniates, suggesting that it is a stem-group craniates. A new order (Myllokunmingiida) and a new family (Myllokunmingiidae) are erected, and a new species, Zhongjianichthys rostratus (gen. et sp. nov.), is described herein. Over 1400 newly-discovered specimens of Haikouella provide a wealth of anatomical information on this organism. It differs from chordates in many organs and organ systems, including the skin, muscles, respiratory, circulatory and nervous systems. In contrast, its body-design resembles that of vetulicolians, and the presence of a "transitional" nervous system with both dorsal and ventral nerve cords suggests an affinity with living hemichordates. On the basis of these and other recent findings of fossil deuterostomes, a five-step hypothesis for vertebrate origin is proposed, intended to bridge the long- standing gap between protostomes and vertebrates. Four of the five steps accord with established ideas current in modern evolutionary zoology. Evidence for the first step is obtainable only from fossils, and specifically from fossils found from South China, hence the crucial importance of S. China sites for our understanding of early vertebrate origins and evolution. Accordingly, South China is suggested as the oldest-known birthplace of the whole vertebrates.

  4. Zebrafish hox clusters and vertebrate genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, A; Force, A; Yan, Y L; Joly, L; Amemiya, C; Fritz, A; Ho, R K; Langeland, J; Prince, V; Wang, Y L; Westerfield, M; Ekker, M; Postlethwait, J H

    1998-11-27

    HOX genes specify cell fate in the anterior-posterior axis of animal embryos. Invertebrate chordates have one HOX cluster, but mammals have four, suggesting that cluster duplication facilitated the evolution of vertebrate body plans. This report shows that zebrafish have seven hox clusters. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic mapping suggest a chromosome doubling event, probably by whole genome duplication, after the divergence of ray-finned and lobe-finned fishes but before the teleost radiation. Thus, teleosts, the most species-rich group of vertebrates, appear to have more copies of these developmental regulatory genes than do mammals, despite less complexity in the anterior-posterior axis.

  5. Slipped vertebral epiphysis (report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Farrokhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • Avulsion or fracture of posterior ring apophysis of lumbar vertebra is an uncommon cause of radicular low back pain in pediatric age group, adolescents and athletes. This lesion is one of differential diagnosis of disc herniation. We reported two teenage boys with sever low back pain and sciatica during soccer play that ultimately treated with diagnosis of lipped vertebral apophysis.
    • KEY WORDS: Ring Apophysis, vertebral fracture, sciatica, low back pain, disc herniation.

  6. Scenarios for the making of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicholas D; Holland, Linda Z; Holland, Peter W H

    2015-04-23

    Over the past 200 years, almost every invertebrate phylum has been proposed as a starting point for evolving vertebrates. Most of these scenarios are outdated, but several are still seriously considered. The short-range transition from ancestral invertebrate chordates (similar to amphioxus and tunicates) to vertebrates is well accepted. However, longer-range transitions leading up to the invertebrate chordates themselves are more controversial. Opinion is divided between the annelid and the enteropneust scenarios, predicting, respectively, a complex or a simple ancestor for bilaterian animals. Deciding between these ideas will be facilitated by further comparative studies of multicellular animals, including enigmatic taxa such as xenacoelomorphs.

  7. Complex osteotomies vertebral column resection and decancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Ibrahim; Bourghli, Anouar; Boissière, Louis; Vital, Jean-Marc; Barrey, Cédric

    2014-07-01

    Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is nowadays widely used to treat sagittal imbalance. Some complex malalignment cases cannot be treated by a PSO, whereas the imbalance is coronal or mixed or the sagittal imbalance is major and cannot be treated by a single PSO. The aim of this article was to review these complex situations--coronal imbalance, mixed imbalance, two-level PSO, vertebral column resection, and vertebral column decancellation, and to focus on their specificities. It wills also to evoke the utility of navigation in these complex cases.

  8. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  9. Prioritizing islands for the eradication of invasive vertebrates in the United Kingdom overseas territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey; Oppel, Steffen; Cuthbert, Richard J; Holmes, Nick; Bird, Jeremy P; Butchart, Stuart H M; Spatz, Dena R; Tershy, Bernie

    2015-02-01

    Invasive alien species are one of the primary threats to native biodiversity on islands worldwide. Consequently, eradicating invasive species from islands has become a mainstream conservation practice. Deciding which islands have the highest priority for eradication is of strategic importance to allocate limited resources to achieve maximum conservation benefit. Previous island prioritizations focused either on a narrow set of native species or on a small geographic area. We devised a prioritization approach that incorporates all threatened native terrestrial vertebrates and all invasive terrestrial vertebrates occurring on 11 U.K. overseas territories, which comprise over 2000 islands ranging from the sub-Antarctic to the tropics. Our approach includes eradication feasibility and distinguishes between the potential and realistic conservation value of an eradication, which reflects the benefit that would accrue following eradication of either all invasive species or only those species for which eradication techniques currently exist. We identified the top 25 priority islands for invasive species eradication that together would benefit extant populations of 155 native species including 45 globally threatened species. The 5 most valuable islands included the 2 World Heritage islands Gough (South Atlantic) and Henderson (South Pacific) that feature unique seabird colonies, and Anegada, Little Cayman, and Guana Island in the Caribbean that feature a unique reptile fauna. This prioritization can be rapidly repeated if new information or techniques become available, and the approach could be replicated elsewhere in the world.

  10. Indian Ocean Traffic: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Sharon Davidson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Like the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean has been a privileged site of cross-cultural contact since ancient times. In this special issue, our contributors track disparate movements of people and ideas around the Indian Ocean region and explore the cultural implications of these contacts and their role in processes that we would come to call transnationalization and globalisation. The nation is a relatively recent phenomenon anywhere on the globe, and in many countries around the Indian Ocean it was a product of colonisation and independence. So the processes of exchange, migration and cultural influence going on there for many centuries were mostly based on the economics of goods and trade routes, rather than on national identity and state policy.

  11. Indian Development vs Sino-Indian Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A deep, lasting, great friendship can be traced back to over two millennia ago between two close neighbors, the initiators of the world-famous Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence with its 50th anniversary just commemorated this year. Historically, China benefited much from learning the brilliant Indian culture. Today, the two major Asian countries are learning from each other in their rapid economic growth. The rise of China and India, closer ties between the two, will definitely exert a significant impact on the Asia-Pacific region and the broader world in the days ahead.

  12. Global patterns in post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco, Begoña; Laffan, Shawn W; Moles, Angela T

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that species interactions such as granivory are more intense in the tropics. However, this has rarely been tested. A global dataset of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates for 79 native plant species from semi-natural and natural terrestrial habitats ranging from 55° N to 45° S, was compiled from the global literature to test the hypothesis that post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates is more intense at lower latitudes. We also quantified the relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates and by invertebrates to global climatic features including temperature, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and rainfall seasonality. Linear mixed effect models were applied to describe the relationships between seed removal and latitude, hemisphere and climatic variables controlling for the effect of seed mass. Post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates was negatively related to latitude. In contrast, post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates was positively but weakly related to latitude. Mean annual temperature and actual evapotranspiration were positively related to post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates, but not to post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates, which was only marginally negatively related to rainfall seasonality. The inclusion of seed mass improved the fit of all models, but the term for seed mass was not significant in any model. Although a good climatic model for predicting post-dispersal seed predation by vertebrates at the global level was not found, our results suggest different and opposite latitudinal patterns of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates vs vertebrates. This is the first time that a negative relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and latitude, and a positive relationship with temperature and AET have been documented at a global-scale. These results have important implications for understanding global patterns in plant

  13. Global patterns in post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Peco

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that species interactions such as granivory are more intense in the tropics. However, this has rarely been tested. A global dataset of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates for 79 native plant species from semi-natural and natural terrestrial habitats ranging from 55° N to 45° S, was compiled from the global literature to test the hypothesis that post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates is more intense at lower latitudes. We also quantified the relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates and by invertebrates to global climatic features including temperature, actual evapotranspiration (AET and rainfall seasonality. Linear mixed effect models were applied to describe the relationships between seed removal and latitude, hemisphere and climatic variables controlling for the effect of seed mass. Post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates was negatively related to latitude. In contrast, post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates was positively but weakly related to latitude. Mean annual temperature and actual evapotranspiration were positively related to post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates, but not to post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates, which was only marginally negatively related to rainfall seasonality. The inclusion of seed mass improved the fit of all models, but the term for seed mass was not significant in any model. Although a good climatic model for predicting post-dispersal seed predation by vertebrates at the global level was not found, our results suggest different and opposite latitudinal patterns of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates vs vertebrates. This is the first time that a negative relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and latitude, and a positive relationship with temperature and AET have been documented at a global-scale. These results have important implications for understanding global

  14. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  15. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmendra MEHTA; Mehta, Naveen K.; Rajesh Kumar MEHTA

    2014-01-01

    In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them...

  16. Indian Danish intermarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    This paper explores motivations of Indian partner in mixed Indian-Danish couples living in Denmark. One of the characteristics of modernity is increased movements across borders, leading to increased intimate relationships across national/ethnic borders. The main research question here deals....... However, “falling in love” is pointed as the dominant reason for the intimate relation formation. Furthermore, results indicate differential generational, gender acceptance of the mixed marriage implying complex patterns of modernity within the extended family and ‘community’ involving religion, caste...

  17. 77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. On July 12, 2012, the State of Oregon and the Cow... February 8, 2007. Amendment I re-configures the Board of Trustees of the Cow Creek Umpqua Indian Foundation... Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians is now in effect. Amendment I is considered to have been...

  18. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  19. Extensive thoracolumbosacral vertebral osteomyelitis after Lemierre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, D. H R; van Dijk, M.; Hoepelman, A. I M; Oner, F. C.; Verlaan, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present a unique case of multilevel vertebral osteomyelitis after Lemierre syndrome. Methods: A previously healthy 27-year-old man presented in the Emergency Department in septic shock because of Lemierre syndrome for which he was subsequently treated with intravenous benzylpenicillin fo

  20. Diagnosis and Management of Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jason; Davis, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are the most common complication of osteoporosis, affecting more than 700,000 Americans annually. Fracture risk increases with age, with four in 10 white women older than 50 years experiencing a hip, spine, or vertebral fracture in their lifetime. VCFs can lead to chronic pain, disfigurement, height loss, impaired activities of daily living, increased risk of pressure sores, pneumonia, and psychological distress. Patients with an acute VCF may report abrupt onset of back pain with position changes, coughing, sneezing, or lifting. Physical examination findings are often normal, but can demonstrate kyphosis and midline spine tenderness. More than two-thirds of patients are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally on plain radiography. Acute VCFs may be treated with analgesics such as acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, narcotics, and calcitonin. Physicians must be mindful of medication adverse effects in older patients. Other conservative therapeutic options include limited bed rest, bracing, physical therapy, nerve root blocks, and epidural injections. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation, including vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, is controversial, but can be considered in patients with inadequate pain relief with nonsurgical care or when persistent pain substantially affects quality of life. Family physicians can help prevent vertebral fractures through management of risk factors and the treatment of osteoporosis.

  1. Tetanus with multiple wedge vertebral collapses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-07-06

    Jul 6, 2012 ... plication of paediatric tetanus and the associated ... of back pains-11 days, inability to open her mouth- 9 days, ... multiple vertebral collapses and the management chal- ... symptoms made the parents take her to a prayer house where the .... overlying the affected vertebrae, low-grade fever, chills,. Multiple.

  2. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  3. Light sensitivity in a vertebrate mechanoreceptor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, G.E.; Grip, W.J. de; Turton, M.; Wagner, H.J.; Foster, R.G.; Douglas, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    Using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, we demonstrate that melanopsin is localised in cells around the central pore of lateral line neuromasts in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Since melanopsin is a known photoreceptor pigment with diverse functions in vertebrates, we sugges

  4. Why can't vertebrates synthesize trehalose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Juan-Carlos

    2014-10-01

    The non-reducing disaccharide trehalose is a singular molecule, which has been strictly conserved throughout evolution in prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), lower eukaryotes, plants, and invertebrates, but is absent in vertebrates and-more specifically-in mammals. There are notable differences regarding the pivotal roles played by trehalose among distantly related organisms as well as in the specific metabolic pathways of trehalose biosynthesis and/or hydrolysis, and the regulatory mechanisms that control trehalose expression genes and enzymatic activities. The success of trehalose compared with that of other structurally related molecules is attributed to its exclusive set of physical properties, which account for its physiological roles and have also promoted important biotechnological applications. However, an intriguing question still remains: why are vertebrates in general, and mammals in particular, unable (or have lost the capacity) to synthesize trehalose? The search for annotated genomes of vertebrates reveals the absence of any functional trehalose synthase gene. Indeed, this is also true for the human genome, which contains, however, two genes encoding for isoforms of the hydrolytic activity (trehalase). Although we still lack a convincing answer, this striking difference might reflect the divergent evolutionary lineages followed by invertebrates and vertebrates. Alternatively, some clinical data point to trehalose as a toxic molecule when stored inside the human body.

  5. Neogene vertebrates from the Gargano Peninsula, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1971-01-01

    Fissure-fillings in Mesozoic limestones in the Gargano Peninsula yield rich collections of fossil vertebrates, which are characterized by gigantism and aberrant morphology. Their age is considered to be Vallesian or Turolian. The special features of the fauna are probably due to isolation on an isla

  6. Treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klazen, C.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    In Chapter I, an outline of this thesis is given. In Chapter 2 we prospectively determined the natural course of pain in patients with conservatively treated acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF). In addition, we assessed the type of conservative therapy that these patients receiv

  7. Aquatic vertebrate locomotion : Wakes from body waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Muller, UK; Stamhuis, EJ

    1999-01-01

    Vertebrates swimming with undulations of the body and tail have inflection points where the curvature of the body changes from concave to convex or vice versa. These inflection paints travel down the body at the speed of the running wave of bending, In movements with increasing amplitudes, the body

  8. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Ana R.; Oguiza, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. Database URL: VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php PMID:28365718

  9. Stakeholder participation in management of invasive vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Thompson, Adriana E S; Snell, Carolyn; Saunders, Glen; White, Piran C L

    2012-04-01

    Stakeholders are increasingly involved in species conservation. We sought to understand what features of a participatory conservation program are associated with its ecological and social outcomes. We conducted a case study of the management of invasive vertebrates in Australia. Invasive vertebrates are a substantial threat to Australia's native species, and stakeholder participation in their management is often necessary for their control. First, we identified potential influences on the ecological and social outcomes of species conservation programs from the literature. We used this information to devise an interview questionnaire, which we administered to managers of 34 participatory invasive-vertebrate programs. Effects of invasive species were related to program initiator (agency or citizen), reasons for use of a participatory approach, and stakeholder composition. Program initiator was also related to the participation methods used, level of governance (i.e., governed by an agency or citizens), changes in stakeholder interactions, and changes in abundance of invasive species. Ecological and social outcomes were related to changes in abundance of invasive species and stakeholder satisfaction. We identified relations between changes in the number of participants, stakeholder satisfaction, and occurrence of conflict. Potential ways to achieve ecological and social goals include provision of governmental support (e.g., funding) to stakeholders and minimization of gaps in representation of stakeholder groups or individuals to, for example, increase conflict mitigation. Our findings provide guidance for increasing the probability of achieving ecological and social objectives in management of invasive vertebrates and may be applicable to other participatory conservation programs.

  10. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Ana R; Oguiza, José A; Aransay, Ana M; Lavín, José L

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php.

  11. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  12. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  13. Benign nontraumatic osteolytic vertebral collapse simulating malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattari, Azadeh [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Quillard, Alain [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Pathology, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Laredo, Jean-Denis [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Paris Cedex 10 (France); University of Pennsylvania Health System, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    This study described the imaging features of a distinctive pattern of biopsy-proven benign non-traumatic vertebral collapse (VC) that can mimic malignancy. Among 240 patients referred with painful VC over a 10-year period, we retrospectively selected 15 cases of benign VC which simulated malignancy, due to cortical bone destruction on radiographs. The diagnosis of benign origin was documented by percutaneous biopsy and 12-months of follow-up. Radiographs, CT and MR images of the spine were reviewed. Findings suggestive of malignancy included destruction involving the anterolateral cortex, posterior cortex and pedicles of the vertebral body (46%,15% and 15% respectively) at CT, epidural soft-tissue masses on CT (23%) and MR images (21%), and diffuse low signal-intensity (SI) of the vertebral body (50%) and pedicles (79%) on T1-weighted images. Features suggestive of a benign origin included an intravertebral vacuum phenomenon on radiographs and CT (13%), fracture lines within the vertebral body (92%) or pedicles (62%) at CT and presence an intravertebral area of high SI on T2-weighted images (93%). Benign non-traumatic osteolytic VC can simulate malignancy on radiographs. The features, above mentioned on CT and MR suggestive of a benign VC, are useful in interpreting biopsy results of such lesions and avoiding unnecessary repeat biopsy. (orig.)

  14. Cold tolerance of terrestrial isopod

    OpenAIRE

    Součková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The woodlice, Porcellio scaber (Latreille, 1804), is a terrestrial isopod. Its metabolic reserves and body size are important factors affecting the fitness attributes, such as survival at unfavourable conditions. The larger and heavier individuals did not survive longer than smaller individuals. Amount of glycogen and body weight (fresh and dry) appeared to be an inapplicable parameter in the observed differences among individuals during survival at low temperature. We compared three treatmen...

  15. Physiological vagility and its relationship to dispersal and neutral genetic heterogeneity in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Drewes, Robert C; Hedrick, Michael S; Hancock, Thomas V

    2014-09-15

    Vagility is the inherent power of movement by individuals. Vagility and the available duration of movement determine the dispersal distance individuals can move to interbreed, which affects the fine-scale genetic structure of vertebrate populations. Vagility and variation in population genetic structure are normally explained by geographic variation and not by the inherent power of movement by individuals. We present a new, quantitative definition for physiological vagility that incorporates aerobic capacity, body size, body temperature and the metabolic cost of transport, variables that are independent of the physical environment. Physiological vagility is the speed at which an animal can move sustainably based on these parameters. This meta-analysis tests whether this definition of physiological vagility correlates with empirical data for maximal dispersal distances and measured microsatellite genetic differentiation with distance {[F(ST)/[1-F(ST))]/ln distance} for amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals utilizing three locomotor modes (running, flying, swimming). Maximal dispersal distance and physiological vagility increased with body mass for amphibians, reptiles and mammals utilizing terrestrial movement. The relative slopes of these relationships indicate that larger individuals require longer movement durations to achieve maximal dispersal distances. Both physiological vagility and maximal dispersal distance were independent of body mass for flying vertebrates. Genetic differentiation with distance was greatest for terrestrial locomotion, with amphibians showing the greatest mean and variance in differentiation. Flying birds, flying mammals and swimming marine mammals showed the least differentiation. Mean physiological vagility of different groups (class and locomotor mode) accounted for 98% of the mean variation in genetic differentiation with distance in each group. Genetic differentiation with distance was not related to body mass. The physiological

  16. Estrogen-dependent, extrahepatic synthesis of vitellogenin in male vertebrates: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderame, Mariailaria; Scudiero, Rosaria

    2017-03-01

    In the last years, the hormonal balance is threatened by the interferences of substances with hormone-like action (endocrine disruptor chemicals, EDCs) that may harm animal reproduction. Most EDCs are resistant to environmental degradation and are considered ubiquitous contaminants. EDCs may have synthetic or natural origins. Pesticides used in intensive agriculture contain large amounts of chemicals with estrogenic properties, such as the alkylphenol nonylphenol (NP). Besides, animal feeding operations are important sources of natural estrogen metabolites introduced into the environment through manure application in organic farming. In both cases, EDCs can reach animals, including humans particularly at risk due to their position in the food chain. This is the reason for which it is important to use terrestrial vertebrates as sentinels in soil biomonitoring programmes. Today, the most validated biomarker of estrogenic exposure is the expression in male liver of the vitellogenin (VTG), an estrogen-dependent glycolipophosphoprotein naturally expressed only in the liver of oviparous females during the reproductive season. This report summarizes the data available on the EDC-dependent expression and the synthesis of VTG in male vertebrates, highlighting our latest studies that demonstrate the ability of testis and epididymis of the lacertid Podarcis sicula to synthesize VTG following estrogenic exposure. These findings provide, for the first time, evidence on an extrahepatic expression and synthesis of VTG in a terrestrial vertebrate and lay the groundwork for a new value of the VTG as a biomarker of environmental contamination. In addition, the results open a new scenario on the role of VTG in cells other than oocytes. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  18. The Evolution of Line-1 in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissinot, Stéphane; Sookdeo, Akash

    2016-10-19

    The abundance and diversity of the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon differ greatly among vertebrates. Mammalian genomes contain hundred of thousands L1s that have accumulated since the origin of mammals. A single group of very similar elements is active at a time in mammals, thus a single lineage of active families has evolved in this group. In contrast, non-mammalian genomes (fish, amphibians, reptiles) harbor a large diversity of concurrently transposing families, which are all represented by very small number of recently inserted copies. Why the pattern of diversity and abundance of L1 is so different among vertebrates remains unknown. To address this issue, we performed a detailed analysis of the evolution of active L1 in 14 mammals and in three non-mammalian vertebrate model species. We examined the evolution of base composition and codon bias, the general structure, and the evolution of the different domains of L1 (5'UTR, ORF1, ORF2, 3'UTR). L1s differ substantially in length, base composition and structure among vertebrates. The most variation is found in the 5'UTR, which is longer in amniotes, and in the ORF1, which tend to evolve faster in mammals. The highly divergent L1 families of lizard, frog and fish share species-specific features suggesting they are subjected to the same functional constraints imposed by their host. The relative conservation of the 5'UTR and ORF1 in non-mammalian vertebrates suggests that the repression of transposition by the host does not act in a sequence specific manner and did not result in an arms race, as is observed in mammals.

  19. The Evolution of LINE-1 in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookdeo, Akash

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and diversity of the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon differ greatly among vertebrates. Mammalian genomes contain hundreds of thousands L1s that have accumulated since the origin of mammals. A single group of very similar elements is active at a time in mammals, thus a single lineage of active families has evolved in this group. In contrast, non-mammalian genomes (fish, amphibians, reptiles) harbor a large diversity of concurrently transposing families, which are all represented by very small number of recently inserted copies. Why the pattern of diversity and abundance of L1 is so different among vertebrates remains unknown. To address this issue, we performed a detailed analysis of the evolution of active L1 in 14 mammals and in 3 non-mammalian vertebrate model species. We examined the evolution of base composition and codon bias, the general structure, and the evolution of the different domains of L1 (5′UTR, ORF1, ORF2, 3′UTR). L1s differ substantially in length, base composition, and structure among vertebrates. The most variation is found in the 5′UTR, which is longer in amniotes, and in the ORF1, which tend to evolve faster in mammals. The highly divergent L1 families of lizard, frog, and fish share species-specific features suggesting that they are subjected to the same functional constraints imposed by their host. The relative conservation of the 5′UTR and ORF1 in non-mammalian vertebrates suggests that the repression of transposition by the host does not act in a sequence-specific manner and did not result in an arms race, as is observed in mammals. PMID:28175298

  20. A Case Report: Balloon Occlusion Of Vertebral Artery In A Giant Vertebral Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Edraki

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: True aneurysms of extra cranial vertebral arteries are rare. The usual pathogenesis of aneurysms in this location is either penetrating or blunt trauma with resultant pseudo- aneurysm formation. We report a patient with a presumed pseudo-aneurysm of the extra- cranial vertebral artery presenting with painful neck mass, without obvious history of trauma. Case description: A 59-year old man presented with painful left lateral neck mass from 3 month ago with a bruit over it on physical examination. Patient had a history of long term anticoagulant therapy because of chronic lower extremity DVT. Patient was referred to our DSA (Department for angiography. After color Doppler US, CT scan and MR-angiography were performed and a giant aneurysm in left vertebral artery was detected. The lesion was successfully treated by an endovascular technique of balloon occlusion of the verte-bral artery.

  1. English for American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slager, William R., Ed.; Madsen, Betty M., Ed.

    The present issue of "English for American Indians" follows the format and approach of the Spring 1970 issue. (See ED 040 396.) In the lead article, Evelyn Hatch surveys some of the research in first language acquisition and points out its implications for second language teaching. Her main thesis is that with the best of intentions,…

  2. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  3. Caregiving in Indian Country

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-23

    This podcast discusses the role of caregivers in Indian County and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/23/2009.

  4. Indians of the Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

  5. American Indian Recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  6. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  7. An Inquiry into Acupuncture Treatment on Cervical Vertebral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction: The cervical vertebral diseases are the diseases of cervical osteoarticular and ligament hypertrophy that cause stenosis of vertebral canals and intervertebral foraminae and compression of nerve roots or cervical segments.

  8. The CW domain, a structural module shared amongst vertebrates, vertebrate-infecting parasites and higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jason; Zhao, Yunde

    2003-11-01

    A previously undetected domain, named CW for its conserved cysteine and tryptophan residues, appears to be a four-cysteine zinc-finger motif found exclusively in vertebrates, vertebrate-infecting parasites and higher plants. Of the twelve distinct nuclear protein families that comprise the CW domain-containing superfamily, only the microrchida (MORC) family has begun to be characterized. However, several families contain other domains suggesting a relationship between the CW domain and either chromatin methylation status or early embryonic development.

  9. Evolution of the vertebrate claudin gene family: insights from a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukendi, Christian; Dean, Nicholas; Lala, Rushil; Smith, Jeramiah; Bronner, Marianne E; Nikitina, Natalya V

    2016-01-01

    Claudins are major constituents of tight junctions, contributing both to their intercellular sealing and selective permeability properties. While claudins and claudin-like molecules are present in some invertebrates, the association of claudins with tight junctions has been conclusively documented only in vertebrates. Here we report the sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and comprehensive spatiotemporal expression analysis of the entire claudin gene family in the basal extant vertebrate, the sea lamprey. Our results demonstrate that clear orthologues to about half of all mammalian claudins are present in the lamprey, suggesting that at least one round of whole genome duplication contributed to the diversification of this gene family. Expression analysis revealed that claudins are expressed in discrete and specific domains, many of which represent vertebrate-specific innovations, such as in cranial ectodermal placodes and the neural crest; whereas others represent structures characteristic of chordates, e.g. pronephros, notochord, somites, endostyle and pharyngeal arches. By comparing the embryonic expression of claudins in the lamprey to that of other vertebrates, we found that ancestral expression patterns were often preserved in higher vertebrates. Morpholino mediated loss of Cldn3b demonstrated a functional role for this protein in placode and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the origins and evolution of the claudin gene family and the significance of claudin proteins in the evolution of vertebrates.

  10. Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H MacRoberts; Barbara R. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The Big Thicket of Texas has been described as rich in species and a “crossroads:” a place where organisms from many different regions meet. We examine the species richness and regional affiliations of Big Thicket vertebrates. We found that the Big Thicket is neither exceptionally rich in vertebrates nor is it a crossroads for vertebrates. Its vertebrate fauna is...

  11. Replacement of cowdung by fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use as fuel, fertilizer and biogas plant feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, C.R.; Ghatnekar, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    With 85% of the entire Indian population living in villages and 98% of the household energy requirement of the rural population demanded for cooking, research was undertaken on the supply of biomass for those Indians who do not have cattle. This research was carried out on the fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use in biogas generation. The plants utilized for biogas generation are: water hyacinth, water lettuce, African payal, duck weed, water spinach, cattail ramban, ipil-ipil, morning glory, paragrass, purple nutsedge, and durva grass.

  12. The incidence of secondary vertebral fracture of vertebral augmentation techniques versus conservative treatment for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dawei; Meng, Bin; Gan, Minfeng; Niu, Junjie; Li, Shiyan; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Chenxi; Yang, Huilin

    2015-08-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) are minimally invasive and effective vertebral augmentation techniques for managing osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Recent meta-analyses have compared the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques or conservative treatment; however, the inclusions were not thorough and rigorous enough, and the effects of each technique on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures remain unclear. To perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies with more rigorous inclusion criteria on the effects of vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for OVCF on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SpringerLink, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library database were searched for relevant original articles comparing the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for patients with OVCFs. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) were identified. The methodological qualities of the studies were evaluated, relevant data were extracted and recorded, and an appropriate meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 13 articles were included. The pooled results from included studies showed no statistically significant differences in the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis comparing different study designs, durations of symptoms, follow-up times, races of patients, and techniques were conducted, and no significant differences in the incidence of secondary fractures were identified (P > 0.05). No obvious publication bias was detected by either Begg's test (P = 0.360 > 0.05) or Egger's test (P = 0.373 > 0.05). Despite current thinking in the

  13. Relationship between New Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture and Instrumented Lumbar Arthrodesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bung-Hak; Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Jeon, Seong-Hun; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the relationship between a new osteoporotic vertebral fracture and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Overview of Literature In contrast to the growing recognition of the importance of adjacent segment disease after lumbar arthrodesis, relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between osteoporotic vertebral fractures and instrumented lumbar arthrodesis. Methods Twenty five patients with a thoracolumbar vertebral fracture ...

  14. The evolution of pepsinogen C genes in vertebrates: duplication, loss and functional diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe Costa Castro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspartic proteases comprise a large group of enzymes involved in peptide proteolysis. This collection includes prominent enzymes globally categorized as pepsins, which are derived from pepsinogen precursors. Pepsins are involved in gastric digestion, a hallmark of vertebrate physiology. An important member among the pepsinogens is pepsinogen C (Pgc. A particular aspect of Pgc is its apparent single copy status, which contrasts with the numerous gene copies found for example in pepsinogen A (Pga. Although gene sequences with similarity to Pgc have been described in some vertebrate groups, no exhaustive evolutionary framework has been considered so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining phylogenetics and genomic analysis, we find an unexpected Pgc diversity in the vertebrate sub-phylum. We were able to reconstruct gene duplication timings relative to the divergence of major vertebrate clades. Before tetrapod divergence, a single Pgc gene tandemly expanded to produce two gene lineages (Pgbc and Pgc2. These have been differentially retained in various classes. Accordingly, we find Pgc2 in sauropsids, amphibians and marsupials, but not in eutherian mammals. Pgbc was retained in amphibians, but duplicated in the ancestor of amniotes giving rise to Pgb and Pgc1. The latter was retained in mammals and probably in reptiles and marsupials but not in birds. Pgb was kept in all of the amniote clade with independent episodes of loss in some mammalian species. Lineage specific expansions of Pgc2 and Pgbc have also occurred in marsupials and amphibians respectively. We find that teleost and tetrapod Pgc genes reside in distinct genomic regions hinting at a possible translocation. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the repertoire of Pgc genes is larger than previously reported, and that tandem duplications have modelled the history of Pgc genes. We hypothesize that gene expansion lead to functional divergence in tetrapods, coincident with the

  15. Allometry and Scaling of the Intraocular Pressure and Aqueous Humour Flow Rate in Vertebrate Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouache, Moussa A.; Eames, Ian; Samsudin, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, intraocular pressure (IOP) is required to maintain the eye into a shape allowing it to function as an optical instrument. It is sustained by the balance between the production of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and the resistance to its outflow from the eye. Dysregulation of the IOP is often pathological to vision. High IOP may lead to glaucoma, which is in man the second most prevalent cause of blindness. Here, we examine the importance of the IOP and rate of formation of aqueous humour in the development of vertebrate eyes by performing allometric and scaling analyses of the forces acting on the eye during head movement and the energy demands of the cornea, and testing the predictions of the models against a list of measurements in vertebrates collated through a systematic review. We show that the IOP has a weak dependence on body mass, and that in order to maintain the focal length of the eye, it needs to be an order of magnitude greater than the pressure drop across the eye resulting from gravity or head movement. This constitutes an evolutionary constraint that is common to all vertebrates. In animals with cornea-based optics, this constraint also represents a condition to maintain visual acuity. Estimated IOPs were found to increase with the evolution of terrestrial animals. The rate of formation of aqueous humour was found to be adjusted to the metabolic requirements of the cornea, scaling as Vac0.67, where Vac is the volume of the anterior chamber. The present work highlights an interdependence between IOP and aqueous flow rate crucial to ocular function that must be considered to understand the evolution of the dioptric apparatus. It should also be taken into consideration in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. PMID:26990431

  16. Anatomia do sulco da artéria vertebral Vertebral artery groove anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Franco de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversas técnicas cirúrgicas têm sido realizadas na região craniocervical devido a diversas patologias. Durante o acesso cirúrgico a essa região existe um risco potencial de lesão iatrogênica da artéria vertebral, relacionado ao acesso lateral amplo e à avaliação inadequada da anatomia local. Variações no trajeto da artéria vertebral ocasionam maior risco de lesão vascular. O estudo pré-operatório por imagem da anatomia da artéria vertebral e do seu sulco tem sido realizado para aumentar a segurança cirúrgica. OBJETIVO: Estudar a morfometria da artéria vertebral no atlas através da tomografia computadorizada do sulco da artéria vertebral (SAV em 30 atlas isolados de cadáveres. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O SAV e suas relações com a linha média foram avaliados através de oito medidas lineares e duas angulares, bilateralmente. A média, valor máximo e mínimo, e desvio padrão foram calculados para cada parâmetro. RESULTADOS: O SAV apresentou uma maior largura e maior espessura do lado esquerdo (pINTRODUCTION: Several surgical techniques have been carried through in the skull-cervical region due to various pathologies. During the surgical access to this region, a potential risk of iatrogenic injury of the vertebral artery exists, related to extended lateral access and the inadequate evaluation of the local anatomy. Variations in the groove of the vertebral artery lead to a greater risk of vascular injury during surgery. Preoperative image study of the vertebral artery anatomy and its groove has been realized to enhance surgical safety. OBJECTIVE: to study the morphometry of atlas vertebral artery on computed tomography scan images of the vertebral artery groove (VAG in 30 dry atlas. METHODS: VAG and its relationship with the midline were evaluated through eight linear and two angular measures, bilaterally. The average, maximum and minimum values, and standard deviation were calculated for each parameter

  17. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancers that metastasize to the spine and primary cancers such as multiple myeloma can result in vertebral compression fractures or instability. Conservative strategies, including bed rest, bracing, and analgesic use, can be ineffective, resulting in continued pain and progressive functional disability limiting mobility and self-care. Surgery is not usually an option for cancer patients in advanced disease states because of their poor medical health or functional status and limited life expectancy. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous image-guided vertebral augmentation techniques, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, for palliation of cancer-related vertebral compression fractures. Methods We performed a systematic literature search for studies on vertebral augmentation of cancer-related vertebral compression fractures published from January 1, 2000, to October 2014; abstracts were screened by a single reviewer. For those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Owing to the heterogeneity of the clinical reports, we performed a narrative synthesis based on an analytical framework constructed for the type of cancer-related vertebral fractures and the diversity of the vertebral augmentation interventions. Results The evidence review identified 3,391 citations, of which 111 clinical reports (4,235 patients) evaluated the effectiveness of vertebroplasty (78 reports, 2,545 patients) or kyphoplasty (33 reports, 1,690 patients) for patients with mixed primary spinal metastatic cancers, multiple myeloma, or hemangiomas. Overall the mean pain intensity scores often reported within 48 hours of vertebral augmentation (kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty), were significantly reduced. Analgesic use, although variably reported, usually involved parallel decreases, particularly in opioids, and mean pain-related disability scores were also significantly improved. In a randomized controlled

  18. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Untreated vertebral compression fractures can have serious clinical consequences and impose a considerable impact on patients' quality of life and on caregivers. Since non-surgical management of these fractures has limited effectiveness, vertebral augmentation procedures are gaining acceptance in clinical practice for pain control and fracture stabilization. The objective of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with cancer. Methods We performed a systematic review of health economic studies to identify relevant studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in adults with cancer. We also performed a primary cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the clinical benefits and costs of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management in the same population. We developed a Markov model to forecast benefits and harms of treatments, and corresponding quality-adjusted life years and costs. Clinical data and utility data were derived from published sources, while costing data were derived using Ontario administrative sources. We performed sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the results. In addition, a 1-year budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontario administrative sources. Two scenarios were explored: (a) an increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario, maintaining the current proportion of kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty; and (b) no increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario but an increase in the proportion of kyphoplasties versus vertebroplasties. Results The base case considered each of

  19. An experimental and morphometric test of the relationship between vertebral morphology and joint stiffness in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Julia L; Pierce, Stephanie E; Hutchinson, John R

    2014-03-01

    Despite their semi-aquatic mode of life, modern crocodylians use a wide range of terrestrial locomotor behaviours, including asymmetrical gaits otherwise only found in mammals. The key to these diverse abilities may lie in the axial skeleton. Correlations between vertebral morphology and both intervertebral joint stiffness and locomotor behaviour have been found in other animals, but the vertebral mechanics of crocodylians have not yet been experimentally and quantitatively tested. We measured the passive mechanics and morphology of the thoracolumbar vertebral column in Crocodylus niloticus in order to validate a method to infer intervertebral joint stiffness based on morphology. Passive stiffness of eight thoracic and lumbar joints was tested in dorsal extension, ventral flexion and mediolateral flexion using cadaveric specimens. Fifteen measurements that we deemed to be potential correlates of stiffness were taken from each vertebra and statistically tested for correlation with joint stiffness. We found that the vertebral column of C. niloticus is stiffer in dorsoventral flexion than in lateral flexion and, in contrast to that of many mammals, shows an increase in joint stiffness in the lumbar region. Our findings suggest that the role of the axial column in crocodylian locomotion may be functionally different from that in mammals, even during analogous gaits. A moderate proportion of variation in joint stiffness (R(2)=0.279-0.520) was predicted by centrum width and height, neural spine angle and lamina width. These results support the possible utility of some vertebral morphometrics in predicting mechanical properties of the vertebral column in crocodiles, which also should be useful for forming functional hypotheses of axial motion during locomotion in extinct archosaurs.

  20. Terrestrial ecosystems under warmer and drier climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Future warmer and drier climates will likely affect many of the world's terrestrial ecosystems. These changes will fundamentally reshape terrestrial systems through their components and across organization levels. However, it is unclear to what extent terrestrial ecosystems would be resilient enough to stay put to increased temperature and water stress by only adjusting carbon fluxes and water balances? And to what extent it would reach the thresholds at which terrestrial ecosystems were forced to alter species compositions and ecosystem structures for adapting to newer climates? The energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems link thermal and water conditions to defines terrestrial carbon processes and feedbacks to climate, which will inevitably change under warmer and drier climates. Recent theoretical studies provide a new framework, suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems were capable of balancing costs of carbon gain and water transport to achieve optimums for functioning and distribution. Such a paradigm is critical for understanding the dynamics of future terrestrial ecosystems under climate changes, and facilitate modeling terrestrial ecosystems which needs generalized principles for formulating ecosystem behaviors. This study aims to review some recent studies that explore responses of terrestrial ecosystems to rather novel climate conditions, such as heat-induced droughts, intending to provide better comprehension of complex carbon-water interactions through plants to an ecosystem, and relevant factors that may alleviate or worsen already deteriorated climates such as elevated CO2 and soil conditions.

  1. Consumer Control of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D.

    2012-12-01

    More than half of the earth's terrestrial surface is grazed by large herbivores and their effects on plant and soil carbon and nitrogen processes are large and widespread. Yet the large effects of these animals on terrestrial processes have largely been ignored in global change models. This presentation will explore the many pathways that consumers affect short and long time-scale terrestrial nitrogen and carbon processes. Large herbivores influence the quality of soil organic matter and the size of the active (i.e., labile) pool of soil carbon and nitrogen in several ways. Herbivory leads to greater abundance of species producing low quality material in forest and dry grassland, via feeding preferentially on high quality forage, and high quality material in mesic grassland habitat, via the high quality of material that regrows after a plant is grazed. Defoliation stimulates the rate of root exudation that enhances rhizospheric processes and the availability of nitrogen in the plant rhizosphere. Herbivores also change the species composition of mycorrhizae fungal associates that influence plant growth and affect soil structure and the turnover rate of soil carbon. Recent radiocarbon measurements have revealed that herbivores also markedly affect the turnover dynamics of the large pool of old soil carbon. In Yellowstone Park, ungulates slow the mean turnover of the relatively old (i.e., slow and passive) 0 - 20 cm deep soil organic carbon by 350 years in upland, dry grassland and speed up that rate in slope-bottom, mesic grassland by 300 years. This represents a 650 year swing in the turnover period of old soil carbon across the Yellowstone landscape. By comparison, mean turnover time for the old pool of 0 - 10 cm deep soil organic carbon shifts by about 300 years across the steep climatic gradient that includes tropical, temperate, and northern hardwood forest, and tallgrass, shortgrass and desert grassland. This large body of evidence suggests consumers play a

  2. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  3. Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent patients

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    Somika Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are one of the important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis is extremely rare. We report two cases of aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent men in the absence of an underlying disorder. The clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of Pott′s spine. The absolute CD4, CD8 counts and their ratio were normal. The HIV status was negative in both patients. Both patients underwent surgical decompression. The histopathology of tissue obtained were suggestive of aspergillus osteomyelitis. One patient had antifungal treatment for 3 months and was doing well at 1 year followup, whereas other patient did not turnup after 2 months.

  4. Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Robert Lynn

    1997-04-01

    This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

  5. The Sarmatian vertebrates from Draxeni (Moldavian Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Codrea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle Miocene (Sarmatian vertebrates had been unearthed at Draxeni (Vaslui district. The site is located in the northern area of the Moldavian Platform. There, the sand belonging to Şcheia Formation (Bessarabian is mined in a restricted open pit. This sand is related to a littoral environment (shoreface and foreshore. Some of its levels are rich in mollusc debris. Vertebrate remains, carried into the Bessarabian brackish basin are present too, but in smaller amounts. Mastodon, rhinoceros, hipparionine, tortoise remains had been collected there over several years. All teeth and bones are isolated and bear the marks of intensive rolling by waves and currents. This assemblage is typical for the top of Bessarabian in Moldavia, i.e. soon after the first hipparionine invasion in this part of the Europe. This assemblage can be related to the base of MN 9 unit.

  6. The timing of Timezyme diversification in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Cazaméa-Catalan

    Full Text Available All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish. We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2'paralogs, the 2' isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish. We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish. Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence.

  7. Light sensitivity in a vertebrate mechanoreceptor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Gary E.; de Grip, Willem J.; Turton, Michael; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Foster, Russell G.; Douglas, Ron H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, we demonstrate that melanopsin is localised in cells around the central pore of lateral line neuromasts in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Since melanopsin is a known photoreceptor pigment with diverse functions in vertebrates, we suggest that the lateral line of Xenopus laevis, which is primarily a mechanoreceptor, might also be light sensitive. Potential functions of such photosensitivity are discussed, including its role in mediating locomotor responses following dermal illumination. PMID:26206352

  8. The timing of Timezyme diversification in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2'paralogs, the 2' isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence.

  9. Brain size varies with temperature in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The tremendous variation in brain size among vertebrates has long been thought to be related to differences in species’ metabolic rates. It is thought that species with higher metabolic rates can supply more energy to support the relatively high cost of brain tissue. And yet, while body temperature is known to be a major determinant of metabolic rate, the possible effects of temperature on brain size have scarcely been explored. Thus, here we explore the effects of temperature on brain size a...

  10. [Cervical vertebral column--anatomy, fractures, treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosiński, Michał; Sienkiewicz-Zawilińska, Justyna; Lipski, Marcin; Zawiliński, Jarosław; Matyja, Andrzej; Walocha, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with anatomy of human cervical spine. It shows close relation between knowledge on the normal structure and methods of treatment of different kinds of spine injuries. It describes detailed anatomy and mechanical features of cervical vertebral column, including the structure of distinct vertebrae, their joints and arrangement of muscles. It reviews also historical methods of treatment of fractures in this region considering current methods.

  11. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Brenes

    Full Text Available Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis, and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans. We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively, but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance.

  12. The Timing of Timezyme Diversification in Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack; Magnanou, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    All biological functions in vertebrates are synchronized with daily and seasonal changes in the environment by the time keeping hormone melatonin. Its nocturnal surge is primarily due to the rhythmic activity of the arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase AANAT, which thus became the focus of many investigations regarding its evolution and function. Various vertebrate isoforms have been reported from cartilaginous fish to mammals but their origin has not been clearly established. Using phylogeny and synteny, we took advantage of the increasing number of available genomes in order to test whether the various rounds of vertebrate whole genome duplications were responsible for the diversification of AANAT. We highlight a gene secondary loss of the AANAT2 in the Sarcopterygii, revealing for the first time that the AAANAT1/2 duplication occurred before the divergence between Actinopterygii (bony fish) and Sarcopterygii (tetrapods, lobe-finned fish, and lungfish). We hypothesize the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WDG) generated the appearance of the AANAT1a/1b and the AANAT2/2′paralogs, the 2′ isoform being rapidly lost in the teleost common ancestor (ray-finned fish). We also demonstrate the secondary loss of the AANAT1a in a Paracantopterygii (Atlantic cod) and of the 1b in some Ostariophysi (zebrafish and cave fish). Salmonids present an even more diverse set of AANATs that may be due to their specific WGD followed by secondary losses. We propose that vertebrate AANAT diversity resulted from 3 rounds of WGD followed by previously uncharacterized secondary losses. Extant isoforms show subfunctionalized localizations, enzyme activities and affinities that have increased with time since their emergence. PMID:25486407

  13. Vertebral involvement in SAPHO syndrome: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, A.; Cardinal, E.; Bureau, N.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Sainte-Marie, L.G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Milette, F. [Department of Pathology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    We report on the MRI findings in the vertebrae and surrounding soft tissues in two patients with the SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis). The MRI findings include abnormal bone marrow signal, either focal or diffuse, of the vertebral bodies and posterior elements; hyperintense paravertebral soft tissue swelling and abnormal signal of the intervertebral discs. These changes are consistent with discitis and osteitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 17 refs.

  14. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Graham

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

  15. The immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinello, Rita; Dooley, Helen

    2014-11-24

    Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more "conventional" mammalian species.

  16. Horner syndrome due to vertebral artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Han

    2013-11-01

    The author reports a rare case of Horner syndrome in a patient who resulted from stenosis of the vertebral artery after blunt trauma. A 31-year-old man was transferred to our department for evaluation of left medial orbital wall and nasal bone fractures. Five days ago, he was hospitalized due to multiple second to fourth rib fractures of the right chest following blunt trauma of the face, neck, and chest. Surgery was performed. Ten days later, he complained of drooping of the right eyelid. Physical examination revealed a discrete miosis and ptosis with normal levator function in the right eye. A workup for Horner syndrome was performed. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck revealed a stenosis of the distal part of the right vertebral artery without the abnormality of carotid artery. He wore a cervical collar and underwent anticoagulation. However, Horner syndrome was not resolved over the next 12 months. Acute traumatic Horner syndrome may be associated with vertebral artery dissection in which the possibility of life-threatening injury can be masked.

  17. Epidemiologia do traumatismo da coluna vertebral

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    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação epidemiológica retrospectiva de 100 casos de traumatismo da coluna vertebral. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de dados colhidos por levantamento de prontuário, segundo protocolo de decodificação local. RESULTADOS: Predomínio etário de 20 a 40 anos em 64% dos casos; sexo masculino em 86%; segmento toracolombar mais comumente atingido 64% e 36% para o segmento cervical; principais causas foram às quedas em 40%, seguidas de acidentes automobilísticos em 25% e quedas da laje 23%. A prevalência dos ferimentos por arma de fogo foi de 7%, mergulho em águas rasas 3% e agressões 2%. Houve análise complementar com cruzamentos entre idade, sexo, causa e segmento da coluna vertebral acometido, observando que o segmento cervical teve grande predomínio nas mulheres em relação aos homens em 85,7% X 14,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O traumatismo da coluna vertebral ocorreu predominantemente em homens entre 20 e 40 anos e o segmento cervical foi o mais acometido nas mulheres em relação aos homens na proporção de 6:1.

  18. The Immunoglobulins of Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pettinello

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey, the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the immunoglobulins of cold-blooded vertebrates and highlight the differences, and commonalities, between these and more “conventional” mammalian species.

  19. The molecular biology of vertebrate olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Sara; Teeling, Emma C

    2014-11-01

    The importance of chemosensation for vertebrates is reflected in the vast and variable nature of their chemosensory tissues, neurons, and genes, which we explore in this review. Immense progress has been made in elucidating the molecular biology of olfaction since the discovery of the olfactory receptor genes by Buck and Axel, which eventually won the authors the Nobel Prize. In particular, research linking odor ligands to olfactory receptors (ORs) is truly revolutionizing our understanding of how a large but limited number of chemosensory receptors can allow us to perceive the massive diversity of odors in our habitat. This research is providing insight into the evolution of genomes and providing the raw data needed to explore links between genotype and phenotype, still a grand challenge in biology. Research into olfaction is still developing and will no doubt continue until we have a clear understanding of how all odors are detected and the evolutionary forces that have molded the chemosensory subgenome in vertebrates. This knowledge will not only be a huge step in elucidating olfactory function, advancing scientific knowledge and techniques, but there are also commercial applications for this research. This review focuses on the molecular basis of chemosensation, particularly olfaction, its evolution across vertebrates and the recent molecular advances linking odors to their cognate receptors.

  20. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight.

  1. Vertebrate Axial Patterning: From Egg to Asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Douglas W

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of the bilateral embryonic body axis from a symmetrical egg has been a long-standing question in developmental biology. Historical and modern experiments point to an initial symmetry-breaking event leading to localized Wnt and Nodal growth factor signaling and subsequent induction and formation of a self-regulating dorsal "organizer." This organizer forms at the site of notochord cell internalization and expresses primarily Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) growth factor antagonists that establish a spatiotemporal gradient of BMP signaling across the embryo, directing initial cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Although the basics of this model have been known for some time, many of the molecular and cellular details have only recently been elucidated and the extent that these events remain conserved throughout vertebrate evolution remains unclear. This chapter summarizes historical perspectives as well as recent molecular and genetic advances regarding: (1) the mechanisms that regulate symmetry-breaking in the vertebrate egg and early embryo, (2) the pathways that are activated by these events, in particular the Wnt pathway, and the role of these pathways in the formation and function of the organizer, and (3) how these pathways also mediate anteroposterior patterning and axial morphogenesis. Emphasis is placed on comparative aspects of the egg-to-embryo transition across vertebrates and their evolution. The future prospects for work regarding self-organization and gene regulatory networks in the context of early axis formation are also discussed.

  2. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  3. Indian scales and inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, S

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines.

  4. Indian President visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On 1 October, her Excellency Mrs Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, picked CERN as the first stop on her official state visit to Switzerland. Accompanied by a host of Indian journalists, a security team, and a group of presidential delegates, the president left quite an impression when she visited CERN’s Point 2!   Upon arrival, Pratibha Patil was greeted by CERN Director General Rolf Heuer, as well as senior Indian scientists working at CERN, and various department directors. After a quick overview of the Organization, Rolf Heuer and the President addressed India’s future collaboration with CERN. India is currently an Observer State of the Organization, and is considering becoming an Associate Member State. A short stop in LHC operations gave Steve Myers and the Accelerator team the opportunity to take the President on a tour through the LHC tunnel. From there, ALICE’s Tapan Nayak and Spokesperson Paolo Giubellino took Pratibha Patil to the experiment&am...

  5. Vertebrate fossils and trace fossils in Upper Jurassic-Lower cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C. M.; Suárez, M.

    Pterosaur, dinosaur, and crocodile bones are recorded here for the first time in Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region east of Copiapó, Chile. Trace fossils produced by vertebrate animals include the footprints of theropod dinosaurs and the depressions of sandstone laminae interpreted as burrows and foot impressions. The fossils occur in the 1500-meter-thick Quebrada Monardes Formation, which consists predominantly of the aeolian and alluvial deposits of a semi-arid terrestrial environment. Vertebrate fossils are very rare in Chile. Dinosaur bones and footprints have previously been recorded at only seven locations, and pterosaur remains at only one location. The newly discovered dinosaur bones are the oldest to be described in Chile.

  6. Forging an Indian Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    partnership. 100. Stephen Cohen, remarks at the Brookings Institution Conference, “Does the Elephant Dance ? A Discussion on Contemporary Indian Foreign...part of its foreign policy since independence. Throughout the Cold War, India was an essential member of the nonaligned movement , a collection of...continue to solidify as China grows and flexes its muscles across the Asian continent. Consequently, this relationship will be driven as much by

  7. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  8. FRAX and the effect of teriparatide on vertebral and non-vertebral fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nicholas C; Kanis, John A; Odén, Anders; Burge, Russel T; Mitlak, Bruce H; Johansson, Helena; McCloskey, Eugene V

    2016-01-01

    Summary Daily teriparatide injections have been shown to reduce vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of fracture risk reduction is independent of baseline fracture probability assessed by FRAX. Background Daily administration of 20μg or 40μg teriparatide has been shown to significantly decrease the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fracture compared with placebo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate fracture risk assessed at baseline using the FRAX® tool and to determine the efficacy of teriparatide as a function of baseline fracture risk. Methods 1637 postmenopausal women in the pivotal phase 3 trial, randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=544), teriparatide 20 μg per day (n=541) or teriparatide 40 μg per day (n=552), were studied. Baseline clinical risk factors were entered into country-specific FRAX models to compute the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures with or without input of femoral neck BMD. Because there was no difference in effect of 20 and 40μg teriparatide daily on fracture occurrence, the two active groups were merged. The interaction between probability of a major fracture and treatment efficacy was examined by Poisson regression. Results The 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures (with BMD) ranged from 2.2-67.2%. Treatment with teriparatide was associated with a 37% decrease in all non-vertebral fractures (95% CI:10-56 %) and a 56% decrease in low energy non-vertebral fractures (95% CI:24-75%) compared with placebo. The risk of morphometric vertebral fractures decreased significantly by 66% (95% CI:50-77%). Hazard ratios for the effect of teriparatide on the fracture outcome did not change significantly with increasing fracture probability (p>0.30). Similar findings were noted for the interaction when BMD was excluded from the FRAX model, or when probability of hip fracture was used as the marker of baseline risk. Conclusion We conclude that teriparatide

  9. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation for painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmetti GC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni C Anselmetti1, Sean M Tutton2, Francis R Facchini3, Larry E Miller4,5, Jon E Block51Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Turin, Italy; 2Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, WI, USA; 3Interventional Radiology, Interventional Oncology, VIR Chicago, Hinsdale, IL, USA; 4Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 5The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USAIntroduction: Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation. Described in this report is a case of a painful osteolytic vertebral metastasis that was successfully treated by a novel percutaneous vertebral augmentation system.Case presentation: A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of metastatic lung cancer unresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy with symptoms inadequately controlled by opiates over the previous 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging and spiral computed tomography with two-dimensional reconstruction showed an osteolytic vertebral metastasis with complete involvement of the T10 vertebral body, extending to the cortical vertebral wall anteriorly and posteriorly. The patient was treated with percutaneous vertebral augmentation (Kiva® VCF Treatment System, Benvenue Medical, Inc, Santa Clara, CA utilizing a novel coil-shaped polyetheretherketone implant designed to minimize the risk of cement extravasation. After the minimally invasive procedure, bone cement distribution within the vertebral body was ideal, with no observed cement extravasation. No

  10. BIA Indian Lands Dataset (Indian Lands of the United States)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The American Indian Reservations / Federally Recognized Tribal Entities dataset depicts feature location, selected demographics and other associated data for the 561...

  11. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  12. Tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The tectonic style of each terrestrial planet, referring to the thickness and division of its lithosphere, can be inferred from surface features and compared to models of planetary thermal history. Factors governing planetary tectonic evolution are planet diameter, chemistry, and external and internal heat sources, all of which determine how a planet generates and rids itself of heat. The earth is distinguished by its distinct, mobile plates, which are recycled into the mantle and show large-scale lateral movements, whereas the moon, Mars, and Mercury are single spherical shells, showing no evidence of destruction and renewal of the lithospheric plates over the latter 80% of their history. Their smaller volume to surface area results in a more rapid cooling, formation, and thickening of the lithosphere. Vertical tectonics, due to lithospheric loading, is controlled by the local thickness and rheology of the lithosphere. Further studies of Venus, which displays both the craterlike surface features of the one-plate planets, and the rifts and plateaus of earth, may indicate which factors are most important in controlling the tectonic evolution of terrestrial planets.

  13. Mucosal immunity in the gut: the non-vertebrate perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Mulero, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Much is now known about the vertebrate mechanisms involved in mucosal immunity, and the requirement of commensal microbiota at mucosal surfaces for the proper functioning of the immune system. In comparison, very little is known about the mechanisms of immunity at the barrier epithelia of non-vertebrate organisms. The purpose of this review is to summarize key experimental evidence illustrating how non-vertebrate immune mechanisms at barrier epithelia compare to those of higher vertebrates, using the gut as a model organ. Not only effector mechanisms of gut immunity are similar between vertebrates and non-vertebrates, but it also seems that the proper functioning of non-vertebrate gut defense mechanisms requires the presence of a resident microbiota. As more information becomes available, it will be possible to obtain a more accurate picture of how mucosal immunity has evolved, and how it adapts to the organisms' life styles.

  14. Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.

  15. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

  16. Patterns of Vertebrate Diversity and Protection in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton N Jenkins

    Full Text Available Most conservation decisions take place at national or finer spatial scales. Providing useful information at such decision-making scales is essential for guiding the practice of conservation. Brazil is one of the world's megadiverse countries, and consequently decisions about conservation in the country have a disproportionate impact on the survival of global biodiversity. For three groups of terrestrial vertebrates (birds, mammals, and amphibians, we examined geographic patterns of diversity and protection in Brazil, including that of endemic, small-ranged, and threatened species. To understand potential limitations of the data, we also explored how spatial bias in collection localities may influence the perceived patterns of diversity. The highest overall species richness is in the Amazon and Atlantic Forests, while the Atlantic Forest dominates in terms of country endemics and small-ranged species. Globally threatened species do not present a consistent pattern. Patterns for birds were similar to overall species richness, with higher concentrations of threatened species in the Atlantic Forest, while mammals show a more generalized pattern across the country and a high concentration in the Amazon. Few amphibians are listed as threatened, mostly in the Atlantic Forest. Data deficient mammals occur across the country, concentrating in the Amazon and southeast Atlantic Forest, and there are no data deficient birds in Brazil. In contrast, nearly a third of amphibians are data deficient, widespread across the country, but with a high concentration in the far southeast. Spatial biases in species locality data, however, possibly influence the perceived patterns of biodiversity. Regions with low sampling density need more biological studies, as do the many data deficient species. All biomes except the Amazon have less than 3% of their area under full protection. Reassuringly though, rates of protection do correlate with higher biodiversity, including

  17. Review of existing terrestrial bioaccumulation models and terrestrial bioaccumulation modeling needs for organic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols for terrestrial bioaccumulation assessments are far less-developed than for aquatic systems. This manuscript reviews modeling approaches that can be used to assess the terrestrial bioaccumulation potential of commercial organic chemicals. Models exist for plant, inver...

  18. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  19. Clinical and neuroimaging features vertebral radiculopathy in the combination with vertebral hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-honatskaya M.L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim of the study: to study the clinical and neuroimaging features of radiculopathy vertebral hemangiomas in conjunction with the vertebrae. Materials and methods. A total of 56 patients with radiculopathy vertebral hemangiomas combined with the vertebrae. Results. The patients in addition to pain, and focal neurological symptoms were observed violation of urination, and chronic venous insuffciency of lower extremities. MRI identifed three types of vertebral hem-angiomas, depending on the structural characteristics. Conclusion. The aim of the study is realized.Most hemangiomas are asymptomatic yourself. Pain and neurological symptoms caused by musculo-tonic component, the presence of disc herniation, changes in the intervertebral joints, ligaments violation. Type III meets the criteria for hemangiomas and requires aggressive surgical treatment.

  20. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  1. Modulación del crecimiento vertebral mediante electrocoagulación hemicircunferencial vertebral asistida

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Nuestro trabajo está basado en la posibilidad de controlar el desarrollo asimétrico de los cartílagos de crecimiento vertebral, mediante la realización de una fisiodesis hemivertebral, con electrocoagulación, videoasistida por toracoscópica. Se realizará en cinco niveles torácicos, con un abordaje anterior mínimamente invasivo. Por lo tanto, planteamos como hipótesis de trabajo que La destrucción de las fisis de crecimiento vertebral mediante electrocoagulación, videoasistida por vía toracosc...

  2. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marisaldi, Martino, E-mail: marisaldi@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tavani, Marco [INAF-IASF Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Argan, Andrea [INAF, Viale del Parco Mellini 84, 00136 Roma (Italy); Del Monte, Ettore [INAF-IASF Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido [Dipartimento di Fisica Università di Trieste and INFN Trieste, via A. Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Giuliani, Andrea [INAF-IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Trois, Alessio [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, loc. Poggio dei Pini, strada 54, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  3. Trojan capture by terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigate the capture of asteroids by Venus, Earth and Mars into the 1:1 mean motion resonance especially into Trojan orbits. Current theoretical studies predict that Trojan asteroids are a frequent by-product of the planet formation. This is not only the case for the outer giant planets, but also for the terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System. By using numerical integrations, we investigated the capture efficiency and the stability of the captured objects. We found out that the capture efficiency is larger for the planets in the inner Solar System compared to the outer ones, but most of the captured Trojan asteroids are not long term stable. This temporary captures caused by chaotic behaviour of the objects were investigated without any dissipative forces. They show an interesting dynamical behaviour of mixing like jumping from one Lagrange point to the other one.

  4. Chaos in Terrestrial Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Volker; Moore, Ben; Stadel, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial planets are thought to be the result of a vast number of gravitational interactions and collisions between smaller bodies. We use numerical simulations to show that practically identical initial conditions result in a wide array of final planetary configurations. This highly chaotic behaviour questions the predictability of different scenarios for the formation and evolution of our solar system and planetary systems in general. However, multiple realisations of the same initial conditions can be used to predict certain global statistics. We present two sets of numerical experiments that quantify this behaviour. Firstly, we demonstrate that simulations with slightly displaced particles are completely divergent after ~500 years, irrespective of initial displacement, particle number, and code accuracy. If a single planetesimal is moved by less than one millimetre, then a different set of planets results -- this timescale for chaotic divergence decreases with increasing particle number. Secondly, we s...

  5. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Francois

    2013-01-01

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance to optimize future telescopic observations, or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To first order, climate primarily depends on 1) The atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; 2) The incident stellar flux; 3) The tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes which are difficult to model: origins of volatile, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry. We discuss physical constraints which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using Global Climate Models analogous to the ones developed to sim...

  6. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  7. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Marcia, S. [Section of Radiology—Santissima Trinità Hospital, Cagliari (Italy); Guarnieri, G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Pereira, V. [Unit of Interventional Neuroradiology–HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications.

  8. Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

    Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian…

  9. Investigating the control of climatic oscillations over global terrestrial evaporation using a simple supervised learning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Brecht; Miralles, Diego; Waegeman, Willem; Dorigo, Wouter; Verhoest, Niko

    2017-04-01

    Intra-annual and multi-decadal variations in the Earth's climate are to a large extent driven by periodic oscillations in the coupled state of atmosphere and ocean. These oscillations alter not only the climate in nearby regions, but also have an important impact on the local climate in remote areas, a phenomenon that is often referred to as 'teleconnection'. Because changes in local climate immediately impact terrestrial ecosystems through a series of complex processes and feedbacks, ocean-atmospheric teleconnections are expected to influence land evaporation - i.e. the return flux of water from land to atmosphere. In this presentation, the effects of these intra-annual and multi-decadal climate oscillations on global terrestrial evaporation are analysed. To this end, we use satellite observations of different essential climate variables in combination with a simple supervised learning method, the lasso regression. A total of sixteen Climate Oscillation Indices (COIs) - which are routinely used to diagnose the major ocean-atmospheric oscillations - are selected. Multi-decadal data of terrestrial evaporation are retrieved from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM, www.gleam.eu). Using the lasso regression, it is shown that more than 30% of the inter-annual variations in terrestrial evaporation can be explained by ocean-atmospheric oscillations. In addition, the impact in different regions across the globe can typically be attributed to a small subset of the sixteen COIs. For instance, the dynamics in terrestrial evaporation over Australia are substantially impacted by both the El Niño Southern Oscillation (here diagnosed using the Southern Oscillation Index, SOI) and the Indian Ocean Dipole Oscillation (here diagnosed using the Indian Dipole Mode Index, DMI). Subsequently, using the same learning method but regressing terrestrial evaporation to its local climatic drivers (air temperature, precipitation, radiation), allows us to discern through which

  10. Planar cell polarity and vertebrate organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Courtney; Wharton, Keith A; Carroll, Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    In addition to being polarized along their apical/basal axis, cells composing most (if not all) organs are also polarized in a plane vertical to the A/B axis. Recent studies indicate that this so-called planar cell polarity (PCP) plays an essential role in the formation of multiple organ systems regulating directed cell migrations, polarized cell division and proper differentiation. In this review we will discuss the molecular mechanisms regulating PCP, including the hypothesized roles for Wnt ligands in this process, and its roles in vertebrate organogenesis.

  11. A standard system to study vertebrate embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Werneburg

    Full Text Available Staged embryonic series are important as reference for different kinds of biological studies. I summarise problems that occur when using 'staging tables' of 'model organisms'. Investigations of developmental processes in a broad scope of taxa are becoming commonplace. Beginning in the 1990s, methods were developed to quantify and analyse developmental events in a phylogenetic framework. The algorithms associated with these methods are still under development, mainly due to difficulties of using non-independent characters. Nevertheless, the principle of comparing clearly defined newly occurring morphological features in development (events in quantifying analyses was a key innovation for comparative embryonic research. Up to date no standard was set for how to define such events in a comparative approach. As a case study I compared the external development of 23 land vertebrate species with a focus on turtles, mainly based on reference staging tables. I excluded all the characters that are only identical for a particular species or general features that were only analysed in a few species. Based on these comparisons I defined 104 developmental characters that are common either for all vertebrates (61 characters, gnathostomes (26, tetrapods (3, amniotes (7, or only for sauropsids (7. Characters concern the neural tube, somite, ear, eye, limb, maxillary and mandibular process, pharyngeal arch, eyelid or carapace development. I present an illustrated guide listing all the defined events. This guide can be used for describing developmental series of any vertebrate species or for documenting specimen variability of a particular species. The guide incorporates drawings and photographs as well as consideration of species identifying developmental features such as colouration. The simple character-code of the guide is extendable to further characters pertaining to external and internal morphological, physiological, genetic or molecular development, and

  12. Limbus lumbar and sacral vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Jorge S; Huete, Isidro L; Tagle, Patricio M

    2002-03-01

    We evaluated the fractures of the lumbar and sacral vertebral limbus by disc impingement at the peripheral ring apophysis in 23 adults associated with trauma in 16 of them. Lumbalgia, radicular pain and narrow canal symptoms are the presenting forms of this underdiagnosed pathology. CT is the best method of examination, while plain roentgenograms and MR are usually negative. Accurate diagnosis and surgical technique with larger exposure are needed to resect the fractured fragments and protruded disc material for decompressing the roots and the dural sac. Our results were very good on the majority of cases.

  13. Vertebrate gravity sensors as dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers verterbrate gravity receptors as dynamic sensors. That is, it is hypothesized that gravity is a constant force to which an acceleration-sensing system would readily adapt. Premises are considered in light of the presence of kinocilia on hair cells of vertebrate gravity sensors; differences in loading of the sensors among species; and of possible reduction in loading by inclusion of much organic material in otoconia. Moreover, organic-inorganic interfaces may confer a piezoelectric property upon otoconia, which increase the sensitivity of the sensory system to small accelerations. Comparisons with man-made accelerometers are briefly taken up.

  14. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Tribulus Terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Hammoda, Hala M; Nafeaa, Abeer A.; Abdallah, Ingy I.

    2015-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. has been used in folk medicine throughout history. The present study examined the acute toxicity of the total ethanolic extract of T. Terrestris followed by investigation of the hepatoprotective activity of the total ethanolic extract and different fractions of the aerial part

  15. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R.;

    2016-01-01

    earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages...

  16. Postglacial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    stream_size 37509 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encyclopedia_Quatern_Sci_2006_1831.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encyclopedia_Quatern_Sci_2006_1831.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... Encyclopedia of Quaternary Sciences -. - - -. - -- - PALEOCEANOGRAPHY. RECORDS/Postglacial Indian Ocean 1831 Atlantic Ocean. Paleocea~zography 20, PA1017, (doi:10.1029/ 2004PA001021). Diekmann, B., Fiitterer, D. K., Grobe, H., et al. (2004). Terrigenous...

  17. Historicizing Indian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-04-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge.

  18. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra T Mourya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV, a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN and chikungunya (CHIK, in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective.

  19. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective.

  20. Molecular developmental mechanism in polypterid fish provides insight into the origin of vertebrate lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Norifumi; Kobayashi, Ritsuko; Yano, Tohru; Noda, Masatsugu; Fujimura, Koji; Okada, Norihiro; Okabe, Masataka

    2016-07-28

    The lung is an important organ for air breathing in tetrapods and originated well before the terrestrialization of vertebrates. Therefore, to better understand lung evolution, we investigated lung development in the extant basal actinopterygian fish Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus). First, we histologically confirmed that lung development in this species is very similar to that of tetrapods. We also found that the mesenchymal expression patterns of three genes that are known to play important roles in early lung development in tetrapods (Fgf10, Tbx4, and Tbx5) were quite similar to those of tetrapods. Moreover, we found a Tbx4 core lung mesenchyme-specific enhancer (C-LME) in the genomes of bichir and coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) and experimentally confirmed that these were functional in tetrapods. These findings provide the first molecular evidence that the developmental program for lung was already established in the common ancestor of actinopterygians and sarcopterygians.

  1. Molecular developmental mechanism in polypterid fish provides insight into the origin of vertebrate lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Norifumi; Kobayashi, Ritsuko; Yano, Tohru; Noda, Masatsugu; Fujimura, Koji; Okada, Norihiro; Okabe, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    The lung is an important organ for air breathing in tetrapods and originated well before the terrestrialization of vertebrates. Therefore, to better understand lung evolution, we investigated lung development in the extant basal actinopterygian fish Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus). First, we histologically confirmed that lung development in this species is very similar to that of tetrapods. We also found that the mesenchymal expression patterns of three genes that are known to play important roles in early lung development in tetrapods (Fgf10, Tbx4, and Tbx5) were quite similar to those of tetrapods. Moreover, we found a Tbx4 core lung mesenchyme-specific enhancer (C-LME) in the genomes of bichir and coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) and experimentally confirmed that these were functional in tetrapods. These findings provide the first molecular evidence that the developmental program for lung was already established in the common ancestor of actinopterygians and sarcopterygians. PMID:27466206

  2. Terrestrial Planet Formation at Home and Abroad

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, Sean N; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Morishima, Ryuji; Walsh, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    We review the state of the field of terrestrial planet formation with the goal of understanding the formation of the inner Solar System and low-mass exoplanets. We review the dynamics and timescales of accretion from planetesimals to planetary embryos and from embryos to terrestrial planets. We discuss radial mixing and water delivery, planetary spins and the importance of parameters regarding the disk and embryo properties. Next, we connect accretion models to exoplanets. We first explain why the observed hot Super Earths probably formed by in situ accretion or inward migration. We show how terrestrial planet formation is altered in systems with gas giants by the mechanisms of giant planet migration and dynamical instabilities. Standard models of terrestrial accretion fail to reproduce the inner Solar System. The "Grand Tack" model solves this problem using ideas first developed to explain the giant exoplanets. Finally, we discuss whether most terrestrial planet systems form in the same way as ours, and high...

  3. The circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program - Terrestrial plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program, CBMP, Terrestrial Plan, www.caff.is/terrestrial, is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders......, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. This presentation will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based...... monitoring with survey-based monitoring and remotely sensed data. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan intends to build upon and expand existing monitoring networks, engaging participants across a range of capacity and interests. The presentation will summarize the recommended focal soil ecosystem components...

  4. The Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ). Together these processes maintain high rates of PP over much of the Arabian Sea during a large part of the year (Barber et al., 2001). Nutrient reflux to surface waters from the thermocline in the Bay of Bengal is limited by the previously mentioned weak... shelf off the west coast of Australia according to which DIN inputs from terrestrial sources are quite small (C249 C2 10 9 g year C01 ) as is the annually-integrated rate of N 2 -fixation (C247 C2 10 9 g). DIN (largely NO 3 C0 ) fluxes from the open...

  5. Methodology for understanding Indian culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Jai; Kumar, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    Methods of understanding cultures, including Indian culture, are embedded in a broad spectrum of sociocultural approaches to human behavior in general. The approaches examined in this paper reflect evolving perspectives on Indian culture, ranging from the starkly ethnocentric to the largely...

  6. Human Behavior and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Wynne DuBray; Eisenbise, Margaret DeOcampo

    Divided into five sections, the monograph is intended to make students aware that the practices customary to social work agencies are not relevant to the needs of most American Indian clientele. The first section provides an overview of the following historical, geographical, and cultural areas of American Indian tribes: California, Plateau, Great…

  7. Mathemagical 2014 - An Indian Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical tradition in India is deep rooted. Indian (and of Indian origin) mathematicians have continued to do seminal work till present times, culminating in Manjul Bhargava receiving the Fields Medal last year. In such fabulous times, a non-mathematician ponders about the nature of mathematics, and revisits the question: why are fundamental laws of Nature inherently mathematical?

  8. Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando P. S. Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments. Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length. The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

  9. Two forms of adaptive immunity in vertebrates: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Masanori; Sutoh, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike jawed vertebrates that use T-cell and B-cell receptors for antigen recognition, jawless vertebrates represented by lampreys and hagfish use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) as antigen receptors. VLRs generate diversity comparable to that of gnathostome antigen receptors by assembling variable leucine-rich repeat modules. The discovery of VLR has revolutionized our understanding of how adaptive immunity emerged and highlighted the differences between the adaptive immune systems (AISs) of jawed and jawless vertebrates. However, emerging evidence also indicates that their AISs have much in common. Particularly striking is the conservation of lymphocyte lineages. The basic architecture of the AIS including the dichotomy of lymphocytes appears to have been established in a common ancestor of jawed and jawless vertebrates. We review here the current knowledge on the AIS of jawless vertebrates, emphasizing both the similarities to and differences from the AIS of jawed vertebrates.

  10. A Classification System for the Spread of Polymethyl Methacrylate in Vertebral Bodies Treated with Vertebral Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Joseph; Sakata, Michael P.; Choudhary, Gagandeep; Hur, Seung; Peterson, Andrew; Hennemeyer, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we develop a classification system for describing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) spread in vertebral bodies after kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty for vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) and for assessing whether PMMA spread varies between operators, VCF etiology, or vertebral level. Intraoperative fluoroscopic images of 198 vertebral levels were reviewed in 137 patients (women, 84; men, 53; mean age, 75.8 ± 12.5; and those with a diagnosis of osteoporosis, 63%) treated with kyphoplasty between January 01, 2015 and May 31, 2015 at a single center to create a 5-class descriptive system. PMMA spread patterns in the same images were then classified by 2 board-certified radiologists, and a third board-certified radiologist resolved conflicts. A total of 2 primary PMMA spread patterns were identified, namely, acinar and globular, with subtypes of localized acinar, diffuse globular, and mixed, to describe an equal combination of patterns. Interrater reliability using the system was moderate (κ = 0.47). After resolving conflicts, the most common spread class was globular (n = 63), followed by mixed (n = 58), diffuse globular (n = 30), acinar (n = 27), and localized acinar (n = 20). The spread class after treatment by the 2 most frequent operators differed significantly (n1 = 63, n2 = 70; P kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty efficacy and adverse events. PMID:27795998

  11. Aberrant vertebral artery originating from the descending aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoesslein, F.; Porstmann, W.; Schueler, F.; Schoepke, W.

    1982-05-01

    A so far unknown case of a combination of coarctation and a right vertebral artery originating isolatedly from the thoracic aorta is reported, presenting the embryological hypothesis of the development of this anomalous course. The haemodynamic action of the coarctation produces a steal effect so that the vascular segments existing cranially of the stenosis are connected with the poststenotic zone via the vertebral circulation and the anomalous right vertebral artery.

  12. Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome with posterior spinal dysraphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Samson Sujit; Kulkarni, Vaijayantee; Haran, R P

    2005-09-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome, which includes abnormalities of the vertebral bodies, ribs and trunk musculature, is very rare and only few cases have been reported. We report a case of 18-month-old female child with absent ribs, hemivertebrae, superior lumbar hernia (features of lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome) and posterior spinal dysraphism, which to our knowledge is the first case in the English literature with such a combination of defects. Embryology and management of the case is discussed.

  13. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  14. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  15. A membrane-bound vertebrate globin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Blank

    Full Text Available The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O(2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O(2 binding with a variable affinity (P(50∼1.3-12.5 torr, depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein.

  16. Identifying Synonymous Regulatory Elements in Vertebrate Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, I; Nobrega, M A

    2005-02-07

    Synonymous gene regulation, defined as driving shared temporal and/or spatial expression of groups of genes, is likely predicated on genomic elements that contain similar modules of certain transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We have developed a method to scan vertebrate genomes for evolutionary conserved modules of TFBS in a predefined configuration, and created a tool, named SynoR that identify synonymous regulatory elements (SREs) in vertebrate genomes. SynoR performs de novo identification of SREs utilizing known patterns of TFBS in active regulatory elements (REs) as seeds for genome scans. Layers of multiple-species conservation allow the use of differential phylogenetic sequence conservation filters in the search of SREs and the results are displayed as to provide an extensive annotation of genes containing detected REs. Gene Ontology categories are utilized to further functionally classify the identified genes, and integrated GNF Expression Atlas 2 data allow the cataloging of tissue-specificities of the predicted SREs. We illustrate how this new tool can be used to establish a linkage between human diseases and noncoding genomic content. SynoR is publicly available at http://synor.dcode.org.

  17. Gene expression throughout a vertebrate's embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinton David E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Describing the patterns of gene expression during embryonic development has broadened our understanding of the processes and patterns that define morphogenesis. Yet gene expression patterns have not been described throughout vertebrate embryogenesis. This study presents statistical analyses of gene expression during all 40 developmental stages in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus using four biological replicates per stage. Results Patterns of gene expression for 7,000 genes appear to be important as they recapitulate developmental timing. Among the 45% of genes with significant expression differences between pairs of temporally adjacent stages, significant differences in gene expression vary from as few as five to more than 660. Five adjacent stages have disproportionately more significant changes in gene expression (> 200 genes relative to other stages: four to eight and eight to sixteen cell stages, onset of circulation, pre and post-hatch, and during complete yolk absorption. The fewest differences among adjacent stages occur during gastrulation. Yet, at stage 16, (pre-mid-gastrulation the largest number of genes has peak expression. This stage has an over representation of genes in oxidative respiration and protein expression (ribosomes, translational genes and proteases. Unexpectedly, among all ribosomal genes, both strong positive and negative correlations occur. Similar correlated patterns of expression occur among all significant genes. Conclusions These data provide statistical support for the temporal dynamics of developmental gene expression during all stages of vertebrate development.

  18. Sensing and surviving hypoxia in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonz, Michael G; Buck, Leslie T; Perry, Steve F; Schwerte, Thorsten; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    Surviving hypoxia is one of the most critical challenges faced by vertebrates. Most species have adapted to changing levels of oxygen in their environment with specialized organs that sense hypoxia, while only few have been uniquely adapted to survive prolonged periods of anoxia. The goal of this review is to present the most recent research on oxygen sensing, adaptation to hypoxia, and mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in nonmammalian vertebrates. We discuss the respiratory structures in fish, including the skin, gills, and air-breathing organs, and recent evidence for chemosensory neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in these tissues that initiate reflex responses to hypoxia. The use of the zebrafish as a genetic and developmental model has allowed observation of the ontogenesis of respiratory and chemosensory systems, demonstration of a putative intracellular O2 sensor in chemoreceptors that may initiate transduction of the hypoxia signal, and investigation into the effects of extreme hypoxia on cardiorespiratory development. Other organisms, such as goldfish and freshwater turtles, display a high degree of anoxia tolerance, and these models are revealing important adaptations at the cellular level, such as the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in defense of homeostasis in central neurons.

  19. The characters of Palaeozoic jawed vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Martin D; Friedman, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Newly discovered fossils from the Silurian and Devonian periods are beginning to challenge embedded perceptions about the origin and early diversification of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes). Nevertheless, an explicit cladistic framework for the relationships of these fossils relative to the principal crown lineages of the jawed vertebrates (osteichthyans: bony fishes and tetrapods; chondrichthyans: sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) remains elusive. We critically review the systematics and character distributions of early gnathostomes and provide a clearly stated hierarchy of synapomorphies covering the jaw-bearing stem gnathostomes and osteichthyan and chondrichthyan stem groups. We show that character lists, designed to support the monophyly of putative groups, tend to overstate their strength and lack cladistic corroboration. By contrast, synapomorphic hierarchies are more open to refutation and must explicitly confront conflicting evidence. Our proposed synapomorphy scheme is used to evaluate the status of the problematic fossil groups Acanthodii and Placodermi, and suggest profitable avenues for future research. We interpret placoderms as a paraphyletic array of stem-group gnathostomes, and suggest what we regard as two equally plausible placements of acanthodians: exclusively on the chondrichthyan stem, or distributed on both the chondrichthyan and osteichthyan stems. PMID:25750460

  20. Osteoporotic vertebral fracture simulating a spinal tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral fractures are a frequent entity, mainly in the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. In some circumstances the differential diagnosis of vertebral injuries can confuse the physician, since the difference between an osteoporotic vertebral fracture and a fracture secondary to a tumor is not clear. We report the case of a patient with osteoporotic vertebral fracture simulating a spinal tumor, handled by our department of neurosurgery as illustrative experience to guide the approach in those cases, in which the definitive diagnosis is crucial for therapeutic decision making

  1. Genome duplication in early vertebrates: insights from agnathan cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo Barucchi, V; Giovannotti, M; Nisi Cerioni, P; Splendiani, A

    2013-01-01

    Agnathans represent a remnant of a primitive offshoot of the vertebrates, and the long evolutionary separation between their 2 living groups, namely hagfishes and lampreys, could explain profound biological differences, also in karyotypes and genome sizes. Here, cytogenetic studies available on these vertebrates were summarized and data discussed with reference to the recently demonstrated monophyly of this group and to the 2 events of whole genome duplication (1R and 2R) characterizing the evolution of vertebrates. The comparison of cytogenetic data and phylogenetic relationships among agnathans and gnathostomes seems to support the hypothesis that 1R and 2R occurred before the evolutionary divergence between jawless and jawed vertebrates.

  2. Facts and fancies about early fossil chordates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Philippe

    2015-04-23

    The interrelationships between major living vertebrate, and even chordate, groups are now reasonably well resolved thanks to a large amount of generally congruent data derived from molecular sequences, anatomy and physiology. But fossils provide unexpected combinations of characters that help us to understand how the anatomy of modern groups was progressively shaped over millions of years. The dawn of vertebrates is documented by fossils that are preserved as either soft-tissue imprints, or minute skeletal fragments, and it is sometimes difficult for palaeontologists to tell which of them are reliable vertebrate remains and which merely reflect our idea of an ancestral vertebrate.

  3. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored.

  4. Candidal Vertebral Osteomyelitis in the Midst of Renal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Rao, Srivatsa Nagaraja; Kumar, Krishna; Karim, Shamsul

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis also known as discitis/pyogenic spondylitis refers to inflammation of the vertebral disc space. It is commonly seen in men and adults more than 50 years of age. Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare scenario compared to its bacterial counterpart. Spinal epidural abscess is a dangerous complication associated with vertebral osteomyelitis. Here, we report two cases of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Candida tropicalis in patients with renal disorders (stage 5 chronic kidney disease and nephropathy). One of the case discussed here presented with spinal epidural abscess. Both the patients were started on antifungal therapy. One patient responded to treatment while the other was lost to follow up. PMID:27190806

  5. Morphological modularity in the vertebral column of Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela Randau; Anjali Goswami

    2017-01-01

    ... (Felidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) with pairwise comparisons of vertebral shape covariation (i.e. integration) and evaluate our results against hypotheses of developmental and functional modularity...

  6. Morphological modularity in the vertebral column of Felidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela Randau; Anjali Goswami

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that the clear morphological differences among vertebrae across the presacral column are accompanied by heterogeneous functional signals in vertebral shape...

  7. Indian Policy of John Adams Administration: Treaties with the Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin Timur V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the treaties that were concluded with the Native Americans in the period of John Adams presidency. Treaties with the Natives can be a good source for the study of the US Indian policy. They help to understand the character of Indian-white relations, the attitudes of Federal authorities towards certain Indian nation, the actual problems of the Frontier and so on. Unfortunately the policy of the second President of the USA toward the Native Americans is investigated not so good as the policy of other Presidents of Early American Republic. The study of the treaties helps to know more about John Adams Indian policy. In the years of his presidency only few agreements were signed with the Native American tribes. These were the Mohawk, the Seneca, the Oneida of the Iroquois Nation and the Cherokee. The procedure of Indian-white agreements was well developed until 1797 year. And John Adams administration did not explore something new in this question. The second President of the United States adopted the George Washington’s principals of dealing with the Natives. But in fact he had to consider the internal and external situation in the country. The treaties with the Indians, concluded by the administration of John Adams did not become a bright episode of American history. However they helped to reduce tensions in US-Indian relations.

  8. Detection and drivers of exposure and effects of pharmaceuticals in higher vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Richard F; Taggart, Mark A; Smits, Judit; Mateo, Rafael; Richards, Ngaio L; Fryday, Steve

    2014-11-19

    Pharmaceuticals are highly bioactive compounds now known to be widespread environmental contaminants. However, research regarding exposure and possible effects in non-target higher vertebrate wildlife remains scarce. The fate and behaviour of most pharmaceuticals entering our environment via numerous pathways remain poorly characterized, and hence our conception and understanding of the risks posed to wild animals is equally constrained. The recent decimation of Asian vulture populations owing to a pharmaceutical (diclofenac) offers a notable example, because the exposure route (livestock carcasses) and the acute toxicity observed were completely unexpected. This case not only highlights the need for further research, but also the wider requirement for more considered and comprehensive 'ecopharmacovigilance'. We discuss known and potential high risk sources and pathways in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems where pharmaceutical exposure in higher vertebrate wildlife, principally birds and mammals, may occur. We examine whether approaches taken within existing surveillance schemes (that commonly target established classes of persistent or bioaccumulative contaminants) and the risk assessment approaches currently used for pesticides are relevant to pharmaceuticals, and we highlight where new approaches may be required to assess pharmaceutical-related risk.

  9. Rare earth element composition of Paleogene vertebrate fossils from Toadstool Geologic Park, Nebraska, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandstaff, D.E., E-mail: grand@temple.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States); Terry, D.O. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Fossil bones and teeth from terrestrial environments encode unique rare earth and trace element (REE and TE) signatures as a function of redox conditions, pH, concentrations of complexing ligands, and water-colloid interactions. This signature is set early in the fossilization process and serves as a paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic proxy. These signatures can also be used to interpret temporal and spatial averaging within vertebrate accumulations, and can help relocate displaced fossil bones back into stratigraphic context. Rare earth elements in vertebrate fossils from upper Eocene and Oligocene strata of Toadstool Geologic Park, northwestern Nebraska, record mixing and evolution of Paleogene vadose or groundwaters and variations in paleoenvironments. REE signatures indicate that HREE-enriched alkaline groundwater reacted with LREE- and MREE-enriched sediments to produce 3-component mixtures. REE signatures become increasingly LREE- and MREE-enriched toward the top of the studied section as the paleoenvironment became cooler and drier, suggesting that REE signatures may be climate proxies. Time series analysis suggests that REE ratios are influenced by cycles of ca. 1050, 800, 570, 440, and 225 ka, similar to some previously determined Milankovitch astronomical and climate periodicities.

  10. Evolution of the hominoid vertebral column: The long and the short of it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott A; Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-01-01

    The postcranial axial skeleton exhibits considerable morphological and functional diversity among living primates. Particularly striking are the derived features in hominoids that distinguish them from most other primates and mammals. In contrast to the primitive catarrhine morphotype, which presumably possessed an external (protruding) tail and emphasized more pronograde trunk posture, all living hominoids are characterized by the absence of an external tail and adaptations to orthograde trunk posture. Moreover, modern humans evolved unique vertebral features that satisfy the demands of balancing an upright torso over the hind limbs during habitual terrestrial bipedalism. Our ability to identify the evolutionary timing and understand the functional and phylogenetic significance of these fundamental changes in postcranial axial skeletal anatomy in the hominoid fossil record is key to reconstructing ancestral hominoid patterns and retracing the evolutionary pathways that led to living apes and modern humans. Here, we provide an overview of what is known about evolution of the hominoid vertebral column, focusing on the currently available anatomical evidence of three major transitions: tail loss and adaptations to orthograde posture and bipedal locomotion.

  11. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Robert; Edgecombe, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325830

  12. Goal orientation by geometric and feature cues: spatial learning in the terrestrial toad Rhinella arenarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, María Inés; Bingman, Verner Peter; Muzio, Rubén N

    2015-01-01

    Although of crucial importance in vertebrate evolution, amphibians are rarely considered in studies of comparative cognition. Using water as reward, we studied whether the terrestrial toad, Rhinella arenarum, is also capable of encoding geometric and feature information to navigate to a goal location. Experimental toads, partially dehydrated, were trained in either a white rectangular box (Geometry-only, Experiment 1) or in the same box with a removable colored panel (Geometry-Feature, Experiment 2) covering one wall. Four water containers were used, but only one (Geometry-Feature), or two in geometrically equivalent corners (Geometry-only), had water accessible to the trained animals. After learning to successfully locate the water reward, probe trials were carried out by changing the shape of the arena or the location of the feature cue. Probe tests revealed that, under the experimental conditions used, toads can use both geometry and feature to locate a goal location, but geometry is more potent as a navigational cue. The results generally agree with findings from other vertebrates and support the idea that at the behavioral-level geometric orientation is a conserved feature shared by all vertebrates.

  13. Terrestrial Planet Finder: science overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Beichman, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) seeks to revolutionize our understanding of humanity's place in the universe - by searching for Earth-like planets using reflected light, or thermal emission in the mid-infrared. Direct detection implies that TPF must separate planet light from glare of the nearby star, a technical challenge which has only in recent years been recognized as surmountable. TPF will obtain a low-resolution spectra of each planets it detects, providing some of its basic physical characteristics and its main atmospheric constituents, thereby allowing us to assess the likelihood that habitable conditions exist there. NASA has decided the scientific importance of this research is so high that TPF will be pursued as two complementary space observatories: a visible-light coronagraph and a mid-infrared formation flying interferometer. The combination of spectra from both wavebands is much more valuable than either taken separately, and it will allow a much fuller understanding of the wide diversity of planetary atmospheres that may be expected to exist. Measurements across a broad wavelength range will yield not only physical properties such as size and albedo, but will also serve as the foundations of a reliable and robust assessment of habitability and the presence of life.

  14. Methane production in terrestrial arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackstein, J.H.P.; Stumm, C.K. (Catholic Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1994-06-07

    The authors have screened more than 110 representatives of the different taxa of terrestrial arthropods for methane production in order to obtain additional information about the origins of biogenic methane. Methanogenic bacteria occur in the hindguts of nearly all tropical representatives of millipedes (Diplopoda), cockroaches (Blattaria), termites (Isoptera), and scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae), while such methanogens are absent from 66 other arthropod species investigated. Three types of symbiosis were found: in the first type, the arthropod's hindgut is colonized by free methanogenic bacteria; in the second type, methanogens are closely associated with chitinous structures formed by the host's hindgut; the third type is mediated by intestinal anaerobic protists with intracellular methanogens. Such symbiotic associations are likely to be a characteristic property of the particular taxon. Since these taxa represent many families with thousands of species, the world populations of methane-producing arthropods constitute an enormous biomass. The authors show that arthropod symbionts can contribute substantially to atmospheric methane.

  15. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation.

  16. Mars: a small terrestrial planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Witasse, O.; Encrenaz, T.; Sotin, C.

    2016-11-01

    Mars is characterized by geological landforms familiar to terrestrial geologists. It has a tenuous atmosphere that evolved differently from that of Earth and Venus and a differentiated inner structure. Our knowledge of the structure and evolution of Mars has strongly improved thanks to a huge amount of data of various types (visible and infrared imagery, altimetry, radar, chemistry, etc) acquired by a dozen of missions over the last two decades. In situ data have provided ground truth for remote-sensing data and have opened a new era in the study of Mars geology. While large sections of Mars science have made progress and new topics have emerged, a major question in Mars exploration—the possibility of past or present life—is still unsolved. Without entering into the debate around the presence of life traces, our review develops various topics of Mars science to help the search of life on Mars, building on the most recent discoveries, going from the exosphere to the interior structure, from the magmatic evolution to the currently active processes, including the fate of volatiles and especially liquid water.

  17. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  18. Earth and Terrestrial Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    The growth and composition of Earth is a direct consequence of planet formation throughout the Solar System. We discuss the known history of the Solar System, the proposed stages of growth and how the early stages of planet formation may be dominated by pebble growth processes. Pebbles are small bodies whose strong interactions with the nebula gas lead to remarkable new accretion mechanisms for the formation of planetesimals and the growth of planetary embryos. Many of the popular models for the later stages of planet formation are presented. The classical models with the giant planets on fixed orbits are not consistent with the known history of the Solar System, fail to create a high Earth/Mars mass ratio, and, in many cases, are also internally inconsistent. The successful Grand Tack model creates a small Mars, a wet Earth, a realistic asteroid belt and the mass-orbit structure of the terrestrial planets. In the Grand Tack scenario, growth curves for Earth most closely match a Weibull model. The feeding zon...

  19. Sex ratio variation in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchateau, Marie José; Velthuis, Hayo H. W.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2004-01-01

    Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation......Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation...

  20. Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3−)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43−) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43− concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43− and free

  1. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R.

    2016-01-01

    amolecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route...... to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario.Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record,Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land...

  2. Light adaptation and the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedian, Ala; Fain, Gordon L

    2017-07-15

    Lamprey are cyclostomes, a group of vertebrates that diverged from lines leading to jawed vertebrates (including mammals) in the late Cambrian, 500 million years ago. It may therefore be possible to infer properties of photoreceptors in early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates. We show that lamprey rods and cones respond to light much like rods and cones in amphibians and mammals. They operate over a similar range of light intensities and adapt to backgrounds and bleaches nearly identically. These correspondences are pervasive and detailed; they argue for the presence of rods and cones very early in the evolution of vertebrates with properties much like those of rods and cones in existing vertebrate species. The earliest vertebrates were agnathans - fish-like organisms without jaws, which first appeared near the end of the Cambrian radiation. One group of agnathans became cyclostomes, which include lamprey and hagfish. Other agnathans gave rise to jawed vertebrates or gnathostomes, the group including all other existing vertebrate species. Because cyclostomes diverged from other vertebrates 500 million years ago, it may be possible to infer some of the properties of the retina of early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates. We have previously shown that rods and cones in lamprey respond to light much like photoreceptors in other vertebrates and have a similar sensitivity. We now show that these affinities are even closer. Both rods and cones adapt to background light and to bleaches in a manner almost identical to other vertebrate photoreceptors. The operating range in darkness is nearly the same in lamprey and in amphibian or mammalian rods and cones; moreover background light shifts response-intensity curves downward and to the right over a similar range of ambient intensities. Rods show increment saturation at about the same intensity as mammalian rods, and cones never saturate. Bleaches decrease

  3. Current and emerging treatment strategies for vertebral compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacein-Bey L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lotfi Hacein-BeyRadiological Associates of Sacramento Medical Group Inc, Sacramento, CA, USABackground: Vertebral compression fractures are most commonly related to osteoporosis or cancer, both of which are on the rise throughout the world. Once a vertebra is fractured, gradual deterioration of quality of life due to crippling pain and spinal instability usually follows. Although a number of traditional management options have been available to promote pain relief and to allow for increased activities, such as bed rest, bracing, pain medications, and light exercise programs, these have limited effectiveness in the majority of patients. Over 20 years ago, percutaneous vertebroplasty, which is a minimally invasive procedure consisting of the injection of polymethylmethacrylate directly into the fractured vertebra, emerged as an effective treatment. Various vertebral augmentation procedures were subsequently designed, all of which aim at eliminating pain, limiting or reversing vertebral collapse, and providing stability to the affected segment of the spine.Objective: This article discusses clinical aspects of vertebral compression fractures, current indications and contraindications and summarizes technical aspects of vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, lordoplasty, and device-implanting vertebral augmentation procedures. Treatment effectiveness, which is significant despite recent criticism of vertebroplasty and other vertebral augmentation procedures, is also discussed. As economic pressures on health care systems are increasing in all countries, it is expected that the appropriateness, clinical effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of vertebral augmentation procedures will be increasingly established by outcome analyses.Conclusion: It is important that physicians are familiar with vertebroplasty and other procedures designed to treat vertebral fractures in patients with advanced osteoporosis or cancer. These fractures, which are common and often

  4. Imperfect isolation: factors and filters shaping Madagascar's extant vertebrate fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Samonds

    Full Text Available Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar's colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island's biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island's paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island's extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar's tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago, and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island's isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation, that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar's extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar's unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of

  5. Imperfect isolation: factors and filters shaping Madagascar's extant vertebrate fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Karen E; Godfrey, Laurie R; Ali, Jason R; Goodman, Steven M; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R; Irwin, Mitchell T; Krause, David W

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar's colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island's biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island's paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island's extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar's tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island's isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar's extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar's unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more

  6. Washington Irving and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Some modern scholars feel that Washington Irving vacillated between romanticism and realism in his literary treatment of the American Indian. However, a study of all his works dealing with Indians, placed in context with his non-Indian works, reveals that his attitude towards Indians was intelligent and enlightened for his time. (CM)

  7. Statistics Concerning Indian Education. Fiscal Year 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Alice S., Comp.

    Statistical facts on the education of American Indian children in 1972 are presented in this booklet. It is noted that many of the treaties between the United States and Indian tribes provided for the establishment of schools for Indian children. The Bureau of Indian Affairs has direct responsibility for the 57,788 children enrolled in Federal…

  8. The potential for use of gastropod molluscs as bioindicators of endocrine disrupting compounds in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher M; Rhind, Stewart M; Wilson, Michael J

    2009-03-01

    Most early studies of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) investigated the effects of single compounds on vertebrate species but, more recently, the focus has changed to the study of effects of multiple chemicals on many species, including invertebrates. The widening of the range of species studied is critical to understanding the consequences of EDC effects on ecosystem function and sustainability. Much work on invertebrates has focussed on the aquatic environment, where molluscs have been used as effective bioindicators for EDCs. Although molluscs have been used to assess effects of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) in terrestrial environments, they have seldom been considered as potential indicators of EDC effects. In this paper key findings in vertebrate and invertebrate animal models are reviewed and discussed, the need to study different animal groups is highlighted and the potential value of terrestrial gastropod molluscs for biomonitoring of EDC effects in a range of terrestrial ecosystems is discussed. It is concluded that their role within the ecosystem and their ease of study in the field and laboratory signify their suitability as bioindicators.

  9. Indian Wars: A Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Mexico Borders r.n9 the Porfiriato 1876-1911, Thesis, Photocopy, Ann Arbor, M]: niversity Microflims, c. 1i7.’ B57 HEARD, Isaac V. D. History of the Sioux...Experiences Among Our Hostile Indians, New York, NY: Da Capo Pr., c. 1972. B73 HUNTER, John M. The Bloody Trail in Texas, Bandera , TX: JM. Hunter, c. 1931. B74...8217 Little Big Horn 42 2-6,7. 4-7?8,14,17,20, 22,23. Mexico 1873-4,1877-8. - Miami 1-3. Modocs 4x 1. 12,21. Montana 1870-2,1872-1, 1857-3,1868-13

  10. Facial melanoses: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Khanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial melanoses (FM are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl′s melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP, erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl′s melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ, which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion.

  11. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    cases, activation of volume regulatory osmolyte transport. After acute swelling, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which involves the activation of KCl cotransport and of channels mediating K(+), Cl(-), and taurine efflux. Conversely, after acute shrinkage......, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume increase (RVI), which is mediated primarily by Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport, and Na(+) channels. Here, we review in detail the current knowledge regarding the molecular identity of these transport pathways...... and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...

  12. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  13. Magnetic Susceptibility in the Vertebral Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, F.; Nagele, T.; Lutz, O.; Pfeffer, K.; Giehl, J.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic resonance method is described which provides good-quality field-mapping images of the spine, although the in vivo signals from red bone marrow of the vertebral bodies exhibit similar fractions of lipid and water protons with their chemical-shift difference of 3.4 ppm. The susceptibilities of bone marrow and intervertebral disks were examined in 20 cadaveric human spines, 9 healthy volunteers, and 9 patients with degenerative disk alterations. The influence of geometrical properties was studied in cylindrical spine phantoms of different size and contents with different susceptibility. The measurements reveal interindividual differences of the susceptibility of the intervertebral disks in healthy subjects. Three out of nine degenerated disks with low signal in T2-weighted spin-echo images showed irregularities of the field distribution within the nucleus pulposus.

  14. Vertebral heart scores in eight dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen-Grant, K; Pollard, R E; Johnson, L R

    2013-01-01

    The vertebral heart score (VHS) measurement is commonly used to provide a more objective measurement of cardiomegaly in canines. However, several studies have shown significant breed variations from the value previously established by Buchanan and Bücheler (9.7 ± 0.5). This study describes VHS measurements in Pug, Pomeranian, Yorkshire Terrier, Dachshund, Bulldog, Shih Tzu, Lhasa Apso, and Boston Terrier dog breeds. Dogs with two or three view thoracic radiographs, no subjective radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly, and no physical examination findings of heart murmurs or gallop rhythms were included in the study. The Pug, Pomeranian, Bulldog, and Boston Terrier groups were found to have a VHS significantly greater than 9.7 ± 0.5 (P Bulldog (P = 0.028) and Boston Terrier (P = 0.0004) groups. Thoracic depth to width ratio did not have a significant effect on VHS.

  15. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  16. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  17. Vertebral surface registration using ridgelines/crestlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.; Ward, Michael M.

    2008-03-01

    The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is an efficient and popular technique for surface registration. It however suffers from the well-known problem of local minima that make the algorithm stop before it reaches the desired global solution. ICP can be improved by the use of landmarks or features. We recently developed a level set capable of evolving on the surface of an object represented by a triangular mesh. This level set permits the segmentation of portions of a surface based on curvature features. The boundary of a segmented portion forms a ridgeline/crestline. We show that the ridgelines/crestlines and corresponding enclosed surfaces extracted by the algorithm can substantially improve ICP registration. We compared the performance of an ICP algorithm in three setups: 1) ICP without landmarks. 2) ICP using ridgelines. 3) ICP using ridgelines and corresponding enclosed surfaces. Our material consists of vertebral body surfaces extracted for a study about the progression of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Same vertebrae scanned at intervals of one or two years were rigidly registered. Vertebral body rims and the end plate surfaces they enclose were used as landmarks. The performance measure was the mean error distance between the registered surfaces. From the one hundred registrations that we performed the average mean error was respectively 0.503mm, 0.335mm and 0.254mm for the three setups. Setup 3 almost halved the average error of setup 1. Moreover the error range is dramatically reduced from [0.0985, 2.19]mm to just [0.0865, 0.532]mm, making the algorithm very robust.

  18. A systematic approach to vertebral hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudino, Simona; Martucci, Matia; Colantonio, Raffaella; Lozupone, Emilio; Visconti, Emiliano; Leone, Antonio; Colosimo, Cesare [Catholic University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are a frequent and often incidental finding on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine. When their imaging appearance is ''typical'' (coarsened vertical trabeculae on radiographic and CT images, hyperintensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images), the radiological diagnosis is straightforward. Nonetheless, VHs might also display an ''atypical'' appearance on MR imaging because of their histological features (amount of fat, vessels, and interstitial edema). Although the majority of VHs are asymptomatic and quiescent lesions, they can exhibit active behaviors, including growing quickly, extending beyond the vertebral body, and invading the paravertebral and/or epidural space with possible compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots (''aggressive'' VHs). These ''atypical'' and ''aggressive'' VHs are a radiological challenge since they can mimic primary bony malignancies or metastases. CT plays a central role in the workup of atypical VHs, being the most appropriate imaging modality to highlight the polka-dot appearance that is representative of them. When aggressive VHs are suspected, both CT and MR are needed. MR is the best imaging modality to characterize the epidural and/or soft-tissue component, helping in the differential diagnosis. Angiography is a useful imaging adjunct for evaluating and even treating aggressive VHs. The primary objectives of this review article are to summarize the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of VHs, as well as the treatment options, and to provide a practical guide for the differential diagnosis, focusing on the rationale assessment of the findings from radiography, CT, and MR imaging. (orig.)

  19. 25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Children of competent Indians. 153.5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained or...

  20. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  1. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  2. Fossil jawless fish from China foreshadows early jawed vertebrate anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Zhikun; Donoghue, Philip C J; Zhu, Min; Janvier, Philippe; Stampanoni, Marco

    2011-08-17

    Most living vertebrates are jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and the living jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes), hagfishes and lampreys, provide scarce information about the profound reorganization of the vertebrate skull during the evolutionary origin of jaws. The extinct bony jawless vertebrates, or 'ostracoderms', are regarded as precursors of jawed vertebrates and provide insight into this formative episode in vertebrate evolution. Here, using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomography, we describe the cranial anatomy of galeaspids, a 435-370-million-year-old 'ostracoderm' group from China and Vietnam. The paired nasal sacs of galeaspids are located anterolaterally in the braincase, and the hypophyseal duct opens anteriorly towards the oral cavity. These three structures (the paired nasal sacs and the hypophyseal duct) were thus already independent of each other, like in gnathostomes and unlike in cyclostomes and osteostracans (another 'ostracoderm' group), and therefore have the condition that current developmental models regard as prerequisites for the development of jaws. This indicates that the reorganization of vertebrate cranial anatomy was not driven deterministically by the evolutionary origin of jaws but occurred stepwise, ultimately allowing the rostral growth of ectomesenchyme that now characterizes gnathostome head development.

  3. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  4. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-vertebrates. 17.84 Section 17.84 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....84 Special rules—vertebrates. (a) Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus). (1)...

  5. Can vertebral density changes be explained by intervertebral disc degeneration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homminga, Jasper Johan; Aquarius, R.; Bulsink, Vera Elisabeth; Jansen, C.T.J.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2012-01-01

    One of the major problems facing the elderly spine is the occurrence of vertebral fractures due to low bone mass. Although typically attributed to osteoporosis, disc degeneration has also been suggested to play a role in vertebral fractures. Existing bone adaptation theories and simulations may

  6. Checklist of vertebrate animals of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jerry F. Franklin

    1974-01-01

    Three months, April and August 1971 and August 1972, were spent studying the vertebrate fauna of Cascade Head Experimental Forest. The resulting annotated checklist includes 9 amphibians, 2 reptiles, 35 birds, and 40 mammals. A standardized animal habitat classification is presented in an effort to correlate the vertebrates in some meaningful way to their environment...

  7. Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning.

  8. Variability and constraint in the mammalian vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, R J; Lin, K H; Kardjilov, N; Hautier, L

    2011-05-01

    Patterns of vertebral variation across mammals have seldom been quantified, making it difficult to test hypotheses of covariation within the axial skeleton and mechanisms behind the high level of vertebral conservatism among mammals. We examined variation in vertebral counts within 42 species of mammals, representing monotremes, marsupials and major clades of placentals. These data show that xenarthrans and afrotherians have, on average, a high proportion of individuals with meristic deviations from species' median series counts. Monotremes, xenarthrans, afrotherians and primates show relatively high variation in thoracolumbar vertebral count. Among the clades sampled in our dataset, rodents are the least variable, with several species not showing any deviations from median vertebral counts, or vertebral anomalies such as asymmetric ribs or transitional vertebrae. Most mammals show significant correlations between sacral position and length of the rib cage; only a few show a correlation between sacral position and number of sternebrae. The former result is consistent with the hypothesis that adult axial skeletal structures patterned by distinct mesodermal tissues are modular and covary; the latter is not. Variable levels of correlation among these structures may indicate that the boundaries of prim/abaxial mesodermal precursors of the axial skeleton are not uniform across species. We do not find evidence for a higher frequency of vertebral anomalies in our sample of embryos or neonates than in post-natal individuals of any species, contrary to the hypothesis that stabilizing selection plays a major role in vertebral patterning.

  9. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  10. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  11. Pharyngo-vertebral fistula secondary to cervical vertebral fracture in a patient with stab wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Hwan

    2014-02-01

    Pharyngo-vertebral fistula (PVF) associated with cervical (C) spinal fracture is an extremely rare event that may lead to life-threatening infectious complications if not recognized promptly. Successful management of PVF depends on the physicians' awareness of the causes, prompt recognition of the symptoms and clinical findings, and immediate institution of treatment. I report a case of PVF after C3 vertebral body fracture that was initially neglected and subsequently developed into osteomyelitis involving adjacent vertebrae. On computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a PVF. Despite conservative care, spontaneous closure of the fistula was not achieved. Removal of PVF and surrounding granulation was achieved without any complication. To the best of my knowledge, PVF as a complication of C spine fracture has not hitherto been reported in the English literature.

  12. Low costs of terrestrial locomotion in waders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinzeel, L.W.; Piersma, T; Kersten, M.; Leopold, Mardik F.

    1999-01-01

    Energy expenditure of terrestrial locomotion on a linear treadmill was measured in five wader species: Turnstone Arenaria interpres, Knot Calidris canutus, Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola, Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus and Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica. Additional data on Redshank Tringa

  13. Biomass allocation patterns across China's terrestrial biomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Limei; Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; Tian, Xin; Wang, Xiaoke; Luo, Geping

    2014-01-01

    .... In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China's terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including...

  14. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments in terrestrial, marine, freshwater...... and coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect......, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...

  15. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  16. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc

  17. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Poliakov

    Full Text Available In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT, which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma, but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey, a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa (previously annotated as an RPE65 has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65, coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates

  18. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.

    2009-04-01

    Integrated stratigraphic approaches provide precise correlations of global standard stages with regional Paratethys stages. Nevertheless, higher resolution stratigraphic matching of terrestrial deposits remains challenging due to the lack of a practical continental biostratigraphy. The mostly used tool for biostratigraphic correlation of non-marine deposits in the Old World is still the concept of Neogene Mammal-zones (MN-zones). However, at higher biostratigraphic resolution (imprints of gnawing structures. These taphonomic features point to a longer surface exposure before burial without considerable transportation. Trampling and the activity of scavengers (crunching, displacement of cadavers) are probable. Locally small- and medium-sized mammal remains (jaws and postcranial elements) of e.g., hamsters, flying squirrels, gymnures and shrews are concentrated, perhaps demonstrating feeding places of carnivores or more probably of birds of prey. Nonetheless, from geologic point of view, this paleosol represents an event horizon, which accumulated rapidly maybe within tens or hundreds of years. The vertebrate fauna comprises of scattered fishes (e.g. cyprinids, gobiids, ?channids), amphibians (e.g. salamandrids, ranids, discoglossids, bufonids, pelobatids,), reptiles (scincids, lacertids, gekkonids, anguids, varanids, colubrids, testudinids, emydids), birds (coliiformes), rodents and lagomorphs (cricetids, glirids, eomyids, sciurids, castorids), insectivores and chiropterans (erinaceids, soricids, talpids), and large mammals (suids, tragulids, moschids, cervids, ?palaeomerycids, equids, chalicotheriids, rhinos, proboscidians, carnivors). Litho- and biostratigraphy (terrestrial gastropods) as well as magnetostratigraphic data and the sequence stratigraphic and geodynamic frame indicate an age of 12-12.2 Ma (early Late Sarmatian s.str., chron 5An.1n) for the locality. Therefore, Gratkorn is one of richest and most complete fauna of the late Middle Miocene of Central

  19. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacterial sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    The terrestrial nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, is living ranging from polar to desert. N. commune makes visible colonies composed extracellular polymeric substances. N. commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. To exhibit the potential abilities, the N. commune sheet is made to use convenient and evaluated by plant growth and radioactive accumulation. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment.

  20. Vertebrate assemblages from the early Late Cretaceous of southeastern Morocco: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, L.; Tong, H.; Boudad, L.; Meister, C.; Piuz, A.; Tabouelle, J.; Aarab, M.; Amiot, R.; Buffetaut, E.; Dyke, G.; Hua, S.; Le Loeuff, J.

    2010-07-01

    Fossils of vertebrates have been found in great abundance in the continental and marine early Late Cretaceous sediments of Southeastern Morocco for more than 50 years. About 80 vertebrate taxa have so far been recorded from this region, many of which were recognised and diagnosed for the first time based on specimens recovered from these sediments. In this paper, we use published data together with new field data to present an updated overview of Moroccan early Late Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages. The Cretaceous series we have studied encompasses three Formations, the Ifezouane and Aoufous Formations, which are continental and deltaic in origin and are often grouped under the name "Kem Kem beds", and the Akrabou Formation which is marine in origin. New field observations allow us to place four recognised vertebrate clusters, corresponding to one compound assemblage and three assemblages, within a general temporal framework. In particular, two ammonite bioevents characterise the lower part of the Upper Cenomanian ( Calycoceras guerangeri Zone) at the base of the Akrabou Formation and the upper part of the Lower Turonian ( Mammites nodosoides Zone), that may extend into the Middle Turonian within the Akrabou Formation, and allow for more accurate dating of the marine sequence in the study area. We are not yet able to distinguish a specific assemblage that characterises the Ifezouane Formation when compared to the similar Aoufous Formation, and as a result we regard the oldest of the four vertebrate "assemblages" in this region to be the compound assemblage of the "Kem Kem beds". This well-known vertebrate assemblage comprises a mixture of terrestrial (and aerial), freshwater and brackish vertebrates. The archosaur component of this fauna appears to show an intriguingly high proportion of large-bodied carnivorous taxa, which may indicate a peculiar trophic chain, although collecting biases alter this palaeontological signal. A small and restricted assemblage, the

  1. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes.

  2. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-06-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline.

  3. A STUDY ON THORACIC VERTEBRAL SYNOSTOSIS & ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Khaleel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral anomalies are of interest not only to anatomist, but also to orthopedician, neurologist & neurosurgeons. Various vertebral anomalies of anatomic interest have been reported namely; occipitalisation, sacralisation, lumbarisation, absence of posterior elements of vertebral arch & vertebral s ynostosis. The fusion of vertebral column is rare anomalies usually congenital in origin. The fusion of thoracic vertebrae can present many clinical sign including congenital scoliosis. A study on 594 dry adult human vertebrae of unknown age & sex collected from the department of anatomy and phase I students of KBNIMS, Kalaburagi, Karnataka. The study was done over a period of 6 months (July to December 2014 during routine osteology classes for 1 year MBBS, we found the fusion of typical thoracic vertebrae between T 3 & T 4 . The cause could be failure of re - segmentation of somitomeres or acquired.

  4. Evolution of the Vertebrate Cranium: Viewed from Hagfish Developmental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Ota, Kinya G

    2016-06-01

    Our knowledge of vertebrate cranium evolution has relied largely on the study of gnathostomes. Recent evolutionary and developmental studies of cyclostomes have shed new light on the history of the vertebrate skull. The recent ability to obtain embryos of the hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri, has enabled new studies which have suggested an embryonic morphological pattern (the "cyclostome pattern") of craniofacial development. This pattern is shared by cyclostomes, but not by modern jawed vertebrates. Because this pattern of embryonic head development is thought to be present in some stem gnathostomes (ostracoderms), it is possible that the cyclostome pattern represents the vertebrate ancestral pattern. The study of cyclostomes may thus lead to an understanding of the most ancestral basis of craniofacial development. In this review, we summarize the development of the hagfish chondrocranium in light of the cyclostome pattern, present an updated comparison of the cyclostome chondrocranium, and discuss several aspects of the evolution and development of the vertebrate skull.

  5. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve.

  6. Update on terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welten, K C; Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W

    2000-01-14

    Terrestrial ages of Antarctic meteorites are one of the few parameters that will help us to understand the meteorite concentration mechanism on blue-ice fields. Traditionally, terrestrial ages were determined on the basis of {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase, which has an uncertainty of about 70 ky. For young meteorites (< 40 ky), the terrestrial age is usually and most accurately determined using {sup 14}C in the stone phase. In recent years two methods have been developed which are independent of shielding effects, the {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method and the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 36}Cl method. These methods have reduced the typical uncertainties in terrestrial ages by a factor of 2, to about 30 ky. The {sup 10}Be-{sup 36}Cl/{sup 10}Be method is quite dependent on the exposure age, which is unknown for most Antarctic meteorites. The authors therefore also attempt to use the relation between {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl/{sup 26}Al to derive a terrestrial age less dependent on the exposure age. The authors have measured the concentrations of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl in the metal phase of {approximately} 70 Antarctic meteorites, from more than 10 different ice-fields, including many new ones. They then discuss the trends in terrestrial ages of meteorites from different ice-fields.

  7. Zoogeography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.S.

    The distribution pattern of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean is briefly reviewed on a within and between ocean patterns and is limited to species within a quite restricted sort of groups namely, Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda and Euphausiacea...

  8. Oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.

    Indian Ocean, the monsoons, changes in the circulation patterns, chemical processes, its geological history and great biological diversity are some of the aspects reflected in the contents of the volume....

  9. Distribution of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris from different geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinchev, Dragomir; Janda, Bogdan; Evstatieva, Liuba; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Aslani, Mohammad R; Kostova, Ivanka

    2008-01-01

    The steroidal saponins of Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) are considered to be the factor responsible for biological activity of products derived from this plant. The activity depends on the concentration and the composition of active saponins, which in turn is influenced by the geographical origin of plant material. Samples of T. terrestris collected in Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Turkey, Georgia, Iran, Vietnam and India were analyzed by LC-ESI/MS/MS for the presence and the concentration of protodioscin (1), prototribestin (2), pseudoprotodioscin (3), dioscin (4), tribestin (5) and tribulosin (6). The flavonoid rutin (7) was also included in the comparison. The results revealed distinct differences in the content of these compounds depending on region of sample collection, plant part studied and stage of plant development. The samples from Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Georgia and Iran exhibited similar chemical profile and only some quantitative difference in the content of 1-7 with protodioscin (1) and prototribestin (2) as main components. The Vietnamese and Indian samples exhibit totally different chemical profile. They lack 2 and 5, while tribulosin (6) is present in high amounts. Compounds different from 1 to 7 are dominating in these 3 samples. The presented results suggested the existence of one chemotype common to the East South European and West Asian regions. Most probably, the Vietnamese and Indian samples belong to other chemotypes which are still to be studied and characterized. No clear correlation between the burrs morphology and the chemical composition of the samples has been found.

  10. [Cervical myelopathy caused by bilateral vertebral artery compression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, T; Fujiwara, K; Handa, A; Gotoh, M; Tsuno, K; Ishimitsu, H

    1998-01-01

    We report a rare case of myelopathy caused by compression of the upper cervical cord by the bilateral anomalous vertebral arteries. A 49-year-old man had dragged his right foot for 4 years. He also complained of a tingling sensation in his right arm and occipitalgia. Neurological examination disclosed right hemiparesis, hypalgesia in the right half of the body and hypertonicity of the lower extremities. MRIs showed a flow void area which compressed and distorted the spinal cord bilaterally at the level of the atlas. A vertebral angiogram showed that the bilateral vertebral arteries had pierced the dura matter under the posterior arch of the atlas, turned upward and laterally in the vertebral canal, making vascular loops at the level of the atlas. 3D CT angiography showed the loops convex medially in the anterior part of the vertebral canal. With these findings, we diagnosed the patient as suffering compression of the cervical cord by the bilateral anomalous vertebral arteries. Suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy were performed. When the dura mater was opened, the dorsolateral aspect of the spinal cord was found to be compressed and indented markedly by the vertebral arteries. To decompress the spinal cord, the vertebral arteries were retracted dorsolaterally by means of Gore-tex tape and anchored to the spinous process of the axis. Postoperatively, his neurological symptoms improved. Postoperative MRIs showed that the spinal cord was decompressed and had recovered its contour. A review of the literature revealed that only 3 such cases as this one have been reported. The clinical features of these rare cases are nonspecific myelopathy and concomitant occipitalgia or neck pain. The main cause of this rare entity seemed to be the compression of the vertebral artery through its course when it enters the vertebral canal between the atlas and the axis.

  11. Global Trade and Indian Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    2015-01-01

    -British Western partners, which could support their struggle for industrial self-reliance. This particular alignment of interests facilitated cooperation and shows that the so-called European experience is more diverse than research has shown so far. The analysis highlights global trading networks beyond...... the political boundaries of formal empire and offers an alternative perspective on Indian business history, which reveals more competition between multinationals of different origins and more strategic choices available to Indians....

  12. India in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    still are limited but are expanding. Reminiscent of India’s precolonial relationship with coastal Africa , New Delhi’s key connections today are with some...Central Asia to Japan. Finally, and most of all, the rise of India will have consequences in the broad belt of nations from South Africa to Austra...Hormuz and from the coast of Africa to the western shores of Australia. For some Indians, the emphasis is on the northern Indian Ocean, but for others the

  13. Internationalization Of Indian IT Multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Abhishek

    2009-01-01

    Indian IT industry has emerged to be a strong and influential player on the world map. The industry which did not existed a few decades ago is now a major exporter of software services to major markets. The Indian IT firms now seem to move beyond exporting and advance further into the international market. With the help of case study approach, this study tends to examine the internationalization of these firms. The dissertation is aimed to see how far the traditional theories o...

  14. Measurements of vertebral shape by radiographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X.G.; Sun, Y.; Boonen, S.; Nicholson, P.H.F.; Dequeker, J. [Arthritis and Metabolic Bone Disease Research Unit, U.Z. Pellenberg, Division of Rheumatology, Pellenberg (Belgium); Brys, P. [Radiology Department, University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Felsenberg, D. [Radiology Department, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine radiographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs.

  15. The lamprey: a jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen A; Bronner, Marianne E

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  17. Control of vertebrate skeletal mineralization by polyphosphates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Omelon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO(3(-(n are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS/METHODOLOGY: The enzymatic formation (condensation and destruction (hydrolytic degradation of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO(4(3- concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO(4(3- concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO

  18. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bergström

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  19. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  20. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves.

  1. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  2. Euthanasia: An Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Vinod K; Basu, S; Sarkhel, S

    2012-04-01

    In our society, the palliative care and quality of life issues in patients with terminal illnesses like advanced cancer and AIDS have become an important concern for clinicians. Parallel to this concern has arisen another controversial issue-euthanasia or "mercy -killing" of terminally ill patients. Proponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) feel that an individual's right to autonomy automatically entitles him to choose a painless death. The opponents feel that a physician's role in the death of an individual violates the central tenet of the medical profession. Moreover, undiagnosed depression and possibility of social 'coercion' in people asking for euthanasia put a further question mark on the ethical principles underlying such an act. These concerns have led to strict guidelines for implementing PAS. Assessment of the mental state of the person consenting to PAS becomes mandatory and here, the role of the psychiatrist becomes pivotal. Although considered illegal in our country, PAS has several advocates in the form of voluntary organizations like "death with dignity" foundation. This has got a fillip in the recent Honourable Supreme Court Judgment in the Aruna Shaunbag case. What remains to be seen is how long it takes before this sensitive issue rattles the Indian legislature.

  3. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  4. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  5. A revised metric for quantifying body shape in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, David C; Reynaga, Crystal M; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

    2013-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit tremendous diversity in body shape, though quantifying this variation has been challenging. In the past, researchers have used simplified metrics that either describe overall shape but reveal little about its anatomical basis or that characterize only a subset of the morphological features that contribute to shape variation. Here, we present a revised metric of body shape, the vertebrate shape index (VSI), which combines the four primary morphological components that lead to shape diversity in vertebrates: head shape, length of the second major body axis (depth or width), and shape of the precaudal and caudal regions of the vertebral column. We illustrate the usefulness of VSI on a data set of 194 species, primarily representing five major vertebrate clades: Actinopterygii, Lissamphibia, Squamata, Aves, and Mammalia. We quantify VSI diversity within each of these clades and, in the course of doing so, show how measurements of the morphological components of VSI can be obtained from radiographs, articulated skeletons, and cleared and stained specimens. We also demonstrate that head shape, secondary body axis, and vertebral characteristics are important independent contributors to body shape diversity, though their importance varies across vertebrate groups. Finally, we present a functional application of VSI to test a hypothesized relationship between body shape and the degree of axial bending associated with locomotor modes in ray-finned fishes. Altogether, our study highlights the promise VSI holds for identifying the morphological variation underlying body shape diversity as well as the selective factors driving shape evolution.

  6. Evolution of adaptive immune recognition in jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Nil Ratan; Smith, Jeramiah; Amemiya, Chris T

    2010-02-01

    All extant vertebrates possess an adaptive immune system wherein diverse immune receptors are created and deployed in specialized blood cell lineages. Recent advances in DNA sequencing and developmental resources for basal vertebrates have facilitated numerous comparative analyses that have shed new light on the molecular and cellular bases of immune defense and the mechanisms of immune receptor diversification in the "jawless" vertebrates. With data from these key species in hand, it is becoming possible to infer some general aspects of the early evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity. All jawed vertebrates assemble their antigen-receptor genes through combinatorial recombination of different "diversity" segments into immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes. However, the jawless vertebrates employ an analogous, but independently derived set of immune receptors in order to recognize and bind antigens: the variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs). The means by which this locus generates receptor diversity and achieves antigen specificity is of considerable interest because these mechanisms represent a completely independent strategy for building a large immune repertoire. Therefore, studies of the VLR system are providing insight into the fundamental principles and evolutionary potential of adaptive immune recognition systems. Here we review and synthesize the wealth of data that have been generated towards understanding the evolution of the adaptive immune system in the jawless vertebrates.

  7. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  8. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadi Tannoury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5–C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI.

  9. Gene Expression in Chicken Reveals Correlation with Structural Genomic Features and Conserved Patterns of Transcription in the Terrestrial Vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, H.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Lammers, A.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.; Neerincx, P.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background - The chicken is an important agricultural and avian-model species. A survey of gene expression in a range of different tissues will provide a benchmark for understanding expression levels under normal physiological conditions in birds. With expression data for birds being very scant, thi

  10. Posterior-only multilevel modified vertebral column resection for extremely severe Pott's kyphotic deformity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, YongGang; Zhang, XueSong; Wang, Zheng; Mao, KeYa; Chen, Cao; Zheng, GuoQuan; Li, Gang; Wood, Kirkham B

    2009-01-01

    Extremely severe Pott's kyphotic deformity cannot be completely corrected by conventional techniques, including vertebral body resection, Smith-Peterson, pedicle subtraction osteotomy or even vertebral column resection (VCR...

  11. Insects of terrestrial origin over Indian Ocean during north-east monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Kulshrestha, V.; Choubey, A.K.; Parulekar, A.H.

    with the help of wind vanes mounted on the bridge, at 0730, 1400 and 1800 hrs. The .readings were then corrected in relation to the direction of the ship movement with the help of standard tables (Marine Observer's Handbook, 1992). Wind speed was measured...

  12. Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Observer agreement in pediatric semiquantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siminoski, Kerry [University of Alberta, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Edmonton (Canada); Lentle, Brian [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih [University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Ward, Leanne M. [University of Ottawa, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Research Institute, Ottawa (Canada); Collaboration: The Canadian STOPP Consortium

    2014-04-15

    The Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in children. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen's kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  14. Biodiversity and ecological assessments of Indian sacred groves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajasri Ray; M.D.S. Chandran; T.V. Ramachandra

    2014-01-01

    Sacred groves are patches of forests preserved for their spiri-tual and religious significance. The practice gained relevance with the spread of agriculture that caused large-scale deforestation affecting bio-diversity and watersheds. Sacred groves may lose their prominence no-wadays, but are still relevant in Indian rural landscapes inhabited by traditional communities. The recent rise of interest in this tradition en-couraged scientific study that despite its pan-Indian distribution, focused on India’s northeast, Western Ghats and east coast either for their glob-al/regional importance or unique ecosystems. Most studies focused on flora, mainly angiosperms, and the faunal studies concentrated on verte-brates while lower life forms were grossly neglected. Studies on ecosys-tem functioning are few although observations are available. Most stud-ies attributed watershed protection values to sacred groves but hardly highlighted hydrological process or water yield in comparison with other land use types. The grove studies require diversification from a stereo-typed path and must move towards creating credible scientific founda-tions for conservation. Documentation should continue in unexplored areas but more work is needed on basic ecological functions and ecosys-tem dynamics to strengthen planning for scientifically sound sacred grove management.

  15. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23 kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s) as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut-derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini review is to summarize the existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  16. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D Berfin; Chong, Diana C; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-12-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative analyses of bidirectional promoters in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor James

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes with deep phylogenetic histories are likely to retain similar regulatory features. In this report we utilize orthology assignments for pairs of genes co-regulated by bidirectional promoters to map the ancestral history of the promoter regions. Results Our mapping of bidirectional promoters from humans to fish shows that many such promoters emerged after the divergence of chickens and fish. Furthermore, annotations of promoters in deep phylogenies enable detection of missing data or assembly problems present in higher vertebrates. The functional importance of bidirectional promoters is indicated by selective pressure to maintain the arrangement of genes regulated by the promoter over long evolutionary time spans. Characteristics unique to bidirectional promoters are further elucidated using a technique for unsupervised classification, known as ESPERR. Conclusion Results of these analyses will aid in our understanding of the evolution of bidirectional promoters, including whether the regulation of two genes evolved as a consequence of their proximity or if function dictated their co-regulation.

  18. Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease: Vertebrate Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjong; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex genetic disorder that is associated with environmental risk factors and aging. Vertebrate genetic models, especially mice, have aided the study of autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive PD. Mice are capable of showing a broad range of phenotypes and, coupled with their conserved genetic and anatomical structures, provide unparalleled molecular and pathological tools to model human disease. These models used in combination with aging and PD-associated toxins have expanded our understanding of PD pathogenesis. Attempts to refine PD animal models using conditional approaches have yielded in vivo nigrostriatal degeneration that is instructive in ordering pathogenic signaling and in developing therapeutic strategies to cure or halt the disease. Here, we provide an overview of the generation and characterization of transgenic and knockout mice used to study PD followed by a review of the molecular insights that have been gleaned from current PD mouse models. Finally, potential approaches to refine and improve current models are discussed. PMID:22960626

  19. Delayed coupling theory of vertebrate segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Luis G; Ares, Saúl; Herrgen, Leah; Schröter, Christian; Jülicher, Frank; Oates, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    Rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating vertebrate embryonic body axis into morphological somites is controlled by an oscillating multicellular genetic network termed the segmentation clock. This clock operates in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), generating dynamic stripe patterns of oscillatory gene-expression across the field of PSM cells. How these spatial patterns, the clock's collective period, and the underlying cellular-level interactions are related is not understood. A theory encompassing temporal and spatial domains of local and collective aspects of the system is essential to tackle these questions. Our delayed coupling theory achieves this by representing the PSM as an array of phase oscillators, combining four key elements: a frequency profile of oscillators slowing across the PSM; coupling between neighboring oscillators; delay in coupling; and a moving boundary describing embryonic axis elongation. This theory predicts that the segmentation clock's collective period depends on delayed coupling. We derive an expression for pattern wavelength across the PSM and show how this can be used to fit dynamic wildtype gene-expression patterns, revealing the quantitative values of parameters controlling spatial and temporal organization of the oscillators in the system. Our theory can be used to analyze experimental perturbations, thereby identifying roles of genes involved in segmentation.

  20. Microtubules, polarity and vertebrate neural tube morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cearns, Michael D; Escuin, Sarah; Alexandre, Paula; Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are key cellular components, long known to participate in morphogenetic events that shape the developing embryo. However, the links between the cellular functions of MTs, their effects on cell shape and polarity, and their role in large-scale morphogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, these relationships were examined with respect to two strategies for generating the vertebrate neural tube: bending and closure of the mammalian neural plate; and cavitation of the teleost neural rod. The latter process has been compared with 'secondary' neurulation that generates the caudal spinal cord in mammals. MTs align along the apico-basal axis of the mammalian neuroepithelium early in neural tube closure, participating functionally in interkinetic nuclear migration, which indirectly impacts on cell shape. Whether MTs play other functional roles in mammalian neurulation remains unclear. In the zebrafish, MTs are important for defining the neural rod midline prior to its cavitation, both by localizing apical proteins at the tissue midline and by orienting cell division through a mirror-symmetric MT apparatus that helps to further define the medial localization of apical polarity proteins. Par proteins have been implicated in centrosome positioning in neuroepithelia as well as in the control of polarized morphogenetic movements in the neural rod. Understanding of MT functions during early nervous system development has so far been limited, partly by techniques that fail to distinguish 'cause' from 'effect'. Future developments will likely rely on novel ways to selectively impair MT function in order to investigate the roles they play.

  1. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  2. Semaphorin signaling in vertebrate neural circuit assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka eYoshida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuit formation requires the coordination of many complex developmental processes. First, neurons project axons over long distances to find their final targets and then establish appropriate connectivity essential for the formation of neuronal circuitry. Growth cones, the leading edges of axons, navigate by interacting with a variety of attractive and repulsive axon guidance cues along their trajectories and at final target regions. In addition to guidance of axons, neuronal polarization, neuronal migration and dendrite development must be precisely regulated during development to establish proper neural circuitry. Semaphorins consist of a large protein family, which includes secreted and cell surface proteins, and they play important roles in many steps of neural circuit formation. The major semaphorin receptors are plexins and neuropilins, however other receptors and co-receptors also mediate signaling by semaphorins. Upon semaphorin binding to their receptors, downstream signaling molecules transduce this event within cells to mediate further events, including alteration of microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, I review recent studies on semaphorin signaling in vertebrate neural circuit assembly, with the goal of highlighting how this diverse family of cues and receptors imparts exquisite specificity to neural complex connectivity.

  3. Ephaptic communication in the vertebrate retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozan eVroman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the vertebrate retina, cones project to the horizontal cells (HCs and bipolar cells (BCs. The communication between cones and horizontal cells uses both chemical and ephaptic mechanisms. Photoreceptors release glutamate in a Ca2+-dependent manner, while HCs feed back to cones via an ephaptic mechanism. Hyperpolarization of HCs leads to an increased current through connexin hemichannels located on the tips of HC dendrites invaginating the cone synaptic terminals. This current makes the extracellular synaptic space slightly negative. The result is that the Ca2+-channels in the cone pre-synaptic membrane experience a slightly depolarized membrane potential and therefore more glutamate is released. This ephaptic mechanism forms a very fast and noise free negative feedback pathway. These characteristics are crucial, since the retina has to perform well in demanding conditions such as low light levels and detecting fast events. In this mini-review we will discuss the critical components of such an ephaptic mechanism. Furthermore, we will address the question whether such communication appears in other systems as well and indicate some fundamental features to look for when attempting to identify an ephaptic mechanism.

  4. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  5. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  6. Cilia in vertebrate left-right patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Agnik; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2016-12-19

    Understanding how left-right (LR) asymmetry is generated in vertebrate embryos is an important problem in developmental biology. In humans, a failure to align the left and right sides of cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal systems often results in birth defects. Evidence from patients and animal models has implicated cilia in the process of left-right patterning. Here, we review the proposed functions for cilia in establishing LR asymmetry, which include creating transient leftward fluid flows in an embryonic 'left-right organizer'. These flows direct asymmetric activation of a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) signalling pathway that guides asymmetric morphogenesis of developing organs. We discuss the leading hypotheses for how cilia-generated asymmetric fluid flows are translated into asymmetric molecular signals. We also discuss emerging mechanisms that control the subcellular positioning of cilia and the cellular architecture of the left-right organizer, both of which are critical for effective cilia function during left-right patterning. Finally, using mosaic cell-labelling and time-lapse imaging in the zebrafish embryo, we provide new evidence that precursor cells maintain their relative positions as they give rise to the ciliated left-right organizer. This suggests the possibility that these cells acquire left-right positional information prior to the appearance of cilia.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  8. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingda Hu

    Full Text Available Resistin (encoded by Retn was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish, but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  9. Evolution of vertebrates as viewed from the crest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen A; Simoes-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E

    2015-04-23

    The origin of vertebrates was accompanied by the advent of a novel cell type: the neural crest. Emerging from the central nervous system, these cells migrate to diverse locations and differentiate into numerous derivatives. By coupling morphological and gene regulatory information from vertebrates and other chordates, we describe how addition of the neural-crest-specification program may have enabled cells at the neural plate border to acquire multipotency and migratory ability. Analysis of the topology of the neural crest gene regulatory network can serve as a useful template for understanding vertebrate evolution, including elaboration of neural crest derivatives.

  10. Climate change and the ecology and evolution of Arctic vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilg, Olivier; Kovacs, Kit M.; Aars, J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is taking place more rapidly and severely in the Arctic than anywhere on the globe, exposing Arctic vertebrates to a host of impacts. Changes in the cryosphere dominate the physical changes that already affect these animals, but increasing air temperatures, changes in precipitation......, and ocean acidification will also affect Arctic ecosystems in the future. Adaptation via natural selection is problematic in such a rapidly changing environment. Adjustment via phenotypic plasticity is therefore likely to dominate Arctic vertebrate responses in the short term, and many such adjustments have...... immigration from the South, many Arctic vertebrates are expected to become increasingly threatened during this century....

  11. Advances in Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhonghe; WANG Yuanqing

    2010-01-01

    @@ Vertebrate paleontology and paleoanthropology in China have a long glorious history dating back to the 1920s,and significant progress has been made in the last twenty years thanks to the discoveries of hundreds of important vertebrate fossils from the deposits ranging in age from the Early Cambrian to the Quaternary.These discoveries have led to nearly 100 papers appearing in prestigious journals of Nature,Science and PARAS by Chinese vertebrate paleontologists and paleoanthropologists,outnumbering those published by Chinese scientists from any other discipline in the same period.

  12. Considerations on evolution and healing of vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Raymond; Trevisan, Carlo; Nava, Veronica; Riccardi, Domenico; Recalcati, Wilmer

    2013-10-01

    Only little is known when talking about the evolution of a vertebral fracture. From the few studies available in the literature, we can deduce that the risk a vertebral compression fracture has to worsen its deformity is consistent. It is important to try to make a prognosis on how the fracture is going to heal based on the type of fracture encountered. A chapter of its own is the occurrence of a vertebral fracture non-union that is difficult to diagnose and treat, but comes along with a poor prognosis.

  13. BAURU GROUP (LATE CRETACEOUS VERTEBRATES FROM TRIÂNGULO MINEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto dos Anjos Candeiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State and western São Paulo State have a rich and diversefauna of Late Cretaceous vertebrates from Adamantina, Uberaba and Marília formations (BauruGroup. This paper attempts to list the vertebrate fauna known from each formation within theTriângulo Mineiro region and western São Paulo using the most recent and accepted definition foreach formation or higher taxonomical group. The faunal list produced now gives us a clearerunderstanding of the stratigraphical distribution of the Bauru Group vertebrates.

  14. Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome with posterior spinal dysraphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome, which includes abnormalities of the vertebral bodies, ribs and trunk musculature, is very rare and only few cases have been reported. We report a case of 18-month-old female child with absent ribs, hemivertebrae, superior lumbar hernia (features of lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome and posterior spinal dysraphism, which to our knowledge is the first case in the English literature with such a combination of defects. Embryology and management of the case is discussed.

  15. Evolution of vertebrates: a view from the crest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Marianne E.

    2016-01-01

    The origin of vertebrates was accompanied by the advent of a novel cell type: the neural crest. Emerging from the central nervous system, these cells migrate to diverse locations and differentiate into numerous derivatives. By coupling morphological and gene regulatory information from vertebrates and other chordates, we describe how addition of the neural crest specification program may have enabled cells at the neural plate border to acquire multipotency and migratory ability. Analyzing the topology of the neural crest gene regulatory network can serve as a useful template for understanding vertebrate evolution, including elaboration of neural crest derivatives. PMID:25903629

  16. Endovascular coil oclusion of spontaneous ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of vertebral artery is known as a rare pathological condition causing a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the posterior circulation. The treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms is still an important subject of debates in the literature. We present a particular case of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms that was treated by only endovascular Guglielmi detachable coils occlusion. A brief review of technical possibilities of treatment of these types of vascular lesions, with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  17. VERTEBRAL DEFORMITY IN CHILDREN AND DISPENSARY CARE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Batrshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the prevalence of spine deformation pathology and the state of vertebral children care screening of 18 500 schoolchildren was conducted by computer optical topography. In 79.5% of them the posture disturbances and in 14.5% - spinal deformity were detected. The multivariate analysis of vertebral deformity was performed. It is established that vertebral deformity till 10° on Coob has usually monoplane form, and more than 10° - only multiplane form. Dispensary health groups were formed, screening program for children with subsequent monitoring was proposed.

  18. Numerical simulations for terrestrial planets formation

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    Ji J.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the formation of terrestrial planets in the late stage of planetary formation using two-planet model. At that time, the protostar has formed for about 3 Myr and the gas disk has dissipated. In the model, the perturbations from Jupiter and Saturn are considered. We also consider variations of the mass of outer planet, and the initial eccentricities and inclinations of embryos and planetesimals. Our results show that, terrestrial planets are formed in 50 Myr, and the accretion rate is about 60%–80%. In each simulation, 3–4 terrestrial planets are formed inside “Jupiter” with masses of 0.15–3.6 M⊕. In the 0.5–4 AU, when the eccentricities of planetesimals are excited, planetesimals are able to accrete material from wide radial direction. The plenty of water material of the terrestrial planet in the Habitable Zone may be transferred from the farther places by this mechanism. Accretion may also happen a few times between two giant planets only if the outer planet has a moderate mass and the small terrestrial planet could survive at some resonances over time scale of 108 yr.

  19. Terrestrial planets across space and time

    CERN Document Server

    Zackrisson, E; Gonzalez, J; Benson, A; Johansen, A; Janson, M

    2016-01-01

    The study of cosmology, galaxy formation and exoplanetary systems has now advanced to a stage where a cosmic inventory of terrestrial planets may be attempted. By coupling semi-analytic models of galaxy formation to a recipe that relates the occurrence of planets to the mass and metallicity of their host stars, we trace the population of terrestrial planets around both solar-mass (FGK type) and lower-mass (M dwarf) stars throughout all of cosmic history. We find that the mean age of terrestrial planets in the local Universe is $8\\pm1$ Gyr and that the typical planet of this type is located in a spheroid-dominated galaxy with total stellar mass about twice that of the Milky Way. We estimate that hot Jupiters have depleted the population of terrestrial planets around FGK stars at redshift $z=0$ by no more than $\\approx 10\\%$, and predict that $\\approx 1/3$ of the terrestrial planets in the local Universe are orbiting stars in a metallicity range for which such planets have yet to be been detected. When looking ...

  20. Phytolith carbon sequestration in global terrestrial biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoliang; Liu, Hongyan; Strömberg, Caroline A E; Yang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-15

    Terrestrial biogeochemical carbon (C) sequestration is coupled with the biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle through mechanisms such as phytolith C sequestration, but the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink remain unclear. Here, we estimate phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes. We used biome data including productivity, phytolith and silica contents, and the phytolith stability factor to preliminarily determine the size and distribution of the phytolith C sink in global terrestrial biomes. Total phytolith C sequestration in global terrestrial biomes is 156.7±91.6TgCO2yr(-1). Grassland (40%), cropland (35%), and forest (20%) biomes are the dominant producers of phytolith-based carbon; geographically, the main contributors are Asia (31%), Africa (24%), and South America (17%). Practices such as bamboo afforestation/reforestation and grassland recovery for economic and ecological purposes could theoretically double the above phytolith C sink. The potential terrestrial phytolith C sequestration during 2000-2099 under such practices would be 15.7-40.5PgCO2, equivalent in magnitude to the C sequestration of oceanic diatoms in sediments and through silicate weathering. Phytolith C sequestration contributes vitally to the global C cycle, hence, it is essential to incorporate plant-soil silica cycling in biogeochemical C cycle models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.