WorldWideScience

Sample records for independent feature elimination

  1. Elimination of Constraints from Feature Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Galvao, I.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2008-01-01

    We present an algorithm which eliminates constraints from a feature model whose feature diagram is a tree and whose constraints are "requires" or "excludes" constraints. The algorithm constructs a feature tree which has the same semantics as the original feature model. The computational complexity

  2. Exploring Language-Independent Emotional Acoustic Features via Feature Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Shaukat, Arslan; Chen, Ke

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel feature selection strategy to discover language-independent acoustic features that tend to be responsible for emotions regardless of languages, linguistics and other factors. Experimental results suggest that the language-independent feature subset discovered yields the performance comparable to the full feature set on various emotional speech corpora.

  3. Feature singletons attract spatial attention independently of feature priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashar, Amit; White, Alex L; Fang, Wanghaoming; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-08-01

    People perform better in visual search when the target feature repeats across trials (intertrial feature priming [IFP]). Here, we investigated whether repetition of a feature singleton's color modulates stimulus-driven shifts of spatial attention by presenting a probe stimulus immediately after each singleton display. The task alternated every two trials between a probe discrimination task and a singleton search task. We measured both stimulus-driven spatial attention (via the distance between the probe and singleton) and IFP (via repetition of the singleton's color). Color repetition facilitated search performance (IFP effect) when the set size was small. When the probe appeared at the singleton's location, performance was better than at the opposite location (stimulus-driven attention effect). The magnitude of this attention effect increased with the singleton's set size (which increases its saliency) but did not depend on whether the singleton's color repeated across trials, even when the previous singleton had been attended as a search target. Thus, our findings show that repetition of a salient singleton's color affects performance when the singleton is task relevant and voluntarily attended (as in search trials). However, color repetition does not affect performance when the singleton becomes irrelevant to the current task, even though the singleton does capture attention (as in probe trials). Therefore, color repetition per se does not make a singleton more salient for stimulus-driven attention. Rather, we suggest that IFP requires voluntary selection of color singletons in each consecutive trial.

  4. Recursive Cluster Elimination (RCE for classification and feature selection from gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showe Louise C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification studies using gene expression datasets are usually based on small numbers of samples and tens of thousands of genes. The selection of those genes that are important for distinguishing the different sample classes being compared, poses a challenging problem in high dimensional data analysis. We describe a new procedure for selecting significant genes as recursive cluster elimination (RCE rather than recursive feature elimination (RFE. We have tested this algorithm on six datasets and compared its performance with that of two related classification procedures with RFE. Results We have developed a novel method for selecting significant genes in comparative gene expression studies. This method, which we refer to as SVM-RCE, combines K-means, a clustering method, to identify correlated gene clusters, and Support Vector Machines (SVMs, a supervised machine learning classification method, to identify and score (rank those gene clusters for the purpose of classification. K-means is used initially to group genes into clusters. Recursive cluster elimination (RCE is then applied to iteratively remove those clusters of genes that contribute the least to the classification performance. SVM-RCE identifies the clusters of correlated genes that are most significantly differentially expressed between the sample classes. Utilization of gene clusters, rather than individual genes, enhances the supervised classification accuracy of the same data as compared to the accuracy when either SVM or Penalized Discriminant Analysis (PDA with recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE and PDA-RFE are used to remove genes based on their individual discriminant weights. Conclusion SVM-RCE provides improved classification accuracy with complex microarray data sets when it is compared to the classification accuracy of the same datasets using either SVM-RFE or PDA-RFE. SVM-RCE identifies clusters of correlated genes that when considered together

  5. Key Features of Political Advertising as an Independent Type of Advertising Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Anatolyevna Chubay

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the most complete understanding of the features of political advertising, the author characterizes its specific features allocated by modern researchers. The problem of defining the notion of political advertising is studied in detail. The analysis of definitions available in professional literature has allowed the author to identify a number of key features that characterize political advertising as an independent type of promotional activity. These features include belonging to th...

  6. Safety features in nuclear power plants to eliminate the need of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While high level nuclear waste is extremely small in quan- tity and contained, NPPs .... on land-use were implemented and controls of radioactive contamination in foodstuffs and other produce strengthened. .... The features used in reactor design and material selection which can make the NPP immune to potential hazards ...

  7. Safety features in nuclear power plants to eliminate the need of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tics, passive and engineered safety features to achieve these functions are discussed in this paper. Present trends ... for nuclear power plants, it is felt necessary to design them with practically no impact in public domain under postulated ... and pre-school age children within 5-mile radius of the plant. Amongst panic, people ...

  8. Scaffolding Students’ Independent Decoding of Unfamiliar Text with a Prototype of an eBook-Feature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Stig Toke

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to design, evaluate and refine an eBook-feature that supports students' decoding of unfamiliar text. The feature supports students' independent reading of eBooks with text-to-speech, graded support in the form of syllabification and rhyme analogy, and by dividing the word...

  9. Independent screening for single-index hazard rate models with ultrahigh dimensional features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    on performance. An iterative variant of the method is also described which combines screening with penalized regression to handle more complex feature covariance structures. The methodology is evaluated through simulation studies and through application to a real gene expression data set.......In data sets with many more features than observations, independent screening based on all univariate regression models leads to a computationally convenient variable selection method. Recent efforts have shown that, in the case of generalized linear models, independent screening may suffice...... to capture all relevant features with high probability, even in ultrahigh dimension. It is unclear whether this formal sure screening property is attainable when the response is a right-censored survival time. We propose a computationally very efficient independent screening method for survival data which...

  10. Generalizations of the subject-independent feature set for music-induced emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Chin-Teng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition has been an intensely growing field. Yet, how to achieve acceptable accuracy on a practical system with as fewer electrodes as possible is less concerned. This study evaluates a set of subject-independent features, based on differential power asymmetry of symmetric electrode pairs [1], with emphasis on its applicability to subject variability in music-induced emotion classification problem. Results of this study have evidently validated the feasibility of using subject-independent EEG features to classify four emotional states with acceptable accuracy in second-scale temporal resolution. These features could be generalized across subjects to detect emotion induced by music excerpts not limited to the music database that was used to derive the emotion-specific features.

  11. Combining Multiple Features for Text-Independent Writer Identification and Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bulacu , Marius; Schomaker , Lambert

    2006-01-01

    http://www.suvisoft.com; In recent years, we proposed a number of new and very effective features for automatic writer identification and verification. They are probability distribution functions (PDFs) extracted from the handwriting images and characterize writer individuality independently of the textual content of the written samples. In this paper, we perform an extensive analysis of feature combinations. In our fusion scheme, the final unique distance between two handwritten samples is c...

  12. The benefits of a product-independent lexical database with formal word features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froon, Johanna; Froon, Janneke; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    Dictionaries can be used as a basis for lexicon development for NLP applications. However, it often takes a lot of pre-processing before they are usable. In the last 5 years a product-independent database of formal word features has been developed on the basis of the Van Dale dictionaries for Dutch.

  13. LOCAL INDEPENDENCE FEATURE SCREENING FOR NONPARAMETRIC AND SEMIPARAMETRIC MODELS BY MARGINAL EMPIRICAL LIKELIHOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinyuan; Tang, Cheng Yong; Wu, Yichao

    2015-01-01

    We consider an independence feature screening technique for identifying explanatory variables that locally contribute to the response variable in high-dimensional regression analysis. Without requiring a specific parametric form of the underlying data model, our approach accommodates a wide spectrum of nonparametric and semiparametric model families. To detect the local contributions of explanatory variables, our approach constructs empirical likelihood locally in conjunction with marginal nonparametric regressions. Since our approach actually requires no estimation, it is advantageous in scenarios such as the single-index models where even specification and identification of a marginal model is an issue. By automatically incorporating the level of variation of the nonparametric regression and directly assessing the strength of data evidence supporting local contribution from each explanatory variable, our approach provides a unique perspective for solving feature screening problems. Theoretical analysis shows that our approach can handle data dimensionality growing exponentially with the sample size. With extensive theoretical illustrations and numerical examples, we show that the local independence screening approach performs promisingly. PMID:27242388

  14. Instructional Quality Features in Videotaped Biology Lessons: Content-Independent Description of Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfner, Tobias; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2017-09-01

    A number of studies on single instructional quality features have been reported for mathematics and science instruction. For summarizing single instructional quality features, researchers have created a model of three basic dimensions (classroom management, supportive climate, and cognitive activation) of instructional quality mainly through observing mathematics instruction. Considering this model as valid for all subjects and as usable for describing instruction, we used it in this study which aimed to analyze characteristics of instructional quality in biology lessons of high-achieving and low-achieving classes, independently of content. Therefore, we used the data of three different previous video studies of biology instruction conducted in Germany. From each video study, we selected three high-achieving and three low-achieving classes (N = 18 teachers; 35 videos) for our multiple-case study, in which conspicuous characteristics of instructional quality features were qualitatively identified and qualitatively analyzed. The amount of these characteristics was counted in a quantitative way in all the videos. The characteristics we found could be categorized using the model of three basic dimensions of instructional quality despite some subject-specific differences for biology instruction. Our results revealed that many more characteristics were observable in high-achieving classes than in low-achieving classes. Thus, we believe that this model could be used to describe biology instruction independently of the content. We also make the claims about the qualities for biology instruction—working with concentration in a content-structured environment, getting challenged in higher order thinking, and getting praised for performance—that could have positive influence on students' achievement.

  15. Gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces based on covert attention and feature attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, M S; Schmidt, N M; Blankertz, B

    2011-12-01

    There is evidence that conventional visual brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on event-related potentials cannot be operated efficiently when eye movements are not allowed. To overcome this limitation, the aim of this study was to develop a visual speller that does not require eye movements. Three different variants of a two-stage visual speller based on covert spatial attention and non-spatial feature attention (i.e. attention to colour and form) were tested in an online experiment with 13 healthy participants. All participants achieved highly accurate BCI control. They could select one out of thirty symbols (chance level 3.3%) with mean accuracies of 88%-97% for the different spellers. The best results were obtained for a speller that was operated using non-spatial feature attention only. These results show that, using feature attention, it is possible to realize high-accuracy, fast-paced visual spellers that have a large vocabulary and are independent of eye gaze.

  16. Memory for surface features of unfamiliar melodies: independent effects of changes in pitch and tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M; Marks, Bradley M

    2014-01-01

    A melody's identity is determined by relations between consecutive tones in terms of pitch and duration, whereas surface features (i.e., pitch level or key, tempo, and timbre) are irrelevant. Although surface features of highly familiar recordings are encoded into memory, little is known about listeners' mental representations of melodies heard once or twice. It is also unknown whether musical pitch is represented additively or interactively with temporal information. In two experiments, listeners heard unfamiliar melodies twice in an initial exposure phase. In a subsequent test phase, they heard the same (old) melodies interspersed with new melodies. Some of the old melodies were shifted in key, tempo, or key and tempo. Listeners' task was to rate how well they recognized each melody from the exposure phase while ignoring changes in key and tempo. Recognition ratings were higher for old melodies that stayed the same compared to those that were shifted in key or tempo, and detrimental effects of key and tempo changes were additive in between-subjects (Experiment 1) and within-subjects (Experiment 2) designs. The results confirm that surface features are remembered for melodies heard only twice. They also imply that key and tempo are processed and stored independently.

  17. Gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces based on covert attention and feature attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, M. S.; Schmidt, N. M.; Blankertz, B.

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence that conventional visual brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on event-related potentials cannot be operated efficiently when eye movements are not allowed. To overcome this limitation, the aim of this study was to develop a visual speller that does not require eye movements. Three different variants of a two-stage visual speller based on covert spatial attention and non-spatial feature attention (i.e. attention to colour and form) were tested in an online experiment with 13 healthy participants. All participants achieved highly accurate BCI control. They could select one out of thirty symbols (chance level 3.3%) with mean accuracies of 88%-97% for the different spellers. The best results were obtained for a speller that was operated using non-spatial feature attention only. These results show that, using feature attention, it is possible to realize high-accuracy, fast-paced visual spellers that have a large vocabulary and are independent of eye gaze.

  18. Text-independent writer identification and verification using textural and allographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulacu, Marius; Schomaker, Lambert

    2007-04-01

    The identification of a person on the basis of scanned images of handwriting is a useful biometric modality with application in forensic and historic document analysis and constitutes an exemplary study area within the research field of behavioral biometrics. We developed new and very effective techniques for automatic writer identification and verification that use probability distribution functions (PDFs) extracted from the handwriting images to characterize writer individuality. A defining property of our methods is that they are designed to be independent of the textual content of the handwritten samples. Our methods operate at two levels of analysis: the texture level and the character-shape (allograph) level. At the texture level, we use contour-based joint directional PDFs that encode orientation and curvature information to give an intimate characterization of individual handwriting style. In our analysis at the allograph level, the writer is considered to be characterized by a stochastic pattern generator of ink-trace fragments, or graphemes. The PDF of these simple shapes in a given handwriting sample is characteristic for the writer and is computed using a common shape codebook obtained by grapheme clustering. Combining multiple features (directional, grapheme, and run-length PDFs) yields increased writer identification and verification performance. The proposed methods are applicable to free-style handwriting (both cursive and isolated) and have practical feasibility, under the assumption that a few text lines of handwritten material are available in order to obtain reliable probability estimates.

  19. Vascular dynamics aid a coupled neurovascular network learn sparse independent features: A computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Thomas Philips

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral vascular dynamics are generally thought to be controlled by neural activity in a unidirectional fashion. However, both computational modeling and experimental evidence point to the feedback effects of vascular dynamics on neural activity. Vascular feedback in the form of glucose and oxygen controls neuronal ATP, either directly or via the agency of astrocytes, which in turn modulates neural firing. Recently, a detailed model of the neuron-astrocyte-vessel system has shown how vasomotion can modulate neural firing. Similarly, arguing from known cerebrovascular physiology, an approach known as `hemoneural hypothesis' postulates functional modulation of neural activity by vascular feedback. To instantiate this perspective, we present a computational model in which a network of `vascular units' supplies energy to a neural network. The complex dynamics of the vascular network, modeled by a network of oscillators, turns neurons ON and OFF randomly. The informational consequence of such dynamics is explored in the context of an auto-encoder network. In the proposed model, each vascular unit supplies energy to a subset of hidden neurons of an autoencoder network, which constitutes its `projective field'. Neurons that receive adequate energy in a given trial have reduced threshold, and thus are prone to fire. Dynamics of the vascular network are governed by changes in the reconstruction error of the auto-encoder network, interpreted as the neuronal demand. Vascular feedback causes random inactivation of a subset of hidden neurons in every trial. We observe that, under conditions of desynchronized vascular dynamics, the output reconstruction error is low and the feature vectors learnt are sparse and independent. Our earlier modeling study highlighted the link between desynchronized vascular dynamics and efficient energy delivery in skeletal muscle. We now show that desynchronized vascular dynamics leads to efficient training in an auto

  20. Vascular Dynamics Aid a Coupled Neurovascular Network Learn Sparse Independent Features: A Computational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Ryan T; Chhabria, Karishma; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vascular dynamics are generally thought to be controlled by neural activity in a unidirectional fashion. However, both computational modeling and experimental evidence point to the feedback effects of vascular dynamics on neural activity. Vascular feedback in the form of glucose and oxygen controls neuronal ATP, either directly or via the agency of astrocytes, which in turn modulates neural firing. Recently, a detailed model of the neuron-astrocyte-vessel system has shown how vasomotion can modulate neural firing. Similarly, arguing from known cerebrovascular physiology, an approach known as "hemoneural hypothesis" postulates functional modulation of neural activity by vascular feedback. To instantiate this perspective, we present a computational model in which a network of "vascular units" supplies energy to a neural network. The complex dynamics of the vascular network, modeled by a network of oscillators, turns neurons ON and OFF randomly. The informational consequence of such dynamics is explored in the context of an auto-encoder network. In the proposed model, each vascular unit supplies energy to a subset of hidden neurons of an autoencoder network, which constitutes its "projective field." Neurons that receive adequate energy in a given trial have reduced threshold, and thus are prone to fire. Dynamics of the vascular network are governed by changes in the reconstruction error of the auto-encoder network, interpreted as the neuronal demand. Vascular feedback causes random inactivation of a subset of hidden neurons in every trial. We observe that, under conditions of desynchronized vascular dynamics, the output reconstruction error is low and the feature vectors learnt are sparse and independent. Our earlier modeling study highlighted the link between desynchronized vascular dynamics and efficient energy delivery in skeletal muscle. We now show that desynchronized vascular dynamics leads to efficient training in an auto-encoder neural network.

  1. Multiclass Classification for the Differential Diagnosis on the ADHD Subtypes Using Recursive Feature Elimination and Hierarchical Extreme Learning Machine: Structural MRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naveed Iqbal Qureshi

    Full Text Available The classification of neuroimaging data for the diagnosis of certain brain diseases is one of the main research goals of the neuroscience and clinical communities. In this study, we performed multiclass classification using a hierarchical extreme learning machine (H-ELM classifier. We compared the performance of this classifier with that of a support vector machine (SVM and basic extreme learning machine (ELM for cortical MRI data from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD patients. We used 159 structural MRI images of children from the publicly available ADHD-200 MRI dataset. The data consisted of three types, namely, typically developing (TDC, ADHD-inattentive (ADHD-I, and ADHD-combined (ADHD-C. We carried out feature selection by using standard SVM-based recursive feature elimination (RFE-SVM that enabled us to achieve good classification accuracy (60.78%. In this study, we found the RFE-SVM feature selection approach in combination with H-ELM to effectively enable the acquisition of high multiclass classification accuracy rates for structural neuroimaging data. In addition, we found that the most important features for classification were the surface area of the superior frontal lobe, and the cortical thickness, volume, and mean surface area of the whole cortex.

  2. Eliminating armaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.

    1998-01-01

    The end of Cold War induced optimistic projections concerning disarmament, elimination of nuclear weapons, elimination of massive inequities - poverty, hatred, racism. All these goals should be achieved simultaneously, but little has been achieved so far

  3. Concurrent deletion of 16q23 and PTEN is an independent prognostic feature in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Martina; Runte, Frederic; Barow, Philipp; Omari, Jazan; Abdelaziz, Zaid M; Paustian, Lisa; Steurer, Stefan; Christina Tsourlakis, Maria; Fisch, Margit; Graefen, Markus; Tennstedt, Pierre; Huland, Hartwig; Michl, Uwe; Minner, Sarah; Sauter, Guido; Simon, Ronald; Adam, Meike; Schlomm, Thorsten

    2015-11-15

    The deletion of 16q23-q24 belongs to the most frequent chromosomal changes in prostate cancer, but the clinical consequences of this alteration have not been studied in detail. We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using a 16q23 probe in more than 7,400 prostate cancers with clinical follow-up data assembled in a tissue microarray format. Chromosome 16q deletion was found in 21% of cancers, and was linked to advanced tumor stage, high Gleason grade, accelerated cell proliferation, the presence of lymph node metastases (p Deletion was more frequent in ERG fusion-positive (27%) as compared to ERG fusion-negative cancers (16%, p deletions including phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) (p deletion of 16q was linked to early biochemical recurrence independently from the ERG status (p deletion of 16q alone. Multivariate modeling revealed that the prognostic value of 16q/PTEN deletion patterns was independent from the established prognostic factors. In summary, the results of our study demonstrate that the deletion of 16q and PTEN cooperatively drives prostate cancer progression, and suggests that deletion analysis of 16q and PTEN could be of important clinical value particularly for preoperative risk assessment of the clinically most challenging group of low- and intermediated grade prostate cancers. © 2015 UICC.

  4. Dual dimensionality reduction reveals independent encoding of motor features in a muscle synergy for insect flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponberg, Simon; Daniel, Thomas L; Fairhall, Adrienne L

    2015-04-01

    What are the features of movement encoded by changing motor commands? Do motor commands encode movement independently or can they be represented in a reduced set of signals (i.e. synergies)? Motor encoding poses a computational and practical challenge because many muscles typically drive movement, and simultaneous electrophysiology recordings of all motor commands are typically not available. Moreover, during a single locomotor period (a stride or wingstroke) the variation in movement may have high dimensionality, even if only a few discrete signals activate the muscles. Here, we apply the method of partial least squares (PLS) to extract the encoded features of movement based on the cross-covariance of motor signals and movement. PLS simultaneously decomposes both datasets and identifies only the variation in movement that relates to the specific muscles of interest. We use this approach to explore how the main downstroke flight muscles of an insect, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, encode torque during yaw turns. We simultaneously record muscle activity and turning torque in tethered flying moths experiencing wide-field visual stimuli. We ask whether this pair of muscles acts as a muscle synergy (a single linear combination of activity) consistent with their hypothesized function of producing a left-right power differential. Alternatively, each muscle might individually encode variation in movement. We show that PLS feature analysis produces an efficient reduction of dimensionality in torque variation within a wingstroke. At first, the two muscles appear to behave as a synergy when we consider only their wingstroke-averaged torque. However, when we consider the PLS features, the muscles reveal independent encoding of torque. Using these features we can predictably reconstruct the variation in torque corresponding to changes in muscle activation. PLS-based feature analysis provides a general two-sided dimensionality reduction that reveals encoding in high dimensional

  5. Dual dimensionality reduction reveals independent encoding of motor features in a muscle synergy for insect flight control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sponberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available What are the features of movement encoded by changing motor commands? Do motor commands encode movement independently or can they be represented in a reduced set of signals (i.e. synergies? Motor encoding poses a computational and practical challenge because many muscles typically drive movement, and simultaneous electrophysiology recordings of all motor commands are typically not available. Moreover, during a single locomotor period (a stride or wingstroke the variation in movement may have high dimensionality, even if only a few discrete signals activate the muscles. Here, we apply the method of partial least squares (PLS to extract the encoded features of movement based on the cross-covariance of motor signals and movement. PLS simultaneously decomposes both datasets and identifies only the variation in movement that relates to the specific muscles of interest. We use this approach to explore how the main downstroke flight muscles of an insect, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, encode torque during yaw turns. We simultaneously record muscle activity and turning torque in tethered flying moths experiencing wide-field visual stimuli. We ask whether this pair of muscles acts as a muscle synergy (a single linear combination of activity consistent with their hypothesized function of producing a left-right power differential. Alternatively, each muscle might individually encode variation in movement. We show that PLS feature analysis produces an efficient reduction of dimensionality in torque variation within a wingstroke. At first, the two muscles appear to behave as a synergy when we consider only their wingstroke-averaged torque. However, when we consider the PLS features, the muscles reveal independent encoding of torque. Using these features we can predictably reconstruct the variation in torque corresponding to changes in muscle activation. PLS-based feature analysis provides a general two-sided dimensionality reduction that reveals encoding in

  6. Dual Dimensionality Reduction Reveals Independent Encoding of Motor Features in a Muscle Synergy for Insect Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponberg, Simon; Daniel, Thomas L.; Fairhall, Adrienne L.

    2015-01-01

    What are the features of movement encoded by changing motor commands? Do motor commands encode movement independently or can they be represented in a reduced set of signals (i.e. synergies)? Motor encoding poses a computational and practical challenge because many muscles typically drive movement, and simultaneous electrophysiology recordings of all motor commands are typically not available. Moreover, during a single locomotor period (a stride or wingstroke) the variation in movement may have high dimensionality, even if only a few discrete signals activate the muscles. Here, we apply the method of partial least squares (PLS) to extract the encoded features of movement based on the cross-covariance of motor signals and movement. PLS simultaneously decomposes both datasets and identifies only the variation in movement that relates to the specific muscles of interest. We use this approach to explore how the main downstroke flight muscles of an insect, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, encode torque during yaw turns. We simultaneously record muscle activity and turning torque in tethered flying moths experiencing wide-field visual stimuli. We ask whether this pair of muscles acts as a muscle synergy (a single linear combination of activity) consistent with their hypothesized function of producing a left-right power differential. Alternatively, each muscle might individually encode variation in movement. We show that PLS feature analysis produces an efficient reduction of dimensionality in torque variation within a wingstroke. At first, the two muscles appear to behave as a synergy when we consider only their wingstroke-averaged torque. However, when we consider the PLS features, the muscles reveal independent encoding of torque. Using these features we can predictably reconstruct the variation in torque corresponding to changes in muscle activation. PLS-based feature analysis provides a general two-sided dimensionality reduction that reveals encoding in high dimensional

  7. Differential Features of AIRE-Induced and AIRE-Independent Promiscuous Gene Expression in Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Charles; Trofimov, Assya; Brochu, Sylvie; Lemieux, Sébastien; Perreault, Claude

    2015-07-15

    Establishment of self-tolerance in the thymus depends on promiscuous expression of tissue-restricted Ags (TRA) by thymic epithelial cells (TEC). This promiscuous gene expression (pGE) is regulated in part by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE). To evaluate the commonalities and discrepancies between AIRE-dependent and -independent pGE, we analyzed the transcriptome of the three main TEC subsets in wild-type and Aire knockout mice. We found that the impact of AIRE-dependent pGE is not limited to generation of TRA. AIRE decreases, via non-cell autonomous mechanisms, the expression of genes coding for positive regulators of cell proliferation, and it thereby reduces the number of cortical TEC. In mature medullary TEC, AIRE-driven pGE upregulates non-TRA coding genes that enhance cell-cell interactions (e.g., claudins, integrins, and selectins) and are probably of prime relevance to tolerance induction. We also found that AIRE-dependent and -independent TRA present several distinctive features. In particular, relative to AIRE-induced TRA, AIRE-independent TRA are more numerous and show greater splicing complexity. Furthermore, we report that AIRE-dependent versus -independent TRA project nonredundant representations of peripheral tissues in the thymus. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Table-like magnetocaloric effect in Gd56Ni15Al27Zr2 alloy and its field independence feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agurgo Balfour, E.; Ma, Z.; Fu, H.; Wang, L.; Luo, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C.; Wang, S. F.

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain “table-like” magnetocaloric effect (MCE), multiple-phase Gd 56 Ni 15 Al 27 Zr 2 alloy was prepared by arc-melting followed by suck-casting method. Powder x-ray diffraction and calorimetric measurements reveal that the sample contains both glassy and crystalline phases. The fraction of the glassy phase is about 62%, estimated from the heat enthalpy of the crystallization. The crystalline phases, Gd 2 Al and GdNiAl further broadened the relatively wider magnetic entropy change (−ΔS M ) peak of the amorphous phase, which resulted in the table-like MCE over a maximum temperature range of 52.5 K to 77.5 K. The plateau feature of the MCE was found to be nearly independent of the applied magnetic field from 3 T to 5 T. The maximum −ΔS M value of the MCE platforms is 6.0 J/kg K under applied magnetic field change of 5 T. Below 3 T, the field independence of the table-like feature disappears. The relatively large constant values of −ΔS M for the respective applied magnetic fields have promising applications in magnetic refrigeration using regenerative Ericsson cycle

  9. Ambient noise causes independent changes in distinct spectro-temporal features of echolocation calls in horseshoe bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Jiang, Tinglei; Berquist, Sean W; Feng, Jiang; Metzner, Walter

    2014-07-15

    One of the most efficient mechanisms to optimize signal-to-noise ratios is the Lombard effect - an involuntary rise in call amplitude due to ambient noise. It is often accompanied by changes in the spectro-temporal composition of calls. We examined the effects of broadband-filtered noise on the spectro-temporal composition of horseshoe bat echolocation calls, which consist of a constant-frequency component and initial and terminal frequency-modulated components. We found that the frequency-modulated components became larger for almost all noise conditions, whereas the bandwidth of the constant-frequency component increased only when broadband-filtered noise was centered on or above the calls' dominant or fundamental frequency. This indicates that ambient noise independently modifies the associated acoustic parameters of the Lombard effect, such as spectro-temporal features, and could significantly affect the bat's ability to detect and locate targets. Our findings may be of significance in evaluating the impact of environmental noise on echolocation behavior in bats. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Conditional non-independence of radiographic image features and the derivation of post-test probabilities – A mammography BI-RADS example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Bayes' theorem has proven to be one of the cornerstones in medical decision making. It allows for the derivation of post-test probabilities, which in case of a positive test result become positive predictive values. If several test results are observed successively Bayes' theorem may be used with assumed conditional independence of test results or with incorporated conditional dependencies. Herein it is examined whether radiographic image features should be considered conditionally independent diagnostic tests when post-test probabilities are to be derived. For this purpose the mammographic mass dataset from the UCI (University of California, Irvine) machine learning repository is analysed. It comprises the description of 961 (516 benign, 445 malignant) mammographic mass lesions according to the BI-RADS (Breast Imaging: Reporting and Data System) lexicon. Firstly, an exhaustive correlation matrix is presented for mammography BI-RADS features among benign and malignant lesions separately; correlation can be regarded as measure for conditional dependence. Secondly, it is shown that the derived positive predictive values for the conjunction of the two features “irregular shape” and “spiculated margin” differ significantly depending on whether conditional dependencies are incorporated into the decision process or not. It is concluded that radiographic image features should not generally be regarded as conditionally independent diagnostic tests.

  11. Callous-Unemotional Features, Behavioral Inhibition, and Parenting: Independent Predictors of Aggression in a High-Risk Preschool Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Frick, Paul J.; Boris, Neil W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Cornell, Amy H.; Farrell, Jamie M.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A behaviorally-uninhibited temperament, callous-unemotional (CU) features, and harsh parenting have been associated with specific patterns of aggressive behavior in older children and adolescents. We tested the additive and interactive effects of these factors in predicting different types of aggressive behavior in a high-risk preschool sample.…

  12. Stimulus-related independent component and voxel-wise analysis of human brain activity during free viewing of a feature film.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha M Lahnakoski

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain processes stimuli in a rich natural environment is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. Here, we showed a feature film to 10 healthy volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of hemodynamic brain activity. We then annotated auditory and visual features of the motion picture to inform analysis of the hemodynamic data. The annotations were fitted to both voxel-wise data and brain network time courses extracted by independent component analysis (ICA. Auditory annotations correlated with two independent components (IC disclosing two functional networks, one responding to variety of auditory stimulation and another responding preferentially to speech but parts of the network also responding to non-verbal communication. Visual feature annotations correlated with four ICs delineating visual areas according to their sensitivity to different visual stimulus features. In comparison, a separate voxel-wise general linear model based analysis disclosed brain areas preferentially responding to sound energy, speech, music, visual contrast edges, body motion and hand motion which largely overlapped the results revealed by ICA. Differences between the results of IC- and voxel-based analyses demonstrate that thorough analysis of voxel time courses is important for understanding the activity of specific sub-areas of the functional networks, while ICA is a valuable tool for revealing novel information about functional connectivity which need not be explained by the predefined model. Our results encourage the use of naturalistic stimuli and tasks in cognitive neuroimaging to study how the brain processes stimuli in rich natural environments.

  13. FEATURES OF THE INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE FORM OF TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Dyvak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of introduction of information and communication technologies in educational process of higher educational institutions in the conditions of implementation of the correspondence form of training. Examples of the use of information and communication technologies in educational process of higher educational institutions, in particular in the preparation of specialists in pedagogics of higher school in the conditions of the correspondence form of training are presented. Discussed the basic didactic principles of distance and traditional forms of education. The theoretical substantiation of a choice of a virtual learning environment compass for the needs of training of specialists in pedagogics of higher school is presented. Determined the location of independent work of students in the educational process of higher education. Outputed the main functional modules of modern management systems of distance learning.

  14. Table-like magnetocaloric effect in Gd{sub 56}Ni{sub 15}Al{sub 27}Zr{sub 2} alloy and its field independence feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agurgo Balfour, E.; Ma, Z.; Fu, H., E-mail: fuhao@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: rockingsandstorm@163.com; Wang, L.; Luo, Y. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Wang, S. F., E-mail: fuhao@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: rockingsandstorm@163.com [North Electronic Device Research Institute, Beijing 100141 (China)

    2015-09-28

    In order to obtain “table-like” magnetocaloric effect (MCE), multiple-phase Gd{sub 56}Ni{sub 15}Al{sub 27}Zr{sub 2} alloy was prepared by arc-melting followed by suck-casting method. Powder x-ray diffraction and calorimetric measurements reveal that the sample contains both glassy and crystalline phases. The fraction of the glassy phase is about 62%, estimated from the heat enthalpy of the crystallization. The crystalline phases, Gd{sub 2}Al and GdNiAl further broadened the relatively wider magnetic entropy change (−ΔS{sub M}) peak of the amorphous phase, which resulted in the table-like MCE over a maximum temperature range of 52.5 K to 77.5 K. The plateau feature of the MCE was found to be nearly independent of the applied magnetic field from 3 T to 5 T. The maximum −ΔS{sub M} value of the MCE platforms is 6.0 J/kg K under applied magnetic field change of 5 T. Below 3 T, the field independence of the table-like feature disappears. The relatively large constant values of −ΔS{sub M} for the respective applied magnetic fields have promising applications in magnetic refrigeration using regenerative Ericsson cycle.

  15. Feature dimensionality reduction for myoelectric pattern recognition: a comparison study of feature selection and feature projection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of the feature dimensionality reduction strategies on the classification of surface electromyography (EMG) signals toward developing a practical myoelectric control system. Two dimensionality reduction strategies, feature selection and feature projection, were tested on both EMG feature sets, respectively. A feature selection based myoelectric pattern recognition system was introduced to select the features by eliminating the redundant features of EMG recordings instead of directly choosing a subset of EMG channels. The Markov random field (MRF) method and a forward orthogonal search algorithm were employed to evaluate the contribution of each individual feature to the classification, respectively. Our results from 15 healthy subjects indicate that, with a feature selection analysis, independent of the type of feature set, across all subjects high overall accuracies can be achieved in classification of seven different forearm motions with a small number of top ranked original EMG features obtained from the forearm muscles (average overall classification accuracy >95% with 12 selected EMG features). Compared to various feature dimensionality reduction techniques in myoelectric pattern recognition, the proposed filter-based feature selection approach is independent of the type of classification algorithms and features, which can effectively reduce the redundant information not only across different channels, but also cross different features in the same channel. This may enable robust EMG feature dimensionality reduction without needing to change ongoing, practical use of classification algorithms, an important step toward clinical utility. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. USCIS Backlog Elimination

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS is streamlining the way immigration benefits are delivered. By working smarter and eliminating redundancies, USCIS is bringing a business model to government....

  17. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…

  18. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  19. E2F7, a novel E2F featuring DP-independent repression of a subset of E2F-regulated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Luisa; Jensen, Michael Rugaard; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    to the E2F DNA binding consensus site independently of DP co-factors. Consistent with being an E2F target gene, we found that the expression of E2F7 is cell cycle regulated. Ectopic expression of E2F7 results in suppression of E2F target genes and accumulation of cells in G1. Furthermore, E2F7 associates......The E2F family of transcription factors play an essential role in the regulation of cell cycle progression. In a screen for E2F-regulated genes we identified a novel E2F family member, E2F7. Like the recently identified E2F-like proteins of Arabidopsis, E2F7 has two DNA binding domains and binds...... with E2F-regulated promoters in vivo, and this association increases in S phase. Interestingly, however, E2F7 binds only a subset of E2F-dependent promoters in vivo, and in agreement with this, inhibition of E2F7 expression results in specific derepression of these promoters. Taken together, these data...

  20. Myoinositol combined with alpha-lipoic acid may improve the clinical and endocrine features of polycystic ovary syndrome through an insulin-independent action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cicco, Simona; Immediata, Valentina; Romualdi, Daniela; Policola, Caterina; Tropea, Anna; Di Florio, Christian; Tagliaferri, Valeria; Scarinci, Elisa; Della Casa, Silvia; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a combined treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and myoinositol (MYO) on clinical, endocrine and metabolic features of women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this pilot cohort study, forty women with PCOS were enrolled and clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters were evaluated before and after a six-months combined treatment with ALA and MYO daily. Studied patients experienced a significant increase in the number of cycles in six months (p < 0.01). The free androgen index (FAI), the mean androstenedione and DHEAS levels significantly decreased after treatment (p < 0.05). Mean SHBG levels significantly raised (p < 0.01). A significant improvement in mean Ferriman-Gallwey (F-G) score (p < 0.01) and a significant reduction of BMI (p < 0.01) were also observed. A significant reduction of AMH levels, ovarian volume and total antral follicular count were observed in our studied women (p< 0.05). No significant changes occurred in gluco-insulinaemic and lipid parameters after treatment. The combined treatment of ALA and MYO is able to restore the menstrual pattern and to improve the hormonal milieu of PCOS women, even in the absence of apparent changes in insulin metabolism.

  1. Risks: diagnosing and eliminating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy A. Tikhomirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop conceptual theoretical and legal provisions and scientific recommendations on the identification analysis and elimination of risk. Methods universal dialectic method of cognition as well as scientific and private research methods based on it. Results the system was researched of risks diagnostics in the legal sphere and mechanism of influencing the quotrisk situationsquot and their consequences damage to the environment and harm to society. The concept of risk in the legal sphere was formulated the author39s classification of risks in the legal sphere is presented. The rules of analysis evaluation and prevention of risks and the model risk management framework are elaborated. Scientific novelty the mechanism for the identification analysis and elimination of risk has been developed and introduced into scientific circulation the author has proposed the classification and types of risks the reasons and the conditions promoting the risk occurrence. Practical significance the provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific lawmaking and lawenforcement activity as well as in the educational process of higher educational establishments. nbsp

  2. Elimination of aluminum adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Stanley L

    2002-05-31

    In vitro dissolution experiments although perhaps not at typical body concentrations and temperatures demonstrated that the alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids present in interstitial fluid (citric acid, lactic acid, and malic acid) are capable of dissolving aluminum-containing adjuvants. Amorphous aluminum phosphate adjuvant dissolved more rapidly than crystalline aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Intramuscular administration in New Zealand White rabbits of aluminum phosphate and aluminum hydroxide adjuvants, which were labelled with 26Al, revealed that 26Al was present in the first blood sample (1 h) for both adjuvants. The area under the blood level curve for 28 days indicated that three times more aluminum was absorbed from aluminum phosphate adjuvant than aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. In vivo studies using 26Al-labelled adjuvants are relatively safe because accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) can quantify quantities of 26Al as small as 10(-17) g. A similar study in humans would require a whole-body exposure of 0.7 microSv per year compared to the natural background exposure of 3000 microSv per year. The in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption studies indicate that aluminum-containing adjuvants which are administered intramuscularly are dissolved by alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids in interstitial fluid, absorbed into the blood, distributed to tissues, and eliminated in the urine.

  3. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  4. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    about board independence in Western jurisdictions, a surprising disharmony prevails about the justification, extent and purpose of independence requirements. These considerations lead me to question the benefits of the current system. Instead, this paper proposes a new, ‘functional’ concept of board...

  5. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  6. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  7. Proportional counter end effects eliminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekins, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    An improved gas-filled proportional counter which includes a resistor network connected between the anode and cathode at the ends of the counter in order to eliminate ''end effects'' is described. 3 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  8. Parameter Optimization for Feature and Hit Generation in a General Unknown Screening Method-Proof of Concept Study Using a Design of Experiment Approach for a High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Procedure after Data Independent Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmiger, Marco P; Poetzsch, Michael; Steuer, Andrea E; Kraemer, Thomas

    2018-03-06

    High resolution mass spectrometry and modern data independent acquisition (DIA) methods enable the creation of general unknown screening (GUS) procedures. However, even when DIA is used, its potential is far from being exploited, because often, the untargeted acquisition is followed by a targeted search. Applying an actual GUS (including untargeted screening) produces an immense amount of data that must be dealt with. An optimization of the parameters regulating the feature detection and hit generation algorithms of the data processing software could significantly reduce the amount of unnecessary data and thereby the workload. Design of experiment (DoE) approaches allow a simultaneous optimization of multiple parameters. In a first step, parameters are evaluated (crucial or noncrucial). Second, crucial parameters are optimized. The aim in this study was to reduce the number of hits, without missing analytes. The obtained parameter settings from the optimization were compared to the standard settings by analyzing a test set of blood samples spiked with 22 relevant analytes as well as 62 authentic forensic cases. The optimization lead to a marked reduction of workload (12.3 to 1.1% and 3.8 to 1.1% hits for the test set and the authentic cases, respectively) while simultaneously increasing the identification rate (68.2 to 86.4% and 68.8 to 88.1%, respectively). This proof of concept study emphasizes the great potential of DoE approaches to master the data overload resulting from modern data independent acquisition methods used for general unknown screening procedures by optimizing software parameters.

  9. Lacunarity Elimination in the Translation of Nonequivalent Juridical Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Lazarev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors refer to the problem of lacunarity elimination in legal texts reflecting national specific features in the legal sphere. Various ways of filling gaps when translating from English into Russian are suggested using legal-dogmatic theoretical texts as an example. Different variants of the lacunae elimination are proposed, which take into account the peculiarities of this type of text and can assist in the work of a legal translator.

  10. Gene Silencing and Sex Determination by Programmed DNA Elimination in Parasitic Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Adrian; Wang, Jianbin; Kang, Yuanyuan; Davis, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is essential. However, programmed DNA elimination removes specific DNA sequences from the genome during early development. DNA elimination occurs in unicellular ciliates and diverse metazoa ranging from nematodes to vertebrates. Two distinct groups of nematodes use DNA elimination to silence germline-expressed genes in the soma (ascarids) or for sex determination (Strongyloides spp.). Data suggest that DNA elimination likely evolved independently in these nematodes. Recent studies indicate that differential CENP-A deposition within chromosomes determines which sequences are retained and lost during Ascaris DNA elimination. Additional studies are needed to determine the distribution, functions, and mechanisms of DNA elimination in nematodes. PMID:27315434

  11. Cutaneous tuberculosis with a difference: Documenting transfollicular elimination of granulomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag A Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient presented with a an asymptomatic brown to erythematous, scaly indurated solitary plaque on his elbow. The lesion was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris on the basis of clinical features and biopsy findings. The histopathology further revealed a granuloma within the follicular infundibulum, which was possibly being expelled out. The phenomenon of transepidermal elimination has been described previously in many conditions, including cutaneous tuberculosis; however, transfollicular elimination of the granuloma has not been reported. We report this unusual phenomenon as a possible mode of elimination of the granuloma.

  12. Measles elimination: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, F T; Henao-Restrepo, A; Olivé, J M

    1999-10-29

    The accelerating progress in reducing measles incidence and mortality in many parts of the world has led to calls for its global eradication during the next 10-15 years. Three regions have established goals of elimination of indigenous transmission of measles. The strategy used in the Americas of a mass 'catchup' campaign of children 9 months to 15 years of age, high coverage through routine vaccination of infants, intensive surveillance and follow-up campaigns to prevent excessive build-up of susceptibles has had great success in reducing measles transmission close to zero. However, while these developments are impressive, much remains to be done to reduce measles-associated mortality in western and central Africa, where less than half of children are currently receiving measles vaccine and half a million children die from measles each year. The obstacles to global measles eradication are perceived to be predominantly political and financial. There are also technical questions, however. These include the refinement of measles elimination strategies in the light of recent outbreaks in the Americas; the implications of the HIV epidemic for measles elimination, issues around injection safety, and concerns about the possibility that secondary vaccine failures will contribute in sustaining transmission in highly vaccinated populations. The global priorities are to improve measles control in low income countries, increase awareness among industrialized countries of the importance of measles, and conduct studies to answer the technical questions about measles elimination strategies.

  13. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index

  14. Elimination Problems in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  15. Formal algorithmic elimination for PDEs

    CERN Document Server

    Robertz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the correspondence between systems of partial differential equations and their analytic solutions using a formal approach, this monograph presents algorithms to determine the set of analytic solutions of such a system and conversely to find differential equations whose set of solutions coincides with a given parametrized set of analytic functions. After giving a detailed introduction to Janet bases and Thomas decomposition, the problem of finding an implicit description of certain sets of analytic functions in terms of differential equations is addressed. Effective methods of varying generality are developed to solve the differential elimination problems that arise in this context. In particular, it is demonstrated how the symbolic solution of partial differential equations profits from the study of the implicitization problem. For instance, certain families of exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations can be computed.

  16. Test Bias and the Elimination of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, William E.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of test bias are discussed: content bias, atmosphere bias, and use bias. Use bias is considered the most important. Tests reflect the bias in society, and eliminating test bias means eliminating racism and sexism in society. A six-stage model to eliminate racism and sexism is presented. (Author)

  17. Costs and financial feasibility of malaria elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabot, Oliver; Cohen, Justin M; Hsiang, Michelle S; Kahn, James G; Basu, Suprotik; Tang, Linhua; Zheng, Bin; Gao, Qi; Zou, Linda; Tatarsky, Allison; Aboobakar, Shahina; Usas, Jennifer; Barrett, Scott; Cohen, Jessica L; Jamison, Dean T; Feachem, Richard GA

    2010-01-01

    Summary The marginal costs and benefits of converting malaria programmes from a control to an elimination goal are central to strategic decisions, but empirical evidence is scarce. We present a conceptual framework to assess the economics of elimination and analyse a central component of that framework—potential short-term to medium-term financial savings. After a review that showed a dearth of existing evidence, the net present value of elimination in five sites was calculated and compared with effective control. The probability that elimination would be cost-saving over 50 years ranged from 0% to 42%, with only one site achieving cost-savings in the base case. These findings show that financial savings should not be a primary rationale for elimination, but that elimination might still be a worthy investment if total benefits are sufficient to outweigh marginal costs. Robust research into these elimination benefits is urgently needed. PMID:21035839

  18. Sulforaphane and TRAIL induce a synergistic elimination of advanced prostate cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labsch, Sabrina; Liu, Li; Bauer, Nathalie; Zhang, Yiyao; Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Gladkich, Jury; Schönsiegel, Frank; Herr, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    Advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Apoptosis-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in AIPC and are not eliminated by current therapeutics. Novel therapeutic options, which are currently being evaluated in patient studies, include TRAIL and the broccoli-derived isothiocyanate sulforaphane. Although neither agent targets normal cells, TRAIL induces apoptosis in most cancer cells, and sulforaphane eliminates CSCs. In this study, the established AIPC cell lines DU145 and PC3, with enriched CSC features, and primary patient-derived prostate CSCs were treated with sulforaphane and recombinant soluble TRAIL. We examined the effects of these drugs on NF-κB activity, self-renewal and differentiation potential, and stem cell signaling via spheroid- and colony-forming assays, FACS and western blot analyses, immunohistochemistry, and an antibody protein array in vitro and after xenotransplantation. We largely found a stronger effect of sulforaphane on CSC properties compared to TRAIL, though the agents acted synergistically when applied in combination. This was associated with the inhibition of TRAIL-induced NF-κB binding; CXCR4, Jagged1, Notch 1, SOX 2, and Nanog expression; ALDH1 activity inhibition; and the elimination of differentiation and self-renewal potential. In vivo, tumor engraftment and tumor growth were strongly inhibited, without the induction of liver necrosis or other obvious side effects. These findings suggest that sulforaphane shifts the balance from TRAIL-induced survival signals to apoptosis and thus explains the observed synergistic effect. A nutritional strategy for high sulforaphane intake may target the cancer-specific activity of TRAIL in CSCs.

  19. Detecting and eliminating slippery footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C; Manning, D P; Bruce, M

    1995-02-01

    A recently developed walking traction test has proved to be a reliable and rapid method of measuring coefficient of friction (c.o.f.) of floor surfaces and footwear, and is a suitable method for ranking the grip of footwear solings on slippery floors. This paper describes four new experiments in which footwear samples were ranked. The first experiment compared mean rank orders on water wet (wet) and oily surfaces of seven flat solings. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rs was 0·893, P test methods. The test surfaces were oily stainless steel plates cut from the same sheet. Rank orders of the three test methods were significantly similar. Kendall's coefficient of concordance w = 8·68, P < 0·001. In another experiment samples of commercially available footwear were issued to factory workers and recalled for c.o.f. measurements at intervals. Their rank orders on wet and oily surfaces were not statistically similar but when wet surface results obtained at 4 months, were compared with those at 10 months, rank orders were significant; rs = 0·994, P < 0·01. Also on oily surfaces, rank orders of two measurements were significant, rs = 0·982, P <0·01. Although most experiments have revealed significant correlations between footwear samples on wet and oily surfaces there are examples where a soling performs well on wet surfaces but is at the lower end of rank order on oily surfaces. It is concluded that rank orders on wet, oily and icy surfaces should be calculated but also it is necessary to examine rank orders on each surface-lubricant combination, by comparing results obtained at intervals during the useful lives of the solings. In future, samples at the lower end of the rank orders of c.o.f. will be eliminated from the varieties available to workers.

  20. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Fernández-Santos, Nadia A.; Orozco-Algarra, María E.; Rodríguez-Atanacio, José A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Real-Najarro, Olga; Prado-Velasco, Francisco G.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Richards, Frank O.; Hassan, Hassan K.; González-Roldán, Jesús F.; Kuri-Morales, Pablo A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS) surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP) was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population. Conclusions/Significance The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico. PMID:26161558

  1. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez

    Full Text Available Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence.In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA, resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population.The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico.

  2. Model-independent Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Erik; Piskunov, Nikolai

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new data analysis method for obtaining transmission spectra of exoplanet atmospheres and brightness variation across the stellar disk from transit observations. The new method is capable of recovering exoplanet atmosphere absorption spectra and stellar specific intensities without relying on theoretical models of stars and planets. We simultaneously fit both stellar specific intensity and planetary radius directly to transit light curves. This allows stellar models to be removed from the data analysis. Furthermore, we use a data quality weighted filtering technique to achieve an optimal trade-off between spectral resolution and reconstruction fidelity homogenizing the signal-to-noise ratio across the wavelength range. Such an approach is more efficient than conventional data binning onto a low-resolution wavelength grid. We demonstrate that our analysis is capable of reproducing results achieved by using an explicit quadratic limb-darkening equation and that the filtering technique helps eliminate spurious spectral features in regions with strong telluric absorption. The method is applied to the VLT FORS2 observations of the exoplanets GJ 1214 b and WASP-49 b, and our results are in agreement with previous studies. Comparisons between obtained stellar specific intensity and numerical models indicates that the method is capable of accurately reconstructing the specific intensity. The proposed method enables more robust characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres by separating derivation of planetary transmission and stellar specific intensity spectra (that is model-independent) from chemical and physical interpretation.

  3. Hypothesis elimination on a quantum computer

    OpenAIRE

    Soklakov, Andrei N.; Schack, Ruediger

    2004-01-01

    Hypothesis elimination is a special case of Bayesian updating, where each piece of new data rules out a set of prior hypotheses. We describe how to use Grover's algorithm to perform hypothesis elimination for a class of probability distributions encoded on a register of qubits, and establish a lower bound on the required computational resources.

  4. Emissivity independent optical pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; Kisner, Roger A.

    2017-04-04

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for determining the temperature of an object using an optical pyrometer. Certain embodiments of the disclosed technology allow for making optical temperature measurements that are independent of the surface emissivity of the object being sensed. In one of the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein, a plurality of spectral radiance measurements at a plurality of wavelengths is received from a surface of an object being measured. The plurality of the spectral radiance measurements is fit to a scaled version of a black body curve, the fitting comprising determining a temperature of the scaled version of the black body curve. The temperature is then output. The present disclosure is not to be construed as limiting and is instead directed toward all novel and nonobvious features and aspects of the various disclosed embodiments, alone or in various combinations and subcombinations with one another.

  5. Elevated serum uric acid levels are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independently of metabolic syndrome features in the United States: Liver ultrasound data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Jeffrey C; McFann, Kim; Targher, Giovanni; Johnson, Richard J; Chonchol, Michel; Jalal, Diana I

    2013-03-01

    Experimental and observational studies suggest a role for uric acid in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined the association between serum uric acid levels and NAFLD in a large population-based study from the United States. A cross-sectional analysis of 10,732 nondiabetic adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994. Sex specific uric acid quartiles were defined: ≤5.2, 5.3-6.0, 6.1-6.9, and >6.9mg/dL for men and ≤3.7, 3.8-4.5, 4.6-5.3, and >5.3mg/dL for women. NAFLD presence and severity were defined by ultrasonographic detection of steatosis in the absence of other liver diseases. We modeled the probability that more severe NAFLD would be associated with the highest quartiles of uric acid. Compared to the 1st quartile, the odds ratio for NAFLD was 1.79 (95% C.I. 1.49-2.15, puric acid (4th quartile) was significantly associated with NAFLD (odds ratio 1.43; 95% C.I. 1.16-1.76, puric acid is associated with greater severity of NAFLD. Elevated uric acid level is independently associated with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD in a nationally representative sample of United States nondiabetic adults. Increasing uric acid is associated with increasing severity of NAFLD on ultrasonography. These findings warrant further studies on the role of uric acid in NAFLD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...

  7. Radial gradient and radial deviation radiomic features from pre-surgical CT scans are associated with survival among lung adenocarcinoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, Ilke; Stringfield, Olya; Guvenis, Albert; Wang, Hua; Liu, Ying; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Lambin, Philippe; Gillies, Robert J.; Schabath, Matthew B.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to extract features from radial deviation and radial gradient maps which were derived from thoracic CT scans of patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma and assess whether these features are associated with overall survival. We used two independent cohorts from different institutions for training (n= 61) and test (n= 47) and focused our analyses on features that were non-redundant and highly reproducible. To reduce the number of features and covariates into a single parsimonious model, a backward elimination approach was applied. Out of 48 features that were extracted, 31 were eliminated because they were not reproducible or were redundant. We considered 17 features for statistical analysis and identified a final model containing the two most highly informative features that were associated with lung cancer survival. One of the two features, radial deviation outside-border separation standard deviation, was replicated in a test cohort exhibiting a statistically significant association with lung cancer survival (multivariable hazard ratio = 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.97). Additionally, we explored the biological underpinnings of these features and found radial gradient and radial deviation image features were significantly associated with semantic radiological features. PMID:29221183

  8. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  9. Feature Extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Feature selection and reduction are key to robust multivariate analyses. In this talk I will focus on pros and cons of various variable selection methods and focus on those that are most relevant in the context of HEP.

  10. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  11. Cut elimination in multifocused linear logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenot, Nicolas; Brock-Nannestad, Taus

    2015-01-01

    We study cut elimination for a multifocused variant of full linear logic in the sequent calculus. The multifocused normal form of proofs yields problems that do not appear in a standard focused system, related to the constraints in grouping rule instances in focusing phases. We show that cut...... elimination can be performed in a sensible way even though the proof requires some specific lemmas to deal with multifocusing phases, and discuss the difficulties arising with cut elimination when considering normal forms of proofs in linear logic....

  12. Elimination of variables in simple laser equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, C.Z.; Haken, H. (Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)

    1992-08-01

    The usual way of obtaining rate equations (RE) and a single equation for the field amplitude (EFA) from the semiclassical laser equations (Lorentz-Haken model) is reexamined by undertaking a systematic elimination procedure developed in synergetics. The RE and EFA are justified in the case 1 ({gamma}{sub perpendicular} {sub to}>> {gamma}{sub parallel}, {kappa}) and case 2 ({gamma}{sub perpendicular} {sub to}, {gamma}{sub parallel}>>{kappa}), respectively. We show that, because the eliminated variable happens to contain a considerable contribution from an unstable mode, the usual elimination technique in the case 3 ({gamma}{sub perpendicular} {sub to}, {kappa}>>{gamma}{sub parallel}) leads to an inconsistency. As important by-products we obtain the RE and EFA for arbitrary cavity relaxation constant ({kappa}). Some remarks are given on the direct elimination technique in the non-diagonal representation in the study of instabilities. (orig.).

  13. Transmission dynamics and prospects for the elimination of canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in Tanzania and generate a uniquely detailed analysis of transmission biology, which explains important epidemiological features, including the level of variation in epidemic trajectories. We found that the basic reproductive number for rabies, R0, is very low in our study area in rural Africa (approximately 1.2 and throughout its historic global range (<2. This finding provides strong support for the feasibility of controlling endemic canine rabies by vaccination, even near wildlife areas with large wild carnivore populations. However, we show that rapid turnover of domestic dog populations has been a major obstacle to successful control in developing countries, thus regular pulse vaccinations will be required to maintain population-level immunity between campaigns. Nonetheless our analyses suggest that with sustained, international commitment, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal.

  14. Feature Selection based on Machine Learning in MRIs for Hippocampal Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangaro, Sabina; Amoroso, Nicola; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Chincarini, Andrea; Errico, Rosangela; Paolo, Inglese; Longo, Giuseppe; Maglietta, Rosalia; Tateo, Andrea; Riccio, Giuseppe; Bellotti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are frequently associated with structural changes in the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can show these variations and therefore can be used as a supportive feature for a number of neurodegenerative diseases. The hippocampus has been known to be a biomarker for Alzheimer disease and other neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, it requires accurate, robust, and reproducible delineation of hippocampal structures. Fully automatic methods are usually the voxel based approach; for each voxel a number of local features were calculated. In this paper, we compared four different techniques for feature selection from a set of 315 features extracted for each voxel: (i) filter method based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test; two wrapper methods, respectively, (ii) sequential forward selection and (iii) sequential backward elimination; and (iv) embedded method based on the Random Forest Classifier on a set of 10 T1-weighted brain MRIs and tested on an independent set of 25 subjects. The resulting segmentations were compared with manual reference labelling. By using only 23 feature for each voxel (sequential backward elimination) we obtained comparable state-of-the-art performances with respect to the standard tool FreeSurfer.

  15. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  16. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.

  17. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  18. Independent student study groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Graham D; Hyde, Sarah J; Davy, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Teachers and students regulate learning to varying degrees in educational programmes in higher education. We present evidence that students in a student-centred medical programme self- and co-regulate their learning in independently formed study groups. We describe the perceived benefits of study groups and the effect of study group membership on student achievement. Years 1-2 of a 4-year, graduate-entry problem-based medical programme. We surveyed 233 year 2 students about features of their study groups and their study group membership in years 1-2. We compared study group membership with students' scores on a written summative assessment held at the end of their second year. For students who joined 1 study group, the length of time their group stayed together was positively related to achievement in the written summative assessment. There were no differences in summative assessment results between students who had been in a study group and students who had not been in a study group. Effective study groups are supportive, socially cohesive groups who generate mutual trust and loyalty, and self- and co-regulate their learning by giving and receiving explanations and summaries and motivating individual study. Teachers can support the formation of study groups by using small-group teaching/learning activities, providing clear learning outcomes and assessment criteria, minimising competition for grades and allocating room space.

  19. Elimination of Ideas and Professional Socialisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravengaard, Gitte; Rimestad, Lene

    2012-01-01

    . Our aim is to study how this building of expertise takes place at meetings with a particular focus on the decision-making process concerning ideas for new news stories. In order to do this, we perform linguistic analysis of news production practices, as we investigate how the journalists' ideas......This article investigates and interprets social and cultural production and reproduction as we turn our attention to an important part of routinised practice in the newsroom: the early newsroom meetings. These meetings are essential sites for the building of the craft ethos and professional vision...... for potential news stories are eliminated by the editor at the daily newsroom meetings. The elimination of ideas for news stories are not just eliminations; they are also corrections of culturally undesirable behaviour producing and reproducing the proper perception of an important object of knowledge...

  20. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  1. A Novel Feature Extraction Method with Feature Selection to Identify Golgi-Resident Protein Types from Imbalanced Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lina

    2016-02-06

    The Golgi Apparatus (GA) is a major collection and dispatch station for numerous proteins destined for secretion, plasma membranes and lysosomes. The dysfunction of GA proteins can result in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, accurate identification of protein subGolgi localizations may assist in drug development and understanding the mechanisms of the GA involved in various cellular processes. In this paper, a new computational method is proposed for identifying cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Based on the concept of Common Spatial Patterns (CSP), a novel feature extraction technique is developed to extract evolutionary information from protein sequences. To deal with the imbalanced benchmark dataset, the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE) is adopted. A feature selection method called Random Forest-Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) is employed to search the optimal features from the CSP based features and g-gap dipeptide composition. Based on the optimal features, a Random Forest (RF) module is used to distinguish cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Through the jackknife cross-validation, the proposed method achieves a promising performance with a sensitivity of 0.889, a specificity of 0.880, an accuracy of 0.885, and a Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.765, which remarkably outperforms previous methods. Moreover, when tested on a common independent dataset, our method also achieves a significantly improved performance. These results highlight the promising performance of the proposed method to identify Golgi-resident protein types. Furthermore, the CSP based feature extraction method may provide guidelines for protein function predictions.

  2. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  3. Strategy elimination in games with interaction structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witzel, A.; Apt, K.R.; Zvesper, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We study games in the presence of an interaction structure, which allows players to communicate their preferences, assuming that each player initially only knows his own preferences. We study the outcomes of iterated elimination of strictly dominated strategies (IESDS) that can be obtained in any

  4. Eliminating transducer distortion in acoustic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Torras Rosell, Antoni; McWalter, Richard Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the in uence of nonlinear components that contaminate the linear response of acoustic transducer, and presents a method for eliminating the in uence of nonlinearities in acoustic measurements. The method is evaluated on simulated as well as experimental data, and is shown ...

  5. Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization by Gauss Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursell, Lyle; Trimble, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Described is the hand-calculation method for the orthogonalization of a given set of vectors through the integration of Gaussian elimination with existing algorithms. Although not numerically preferable, this method adds increased precision as well as organization to the solution process. (JJK)

  6. Featuring animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ritter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Algonquian languages are famous for their animacy-based grammatical properties—an animacy based noun classification system and direct/inverse system which gives rise to animacy hierarchy effects in the determination of verb agreement. In this paper I provide new evidence for the proposal that the distinctive properties of these languages is due to the use of participant-based features, rather than spatio-temporal ones, for both nominal and verbal functional categories (Ritter & Wiltschko 2009, 2014. Building on Wiltschko (2012, I develop a formal treatment of the Blackfoot aspectual system that assumes a category Inner Aspect (cf. MacDonald 2008, Travis 1991, 2010. Focusing on lexical aspect in Blackfoot, I demonstrate that the classification of both nouns (Seinsarten and verbs (Aktionsarten is based on animacy, rather than boundedness, resulting in a strikingly different aspectual system for both categories. 

  7. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  8. Death Induced by CD95 or CD95 Ligand Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hadji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available CD95 (Fas/APO-1, when bound by its cognate ligand CD95L, induces cells to die by apoptosis. We now show that elimination of CD95 or CD95L results in a form of cell death that is independent of caspase-8, RIPK1/MLKL, and p53, is not inhibited by Bcl-xL expression, and preferentially affects cancer cells. All tumors that formed in mouse models of low-grade serous ovarian cancer or chemically induced liver cancer with tissue-specific deletion of CD95 still expressed CD95, suggesting that cancer cannot form in the absence of CD95. Death induced by CD95R/L elimination (DICE is characterized by an increase in cell size, production of mitochondrial ROS, and DNA damage. It resembles a necrotic form of mitotic catastrophe. No single drug was found to completely block this form of cell death, and it could also not be blocked by the knockdown of a single gene, making it a promising way to kill cancer cells.

  9. Predicting lymphatic filariasis transmission and elimination dynamics using a multi-model ensemble framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, M.E. (Morgan E.); B.K. Singh (Brajendra K.); M.A. Irvine (Michael A.); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); S.V. Subramanian; T.D. Hollingsworth (T. Déirdre); Michael, E. (Edwin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMathematical models of parasite transmission provide powerful tools for assessing the impacts of interventions. Owing to complexity and uncertainty, no single model may capture all features of transmission and elimination dynamics. Multi-model ensemble modelling offers a framework to

  10. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... observed events (uppercase letters denote behaviour during defaecation). In all recorded events, 383 stood and 54 walked whilst defaecating (P

  11. Elimination of salmonella from animal glandular products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C W; Burck, K T; Feldman, D

    1969-03-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin-a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination.

  12. Elimination of Salmonellae from Animal Glandular Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, Conrad W.; Burck, Kenneth T.; Feldman, David

    1969-01-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin—a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination. PMID:5780395

  13. On the use of feature selection to improve the detection of sea oil spills in SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, David; Bolon-Canedo, Veronica; Cotos, J. M.; Alonso-Betanzos, Amparo

    2017-03-01

    Fast and effective oil spill detection systems are crucial to ensure a proper response to environmental emergencies caused by hydrocarbon pollution on the ocean's surface. Typically, these systems uncover not only oil spills, but also a high number of look-alikes. The feature extraction is a critical and computationally intensive phase where each detected dark spot is independently examined. Traditionally, detection systems use an arbitrary set of features to discriminate between oil spills and look-alikes phenomena. However, Feature Selection (FS) methods based on Machine Learning (ML) have proved to be very useful in real domains for enhancing the generalization capabilities of the classifiers, while discarding the existing irrelevant features. In this work, we present a generic and systematic approach, based on FS methods, for choosing a concise and relevant set of features to improve the oil spill detection systems. We have compared five FS methods: Correlation-based feature selection (CFS), Consistency-based filter, Information Gain, ReliefF and Recursive Feature Elimination for Support Vector Machine (SVM-RFE). They were applied on a 141-input vector composed of features from a collection of outstanding studies. Selected features were validated via a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier and the results were compared with previous works. Test experiments revealed that the classifier trained with the 6-input feature vector proposed by SVM-RFE achieved the best accuracy and Cohen's kappa coefficient (87.1% and 74.06% respectively). This is a smaller feature combination with similar or even better classification accuracy than previous works. The presented finding allows to speed up the feature extraction phase without reducing the classifier accuracy. Experiments also confirmed the significance of the geometrical features since 75.0% of the different features selected by the applied FS methods as well as 66.67% of the proposed 6-input feature vector belong to

  14. Hitting Hotspots: Spatial Targeting of Malaria for Control and Elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousema, T.; Griffin, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Smith, D.L.; Churcher, T.S.; Takken, W.; Ghani, A.; Drakeley, C.; Gosling, R.

    2012-01-01

    Current malaria elimination guidelines are based on the concept that malaria transmission becomes heterogeneous in the later phases of malaria elimination [1]. In the pre-elimination and elimination phases, interventions have to be targeted to entire villages or towns with higher malaria incidence

  15. Standby-Loss Elimination in Server Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woo Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a server power system, a standby converter is required in order to provide the standby output, monitor the system’s status, and communicate with the server power system. Since these functions are always required, losses from the standby converter are produced even though the system operates in normal mode. For these reasons, the losses deteriorate the total efficiency of the system. In this paper, a new structure is proposed to eliminate the losses from the standby converter of a server power supply. The key feature of the proposed structure is that the main direct current (DC/DC converter substitutes all of the output power of the standby converter, and the standby converter is turned off in normal mode. With the proposed structure, the losses from the standby converter can be eliminated in normal mode, and this leads to a higher efficiency in overall load conditions. Although the structure has been proposed in the previous work, very important issues such as a steady state analysis, the transient responses, and how to control the standby converter are not discussed. This paper presents these issues further. The feasibility of the proposed structure has been verified with 400 V link voltage, 12 V/62.5 A main output, and a 12 V/2.1 A standby output server power system.

  16. Statistical features of quantum evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 2. Statistical features of ... Abstract. It is shown that the integral of the uncertainty of energy with respect to time is independent of the particular Hamiltonian of the quantum system for an arbitrary pseudo-unitary (and hence P T -) quantum evolution. The result ...

  17. Technique to eliminate computational instability in multibody simulations employing the Lagrange multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, G.

    1992-01-01

    A programming technique to eliminate computational instability in multibody simulations that use the Lagrange multiplier is presented. The computational instability occurs when the attached bodies drift apart and violate the constraints. The programming technique uses the constraint equation, instead of integration, to determine the coordinates that are not independent. Although the equations of motion are unchanged, a complete derivation of the incorporation of the Lagrange multiplier into the equation of motion for two bodies is presented. A listing of a digital computer program which uses the programming technique to eliminate computational instability is also presented. The computer program simulates a solid rocket booster and parachute connected by a frictionless swivel.

  18. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  19. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  20. Reducing allergic symptoms through eliminating subgingival plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elimination of subgingival plaque for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases through scaling is a routine procedure. It is also well-known that periodontal disease is related to systemic diseases. Nevertheless, the idea how scaling procedures also able to reduce allergic symptoms i.e. eczema and asthma, is not easily accepted, because it is contradictory to the “hygiene hypothesis”. However, since allergic symptoms also depend on variable factors such as genetic, environmental and infection factors; every possible effort to eliminate or avoid from these factors had to be considered. Subgingival plaque is a source of infection, especially the Gram-negative bacteria that produced endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS, a potential stimulator of immunocompetent cells, which may also related to allergy, such as mast cells and basophils. In addition, it also triggers the “neurogenic switching” mechanism which may be initiated from chronic gingivitis. Objective: This case report may explain the possible connection between subgingival plaque and allergy based on evidence-based cases. Case: Two adult siblings who suffered from chronic gingivitis also showed different manifestations of allergy that were allergic dermatitis and asthma for years. They were also undergone unsuccessful medical treatment for years. Oral and topical corticosteroids were taken for dermatitis and inhalation for asthma. Case Management: Patients were conducted deep scaling procedures, allergic symptoms gradually diminished in days even though without usual medications. Conclusion: Concerning to the effectiveness of scaling procedures which concomitantly eliminate subgingival plaque in allergic patients, it concluded that this concept is logical. Nevertheless, further verification and collaborated study with allergic expert should be done.

  1. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  2. Neuromuscular NMDA Receptors Modulate Developmental Synapse Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personius, Kirkwood E; Slusher, Barbara S; Udin, Susan B

    2016-08-24

    At birth, each mammalian skeletal muscle fiber is innervated by multiple motor neurons, but in a few weeks, all but one of those axons retracts (Redfern, 1970) and differential activity between inputs controls this phenomenon (Personius and Balice-Gordon, 2001; Sanes and Lichtman, 2001; Personius et al., 2007; Favero et al., 2012). Acetylcholine, the primary neuromuscular transmitter, has long been presumed to mediate this activity-dependent process (O'Brien et al., 1978), but glutamatergic transmission also occurs at the neuromuscular junction (Berger et al., 1995; Grozdanovic and Gossrau, 1998; Mays et al., 2009). To test the role of neuromuscular NMDA receptors, we assessed their contribution to muscle calcium fluxes in mice and tested whether they influence removal of excess innervation at the end plate. Developmental synapse pruning was slowed by reduction of NMDA receptor activation or expression and by reduction of glutamate production. Conversely, pruning is accelerated by application of exogenous NMDA. We also found that NMDA induced increased muscle calcium only during the first 2 postnatal weeks. Therefore, neuromuscular NMDA receptors play previously unsuspected roles in neuromuscular activity and synaptic pruning during development. In normal adult muscle, each muscle fiber is innervated by a single axon, but at birth, fibers are multiply innervated. Elimination of excess connections requires neural activity; because the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a cholinergic synapse, acetylcholine has been assumed to be the critical mediator of activity. However, glutamate receptors are also expressed at the NMJ. We found that axon removal in mice is slowed by pharmacological and molecular manipulations that decrease signaling through neuromuscular NMDA receptors, whereas application of exogenous NMDA at the NMJ accelerates synapse elimination and increases muscle calcium levels during the first 2 postnatal weeks. Therefore, neuromuscular NMDA receptors play

  3. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirsten L; Jovic, Martin; Vo-Phuoc, Jennifer L; Thorpe, Jeremy G; Doolan, Brian L

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ‘backlog’ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods: Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results: The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$). As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world's inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions: This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector. PMID:22944763

  4. Heuristic Drift Elimination for Personnel Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann; Ojeda, Lauro

    This paper pertains to the reduction of the effects of measurement errors in rate gyros used for tracking, recording, or monitoring the position of persons walking indoors. In such applications, bias drift and other gyro errors can degrade accuracy within minutes. To overcome this problem we developed the Heuristic Drift Elimination (HDE) method, that effectively corrects bias drift and other slow-changing errors. HDE works by making assumptions about walking in structured, indoor environments. The paper explains the heuristic assumptions and the HDE method, and shows experimental results. In typical applications, HDE maintains near-zero heading errors in walks of unlimited duration.

  5. Redundancy Elimination in DTN via ACK Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqing Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional routing protocols for delay tolerant networks (DTN usually take the strategy of spreading multiple copies of one message to the networks. When one copy reaches destination, the transmission of other copies not only waste the bandwidth but also deprive other messages of the opportunities for transmission. This paper brings up a mechanism to eliminate the redundant copies. By adding an acknowledge field to the packet header to delete redundant copies, it can degrade the network overhead while improve the delivery ratio. Simulation results confirm that the proposed method can improve the performance of epidemic and Spray and Wait routing protocol.

  6. Elimination of Chagas disease transmission: perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto

    2009-07-01

    One hundred years after its discovery by Carlos Chagas, American trypanosomiasis, or Chagas disease, remains an epidemiologic challenge. Neither a vaccine nor an ideal specific treatment is available for most chronic cases. Therefore, the current strategy for countering Chagas disease consists of preventive actions against the vector and transfusion-transmitted disease. Here, the present challenges, including congenital and oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infections, as well as the future potential for Chagas disease elimination are discussed in light of the current epidemiological picture. Finally, a list of challenging open questions is presented about Chagas disease control, patient management, programme planning and priority definitions faced by researchers and politicians.

  7. Feature Extraction Based on Decision Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to feature extraction for classification is proposed based directly on the decision boundaries. We note that feature extraction is equivalent to retaining informative features or eliminating redundant features; thus, the terms 'discriminantly information feature' and 'discriminantly redundant feature' are first defined relative to feature extraction for classification. Next, it is shown how discriminantly redundant features and discriminantly informative features are related to decision boundaries. A novel characteristic of the proposed method arises by noting that usually only a portion of the decision boundary is effective in discriminating between classes, and the concept of the effective decision boundary is therefore introduced. Next, a procedure to extract discriminantly informative features based on a decision boundary is proposed. The proposed feature extraction algorithm has several desirable properties: (1) It predicts the minimum number of features necessary to achieve the same classification accuracy as in the original space for a given pattern recognition problem; and (2) it finds the necessary feature vectors. The proposed algorithm does not deteriorate under the circumstances of equal class means or equal class covariances as some previous algorithms do. Experiments show that the performance of the proposed algorithm compares favorably with those of previous algorithms.

  8. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  9. The elimination of Chagas' disease from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, E

    2008-09-01

    On 9 June 2006 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) presented the Minister of Health of Brazil with the International Elimination of Transmission of Chagas' Disease Certificate. This act was the culmination of an intensive process that began in 1991 with the Southern Cone Initiative, a joint agreement between the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and Peru, to control Chagas' disease by the elimination of the main vector, Triatoma infestans. This initiative has been highly successful and the prevalence area of the vector diminished rapidly in the last years. As a consequence, the current seroprevalence in children aged between 0 and 5 years is of the order of 10(-5), a clear indication that transmission, if it is occurring, is only accidental. In this review I calculate the basic reproduction number, R0, for Chagas' disease and demonstrate that its relatively low value (1.25) explains why vectorial transmission was interrupted relatively easily. In addition, I used a mathematical model to forecast how long the remaining cases of the disease, as well as the additional vertically transmitted cases will last.

  10. Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pattanshetty

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLymphatic filariasis is an important public health problem in India. Inspite of National filarial control programme (NFCP being in place for lymphatic filariasis (LF elimination, several important issues need to be addressed. There is uncertainty about the coverage and compliance to treatment in order to achieve elimination. Method A community based cross-sectional study was conducted as per the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP directions. The study included survey of 200 households of Dakshina Kannada District, South India where the Mass drug administration (MDA program was conducted. The main objective of the study was to assess the coverage and compliance to MDA. ResultsOut of the total 1050 eligible people, 876 (83% received the DEC tablets; so, the coverage was 83%. Among those who received the tablets, only 777 (88.7% received the adequate dose and only 670 (76.8% people actually consumed the tablets. Hence, compliance rate was only 76.8%.ConclusionThe planning and implementation of MDA programme needs to be strengthened by efficient micro planning, inter sectoral co-ordination and motivating the community to participate in the MDA programme.

  11. Safety features in nuclear power plants to eliminate the need of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NPP) are being re-examined worldwide including India to demonstrate capabilities to cope with severe accidents. In order to restore public confidence and support for nuclear power, it is felt necessary to design future NPPs with near zero ...

  12. Preliminary results with saturable microchannel array plates. [featuring positive ion feedback elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Microchannel array plates with a performance comparable to that of a conventional channel electron multiplier have been obtained for the first time. These array plates employ an angled electrostatic field to inhibit the feedback of positive ions within the microchannels. Saturated output pulse height distributions with modal gain values in excess of 10 million have been obtained and stable operation demonstrated over a range of ambient pressures from 0.0000001 to 0.00008 torr. However, a time-dependent reduction in the gain has been observed with these experimental plates because of the accumulation of charge on the insulating strips which are inserted in the wall of the microchannel to establish the angled electrostatic field.

  13. Optimized feature subsets for epileptic seizure prediction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Bruno; Ventura, Francisco; Teixeira, César; Dourado, António

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of the number of EEG features to give as inputs to epilepsy seizure predictors is a needed step towards the development of a transportable device for real-time warning. This paper presents a comparative study of three feature selection methods, based on Support Vector Machines. Minimum-Redundancy Maximum-Relevance, Recursive Feature Elimination, Genetic Algorithms, show that, for three patients of the European Database on Epilepsy, the most important univariate features are related to spectral information and statistical moments.

  14. Cut Elimination, Identity Elimination, and Interpolation in Super-Belnap Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přenosil, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 6 (2017), s. 1255-1289 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Super-Belnap logics * Dunn–Belnap logic * Logic of Paradox * Strong Kleene logic * Exactly True Logic * Gentzen calculus * Cut elimination * Identity elimination * Interpolation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  15. For a convention for nuclear weapon elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This document contains two texts linked with the project of an international convention for the elimination of nuclear weapons (the text of this project has been sent to the UN General Secretary and is part of an international campaign to abolish nuclear weapons, ICAN). These two texts are contributions presented in London at the Global Summit for a Nuclear Weapon-free World. The first one calls into question the deterrence principle and the idea of a nuclear weapon-based security. It calls for different forms of action to promote a nuclear weapon-free world. The second text stresses the role and the responsibility of states with nuclear weapons in nuclear disarmament and in the reinforcement of the nuclear non proliferation treaty (NPT)

  16. Adaptive elimination of synchronization in coupled oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shijie; Lin, Wei; Ji, Peng; Feng, Jianfeng; Zhou, Qing; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We present here an adaptive control scheme with a feedback delay to achieve elimination of synchronization in a large population of coupled and synchronized oscillators. We validate the feasibility of this scheme not only in the coupled Kuramoto’s oscillators with a unimodal or bimodal distribution of natural frequency, but also in two representative models of neuronal networks, namely, the FitzHugh–Nagumo spiking oscillators and the Hindmarsh–Rose bursting oscillators. More significantly, we analytically illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme with a feedback delay and reveal how the exact topological form of the bimodal natural frequency distribution influences the scheme performance. We anticipate that our developed scheme will deepen the understanding and refinement of those controllers, e.g. techniques of deep brain stimulation, which have been implemented in remedying some synchronization-induced mental disorders including Parkinson disease and epilepsy. (paper)

  17. Lean for Government: Eliminating the Seven Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2012-01-01

    With shrinking budgets and a slow economy, it is becoming increasingly important for all government agencies to become more efficient. Citizens expect and deserve efficient and effective services from federal, state and local government agencies. One of the best methods to improve efficiency and eliminate waste is to institute the business process improvement methodologies known collectively as Lean; however, with reduced budgets, it may not be possible to train everyone in Lean or to engage the services of a trained consultant. It is possible, however, to raise awareness of the "Seven Wastes" of Lean in each employee, and encourage them to identify areas for improvement. Management commitment is vital to the success of these initiatives, and it is also important to develop the right metrics that will track the success of these changes.

  18. RESULTS of the "ELIMINATING NOISE" campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    From 4 to 6 August, CERN’s nurses conducted a screening campaign entitled "Eliminating noise". This campaign was especially aimed at young people exposed to noise during their leisure hours (playing in a band, listening to MP3 players, attending concerts, etc.). In all, 166 people attended the Infirmary, where they were able to receive personalised advice, documentation and, above all, a hearing test (audiogram). While the high attendance of people in the younger age category (18-30) was a success, their audiogram data were a cause for concern, with 24.5% showing abnormal results, hearing deficiencies which, we should remind you, are irreversible. It should be noted that such conditions are almost exclusively caused by noise exposure in a non-professional environment (leisure activities, music, etc.). This latest campaign confirms the harmful effects of noise on people’s hearing due to the absence or insufficiency of protective equipment during music-related activities; this further unde...

  19. RESULTS of the "ELIMINATING NOISE" campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    From 4 to 6 August, CERN’s nurses conducted a screening campaign entitled "Eliminating noise". This campaign was especially aimed at young people exposed to noise during their leisure hours (playing in a band, listening to MP3 players, attending concerts, etc.). In all, 166 people attended the infirmary, where they were able to receive personalised advice, documentation and, above all, a hearing test (audiogram). While the high attendance of people in the younger age category (18-30) was a success, their audiogram data were a cause for concern, with 24.5% showing abnormal results, hearing deficiencies which, we should remind you, are irreversible. It should be noted that such conditions are almost exclusively caused by noise exposure in a non-professional environment (leisure activities, music, etc.). This latest campaign confirms the harmful effects of noise on people’s hearing due to the absence or insufficiency of protective equipment during music-related activities; this further unde...

  20. Cell competition: how to eliminate your neighbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyel, Marc; Bach, Erika A.

    2014-01-01

    A conventional view of development is that cells cooperate to build an organism. However, based on studies of Drosophila, it has been known for years that viable cells can be eliminated by their neighbours through a process termed cell competition. New studies in mammals have revealed that this process is universal and that many factors and mechanisms are conserved. During cell competition, cells with lower translation rates or those with lower levels of proteins involved in signal transduction, polarity and cellular growth can survive in a homogenous environment but are killed when surrounded by cells of higher fitness. Here, we discuss recent advances in the field as well as the mechanistic steps involved in this phenomenon, which have shed light on how and why cell competition exists in developing and adult organisms. PMID:24550108

  1. Adaptive elimination of synchronization in coupled oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shijie; Ji, Peng; Zhou, Qing; Feng, Jianfeng; Kurths, Jürgen; Lin, Wei

    2017-08-01

    We present here an adaptive control scheme with a feedback delay to achieve elimination of synchronization in a large population of coupled and synchronized oscillators. We validate the feasibility of this scheme not only in the coupled Kuramoto’s oscillators with a unimodal or bimodal distribution of natural frequency, but also in two representative models of neuronal networks, namely, the FitzHugh-Nagumo spiking oscillators and the Hindmarsh-Rose bursting oscillators. More significantly, we analytically illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme with a feedback delay and reveal how the exact topological form of the bimodal natural frequency distribution influences the scheme performance. We anticipate that our developed scheme will deepen the understanding and refinement of those controllers, e.g. techniques of deep brain stimulation, which have been implemented in remedying some synchronization-induced mental disorders including Parkinson disease and epilepsy.

  2. Enhanced feature integration in musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Christian; Højlund, Andreas; Møller, Cecilie

    (MEG) from 25 musicians and 25 non-musicians, exposed to sounds presented in interleaved blocks of a musical multi-feature paradigm and a classical oddball control paradigm. In addition to single deviants differing in pitch (P), intensity (I), or perceived location (L), double and triple deviants were......Distinguishing and integrating features of sensory input is essential to human survival and no less paramount in music perception and cognition. Yet, little is known about training-induced plasticity of neural mechanisms for auditory feature integration. This study aimed to contrast the two...... hypotheses that musical expertise leads to more independent (i.e. segregated) or more dependent (i.e. integrated) processing of acoustic features presented in contexts with high or low ecological validity with respect to music. To this end, mismatch negativity (MMNm) was recorded with magnetoencephalography...

  3. Renal lactate elimination is maintained during moderate exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Dawson, Ellen A; Dalsgaard, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Reduced hepatic lactate elimination initiates blood lactate accumulation during incremental exercise. In this study, we wished to determine whether renal lactate elimination contributes to the initiation of blood lactate accumulation. The renal arterial-to-venous (a-v) lactate difference...... ischaemia, and renal lactate elimination is maintained. Thus, kidney lactate elimination is unlikely to contribute to the initial blood lactate accumulation during progressive exercise....

  4. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  5. Distro’: Independent Creativity for Independent Industr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Sri Wulandari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To shortened this introduction, ‘Distro’ is one of cultural phenomenon in theyoung generation nowadays. The word of ‘Distro’ is the shortened of DistributionOutlet. The phenomenon of ‘Distro’ has been some kind of new trends inproducing and distributing creative design products of goods amongst theyoungsters independently, in an independence industry that open for challengingand competitiveness for everyone. This field research has been done in the city ofYogyakarta, reknown as the second city in creative design products after the cityof Bandung. Yogyakarta is welknown as the students’ city as well as the capital cityof culture of Indonesia. As a students’ city it is normal that Yogyakarta is growingin numbers of young people who pursued to study here and enriched the cultureof the city to become more multicultural and the varieties of pluralism as well.This sociocultural phenomenon not only brought some dynamic changing tosociety, economy and cultural life of the city, but also social problems that needsto be overcome. My first research question then is about how the existence of‘Distro’ in Yogyakarta can be a positive answer for social problems that may arisesfrom the hegemony of globalization markets domestically? My second questionis how the creative product designs are being made and distributed creatively inindependent industry? Lastly, my third question is dealling with the genres ofthe design products and how it can be a new trend in art expression? ‘Distro’ is aproduct of culture and it is also creating cultural change in some aspects of the lifeof the youngsters who are ‘Distro’ enthusiasts. ‘Distro’ phenomenon basically is anoffensive to the hegemony of internationally branded product design which turnsto become more over-dominated to the domestic markets and industry and thus,‘Distro’ has the spirit of survival whilts at the same time producing opportunity ofenterpreneurship

  6. A new method to extract stable feature points based on self-generated simulation images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fei; Zhou, Bin; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-10-01

    Recently, image processing has got a lot of attention in the field of photogrammetry, medical image processing, etc. Matching two or more images of the same scene taken at different times, by different cameras, or from different viewpoints, is a popular and important problem. Feature extraction plays an important part in image matching. Traditional SIFT detectors reject the unstable points by eliminating the low contrast and edge response points. The disadvantage is the need to set the threshold manually. The main idea of this paper is to get the stable extremums by machine learning algorithm. Firstly we use ASIFT approach coupled with the light changes and blur to generate multi-view simulated images, which make up the set of the simulated images of the original image. According to the way of generating simulated images set, affine transformation of each generated image is also known. Instead of the traditional matching process which contain the unstable RANSAC method to get the affine transformation, this approach is more stable and accurate. Secondly we calculate the stability value of the feature points by the set of image with its affine transformation. Then we get the different feature properties of the feature point, such as DOG features, scales, edge point density, etc. Those two form the training set while stability value is the dependent variable and feature property is the independent variable. At last, a process of training by Rank-SVM is taken. We will get a weight vector. In use, based on the feature properties of each points and weight vector calculated by training, we get the sort value of each feature point which refers to the stability value, then we sort the feature points. In conclusion, we applied our algorithm and the original SIFT detectors to test as a comparison. While in different view changes, blurs, illuminations, it comes as no surprise that experimental results show that our algorithm is more efficient.

  7. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  8. Independent technical review, handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  9. Malaria vaccines and their potential role in the elimination of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Brian M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on malaria vaccines is currently directed primarily towards the development of vaccines that prevent clinical malaria. Malaria elimination, now being considered seriously in some epidemiological situations, requires a different vaccine strategy, since success will depend on killing all parasites in the community in order to stop transmission completely. The feature of the life-cycles of human malarias that presents the greatest challenge to an elimination programme is the persistence of parasites as asymptomatic infections. These are an important source from which transmission to mosquitoes can occur. Consequently, an elimination strategy requires a community-based approach covering all individuals and not just those who are susceptible to clinical malaria. The progress that has been made in development of candidate malaria vaccines is reviewed. It is unlikely that many of these will have the efficacy required for complete elimination of parasites, though they may have an important role to play as part of future integrated control programmes. Vaccines for elimination must have a high level of efficacy in order to stop transmission to mosquitoes. This might be achieved with some pre-erythrocytic stage candidate vaccines or by targeting the sexual stages directly with transmission-blocking vaccines. An expanded malaria vaccine programme with such objectives is now a priority.

  10. On the Importance of Elimination Heuristics in Lazy Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Læsø; Butz, Cory J.

    2012-01-01

    elimination orders on-line. This paper considers the importance of elimination heuristics in LP when using Variable Elimination (VE) as the message and single marginal computation algorithm. It considers well-known cost measures for selecting the next variable to eliminate and a new cost measure....... The empirical evaluation examines dierent heuristics as well as sequences of cost measures, and was conducted on real-world and randomly generated Bayesian networks. The results show that for most cases performance is robust relative to the cost measure used and in some cases the elimination heuristic can have...

  11. Reference-Frame-Independent and Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Using One Single Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Wei, Kejin; Pei, Changxing

    2018-04-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all detector side-channel attacks. However, practical implementations of MDI-QKD, which require two-photon interferences from separated independent single-photon sources and a nontrivial reference alignment procedure, are still challenging with current technologies. Here, we propose a scheme that significantly reduces the experimental complexity of two-photon interferences and eliminates reference frame alignment by the combination of plug-and-play and reference frame independent MDI-QKD. Simulation results show that the secure communication distance can be up to 219 km in the finite-data case and the scheme has good potential for practical MDI-QKD systems.

  12. Identifying significant environmental features using feature recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Environmental Analysis at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has expressed an interest in feature-recognition capability because it may help analysts identify environmentally sensitive features in the landscape, : including those r...

  13. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  14. Independence of the judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjana LLANO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors which influence the independence of the judiciary. In a decision making process, judges, at any rate, must be able to act independently of any direct or indirect restriction, improper influence, inducement, pressure, threatening or obstacle. The law should provide explicit punishment measures against anyone who tries to impose any of the above means upon the judges. Any judge should possess the inviolable freedom of judging impartially, by his/her consciousness and interpretation, and pursuant to law. However, this is often impossible for judges are frequently put under various pressures that should be avoided. I have employed theoretical and practical methods for the purposes of this article. In conclusion, the research results have shown a heavy infringement of the independence of the judiciary in our country. There is a quite frequent tendency to influence the judges’ decisions. Common violations of law and judicial independence, to a large extent, remain unnoticed and unpunished. A considerable number of judges think that such tendencies have no significant influence on the management of justice.

  15. INDEPENDENT AND GROUP LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DICKINSON, MARIE B.

    IN CONTRAST TO THE TRADITIONAL EMPHASES ON ROTE LEARNING AND FACT ACCUMULATION, RECENT TRENDS EMERGING FROM EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH STRESS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING PROCESSES SUCH AS THE ABILITY TO REASON ABSTRACTLY AND TO SYNTHESIZE. CHILDREN WORKING INDEPENDENTLY OR IN GROUPS MOVE THROUGH A DISCOVERY LEARNING CURRICULUM IN WHICH THE TEACHER…

  16. Independent for longer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cretien van Campen; Jurjen Iedema; Marjolein Broese van Groenou; Dorly Deeg

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Langer zelfstandig. The Dutch government's reform of long-term care is intended to reinforce the trend whereby older persons continue to live independently for longer and the need for admission to a care institution is avoided or delayed. Many Dutch citizens aged 65 years and

  17. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    article presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence...

  18. Rate independent Kurzweil processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Liero, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2009), s. 117-145 ISSN 0862-7940 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Kurzweil integral * rate independence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2009 http://www.dml.cz/bitstream/handle/10338.dmlcz/140355/AplMat_54-2009-2_2.pdf

  19. Malaria vaccine: a step toward elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Malik, Jagbir S; Sk, Shashikantha; Mehta, Bharti

    2014-01-01

    Malaria has long been recognized as a public health problem. At the community level, vector control, and antimalarial medicines are the main means for reducing incidence, morbidity, and mortality of malaria. A vaccine not only would bring streamlining in the prevention of morbidity and mortality from malaria but also would be more accessible if integrated with Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI). Globally, an estimated 3.4 billion people are at risk of malaria. Most cases (80%) and deaths (90%) occurred in Africa, and most deaths (77%) are in children under 5 years of age. An effective vaccine has long been envisaged as a valuable addition to the available tools for malaria control. Although research toward the development of malaria vaccines has been pursued since the 1960s, there are no licensed malaria vaccines. The RTS,S/AS01 vaccine, which targets P. falciparum, has reached phase 3 clinical trials and results are promising. Malaria Vaccine Technology Road Map 2013 has envisaged the world aiming for a licensed vaccine by 2030 that would reduce malaria cases by 75% and be capable of eliminating malaria. It will not only fill the gaps of today's interventions but also be a cost-effective method of decreasing morbidity and mortality from malaria.

  20. Method of eliminating radioactive substances in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tadayuki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate natural radioactive substance (in particular, gases 222 Rn) in the atmosphere. Method: Air removed with dusts of greater than several μ in a filter is introduced into a mixer using a blower. In the blower, super-heated steams at 120 - 200 0 C and the airs are mixed together. Then, the air mixture is introduced into a cooler and cooled to room temperature -50 0 C to condensate water. Subsequently, the cooled air mixture is passed through an activated carbon adsorption device (6 - 12 mesh, air passing speed less than 4 cm/sec. and activated carbon layer thickness 50 - 100 cm) to adsorb 222 Rn. Finally, the air passed through the activated carbon adsorption device is introduced to an ultrafilter for collecting fine particles (asbesto filter, glass filter, etc.) to collect fine particles of activated carbon, lead, bismuth, etc. (decaying products of gaseous 222 Rn). Liquid issued from the mixer and the cooler are discharged by way of drain pipes. (Ikeda, J.)

  1. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilcher, Ronald O; McCombs, Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    This review is designed to help readers understand seasonal blood shortages and provide solutions through the use of technology that can increase the number of red blood cell units collected and the use of recruitment and marketing initiatives that appeal to the increasingly diverse donor base. Seasonal shortages are, in reality, mostly shortages of group O red blood cells and occur most commonly during midsummer and early winter. The shortages occur primarily from increased use of group O red blood cells at times of decreased donor availability. While reducing the disproportionate use of red cells will help, blood centers can more quickly reduce the seasonal deficits by using automated red cell technology to collect double red blood cell units; targeted marketing programs to provide effective messages; seasonal advertising campaigns; and recognition, benefits, and incentives to enhance the donor motivation donation threshold. A multi-level approach to increasing blood donations at difficult times of the year can ensure that donations are increased at a time when regular donor availability is decreased. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated by understanding the nature of the shortages, why and when they occur, and using more sophisticated recruitment and marketing strategies as well as automated collection technologies to enhance the blood supply.

  2. Elimination of excess molybdenum by cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelgyesi, G.; Elmoty, I.A.

    1967-01-01

    It was found that cattle would ingest spontaneously 5-15 g of molybdenum on one occasion. The uptake of this quantity caused but moderate loss of appetite and mild enteritis, both normalizing in one week. The occurrence of a severe acute molybdenum poisoning can be practically excluded, owing to refusal of the poisoned feed. Spontaneously ingested molybdenum caused on the first day a 30-100 fold rise of ruminal Mo-level, decreasing to the order of the normal value in about one week. But in the urine and faeces, Mo-level was at least 10 fold, in the blood and milk about 4 fold of the normal one, even one or two weeks after ingestion. During this period at least 90% of ingested Mo was eliminated with the faeces, urine and milk. One week after the ingestion of molybdenum, the rumen content showed no evidence on poisoning and no trace of molybdenum. Oral administration of ammonium molybdenate in an amount equivalent to 40 g molybdenum caused no fatality. In fact, cattle would never ingest spontaneously such a large dose.

  3. Minimizing or eliminating refueling of nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncals, Richard A.; Paik, Nam-Chin; Andre, Sandra V.; Porter, Charles A.; Rathbun, Roy W.; Schwallie, Ambrose L.; Petras, Diane S.

    1989-01-01

    Demand for refueling of a liquid metal fast nuclear reactor having a life of 30 years is eliminated or reduced to intervals of at least 10 years by operating the reactor at a low linear-power density, typically 2.5 kw/ft of fuel rod, rather than 7.5 or 15 kw/ft, which is the prior art practice. So that power of the same magnitude as for prior art reactors is produced, the volume of the core is increased. In addition, the height of the core and it diameter are dimensioned so that the ratio of the height to the diameter approximates 1 to the extent practicable considering the requirement of control and that the pressure drop in the coolant shall not be excessive. The surface area of a cylinder of given volume is a minimum if the ratio of the height to the diameter is 1. By minimizing the surface area, the leakage of neutrons is reduced. By reducing the linear-power density, increasing core volume, reducing fissile enrichment and optimizing core geometry, internal-core breeding of fissionable fuel is substantially enhanced. As a result, core operational life, limited by control worth requirements and fuel burnup capability, is extended up to 30 years of continuous power operation.

  4. Reward eliminates retrieval-induced forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hisato; Kim, Dongho; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2014-12-02

    Although it is well known that reward enhances learning and memory, how extensively such enhancement occurs remains unclear. To address this question, we examined how reward influences retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) in which the retrieval of a nonpracticed item under the same category as a practiced item is worse than the retrieval of a nonpracticed item outside the category. Subjects were asked to try to encode category-exemplar pairs (e.g., FISH-salmon). Then, they were presented with a category name and a two-letter word stem (e.g., FISH-sa) and were asked to complete an encoded word (retrieval practice). For a correct response, apple juice was given as a reward in the reward condition and a beeping sound was presented in the no-reward condition. Finally, subjects were asked to report whether each exemplar had been presented in the first phase. RIF was replicated in the no-reward condition. However, in the reward condition, RIF was eliminated. These results suggest that reward enhances processing of retrieval of unpracticed members by mechanisms such as spreading activation within the same category, irrespective of whether items were practiced or not.

  5. Progress toward measles elimination in kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvanbekov, Akbar; Kitarova, Gulzhan; Reyer, Joshua A; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Measles is one of the most severe infectious diseases of childhood, and one of the major causes of mortali-ty, especially in developing countries. Despite rare measles outbreaks in recent years, Kyrgyzstan seeks to show its commitment towards the global anti-measles campaign. The aim of this article is to summarize the scattered information on the recent status of measles, valid surveillance system, and measles elimination strategies in Kyrgyzstan, based on sources that include non-confidential but usually inaccessible governmental data. Infor-mation was extracted from the reports to the Ministry of Health and documents on the national surveillance system, in addition to outbreak cases extracted from the Republican Infectious Diseases Hospital's archive. To tackle the worsening measles situation in Kyrgyzstan, the Ministry of Health established the Republican Center for Immunoprophylaxis in 1994. Measles related death, which was rampant up until 1992, has not been registered since 2000 due to improved routine vaccination coverage, increasing from 88% in 1994 to 97% and over in 1997. The national surveillance system was modernized thanks to the World Health Organization, helping to detect measles cases and prevent major outbreaks. The system identified 222 cases in the outbreak of 2011, and the case cards in the hospital provided the findings of 69 admitted cases (42 infants, 22 children aged 1 to 14 years, and 5 aged 15 years or over), including 32 severe cases. This article provides a whole view on measles in Kyrgyzstan, which would be useful to control measles worldwide.

  6. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Alexander; Kohlhaas, Michael; Maack, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in cardiovascular diseases, and one important source for ROS are mitochondria. Emission of ROS from mitochondria is the net result of ROS production at the electron transport chain (ETC) and their elimination by antioxidative enzymes. Both of these processes are highly dependent on the mitochondrial redox state, which is dynamically altered under different physiological and pathological conditions. The concept of "redox-optimized ROS balance" integrates these aspects and implies that oxidative stress occurs when the optimal equilibrium of an intermediate redox state is disturbed towards either strong oxidation or reduction. Furthermore, mitochondria integrate ROS signals from other cellular sources, presumably through a process termed "ROS-induced ROS release" that involves mitochondrial ion channels. Here, we attempt to integrate these recent advances in our understanding of the control of mitochondrial ROS emission and develop a concept of how in heart failure, defects in ion handling can lead to mitochondrial oxidative stress. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tardive dyskinesia: eliminated, forgotten, or overshadowed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Gary

    2007-03-01

    The present review focuses on atypical antipsychotics and tardive dyskinesia. We have known for many years that clozapine has a diminished risk of tardive dyskinesia compared with typical antipsychotics. The last decade has seen the introduction of a number of other atypical antipsychotics, allowing us to begin evaluating whether they too share this attribute. In addition, the opportunity to use these drugs as first-line treatment permits a more precise means of establishing risk. While longer-term data are required, the limited evidence available clearly indicates that the atypical antipsychotics have a decreased liability of tardive dyskinesia, approximately 1% compared with 5% for typical agents annually. Like clozapine, the other atypical antipsychotics also demonstrate antidyskinetic properties in individuals with preexisting tardive dyskinesia. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and without such information it is not possible to say what clinical conditions, if any, might diminish or even eliminate these advantages. An update is provided regarding the atypical antipsychotics and tardive dyskinesia. This information is critical in our decision-making regarding choice of antipsychotic and optimal use in the clinical setting.

  8. Elimination of mercury in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in humans and wildlife. It is a potent neurotoxin that may also harm the brain, kidneys, and lungs. Unborn children and young infants are at particular risk for brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps makes these facilities large contributors to the overall emission of mercury into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, four out of five hospitals stated that they have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury-containing products. Sixty-two percent of them require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospitals purchase. Only 12 percent distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parents. Ninety-two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury, and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented their policies. Forty-two percent were not aware whether they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49 percent still purchase mercury thermometers, 44 percent purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64 percent still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  9. Total synthesis of Ivorenolide A following a base-induced elimination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Debendra K; Umamaheshwar, Gonela; Rao, R Nageshwar; Rao, T Srinivasa; R, Sudheer Kumar; Yadav, Jhillu S

    2015-02-20

    A concise and stereocontrolled first total synthesis of Ivorenolide A (1) is reported in 16 longest linear steps with a 13.4% overall yield starting from (+)-diethyl tartrate (DET). Key features are base-induced elimination protocol for the construction of chiral propargyl alcohols in both fragments, Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of terminal acetylenes, and Shiina's 2-methyl-6-nitrobezoic anhydride (MNBA) mediated macrolactonization.

  10. Hypothesis testing for differentially correlated features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Elisa; Witten, Daniela; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2016-10-01

    In a multivariate setting, we consider the task of identifying features whose correlations with the other features differ across conditions. Such correlation shifts may occur independently of mean shifts, or differences in the means of the individual features across conditions. Previous approaches for detecting correlation shifts consider features simultaneously, by computing a correlation-based test statistic for each feature. However, since correlations involve two features, such approaches do not lend themselves to identifying which feature is the culprit. In this article, we instead consider a serial testing approach, by comparing columns of the sample correlation matrix across two conditions, and removing one feature at a time. Our method provides a novel perspective and favorable empirical results compared with competing approaches. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...... in a Matlab toolbox, is demonstrated for non-negative decompositions and compared with non-negative matrix factorization.......In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  12. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  13. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  14. Independent random sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, Luca; Míguez, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the li...

  15. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  16. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. The problems of communications and logistics caused by different cultures and by geographic distances must be carefully evaluated. A mid-term to long-term strategy tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company should be prepared and followed by a careful planning of the operations. This paper addresses some aspects of foreign exploration that should be considered before an independent venture into the foreign field. It also provides some guidelines for conducting successful overseas operations. When properly assessed, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents and presents no greater risk than domestic exploration; the rewards, however, can be much larger. Furthermore, the Oil and Gas Journal surveys of the 300 largest U.S. petroleum companies show that companies with a consistent foreign exploration policy have fared better financially during difficult times

  17. TPO-independent megakaryocytopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cuiling; Yang, Renchi; Han, Zhongchao; Zhou, Bin; Liang, Lu; Lu, Min

    2008-03-01

    Megakaryocytopoiesis is a continuous developmental process of platelet production. In this process, a complex network of hemopoietic growth factors are involved, among which TPO (thrombopoietin) is the most thoroughly investigated regulator of MKs (megakaryocytes). In addition to TPO, other regulators also have non-negligible effects on megakaryocytopoiesis. The majority of their effects are independent of TPO signaling. To date, TPO-independent megakaryocytopoiesis forms a regulatory system that includes four signals and (an) unknown signaling pathway(s). These four pathways are the gp 130 (glycoprotein 130)-dependent signaling pathway, the Notch pathway, NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor-mediated signaling, and the SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor-1)/FGF-4 (fibroblast growth factor-4) paradigm. Understanding of the TPO-independent regulatory system is important because the system may offer additional opportunities to understand the developmental process and the mechanisms of disorders characterized by abnormal MK and platelet production, such as thrombocytopenia and thrombocythemia, and to advance the development of therapeutics.

  18. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  19. Fabrication techniques to eliminate postweld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochhead, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Postweld heat treatments to reduce residual stresses (stress relief operations) have been a common practice in the pressure vessel industry for a large number of years. A suitable heat treatment operation can, in particular for low alloy steels, have additional beneficial effects, i.e. a reduction in peak hardness values in the heat-affected zone, an improvement in weld metal properties, and a lowering of the adverse effects of the welding process on the mechanical properties of the parent material adjacent to the weld metal. However, continuing studies in the field of brittle fracture, improved parent materials, and more sophisticated nondestructive testing techniques have led to the elimination of such a practice in ever-increasing thickness ranges and types of material. For instance, the recently issued BS 5500 compared with BS 1113 (1969) lifts the thickness limit requiring stress relief in certain circumstances from 19 to 35mm for C steels. With respect to materials the CEGB has stated that as a result of successful operational experience it will no longer be necessary to postweld heat treat butt welds in 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo tubes of certain dimensions. Despite this trend, over a period of years a number of instances have arisen where, because of some factor, postweld heat treatment, although perhaps desirable, is not possible. This Paper describes several such examples. It must be noted that the examples quoted consist of relatively important and major items. It has been necessary within the confines of this Paper to condense the reports. It is hoped that no significant factors have been omitted. (author)

  20. Integrated Clustering and Feature Selection Scheme for Text Documents.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Thangamani; P. Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Text documents are the unstructured databases that contain raw data collection. The clustering techniques are used group up the text documents with reference to its similarity. Approach: The feature selection techniques were used to improve the efficiency and accuracy of clustering process. The feature selection was done by eliminate the redundant and irrelevant items from the text document contents. Statistical methods were used in the text clustering and feature selection...

  1. [A novel spectrum feature extraction method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Ru; Feng, Chun-Ming; Wang, Yong-Jun; Lu, Yu

    2011-10-01

    The present focuses on the celestial spectra feature extraction problem, which is a key procedure in automatic spectra classification. By extracting features, the authors can reduce redundancy, alleviate noise influence, and improve accuracy and efficiency in spectra classification. The authors introduced a novel feature analysis framework STP (space transformation and partition), which focuses on four essential components in feature extraction: decompose and reorganize spectrum components, reorganize, alleviate noise influence and eliminate redundancy. Based on STP, we can analyze most of the available feature extraction methods, for example, the unsupervised methods principal component analysis (PCA), wavelet transform, the supervised methods support vector machine (SVM), relevance vector machine (RVM), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), etc. We introduced a novel feature analysis framework and proposed a novel feature extraction method. The outstanding characteristics of the proposed method are its simplicity and efficiency. Researches show that it is sufficient to extract features by the proposed method in some cases, and it is not necessary to use the sophisticated methods, which is usually more complex in computation. The proposed method is evaluated in classifying Galaxy and QSO spectra, which is disturbed by red shift and is representative in automatic spectra classification research. The results are practical and helpful to gain novel insight into the traditional feature extraction methods and design more efficient spectrum classification method.

  2. Eliminating time dispersion from seismic wave modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Erik F. M.; Robertsson, Johan O. A.; Broggini, Filippo; Andersson, Fredrik

    2018-04-01

    We derive an expression for the error introduced by the second-order accurate temporal finite-difference (FD) operator, as present in the FD, pseudospectral and spectral element methods for seismic wave modeling applied to time-invariant media. The `time-dispersion' error speeds up the signal as a function of frequency and time step only. Time dispersion is thus independent of the propagation path, medium or spatial modeling error. We derive two transforms to either add or remove time dispersion from synthetic seismograms after a simulation. The transforms are compared to previous related work and demonstrated on wave modeling in acoustic as well as elastic media. In addition, an application to imaging is shown. The transforms enable accurate computation of synthetic seismograms at reduced cost, benefitting modeling applications in both exploration and global seismology.

  3. Model-independent differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Computing differences (diffs) and merging different versions is well-known for text files, but for models it is a very young field - especially patches for models are still matter of research. Text-based and model-based diffs have different starting points because the semantics of their structure...... is fundamentally different. This paper reports on our ongoing work on model-independent diffs, i.e. a diff that does not directly refer to the models it was created from. Based on that, we present an idea of how the diff could be generalized, e.g. many atomic diffs are merged to a new, generalized diff. One use...

  4. Model-Independent Diffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    Computing differences (diffs) and merging different versions is wellknown for text files, but for models it is a very young field. Text-based and model-based diffs have different goals and different starting points, because the semantics of their structure is fundamentally different. Text files...... it was created from. We present concepts for model-independent diffs, how it can be created and used. In the end, we present an idea of how the diff could be generalized, e.g. many atomic differences are merged to a new, generalized diff – similar to a patch for text files. The advantage of such a generalized...

  5. Quantum error prevention and leakage elimination for quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegahan, Saeed; Byrd, Mark S.; Reddy Chinni, Karthik

    2015-03-01

    Decoherence-free, or noiseless subsystems, are used to encode spin qubits in quantum dots in order to achieve universal quantum computing using only the exchange interaction. We investigate the use of dynamical decoupling controls for the purposes of eliminating leakage for a logical qubit encoded using three physical qubits. These leakage elimination operators (LEOs) can be used to eliminate all leakage errors using exchange interactions between the physical spin qubits. Depending on the encoding and the decoupling control, different types of errors can be eliminated. We show several different possible controls and the consequential noise reduction for different encodings as well as our general method for determining the effectiveness of these pulses.

  6. Methotrexate Associated Renal Impairment Is Related to Delayed Elimination of High-Dose Methotrexate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Long Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Methotrexate (MTX is an effective drug for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, the toxicity remains a significant problem. In this prospective study, fifty-four patients with ALL were enrolled. 3 g or 5 g MTX/m2 was administered over 24 hours. Serum MTX concentrations were determined in 24, 48, and 96 hours after MTX infusion. Serum creatinine concentrations and creatinine clearance rate (CCR were determined before and 24 and 48 hours after MTX infusion. A total of 173 courses of MTX infusion were administered. The serum creatinine concentrations did not change much after MTX infusion while the CCR was gradually decreased. MTX clearance status was independently related to CCR decrease, with the risk of 8.07 to develop renal impairment in patients with delayed MTX elimination. Serum creatinine concentration, serum creatinine ratio, CCR, and CCR ratio at 24 hours were all related to MTX elimination delay. Patients with serum creatinine level >35.0 μmol/L, creatinine ratio >1.129, or CCR <100.0 mL/min were more likely to undergo MTX elimination delay. In conclusion, MTX could induce transient renal impairment and compromised renal function will delay MTX clearance. The serum creatinine concentration and the ratio and CCR are useful tools for evaluating MTX elimination status.

  7. Independent task Fourier filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  8. Problems of elimination of low emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepniowski, A. [Municipal Gas Distribution Enterprise, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The Cracow Municipal Gas Distribution Enterprises is subordinated to the Carpathian Regional Gas Engineering Plant in Tarnow, which - in turn - is a part of Polish Oil Mining and Gas Engineering with its seat in Warsaw. The required quick development of power engineering in Poland needs harmonized development of all branches of power engineering, including the gas production and distribution industry which constitutes an element of technical infrastructure of Poland influencing the direction of development. After World War II, the gas engineering industry was transformed from a typical communal service to a big industrial structure which covers the entire territory of the state and has considerable technical and material measures at its disposal. Programming of the gas industry development ranges from development of installation of gas-supply arrangements for communal purposes including modification of local gas generators - to the development of gas transportation, storage and purification system. At present gas is taken from following sources: import, own natural gas deposits (high-methane content gas and high-nitrogen content gas within Polish Lowland); cokeries, and local gas generators. Gas sorts obtained in these sources have differentiated physico-chemical properties and they are distributed by three independent transmission systems assigned for high-methane natural gas, high-nitrogen natural gas, and coke-oven gas. Taking into consideration the forecast demand and potential capacity of natural gas production in Poland, the required import of natural gas is estimated.

  9. The importance of board independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the attributed importance of board independence is high, a clear definition of independence does not exist. Furthermore, the aim and consequences of independence are the subject of discussion and empirical evidence about the impact of independence is weak and disputable. Despite this lack

  10. Systematic feature evaluation for gene name recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakenberg, Jörg; Bickel, Steffen; Plake, Conrad; Brefeld, Ulf; Zahn, Hagen; Faulstich, Lukas; Leser, Ulf; Scheffer, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    In task 1A of the BioCreAtIvE evaluation, systems had to be devised that recognize words and phrases forming gene or protein names in natural language sentences. We approach this problem by building a word classification system based on a sliding window approach with a Support Vector Machine, combined with a pattern-based post-processing for the recognition of phrases. The performance of such a system crucially depends on the type of features chosen for consideration by the classification method, such as pre- or postfixes, character n-grams, patterns of capitalization, or classification of preceding or following words. We present a systematic approach to evaluate the performance of different feature sets based on recursive feature elimination, RFE. Based on a systematic reduction of the number of features used by the system, we can quantify the impact of different feature sets on the results of the word classification problem. This helps us to identify descriptive features, to learn about the structure of the problem, and to design systems that are faster and easier to understand. We observe that the SVM is robust to redundant features. RFE improves the performance by 0.7%, compared to using the complete set of attributes. Moreover, a performance that is only 2.3% below this maximum can be obtained using fewer than 5% of the features.

  11. New design features of gas ionization detectors used for elastic recoil detection

    CERN Document Server

    Timmers, H; Ophel, T R

    2000-01-01

    Several alternative design features of large acceptance, gas ionization detectors have proven to be successful for application to elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). In particular, effects due to the distortion of the entrance field by a large area window have been eliminated in a simple fashion, to allow measurement of the initial rate of energy loss and to provide an energy- and species-independent cathode signal. No less importantly, use of a divided electrode in the anode plane has enabled a more straightforward means of determining the scattering angle that is required for kinematic corrections. An intermediate grid was found to provide a direct and true total energy signal, with only slightly diminished resolution compared with that of the summed total anode equivalent.

  12. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  13. Homeostatic and toxic mechanisms regulating manganese uptake, retention, and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEROME A ROTH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This review attempts to summarize and clarify our basic knowledge as to the various factors that potentially influence the risks imposed from chronic exposure to high atmospheric levels of manganese (Mn. The studies describe the interrelationship of the different systems in the body that regulate Mn homeostasis by characterizing specific, biological components involved in its systemic and cellular uptake and its elimination from the body. A syndrome known as manganism occurs when individuals are exposed chronically to high levels of Mn, consisting of reduced response speed, intellectual deficits, mood changes, and compulsive behaviors in the initial stages of the disorder to more prominent and irreversible extrapyramidal dysfunction resembling Parkinson's disease upon protracted exposure. Mn intoxication is most often associated with occupations in which abnormally high atmospheric concentrations prevail, such as in welding and mining. There are three potentially important routes by which Mn in inspired air can gain access the body to: 1 direct uptake into the CNS via uptake into the olfactory or trigeminal presynaptic nerve endings located in the nasal mucosa and the subsequent retrograde axonal transport directly into the CNS; 2 transport across the pulmonary epithelial lining and its subsequent deposition into lymph or blood; and/or 3 mucocilliary elevator clearance from the lung and the subsequent ingestion of the metal in the gastrointestinal tract. Each of these processes and their overall contribution to the uptake of Mn in the body is discussed in this review as well as a description of the various mechanisms that have been proposed for the transport of Mn across the blood-brain barrier which include both a transferrin-dependent and a transferrin-independent process that may involve store-operated Ca channels.

  14. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...--Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Proclamation 8823--Armed Forces Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Prison Rape Elimination Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Sexual violence, against any victim, is an assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison...

  15. 29 CFR 452.61 - Elimination contests-local unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elimination contests-local unions. 452.61 Section 452.61 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Nominations for Office § 452.61 Elimination contests—local unions. (a) A...

  16. New ways of working to support sustainable disease elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geordie Woods

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available How can we ensure that Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are not just eliminated, but eliminated once and for all? This article explores the key role that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions can play and what partnerships, programs and policies can be adopted to help see the end of certain diseases for good.

  17. Gains and Pitfalls of Quantifier Elimination as a Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Quantifier Elimination is a procedure that allows simplification of logical formulas that contain quantifiers. Many mathematical concepts are defined in terms of quantifiers and especially in calculus their use has been identified as an obstacle in the learning process. The automatic deduction provided by quantifier elimination thus allows…

  18. 10 CFR 61.21 - Elimination of repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 61.21 Section 61.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.21 Elimination of repetition. In its application, the applicant may incorporate by reference...

  19. 10 CFR 60.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 60.23 Section 60.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Applications § 60.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application, environmental...

  20. Dietary Therapy for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Elimination and Reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Kara L; Cassin, Alison M; Venter, Carina

    2017-12-14

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food antigen-mediated disorder of the esophagus characterized by eosinophil predominant inflammation and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Dietary antigen elimination induces clinical and histological remission in patients with EoE. The most restrictive of elimination diets (the elemental diet) removes all possible food antigens while empiric elimination diets remove all (or a subset) of food antigens most commonly reported to cause esophageal eosinophilia and food allergies (milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, or legumes). Elimination diets are effective treatments for EoE but pose psychosocial and financial challenges to patients and consequently may impair quality of life. Foods that are commonly eliminated, especially milk, are also nutrient-dense and therefore their elimination may result in inadequate nutrient intake or deficiencies without careful diet planning to include nutritionally comparable and safe food substitutes. After remission is achieved with elimination diets, foods can be reintroduced sequentially to identify specific food triggers, but this reintroduction is not standardized. Food elimination and food reintroductions should consider the patient's lifestyle, nutrition needs, and skills and ideally be managed by a team with knowledge of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders and nutrition.

  1. Malaria elimination practices in rural community residents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rwanda is moving towards malaria pre-elimination phase by the year 2017 and the role of the community will be critical. However, there is limited information about community perspective of the malaria elimination strategy. A study was thus designed to explore that. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study ...

  2. Eliminating gender-based violence: learning from the widowhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eliminating gender-based violence: learning from the widowhood practices elimination Initiative of a women organisation in Ozubulu, Anambra State of Nigeria. ... of violence, they were surprisingly also the perpetrators and astute enforcers of the practice, as well as those who vehemently opposed any form of change.

  3. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  4. Elimination of lymphatic filariasis in the Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Maria P; Sambou, Sana Malang; Thomas, Brent; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Jaye, Momodou C; Kelly-Hope, Louise; Escalada, Alba Gonzalez; Molyneux, David H; Bockarie, Moses J

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti, which causes lymphatic filariasis (LF) in The Gambia was among the highest in Africa in the 1950s. However, surveys conducted in 1975 and 1976 revealed a dramatic decline in LF endemicity in the absence of mass drug administration (MDA). The decline in prevalence was partly attributed to a significant reduction in mosquito density through the widespread use of insecticidal nets. Based on findings elsewhere that vector control alone can interrupt LF, we asked the question in 2013 whether the rapid scale up in the use of insecticidal nets in The Gambia had interrupted LF transmission. We present here the results of three independently designed filariasis surveys conducted over a period of 17 years (1997-2013), and involving over 6000 subjects in 21 districts across all administrative divisions in The Gambia. An immunochromatographic (ICT) test was used to detect W. bancrofti antigen during all three surveys. In 2001, tests performed on stored samples collected between 1997 and 2000, in three divisions, failed to show positive individuals from two divisions that were previously highly endemic for LF, suggesting a decline towards extinction in some areas. Results of the second survey conducted in 2003 showed that LF was no longer endemic in 16 of 21 districts surveyed. The 2013 survey used a WHO recommended LF transmission verification tool involving 3180 6-7 year-olds attending 60 schools across the country. We demonstrated that transmission of W. bancrofti has been interrupted in all 21 districts. We conclude that LF transmission may have been interrupted in The Gambia through the extensive use of insecticidal nets for malaria control for decades. The growing evidence for the impact of malaria vector control activities on parasite transmission has been endorsed by WHO through a position statement in 2011 on integrated vector management to control malaria and LF.

  5. Elimination of lymphatic filariasis in the Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P Rebollo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti, which causes lymphatic filariasis (LF in The Gambia was among the highest in Africa in the 1950s. However, surveys conducted in 1975 and 1976 revealed a dramatic decline in LF endemicity in the absence of mass drug administration (MDA. The decline in prevalence was partly attributed to a significant reduction in mosquito density through the widespread use of insecticidal nets. Based on findings elsewhere that vector control alone can interrupt LF, we asked the question in 2013 whether the rapid scale up in the use of insecticidal nets in The Gambia had interrupted LF transmission.We present here the results of three independently designed filariasis surveys conducted over a period of 17 years (1997-2013, and involving over 6000 subjects in 21 districts across all administrative divisions in The Gambia. An immunochromatographic (ICT test was used to detect W. bancrofti antigen during all three surveys. In 2001, tests performed on stored samples collected between 1997 and 2000, in three divisions, failed to show positive individuals from two divisions that were previously highly endemic for LF, suggesting a decline towards extinction in some areas. Results of the second survey conducted in 2003 showed that LF was no longer endemic in 16 of 21 districts surveyed. The 2013 survey used a WHO recommended LF transmission verification tool involving 3180 6-7 year-olds attending 60 schools across the country. We demonstrated that transmission of W. bancrofti has been interrupted in all 21 districts.We conclude that LF transmission may have been interrupted in The Gambia through the extensive use of insecticidal nets for malaria control for decades. The growing evidence for the impact of malaria vector control activities on parasite transmission has been endorsed by WHO through a position statement in 2011 on integrated vector management to control malaria and LF.

  6. Nuclear power plant pressurizer fault diagnosis using fuzzy signed-digraph and spurious faults elimination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the Fuzzy Signed Digraph (FSD) method which has been researched for the fault diagnosis of industrial process plant systems is improved and applied to the fault diagnosis of the Kori-2 nuclear power plant pressurizer. A method for spurious faults elimination is also suggested and applied to the fault diagnosis. By using these methods, we could diagnose the multi-faults of the pressurizer and could also eliminate the spurious faults of the pressurizer caused by other subsystems. Besides the multi-fault diagnosis and system-wide diagnosis capabilities, the proposed method has many merits such as real-time diagnosis capability, independency of fault pattern, direct use of sensor values, and transparency of the fault propagation to the operators. (Author)

  7. Nuclear power plant pressurizer fault diagnosis using fuzzy signed-digraph and spurious faults elimination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun

    1994-02-01

    In this work, the Fuzzy Signed Digraph(FSD) method which has been researched for the fault diagnosis of industrial process plant systems is improved and applied to the fault diagnosis of the Kori-2 nuclear power plant pressurizer. A method for spurious faults elimination is also suggested and applied to the fault diagnosis. By using these methods, we could diagnose the multi-faults of the pressurizer and could also eliminate the spurious faults of the pressurizer caused by other subsystems. Besides the multi-fault diagnosis and system-wide diagnosis capabilities, the proposed method has many merits such as real-time diagnosis capability, independency of fault pattern, direct use of sensor values, and transparency of the fault propagation to the operators

  8. [Switzerland eliminates measles. National Strategy for the Elimination of Measles 2011-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, D; Richard, J-L; Hanhart, J; Eckert, T; Eigenmann Schüttel, S

    2013-09-01

    The measles virus circulates within Switzerland in an endemic way leading to sporadic outbreaks. The most recent outbreak occurred in 2011. It lasted 9 months and had 687 reported cases. This is in contrast to 2012 when there were 66 cases,corresponding to an incidence of 8 cases per million inhabitants. During 2008-2010, the average national vaccination coverage for one or two doses of measles vaccine amounted to 92 and 83 % for 2-year-olds, 95 and 85 % for 8-year-olds, and 95 and 85 % for 16-year-olds, respectively. To improve the national vaccination coverage, the Federal Council adopted the National Strategy for the Elimination of Measles 2011-2015 in 2011.The strategy was drawn up in a participative process led by the Federal Office for Public Health.The cantons as key partners were represented by the Conference of the Cantonal Directors for Public Health and the Association of Cantonal Health Officers. The strategy pursues the vision of eliminating measles in Switzerland in order to protect the population against measles and its complications, including all persons who may not be vaccinated for medical reasons. The strategy comprises six axes of intervention:(1)political engagement and support by all stakeholders, (2)a targeted ≥ 95 % two-dose vaccination coverage for all 2-year-olds, (3)easier access and incentives for the booster vaccination for everyone in the 2-year-old age group up to those born in 1964, (4)communication and promotion, (5)uniform national outbreak control, and (6)targeted surveillance.

  9. Elimination of a Viscumin-Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles Conjugate from the Tumor Nodule in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, D V; Nikulin, S V; Sergeeva, N S; Tonevitskaya, S A; Sakharov, D A

    2017-10-01

    External magnetic field is characterized by low toxicity and existence of magnetic properties, which contributes to an interest in the development of products from ferromagnetic nanoparticles (FNP) for antitumor therapy. Previously we synthesized a conjugate of ferromagnetic magnetite nanoparticles and viscumin (mistletoe lectin I, MLI), which exhibits the antitumor activity. Studying the pharmacological properties of this conjugate (FNP-MLI) was directed to the evaluation of FNP-MLI elimination after intratumor injection in mice. The elimination rate of FNP-MLI was much lower than that of native plant MLI. The presence of FNP-MLI was not accompanied by undesired changes in the tumor tissue. The use of a FNP-MLI conjugate allowed us to prolong the time of MLI presence in tissues without increasing the dose of exogenous lectin. These features contribute to the prolongation of an immunomodulatory effect of MLI.

  10. Lessons from independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptfuhrer, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of Oryx provides invaluable lessons for those who plan future energy strategies, relates the author of this paper. When Oryx became an independent oil and gas company, its reserves were declining, its stock was selling below asset values, and the price of oil seemed stuck below $15 per barrel. The message from Oryx management to Oryx employees was: We are in charge of our own destiny. We are about to create our own future. Oryx had developed a new, positive corporate culture and the corporate credit required for growth. This paper points to two basic principles that have guided the metamorphosis in Oryx's performance. The first objective was to improve operational efficiency and to identify the right performance indicators to measure this improvement. It states that the most critical performance indicator for an exploration and production company must be replacement and expansion of reserves at a competitive replacement cost. Oryx has cut its finding costs from $12 to $5 per barrel, while the BP acquisition provided proven reserves at a cost of only $4 per barrel. Another performance indicator measures Oryx's standing in the financial markets

  11. Medical certification reduces the number of children requiring allergen elimination diets for school lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korematsu, Seigo; Toyokuni, Kenji; Handa, Yousuke; Gotoh, Chika; Wasada, Rieko; Kato, Rie; Kawano, Nanae; Ikeuchi, Mayo; Okamoto, Tomoko; Kiriya, Maki; Takahashi, Mizuho; Takano, Tomoyuki; Haigo, Atsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Following the increase in the number of children with food allergies, support systems are now required for school lunches, but a large-scale factual investigation has not been carried out. We evaluated the features of elimination diet due to food allergy and the support system in kindergartens and schools. A prefecture-based questionnaire survey regarding measures for food allergies in school lunches of all kindergartens, public elementary schools, and public junior high schools (631 facilities) was conducted in Oita Prefecture, Japan. The recovery rate of the questionnaire was 99.5%, which included 106,008 students in total. A total of 1,562 children (1.5%) required elimination diets. The rate of children on elimination diets in kindergartens and elementary/junior high schools that required medical certification by a physician was 1.2% (324 among 27,761 children), which was significantly lower than the 1.8% of children (1,227 among 68,576 students) on elimination diets at the request of guardians without the need for medical certification ( p schools said that they would contact guardians if symptoms were observed after accidental ingestion, while a low 8.1% stated that they provided support to children themselves, including the administration of adrenaline auto-injectors. Medical certification reduces the number of children requiring elimination diets, but it has not been adequately implemented. Furthermore, waiting to contact guardians after symptoms are observed may lead to the delayed treatment of anaphylaxis. Cooperation between physicians and teachers is desired to avoid the overdiagnosis and undertreatment of children with food allergies.

  12. Progress toward measles elimination--Japan, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-26

    In 2005, the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) set a target date of 2012 for measles elimination in all WPR member states. In Japan, measles control strategies have included 1) a nationwide public awareness campaign implemented in 2001 to promote timely vaccination with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) administered on or after age 12 months, and 2) a 2-dose MCV schedule with the second dose (MCV2) administered at age 5-6 years, adopted in 2006 in accordance with the recommended WPR measles elimination strategy. However, during 2007-2008, Japan experienced a large measles outbreak, which resulted in exportation of measles cases from Japan into countries where measles elimination had been achieved. This report describes the epidemiology of measles in Japan during 1999--2008 and approval of a National Measles Elimination Plan in December 2007 that includes recommendations for immunization strategies, case-based measles surveillance, and monitoring to ensure elimination of measles by 2012. Measles continues to be endemic in Japan, with most cases occurring in children before school entry, except for 2007 and 2008, when a shift to an older age group was observed. With implementation of the National Measles Elimination Plan, Japan is expected to make progress toward achieving the WPR measles elimination goal.

  13. Elimination of Helicobacter pylori under treatment with omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, M; Bethke, B

    1990-06-01

    Biopsies from the stomachs (antrum and corpus) of 201 patients with peptic ulcers or reflux oesophagitis were retrospectively investigated for the effect of treatment with omeprazole on the elimination of Helicobacter pylori (HP) and on gastritis. Of 64 patients without gastritis two (3.1%) developed gastritis during treatment. Among 134 patients with HP gastritis undergoing treatment, 48 (35.8%) experienced no HP elimination, in 41 (30.6%) there was HP elimination from the antrum, but HP persistence in the corpus, while in 45 (33.6%) HP was eliminated from both antrum and corpus. HP elimination led to a reduction in the degree and activity of gastritis under omeprazole treatment. Only eight patients were examined after completion of treatment, and in three in whom HP had been eliminated, recolonization was found to have occurred. The disappearance of HP in Type A gastritis coupled with the fact that HP is highly sensitive to contamination with other bacteria--as observed in the laboratory--suggests that this now partially established elimination of HP under the strongly acid-inhibiting omeprazole therapy can be traced back to a bacterial overgrowth of the gastric mucosa.

  14. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....

  15. The effect of destination linked feature selection in real-time network intrusion detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mzila, P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available packets. The objective of this paper is to eliminate unnecessary features from the dataset, namely destination linked features of the network packet, and train a classification model on the remaining features using a k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) classifier...

  16. Commonwealth of (Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrućinić Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the stages from the establishment itself to the present day of the functioning of such a specific regional organization as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, the article seeks to further explain the meaning of its existence, efficiency and functioning. The CIS was created in order to make the dissolution of a major world super-power, which throughout the 20th century together with the USA defined the bipolar world, as painless as possible, especially for the new countries and its nationally and ethnically diverse population. During the early years after the dissolution of the USSR, the CIS played a major role in a more flexible and less severe dissolution of the Soviet empire, alleviating the consequences for its people. A more efficient functioning among the republics in all fields was also one of the tasks of the Commonwealth, to which it was devoted to the extent which was permitted by the then, not too favourable circumstances. Difficult years of economic crisis did not allow the CIS to mutually integrate its members as much as possible on the economy level. Thanks to the economic recovery of the post-Soviet states in the early 21st century, the Commonwealth has also been transformed, reformed, and renewed, and all this in order to achieve better and more fruitful cooperation between the members. The CIS may serve as a proper example of how the former Soviet Union states are inextricably linked by social, security-political, economic, cultural, communication-transport, and other ties, thanks to the centuries-long existence of the peoples of these states in this area, despite both internal and external factors which occasionally, but temporarily halt the post-Soviet integration. Mathematically expressed, the CIS members are naturally predisposed, to be reciprocally depended on each other, just as they also have the capacity for successful cooperation in the future times and epochs brought on by the modern world.

  17. B cell-independent contribution of BAFF to murine autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, William; Banfalvi, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    BAFF blockade is efficacious in murine and human SLE. Whereas the attendant reduction in B cells contributes to the efficacy, it remains unresolved whether a B cell-independent component also contributes. Since accurate assessment of a B cell-independent component can only be made in a B cell-independent autoimmune disease, we investigated MOG 35-55 -induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice. Neither pharmacologic neutralization nor genetic elimination of BAFF affected disease, nor did elimination of APRIL (with or without elimination of BAFF) or constitutive over-expression of BAFF. Eliminating BAFF had no effect on disease even in mice that were genetically manipulated to maintain greater-than-normal numbers of B cells. However, elimination of BAFF in B cell-deficient mice dramatically reduced disease, thereby unmasking a B cell-independent contribution of BAFF to an autoimmune disease. Our findings raise the plausibility that BAFF contributes to SLE not only through effects on B cells but through B cell-independent pathways as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feature Selection by Reordering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 155-161 ISSN 1738-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : feature selection * data reduction * ordering of features Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  19. An elimination diet for chronic urticaria of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A S; Schembri, G

    1985-09-16

    Twenty-three children with chronic urticaria were treated with an elimination diet for two weeks. Eighteen completed the period of dietary elimination; in seven of the 18 children there was a marked remission of the urticaria during the second week of the diet. The administration of challenge capsules provoked an exacerbation of urticaria in five of the 14 (36%) children given aspirin. The incidence of reactions to tartrazine, sodium benzoate and yeast (7%) was not significantly different from those to the lactose placebo (9%). In selected cases, elimination diets with controlled reintroduction of foods have a role in the management of chronic urticaria in childhood.

  20. The economics of malaria control and elimination: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shretta, Rima; Avanceña, Anton L V; Hatefi, Arian

    2016-12-12

    Declining donor funding and competing health priorities threaten the sustainability of malaria programmes. Elucidating the cost and benefits of continued investments in malaria could encourage sustained political and financial commitments. The evidence, although available, remains disparate. This paper reviews the existing literature on the economic and financial cost and return of malaria control, elimination and eradication. A review of articles that were published on or before September 2014 on the cost and benefits of malaria control and elimination was performed. Studies were classified based on their scope and were analysed according to two major categories: cost of malaria control and elimination to a health system, and cost-benefit studies. Only studies involving more than two control or elimination interventions were included. Outcomes of interest were total programmatic cost, cost per capita, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). All costs were converted to 2013 US$ for standardization. Of the 6425 articles identified, 54 studies were included in this review. Twenty-two were focused on elimination or eradication while 32 focused on intensive control. Forty-eight per cent of studies included in this review were published on or after 2000. Overall, the annual per capita cost of malaria control to a health system ranged from $0.11 to $39.06 (median: $2.21) while that for malaria elimination ranged from $0.18 to $27 (median: $3.00). BCRs of investing in malaria control and elimination ranged from 2.4 to over 145. Overall, investments needed for malaria control and elimination varied greatly amongst the various countries and contexts. In most cases, the cost of elimination was greater than the cost of control. At the same time, the benefits of investing in malaria greatly outweighed the costs. While the cost of elimination in most cases was greater than the cost of control, the benefits greatly outweighed the cost. Information from this review provides guidance to

  1. ELIMINATION OF ANGIOTENSIN – CONVERTING ENZIME INHIBITORS BY PERITONEAL DIALISATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Odović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors are a significant group of drugs that are primarily used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. Even though they belong to the same group of drugs and have similar efficacy, ACE inhibitors exhibit different pharmacological characteristics. The lipophilicity is one of the most important properties of biologically active substances. It influences their absorption, distribution, tissue penetration, action, elimination. In this paper, the elimination of ACE inhibitors by peritoneal dialisate in patients on peritoneal dialysis was investigated. The influence of ACE inhibitors' hydrophibicity in this way of elimination was discussed.

  2. Elimination of threshold singularities in the relation between on-shell and pole widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Palisoc, C.P.; Sirlin, A.

    2002-05-01

    In a previous communication by two of us, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1373 (1998), the gauge-dependent deviations of the on-shell mass and total decay width from their gauge-independent pole counterparts were investigated at leading order for the Higgs boson of the Standard Model. In the case of the widths, the deviation was found to diverge at unphysical thresholds, m H =2√(ξ V )m V (V=W,Z), in the R ξ gauge. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate that these unphysical threshold singularities are properly eliminated if a recently proposed definition of wave-function renormalization for unstable particles is invoked. (orig.)

  3. Media independence and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Dandoune, Salma

    2012-01-01

    independence and dividend policies in emerging markets. Using a dataset from twenty three emerging markets, we show a significantly negative relationship between dividend policies (payout ratio and decision to pay dividend) and media independence. We argue that independent media reduces information asymmetries...... for stock market participants. Consequently, stock market participants in emerging markets with more independent media do not demand as high and as much dividends as their counterparts in emerging markets with less independent media. We also show that press independence is more important in defining......Can media pressurize managers to disgorge excess cash to shareholders? Do firms in countries with more independent media follow different dividend policies than firms with less independent media? This paper seeks to answer these questions and aims to document the relationship between media...

  4. The Featurization of Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Steensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Feature journalism has developed from being an insignificant supplement to news journalism to a family of genres that today dominates newspapers. The present article explores the growing importance of feature journalism and attempts to understand its social function, how it has changed and why it has become so important. Based on an analysis of influential textbooks on feature journalism, the paper argues that feature journalism has traditionally been dominated by a literary d...

  5. Image mosaicking using SURF features of line segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhanlong; Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel image mosaicking method that is based on Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) of line segments, aiming to achieve robustness to incident scaling, rotation, change in illumination, and significant affine distortion between images in a panoramic series. Our method involves 1) using a SURF detection operator to locate feature points; 2) rough matching using SURF features of directed line segments constructed via the feature points; and 3) eliminating incorrectly matched pairs using RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus). Experimental results confirm that our method results in high-quality panoramic mosaics that are superior to state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Intersection of Feature Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    In this paper, we present an algorithm for the construction of the intersection of two feature models. The feature models are allowed to have "requires" and "excludes" constraints, and should be parent-compatible. The algorithm is applied to the problem of combining feature models from stakeholders

  7. Merging Feature Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Galvao, I.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of merging feature models which consist of trees with "requires" and "excludes" constraints. For any two such feature models which are parent-compatible, their merge is defined to be the smallest parent-compatible feature model which has all products of the

  8. Independent component analysis of Alzheimer's DNA microarray gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderburg Charles R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene microarray technology is an effective tool to investigate the simultaneous activity of multiple cellular pathways from hundreds to thousands of genes. However, because data in the colossal amounts generated by DNA microarray technology are usually complex, noisy, high-dimensional, and often hindered by low statistical power, their exploitation is difficult. To overcome these problems, two kinds of unsupervised analysis methods for microarray data: principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA have been developed to accomplish the task. PCA projects the data into a new space spanned by the principal components that are mutually orthonormal to each other. The constraint of mutual orthogonality and second-order statistics technique within PCA algorithms, however, may not be applied to the biological systems studied. Extracting and characterizing the most informative features of the biological signals, however, require higher-order statistics. Results ICA is one of the unsupervised algorithms that can extract higher-order statistical structures from data and has been applied to DNA microarray gene expression data analysis. We performed FastICA method on DNA microarray gene expression data from Alzheimer's disease (AD hippocampal tissue samples and consequential gene clustering. Experimental results showed that the ICA method can improve the clustering results of AD samples and identify significant genes. More than 50 significant genes with high expression levels in severe AD were extracted, representing immunity-related protein, metal-related protein, membrane protein, lipoprotein, neuropeptide, cytoskeleton protein, cellular binding protein, and ribosomal protein. Within the aforementioned categories, our method also found 37 significant genes with low expression levels. Moreover, it is worth noting that some oncogenes and phosphorylation-related proteins are expressed in low levels. In

  9. Diffusion filter eliminates fringe effects of coherent laser light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsasky, M. J.

    1970-01-01

    Diffusion filter comprised of small particles in colloidal suspension reduces the coherence of a laser beam used as a photographic light source. Interference patterns which obscure details in photographic film are eliminated, the intensity and collimation are moderately affected.

  10. Elimination kinetic model for organic chemicals in earthworms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, N.; Dimitrov, S.; Georgieva, D.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Hankard, P.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Li, H.; Mekenyan, O.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of bioaccumulation in different organisms and environments should take into account the influence of organism and chemical depending factors on the uptake and elimination kinetics of chemicals. Lipophilicity, metabolism, sorption (bioavailability) and biodegradation of

  11. [Molecular surveillance shows progress in measles elimination process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibanez, S; Mankertz, A

    2013-09-01

    Measles is a severe disease caused by infection with the measles virus. Complications after the onset of infection lead to 1-3 fatalities per 1,000 cases in industrialized countries. If more than 95 % of the global population were vaccinated twice with the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, measles could be eliminated worldwide. The elimination of measles and rubella should be reached in the WHO Europe region in 2015. One important criterion for elimination of the measles virus consists in the analysis of the duration of transmission chains initiated by the import of measles virus. To assign measles viruses to outbreaks and transmission chains, genetic characterization is necessary. These investigations have been performed continually at the National Reference Center Measles, Mumps, Rubella since 1999, when the German Intervention Program was launched. This article summarizes our experiences with measles virus genotyping and new developments with respect to measles elimination in Germany.

  12. Hepatic, renal, and total body galactose elimination in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Tygstrup, N

    1993-01-01

    Galactose elimination capacity is used as a quantitative measure of liver function on the assumption that galactose elimination outside the liver is negligible or easily corrected for. The relationship between hepatic and extrahepatic removal of galactose was studied in anesthetized pigs during...... quasi-steady-state conditions by continuous infusion of galactose. The hepatic removal approximated a constant [maximal velocity = 585 +/- 41 mumol/min, Michaelis constant (Km) = 0.24 +/- 0.07 mmol/l, mean +/- SE, n = 20]. The renal removal was less than the amount filtered, showing maximal tubular...... reabsorption (Tm 178 +/- 3.0 mumol/min, Km 3.8 +/- 0.9 mmol/l, n = 20). Metabolic conversion of galactose in the kidney was not demonstrable. At all concentrations studied (0.4-5.8 mmol/l), total galactose elimination from the body exceeded the sum of hepatic and renal elimination by approximately 100 mumol...

  13. QUEST : Eliminating online supervised learning for efficient classification algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, Ardjan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training), an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting

  14. Health promotion: From malaria control to elimination | Groepe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we reflect on the achievement of some of the diverse activities that have brought malaria under control, highlight key challenges and propose specific health promotion interventions required to move South Africa's malaria programme from control to elimination.

  15. Salivary paracetamol elimination kinetics during the menstrual cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Somaja, L; Thangam, J

    1987-01-01

    Studies were done to examine the influence of the menstrual cycle on the elimination kinetics of paracetamol. Salivary concentrations of paracetamol were determined after oral administration of 1 g of paracetamol on day 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 of the menstrual cycle in normal healthy women volunteers with regular menstrual cycles. There was no significant difference in elimination half-life (t 1/2) or metabolic clearance rate (CL) between the various days of the menstrual cycle. The result sugge...

  16. Which structural rules admit cut elimination? An algebraic criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Terui, Kazushige

    2007-01-01

    Consider a general class of structural inference rules such as exchange, weakening, contraction and their generalizations. Among them, some are harmless but others do harm to cut elimination. Hence it is natural to ask under which condition cut elimination is preserved when a set of structural rules is added to a structure-free logic. The aim of this work is to give such a condition by using algebraic semantics. ¶ We consider full Lambek calculus (FL), i.e., intuitioni...

  17. Mid-space-independent deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganj, Iman; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Reuter, Martin; Sabuncu, Mert Rory; Fischl, Bruce

    2017-05-15

    Aligning images in a mid-space is a common approach to ensuring that deformable image registration is symmetric - that it does not depend on the arbitrary ordering of the input images. The results are, however, generally dependent on the mathematical definition of the mid-space. In particular, the set of possible solutions is typically restricted by the constraints that are enforced on the transformations to prevent the mid-space from drifting too far from the native image spaces. The use of an implicit atlas has been proposed as an approach to mid-space image registration. In this work, we show that when the atlas is aligned to each image in the native image space, the data term of implicit-atlas-based deformable registration is inherently independent of the mid-space. In addition, we show that the regularization term can be reformulated independently of the mid-space as well. We derive a new symmetric cost function that only depends on the transformation morphing the images to each other, rather than to the atlas. This eliminates the need for anti-drift constraints, thereby expanding the space of allowable deformations. We provide an implementation scheme for the proposed framework, and validate it through diffeomorphic registration experiments on brain magnetic resonance images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vietnamese women in struggle for national independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The 30-year struggle for independence in Viet Nam took a huge toll on women, but even in the hardest times, Vietnamese women received support from the world-wide women's movement. As the world prepares to enter the new millennium, it is important to determine what policies can be created to prevent war and guarantee peace. These policies must grow out of international agreement on basic principles such as respect for independence and sovereignty and must not resort to the embargoes and sanctions that have placed a disproportionate burden on women and children. Another challenge of the new millennium is to encourage implementation of national programs, policies, and measures to help women realize their rights while preserving traditional family values. Despite the heightened visibility of the international women's movement, women still suffer from widespread inequalities. In accordance with the goals of the Communist Party of Viet Nam, the 8th Congress of Vietnamese Women in 1997 created a national plan for women that is a blueprint for the women's movement for the years 1997-2000. Among the goals are creating jobs for women, upgrading their standard of living, eliminating hunger, decreasing poverty, and ensuring that women have educational opportunities. Vietnamese women also seek to strengthen their relationship with other women in the international community, and the Vietnamese Women's Union has actively forwarded the objectives of the Federation of International Democratic Women.

  19. The effect of the molecular properties of calcium channel blockers on their elimination route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trbojević-Stanković Jasna B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium channel blockers (CCBs are among the most widely used drugs in cardiovascular medicine. In this study, nine CCBs (amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nimodipine, nisoldipine, verapamil and diltiazem were investigated to assess the relationship between their molecular properties and elimination data obtained from literature. The descriptors of the molecular properties of CCBs were calculated using three software packages. The relationship between computed molecular properties and elimination data collected from relevant literature, initially investigated with simple linear regression analysis, showed poor correlation (R2 <0.25. Application of molecular weight or volume data as additional independent variable, multiple linear regression (MLR revealed better correlations (R2 ~ 0.38 between CCB renal and fecal elimination data and their lipophilicity. Excluding nimodipine from the calculations resulted in more acceptable correlations. The best correlations were established after computed lipophilicity descriptor and molecular weight were applied (R2 = 0.66 with acceptable probability value. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34031

  20. Discovering highly informative feature set over high dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chongsheng

    2012-11-01

    For many textual collections, the number of features is often overly large. These features can be very redundant, it is therefore desirable to have a small, succinct, yet highly informative collection of features that describes the key characteristics of a dataset. Information theory is one such tool for us to obtain this feature collection. With this paper, we mainly contribute to the improvement of efficiency for the process of selecting the most informative feature set over high-dimensional unlabeled data. We propose a heuristic theory for informative feature set selection from high dimensional data. Moreover, we design data structures that enable us to compute the entropies of the candidate feature sets efficiently. We also develop a simple pruning strategy that eliminates the hopeless candidates at each forward selection step. We test our method through experiments on real-world data sets, showing that our proposal is very efficient. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Energy Balance and Operating Features of the Heat Accumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Fiala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are described design and realization of a heat accumulator in the article which joins advantages and eliminates disadvantages of water and gravel accumulators. Inside the accumulator there are suppressed heat convection and conduction between layers of storage matter, so there is the temperature stratification along a height of such accumulator. The article deals with operating features as well.

  2. A Method for Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to check for feature interactions in a system assembled from independently developed concurrent processes as found in many reactive systems. The method combines and refines existing definitions and adds a set of activities. The activities describe how to populate the ...

  3. Elimination of paternal mitochondria in mouse embryos occurs through autophagic degradation dependent on PARKIN and MUL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojansky, Rebecca; Cha, Moon-Yong; Chan, David C

    2016-11-17

    A defining feature of mitochondria is their maternal mode of inheritance. However, little is understood about the cellular mechanism through which paternal mitochondria, delivered from sperm, are eliminated from early mammalian embryos. Autophagy has been implicated in nematodes, but whether this mechanism is conserved in mammals has been disputed. Here, we show that cultured mouse fibroblasts and pre-implantation embryos use a common pathway for elimination of mitochondria. Both situations utilize mitophagy, in which mitochondria are sequestered by autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. The E3 ubiquitin ligases PARKIN and MUL1 play redundant roles in elimination of paternal mitochondria. The process is associated with depolarization of paternal mitochondria and additionally requires the mitochondrial outer membrane protein FIS1, the autophagy adaptor P62, and PINK1 kinase. Our results indicate that strict maternal transmission of mitochondria relies on mitophagy and uncover a collaboration between MUL1 and PARKIN in this process.

  4. Predictive fine granularity successive elimination for fast optimal block-matching motion estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ce; Qi, Wei-Song; Ser, Wee

    2005-02-01

    Given the number of checking points, the speed of block motion estimation depends on how fast the block matching is. In this paper, a new framework, fine granularity successive elimination (FGSE), is proposed for fast optimal block matching in motion estimation. The FGSE features providing a sequence of nondecreasing fine-grained boundary levels to reject a checking point using as little computation as possible, where block complexity is utilized to determine the order of partitioning larger sub-blocks into smaller subblocks in the creation of the fine-grained boundary levels. It is shown that the well-known successive elimination algorithm (SEA) and multilevel successive elimination algorithm (MSEA) are just two special cases in the FGSE framework. Moreover, in view that two adjacent checking points (blocks) share most of the block pixels with just one pixel shifting horizontally or vertically, we develop a scheme to predict the rejection level for a candidate by exploiting the correlation of matching errors between two adjacent checking points. The resulting predictive FGSE algorithm can further reduce computation load by skipping some redundant boundary levels. Experimental results are presented to verify substantial computational savings of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the SEA/MSEA.

  5. Eliminating microglia in Alzheimer’s mice prevents neuronal loss without modulating amyloid-β pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Elizabeth E.; Lee, Rafael J.; Najafi, Allison R.; Rice, Rachel A.; Elmore, Monica R. P.; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; West, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to amyloid-β plaque and tau neurofibrillary tangle deposition, neuroinflammation is considered a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia surrounding amyloid plaques, implicating their role in disease pathogenesis. Microglia in the healthy adult mouse depend on colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signalling for survival, and pharmacological inhibition of this receptor results in rapid elimination of nearly all of the microglia in the central nervous system. In this study, we set out to determine if chronically activated microglia in the Alzheimer's disease brain are also dependent on CSF1R signalling, and if so, how these cells contribute to disease pathogenesis. Ten-month-old 5xfAD mice were treated with a selective CSF1R inhibitor for 1 month, resulting in the elimination of ∼80% of microglia. Chronic microglial elimination does not alter amyloid-β levels or plaque load; however, it does rescue dendritic spine loss and prevent neuronal loss in 5xfAD mice, as well as reduce overall neuroinflammation. Importantly, behavioural testing revealed improvements in contextual memory. Collectively, these results demonstrate that microglia contribute to neuronal loss, as well as memory impairments in 5xfAD mice, but do not mediate or protect from amyloid pathology. PMID:26921617

  6. Targeted Elimination of G Proteins and Arrestins Defines Their Specific Contributions to Both Intensity and Duration of G Protein-coupled Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Inoue, Asuka; Jenkins, Laura; Raihan, Sheikh Zahir; Prihandoko, Rudi; Tobin, Andrew B; Milligan, Graeme

    2016-12-30

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can initiate intracellular signaling cascades by coupling to an array of heterotrimeric G proteins and arrestin adaptor proteins. Understanding the contribution of each of these coupling options to GPCR signaling has been hampered by a paucity of tools to selectively perturb receptor function. Here we employ CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to eliminate selected G proteins (Gα q and Gα 11 ) or arrestin2 and arrestin3 from HEK293 cells together with the elimination of receptor phosphorylation sites to define the relative contribution of G proteins, arrestins, and receptor phosphorylation to the signaling outcomes of the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4). A lack of FFA4-mediated elevation of intracellular Ca 2+ in Gα q /Gα 11 -null cells and agonist-mediated receptor internalization in arrestin2/3-null cells confirmed previously reported canonical signaling features of this receptor, thereby validating the genome-edited HEK293 cells. FFA4-mediated ERK1/2 activation was totally dependent on G q / 11 but intriguingly was substantially enhanced for FFA4 receptors lacking sites of regulated phosphorylation. This was not due to a simple lack of desensitization of G q / 11 signaling because the G q / 11 -dependent calcium response was desensitized by both receptor phosphorylation and arrestin-dependent mechanisms, whereas a substantially enhanced ERK1/2 response was only observed for receptors lacking phosphorylation sites and not in arrestin2/3-null cells. In conclusion, we validate CRISPR/Cas9 engineered HEK293 cells lacking G q / 11 or arrestin2/3 as systems for GPCR signaling research and employ these cells to reveal a previously unappreciated interplay of signaling pathways where receptor phosphorylation can impact on ERK1/2 signaling through a mechanism that is likely independent of arrestins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Towards the Elimination of Hepatitis C in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Sammy; Le, Long; Saggi, Satvir; Sundaram, Vinay; Tong, Myron

    2017-11-27

    The emergence of effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has reignited discussion over hepatitis C elimination potential in the United States. Eliminating hepatitis C will require a critical examination regarding technical feasibility, economic considerations, and social/political attention. Tremendous advancement has been made in recent years with the availability of sensitive diagnostic tests and highly effective DAAs capable of achieving sustained viral response (SVR) in more than 95% of patients. Eliminating hepatitis C requires escalating existing surveillance networks to identify and respond to new epidemics. Basic prevention strategies such as community based outreach and education, testing and counseling, clean syringe and needle exchange programs, safe injection sites, opioid substitution therapies, and mental health services must be scaled up and adapted to target high risk groups. Although costs of DAAs have raised budget concerns for hepatitis C elimination, studies have shown that eliminating hepatitis C will produce a savings of up to 6.5 billion USD annually along with other intangible benefits such as work productivity and quality of life. Simulation economic models and meta-analyses suggest that all adults should be screened for hepatitis C, but special efforts must focus on high risk populations. There is growing recognition that social and political factors are at least as important as technical feasibility and economic considerations. Due to lack of promotion and public awareness, HCV elimination efforts continue to receive inadequate funding. Social stigma continues to impede meaningful policy changes. Eliminating hepatitis C from the U.S. is possible but it will require a sustained national commitment and strong political leadership. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Elimination of copper in tissues and organs of rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaye Dogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu elimination was investigated in the tissue and organs of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1792, after Cu-free diets exposure. In the current study, fish were fed to satiation on diets containing 0.022 (Group 1; Control, 0.043 (Group 2, 0.123 (Group 3, 0.424 (Group 4 g Cu*kg-1 diet for 60 days before elimination experiment. A total of 288 fish (mean weight 84.28±1.05 g were randomly transferred to 12 fibreglass tanks. The fish were fed the Cu-free diet twice daily, until apparent satiation, during 60 days. Subsequently, the experiment was established for a period of elimination, during which samples were taken at days 15, 30, 45 and 60. Cu concentration in the muscle, gill tissue, digestive system, liver and whole body of fish were determined after 60 days depuration. Cu concentrations in tissues of rainbow trout decreased during depuration period, and the order of Cu elimination in tissue and organs of rainbow trout was: digestive system (73.1 %, then gill (41.1 %, muscle (31.5 % and liver (17.2 % for group 2; digestive system (74.1%, then muscle (65.8%, gill (60.0% and liver (34.6% for group 3; and digestive system (85.8%, then muscle (80.8%, liver (50.5% and less/equal in gill (50.2% for group 4. In statistical analysis, both groups and time were significant factors (P less than 0.05 on elimination rate. Moreover, significant interaction between groups and time were identified on elimination rate. Digestive system showed the fastest elimination rates of Cu at all groups compared with other tissues.

  9. Progress Toward Regional Measles Elimination - Worldwide, 2000-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Alya; Patel, Minal K; Dumolard, Laure; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Mulders, Mick N; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Kretsinger, Katrina; Papania, Mark J; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2017-10-27

    The fourth United Nations Millennium Development Goal, adopted in 2000, set a target to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015. One indicator of progress toward this target was measles vaccination coverage (1). In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children aged 1 year to ≥90% at the national level and to ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (2).* In 2012, WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan, † with the objective of eliminating measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015 and in five regions by 2020. Countries in all six WHO regions have adopted goals for measles elimination by or before 2020. Measles elimination is defined as the absence of endemic measles virus transmission in a region or other defined geographic area for ≥12 months, in the presence of a high quality surveillance system that meets targets of key performance indicators. This report updates a previous report (3) and describes progress toward global measles control milestones and regional measles elimination goals during 2000-2016. During this period, annual reported measles incidence decreased 87%, from 145 to 19 cases per million persons, and annual estimated measles deaths decreased 84%, from 550,100 to 89,780; measles vaccination prevented an estimated 20.4 million deaths. However, the 2015 milestones have not yet been met; only one WHO region has been verified as having eliminated measles. Improved implementation of elimination strategies by countries and their partners is needed, with focus on increasing vaccination coverage through substantial and sustained additional investments in health systems, strengthening surveillance systems, using surveillance data to drive programmatic actions, securing political commitment, and raising

  10. Calculation of chemical elimination half-life from blood with an ongoing exposure source: the example of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark H; Waterland, Robert L; Wong, Fiona

    2015-06-01

    Determination of the chemical clearance rate from human blood is a critical component of toxicokinetic exposure assessment. Analysis of temporal biomonitoring data without consideration of ongoing exposure results in calculation of apparent elimination half-life values that are longer than the intrinsic value. The intrinsic elimination half-life is solely a function of the rate of elimination while the apparent elimination half-life reflects the processes of both elimination and ongoing exposure. Confusion between intrinsic and apparent half-life values can lead to misinterpretation of biomonitoring data and can result in exaggerated predictions in subsequent modeling efforts. This work provides a review of the first-order equations that have been developed to calculate intrinsic and apparent half-life values and the potential bias that can result from confusing these two values. Published human biomonitoring data for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are analyzed using these equations to provide examples of low, medium and high bias in determination of the intrinsic elimination half-life from plasma or serum, the components of blood typically analyzed for PFOA. An approach is also provided to estimate the extent of exposure reduction that is indicated by declining longitudinal or cross-sectional biomonitoring data. Based on the evaluation methodology presented in this work, the intrinsic elimination half-life of PFOA in humans is 2.4years, representing the average of independent estimates of 2.5years (95% CI, 2.4-2.7) and 2.3years (95% CI, 2.1-2.4). The declining concentration of PFOA in blood of the general USA adult population represents an estimated exposure reduction of 20-30% over the period 1999-2008. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Boards: Independent and Committed Directors?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Volonté

    2011-01-01

    Regulators, proxy advisors and shareholders are regularly calling for independent directors. However, at the same time, independent directors commonly engage in numerous outside activities potentially reducing their time and commitment with the particular firm. Using Tobin's Q as an approximation of market valuation and controlling for endogeneity, our empirical analysis reveals that neither is independence positively related to firm performance nor are outside activities negatively related t...

  12. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  13. A Comparative Study of Feature Selection Methods for the Discriminative Analysis of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunren Lai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial to differentiate patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE from the healthy population and determine abnormal brain regions in TLE. The cortical features and changes can reveal the unique anatomical patterns of brain regions from structural magnetic resonance (MR images. In this study, structural MR images from 41 patients with left TLE, 34 patients with right TLE, and 58 normal controls (NC were acquired, and four kinds of cortical measures, namely cortical thickness, cortical surface area, gray matter volume (GMV, and mean curvature, were explored for discriminative analysis. Three feature selection methods including the independent sample t-test filtering, the sparse-constrained dimensionality reduction model (SCDRM, and the support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE were investigated to extract dominant features among the compared groups for classification using the support vector machine (SVM classifier. The results showed that the SVM-RFE achieved the highest performance (most classifications with more than 84% accuracy, followed by the SCDRM, and the t-test. Especially, the surface area and GMV exhibited prominent discriminative ability, and the performance of the SVM was improved significantly when the four cortical measures were combined. Additionally, the dominant regions with higher classification weights were mainly located in the temporal and the frontal lobe, including the entorhinal cortex, rostral middle frontal, parahippocampal cortex, superior frontal, insula, and cuneus. This study concluded that the cortical features provided effective information for the recognition of abnormal anatomical patterns and the proposed methods had the potential to improve the clinical diagnosis of TLE.

  14. Gravity Independent Compressor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a small, gravity independent, vapor compression refrigeration system using a linear motor compressor which effectively...

  15. Monitoring the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis: Update to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Franco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO has targeted the elimination of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT 'as a public health problem' by 2020. The selected indicators of elimination should be monitored every two years, and we provide here a comprehensive update to 2014. The monitoring system is underpinned by the Atlas of HAT.With 3,797 reported cases in 2014, the corresponding milestone (5,000 cases was surpassed, and the 2020 global target of 'fewer than 2,000 reported cases per year' seems within reach. The areas where HAT is still a public health problem (i.e. > 1 HAT reported case per 10,000 people per year have halved in less than a decade, and in 2014 they corresponded to 350 thousand km2. The number and potential coverage of fixed health facilities offering diagnosis and treatment for HAT has expanded, and approximately 1,000 are now operating in 23 endemic countries. The observed trends are supported by sustained surveillance and improved reporting.HAT elimination appears to be on track. For gambiense HAT, still accounting for the vast majority of reported cases, progress continues unabated in a context of sustained intensity of screening activities. For rhodesiense HAT, a slow-down was observed in the last few years. Looking beyond the 2020 target, innovative tools and approaches will be increasingly needed. Coordination, through the WHO network for HAT elimination, will remain crucial to overcome the foreseeable and unforeseeable challenges that an elimination process will inevitably pose.

  16. Monitoring the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis: Update to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, José R; Cecchi, Giuliano; Priotto, Gerardo; Paone, Massimo; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Grout, Lise; Mattioli, Raffaele C; Argaw, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted the elimination of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) 'as a public health problem' by 2020. The selected indicators of elimination should be monitored every two years, and we provide here a comprehensive update to 2014. The monitoring system is underpinned by the Atlas of HAT. With 3,797 reported cases in 2014, the corresponding milestone (5,000 cases) was surpassed, and the 2020 global target of 'fewer than 2,000 reported cases per year' seems within reach. The areas where HAT is still a public health problem (i.e. > 1 HAT reported case per 10,000 people per year) have halved in less than a decade, and in 2014 they corresponded to 350 thousand km2. The number and potential coverage of fixed health facilities offering diagnosis and treatment for HAT has expanded, and approximately 1,000 are now operating in 23 endemic countries. The observed trends are supported by sustained surveillance and improved reporting. HAT elimination appears to be on track. For gambiense HAT, still accounting for the vast majority of reported cases, progress continues unabated in a context of sustained intensity of screening activities. For rhodesiense HAT, a slow-down was observed in the last few years. Looking beyond the 2020 target, innovative tools and approaches will be increasingly needed. Coordination, through the WHO network for HAT elimination, will remain crucial to overcome the foreseeable and unforeseeable challenges that an elimination process will inevitably pose.

  17. Effect of eliminating chronic diseases among elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Goncalves Campolina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the elimination of certain chronic diseases is capable of leading to the compression of morbidity among elderly individuals. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with official data for the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil in 2000 and data from the SABE (Health, Wellbeing and Ageing study. Sullivan's method was used to calculate disability-free life expectancy. Cause-deleted life tables were used to calculate the probabilities of death and disabilities with the elimination of health conditions. RESULTS: The largest gains in disability-free life expectancy, with the elimination of chronic illness, occurred in the female gender. Among individuals of a more advanced age, gains in disability-free life expectancy occurred as result of a relative compression of morbidity. Among men aged 75 years, all conditions studied, except heart disease and systemic arterial pressure, led to an absolute expansion of morbidity and, at the same time, to a relative compression of morbidity upon being eliminated. CONCLUSIONS: The elimination of chronic diseases in the elderly could lead to the compression of morbidity in elderly men and women.

  18. Rabies elimination research: juxtaposing optimism, pragmatism and realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Sarah; Hampson, Katie

    2017-12-20

    More than 100 years of research has now been conducted into the prevention, control and elimination of rabies with safe and highly efficacious vaccines developed for use in human and animal populations. Domestic dogs are a major reservoir for rabies, and although considerable advances have been made towards the elimination and control of canine rabies in many parts of the world, the disease continues to kill tens of thousands of people every year in Africa and Asia. Policy efforts are now being directed towards a global target of zero human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030 and the global elimination of canine rabies. Here we demonstrate how research provides a cause for optimism as to the feasibility of these goals through strategies based around mass dog vaccination. We summarize some of the pragmatic insights generated from rabies epidemiology and dog ecology research that can improve the design of dog vaccination strategies in low- and middle-income countries and which should encourage implementation without further delay. We also highlight the need for realism in reaching the feasible, although technically more difficult and longer-term goal of global elimination of canine rabies. Finally, we discuss how research on rabies has broader relevance to the control and elimination of a suite of diseases of current concern to human and animal health, providing an exemplar of the value of a 'One Health' approach. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in China, 2004-2012: from intensified control to elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lai, Shengjie; Zheng, Canjun; Zhang, Honglong; Zhou, Sheng; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C A; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yang, Weizhong; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie; Li, Zhongjie

    2014-11-03

    In China, the national malaria elimination programme has been operating since 2010. This study aimed to explore the epidemiological changes in patterns of malaria in China from intensified control to elimination stages. Data on nationwide malaria cases from 2004 to 2012 were extracted from the Chinese national malaria surveillance system. The secular trend, gender and age features, seasonality, and spatial distribution by Plasmodium species were analysed. In total, 238,443 malaria cases were reported, and the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum increased drastically from population. The areas affected by Plasmodium vivax malaria shrunk, while areas affected by P. falciparum malaria expanded from 294 counties in 2004 to 600 counties in 2012. This study demonstrated that malaria has decreased dramatically in the last five years, especially since the Chinese government launched a malaria elimination programme in 2010, and areas with reported falciparum malaria cases have expanded over recent years. These findings suggest that elimination efforts should be improved to meet these changes, so as to achieve the nationwide malaria elimination goal in China in 2020.

  20. Improving Naive Bayes with Online Feature Selection for Quick Adaptation to Evolving Feature Usefulness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

    2007-09-19

    The definition of what makes an article interesting varies from user to user and continually evolves even for a single user. As a result, for news recommendation systems, useless document features can not be determined a priori and all features are usually considered for interestingness classification. Consequently, the presence of currently useless features degrades classification performance [1], particularly over the initial set of news articles being classified. The initial set of document is critical for a user when considering which particular news recommendation system to adopt. To address these problems, we introduce an improved version of the naive Bayes classifier with online feature selection. We use correlation to determine the utility of each feature and take advantage of the conditional independence assumption used by naive Bayes for online feature selection and classification. The augmented naive Bayes classifier performs 28% better than the traditional naive Bayes classifier in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! RSS feeds.

  1. Expression of amplified synthetic ethanol pathway integrated using Tn7-tool and powered at the expense of eliminated pta, ack, spo0A and spo0J during continuous syngas or CO2 /H2 blend fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriukhin, M; Tyurin, M

    2013-04-01

    To engineer acetogen biocatalyst selectively overproducing ethanol from synthesis gas or CO2 /H2 as the only liquid carbonaceous product. Ethanol-resistant mutant originally capable of producing only acetate from CO2 /CO was engineered to eliminate acetate production and spore formation using our proprietary Cre-lox66/lox71-system. Bi-functional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase was inserted into the chromosome of the engineered mutant using Tn7-based approach. Recombinants with three or six copies of the inserted gene produced 525 mmol l(-1) and 1018 mmol l(-1) of ethanol, respectively, in five independent single-step fermentation runs 25 days each (P fermentation can boost artificial integrated pathway performance. Cell energy released via elimination of phosphotransacetylase, acetate kinase and early-stage sporulation genes boosted ethanol production. Deletion of sporulation genes added theft-proof feature to the engineered biocatalyst. Production of ethanol from CO2 /H2 blend might be utilized as a tool to mitigate global warming proportional to CO2 fermentation scale. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. International controls and the elimination of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.

    1997-01-01

    The elimination of nuclear weapons will require success in three interrelated efforts: stopping the proliferation of nuclear weapons by states through indigenous programs; preventing the illicit acquisition o warheads, components or essential materials by states, sub-national organizations or individuals; and halting further production and eliminating existing nuclear weapons in acknowledged nuclear-weapon-states and in other states that may now possess such weapons. The elimination of nuclear weapons is a challenge for regional and global security and perhaps more than any other security issue, a matter of most appropriate for collective control measures. The most significant issues concerning control are related to proliferation and peaceful uses of plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The IAEA has a special role, tasks and responsibilities concerning verification of non-proliferation, plutonium management, illegal trafficking of plutonium and/or highly enriched uranium, production cut-off of fissile material

  3. Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12], additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts.

  4. Elimination of the auxiliary fields in the antifield formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, M.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of the elimination of the auxiliary fields in the path integral quantization of gauge theories is investigated in the context of the antifield formalism. It is shown that gauge fixing fermions can be found such that: (i) the auxiliary fields remain auxiliary after gauge fixing; and (ii) the gauge fixed actions obtained by eliminating the auxiliary fields before or after writing down the path integral coincide. The contribution of the auxiliary fields to the integration measure is also discussed. These results are applied (i) to the problem of the equivalence between the lagrangian and hamiltonian path integral formulations; and (ii) to the problem of the elimination of the second class constraints in the hamiltonian formalism. (orig.)

  5. Testing the hypothesis that treatment can eliminate HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okano, Justin T; Robbins, Danielle; Palk, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, approximately 35 million individuals are infected with HIV; about 25 million of these live in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO proposes using treatment as prevention (TasP) to eliminate HIV. Treatment suppresses viral load, decreasing the probability an individual transmits HIV......: the Danish HIV Cohort Study. FINDINGS: Incidence, and the hidden epidemic, decreased substantially after treatment was introduced in 1996. By 2013, incidence was close to the elimination threshold: 1·4 (median, 95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] 0·4-2·1) new HIV infections per 1000 MSM and there were only...... 617 (264-858) undiagnosed MSM. Decreasing incidence and increasing treatment coverage were highly correlated; a treatment threshold effect was apparent. INTERPRETATION: Our study is the first to show that TasP can substantially reduce a country's HIV epidemic, and bring it close to elimination...

  6. Naïve and Robust: Class-Conditional Independence in Human Classification Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecki, Jana B.; Meder, Björn; Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2018-01-01

    Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference…

  7. On independence in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacronique, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    The term 'independence' is a common key word used by almost all stake holders in the field of nuclear safety regulation. The intention is to persuade the public that it can have more confidence and trust in the persons in charge, if their competence and judgment cannot be altered by any kind of political issue or personal interest. However, it is possible to discuss the reality of this claimed quality: how is it possible to verify that the organization that claim 'independence' really respect it? National expertise Institutions can show that they are independent from the industry, but can they claim total independence from the government? NGO have build a large part of their constituency on 'independence' from industry and governments, but are they independent from the ideological forces -sometimes very powerful - that support them? How can we achieve to make this noble word really meaningful? We will show through different examples, that 'independence' is by definition a fragile and versatile challenge, rather than a durable label. It has to be refreshed regularly and thoroughly. Risk communication, in that context, must respect principles which will build independence as a solid asset, and keep a certain distance with mere marketing purposes or candid wishful thinking

  8. Conflict in Independent Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernsey, Dan; Barott, James

    2008-01-01

    Independent Catholic schools are a growing phenomenon in the Catholic Church in America. This article provides a contextualized account of the phenomenon by examining via a field observation the experience of two independent Catholic schools in two different dioceses. These schools were founded in conflict and beset by continued conflict to the…

  9. Classification of independent components of EEG into multiple artifact classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Laura; Andersen, Tobias; Mørup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aim to automatically identify multiple artifact types in EEG. We used multinomial regression to classify independent components of EEG data, selecting from 65 spatial, spectral, and temporal features of independent components using forward selection. The classifier identified...... neural and five nonneural types of components. Between subjects within studies, high classification performances were obtained. Between studies, however, classification was more difficult. For neural versus nonneural classifications, performance was on par with previous results obtained by others. We...

  10. Elimination of Kala-Azar from the Southeast Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Dash, Aditya Prasad

    2017-04-01

    AbstractVisceral leishmaniasis (VL), popularly known as kala-azar, is essentially a disease of poverty. Kala-azar is caused by a parasite, Leishmania donovani . Recent review indicates that worldwide 98 countries are endemic for kala-azar. Approximately 0.2-0.4 million new VL cases occur each year worldwide. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan, and Sudan. This trend is slowly changing due to the progress in kala-azar elimination in southeast Asia, where Bangladesh has reported an average of some 600 new cases in 2014-2015. With the advancement in our knowledge about the disease and development of tools to diagnose and treat VL, it was considered that elimination of kala-azar was possible from India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. The three countries signed a memorandum of understanding in 2005 for collaboration. Miltefosine is the first ever oral drug developed to treat VL, which was later replaced by lipid amphotericin B. The main components of the strategy are early diagnosis using rK39 strip test and complete treatment utilizing miltefosine for 28 days. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or pyrethroids were deployed for vector control. There was much to be desired for better performance of the vector control activity. Pharmacovigilance and monitoring of drug resistance were the weakest part of the program. In the post-elimination phase, surveillance reinforced by active case finding will of a crucial factor for sustainability of the elimination. A strong political will is required to ensure elimination of kala-azar from the Indian subcontinent and its sustainability in the post-elimination phase.

  11. Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination via Paratransgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jennifer A; Medlock, Jan; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Aksoy, Serap; Ndeffo Mbah, Martial; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-03-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), transmitted by tsetse flies, has historically infected hundreds of thousands of individuals annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last decade, concerted control efforts have reduced reported cases to below 10,000 annually, bringing complete elimination within reach. A potential technology to eliminate HAT involves rendering the flies resistant to trypanosome infection. This approach can be achieved through the introduction of transgenic Sodalis symbiotic bacteria that have been modified to produce a trypanocide, and propagated via Wolbachia symbionts, which confer a reproductive advantage to the paratransgenic tsetse. However, the population dynamics of these symbionts within tsetse flies have not yet been evaluated. Specifically, the key factors that determine the effectiveness of paratransgenesis have yet to be quantified. To identify the impact of these determinants on T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense transmission, we developed a mathematical model of trypanosome transmission that incorporates tsetse and symbiont population dynamics. We found that fecundity and mortality penalties associated with Wolbachia or recombinant Sodalis colonization, probabilities of vertical transmission, and tsetse migration rates are fundamental to the feasibility of HAT elimination. For example, we determined that HAT elimination could be sustained over 25 years when Wolbachia colonization minimally impacted fecundity or mortality, and when the probability of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission exceeded 99.9%. We also found that for a narrow range of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission probability (99.9-90.6% for T.b. gambiense and 99.9-85.8% for T.b. rhodesiense), cumulative HAT incidence was reduced between 30% and 1% for T.b. gambiense and between 21% and 3% for T.b. rhodesiense, although elimination was not predicted. Our findings indicate that fitness and mortality penalties associated with paratransgenic symbionts, as well

  12. Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination via Paratransgenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Gilbert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, transmitted by tsetse flies, has historically infected hundreds of thousands of individuals annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last decade, concerted control efforts have reduced reported cases to below 10,000 annually, bringing complete elimination within reach. A potential technology to eliminate HAT involves rendering the flies resistant to trypanosome infection. This approach can be achieved through the introduction of transgenic Sodalis symbiotic bacteria that have been modified to produce a trypanocide, and propagated via Wolbachia symbionts, which confer a reproductive advantage to the paratransgenic tsetse. However, the population dynamics of these symbionts within tsetse flies have not yet been evaluated. Specifically, the key factors that determine the effectiveness of paratransgenesis have yet to be quantified. To identify the impact of these determinants on T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense transmission, we developed a mathematical model of trypanosome transmission that incorporates tsetse and symbiont population dynamics. We found that fecundity and mortality penalties associated with Wolbachia or recombinant Sodalis colonization, probabilities of vertical transmission, and tsetse migration rates are fundamental to the feasibility of HAT elimination. For example, we determined that HAT elimination could be sustained over 25 years when Wolbachia colonization minimally impacted fecundity or mortality, and when the probability of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission exceeded 99.9%. We also found that for a narrow range of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission probability (99.9-90.6% for T.b. gambiense and 99.9-85.8% for T.b. rhodesiense, cumulative HAT incidence was reduced between 30% and 1% for T.b. gambiense and between 21% and 3% for T.b. rhodesiense, although elimination was not predicted. Our findings indicate that fitness and mortality penalties associated with paratransgenic

  13. Identifying Malaria Transmission Foci for Elimination Using Human Mobility Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W; DeLeenheer, Patrick; Tatem, Andrew J; Alegana, Victor A; Caughlin, T Trevor; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Lourenço, Christopher; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Smith, David L

    2016-04-01

    Humans move frequently and tend to carry parasites among areas with endemic malaria and into areas where local transmission is unsustainable. Human-mediated parasite mobility can thus sustain parasite populations in areas where they would otherwise be absent. Data describing human mobility and malaria epidemiology can help classify landscapes into parasite demographic sources and sinks, ecological concepts that have parallels in malaria control discussions of transmission foci. By linking transmission to parasite flow, it is possible to stratify landscapes for malaria control and elimination, as sources are disproportionately important to the regional persistence of malaria parasites. Here, we identify putative malaria sources and sinks for pre-elimination Namibia using malaria parasite rate (PR) maps and call data records from mobile phones, using a steady-state analysis of a malaria transmission model to infer where infections most likely occurred. We also examined how the landscape of transmission and burden changed from the pre-elimination setting by comparing the location and extent of predicted pre-elimination transmission foci with modeled incidence for 2009. This comparison suggests that while transmission was spatially focal pre-elimination, the spatial distribution of cases changed as burden declined. The changing spatial distribution of burden could be due to importation, with cases focused around importation hotspots, or due to heterogeneous application of elimination effort. While this framework is an important step towards understanding progressive changes in malaria distribution and the role of subnational transmission dynamics in a policy-relevant way, future work should account for international parasite movement, utilize real time surveillance data, and relax the steady state assumption required by the presented model.

  14. JCE Feature Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  15. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  16. Rabies Elimination in Dogs in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-01

    Rabies has been eliminated from dogs in the United States through efforts to promote annual vaccination, but it's still a problem in wildlife in the U.S. and in wild and domesticated animals abroad. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Charles Rupprecht discusses a study which provides proof of the elimination of rabies in dogs and what this means for the average American.  Created: 12/1/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/1/2008.

  17. Association between dysfunctional elimination syndrome and sensory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Mary R; Metz, Alexia E; Barabash, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We explored whether sensory processing disorder (SPD) is related to dysfunctional elimination syndrome (DES). METHOD. We used the Vancouver Nonneurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction/Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome Questionnaire and the Short Sensory Profile with participants who sought treatment of DES (n = 19) and healthy control participants (n = 55). RESULTS. Significantly more children with DES (53%) had SPD than was reported for the general population (p sensory processing pattern would be an important aspect that could influence the plan of care. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. Risk Management - Variance Minimization or Lower Tail Outcome Elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    2002-01-01

    on future cash flows (the budget), while risk managers concerned about costly lower tail outcomes will hedge (considerably) less depending on the level of uncertainty. A risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination is in line with theoretical recommendations in a corporate value-adding...... perspective. A cross-case study of blue-chip industrial companies partly supports the empirical use of a risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination but does not exclude other factors from (co-)driving the observations....

  19. Platelet-rich plasma and the elimination of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffler, Damien P

    2013-10-01

    Peripheral neuropathic pain typically results from trauma-induced nociceptive neuron hyperexcitability and their spontaneous ectopic activity. This pain persists until the trauma-induced cascade of events runs its full course, which results in complete tissue repair, including the nociceptive neurons recovering their normal biophysical properties, ceasing to be hyperexcitable, and stopping having spontaneous electrical activity. However, if a wound undergoes no, insufficient, or too much inflammation, or if a wound becomes stuck in an inflammatory state, chronic neuropathic pain persists. Although various drugs and techniques provide temporary relief from chronic neuropathic pain, many have serious side effects, are not effective, none promotes the completion of the wound healing process, and none provides permanent pain relief. This paper examines the hypothesis that chronic neuropathic pain can be permanently eliminated by applying platelet-rich plasma to the site at which the pain originates, thereby triggering the complete cascade of events involved in normal wound repair. Many published papers claim that the clinical application of platelet-rich plasma to painful sites, such as muscle injuries and joints, or to the ends of nerves evoking chronic neuropathic pain, a process often referred to as prolotherapy, eliminates pain initiated at such sites. However, there is no published explanation of a possible mechanism/s by which platelet-rich plasma may accomplish this effect. This paper discusses the normal physiological cascade of trauma-induced events that lead to chronic neuropathic pain and its eventual elimination, techniques being studied to reduce or eliminate neuropathic pain, and how the application of platelet-rich plasma may lead to the permanent elimination of neuropathic pain. It concludes that platelet-rich plasma eliminates neuropathic pain primarily by platelet- and stem cell-released factors initiating the complex cascade of wound healing events

  20. Feature selection for portfolio optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Thomas Trier; Ross, Omri; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Most portfolio selection rules based on the sample mean and covariance matrix perform poorly out-of-sample. Moreover, there is a growing body of evidence that such optimization rules are not able to beat simple rules of thumb, such as 1/N. Parameter uncertainty has been identified as one major...... reason for these findings. A strand of literature addresses this problem by improving the parameter estimation and/or by relying on more robust portfolio selection methods. Independent of the chosen portfolio selection rule, we propose using feature selection first in order to reduce the asset menu....... While most of the diversification benefits are preserved, the parameter estimation problem is alleviated. We conduct out-of-sample back-tests to show that in most cases different well-established portfolio selection rules applied on the reduced asset universe are able to improve alpha relative...

  1. The Machine / Job Features Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alef, M. [KIT, Karlsruhe; Cass, T. [CERN; Keijser, J. J. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam; McNab, A. [Manchester U.; Roiser, S. [CERN; Schwickerath, U. [CERN; Sfiligoi, I. [Fermilab

    2017-11-22

    Within the HEPiX virtualization group and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid’s Machine/Job Features Task Force, a mechanism has been developed which provides access to detailed information about the current host and the current job to the job itself. This allows user payloads to access meta information, independent of the current batch system or virtual machine model. The information can be accessed either locally via the filesystem on a worker node, or remotely via HTTP(S) from a webserver. This paper describes the final version of the specification from 2016 which was published as an HEP Software Foundation technical note, and the design of the implementations of this version for batch and virtual machine platforms. We discuss early experiences with these implementations and how they can be exploited by experiment frameworks.

  2. New features in MEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    MEDM, which is derived from Motif Editor and Display Manager, is the primary graphical interface to the EPICS control system. This paper describes new features that have been added to MEDM in the last two years. These features include new editing capabilities, a PV Info dialog box, a means of specifying limits and precision, a new implementation of the Cartesian Plot, new features for several objects, new capability for the Related Display, help, a user-configurable Execute Menu, reconfigured start-up options, and availability for Windows 95/98/NT. Over one hundred bugs have been fixed, and the program is quite stable and in extensive use

  3. Toward rubella elimination in Poland: need for supplemental immunization activities, enhanced surveillance, and further integration with measles elimination efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Laura; Rogalska, Justyna; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Haponiuk, Marzena; Kosek, Adam; Pauch, Ewa; Plonska, Elzbieta; Veltze, Daniel; Czarkowski, Miroslaw P; Buddh, Nilesh; Reef, Susan; Stefanoff, Pawel

    2011-07-01

    All Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region have endorsed rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) prevention. However, Poland has continued high levels of reported rubella. We reviewed rubella incidence in Poland since 1966 and analyzed national aggregated surveillance data from the period 2003-2008 and case-based data from 4 provinces from the period 2006-2008. We described CRS cases since 1997 and assessed maternal receipt of vaccine. We reviewed national vaccination coverage from 1992 through 2008. Since 1966, rubella outbreaks have occurred every 4-6 years in Poland. Aggregate and case-based data from the period 2003-2008 indicate that rubella virus transmission has occurred across wide age ranges (from continues. To achieve rubella elimination, supplemental immunization activities among adolescent boys are needed, as is integration with measles elimination efforts. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  4. SARS – clinical features

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – clinical features. Fever - > 38C; Respiratory symptoms, eg cough, difficulty in breathing; OR; Unexplained respiratory distress leading to death; AND; Close contact or travel to Asia within 10 days of onset of illness.

  5. Volcanic features of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Volcanic activity is apparently higher on Io than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms can be compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Bridging Implementation, Knowledge, and Ambition Gaps to Eliminate Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-22

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, director of CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Eliminatio,discusses bridging implementation, knowledge, and ambition gaps to eliminate tuberculosis.  Created: 2/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/2/2011.

  7. Tuberculosis elimination in the post Millennium Development Goals era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goal for tuberculosis (TB) is to stop the increase in incidence and halve the mortality of TB between 1990 and 2015. This goal has now been reached on a global scale, although not in the most affected region of Africa. The new target is TB elimination, defined as one case...

  8. Improvements in Elimination of Loudspeaker Distortion in Acoustic Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Torras Rosell, Antoni; McWalter, Richard Ian

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of nonlinear components that contaminate the linear response of acoustic transducers, and presents improved methods for eliminating the influence of nonlinearities in acoustic measurements. The method is evaluated with pure sinusoidal signals as well as swept...

  9. Population migration: implications for lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K D Ramaiah

    Full Text Available Human population migration is a common phenomenon in developing countries. Four categories of migration-endemic to nonendemic areas, rural to urban areas, non-MDA areas to areas that achieved lymphatic filariasis (LF control/elimination, and across borders-are relevant to LF elimination efforts. In many situations, migrants from endemic areas may not be able to establish active transmission foci and cause infection in local people in known nonendemic areas or countries. Urban areas are at risk of a steady inflow of LF-infected people from rural areas, necessitating prolonged intervention measures or leading to a prolonged "residual microfilaraemia phase." Migration-facilitated reestablishment of transmission in areas that achieved significant control or elimination of LF appears to be difficult, but such risk can not be excluded, particularly in areas with efficient vector-parasite combination. Transborder migration poses significant problems in some countries. Listing of destinations, in endemic and nonendemic regions/countries, and formulation of guidelines for monitoring the settlements and the infection status of migrants can strengthen the LF elimination efforts.

  10. The challenge of the global elimination of iodine deficiency disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, van der F.

    1997-01-01

    Most nations of the world are well positioned for success in their pursuit of the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) by the year 2000. In 1990 at the World Summit for Children, Heads of State and Government had agreed on this global goal and in 1992 at the International

  11. Eliminating Racial Profiling in School Discipline: Cultures in Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bireda, Martha R.

    2002-01-01

    Referrals, suspensions, and expulsions of African American students, especially males, are at an all-time high. However, as this book shows, culturally determined assumptions and friction over communication have a role to play in this as well. "Eliminating Racial Profiling in School Discipline" is designed to make readers aware of how cultural…

  12. Find TB. Treat TB. Working together to eliminate TB.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-26

    In this podcast, Dr. Sundari Mase, Medical Team Lead in the Field Services and Evaluation Branch in the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses World TB Day and the 2014 theme.  Created: 2/26/2014 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  13. Elimination diets and dietary interventions for the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk: high-quality protein, calcium and riboflavin. • Eggs: high-quality protein, vitamins A, B12, D, and E, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, iron, selenium, biotin, lutein and iodine. ARTICLE. Elimination diets and dietary interventions for the management of food allergies. A C Lang, D A van der Spuy, E Goddard, A J Terblanche, ...

  14. Efficient architecture for global elimination algorithm for H. 264 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a fast block matching motion esti mation algorithm and its architecture. The proposed architecture is based on Global Elimination (GE) Algorithm, which uses pixel averaging to reduce complexity of motion search while keeping performance close to that of full search. GE uses a preprocessing stage ...

  15. Elimination diets and dietary interventions for the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elimination diets and dietary interventions for the management of food allergies. ... risk of co-reactivity between CMPA and soya allergy in non- IgE-mediated conditions. Other mammalian milks and plant-based milks, including rice and oat milks, are not suitable as sole nutrition for cow's milk protein allergic individuals.

  16. Eliminating gas overflows at the Alansk deposit. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulyagonov, Kh.T.; Chernopyatov, V.G.; Normatov, A.N.; Rakhimov, A.K.; Strelko, I.Sh.; Telegin, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    Causes for the appearance of gas overflows from the 15th producing horizon of the Jurassic deposits from AVPD (2834 m) to the 9th horizon of Senoman deposits (1275-1297 m range) occurring as a result of the breakdown at the 219-mm intermediate column at a depth of 1350 m, along with operations performed to eliminate these overflows, are described.

  17. THE ELIMINATION OF FOREIGN PARTICLES INJECTED INTO THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commonly injected by these and other workers have been India ink and suspensions of carbon or carmine, though ... Almost no information is available on the rate and degree of elimination of foreign particles from the bodies of ... Individuals of C. stephensoni, varying between 10·0 and 13·5 cm in length when fully extended.

  18. Macrophages eliminate circulating tumor cells after monoclonal antibody therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gül, Nuray; Babes, Liane; Siegmund, Kerstin; Korthouwer, Rianne; Bögels, Marijn; Braster, Rens; Vidarsson, Gestur; ten Hagen, Timo L. M.; Kubes, Paul; van Egmond, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as therapeutic tools has increased dramatically in the last decade and is now one of the mainstream strategies to treat cancer. Nonetheless, it is still not completely understood how mAbs mediate tumor cell elimination or the effector cells that are involved.

  19. Elimination of Bisphenol A from Wastewater through Membrane Filtration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dudziak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New priorities for the environment have resulted in a reassessment of modern technology for treatment of urban wastewater. Urban wastewater treatment mainly involves the elimination or reduction of anthropogenic organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment. In this paper, the effectiveness of bisphenol A elimination from waste-water, after biological treatment, through a complex ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis purification process was evaluated. The effectveness of the wastewater treatment process in the tested system was also evaluated with a number of other physical and chemical analyses for pH, turbidity, colour, absorbance, TOC, phenol index, conductivity and the concentration of selected heavy metals. Within this study, the change in the hydraulic performance of the membranes was also investigated. The effectiveness of the reduction of bisphenol A concentrations during the process of ultrafiltration was small, due to the significant difference between the size of the pores of the membrane and the size of eliminated micropollutants. In the process of reverse osmosis, the wastewater treatment system reported that the concentration of bisphenol A was reduced by 68%. In the tested treatment system, the ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis completely removed colour, lead and chromium. Other contaminants were eliminated by more than 31%. In both membrane processes, there was evidence that the membrane pores were blocked, but this occurred to a greater extent during the process of reverse osmosis.

  20. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  1. Students' Suggestions for Eliminating Bullying at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

    2015-01-01

    Students' suggestions for how to eliminate bullying at universities were gathered as part of an e-questionnaire sent to each university student (N = 10,551) at a Finnish university. The suggestions (n = 2804) regarding how to address bullying at universities were divided into the following four classes: support (944), punishment (78), support and…

  2. Dual-Laser vibrometry: Elimination or extraction of pseudo vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Bækbo, Martin Jesper; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2014-01-01

    in angularvelocity of the object occur simultaneously at the two vibrometers. Knowing the angular separation between thevibrometers, simple trigonometry canbe used to eliminate the pseudo vibrations. These vibrometers are based oncameras, therefore the experiments demonstrate the principle of the method only...

  3. Malaria elimination practices in rural community residents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stagnant water and bushes, sleeping under mosquito nets and participation in malaria elimination measures (Al- .... by malaria; (96%, n=144) believed that sleeping under mosquito nets was the most effective way for .... residents, biting habits of mosquitoes etc. would be areas for further research. Competing interests.

  4. Eliminating Sex Discrimination in Schools: A Source Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Research and Information Center.

    This source book is designed to help educators at all levels to eliminate sex discrimination by identifying discriminatory practices and replacing them with practices guaranteeing equal opportunity. The book raises significant issues and summarizes pertinent information related to all types of sex discrimination in elementary and secondary…

  5. Generating Nice Linear Systems for Matrix Gaussian Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homewood, L. James

    2004-01-01

    In this article an augmented matrix that represents a system of linear equations is called nice if a sequence of elementary row operations that reduces the matrix to row-echelon form, through matrix Gaussian elimination, does so by restricting all entries to integers in every step. Many instructors wish to use the example of matrix Gaussian…

  6. Anion exchange fractionation of serum proteins versus albumin elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahab, Ziad J; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2007-09-01

    Elimination of albumin, constituting more than 50% of total serum proteins, allows increased protein loads on immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels and better visualization of low-abundance proteins; however, it may result in the loss of albumin-bound low-abundance proteins. In this study, we report the prefractionation of serum proteins by batch anion exchange chromatography into three fractions: one containing proteins with isoelectric points (pI values) higher than the pI of albumin, a second fraction containing proteins with pI values in the same range as the pI of albumin, and a third fraction containing proteins with pI values lower than the pI of albumin. This procedure uses common instrumentation, is carried out under denaturing conditions, and takes less than 30min. We also report the loss of a clinically established prostate cancer serum biomarker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), after albumin is eliminated using two commercially available albumin elimination kits: one that uses Cibacron Blue F3GA, which achieves albumin depletion through dye-ligand binding, and one that uses specific albumin antibody. The loss of PSA secondary to albumin elimination exceeded that after batch anion exchange serum sample prefractionation.

  7. Elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in El Salvador, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Cedillos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies performed in El Salvador between 1955-1972 demonstrated a high frequency of two triatomine vectors (Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. However, the frequency of R. prolixus decreased by 1976 and this species has not been found since 1995. The main factors influencing the elimination of R. prolixus in El Salvador are discussed in this paper.

  8. Elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in El Salvador, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Romero, José Eduardo; Sasagawa, Emi

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies performed in El Salvador between 1955-1972 demonstrated a high frequency of two triatomine vectors (Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus). However, the frequency of R. prolixus decreased by 1976 and this species has not been found since 1995. The main factors influencing the elimination of R. prolixus in El Salvador are discussed in this paper.

  9. Tritium formation and elimination in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Briec, M.; Miquel, P.

    1976-01-01

    Light-water reactors have a tritium balance which should be considered from both the working constraint and environmental pollution aspects. The formation of tritium in the primary circuit and in the fuel, the elimination and enrichment processes are considered [fr

  10. Impact of the WHO Technical Support Towards Malaria Elimination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Zambia's National Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP) 2011-2016 aims to eliminate malaria by the year 2020. The WHO Country Office is supporting Zambia in its goal to attain this national target earlier than the global goal contained in Global Technical Strategy (GTS) 2016- 2030. WHO's focus is to accelerate ...

  11. Information systems to support surveillance for malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y; Gosling, Roly D

    2015-07-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  13. Low-Cost Elimination of Plasma Lines in Raman Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlow, Herbert W., Jr.; Petersen, John D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a low-cost ($120) device which eliminates plasma lines in Raman spectra. The device consists of two prisms and two mirrors which are held in a symmetrical relationship to one another so that a particular position will allow only one wavelength to pass through on a given axis. (JN)

  14. Elimination of salmonella from fermented pork by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noochpramul, K.; Loaharanu, P.

    1974-01-01

    A fermented pork product, locally known as ''Nham'', is usually contaminated with salmonella and occasionally with Trichinella spiralis and Taenea solium. This product is always eaten raw as cooking destroys its delicate flavour. A survey made on the MPN of salmonella revealed that much less than 100 salmonella was found in one gram of the product. Nham was inoculated with S. derby, S. anatum, S. newport, or S. paratyphi B, the most common serotypes of salmonella found in this product, at 10 6 , 10 4 , or 10 2 per gram. The inoculated product was irradiated by the gamma beam-650 Co-60 irradiator at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 Mrad. Dosage at 0.4 Mrad eliminated salmonella as much as 10 6 per g; 0.3 Mrad eliminated 10 6 /g of S. newport and S. paratyphi B and 10 4 /g of S. derby and S. anatum; and 0.2 Mrad eliminated 10 2 /g of all serotypes of salmonella in the product. No changes in the organoleptic properties of irradiated Nham was found when irradiated at 0.3 Mrad or less. Dosage at 0.2 Mrad appeared to be sufficient for commercial irradiation of Nham for the elimination of salmonella

  15. Alfred Russel Wallace and the elimination of the unfit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-03-23

    Mar 23, 2012 ... giving to the pure instincts of women the selective power in marriage. (Wallace 1894, p 87). Without making some numerical estimate of this kind it is impossible to realise the severity, of the struggle continually going on in nature and the resultant elimination of the unfit. (Wallace 1895, p 438). Accepting ...

  16. Control and Elimination of Helminth Zoonoses in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will contribute evidence to help control and eliminate schistosomiasis and liver fluke infections in the Greater Mekong Subregion. This economic area is bound by the Mekong River, covering 2.6 million square kilometres, and includes a combined population of 326 million in Burma, Cambodia, China, Laos, ...

  17. Efficient architecture for global elimination algorithm for H.264 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents a fast block matching motion esti mation algorithm and its architecture. The proposed ... Fast block matching motion estimation; global elimination; matching complexity reduction; power reduction. 1. Introduction .... this method gives larger benefit by reducing number of column sums from 7 to 2 ...

  18. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsler JB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Joshua B Wechsler, Sally Schwartz, Katie Amsden, Amir F Kagalwalla Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, dietary therapy, empiric elimination, elemental, allergy test-directed

  19. Feature Selection with Neighborhood Entropy-Based Cooperative Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection plays an important role in machine learning and data mining. In recent years, various feature measurements have been proposed to select significant features from high-dimensional datasets. However, most traditional feature selection methods will ignore some features which have strong classification ability as a group but are weak as individuals. To deal with this problem, we redefine the redundancy, interdependence, and independence of features by using neighborhood entropy. Then the neighborhood entropy-based feature contribution is proposed under the framework of cooperative game. The evaluative criteria of features can be formalized as the product of contribution and other classical feature measures. Finally, the proposed method is tested on several UCI datasets. The results show that neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory model (NECGT yield better performance than classical ones.

  20. Coloring local feature extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Van De Weijer, Joost; Schmid, Cordelia

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Although color is commonly experienced as an indispensable quality in describing the world around us, state-of-the art local feature-based representations are mostly based on shape description, and ignore color information. The description of color is hampered by the large amount of variations which causes the measured color values to vary significantly. In this paper we aim to extend the description of local features with color information. To accomplish a wide applic...

  1. Feature selection toolbox

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somol, Petr; Pudil, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 12 (2002), s. 2749-2759 ISSN 0031-3203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 187; GA ČR GA402/01/0981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : pattern recognition * feature selection * subset search Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2002 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/somol- feature selection toolbox.pdf

  2. Feature Binding in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Neri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Binding operations are primarily ascribed to cortex or similarly complex avian structures. My experiments show that the zebrafish, a lower vertebrate lacking cortex, supports visual feature binding of form and motion for the purpose of social behavior. These results challenge the notion that feature binding may require highly evolved neural structures and demonstrate that the nervous system of lower vertebrates can afford unexpectedly complex computations.

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid metabolism and elimination in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salous, Abdelghaffar Kamal

    The bioactive lipids lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are present in human and mouse plasma at a concentration of ~0.1-1 microM and regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system including atherothrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and immune function, edema formation, and permeability. PPAP2B, the gene encoding LPP3, a broad activity integral membrane enzyme that terminates LPA actions in the vasculature, has a single nucleotide polymorphism that been recently associated with coronary artery disease risk. The synthesis and signaling of LPA and S1P in the cardiovascular system have been extensively studied but the mechanisms responsible for their elimination are less well understood. The broad goal of this research was to examine the role of LPP3 in the termination of LPA signaling in models of cardiovascular disease involving vascular wall cells, investigate the role of LPP3 in the elimination of plasma LPA, and further characterize the elimination of plasma LPA. The central hypothesis is that LPP3 plays an important role in attenuating the pathological responses to LPA signaling and that it mediates the elimination of exogenously applied bioactive lipids from the plasma. These hypotheses were tested using molecular biological approaches, in vitro studies, synthetic lysophospholipid mimetics, modified surgical procedures, and mass spectrometry assays. My results indicated that LPP3 played a critical role in attenuating LPA signaling mediating the pathological processes of intimal hyperplasia and vascular leak in mouse models of disease. Additionally, enzymatic inactivation of lysophospholipids by LPP and PLA enzymes in the plasma was not a primary mechanism for the rapid elimination of plasma LPA and S1P. Instead, evidence strongly suggested a transcellular uptake mechanism by hepatic non-parenchymal cells as the predominant mechanism for elimination of these molecules. These results support a model in

  4. The National Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Belete; Deribe, Kebede; Kebede, Fikreab; Martindale, Sarah; Hassan, Mohammed; Sime, Heven; Mackenzie, Charles; Mulugeta, Abate; Tamiru, Mossie; Sileshi, Mesfin; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre, Teshome; Fentaye, Amha; Kebede, Biruck

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating and disfiguring diseases common in Ethiopia and is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. Mapping for LF has shown that 70 woredas (districts) are endemic and 5.9 million people are estimated to be at risk. The national government's LF elimination programme commenced in 2009 in 5 districts integrated with the onchocerciasis programme. The programme developed gradually and has shown significant progress over the past 6 years, reaching 100% geographical coverage for mass drug administration (MDA) by 2016. To comply with the global LF elimination goals an integrated morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) guideline and a burden assessment programme has also been developed; MMDP protocols and a hydrocoele surgical handbook produced for country-wide use. In Ethiopia, almost all LF endemic districts are co-endemic with malaria and vector control aspects of the activities are conducted in the context of malaria programme as the vectors for both diseases are mosquitoes. In order to monitor the elimination, 11 sentinel and spot-check sites have been established and baseline information has been collected. Although significant achievements have been achieved in the scale up of the LF elimination programme, there is still a need to strengthen operational research to generate programme-relevant evidence, to increase access to morbidity management services, and to improve monitoring and evaluation of the LF programme. However, the current status of implementation of the LF national programme indicates that Ethiopia is poised to achieve the 2020 goal of elimination of LF. Nevertheless, to achieve this goal, high and sustained treatment coverage and strong monitoring and evaluation of the programme are essential.

  5. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denae Wagner

    Full Text Available For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9% when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%. When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%. The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%. This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population.

  6. Lymphatic filariasis in Brazil: epidemiological situation and outlook for elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes Gilberto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the World Health Assembly’s (Resolution WHA 50.29, 1997 call for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020, most of the endemic countries identified have established programmes to meet this objective. In 1997, a National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Plan was drawn up by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, creating local programs for the elimination of Bancroftian filariasis in areas with active transmission. Based on a comprehensive bibliographic search for available studies and reports of filariasis epidemiology in Brazil, current status of this parasitic infection and the outlook for its elimination in the country were analysed. From 1951 to 1958 a nationwide epidemiological study conducted in Brazil confirmed autochthonous transmission of Bancroftian filariasis in 11 cities of the country. Control measures led to a decline in parasite rates, and in the 1980s only the cities of Belém in the Amazonian region (Northern region and Recife (Northeastern region were considered to be endemic. In the 1990s, foci of active transmission of LF were also described in the cities of Maceió, Olinda, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, and Paulista, all in the Northeastern coast of Brazil. Data provide evidence for the absence of microfilaremic subjects and infected mosquitoes in Belém, Salvador and Maceió in the past few years, attesting to the effectiveness of the measures adopted in these cities. Currently, lymphatic filariasis is a public health problem in Brazil only in four cities of the metropolitan Recife region (Northeastern coast. Efforts are being concentrated in these areas, with a view to eliminating the disease in the country.

  7. Human movement data for malaria control and elimination strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindolia, Deepa K; Garcia, Andres J; Wesolowski, Amy; Smith, David L; Buckee, Caroline O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-06-18

    Recent increases in funding for malaria control have led to the reduction in transmission in many malaria endemic countries, prompting the national control programmes of 36 malaria endemic countries to set elimination targets. Accounting for human population movement (HPM) in planning for control, elimination and post-elimination surveillance is important, as evidenced by previous elimination attempts that were undermined by the reintroduction of malaria through HPM. Strategic control and elimination planning, therefore, requires quantitative information on HPM patterns and the translation of these into parasite dispersion. HPM patterns and the risk of malaria vary substantially across spatial and temporal scales, demographic and socioeconomic sub-groups, and motivation for travel, so multiple data sets are likely required for quantification of movement. While existing studies based on mobile phone call record data combined with malaria transmission maps have begun to address within-country HPM patterns, other aspects remain poorly quantified despite their importance in accurately gauging malaria movement patterns and building control and detection strategies, such as cross-border HPM, demographic and socioeconomic stratification of HPM patterns, forms of transport, personal malaria protection and other factors that modify malaria risk. A wealth of data exist to aid filling these gaps, which, when combined with spatial data on transport infrastructure, traffic and malaria transmission, can answer relevant questions to guide strategic planning. This review aims to (i) discuss relevant types of HPM across spatial and temporal scales, (ii) document where datasets exist to quantify HPM, (iii) highlight where data gaps remain and (iv) briefly put forward methods for integrating these datasets in a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework for analysing and modelling human population and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection movements.

  8. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Denae; Newbury, Sandra; Kass, Philip; Hurley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9%) when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%). When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%). The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%). This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population.

  9. Algae: America's Pathway to Independence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Custer, James

    2007-01-01

    .... Oil dependency is an unacceptable risk to U.S. national strategy. This paper advocates independence from foreign oil by converting the national transportation fleet to biodiesel derived from algae...

  10. Logical independence and quantum randomness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C; Prevedel, R; Klimek, P

    2010-01-01

    We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.

  11. Logical independence and quantum randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at

    2010-01-15

    We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.

  12. Independent production and Poisson distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The well-known statement of factorization of inclusive cross-sections in case of independent production of particles (or clusters, jets etc.) and the conclusion of Poisson distribution over their multiplicity arising from it do not follow from the probability theory in any way. Using accurately the theorem of the product of independent probabilities, quite different equations are obtained and no consequences relative to multiplicity distributions are obtained. 11 refs

  13. Choice of Measurement Locations of Nonlinear Structures Using Proper Orthogonal Modes and Effective Independence Distribution Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Ritto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to automatically choose the measurement locations of a nonlinear structure/equipment that needs to be monitored while operating. The response of the computational model (or experimental data is used to construct the proper orthogonal modes applying the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD, and the effective independence distribution vector (EIDV procedure is employed to eliminate, iteratively, locations that contribute less for the independence of the target proper orthogonal modes.

  14. Fetal ECG extraction using independent component analysis by Jade approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Guzmán, Jader; Contreras-Ortiz, Sonia H.; Lasprilla, Gloria Isabel Bautista; Kotas, Marian

    2017-11-01

    Fetal ECG monitoring is a useful method to assess the fetus health and detect abnormal conditions. In this paper we propose an approach to extract fetal ECG from abdomen and chest signals using independent component analysis based on the joint approximate diagonalization of eigenmatrices approach. The JADE approach avoids redundancy, what reduces matrix dimension and computational costs. Signals were filtered with a high pass filter to eliminate low frequency noise. Several levels of decomposition were tested until the fetal ECG was recognized in one of the separated sources output. The proposed method shows fast and good performance.

  15. A Critical Assessment of Feature Selection Methods for Biomarker Discovery in Clinical Proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christin, Christin; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Smilde, Age K.; Hoekman, B.; Suits, Frank; Bischoff, Rainer; Horvatovich, Peter

    In this paper, we compare the performance of six different feature selection methods for LC-MS-based proteomics and metabolomics biomarker discovery-t test, the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test (mww test), nearest shrunken centroid (NSC), linear support vector machine-recursive features elimination

  16. Altered muscle coordination when pedalling with independent cranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François eHug

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedalling with independent cranks ensures each leg cycles independently of the other, and thus eliminates the contribution of the contralateral leg during the upstroke phase. Consequently the subject is required to actively pull-up the pedal to complete the cycle. The present study aimed to determine the acute effect of the use of independent cranks on muscle coordination during a submaximal pedalling exercise. Ten healthy males were asked to perform submaximal pedaling exercises at 100 Watts with normal fixed cranks (control condition or independent cranks. Both 2-D pedal forces and electromyographic (EMG patterns of 10 lower limb muscles were recorded. When the mean EMG activity across the cycle was considered, the use of independent cranks significantly increased the activity level compared to control for Tibialis anterior (P=0.0017; +336±302%, Gastrocnemius medialis (P=0.0005; +47±25%, Rectus femoris (P=0.005; +123±153%, Biceps femoris – long head (P=0.0001; +162±97%, Semimembranosus (P=0.0001; +304±192%, and Tensor fascia latae (P=0.0001; +586±262%. The analysis of the four pedalling sectors revealed that the increased activity of hip and knee flexors mainly occurred during the top dead center and the upstroke phase. In addition, a high inter-individual variability was found in the way the participants adapted to pedalling with independent cranks. The present results showed that the enforced pull-up action required when using independent cranks was achieved by increasing the activation of hip and knee flexors. Further studies are needed to determine whether training with independent cranks has the potential to induce long-term changes in muscle coordination, and, if so, whether these changes are beneficial for cycling performance.

  17. Separate Capacities for Storing Different Features in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Benchi; Cao, Xiaohua; Theeuwes, Jan; Olivers, Christian N. L.; Wang, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    Recent empirical and theoretical work suggests that visual features such as color and orientation can be stored or retrieved independently in visual working memory (VWM), even in cases when they belong to the same object. Yet it remains unclear whether different feature dimensions have their own capacity limits, or whether they compete for shared…

  18. Validation of elk resource selection models with spatially independent data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priscilla K. Coe; Bruce K. Johnson; Michael J. Wisdom; John G. Cook; Marty Vavra; Ryan M. Nielson

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of how landscape features affect wildlife resource use is essential for informed management. Resource selection functions often are used to make and validate predictions about landscape use; however, resource selection functions are rarely validated with data from landscapes independent of those from which the models were built. This problem has severely...

  19. Analysis of Implementation The Policy on Malaria Elimination in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Roosihermiatie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropic country Indonesia still faces malaria problems. In Asean, indonesia is one of three countries with the highest malaria morbidity. In 2007, 396 (80% of 495 districts/municipalities in indonesia are malaria. In 2009 the government issued a decree of the minister of health No 293 on malaria elimination. The study aimed to analyze the implementation decree of Ministry of Health No. 293/2009 on malaria elimination. Methods: It was a descriptive study. The study was conducted in 4 provinces, and 4 districts based on malaria elimination stages as in Bali province and Karangasem district, Riau islands province and Bintan district, West Nusa Tenggara province and west Lombok district, and Maluku province and South Halmahera district. The stakeholders were Heads and malaria programmers at province/district Health Offices and the related programs. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data were taken. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data. Analysis for Ministry of Health decree No.293 year 2009 on 1 Comphrehend, 2 Implementation, and, 3 Comittment, 4 Innovation intervension to support malaria elimination, 5 Sustainability of activity community empowerment, 6 Proportion of budget. Results: showed there was district that had not issued local policy on malaria elimination, the implementation with comittment especially that health centers in areas under study corfi rm diagnose by laboratory examination and malaria treatment by Artemisin Combined Therapy (ACT, although there were still treatment to clinical malaria, innovation activities were of bersifat local spesifi c, and reward for Juru Malaria Desa or malaria cadre to increase malaria suspect case detection, and with district budget for malaria program ranged 0,95-5,6% of the total budget. Recomendations: It suggested to advocate all malaria endemic areas to issue local policy on malaria elimination, decide intervension of the

  20. Bootstrap model selection had similar performance for selecting authentic and noise variables compared to backward variable elimination: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have proposed using bootstrap resampling in conjunction with automated variable selection methods to identify predictors of an outcome and to develop parsimonious regression models. Using this method, multiple bootstrap samples are drawn from the original data set. Traditional backward variable elimination is used in each bootstrap sample, and the proportion of bootstrap samples in which each candidate variable is identified as an independent predictor of the outcome is determined. The performance of this method for identifying predictor variables has not been examined. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to determine the ability of bootstrap model selection methods to correctly identify predictors of an outcome when those variables that are selected for inclusion in at least 50% of the bootstrap samples are included in the final regression model. We compared the performance of the bootstrap model selection method to that of conventional backward variable elimination. Bootstrap model selection tended to result in an approximately equal proportion of selected models being equal to the true regression model compared with the use of conventional backward variable elimination. Bootstrap model selection performed comparatively to backward variable elimination for identifying the true predictors of a binary outcome.

  1. Linear feature selection in texture analysis - A PLS based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Joselene; Igel, Christian; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We present a texture analysis methodology that combined uncommitted machine-learning techniques and partial least square (PLS) in a fully automatic framework. Our approach introduces a robust PLS-based dimensionality reduction (DR) step to specifically address outliers and high-dimensional feature......, which first applied a PLS regression to rank the features and then defined the best number of features to retain in the model by an iterative learning phase. The outliers in the dataset, that could inflate the number of selected features, were eliminated by a pre-processing step. To cope...... and considering all CV groups, the methods selected 36 % of the original features available. The diagnosis evaluation reached a generalization area-under-the-ROC curve of 0.92, which was higher than established cartilage-based markers known to relate to OA diagnosis....

  2. Transplanted human pancreatic islets after long-term insulin independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Y D; Gupta, Shashank; Morel, P

    2013-01-01

    Long-term insulin independence after islets of Langerhans transplantation is rarely achieved. The aims of this study were to identify the histological and immunological features of islets transplanted in a type 1 diabetic patient who died of a cerebral hemorrhage after >13 years insulin independe......Long-term insulin independence after islets of Langerhans transplantation is rarely achieved. The aims of this study were to identify the histological and immunological features of islets transplanted in a type 1 diabetic patient who died of a cerebral hemorrhage after >13 years insulin...... independence. Islets were pooled from two donors with respectively one and five HLA mismatches. Insulin-positive islets were found throughout the right and left liver, and absent in the pancreas. Two- and three-dimensional analysis showed that islets lost their initial rounded and compact morphology, had...... microdissection samples, compared to 1/23 for the least matched donor. This case report demonstrates that allogeneic islets can survive over 13 years while maintaining insulin independence. Allogeneic islets had unique morphologic features and implanted in the liver regardless of their size. Finally, our results...

  3. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  4. Frequency Splitting Elimination and Cross-Coupling Rejection of Wireless Power Transfer to Multiple Dynamic Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanamoorthi R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous power transfer to multiple receiver (Rx system is one of the key advantages of wireless power transfer (WPT system using magnetic resonance. However, determining the optimal condition to uniformly transfer the power to a selected Rx at high efficiency is the challenging task under the dynamic environment. The cross-coupling and frequency splitting are the dominant issues present in the multiple Rx dynamic WPT system. The existing analysis is performed by considering any one issue present in the system; on the other hand, the cross coupling and frequency splitting issues are interrelated in dynamic Rx’s, which requires a comprehensive design strategy by considering both the problems. This paper proposes an optimal design of multiple Rx WPT system, which can eliminate cross coupling, frequency splitting issues and increase the power transfer efficiency (PTE of selected Rx. The cross-coupling rejection, uniform power transfer is performed by adding an additional relay coil and independent resonance frequency tuning with capacitive compensation to each Rx unit. The frequency splitting phenomena are eliminated using non-identical transmitter (Tx and Rx coil structure which can maintain the coupling between the coil under the critical coupling limit. The mathematical analysis of the compensation capacitance calculation and optimal Tx coil size identification is performed for the four Rx WPT system. Finite element analysis and experimental investigation are carried out for the proposed design in static and dynamic conditions.

  5. Visual Distinctness Determined by Partially Invariant Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    DISTINCTNESS DETERMINED BY PARTIALLY INVARIANT FEATURES. J.A. Garcia, J. Fdez-Valdivia Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e I.A. Univ. de Granada...constant, independently of the viewing distance.The perceptual organization capabilities of human in a complex rural background. vision seem to exhibit...designed and 5.1.2. Clarity of separation at stage j organized by NVESD (Night Vision & Electro-optic Sensors Here we introduce the criterion by which we

  6. Compressibility effects on ideal and kinetic ballooning modes and elimination of finite Larmor radius stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.

    1985-07-01

    The dynamics of ideal and kinetic ballooning modes are considered analytically including parallel ion dynamics, but without electron dissipation. For ideal modes, parallel dynamics predominantly determine the growth rate when β is within approx.30% of the ideal threshold, resulting in a substantial reduction in growth rate. Compressibility also eliminates the stabilization effects of finite Larmor radius (FLR); FLR effects (when temperature gradients are neglected) can even increase the growth rate above the MHD value. Temperature gradients accentuate this by adding a new source of free energy independent of the MHD drive, in this region of ballooning coordinate corresponding in MHD to the continuum. Analytic dispersion relations are derived demonstrating the effects above; the formalism emphasizes the similarities between the ideal MHD and kinetic cases

  7. An Experiment of Ocular Artifacts Elimination from EEG Signals using ICA and PCA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjon Turnip

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world of automation, biological signals, especially Electroencephalogram (EEG is gaining wide attention as a source of biometric information. Eye-blinks and movement of the eyeballs produce electrical signals (contaminate the EEG signals that are collectively known as ocular artifacts. These noise signals are required to be separated from the EEG signals to obtain the accurate results. This paper reports an experiment of ocular artifacts elimination from EEG signal using blind source separation algorithm based on independent component analysis and principal component analysis. EEG signals are recorded on three conditions, which are normal conditions, closed eyes, and blinked eyes. After processing, the dominant frequency of EEG signals in the range of 12-14 Hz either on normal, closed, and blinked eyes conditions is obtained. 

  8. Elimination of threshold singularities in the relation between on-shell and pole widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Palisoc, Caesar P.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    In a previous communication by two of us [B. A. Kniehl and A. Sirlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1373 (1998)], the gauge-dependent deviations of the on-shell mass and total decay width from their gauge-independent pole counterparts were investigated at leading order for the Higgs boson of the standard model. In the case of the widths, the deviation was found to diverge at unphysical thresholds, m H =2√(ξ V )m V (V=W,Z), in the R ξ gauge. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate that these unphysical threshold singularities are properly eliminated if a recently proposed definition of wave-function renormalization for unstable particles is invoked

  9. Elimination of Threshold Singularities in the Relation Between On-Shell and Pole Widths

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A; Sirlin, A; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Palisoc, Caesar P.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    In a previous communication by two of us, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1373 (1998), the gauge-dependent deviations of the on-shell mass and total decay width from their gauge-independent pole counterparts were investigated at leading order for the Higgs boson of the Standard Model. In the case of the widths, the deviation was found to diverge at unphysical thresholds, m_H = 2 root{xi_V} m_V (V = W,Z), in the R_xi gauge. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate that these unphysical threshold singularities are properly eliminated if a recently proposed definition of wave-function renormalization for unstable particles is invoked.

  10. Analysis and elimination of bias error in a fiber-optic current sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaxiao; Zhao, Zijie; Li, Chuansheng; Yu, Jia; Wang, Zhenjie

    2017-11-10

    Bias error, along with scale factor, is a key factor that affects the measurement accuracy of the fiber-optic current sensor. Because of polarization crosstalk, the coherence of parasitic interference signals could be rebuilt and form an output independent of the current to be measured, i.e., the bias error. The bias error is a variable of the birefringence optical path difference. Hence, when the temperature changes, the bias error shows a quasi-periodical tendency whose envelope curve reflects the coherence function of light source. By identifying the key factors of bias error and setting the propagation directions of a super-luminescent diode, polarization-maintaining coupler and polarizer to fast axis, it is possible to eliminate the coherence of parasitic interference signals. Experiments show that the maximum bias error decreases by one order of magnitude at temperatures between -40°C to 60°C.

  11. Modification of Gaussian Elimination to the Complex Seismic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaglichenko, Tatyana A.

    2011-01-01

    A method for solution of large and sparse systems with complex seismic observations has been developed by revising of the classical Gaussian elimination. The observation matrix is divided into a set of smaller cells that can be determined based on clusters of a seismic activity. Reliable inversion solutions with minimum error rating are selected within each cell, then solutions that are non-stable with respect to the same unknown are rejected After the final sifting the found unknowns are eliminated from the initial system with subsequent decreasing of its size. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate how the method can be applied to a real data set (a case study of the Nagano fault area, Central Japan). Results of processing of a huge volume of data and their importance for the Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system are briefly discussed.

  12. Role of neuron-glia interactions in developmental synapse elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terni, Beatrice; López-Murcia, Francisco José; Llobet, Artur

    2017-03-01

    During the embryonic development of the nervous system there is a massive formation of synapses. However, the exuberant connectivity present after birth must be pruned during postnatal growth to optimize the function of neuronal circuits. Whilst glial cells play a fundamental role in the formation of early synaptic contacts, their contribution to developmental modifications of established synapses is not well understood. The present review aims to highlight the various roles of glia in the developmental refinement of embryonic synaptic connectivity. We summarize recent evidences linking secretory abilities of glial cells to the disassembly of synaptic contacts that are complementary of a well-established phagocytic role. Considering a theoretical framework, it is discussed how release of glial molecules could be relevant to the developmental refinement of synaptic connectivity. Finally, we propose a three-stage model of synapse elimination in which neurons and glia are functionally associated to timely eliminate synapses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Virus Elimination from Ornamental Plants Using in vitro Culture Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Milošević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are responsible for numerous epidemics in different crops in all parts of the world.As a consequence of their presence great economic losses are being incurred. In addition tothe development of sensitive techniques for detection, identification and characterization ofviruses, substantial attention has also been paid to biotechnological methods for their eliminationfrom plants. In this review article, the following biotechnological in vitro culture techniquesfor virus elimination from ornamental plants are presented: meristem culture, thermotherapy,chemotherapy, cryotherapy or a combination of these methods. The plant species,as well as the type of virus determine the choice of a most suitable method. The state ofthe art in investigation of virus elimination from Impatiens sp. in Serbia is summarized.

  14. Measles Elimination Efforts and 2008–2011 Outbreak, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Floret, Daniel; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Although few measles cases were reported in France during 2006 and 2007, suggesting the country might have been close to eliminating the disease, a dramatic outbreak of >20,000 cases occurred during 2008–2011. Adolescents and young adults accounted for more than half of cases; median patient age increased from 12 to 16 years during the outbreak. The highest incidence rate was observed in children <1 year of age, reaching 135 cases/100,000 infants during the last epidemic wave. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalized, including 1,023 for severe pneumonia and 27 for encephalitis/myelitis; 10 patients died. More than 80% of the cases during this period occurred in unvaccinated persons, reflecting heterogeneous vaccination coverage, where pockets of susceptible persons still remain. Although vaccine coverage among children improved, convincing susceptible young adults to get vaccinated remains a critical issue if the target to eliminate the disease by 2015 is to be met. PMID:23618523

  15. Global elimination of lymphatic filariasis: origins, progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Addiss

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a leading cause of chronic disability worldwide; an estimated 120 million persons are infected with the filarial parasites that cause the disease and an estimated 40 million persons suffer from chronic clinical manifestations, primarily lymphedema and hydrocele. Following a flurry of scientific advances during the late 1980s and early 1990s, the World Health Organization announced a Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF in 1998. Unlike most other disease eradication or elimination programmes, the goals of the GPELF are twofold: to interrupt transmission of the filarial parasite and to alleviate the suffering of those with filariasis-related disease. Embracing the challenge of morbidity control or disability alleviation has both challenged and enriched the GPELF. The paper reviews the scientific developments and decisions that led to the creation of the GPELF, highlights progress towards achieving programme goals and discusses the remaining challenges.

  16. Sliding Control with Chattering Elimination for Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a sliding mode control scheme with chattering elimination, generally applicable for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed control scheme requires only common data sheet information, no knowledge on load characteri......This paper presents the development of a sliding mode control scheme with chattering elimination, generally applicable for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed control scheme requires only common data sheet information, no knowledge on load...... characteristics, and employs piston- and valve spool positions- and load- and supply pressure feedback. The main target is to overcome problems with linear controllers deteriorating performance due to the inherent nonlinear nature of such systems. In order to accomplish this task, an integral sliding mode...

  17. How might immunization rates change if cost sharing is eliminated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Angela K; O'Grady, Michael J; McDevitt, Roland D; Pickreign, Jeremy D; Laudenberger, Laura K; Esber, Allahna; Shortridge, Emily F

    2014-01-01

    There is a debate regarding the effect of cost sharing on immunization, particularly as the Affordable Care Act will eliminate cost sharing for recommended vaccines. This study estimates changes in immunization rates and spending associated with extending first-dollar coverage to privately insured children for four childhood vaccines. We used the 2008 National Immunization Survey and peer-reviewed literature to generate estimates of immunization status for each vaccine by age group and insurance type. We used the Truven Health Analytics 2006 MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database of line-item medical claims to estimate changes in immunization rates that would result from eliminating cost sharing, and we used the Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey to determine the prevalence of coverage for patients with first-dollar coverage, patients who face office visit cost sharing, and patients who face cost sharing for all vaccine cost components. We assumed that once cost sharing is removed, coverage rates in plans that impose cost sharing will rise to the level of plans that do not. We estimate that immunization rates would increase modestly and result in additional direct spending of $26.0 million to insurers/employers. Further, these payers would have an additional $11.0 million in spending associated with eliminating cost sharing for children already receiving immunizations. The effects of eliminating cost sharing for vaccines vary by vaccine. Overall, immunization rates will rise modestly given high insurance coverage for vaccinations, and these increases would be more substantial for those currently facing cost sharing. However, in addition to the removal of cost sharing for immunizations, these findings suggest other strategies to consider to further increase immunization rates.

  18. Elimination of corporal punishment of children's a human right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors indicate the necessity of explicit legal prohibition of all corporal punishment of children that represent a violation of the right of the child to respect his/her physical integrity and human dignity. The paper emphasizes why all corporal punishment of children should be prohibited and points out the progress made at the legislative level to the elimination of all corporal punishment of children in some member states of the Council of Europe and the Republic of Serbia.

  19. Nuclear dismantling and asbestos elimination: the same challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadoumont, J.; Deboodt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The ALARA principle constitutes a powerful tool for workers dosimetry management in the nuclear field. A consequence of the application of this principle could be an accentuation of the nuclear risk face to the industrial risk. Using works of asbestos elimination in nuclear medium, the present article examines how a generalization of the utilization of the ALARA principle is conceivable and how the existing obstacles could be removed. (N.C.)

  20. Three phase active power filter with selective harmonics elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozański Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a three phase shunt active power filter with selective harmonics elimination. The control algorithm is based on a digital filter bank. The moving Discrete Fourier Transformation is used as an analysis filter bank. The correctness of the algorithm has been verified by simulation and experimental research. The paper includes exemplary results of current waveforms and their spectra from a three phase active power filter.

  1. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  2. Effect of oral activated charcoal on quinine elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockey, D; Bateman, D N

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repeated dose oral activated charcoal on quinine elimination has been studied following a therapeutic (600 mg) dose of quinine bisulphate to seven normal volunteers. Activated charcoal lowered quinine half-life from 8.23 +/- 0.57 s.d. h to 4.55 +/- 0.15 s.d. h (P less than 0.001) and increased its oral clearance by 56%. Activated charcoal may have a role in the management of quinine poisoning. PMID:2706191

  3. Eliminative Induction: A Basis for Arguing System Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Eliminative Induction: A Basis for Arguing System Confidence John B. Goodenough , Charles B. Weinstock, Ari Z. Klein Software Engineering Institute...unlimited distribution. DM-0000209. REFERENCES [1] J. Goodenough , C. Weinstock and A. Klein, “Toward a Theory of Assurance Case Confidence,” Pittsburgh...4] C. B. Weinstock and J. B. Goodenough , “Towards an Assurance Case Practice for Medical Devices,” Pittsburgh, PA: Software Engineering

  4. Eliminative Argumentation: A Basis for Arguing Confidence in System Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Eliminative Argumentation: A Basis for Arguing Confidence in System Properties John B. Goodenough Charles B. Weinstock Ari Z. Klein February... Goodenough 2012]. The current report supersedes our earlier report by providing a revised nota- tion, explicit rules for using the notation correctly, a...Theory of Argument Structure. Foris Publications, 1991. [ Goodenough 2012] Goodenough , J. B., Weinstock, C. B., & Klein, A. Z. Toward a Theory of

  5. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Aki; Saiki, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location), and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape) can be flexibly added to object representations.

  6. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kondo

    Full Text Available The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location, and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape can be flexibly added to object representations.

  7. Counting Dependent and Independent Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimand, Marius

    We derive quantitative results regarding sets of n-bit strings that have different dependency or independency properties. Let C(x) be the Kolmogorov complexity of the string x. A string y has α dependency with a string x if C(y) - C(y |x) ≥ α. A set of strings {x 1, ..., x t } is pairwise α-independent if for all inot=j, C(x i ) - C(x i |x j ) ≤ α. A tuple of strings (x 1, ..., x t ) is mutually α-independent if C(x π(1) ... x π(t)) ≥ C(x 1) + ... + C(x t ) - α, for every permutation π of [t]. We show that:

  8. Food Independence of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Vladimirovich Tyutyunik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with such basic definitions as food security, food independence and food self- sufficiency of the region. The author shows the ambiguity problem of interpretations of these terms in the Russian legislation, which is especially evident in the transition from the national to the regional level. Using the example of legislative acts of some of the Russian Federation’s subjects the study demonstrates the incorrect use of mentioned terms. In author’s opinion, regional authorities in the Russian Federation must introduce amendments to the legislative documents concerning food security. To be more concrete, the regional authorities should either deny the goal of food independence for a particular region, or specify that the goal of reaching food independence for the region does not mean food self-sufficiency, but just import substitution on the regional level

  9. Effective elimination of cancer stem cells by magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Niu, Lin; Wiedmann, Timothy Scott; Panyam, Jayanth

    2013-04-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells that have stem cell-like properties and are thought to be responsible for tumor drug resistance and relapse. Therapies that can effectively eliminate CSCs will, therefore, likely inhibit tumor recurrence. The objective of our study was to determine the susceptibility of CSCs to magnetic hyperthermia, a treatment that utilizes superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles placed in an alternating magnetic field to generate localized heat and achieve selective tumor cell kill. SPIO NPs having a magnetite core of 12 nm were used to induce magnetic hyperthermia in A549 and MDA-MB-231 tumor cells. Multiple assays for CSCs, including side population phenotype, aldehyde dehydrogenase expression, mammosphere formation, and in vivo xenotransplantation, indicated that magnetic hyperthermia reduced or, in some cases, eliminated the CSC subpopulation in treated cells. Interestingly, conventional hyperthermia, induced by subjecting cells to elevated temperature (46 °C) in a water bath, was not effective in eliminating CSCs. Our studies show that magnetic hyperthermia has pleiotropic effects, inducing acute necrosis in some cells while stimulating reactive oxygen species generation and slower cell kill in others. These results suggest the potential for lower rates of tumor recurrence after magnetic hyperthermia compared to conventional cancer therapies.

  10. [Plan to improve malaria control towards its elimination in Mesoamerica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Mario Henry; Betanzos-Reyes, Angel Francisco

    2011-01-01

    To develop a plan to strengthen the control of malaria towards its elimination. In 2009, under the coordination of the National Public HealthInstitute ofMexico, atransdisciplinary equipment of technical and operative experts was conformed to carry out a situational analysis of malaria and control programs and for the selection of effective practices of intervention that would be incorporated to the plan, within the framework of an exercise in Theory of Change. Criteria for thestratificationof thelocalities, based ontheirtransmission characteristics were established. The structural and operative limitations of the control programs were identified. A plan of interventions was elaborated to improve the coverage of epidemiological surveillance, anti-malaria interventions and opportune diagnosis and treatment of cases. The plan delineates progressive phases of implementation: reorganization, intensification of interventions and evaluation of elimination feasibility. The adoption of a regional strategic plan will provide guidance and administrative elements to conform a system that coordinates the activities of the national control programs and facilitate the elimination of malaria in the region.

  11. Effects of perfluorochemical distribution and elimination dynamics on cardiopulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T F; Milestone, B; Stern, R; Shaffer, T H; Wolfson, M R

    2001-03-01

    Based on a physicochemical property profile, we tested the hypothesis that different perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids may have distinct effects on intrapulmonary PFC distribution, lung function, and PFC elimination kinetics during partial liquid ventilation (PLV). Young rabbits were studied in five groups [healthy, PLV with perflubron (PFB) or with perfluorodecalin (DEC); saline lavage injury and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV); saline lavage injury PLV with PFB or with DEC]. Arterial blood chemistry, respiratory compliance (Cr), quantitative computed tomography of PFC distribution, and PFC loss rate were assessed for 4 h. Initial distribution of PFB was more homogenous than that of DEC; over time, PFB redistributed to dependent regions whereas DEC distribution was relatively constant. PFC loss rate decreased over time in all groups, was higher with DEC than PFB, and was lower with injury. In healthy animals, arterial PO(2) (Pa(O(2))) and Cr decreased with either PFC; the decrease was greater and sustained with DEC. Lavaged animals treated with either PFC demonstrated increased Pa(O(2)), which was sustained with PFB but deteriorated with DEC. Lavaged animals treated with PFB demonstrated increased Cr, higher Pa(O(2)), and lower arterial PCO(2) than with CMV or PLV with DEC. The results indicate that 1) initial distribution and subsequent intrapulmonary redistribution of PFC are related to PFC properties; 2) PFC distribution influences PFC elimination, gas exchange, and Cr; and 3) PFC elimination, gas exchange, and Cr are influenced by PFC properties and lung condition.

  12. Review. Elimination of viruses in plants: twenty years of progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panattoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To shed light on trends about elimination of viruses from plants, a bibliographic research was conducted to identify thermotherapy, chemotherapy and tissue culture trials published from 1991 through 2010. Among woody plants, grapevine, apple and peach are the most frequent targets of sanitation protocols because their health status is strictly regulated. Even if thermotherapy represents the preferred method for the host, grapevine viruses can also be eliminated with chemotherapy and tissue culture; apple viruses respond to chemotherapy as well. Although a similar trend was reported among herbaceous plants, chemotherapy was the most frequently used technique in potato. With regard to virus, thermotherapy was successfully applied against viruses belonging to 13 families and an unassigned genus. Instead, chemotherapy and tissue culture techniques eradicated viruses belonging to fewer families (nine. An interpretation of thermotherapy effects considers the new metabolic “pathways” triggered by the natural antiviral response emitted by the infected plant, with particular reference to virus-induced gene silencing. With regard to chemotherapy, several groups of antiviral drugs belong to inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors. Tissue culture, usually adopted to regenerate plantlets in biotechnological breeding programs, represents the less used tool for eliminate viruses from plants.

  13. Rayleigh Instability-Assisted Satellite Droplets Elimination in Inkjet Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Li, Huizeng; Li, Mingzhu; Li, Yanan; Chen, Shuoran; Bao, Bin; Song, Yanlin

    2017-11-29

    Elimination of satellite droplets in inkjet printing has long been desired for high-resolution and precision printing of functional materials and tissues. Generally, the strategy to suppress satellite droplets is to control ink properties, such as viscosity or surface tension, to assist ink filaments in retracting into one drop. However, this strategy brings new restrictions to the ink, such as ink viscosity, surface tension, and concentration. Here, we report an alternative strategy that the satellite droplets are eliminated by enhancing Rayleigh instability of filament at the break point to accelerate pinch-off of the droplet from the nozzle. A superhydrophobic and ultralow adhesive nozzle with cone morphology exhibits the capability to eliminate satellite droplets by cutting the ink filament at breakup point effectively. As a result, the nozzles with different sizes (10-80 μm) are able to print more inks (1 satellite droplets. The finding presents a new way to remove satellite droplets via designing nozzles with super-ink-phobicity and ultralow adhesion rather than restricting the ink, which has promising applications in printing electronics and biotechnologies.

  14. OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES ELIMINATION MANAGEMENT: THE SUCCESS STORY OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Man, with its activities, produces and uses substances that have negative impact on the environment and the human health, and can cause an economic damage. Consequently, they have a great impact on quality of life. Among the most harmful chemicals are Ozone Depleting Substances that are subject of regulation with international conventions. This Paper supports the fact that each country has to undertake national efforts for ozone depleting substances reduction and elimination. In that respect, the general objective of the Paper is to present the Macedonian unique experience regarding its efforts to reduce or eliminate these substances. The following two aspects were subject to the research: national legislation which regulates the Ozone Depleting Substances import and export as well as the implementation of the projects that resulted with the elimination of Ozone Depleting Substances quantities in the period 1995 – 2010. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis i.e. that with adequately created and implemented national action, the amount of Ozone Depleting Substances consumption can dramatically fall.

  15. A framework for assessing the feasibility of malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Jessica

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent scale-up of malaria interventions, the ensuing reductions in the malaria burden, and reinvigorated discussions about global eradication have led many countries to consider malaria elimination as an alternative to maintaining control measures indefinitely. Evidence-based guidance to help countries weigh their options is thus urgently needed. A quantitative feasibility assessment that balances the epidemiological situation in a region, the strength of the public health system, the resource constraints, and the status of malaria control in neighboring areas can serve as the basis for robust, long-term strategic planning. Such a malaria elimination feasibility assessment was recently prepared for the Minister of Health in Zanzibar. Based on the Zanzibar experience, a framework is proposed along three axes that assess the technical requirements to achieve and maintain elimination, the operational capacity of the malaria programme and the public health system to meet those requirements, and the feasibility of funding the necessary programmes over time. Key quantitative and qualitative metrics related to each component of the assessment are described here along with the process of collecting data and interpreting the results. Although further field testing, validation, and methodological improvements will be required to ensure applicability in different epidemiological settings, the result is a flexible, rational methodology for weighing different strategic options that can be applied in a variety of contexts to establish data-driven strategic plans.

  16. Mercury bioaccumulation and elimination by Xenomelanires brasiliensis - radioactive tracers technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagrino, Waldir; Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de; Sousa, Eduinetty Ceci P.M. de

    2002-01-01

    The present work has as main objective to emphasized the importance of using radioactive tracers as well as to establish a methodology for the utilization of 203 Hg in the bioaccumulation study of mercury by X enomelanires brasiliensis. The exposure time was 168 hours. The bioaccumulation of mercury from the water as well as the elimination of the metal previously absorbed were determined by measuring the activity of 203 Hg, which was added to the water in the beginning of the experiments. The technique chosen is suitable to study the behavior of the stable mercury since the radioisotope used is an isotope of the same element and therefore presents the same chemical properties. The results obtained show that the absorption and elimination of mercury by Xenomelanires brasiliensis is slow, 168 hours being necessary for the elimination of 38 % of the previously absorbed mercury. The results are of main concern if it is considered that the literature about bioaccumulation of mercury by the Brazilian ichthyofauna is scarce. Furthermore the species Xenomelanires brasiliensis is part of the food chain and the results can be used in the evaluation of the potential risk of the mercury bioaccumulation by fishes of higher trophic levels and by men who are the final link of the food chain. (author)

  17. Elimination of Leprosy as a public health problem by 2000 AD: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To identify potential publications, we included papers on leprosy elimination monitoring, special action projects for the elimination of leprosy, modified leprosy elimination campaigns, and the Global Alliance to eliminate leprosy from the following principal data bases: Cochrane data base of systematic reviews, PubMed, ...

  18. Key Features of oxypnictides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Key Features of oxypnictides. Metal –insulator boundary. Quasi 2D structure. Doping important. Charge transfer (redox behaviour). Normal resistivity : mohms (little higher in oxypnictides). Near antiferromagnetic ground state. Superexchange through Fe-As-Fe (Cu-O-Cu) ...

  19. Introduction to algebraic independence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Philippon, Patrice

    2001-01-01

    In the last five years there has been very significant progress in the development of transcendence theory. A new approach to the arithmetic properties of values of modular forms and theta-functions was found. The solution of the Mahler-Manin problem on values of modular function j(tau) and algebraic independence of numbers pi and e^(pi) are most impressive results of this breakthrough. The book presents these and other results on algebraic independence of numbers and further, a detailed exposition of methods created in last the 25 years, during which commutative algebra and algebraic geometry exerted strong catalytic influence on the development of the subject.

  20. Kernelized partial least squares for feature reduction and classification of gene microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Land Walker H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objectives of this paper are: 1. to apply Statistical Learning Theory (SLT, specifically Partial Least Squares (PLS and Kernelized PLS (K-PLS, to the universal "feature-rich/case-poor" (also known as "large p small n", or "high-dimension, low-sample size" microarray problem by eliminating those features (or probes that do not contribute to the "best" chromosome bio-markers for lung cancer, and 2. quantitatively measure and verify (by an independent means the efficacy of this PLS process. A secondary objective is to integrate these significant improvements in diagnostic and prognostic biomedical applications into the clinical research arena. That is, to devise a framework for converting SLT results into direct, useful clinical information for patient care or pharmaceutical research. We, therefore, propose and preliminarily evaluate, a process whereby PLS, K-PLS, and Support Vector Machines (SVM may be integrated with the accepted and well understood traditional biostatistical "gold standard", Cox Proportional Hazard model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis methods. Specifically, this new combination will be illustrated with both PLS and Kaplan-Meier followed by PLS and Cox Hazard Ratios (CHR and can be easily extended for both the K-PLS and SVM paradigms. Finally, these previously described processes are contained in the Fine Feature Selection (FFS component of our overall feature reduction/evaluation process, which consists of the following components: 1. coarse feature reduction, 2. fine feature selection and 3. classification (as described in this paper and prediction. Results Our results for PLS and K-PLS showed that these techniques, as part of our overall feature reduction process, performed well on noisy microarray data. The best performance was a good 0.794 Area Under a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC Curve (AUC for classification of recurrence prior to or after 36 months and a strong 0.869 AUC for

  1. The isotope effect and enthalpy of a base-promoted 1,4-elimination reaction by a thermokinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, P.

    1974-01-01

    Microcalorimetry (MC) has been used to measure the second order rate constants (k) for the base-promoted 1,4-elimination reactions of 3-(2-acetoxy-2-propyl)indene (B sub (H)) and 3-di-d-3-(2-acetoxy-2-propyl)indene (B sub (D)). Triethylamine (TEA) was used as eliminating base in methanol buffered with TEAH + AcO - as solvent. The MC-rate constants agreed with those obtained by an independent method, a calibrated quench-extraction-NMR (Q-E-NMR) method. In the present case the MC-method yields k/s with a precision of -1 (-9.5 kcal/mol) for B sub (H). The usefulness microcalorimetry in the study of reaction mechanisms is discussed. (author)

  2. Iodine Deficiency: Where Are We Now? (Efficiency of Belarusian Strategy in Elimination of Iodine Deficiency: 15-year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.V. Mokhort

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Between the former Soviet republics, which became independent states, there are big differences in the state of iodine provision and in technology to eliminate iodine deficiency in the diet of the population. The publication presents a strategy for the elimination of iodine deficiency, developed and implemented in the Republic of Belarus in order to achieve an adequate level of iodine nutrition in the state. In the Republic of Belarus, 94 % of salt consumption is iodized salt that ensures adequate iodine intake, confirmed by urinary iodine excretion (median 169 mcg/l. The effectiveness of the model for iodine prophylaxis used in Belarus and based on the widespread use of iodized salt in the food industry gives reason to recommend this model for implementation in other countries.

  3. Liposomal clodronate selectively eliminates microglia from primary astrocyte cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumamaru Hiromi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in astrocyte biology because astrocytes have been demonstrated to play prominent roles in physiological and pathological conditions of the central nervous system, including neuroinflammation. To understand astrocyte biology, primary astrocyte cultures are most commonly used because of the direct accessibility of astrocytes in this system. However, this advantage can be hindered by microglial contamination. Although several authors have warned regarding microglial contamination in this system, complete microglial elimination has never been achieved. Methods The number and proliferative potential of contaminating microglia in primary astrocyte cultures were quantitatively assessed by immunocytologic and flow cytometric analyses. To examine the utility of clodronate for microglial elimination, primary astrocyte cultures or MG-5 cells were exposed to liposomal or free clodronate, and then immunocytologic, flow cytometric, and gene expression analyses were performed. The gene expression profiles of microglia-eliminated and microglia-contaminated cultures were compared after interleukin-6 (IL-6 stimulation. Results The percentage of contaminating microglia exceeded 15% and continued to increase because of their high proliferative activity in conventional primary astrocyte cultures. These contaminating microglia were selectively eliminated low concentration of liposomal clodronate. Although primary microglia and MG-5 cells were killed by both liposomal and free clodronate, free clodronate significantly affected the viability of astrocytes. In contrast, liposomal clodronate selectively eliminated microglia without affecting the viability, proliferation or activation of astrocytes. The efficacy of liposomal clodronate was much higher than that of previously reported methods used for decreasing microglial contamination. Furthermore, we observed rapid tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1b gene induction in

  4. Noise Elimination Study for a Single Station Magnetotelluric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül, Ebru; Uǧur Ulugergerli, Emin; Göktaş, Hilal

    2010-05-01

    Five components of the natural electromagnetic field relating to underground conductivity distribution on Earth are measured as a time series in the Magnetotelluric (MT) method. E (Ex, Ey) and H (Hx, Hy, Hz) components of the electromagnetic field suffers from noise contamination. The noise, in general, can be classified as random and systematic noise. Random noise disrupts the pattern of data such as sudden signal peaks and/or step structures called impulsive effect. This type of noise usually is dominant in some parts of the time series. The sources of random noise vary; some of the sources are instrumental problems and atmospheric events. On the other hand, systematic noise occurs at certain frequencies and is added to the data. Industrial activities cause such type of the noise and can corrupt all the data set. The estimation of the impedance tensor from single-station MT data is subject to this study. The proposed method uses statistical approaches focused on the noise elimination techniques. Noise elimination from MT time series is very important particularly to achieve repeatable impedance values using single station MT data. The conventional impedance estimation technique requires solution of a linear equation system (E = ZH) based on Gaussian statistical model which requires the noise of electric channels should obey Gaussian distribution and magnetic channels should be noise free. In fact, measured data never provides this ideal condition. Therefore, noise elimination techniques are very important step in data processing works in MT method. Random noise such as spikes makes deviations in impedance values, resistivity and phase curves. Random noise should be eliminated to correct of these deviations in the data. For this purpose firstly, all data are divided into time windows. Each window consists of 512 values. After that, spikes are removed and missing data are regenerated by using interpolation technique for each window in time domain. Then, data are

  5. Feature Vector Construction Method for IRIS Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokikh, G.; Fartukov, A.; Korobkin, M.; Yoo, J.

    2017-05-01

    One of the basic stages of iris recognition pipeline is iris feature vector construction procedure. The procedure represents the extraction of iris texture information relevant to its subsequent comparison. Thorough investigation of feature vectors obtained from iris showed that not all the vector elements are equally relevant. There are two characteristics which determine the vector element utility: fragility and discriminability. Conventional iris feature extraction methods consider the concept of fragility as the feature vector instability without respect to the nature of such instability appearance. This work separates sources of the instability into natural and encodinginduced which helps deeply investigate each source of instability independently. According to the separation concept, a novel approach of iris feature vector construction is proposed. The approach consists of two steps: iris feature extraction using Gabor filtering with optimal parameters and quantization with separated preliminary optimized fragility thresholds. The proposed method has been tested on two different datasets of iris images captured under changing environmental conditions. The testing results show that the proposed method surpasses all the methods considered as a prior art by recognition accuracy on both datasets.

  6. 10 Questions about Independent Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Teachers know that establishing a robust independent reading program takes more than giving kids a little quiet time after lunch. But how do they set up a program that will maximize their students' gains? Teachers have to know their students' reading levels inside and out, help them find just-right books, and continue to guide them during…

  7. Supplying safety and energy independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2001-03-01

    The french Observatory of the Energy wonders about the energy independence notion. Many risks are possible: physical, economical, geo-political, social and ecological risks. Because those risks are numerous, the answers for a supplying safety are also numerous. In this context the energy policy is a difficult art which the public opinion needs to be more and more aware. (A.L.B.)

  8. Independent Study Project, Topic: Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notre Dame High School, Easton, PA.

    Using this guide and the four popular books noted in it, a student, working independently, will learn about some of the classical ideas and problems of topology: the Meobius strip and Klein bottle, the four color problem, genus of a surface, networks, Euler's formula, and the Jordan Curve Theorem. The unit culminates in a project of the students'…

  9. The Regulatory Independence of FANR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALNuaimi, Fatema; Choi, Kwang Shik

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory independence is meant to provide a conservative system of policy making in order to comply with the problems that are forecasted upon the basis of assumptions. The Federal Authorization of Nuclear Regulation (FANR) is a regulatory commission that was formed to be regulatory body that governs the generation of nuclear power in United Arab Emirates. It was established under the UAE nuclear law (9/2009) as an independent regulatory body that was tasked with the regulation of all nuclear activities in the United Arab Emirates. As an independent body, FANR was tasked with ensuring that the regulation of the nuclear sector is done in effective and transparent manner to ensure its accountability to the people. Being independent, the regulatory body develops national nuclear regulations based on laid down safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, ensuring that they are based on scientific and proven technologies The role of FANR is to ensure that the all corporations that undertake nuclear activities follow the laid down procedures and objectives and ensure safety measures are taken keenly to ensure the safety of the workers and the general public while at the same time ensuring the environment is free from nuclear radiations

  10. Characteristics of Independent Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; Boese, Karen; King, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to learn about the characteristics of independent music teachers, their beliefs about music teaching, and their studio practices. A self-report survey included questions about the teachers' (a) background experiences, (b) pedagogical approaches, (c) use of digital technologies, and (d) professional development…

  11. Nuclear dismantling and asbestos elimination: the same challenge?; Demantelement nucleaire et elimination d'asbeste: un meme challenge?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadoumont, J.; Deboodt, P. [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1998-07-01

    The ALARA principle constitutes a powerful tool for workers dosimetry management in the nuclear field. A consequence of the application of this principle could be an accentuation of the nuclear risk face to the industrial risk. Using works of asbestos elimination in nuclear medium, the present article examines how a generalization of the utilization of the ALARA principle is conceivable and how the existing obstacles could be removed. (N.C.)

  12. African Independent Churches in Zambia (Lusaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildnerová Kateřina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The African Independent churches (AICs in Zambia, as elsewhere in Africa, from their very beginning formed a protest movement against the cultural imperialism undertaken by the missionary representatives of the historic mission churches and also played an important role in the anti-colonial political struggles. In Zambia, the early AICs were closely related to witchcraft eradication movements such as the Mchape, or socially and politically oriented prophet-healing churches such as The Lumpa church of Alice Lenshina. Since the 1970s and in particular in the 1990s the Christianity in Zambia has been significantly marked by the proliferation of the African Independent Churches - both of Pentecostal and prophet-healing type. These churches that started mushrooming particularly in urban settings became part of the strengthening charismatic movement, particularly within Protestantism. A typical feature of AICs is focus on spiritual healing and religious syncretism - the local traditional customs and beliefs in dangerous ghosts, ancestral spirits, or witches are placed within the biblical religious framework where the Holy Spirit (Muzimu Oyela is considered to be the only source of healing whereas other ‘inferior spirits’ are labelled as demons. The traditional methods of healing are creatively combined with Christian healing by means of prayers, spiritual blessings, laying on of hands on patients and demon exorcism - it is believed that only a body rid of bad spirits can receive the Holy Spirit, and thus be healed. The paper draws on both secondary literature concerning African Independent Churches and primary data issued from fieldwork in Lusaka (2008-2009.

  13. Capability of geometric features to classify ships in SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Haitao; Wu, Siwen; Lai, Quan; Ma, Li

    2016-10-01

    Ship classification in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery has become a new hotspot in remote sensing community for its valuable potential in many maritime applications. Several kinds of ship features, such as geometric features, polarimetric features, and scattering features have been widely applied on ship classification tasks. Compared with polarimetric features and scattering features, which are subject to SAR parameters (e.g., sensor type, incidence angle, polarization, etc.) and environment factors (e.g., sea state, wind, wave, current, etc.), geometric features are relatively independent of SAR and environment factors, and easy to be extracted stably from SAR imagery. In this paper, the capability of geometric features to classify ships in SAR imagery with various resolution has been investigated. Firstly, the relationship between the geometric feature extraction accuracy and the SAR imagery resolution is analyzed. It shows that the minimum bounding rectangle (MBR) of ship can be extracted exactly in terms of absolute precision by the proposed automatic ship-sea segmentation method. Next, six simple but effective geometric features are extracted to build a ship representation for the subsequent classification task. These six geometric features are composed of length (f1), width (f2), area (f3), perimeter (f4), elongatedness (f5) and compactness (f6). Among them, two basic features, length (f1) and width (f2), are directly extracted based on the MBR of ship, the other four are derived from those two basic features. The capability of the utilized geometric features to classify ships are validated on two data set with different image resolutions. The results show that the performance of ship classification solely by geometric features is close to that obtained by the state-of-the-art methods, which obtained by a combination of multiple kinds of features, including scattering features and geometric features after a complex feature selection process.

  14. Effective and extensible feature extraction method using genetic algorithm-based frequency-domain feature search for epileptic EEG multiclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tingxi; Zhang, Zhongnan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithm-based frequency-domain feature search (GAFDS) method is proposed for the electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis of epilepsy. In this method, frequency-domain features are first searched and then combined with nonlinear features. Subsequently, these features are selected and optimized to classify EEG signals. The extracted features are analyzed experimentally. The features extracted by GAFDS show remarkable independence, and they are superior to the nonlinear features in terms of the ratio of interclass distance and intraclass distance. Moreover, the proposed feature search method can search for features of instantaneous frequency in a signal after Hilbert transformation. The classification results achieved using these features are reasonable; thus, GAFDS exhibits good extensibility. Multiple classical classifiers (i.e., k-nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis, decision tree, AdaBoost, multilayer perceptron, and Naïve Bayes) achieve satisfactory classification accuracies by using the features generated by the GAFDS method and the optimized feature selection. The accuracies for 2-classification and 3-classification problems may reach up to 99% and 97%, respectively. Results of several cross-validation experiments illustrate that GAFDS is effective in the extraction of effective features for EEG classification. Therefore, the proposed feature selection and optimization model can improve classification accuracy.

  15. Imaging features of thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Acunas, G.; Acunas, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey); Dincol, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    Thalassemia is a kind of chronic, inherited, microcytic anemia characterized by defective hemoglobin synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis. In all thalassemias clinical features that result from anemia, transfusional, and absorptive iron overload are similar but vary in severity. The radiographic features of {beta}-thalassemia are due in large part to marrow hyperplasia. Markedly expanded marrow space lead to various skeletal manifestations including spine, skull, facial bones, and ribs. Extramedullary hematopoiesis (ExmH), hemosiderosis, and cholelithiasis are among the non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia. The skeletal X-ray findings show characteristics of chronic overactivity of the marrow. In this article both skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia are discussed with an overview of X-ray findings, including MRI and CT findings. (orig.)

  16. Feature extraction of multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R. B.; Crimmins, T.; Reyer, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for feature extraction of multispectral scanner data. Non-training data is used to demonstrate the reduction in processing time that can be obtained by using feature extraction rather than feature selection.

  17. CBFS: high performance feature selection algorithm based on feature clearness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseok Seo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goal of feature selection is to select useful features and simultaneously exclude garbage features from a given dataset for classification purposes. This is expected to bring reduction of processing time and improvement of classification accuracy. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we devised a new feature selection algorithm (CBFS based on clearness of features. Feature clearness expresses separability among classes in a feature. Highly clear features contribute towards obtaining high classification accuracy. CScore is a measure to score clearness of each feature and is based on clustered samples to centroid of classes in a feature. We also suggest combining CBFS and other algorithms to improve classification accuracy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From the experiment we confirm that CBFS is more excellent than up-to-date feature selection algorithms including FeaLect. CBFS can be applied to microarray gene selection, text categorization, and image classification.

  18. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  19. Online Feature Selection for Classifying Emphysema in HRCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prasad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Feature subset selection, applied as a pre- processing step to machine learning, is valuable in dimensionality reduction, eliminating irrelevant data and improving classifier performance. In the classic formulation of the feature selection problem, it is assumed that all the features are available at the beginning. However, in many real world problems, there are scenarios where not all features are present initially and must be integrated as they become available. In such scenarios, online feature selection provides an efficient way to sort through a large space of features. It is in this context that we introduce online feature selection for the classification of emphysema, a smoking related disease that appears as low attenuation regions in High Resolution Computer Tomography (HRCT images. The technique was successfully evaluated on 61 HRCT scans and compared with different online feature selection approaches, including hill climbing, best first search, grafting, and correlation-based feature selection. The results were also compared against ldensity maskr, a standard approach used for emphysema detection in medical image analysis.

  20. Features and Recursive Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniya Nasukawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the cross-linguistic tendency that weak vowels are realized with a central quality such as ə, ɨ, or ɯ, this paper attempts to account for this choice by proposing that the nucleus itself is one of the three monovalent vowel elements |A|, |I| and |U| which function as the building blocks of melodic structure. I claim that individual languages make a parametric choice to determine which of the three elements functions as the head of a nuclear expression. In addition, I show that elements can be freely concatenated to create melodic compounds. The resulting phonetic value of an element compound is determined by the specific elements it contains and by the head-dependency relations between those elements. This concatenation-based recursive mechanism of melodic structure can also be extended to levels above the segment, thus ultimately eliminating the need for syllabic constituents. This approach reinterprets the notion of minimalism in phonology by opposing the string-based flat structure.

  1. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  2. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-01-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 o C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839 T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D 10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 10 5 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 o C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 10 5 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  3. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-08-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 °C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  4. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Vandan [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 {sup o}C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839{sup T} and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to {gamma} radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D{sub 10} values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081{+-}0.001, 0.089{+-}0.003 and 0.091{+-}0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  5. In vivo thermoterapy: attempt to eliminate virus in potato tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Astarini, Ida; Margareth, Deborah; Temaja, I. Gede Rai Maya

    2018-03-01

    Potato is one of an important vegetable crop in Indonesia, including Bali. Main potato production areas in Bali are at Bedugul region, 1.200 m above sea level. Potato production in Bali continued to decrease due to diseases infection, such as early blight, late blight, black leg and virus diseases. Potato farmers in Bali usually set aside their harvest as seed potatoes, resulting in virus diseases being carried out on the next planting seasons and eventually would decrease potato production both in quantity and quality. Four types of virus were confirmed: PVY, PVX, PVS and PRLV. A number of studies have reported thermotherapy technique has been employed to eliminate potato virus in vitro. However, this technique is not readily available for farmers, since there is no established tissue culture laboratory to support. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more practical method. The objective of this study was to eliminate virus on seed potatoes using thermotherapy on tuber. Seed potatoes with 1 cm sprout which were virus positive were placed on sterile charred rice paddy husk, and then put into a humidified incubator. Tubers were exposed to 37°C for four days followed by 34°C for three days alternately for two weeks and three weeks duration. Four tubers received heat exposure regime for each virus type. After thermotherapy, potato tubers were transferred to pots containing charred rice paddy husk and maintain for three weeks until new leaves emerge for virus analyses. Results show that seed tubers experienced delayed growth after thermotherapy. Control plants sprout one week after thermotherapy, while treated plants were not yet sprouting. Experiment is currently underway. It is expected that heat treatment on tuber will give a practical method for farmers to eliminate virus of seed potatoes.

  6. The elimination of scabies: a task for our generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Florence E

    2013-10-01

    Scabies prevalence remains unacceptably high in many regions throughout the world. Infestation with scabies significantly impacts quality of life and is linked to pyoderma and consequently to severe long-term sequelae such as post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In the past, control programs using topical treatments have met with poor compliance; however, the highly effective oral agent ivermectin may offer a new paradigm in scabies management. Problems still exist with insensitive diagnostic tests, questions concerning mite reservoirs, and restrictions on who can receive ivermectin. Despite these difficulties, the elimination of scabies in communities worst affected may soon be possible. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. A simple method to eliminate mycoplasma from cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronato, S; Vullo, D; Coto, C E

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of several antibiotic treatments to eliminate mycoplasma from Vero cells contaminated chronically with Mycoplasma orale II were tested. Minocyclin, Kanamycin, Tylosine and Roxitromycin, at non cytotoxic concentrations, were assayed alone or in different combinations. Mycoplasma contamination was effectively eradicated without recurrence once the following regimen was applied: Incubation of contaminated cells with Tylosine (250 micrograms/ml) for 12 days followed by incubation with Minocycline (5 micrograms/ml) for 10 days. This treatment was not deleterious for cell growth, it was effective after only one application and it was successful to eradicate mycoplasma from other contaminated eukaryotic continuous cell lines.

  8. Classification and elimination of overlapped entities in DXF files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.A. Atia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer aided engineering; design, drafting and manufacturing, software packages are widely used in modern industry. The product development cycle, from idea to manufacturing, goes through different stages using different computer aided programs. These programs exchange a lot of information in different formats. One of these formats is 2D drawing in DXF standard format. The exchanged files suffer from overlapped entities and different interpretation for entity formats. This paper emphasizes on the sources of this problem and its negative effects. Moreover, it introduces software for eliminating the overlapping entities and re-classification of them. In addition, the paper explains the algorithms, which are encapsulated in the software.

  9. Graphical reduction of reaction networks by linear elimination of species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez Cornellana, Meritxell; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    of the network and its kinetics. We conclude by comparing our approach to an older similar approach by Temkin and co-workers. Finally, we apply the procedure to biological examples such as substrate mechanisms, post-translational modification systems and networks with intermediates (transient) steps.......We give a graphically based procedure to reduce a reaction network to a smaller reaction network with fewer species after linear elimination of a set of noninteracting species. We give a description of the reduced reaction network, its kinetics and conservations laws, and explore properties...

  10. Improved nuclear fuel pellet design to eliminate the RIM effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.

    2007-01-01

    The University of Florida has proposed a new Pellet design which will eliminate the rim effect for light water reactor (LWR) fuel for both present and anticipated future burnup targets. The design implements a 200 micron rim of natural uranium in place of the normal enriched uranium. This rim is very similar to the Integral Fuel Burnable concept of Westinghouse. An analysis based on the Monteburn Monte-Carlo burnup code shows that the rim region of the new design is 116% of the average burnup compared to 151% for the current pellet designs. The proposed design can increase the burnup by 33% over current designs without encountering the rim effect phenomenon. (authors)

  11. Dual-laser vibrometry: elimination or extraction of pseudovibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Bækbo, Martin Jesper; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    The principal idea of a method using two identical laser vibrometers to eliminate pseudovibrations occurring as structured noise in laser-vibrometer measurements of angular velocity of a rotating object is investigated. The two vibrometers monitor the same surface path on the rotating object, but...... occur simultaneously at the two vibrometers. Knowing the angular separation between the vibrometers, simple trigonometry can be used to suppress the pseudovibrations. The experiments demonstrate the principle of the method only and no real-time measurements are presented....

  12. Particle physics contribution to the elimination of nuclear waste

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean Pierre Charles

    2000-01-01

    Progress in particle accelerator technology makes it possible to use a proton accelerator to eliminate nuclear waste efficiently. The Energy Amplifier (EA) proposed by C. Rubbia and his group is a subcritical system driven by a proton accelerator. It is particularly attractive for destroying, through fission, transuranic elements produced by present nuclear reactors. The EA could also transform efficiently and at minimal cost long-lived fission fragments using the concept of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) recently tested at CERN with the TARC experiment. The ARC concept can be extended to several other application domains (radioactive isotopes production for medicine and industry, neutron research applications, etc.).

  13. Toilet Talk: Eliminating Open Defecation and Improved Sanitation in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia

    2017-08-30

    Globally, 2.4 billion people lack adequate sanitation, and open defecation remains common. In this article, I present the qualitative findings from an evaluation of a water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention in remote, mid-West Nepal. The evaluation, conducted in 2014, involved villagers from eight wards in Kotgaun Village Development Committee. Drawing on the concept of the "toilet tripod," I argue as follows: multi-scalar political will provide an important foundation for construction and sustained use of toilets, proximate social pressures contributed significantly to toilet adoption and efforts to eliminate open defecation, and water insecurity constrained improved sanitation and hygiene.

  14. A pratical method of data elimination in radiometric calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Amaral, R. dos; Dantas, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of phosphorite standards to uranium radiometric analyses sugests the necessity of intercomparison samples to construct an uranium calibration curve. The intercomparison analysis was performed by delay neutrons, X-rays fluorescence and molecular absorption spectrophotometry in three diferents laboratories. This work intends to stablish rejection criteria for deviating data in order to achieve better precision. Through the comparison from results of the analysis methods, the data outside the confidence intervals, were eliminated. A more accurate calibration curve inside the interval +-1,1% to +-3.0% was obtained with this method. (author) [pt

  15. Effect of sonication on eliminating of phorate in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Xiaosong

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of phorate in apple juice by sonication was investigated in the present study. Results showed that sonication was effective in eliminating phorate in apple juice, and the ultrasonic power and sonication time significantly influenced the degradation of phorate (papple juice samples spiked with phorate was significantly reduced by sonication (papple juice including pH, titratable acidity (TA), electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble solids (TSS), and the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose were not affected by sonication, and no visible difference in color was observed between the sonicated samples and the control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Information filtering based on corrected redundancy-eliminating mass diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Yang, Yujie; Chen, Guilin; Medo, Matus; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Methods used in information filtering and recommendation often rely on quantifying the similarity between objects or users. The used similarity metrics often suffer from similarity redundancies arising from correlations between objects' attributes. Based on an unweighted undirected object-user bipartite network, we propose a Corrected Redundancy-Eliminating similarity index (CRE) which is based on a spreading process on the network. Extensive experiments on three benchmark data sets-Movilens, Netflix and Amazon-show that when used in recommendation, the CRE yields significant improvements in terms of recommendation accuracy and diversity. A detailed analysis is presented to unveil the origins of the observed differences between the CRE and mainstream similarity indices.

  17. Innovative use of a mist eliminator in mine ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyko, K.; Smith, T.

    2010-01-01

    The McArthur River Operation recently installed an upcast mine ventilation system to increase its total mine ventilation capacity. During commissioning, the amount of water discharged by the new system exceeded that which is normally observed in similar installations. Operation of the system was suspended, and a study was conducted to determine to most effective technology to significantly reduce or remove this water from the saturated air stream. A chevron-type mist eliminator was designed and installed to strip the water from the air, such that the condensate could be appropriately managed in the mine effluent treatment system. (author)

  18. Southern Sudan: An opportunity for NTD control and elimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumunu, John; Brooker, Simon; Hopkins, Adrian; Emerson, Paul; Chane, Fasil; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Southern Sudan has been ravaged by decades of conflict and is thought to have one of the highest burdens of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in the world. Health care delivery, including efforts to control or eliminate NTDs, is severely hampered by a lack of infrastructure and health systems. However, the post-conflict environment and Southern Sudan's emerging health sector provide the unprecedented opportunity to build new, innovative programmes targeting NTDs. This article describes the current status of NTDs and their control in Southern Sudan and outlines the opportunities for the development of evidence-based, innovative implementation of NTD control. PMID:19540164

  19. [Accreditation of Independent Ethics Committees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A

    According to Law 14/2007 and Royal Decree 1090/2015, biomedical research must be assessed by an Research Ethics Committee (REC), which must be accredited as an Research ethics committee for clinical trials involving medicinal products (RECm) if the opinion is issued for a clinical trial involving medicinal products or clinical research with medical devices. The aim of this study is to ascertain how IEC and IECm accreditation is regulated. National and regional legislation governing biomedical research was analysed. No clearly-defined IEC or IECm accreditation procedures exist in the national or regional legislation. Independent Ethics Committees are vital for the development of basic or clinical biomedical research, and they must be accredited by an external body in order to safeguard their independence, multidisciplinary composition and review procedures. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  1. Racing for conditional independence inference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouckaert, R. R.; Studený, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3571, - (2005), s. 221-232 ISSN 0302-9743. [ECSQARU 2005. European Conference /8./. Barcelona, 06.07.2005-08.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/04/0393; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : conditional independence inference * imset * racing algorithms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Integrated Phoneme Subspace Method for Speech Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyunsin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech feature extraction has been a key focus in robust speech recognition research. In this work, we discuss data-driven linear feature transformations applied to feature vectors in the logarithmic mel-frequency filter bank domain. Transformations are based on principal component analysis (PCA, independent component analysis (ICA, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Furthermore, this paper introduces a new feature extraction technique that collects the correlation information among phoneme subspaces and reconstructs feature space for representing phonemic information efficiently. The proposed speech feature vector is generated by projecting an observed vector onto an integrated phoneme subspace (IPS based on PCA or ICA. The performance of the new feature was evaluated for isolated word speech recognition. The proposed method provided higher recognition accuracy than conventional methods in clean and reverberant environments.

  3. Hybrid feature vector extraction in unsupervised learning neural classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, P S; Tkacz, E J; Komorowski, D

    2005-01-01

    Feature extraction and selection method as a preliminary stage of heart rate variability (HRV) signals unsupervised learning neural classifier is presented. Multi-domain, mixed new feature vector is created from time, frequency and time-frequency parameters of HRV analysis. The optimal feature set for given classification task was chosen as a result of feature ranking, obtained after computing the class separability measure for every independent feature. Such prepared a new signal representation in reduced feature space is the input to neural classifier based on introduced by Grosberg Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART2) structure. Test of proposed method carried out on the base of 62 patients with coronary artery disease divided into learning and verifying set allowed to chose these features, which gave the best results. Classifier performance measures obtained for unsupervised learning ART2 neural network was comparable with these reached for multiplayer perceptron structures.

  4. Features of MCNP6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goorley, T.; James, M.; Booth, T.; Brown, F.; Bull, J.; Cox, L.J.; Durkee, J.; Elson, J.; Fensin, M.; Forster, R.A.; Hendricks, J.; Hughes, H.G.; Johns, R.; Kiedrowski, B.; Martz, R.; Mashnik, S.; McKinney, G.; Pelowitz, D.; Prael, R.; Sweezy, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, but it is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. • MCNP6 is the result of six years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. • These groups of people, residing in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3) and Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Radiation Transport Modeling Team (NEN-5) respectively, have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. • While maintenance and major bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 1.60 and MCNPX 2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities only will be developed and released in MCNP6. • In fact, the initial release of MCNP6 contains numerous new features not previously found in either code. • These new features are summarized in this document. • Packaged with MCNP6 is also the new production release of the ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data files usable by MCNP. • The high quality of the overall merged code, usefulness of these new features, along with the desire in the user community to start using the merged code, have led us to make the first MCNP6 production release: MCNP6 version 1. • High confidence in the MCNP6 code is based on its performance with the verification and validation test suites, comparisons to its predecessor codes, our automated nightly software debugger tests, the underlying high quality nuclear and atomic databases, and significant testing by many beta testers. - Abstract: MCNP6 can be described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, but it is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of six years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3) and Nuclear Engineering and

  5. Pulmonary vasculitis: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Joon Beom; Im, Jung Gi; Chung, Jin Wook; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Song, Jae Woo

    1999-01-01

    Vasculitis is defined as an inflammatory process involving blood vessels, and can lead to destruction of the vascular wall and ischemic damage to the organs supplied by these vessels. The lung is commonly affected. A number of attempts have been made to classify and organize pulmonary vasculitis, but because the clinical manifestations and pathologic features of the condition overlap considerably, these afforts have failed to achieve a consensus. We classified pulmonary vasculitis as belonging to either the angitiis-granulomatosis group, the diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage with capillaritis group, or 'other'. Characteristic radiographic and CT findings of the different types of pulmonary vasculitis are illustrated, with a brief discussion of the respective disease entities

  6. Onychomatricoma with misleading features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, J; Baran, R; Perrin, C; Labrousse, F

    2000-01-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumour of the nail matrix with peculiar clinical and histological features and electron microscopic findings. We report on 5 cases with appearances which were misleading. Three presented as longitudinal melanonychia, a previously unreported observation. One case had the appearance of a cutaneous horn. In 3 of the 5 cases the tumour was associated with an onychomycosis and this may thus have been a predisposing factor in the secondary fungal infestation. Onychomatricoma appears as a multi-faceted tumour which can be mimicked by longitudinal melanonychia and/or onychomycosis.

  7. Independent component analysis of edge information for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Karande, Kailash Jagannath

    2013-01-01

    The book presents research work on face recognition using edge information as features for face recognition with ICA algorithms. The independent components are extracted from edge information. These independent components are used with classifiers to match the facial images for recognition purpose. In their study, authors have explored Canny and LOG edge detectors as standard edge detection methods. Oriented Laplacian of Gaussian (OLOG) method is explored to extract the edge information with different orientations of Laplacian pyramid. Multiscale wavelet model for edge detection is also propos

  8. Is Cognitive Activity of Speech Based On Statistical Independence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    : the essentially independent features in a context defined ensemble can be efficiently coded using a sparse independent component representation. Our devised protocol aims at comparing the performance of supervised learning (invoking cognitive activity) and unsupervised learning (statistical regularities) based...... and speaker identity derived from speech signals. We indeed find that the supervised and unsupervised learning provide similar representations measured by the classification similarity at different levels.......This paper explores the generality of COgnitive Component Analysis (COCA), which is defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. The hypothesis of {COCA} is ecological...

  9. Improved Active Harmonic Current Elimination Based on Voltage Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyuan Tan

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of power electronic equipment in modern residential distribution systems, harmonics mitigation through the distributed generation (DG interfacing converters has received significant attention. Among recently proposed methods, the so-called active resonance damper (ARD and harmonic voltage compensator (HVC based on voltage detection can effectively reduce the harmonic distortions in selected areas of distribution systems. However, it is found out that when traditional ARD algorithm is used to eliminate harmonic current injected by non-linear loads, its performance is constrained by stability problems and can at most eliminate half of the load harmonic currents. Thus, inspired by the duality between ARD and HVC, this paper presents a novel improved resistive active power filter (R-APF algorithm based on integral-decoupling control. The design guideline for its parameters is then investigated through carefully analyzing the closed-loop poles' trajectory. Computer studies demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively mitigate the load harmonic currents and its performance is much better than traditional ARD based on proportional control.

  10. Rubella in Israel after the MMR vaccine: elimination or containment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Emilia; Grotto, Itamar; Moerman, Larisa; Kaliner, Ehud; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul E; Lev, Boaz

    2013-05-01

    Since 1996, after the full institution of the two-dose measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) regimen in Israel, rubella incidence has declined dramatically and has remained extremely low. Cyclical outbreaks ended; the two brief outbreaks that did occur were quickly contained; and epidemiological data indicate that the disease is practically absent from the country. But similar steep declines in the incidence of measles and mumps, the two other MMR-preventable diseases, were followed by major outbreaks in 2007 and 2010. Epidemiological analyses show that undervaccination of subgroups within the Jewish ultra-orthodox population, both in Israel and abroad, and virus importation into Israel, continue to be risk factors for all three MMR-preventable diseases. Israel's public health system, therefore, should focus on a policy of containment: improve MMR coverage among undervaccinated subgroups and assure that virus importation is no longer a risk. Then the goal of rubella elimination will become feasible. We discuss how the Israeli experience may contribute to the World Health Organization Initiative to eliminate simultaneously measles and rubella.

  11. Improved Active Harmonic Current Elimination Based on Voltage Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianyuan; Dong, Shuan; Huang, Yingwei; Liu, Jian; Le, Jian; Liu, Kaipei

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of power electronic equipment in modern residential distribution systems, harmonics mitigation through the distributed generation (DG) interfacing converters has received significant attention. Among recently proposed methods, the so-called active resonance damper (ARD) and harmonic voltage compensator (HVC) based on voltage detection can effectively reduce the harmonic distortions in selected areas of distribution systems. However, it is found out that when traditional ARD algorithm is used to eliminate harmonic current injected by non-linear loads, its performance is constrained by stability problems and can at most eliminate half of the load harmonic currents. Thus, inspired by the duality between ARD and HVC, this paper presents a novel improved resistive active power filter (R-APF) algorithm based on integral-decoupling control. The design guideline for its parameters is then investigated through carefully analyzing the closed-loop poles' trajectory. Computer studies demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively mitigate the load harmonic currents and its performance is much better than traditional ARD based on proportional control.

  12. Global Transmission Dynamics of Measles in the Measles Elimination Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Yuki; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2017-04-16

    Although there have been many epidemiological reports of the inter-country transmission of measles, systematic analysis of the global transmission dynamics of the measles virus (MV) is limited. In this study, we applied phylogeographic analysis to characterize the global transmission dynamics of the MV using large-scale genetic sequence data (obtained for 7456 sequences) from 115 countries between 1954 and 2015. These analyses reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of global transmission of the virus, especially in Australia, China, India, Japan, the UK, and the USA in the period since 1990. The transmission is frequently observed, not only within the same region but also among distant and frequently visited areas. Frequencies of export from measles-endemic countries, such as China, India, and Japan are high but decreasing, while the frequencies from countries where measles is no longer endemic, such as Australia, the UK, and the USA, are low but slightly increasing. The world is heading toward measles eradication, but the disease is still transmitted regionally and globally. Our analysis reveals that countries wherein measles is endemic and those having eliminated the disease (apart from occasional outbreaks) both remain a source of global transmission in this measles elimination era. It is therefore crucial to maintain vigilance in efforts to monitor and eradicate measles globally.

  13. Toxicokinetics of mercury elimination by succimer in twin toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayez, Ibrahim; Paiva, Michelle; Thompson, Margaret; Verjee, Zulfukarali; Koren, Gideon

    2005-01-01

    We describe the toxicokinetics of mercury in two twin toddlers poisoned by an East Indian remedy for teething. Succimer (dimercaprosuccinic acid, DMSA) decreased the plasma elimination half-life of mercury by 3-fold in the patient with high exposure; a more modest effect was observed in the other twin. Succimer is a chelation agent used in the treatment of heavy metal intoxication. A water-soluble agent, it increases the urinary excretion of lead and mercury. The drug is rapidly but variably absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, with peak levels occurring at 1-2 hours. After its absorption, peak mercury excretion through the urine occurs within 2-4 hours. In the poisoned twin sisters, succimer administration led to a mercury plasma elimination half-life of 6 weeks. Although succimer has been used in mercury poisoning in adults and children, the toxicokinetics of mercury have not previously been characterized in either age group. We believe this is the first such description. More studies on the toxicokinetics and dynamics of mercury chelation with succimer in young children are needed to ensure the optimal use of the drug in this population.

  14. Robust EPI Nyquist ghost elimination via spatial and temporal encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, W Scott; Tan, Huan; Kraft, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    Nyquist ghosts are an inherent artifact in echo planar imaging acquisitions. An approach to robustly eliminate Nyquist ghosts is presented that integrates two previous Nyquist ghost correction techniques: temporal domain encoding (phase labeling for additional coordinate encoding: PLACE and spatial domain encoding (phased array ghost elimination: PAGE). Temporal encoding modulates the echo planar imaging acquisition trajectory from frame to frame, enabling one to interleave data to remove inconsistencies that occur between sampling on positive and negative gradient readouts. With PLACE, one can coherently combine the interleaved data to cancel residual Nyquist ghosts. If the level of ghosting varies significantly from image to image, however, the signal cancellation that occurs with PLACE can adversely affect SNR-sensitive applications such as perfusion imaging with arterial spin labeling. This work proposes integrating PLACE into a PAGE-based reconstruction process to yield significantly better Nyquist ghost correction that is more robust than PLACE or PAGE alone. The robustness of this method is demonstrated in the presence of magnetic field drift with an in-vivo arterial spin labeling perfusion experiment. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. A Decision Logic Approach to Mill’s Eliminative Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piętka Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is a contemporary interpretation of J.S. Mill’s elimination method using selected concepts of Zdzisław Pawlak’s decision logic. The aim of the interpretation is to reformulate the original rules (canons of Mill’s induction so that they correspond more precisely to his concept of cause as a complex sufficient condition. In the first part of the paper, we turn to Mill’s writings and justify the thesis that in his understanding the cause is an aggregation of circumstances, and not a single circumstance; next, we point out that Mill’s original canons (for example the canon of agreement and the canon of difference do not allow causes-aggregations to be singled out from empirical data. In the second part of this paper, we present such aspects of Z. Pawlak’s decision logic that serve as the basis for the formalisation of the method of eliminative induction. We describe exhaustively the schema of induction that involves a gradual - divided into three stages - simplification of a set of implications corresponding to the observed dependencies [system of potential causes, effect]. The simplification is deductive because it maintains consistency within the set of implications. We show that such schema is ideal for isolating complex causes (aggregations of circumstances, ultimately described using complex conditional formulas of decision logic.

  16. Denoising and Trend Terms Elimination Algorithm of Accelerometer Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceleration-based displacement measurement approach is often used to measure the polish rod displacement in the oilfield pumping well. Random noises and trend terms of the accelerometer signals are the main factors that affect the measuring accuracy. In this paper, an efficient online learning algorithm is proposed to improve the measurement precision of polish rod displacement in the oilfield pumping well. To remove the random noises and eliminate the trend term of accelerometer signals, the ARIMA model and its parameters are firstly derived by using the obtained data of time series of acceleration sensor signals. Secondly, the period of the accelerometer signals is estimated through the Rife-Jane frequency estimation approach based on Fast Fourier Transform. With the obtained model and parameters, the random noises are removed by employing the Kalman filtering algorithm. The quadratic integration of the period is calculated to obtain the polish rod displacement. Moreover, the windowed recursive least squares algorithm is implemented to eliminate the trend terms. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed online learning algorithm is able to remove the random noises and trend terms effectively and greatly improves the measurement accuracy of the displacement.

  17. Prospects for malaria elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sócrates Herrera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains endemic in 21 countries of the American continent with an estimated 427,000 cases per year. Approximately 10% of these occur in the Mesoamerican and Caribbean regions. During the last decade, malaria transmission in Mesoamerica showed a decrease of ~85%; whereas, in the Caribbean region, Hispaniola (comprising the Dominican Republic [DR] and Haiti presented an overall rise in malaria transmission, primarily due to a steady increase in Haiti, while DR experienced a significant transmission decrease in this period. The significant malaria reduction observed recently in the region prompted the launch of an initiative for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola (EMMIE with the active involvement of the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs of nine countries, the Regional Coordination Mechanism (RCM for Mesoamerica, and the Council of Health Ministries of Central America and Dominican Republic (COMISCA. The EMMIE initiative is supported by the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM with active participation of multiple partners including Ministries of Health, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as research centers. EMMIE's main goal is to achieve elimination of malaria transmission in the region by 2020. Here we discuss the prospects, challenges, and research needs associated with this initiative that, if successful, could represent a paradigm for other malaria-affected regions.

  18. Prospects for malaria elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sócrates; Ochoa-Orozco, Sergio Andrés; González, Iveth J; Peinado, Lucrecia; Quiñones, Martha L; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2015-05-01

    Malaria remains endemic in 21 countries of the American continent with an estimated 427,000 cases per year. Approximately 10% of these occur in the Mesoamerican and Caribbean regions. During the last decade, malaria transmission in Mesoamerica showed a decrease of ~85%; whereas, in the Caribbean region, Hispaniola (comprising the Dominican Republic [DR] and Haiti) presented an overall rise in malaria transmission, primarily due to a steady increase in Haiti, while DR experienced a significant transmission decrease in this period. The significant malaria reduction observed recently in the region prompted the launch of an initiative for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola (EMMIE) with the active involvement of the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) of nine countries, the Regional Coordination Mechanism (RCM) for Mesoamerica, and the Council of Health Ministries of Central America and Dominican Republic (COMISCA). The EMMIE initiative is supported by the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) with active participation of multiple partners including Ministries of Health, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as research centers. EMMIE's main goal is to achieve elimination of malaria transmission in the region by 2020. Here we discuss the prospects, challenges, and research needs associated with this initiative that, if successful, could represent a paradigm for other malaria-affected regions.

  19. Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near) elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Ken; Hopkins, Adrian; Sauerbrey, Mauricio

    2011-10-25

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela), onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

  20. Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrey Mauricio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela, onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

  1. Preventive measures to eliminate asbestos-related diseases in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, John Wah; Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  2. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wah Lim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman’s Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  3. Successful efforts toward elimination iodine deficiency disorders in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Umesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency (ID is the world′s single most important preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs is a public health problem in 130 countries, affecting 13% of the world population. The simplest solution to prevent the IDD is to consume iodized common salt every day. In India, significant progress has been achieved toward elimination of IDD, in the last 30 years. Satisfactory levels of urinary iodine excretion and iodine content of salt have been documented by the research surveys conducted by research scientists. The results indicate that we are progressing toward elimination of IDD. IDD is due to a nutritional deficiency, which is prima-rily that of iodine, in soil and water. IDD is known to re-appear if the IDD Control Program is not sustained. To ensure that the population continues to have intake of adequate amount of iodine, there is a need of i periodic surveys to assess the magnitude of the IDD with respect to impact of iodized salt (IS intervention; ii strengthening the health and nutrition education activities to create demand for IS and iii development of a monitoring information system (MIS for ensuring that the adequately IS is available to the beneficiaries.

  4. Towards the complete prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhiqiong

    1998-01-01

    For 40 years, the Pugwash Conference on Science and world affairs has been making unremitting efforts to achieve it main objectives the struggle to eliminate nuclear weapons, the elimination of wars and maintenance of world peace. The end of the Cold War vigorously encouraged world efforts in arms control and disarmament. On the day of exploding her first nuclear bomb in October 1964, China declared solemnly that it would never be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time under any circumstances. China has also committed unconditionally not to use nuclear weapons or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states and nuclear free zones. China is the sole nuclear weapon state that has made this commitment, and she has kept her word. China is in favour of comprehensive nuclear test ban in the move towards complete nuclear disarmament, taking an active part in the CTBT negotiations in Geneva and contributing to the conclusion of a fair, reasonable, verifiable treaty of universal adherence and unlimited duration within this year

  5. Global viral hepatitis elimination by the year 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a report by Stanaway et al.(1 in 2016, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. For example, the number of global deaths due to viral hepatitis increased from 0.89 million to 1.45 million, indicating a need for its reduction. In this connection, on 28 May 2016 the 69th World Health Assembly adopted the global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis for the period 2016–2021,(2 as outlined in the report A69/32 of the Secretariat,(3 with the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis B and C by the year 2030. The global health sector strategy (GHSS on viral hepatitis has constructed a roadmap toward the elimination of viral hepatitis B and C, targeting five priority prevention and treatment interventions. Prevention involves universal hepatitis B immunization of infants, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, increased injection safety and blood safety, and increased harm reduction, the implementation of which will contribute toward universal health coverage, which is the target for Goal 3 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In combination with treatment of chronic hepatitis, the goal is to achieve by the year 2030 a reduction in the incidence of viral hepatitis by 90% and mortality by 65%.(3,4

  6. Eliminating schistosomes through vaccination: What are the best immune weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Toscano Fonseca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of vaccines depend on the knowledge of the immunological mechanisms associated with the elimination of the pathogen. In the case of schistosomes, its complex life cycle and the mechanisms developed to evade host immune system, turns the development of a vaccine against the disease into a very difficult task. Identifying the immunological effector mechanisms involved in parasite attrition and the major targets for its response is a key step to formulate an effective vaccine. Recent studies have described some promising antigens to compose a subunit vaccine and have pointed to some immune factors that play a role in parasite elimination. Here we review the immune components and effector mechanisms associated with the protective immunity induced by those vaccine candidates and the lessons we have learned from the studies of the acquired resistance to infection in humans. We will also discuss the immune factors that correlate with protection and therefore could help to evaluate those vaccine formulations in clinical trials.

  7. The elimination of ray tracing in Monte Carlo shielding programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendall, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The MONK6 code has clearly demonstrated the advantages of hole tracking, which was devised by Woodcock et at. for use in criticality codes from earlier work by Von Neumann. Hole tracking eliminates ray tracing by introducing, for all materials present in the problem, a pseudo scattering reaction that forward scatters without energy loss. The cross section for this reaction is chosen so that the total cross sections for all the materials are equal at a given energy. By this means, tracking takes place with a constant total cross section everywhere, so there is now no need to ray trace. The present work extends hole tracking to shielding codes, where it functions in tandem with Russian roulette and splitting. An algorithm has been evolved and its performance is compared with the ray-tracking code McBEND. A disadvantage with hole tracking occurs when there is a wide variation in total cross section for materials present. As the tracking uses the total cross section of the material that has the maximum cross section, there can be a large number of pseudo collisions in the materials with low total cross sections. In extreme cases, the advantages of hole tracking can be lost by the by the extra time taken in servicing these pseudo collisions; however, techniques for eliminating this problem are under consideration

  8. QUEST: Eliminating Online Supervised Learning for Efficient Classification Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwartjes, Ardjan; Havinga, Paul J M; Smit, Gerard J M; Hurink, Johann L

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training), an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting raw sensor data puts high demands on the battery, reducing network life time. By merely transmitting partial results or classifications based on the sampled data, the amount of traffic on the network can be significantly reduced. Such classifications can be made by learning based algorithms using sampled data. An important issue, however, is the training phase of these learning based algorithms. Training a deployed sensor network requires a lot of communication and an impractical amount of human involvement. QUEST is a hybrid algorithm that combines supervised learning in a controlled environment with unsupervised learning on the location of deployment. Using the SITEX02 dataset, we demonstrate that the presented solution works with a performance penalty of less than 10% in 90% of the tests. Under some circumstances, it even outperforms a network of classifiers completely trained with supervised learning. As a result, the need for on-site supervised learning and communication for training is completely eliminated by our solution.

  9. QUEST: Eliminating Online Supervised Learning for Efficient Classification Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardjan Zwartjes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training, an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting raw sensor data puts high demands on the battery, reducing network life time. By merely transmitting partial results or classifications based on the sampled data, the amount of traffic on the network can be significantly reduced. Such classifications can be made by learning based algorithms using sampled data. An important issue, however, is the training phase of these learning based algorithms. Training a deployed sensor network requires a lot of communication and an impractical amount of human involvement. QUEST is a hybrid algorithm that combines supervised learning in a controlled environment with unsupervised learning on the location of deployment. Using the SITEX02 dataset, we demonstrate that the presented solution works with a performance penalty of less than 10% in 90% of the tests. Under some circumstances, it even outperforms a network of classifiers completely trained with supervised learning. As a result, the need for on-site supervised learning and communication for training is completely eliminated by our solution.

  10. Programmed elimination of neutronic poisons in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perriere, G. de la

    1967-11-01

    This work deals with the use of salts of elements having a large neutron capture cross-section, so-called 'soluble poisons' which are dissolved in the moderating water to control the reactivity of heavy-water reactors, and more particularly to compensate the xenon effect in the reactor EL 4. The report describes the controlled elimination of these poisons by fixation on ion-exchange resins. The poisons considered are lithium-6, cadmium and gadolinium in the sulphate form, and boron as boric acid. The thermodynamic and kinetic constants of the ion-exchange reactions were first determined and a study was then made of the fixation of these compounds in beds of small-calibre resins placed in columns. Lithium-6 is the poison which is most easily applicable to compensate the xenon effect in the reactor EL 4. It can be eliminated rapidly and completely from heavy water, and its use does not lead to supplementary problems of protection against the gamma radiation of the reactor circuits. (author) [fr

  11. Alemtuzumab-induced elimination of HIV-1-infected immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Buranapraditkun, Supranee; Krause, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no drug known that is able to eradicate either HIV or HIV-infected host cells. The effectiveness of all available treatments is based on the prevention of viral replication. We investigated whether the monoclonal, CD52 receptor-targeting antibody, alemtuzumab, which is currently approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, is able to eliminate HIV-infected immune cells. In blood samples from healthy donors and from HIV-1-infected subjects who were either treatment-naïve or resistant to HAART, we studied whether the CD52 expression on T cells and their subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8), B cells (CD19), dendritic cells (CD123) and monocytes (CD11c) is retained in HIV-1 infection and whether alemtuzumab is able to eradicate infected cells, using four-colour flow cytometry. We found that CD52 expression on immune cells is retained in HIV-1 infection regardless of CD4 cell count, viral load and treatment status, and is amenable to alemtuzumab-induced depletion. For the first time it could be shown in vitro that HIV-1-infected immune cells can be eliminated by using the monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab.

  12. Towards lab-on-a-chip diagnostics for malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluri, N; Klapperich, C M; Cabodi, M

    2017-12-19

    Malaria continues to be one of the most devastating diseases impacting global health. Although there have been significant reductions in global malaria incidence and mortality rates over the past 17 years, the disease remains endemic throughout the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has put forth ambitious milestones moving toward a world free of malaria as part of the United Nations Millennium Goals. Mass screening and treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria infections in endemic regions is integral to these goals and requires diagnostics that are both sensitive and affordable. Lab-on-a-chip technologies provide a path toward sensitive, portable, and affordable diagnostic platforms. Here, we review and compare currently-available and emerging lab-on-a-chip diagnostic approaches in three categories: (1) protein-based tests, (2) nucleic acid tests, and (3) cell-based detection. For each category, we highlight the opportunities and challenges in diagnostics development for malaria elimination, and comment on their applicability to different phases of elimination strategies.

  13. Prospects for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sócrates; Ochoa-Orozco, Sergio Andrés; González, Iveth J.; Peinado, Lucrecia; Quiñones, Martha L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains endemic in 21 countries of the American continent with an estimated 427,000 cases per year. Approximately 10% of these occur in the Mesoamerican and Caribbean regions. During the last decade, malaria transmission in Mesoamerica showed a decrease of ~85%; whereas, in the Caribbean region, Hispaniola (comprising the Dominican Republic [DR] and Haiti) presented an overall rise in malaria transmission, primarily due to a steady increase in Haiti, while DR experienced a significant transmission decrease in this period. The significant malaria reduction observed recently in the region prompted the launch of an initiative for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola (EMMIE) with the active involvement of the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) of nine countries, the Regional Coordination Mechanism (RCM) for Mesoamerica, and the Council of Health Ministries of Central America and Dominican Republic (COMISCA). The EMMIE initiative is supported by the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) with active participation of multiple partners including Ministries of Health, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as research centers. EMMIE’s main goal is to achieve elimination of malaria transmission in the region by 2020. Here we discuss the prospects, challenges, and research needs associated with this initiative that, if successful, could represent a paradigm for other malaria-affected regions. PMID:25973753

  14. Imaging features of pancreatoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, D.J.; Yuen, M.K.; Wong, Y.C.; Shing, M.K.; Li, C.K.; Lee, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Pancreatoblastoma is a rare tumour of childhood. Reports of the imaging appearances are limited. Objective. To define the imaging features of pancreatoblastoma by analysis of four previously unreported cases and review of the literature. Materials and methods. Findings at CT (n = 4), US (n = 3) and MRI (n = 2) were retrospectively reviewed in four patients with pancreatoblastoma. A Medline search was performed to identify relevant literature. Results. Pancreatoblastoma arises most frequently in the body and/or tail, or involves the entire pancreas. Ultrasonography, CT and MRI show variable imaging features, but should in most cases permit preoperative distinction of pancreatoblastoma from other tumours that occur in this region in infancy and childhood. Detection of metastases in the liver, lymph nodes and peritoneal cavity is not significantly better with any one of these three modalities. Conclusion. Preoperative imaging with US, CT and/or MRI will usually suggest a correct diagnosis of pancreatoblastoma. Contrary to previous reports, the tumour arises in the pancreatic head in a minority of cases. (orig.)

  15. Object-substitution masking weakens but does not eliminate shape interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D; D'Abreu, Larissa C; Elias, Elric; Padama, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    At any moment, some objects in the environment are seen clearly, whereas others go unnoticed. Whether or not these gaps in awareness are actually problematic may depend on the extent that information about unseen objects is lost. Determining when and how visual awareness and visual processing become linked is thus of great importance. Previous research using object-substitution masking (OSM) demonstrated that relatively simple visual features, such as size or orientation, are still processed even when they are not visible. Yet this does not appear to be the case for more complex features like faces. This suggests that, during OSM, disruptions of visual processing and awareness may tend to co-occur beginning at some intermediate stage along the ventral pathway. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the extent to which OSM disrupted the perception and processing of two-dimensional objects. Specifically, we evaluated whether an unseen shape's aspect ratio would influence the appearance of another shape that was briefly visible nearby. As expected, the aspect ratios of two shapes appeared to be more similar to each other when both were visible. This averaging effect was weakened, but not eliminated, when one ellipse in each pair received OSM. These shape interactions persisted even when one ellipse from each pair was invisible. When combined with previous work, these results suggest that during object-substitution masking, disruptions of visual processing tend to strengthen with increases in stimulus complexity, becoming more tightly bound to the mechanisms of visual awareness at intermediate stages of visual analysis.

  16. Bacterial adaptation during chronic infection revealed by independent component analysis of transcriptomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lei; Rau, Martin Holm; Yang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    , principle component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA), to extract and characterize the most informative features from transcriptomic dataset generated from cystic fibrosis (CF) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. ICA was shown to be able to efficiently extract biological meaningful...

  17. Text-Independent Speaker Identification Using the Histogram Transform Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zhanyu; Yu, Hong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic method for the task of text-independent speaker identification (SI). In order to capture the dynamic information during SI, we design a super-MFCCs features by cascading three neighboring Mel-frequency Cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) frames together....... These super-MFCC vectors are utilized for probabilistic model training such that the speaker’s characteristics can be sufficiently captured. The probability density function (PDF) of the aforementioned super-MFCCs features is estimated by the recently proposed histogram transform (HT) method. To recedes...

  18. Independent Component Analysis to Detect Clustered Microcalcification Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gallardo-Caballero

    2012-01-01

    current reproducible studies on the same mammogram set. This proposal is mainly based on the use of extracted image features obtained by independent component analysis, but we also study the inclusion of the patient’s age as a nonimage feature which requires no human expertise. Our system achieves an average of 2.55 false positives per image at a sensitivity of 81.8% and 4.45 at a sensitivity of 91.8% in diagnosing the BCRP_CALC_1 subset of DDSM.

  19. Mass-independent isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L

    2013-02-28

    Three fundamental properties of atomic nuclei-mass, spin (and related magnetic moment), and volume-are the source of isotope effects. The mostly deserved and popular, with almost hundred-year history, is the mass-dependent isotope effect. The first mass-independent isotope effect which chemically discriminates isotopes by their nuclear spins and nuclear magnetic moments rather than by their masses was detected in 1976. It was named as the magnetic isotope effect because it is controlled by magnetic interaction, i.e., electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling in the paramagnetic species, the reaction intermediates. The effect follows from the universal physical property of chemical reactions to conserve angular momentum (spin) of electrons and nuclei. It is now detected for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, germanium, tin, mercury, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and uranium in a great variety of chemical and biochemical reactions including those of medical and ecological importance. Another mass-independent isotope effect was detected in 1983 as a deviation of isotopic distribution in reaction products from that which would be expected from the mass-dependent isotope effect. On the physical basis, it is in fact a mass-dependent effect, but it surprisingly results in isotope fractionation which is incompatible with that predicted by traditional mass-dependent effects. It is supposed to be a function of dynamic parameters of reaction and energy relaxation in excited states of products. The third, nuclear volume mass-independent isotope effect is detected in the high-resolution atomic and molecular spectra and in the extraction processes, but there are no unambiguous indications of its importance as an isotope fractionation factor in chemical reactions.

  20. The Symbolic Independence From Power

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Muraro

    2009-01-01

    Muraro’s article begins from the philosophical question of the ‘unthought’, and asks how our very image of thought is transformed when the thinking subject is a woman, and her thought is specifically linked to the experience of a body. On the basis of a feminist interrogation of sexual difference which reveals the forms of violence inherent in certain claims to universality, Muraro tries to develop a thinking of politics which would rest on its symbolic distance or independence from power. Th...

  1. Alan Turing and the origins of modern Gaussian elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dopico, Froilán M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The solution of a system of linear equations is by far the most important problem in Applied Mathematics. It is important both in itself and because it is an intermediate step in many other important problems. Gaussian elimination is nowadays the standard method for solving this problem numerically on a computer and it was the first numerical algorithm to be subjected to rounding error analysis. In 1948, Alan Turing published a remarkable paper on this topic: “Rounding-off errors in matrix processes” (Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 1, pp. 287-308. In this paper, Turing formulated Gaussian elimination as the matrix LU factorization and introduced the “condition number of a matrix”, both of them fundamental notions of modern Numerical Analysis. In addition, Turing presented an error analysis of Gaussian elimination for general matrices that deeply influenced the spirit of the definitive analysis developed by James Wilkinson in 1961. Alan Turing’s work on Gaussian elimination appears in a fascinating period for modern Numerical Analysis. Other giants of Mathematics, as John von Neumann, Herman Goldstine, and Harold Hotelling were also working in the mid-1940s on Gaussian elimination. The goal of these researchers was to find an efficient and reliable method for solving systems of linear equations in modern “automatic computers”. At that time, it was not clear at all whether Gaussian elimination was a right choice or not. The purpose of this paper is to revise, at an introductory level, the contributions of Alan Turing and other authors to the error analysis of Gaussian elimination, the historical context of these contributions, and their influence on modern Numerical Analysis.La resolución de sistemas de ecuaciones lineales es sin duda el problema más importante en Matemática Aplicada. Es importante en sí mismo y también porque es un paso intermedio en la resolución de muchos otros problemas de gran relevancia. La eliminaci

  2. Text-independent writer identification and verification using textural and allographic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulacu, M.L.; Schomaker, L.R.B.

    The identification of a person on the basis of scanned images of handwriting is a useful biometric modality with application in forensic and historic document analysis and constitutes an exemplary study area within the research field of behavioral biometrics. We developed new and very effective

  3. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  4. Preliminary clinical outcomes from the Peruvian National Cataract Elimination Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjewski, Tomasz P; Benadretti, Daniel Bitrán; Zhao, Sihai Dave; Rowe, Susannah; Mitnick, Carole D

    2010-10-01

    to evaluate the clinical outcomes of a publicly funded cataract elimination program. outcomes of all patients (186) who received extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) surgery free of charge at the Instituto Regional de Oftalmología in northern Peru in the first year (August 2008 to July 2009) of the Peruvian National Cataract Elimination Plan were compared retrospectively with the outcomes of all patients (68) who paid in the highest charge tier for ECCE surgery during the same period. Preoperatively, the median uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of National Plan patients was Hand Motion; the UCVA of paying patients was Counting Fingers (P = 0.09). Complication frequency and visual acuity (uncorrected visual acuity, pinhole visual acuity, and best correct visual acuity) were the primary outcome measures. The World Health Organization (WHO) Vision 2020 goal is for 85% of operated eyes to achieve 20/60 vision; the Ministerio de Salud del Perú goal is for 75% of eyes to achieve 20/50. one month postoperatively, only 24% of National Plan patients achieved a UCVA of 20/60. The median UCVA for both groups was 20/100 (P = 0.23). Intraoperative complications occurred in 27% of all patients; postoperative complications occurred in 39%. Patients more likely to have a poor outcome (UCVA < 20/200) were those who experienced a postoperative complication (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, P = 0.002), who experienced an intraoperative complication (OR 2.5, P = 0.01), and who were 75 years or older (OR 2.7, P = 0.008). National Plan patients were more likely to have an OCTET Grade II intraoperative complication (OR 4.2, P = 0.03) and were less likely to receive refractive services (OR 1.5, P = 0.002). neither WHO nor Peruvian benchmarks for surgical outcome were achieved in the first year of the Peruvian National Cataract Elimination Plan. Providing more comprehensive services to patients and addressing variables correlated with poor outcomes may improve interventions and help achieve

  5. Effects of vehicle on the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human skin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershing, Lynn K.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Corlett, Judy L.; Crouch, Dennis J.

    2004-01-01

    While the physiologic and molecular effects of capsaicinoids have been extensively studied in various model systems by a variety of administration routes, little is known about the uptake and elimination kinetic profiles in human skin following topical exposure. The present study evaluated the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human stratum corneum following a single topical exposure to 3% solutions containing 55% capsaicin, 35% dihydrocapsaicin, and 10% other analogues prepared in three vehicles: mineral oil (MO), propylene glycol (PG), and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Capsaicinoid solutions were evaluated simultaneously in a random application pattern on the volar forearms of 12 subjects using a small, single 150-μg dose. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were recovered from human skin using commercial adhesive discs to harvest stratum corneum from treated sites. Capsaicinoids were extracted from the stratum corneum-adhesive discs and quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). Both capsaicinoids were detected in stratum corneum 1 min after application with all vehicles and achieved a pseudo-steady state shortly thereafter. IPA delivered three times greater capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin into the human stratum corneum than PG or MO at all time points investigated. The C max of capsaicin in IPA, PG, and MO was 16.1, 6.2, and 6.5 μg, respectively. The dihydrocapsaicin content was 60% of capsaicin with all vehicles. The estimated T half of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the three vehicles was similar (24 h). Thus, maximal cutaneous capsaicinoid concentrations were achieved quickly in the human stratum corneum and were concentration and vehicle dependent. In contrast, capsaicinoid half-life was long and vehicle independent

  6. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose M.; Madureira, Antonio J.; Vieira, Alberto; Ramos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis

  7. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  8. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  9. Odontogenic keratocyst radiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nartey, N. O.; Saini, T.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical features often patients with odontogenic keratocysts were studied. One patient had Gorlin-GoJtz syndrome. A total of fourteen radiolucent lesions were observed on radiographic examination. All the fourteen lesions were diagnosed as odontogenic keratocyst after histopathclogical examination of biopsied tissue from the patients. The age at diagnosis ranged from 25-72 years with a mean age of 37.6 years. The male : female ratio was 2.3:1. Thirteen of these lesions occurred in the mandible, nine involved the mandibular third molar region. Involvement of the ramus of the mandible produced a sausage-shaped radiolucency. Cystic lesions which have been present for long periods of time showed scalloped margins, due to the regional resorption of the surrounding bone. The bony ledges present on the cortical bones simulated multilocular appearance in such cases. It was also observed that the lesions in older individuals perforated the cortical plates rather than eliciting a periostally induced bony expansion. (author)

  10. Dynamic features of combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  11. Mobius syndrome: MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, Maria F.; Villarroel, Gonzalo M.; Nagel, Jorge R.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Mobius Syndrome or congenital facial diplegia is associated with paralysis of the lateral gaze movements. This syndrome may include other cranial nerve palsies and be associated to musculoskeletal anomalies. Our objective is to show the MRI findings in Mobius Syndrome. Material and methods: MRI study was performed in 3 patients with clinic diagnosis of Mobius Syndrome. RMI (1.5T); exams included axial FSE (T1 and T2), FLAIR, SE/EPI, GRE/20, sagittal FSE T2 , coronal T1, diffusion, angio MRI and Spectroscopy sequences. Results: The common features of this syndrome found in MRI were: depression or straightening of the floor of the fourth ventricle, brainstem anteroposterior diameter diminution, morphologic alteration of the pons and medulla oblongata and of the hypoglossal nuclei as well as severe micrognathia. Conclusion: The morphologic alterations of Mobius Syndrome can be clearly identified by MRI; this method has proved to be a useful diagnostic examination. (author)

  12. Independent EEG sources are dipolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Delorme

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA and blind source separation (BSS methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR effected by each decomposition, and decomposition 'dipolarity' defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA; best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison.

  13. Water as an Independent Taste Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Rosen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To qualify as a basic taste quality or modality, defined as a group of chemicals that taste alike, three empirical benchmarks have commonly been used. The first is that a candidate group of tastants must have a dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. The second is that the tastants evoke physiological responses in dedicated afferent taste nerves innervating the oropharyngeal cavity. Last, the taste stimuli evoke activity in central gustatory neurons, some of which may respond only to that group of tastants. Here we argue that water may also be an independent taste modality. This argument is based on the identification of a water dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system, water responsive fibers of the peripheral taste nerves and the observation of water responsive neurons in all gustatory regions within the central nervous system. We have described electrophysiological responses from single neurons in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN, respectively the first two central relay nuclei in the rodent brainstem, to water presented as a taste stimulus in anesthetized rats. Responses to water were in some cases as robust as responses to other taste qualities and sometimes occurred in the absence of responses to other tastants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed. Also, the temporal features of the water response resembled those of other taste responses. We argue that water may constitute an independent taste modality that is processed by dedicated neural channels at all levels of the gustatory neuraxis. Water-dedicated neurons in the brainstem may constitute key elements in the regulatory system for fluid in the body, i.e. thirst, and as part of the swallowing reflex circuitry.

  14. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchfield, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    The U.N. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women calls for Parties to eliminate discrimination against women in all areas of life, including healthcare, education...

  15. Preventing fatal diseases increases healthcare costs: cause elimination life table approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); P.J. van der Maas (Paul)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To examine whether elimination of fatal diseases will increase healthcare costs. DESIGN: Mortality data from vital statistics combined with healthcare spending in a cause elimination life table. Costs were allocated to specific diseases through

  16. BRANCHIAL ELIMINATION OF SUPERHYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The branchial elimination of pentachloroethane and four congeneric polychlorinated bephenyls by rainbow trout was measured using a fish respirometer-metabolism chamber and an adsorption resin column. Branchial elimination was characterized by calculating a set of apparent in vivo...

  17. A change in humidification system can eliminate endotracheal tube occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Alex; Joshi, Manasi; Frank, Peter; Craven, Thomas; Moondi, Parvez; Young, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Inadequate airway humidification can result in endotracheal tube occlusion. There is evidence that heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are more prone to endotracheal tube occlusion than heated humidifiers (HHs) that contain a heated wire circuit. We aimed to compare the incidence of endotracheal tube occlusion while introducing a new dual-heated wire circuit HH in place of an established hydrophobic HME. This was a prospective observational study. All patients who required intubation were included in our analysis. Univariate statistical analysis was performed using a Fisher exact test. P humidification exclusively by HH. In the subsequent 18-month period, there were no further episodes of endotracheal tube occlusion. Our study demonstrates that there is a significant increase in the incidence of endotracheal tube occlusion when using a hydrophobic HME compared with an HH and that using a dual-heated wire circuit HH can eliminate endotracheal tube occlusion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Road Map for the Global Elimination of Congenital Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Kamb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis is the oldest recognized congenital infection, and continues to account for extensive global perinatal morbidity and mortality today. Serious adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by maternal syphilis infection are prevented with screening early in pregnancy and prompt treatment of women testing positive. Intramuscular penicillin, an inexpensive antibiotic on the essential medicine list of nations all over the world, effectively cures infection and prevents congenital syphilis. In fact, at a cost of $11–15 per disability adjusted life year (DALY averted, maternal syphilis screening and treatment is among the most cost-effective public health interventions in existence. Yet implementation of this basic public health intervention is sporadic in countries with highest congenital syphilis burden. We discuss the global burden of this devastating disease, current progress and ongoing challenges for its elimination in countries with highest prevalence, and next steps in ensuring a world free of preventable perinatal deaths caused by syphilis.

  19. Protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Banerjee, Rajat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global residue-specific amino acid mutagenesis can provide important biological insight and generate proteins with altered properties, but at the risk of protein misfolding. Further, targeted libraries are usually restricted to a handful of amino acids because there is an exponential...... correlation between the number of residues randomized and the size of the resulting ensemble. Using GFP as the model protein, we present a strategy, termed protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination, through which simplified, native-like polypeptides encoded by a reduced genetic code were obtained...... simultaneously), while retaining varying levels of activity. Combination of these substitutions to generate a Phe-free variant of GFP abolished fluorescence. Combinatorial re-introduction of five Phe residues, based on the activities of the respective single amino acid replacements, was sufficient to restore GFP...

  20. Towards generic adiabatic elimination for bipartite open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouit, R.; Chittaro, F.; Sarlette, A.; Rouchon, P.

    2017-12-01

    We consider a composite open quantum system consisting of a fast subsystem coupled to a slow one. Using the time scale separation, we develop an adiabatic elimination technique to derive at any order the reduced model describing the slow subsystem. The method, based on an asymptotic expansion and geometric singular perturbation theory, ensures the physical interpretation of the reduced second-order model by giving the reduced dynamics in a Lindblad form and the state reduction in Kraus map form. We give explicit second-order formulas for Hamiltonian or cascade coupling between the two subsystems. These formulas can be used to engineer, via a careful choice of the fast subsystem, the Hamiltonian and Lindbald operators governing the dissipative dynamics of the slow subsystem.

  1. Eliminating the Influence of Harmonic Components in Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels-Jørgen; Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    Operational modal analysis is used for determining the modal parameters of structures for which the input forces cannot be measured. However, the algorithms used assume that the input forces are stochastic in nature. While this is often the case for civil engineering structures, mechanical...... on the well-known Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) technique for eliminating these harmonic components in the modal parameter extraction process. For assessing the quality of the method, various experiments were carried out where the results were compared with those obtained with pure stochastic...... excitation of the same structure. Good agreement was found and the method is shown to be an easy and robust tool for enhancing the EFDD technique for mechanical structures....

  2. Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-09-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children.

  3. Flexible Automatic Discretization for Finite Differences: Eliminating the Human Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranger, Casper

    2017-04-01

    In the geophysical numerical modelling community, finite differences are (in part due to their small footprint) a popular spatial discretization method for PDEs in the regular-shaped continuum that is the earth. However, they rapidly become prone to programming mistakes when physics increase in complexity. To eliminate opportunities for human error, we have designed an automatic discretization algorithm using Wolfram Mathematica, in which the user supplies symbolic PDEs, the number of spatial dimensions, and a choice of symbolic boundary conditions, and the script transforms this information into matrix- and right-hand-side rules ready for use in a C++ code that will accept them. The symbolic PDEs are further used to automatically develop and perform manufactured solution benchmarks, ensuring at all stages physical fidelity while providing pragmatic targets for numerical accuracy. We find that this procedure greatly accelerates code development and provides a great deal of flexibility in ones choice of physics.

  4. Nuclear disarmament and the elimination of nuclear dangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    The question is whether the culture of militarism will be propagated further and whether the elimination of nuclear weapons will be politically feasible and technically practical, when security is still defined and rationalized in military terms, with nuclear weapons continuing to represent the ultimate guarantee of security. ... A new paradigm needs to be developed around policies that will address injustices and promote human security, by alleviating poverty and reversing socio-economic polarization, enhancing sustainable economic development, and controlling weapons proliferation and militarism. The world is bristling with armaments, paid for with resources stolen from schools and hospitals. Even the heavens are about to be assaulted as we contemplate the weaponization of outer space. (author)

  5. The accumulation and elimination of 89Sr in tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxi; Wang Shouxiang; Chen Chuanqun; Sun Zhiming; Hu Bingmin; Huang Dan

    1995-01-01

    The 89 Sr was added to the tea tree-soil system by different ways. The 89 Sr in the system through the over-ground part of tea tree, was much more than that through soil. The 89 Sr concentration in older leaves was higher than in shoot for a definite treatment. The accumulation elimination law of 89 Sr in leaves varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the over-ground part, the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves and shoot was monotonously decreased with time increasing. But for the treatment through soil the 89 Sr concentration in shoot was increased to reach a peak value, and then decreased slowly; while the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves increased quickly in a period, then increased slowly to attain a saturated value. In addition, the concentration factor of 89 Sr in older leaves and shoot were determined

  6. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  7. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Client-server computer architecture saves costs and eliminates bottlenecks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darukhanavala, P.P.; Davidson, M.C.; Tyler, T.N.; Blaskovich, F.T.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that workstation, client-server architecture saved costs and eliminated bottlenecks that BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. experienced with mainframe computer systems. In 1991, BP embarked on an ambitious project to change technical computing for its Prudhoe Bay, Endicott, and Kuparuk operations on Alaska's North Slope. This project promised substantial rewards, but also involved considerable risk. The project plan called for reservoir simulations (which historically had run on a Cray Research Inc. X-MP supercomputer in the company's Houston data center) to be run on small computer workstations. Additionally, large Prudhoe Bay, Endicott, and Kuparuk production and reservoir engineering data bases and related applications also would be moved to workstations, replacing a Digital Equipment Corp. VAX cluster in Anchorage

  9. Information filtering based on corrected redundancy-eliminating mass diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuzhen Zhu

    Full Text Available Methods used in information filtering and recommendation often rely on quantifying the similarity between objects or users. The used similarity metrics often suffer from similarity redundancies arising from correlations between objects' attributes. Based on an unweighted undirected object-user bipartite network, we propose a Corrected Redundancy-Eliminating similarity index (CRE which is based on a spreading process on the network. Extensive experiments on three benchmark data sets-Movilens, Netflix and Amazon-show that when used in recommendation, the CRE yields significant improvements in terms of recommendation accuracy and diversity. A detailed analysis is presented to unveil the origins of the observed differences between the CRE and mainstream similarity indices.

  10. Anopheles Vectors in Mainland China While Approaching Malaria Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaosen; Guo, Shaohua; Feng, Xinyu; Afelt, Aneta; Frutos, Roger; Zhou, Shuisen; Manguin, Sylvie

    2017-11-01

    China is approaching malaria elimination; however, well-documented information on malaria vectors is still missing, which could hinder the development of appropriate surveillance strategies and WHO certification. This review summarizes the nationwide distribution of malaria vectors, their bionomic characteristics, control measures, and related studies. After several years of effort, the area of distribution of the principal malaria vectors was reduced, in particular for Anopheles lesteri (synonym: An. anthropophagus) and Anopheles dirus s.l., which nearly disappeared from their former endemic regions. Anopheles sinensis is becoming the predominant species in southwestern China. The bionomic characteristics of these species have changed, and resistance to insecticides was reported. There is a need to update surveillance tools and investigate the role of secondary vectors in malaria transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Review: elimination of bacteriophages in whey and whey products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamer, Zeynep; Samtlebe, Meike; Neve, Horst; J. Heller, Knut; Hinrichs, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    As the cheese market faces strong international competition, the optimization of production processes becomes more important for the economic success of dairy companies. In dairy productions, whey from former cheese batches is frequently re-used to increase the yield, to improve the texture and to increase the nutrient value of the final product. Recycling of whey cream and particulated whey proteins is also routinely performed. Most bacteriophages, however, survive pasteurization and may re-enter the cheese manufacturing process. There is a risk that phages multiply to high numbers during the production. Contamination of whey samples with bacteriophages may cause problems in cheese factories because whey separation often leads to aerosol-borne phages and thus contamination of the factory environment. Furthermore, whey cream or whey proteins used for recycling into cheese matrices may contain thermo-resistant phages. Drained cheese whey can be contaminated with phages as high as 109 phages mL-1. When whey batches are concentrated, phage titers can increase significantly by a factor of 10 hindering a complete elimination of phages. To eliminate the risk of fermentation failure during recycling of whey, whey treatments assuring an efficient reduction of phages are indispensable. This review focuses on inactivation of phages in whey by thermal treatment, ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, and membrane filtration. Inactivation by heat is the most common procedure. However, application of heat for inactivation of thermo-resistant phages in whey is restricted due to negative effects on the functional properties of native whey proteins. Therefore an alternative strategy applying combined treatments should be favored – rather than heating the dairy product at extreme temperature/time combinations. By using membrane filtration or UV treatment in combination with thermal treatment, phage numbers in whey can be reduced sufficiently to prevent subsequent phage accumulations

  12. Dependency Parsing with Transformed Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependency parsing is an important subtask of natural language processing. In this paper, we propose an embedding feature transforming method for graph-based parsing, transform-based parsing, which directly utilizes the inner similarity of the features to extract information from all feature strings including the un-indexed strings and alleviate the feature sparse problem. The model transforms the extracted features to transformed features via applying a feature weight matrix, which consists of similarities between the feature strings. Since the matrix is usually rank-deficient because of similar feature strings, it would influence the strength of constraints. However, it is proven that the duplicate transformed features do not degrade the optimization algorithm: the margin infused relaxed algorithm. Moreover, this problem can be alleviated by reducing the number of the nearest transformed features of a feature. In addition, to further improve the parsing accuracy, a fusion parser is introduced to integrate transformed and original features. Our experiments verify that both transform-based and fusion parser improve the parsing accuracy compared to the corresponding feature-based parser.

  13. A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Usery, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

  14. Biometric feature embedding using robust steganography technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rasber D.; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper is concerned with robust steganographic techniques to hide and communicate biometric data in mobile media objects like images, over open networks. More specifically, the aim is to embed binarised features extracted using discrete wavelet transforms and local binary patterns of face images as a secret message in an image. The need for such techniques can arise in law enforcement, forensics, counter terrorism, internet/mobile banking and border control. What differentiates this problem from normal information hiding techniques is the added requirement that there should be minimal effect on face recognition accuracy. We propose an LSB-Witness embedding technique in which the secret message is already present in the LSB plane but instead of changing the cover image LSB values, the second LSB plane will be changed to stand as a witness/informer to the receiver during message recovery. Although this approach may affect the stego quality, it is eliminating the weakness of traditional LSB schemes that is exploited by steganalysis techniques for LSB, such as PoV and RS steganalysis, to detect the existence of secrete message. Experimental results show that the proposed method is robust against PoV and RS attacks compared to other variants of LSB. We also discussed variants of this approach and determine capacity requirements for embedding face biometric feature vectors while maintain accuracy of face recognition.

  15. Handling of uncertainty due to interference fringe in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy - Performance comparison of interference elimination techniques using glucose-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganović, Anel; Beć, Krzysztof B; Henn, Raphael; Huck, Christian W

    2018-05-15

    The applicability of two elimination techniques for interferences occurring in measurements with cells of short pathlength using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated. Due to the growing interest in the field of vibrational spectroscopy in aqueous biological fluids (e.g. glucose in blood), aqueous solutions of d-(+)-glucose were prepared and split into a calibration set and an independent validation set. All samples were measured with two FT-NIR spectrometers at various spectral resolutions. Moving average smoothing (MAS) and fast Fourier transform filter (FFT filter) were applied to the interference affected FT-NIR spectra in order to eliminate the interference pattern. After data pre-treatment, partial least squares regression (PLSR) models using different NIR regions were constructed using untreated (interference affected) spectra and spectra treated with MAS and FFT filter. The prediction of the independent validation set revealed information about the performance of the utilized interference elimination techniques, as well as the different NIR regions. The results showed that the combination band of water at approx. 5200 cm -1 is of great importance since its performance was superior to the one of the so-called first overtone of water at approx. 6800 cm -1 . Furthermore, this work demonstrated that MAS and FFT filter are fast and easy-to-use techniques for the elimination of interference fringes in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Handling of uncertainty due to interference fringe in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy - Performance comparison of interference elimination techniques using glucose-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganović, Anel; Beć, Krzysztof B.; Henn, Raphael; Huck, Christian W.

    2018-05-01

    The applicability of two elimination techniques for interferences occurring in measurements with cells of short pathlength using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated. Due to the growing interest in the field of vibrational spectroscopy in aqueous biological fluids (e.g. glucose in blood), aqueous solutions of D-(+)-glucose were prepared and split into a calibration set and an independent validation set. All samples were measured with two FT-NIR spectrometers at various spectral resolutions. Moving average smoothing (MAS) and fast Fourier transform filter (FFT filter) were applied to the interference affected FT-NIR spectra in order to eliminate the interference pattern. After data pre-treatment, partial least squares regression (PLSR) models using different NIR regions were constructed using untreated (interference affected) spectra and spectra treated with MAS and FFT filter. The prediction of the independent validation set revealed information about the performance of the utilized interference elimination techniques, as well as the different NIR regions. The results showed that the combination band of water at approx. 5200 cm-1 is of great importance since its performance was superior to the one of the so-called first overtone of water at approx. 6800 cm-1. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that MAS and FFT filter are fast and easy-to-use techniques for the elimination of interference fringes in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy.

  17. Harvesting geographic features from heterogeneous raster maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Raster maps offer a great deal of geospatial information and are easily accessible compared to other geospatial data. However, harvesting geographic features locked in heterogeneous raster maps to obtain the geospatial information is challenging. This is because of the varying image quality of raster maps (e.g., scanned maps with poor image quality and computer-generated maps with good image quality), the overlapping geographic features in maps, and the typical lack of metadata (e.g., map geocoordinates, map source, and original vector data). Previous work on map processing is typically limited to a specific type of map and often relies on intensive manual work. In contrast, this thesis investigates a general approach that does not rely on any prior knowledge and requires minimal user effort to process heterogeneous raster maps. This approach includes automatic and supervised techniques to process raster maps for separating individual layers of geographic features from the maps and recognizing geographic features in the separated layers (i.e., detecting road intersections, generating and vectorizing road geometry, and recognizing text labels). The automatic technique eliminates user intervention by exploiting common map properties of how road lines and text labels are drawn in raster maps. For example, the road lines are elongated linear objects and the characters are small connected-objects. The supervised technique utilizes labels of road and text areas to handle complex raster maps, or maps with poor image quality, and can process a variety of raster maps with minimal user input. The results show that the general approach can handle raster maps with varying map complexity, color usage, and image quality. By matching extracted road intersections to another geospatial dataset, we can identify the geocoordinates of a raster map and further align the raster map, separated feature layers from the map, and recognized features from the layers with the geospatial

  18. sCwc/sLcc: Highly Scalable Feature Selection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilho Shin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is a useful tool for identifying which features, or attributes, of a dataset cause or explain the phenomena that the dataset describes, and improving the efficiency and accuracy of learning algorithms for discovering such phenomena. Consequently, feature selection has been studied intensively in machine learning research. However, while feature selection algorithms that exhibit excellent accuracy have been developed, they are seldom used for analysis of high-dimensional data because high-dimensional data usually include too many instances and features, which make traditional feature selection algorithms inefficient. To eliminate this limitation, we tried to improve the run-time performance of two of the most accurate feature selection algorithms known in the literature. The result is two accurate and fast algorithms, namely sCwc and sLcc. Multiple experiments with real social media datasets have demonstrated that our algorithms improve the performance of their original algorithms remarkably. For example, we have two datasets, one with 15,568 instances and 15,741 features, and another with 200,569 instances and 99,672 features. sCwc performed feature selection on these datasets in 1.4 seconds and in 405 seconds, respectively. In addition, sLcc has turned out to be as fast as sCwc on average. This is a remarkable improvement because it is estimated that the original algorithms would need several hours to dozens of days to process the same datasets. In addition, we introduce a fast implementation of our algorithms: sCwc does not require any adjusting parameter, while sLcc requires a threshold parameter, which we can use to control the number of features that the algorithm selects.

  19. On Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comtois, Suzanne; de Graaf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    'Principles of judicial and quasi-judicial independence are fundamental to all democracies and yet, the notion of independence is still elusive. What is judicial and quasi-judicial independence and why is it important? From whom and what are the judiciary and other adjudicators to be independent? Is

  20. Independent tunability of the double-mode-locked cw dye laser.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bourkoff, E

    1979-06-01

    We report a new configuration that enables the double-mode-locked cw dye laser to be independently tunable. In addition, the output coupling at each of the two wavelengths can be independently specified. A series of oscillographs shows some interesting features unique to double mode locking and also shows the effects of varying the two cavity lengths with respect to each other.

  1. Covert attention as a paradigm for subject-independent brain-computer interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, H.J.P.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Heskes, T.M.; Treder, M.S.; Bahramisharif, A.; Langs, G.; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    Covert attention has been introduced as a paradigm for gaze-independent brain computer interfacing (BCI). As we know that the applicability of a BCI system depends on the consistency of its paradigm over a group of subjects, one important feature of a BCI is its subject-independence. To generalize a

  2. Multi Modal Face Recognition Using Block Based Curvelet Features

    OpenAIRE

    K, Jyothi; J, Prabhakar C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present multimodal 2D +3D face recognition method using block based curvelet features. The 3D surface of face (Depth Map) is computed from the stereo face images using stereo vision technique. The statistical measures such as mean, standard deviation, variance and entropy are extracted from each block of curvelet subband for both depth and intensity images independently.In order to compute the decision score, the KNN classifier is employed independently for both intensity an...

  3. 77 FR 8877 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... for Health, and the Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the... eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed: Agenda items include the following topics: (1) Tuberculosis...

  4. 75 FR 63496 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes recommendations... technologies; and reviews the extent to which progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters...

  5. 76 FR 67459 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes recommendations... technologies; and reviews the extent to which progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters...

  6. 75 FR 6402 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... for Health, and the Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the... eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed: Agenda items include issues pertaining to regionalization...

  7. Elimination of User-Fees in Tertiary Education: A Distributive Analysis for Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Juan; Loayza, Yessenia

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers new evidence and methods for understanding the distributive effect of a universal government policy to eliminate user fees in public universities in Ecuador. The main argument to eliminate user fees in higher education is that it will increase enrollment among the poor. In this regard, eliminating tuition fees is supposed to be a…

  8. Running of featureful primordial power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, Stefano; Mena, Olga; Miralles, Victor; Ramírez, Héctor; Boubekeur, Lotfi

    2017-06-01

    Current measurements of the temperature and polarization anisotropy power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) seem to indicate that the naive expectation for the slow-roll hierarchy within the most simple inflationary paradigm may not be respected in nature. We show that a primordial power spectrum with localized features could in principle give rise to the observed slow-roll anarchy when fitted to a featureless power spectrum. From a model comparison perspective, and assuming that nature has chosen a featureless primordial power spectrum, we find that, while with mock Planck data there is only weak evidence against a model with localized features, upcoming CMB missions may provide compelling evidence against such a nonstandard primordial power spectrum. This evidence could be reinforced if a featureless primordial power spectrum is independently confirmed from bispectrum and/or galaxy clustering measurements.

  9. Navigating features: a topologically informed chart of electromyographic features space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinyomark, Angkoon; Khushaba, Rami N; Ibáñez-Marcelo, Esther; Patania, Alice; Scheme, Erik; Petri, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    The success of biological signal pattern recognition depends crucially on the selection of relevant features. Across signal and imaging modalities, a large number of features have been proposed, leading to feature redundancy and the need for optimal feature set identification. A further complication is that, due to the inherent biological variability, even the same classification problem on different datasets can display variations in the respective optimal sets, casting doubts on the generalizability of relevant features. Here, we approach this problem by leveraging topological tools to create charts of features spaces. These charts highlight feature sub-groups that encode similar information (and their respective similarities) allowing for a principled and interpretable choice of features for classification and analysis. Using multiple electromyographic (EMG) datasets as a case study, we use this feature chart to identify functional groups among 58 state-of-the-art EMG features, and to show that they generalize across three different forearm EMG datasets obtained from able-bodied subjects during hand and finger contractions. We find that these groups describe meaningful non-redundant information, succinctly recapitulating information about different regions of feature space. We then recommend representative features from each group based on maximum class separability, robustness and minimum complexity. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Extracting Conceptual Feature Structures from Text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Lassen, Tine

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to indexing texts by their conceptual content using ontologies along with lexico-syntactic information and semantic role assignment provided by lexical resources. The conceptual content of meaningful chunks of text is transformed into conceptual feature structures...... and mapped into concepts in a generative ontology. Synonymous but linguistically quite distinct expressions are mapped to the same concept in the ontology. This allows us to perform a content-based search which will retrieve relevant documents independently of the linguistic form of the query as well...

  11. A Method for Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to check for feature interactions in a system assembled from independently developed concurrent processes as found in many reactive systems. The method combines and refines existing definitions and adds a set of activities. The activities describe how to populate the ...... the definitions with models to ensure that all interactions are captured. The method is illustrated on a home automation example with model checking as analysis tool. In particular, the modelling formalism is timed automata and the analysis uses UPPAAL to find interactions....

  12. Modelling the elimination of river blindness using long-term epidemiological and programmatic data from Mali and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Walker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The onchocerciasis transmission models EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM have been independently developed and used to explore the feasibility of eliminating onchocerciasis from Africa with mass (annual or biannual distribution of ivermectin within the timeframes proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO and endorsed by the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases (i.e. by 2020/2025. Based on the findings of our previous model comparison, we implemented technical refinements and tested the projections of EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM against long-term epidemiological data from two West African transmission foci in Mali and Senegal where the observed prevalence of infection was brought to zero circa 2007–2009 after 15–17 years of mass ivermectin treatment. We simulated these interventions using programmatic information on the frequency and coverage of mass treatments and trained the model projections using longitudinal parasitological data from 27 communities, evaluating the projected outcome of elimination (local parasite extinction or resurgence. We found that EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM captured adequately the epidemiological trends during mass treatment but that resurgence, while never predicted by ONCHOSIM, was predicted by EPIONCHO in some communities with the highest (inferred vector biting rates and associated pre-intervention endemicities. Resurgence can be extremely protracted such that low (microfilarial prevalence between 1% and 5% can be maintained for 3–5 years before manifesting more prominently. We highlight that post-treatment and post-elimination surveillance protocols must be implemented for long enough and with high enough sensitivity to detect possible residual latent infections potentially indicative of resurgence. We also discuss uncertainty and differences between EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM projections, the potential importance of vector control in high-transmission settings as a complementary intervention strategy, and the

  13. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  14. The Symbolic Independence From Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Muraro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Muraro’s article begins from the philosophical question of the ‘unthought’, and asks how our very image of thought is transformed when the thinking subject is a woman, and her thought is specifically linked to the experience of a body. On the basis of a feminist interrogation of sexual difference which reveals the forms of violence inherent in certain claims to universality, Muraro tries to develop a thinking of politics which would rest on its symbolic distance or independence from power. Through readings of Freud, Macbeth, Saint Paul and women’s narratives, Muraro investigates the dangers borne by the fusion of power and politics and explores the ways in which they could be disjoined.

  15. Evaluating feature-selection stability in next-generation proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Wilson Wen Bin; Wong, Limsoon

    2016-10-01

    Identifying reproducible yet relevant features is a major challenge in biological research. This is well documented in genomics data. Using a proposed set of three reliability benchmarks, we find that this issue exists also in proteomics for commonly used feature-selection methods, e.g. [Formula: see text]-test and recursive feature elimination. Moreover, due to high test variability, selecting the top proteins based on [Formula: see text]-value ranks - even when restricted to high-abundance proteins - does not improve reproducibility. Statistical testing based on networks are believed to be more robust, but this does not always hold true: The commonly used hypergeometric enrichment that tests for enrichment of protein subnets performs abysmally due to its dependence on unstable protein pre-selection steps. We demonstrate here for the first time the utility of a novel suite of network-based algorithms called ranked-based network algorithms (RBNAs) on proteomics. These have originally been introduced and tested extensively on genomics data. We show here that they are highly stable, reproducible and select relevant features when applied to proteomics data. It is also evident from these results that use of statistical feature testing on protein expression data should be executed with due caution. Careless use of networks does not resolve poor-performance issues, and can even mislead. We recommend augmenting statistical feature-selection methods with concurrent analysis on stability and reproducibility to improve the quality of the selected features prior to experimental validation.

  16. Localized scleroderma: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Uziel, Y.; Chuang, S.; Silverman, E.; Krafchik, B.; Laxer, R.

    1994-01-01

    Localized scleroderma is distinct from the diffuse form of scleroderma and does not show Raynaud's phenomenon and visceral involvement. The imaging features in 23 patients ranging from 2 to 17 years of age (mean 11.1 years) were reviewed. Leg length discrepancy and muscle atrophy were the most common findings (five patients), with two patients also showing modelling deformity of the fibula. One patient with lower extremity involvement showed abnormal bone marrow signals on MR. Disabling joint contracture requiring orthopedic intervention was noted in one patient. In two patients with ''en coup de sabre'' facial deformity, CT and MR scans revealed intracranial calcifications and white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral frontal lobes, with one also showing migrational abnormality. In a third patient, CT revealed white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral parietal lobe. In one patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy, CT and MR scans showed the underlying hypoplastic left maxillary antrum and cheek. Imaging studies of areas of clinical concern revealed positive findings in half our patients. (orig.)

  17. Rhabdomyolysis featuring muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoria, Rajat; Milone, Margherita

    2016-02-15

    Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening condition of various etiology. The association between rhabdomyolysis and muscular dystrophies is under-recognized in clinical practice. To identify muscular dystrophies presenting with rhabdomyolysis at onset or as predominant feature. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data of patients with a genetically confirmed muscular dystrophy in whom rhabdomyolysis was the presenting or main clinical manifestation. Thirteen unrelated patients (males=6; females=7) were identified. Median age at time of rhabdomyolysis was 18 years (range, 2-47) and median duration between the first episode of rhabdomyolysis and molecular diagnosis was 2 years. Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) muscular dystrophy (n=6) was the most common diagnosis, followed by anoctaminopathy-5 (n=3), calpainopathy-3 (n=2) and dystrophinopathy (n=2). Four patients experienced recurrent rhabdomyolysis. Eight patients were asymptomatic and 3 reported myalgia and exercise intolerance prior to the rhabdomyolysis. Exercise (n=6) and fever (n=4) were common triggers; rhabdomyolysis was unprovoked in 3 patients. Twelve patients required hospitalization. Baseline CK levels were elevated in all patients (median 1200 IU/L; range, 600-3600). Muscular dystrophies can present with rhabdomyolysis; FKRP mutations are particularly frequent in causing such complication. A persistently elevated CK level in patients with rhabdomyolysis warrants consideration for underlying muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Study on Sleep Staging Based on Support Vector Machines and Feature Selection in Single Channel Electroencephalogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiujing; Xia, Yongming; Qian, Songrong

    2015-06-01

    Sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important index in diagnosing sleep disorders and related diseases. Manual sleep staging is time-consuming and often influenced by subjective factors. Existing automatic sleep staging methods have high complexity and a low accuracy rate. A sleep staging method based on support vector machines (SVM) and feature selection using single channel EEG single is proposed in this paper. Thirty-eight features were extracted from the single channel EEG signal. Then based on the feature selection method F-Score's definition, it was extended to multiclass with an added eliminate factor in order to find proper features, which were used as SVM classifier inputs. The eliminate factor was adopted to reduce the negative interaction of features to the result. Research on the F-Score with an added eliminate factor was further accomplished with the data from a standard open source database and the results were compared with none feature selection and standard F-Score feature selection. The results showed that the present method could effectively improve the sleep staging accuracy and reduce the computation time.

  19. PROBING THE EXPANSION HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSE BY MODEL-INDEPENDENT RECONSTRUCTION FROM SUPERNOVAE AND GAMMA-RAY BURST MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou, E-mail: fengcj@shnu.edu.cn, E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn [Shanghai United Center for Astrophysics (SUCA), Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2016-04-10

    To probe the late evolution history of the universe, we adopt two kinds of optimal basis systems. One of them is constructed by performing the principle component analysis, and the other is built by taking the multidimensional scaling approach. Cosmological observables such as the luminosity distance can be decomposed into these basis systems. These basis systems are optimized for different kinds of cosmological models that are based on different physical assumptions, even for a mixture model of them. Therefore, the so-called feature space that is projected from the basis systems is cosmological model independent, and it provides a parameterization for studying and reconstructing the Hubble expansion rate from the supernova luminosity distance and even gamma-ray burst (GRB) data with self-calibration. The circular problem when using GRBs as cosmological candles is naturally eliminated in this procedure. By using the Levenberg–Marquardt technique and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform an observational constraint on this kind of parameterization. The data we used include the “joint light-curve analysis” data set that consists of 740 Type Ia supernovae and 109 long GRBs with the well-known Amati relation.

  20. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.