WorldWideScience

Sample records for increasingly decentralised energy

  1. What changes, if any, would increased levels of low-carbon decentralised energy have on the built environment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keirstead, James [Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Low-carbon decentralised energy technologies (DETs) have become increasingly popular in recent UK energy policy debates. Many of the technologies involved are well established, but it is only with their increased technical maturity and the imperatives of climate change, energy security and fuel poverty that DETs have been realistically suggested as an integral part of our future built environment. This review will consider the possible physical and behavioural impacts of increased levels of low-carbon decentralised energy, presenting both recent research in this field and an analysis of policy trends and future scenarios. (author)

  2. Saving energy for ventilation using decentralised duct fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Afshari, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    pressure drops which in turn will increase energy use. This paper presents a novel procedure for balancing CAV-systems using decentralised duct fans instead of flat plate dampers. The procedure will result in lower pressure drops and consequently in a reduction of energy use for ventilation when compared......In conventional mechanical ventilation systems with constant air volume (CAV) airflows are often balanced using balancing flat plate dampers. The purpose of the dampers is to obtain nominal airflows to the individual zones or rooms in the building. Unfortunately, this procedure leads to increased...... to a conventional mechanical ventilation system with flat plate dampers. Theoretical calculations and experimental observations for the investigated systems show that the power demand for distribution of air can be reduced about 30%. The work carried out forms part of an ongoing PhD-project on mechanical...

  3. Decentralised energy solutions: The CSIR energy autonomous campus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter-Brown, Clinton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduce Consumption : 20% reduction through energy efficiency (30 GWh) 24GWh) per year Load Management : Through Demand Response (DR) measures including Electric Vehicles Supply PV: All CSIR rooftops, 1-2 ground-mounted plants Total of 8 MWp 13 GWh... analysis, Site selection, Environmental Impact Assessment, etc Demand side management: Campus energy audit & street light energy audit Storage: Technology selection process, procurement of electric vehicles for the campus 27 Over 1 MW of Solar PV...

  4. Centralisation and decentralisation in strategic municipal energy planning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Denmark’s future energy system is to be entirely based on renewable energy sources. Municipalities will play an important role as local energy planning authorities in terms of adopting and refining this vision in different local contexts. Based on a review of 11 municipal energy plans, this paper...... examines to what extent municipal energy planning matches national 100% renewable energy strategies. The results indicate a willingness among Danish municipalities to actively carry out energy planning, and the plans reveal a large diversity of (new) activities. At the same time, however, there is a strong...... need for better coordination of municipal energy planning activities at the central level. It is suggested that the role of municipalities as energy planning authorities needs to be outlined more clearly in, e.g., strategic energy planning which integrates savings, efficiency and renewable energy...

  5. Centralisation and decentralisation in strategic municipal energy planning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Denmark’s future energy system is to be entirely based on renewable energy sources. Municipalities will play an important role as local energy planning authorities in terms of adopting and refining this vision in different local contexts. Based on a review of 11 municipal energy plans, this paper...

  6. A Novel Strategy for Optimising Decentralised Energy Exchange for Prosumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Sha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The realization of the Smart Grid vision will change the way of producing and distributing electrical energy. It paves the road for end-users to become pro-active in the distribution system and, equipped with renewable energy generators such as a photovoltaic panel, to become a so called “prosumer”. The prosumer is engaged in both energy production and consumption. Prosumers’ energy can be transmitted and exchanged as a commodity between end-users, disrupting the traditional utility model. The appeal of such scenario lies in the engagement of the end user, in facilitating the introduction and optimization of renewables, and in engaging the end-user in its energy management. To facilitate the transition to a prosumers’ governed grid, we propose a novel strategy for optimizing decentralized energy exchange in digitalized power grids, i.e., the Smart Grid. The strategy considers prosumer’s involvement, energy loss of delivery, network topology, and physical constraints of distribution networks. To evaluate the solution, we build a simulation program and design three meaningful evaluation cases according to different energy flow patterns. The simulation results indicate that, compared to traditional power distribution system, the maximum reduction of energy loss, energy costs, energy provided by the electric utility based using the proposed strategy can reach 51 % , 66 % , 97.5 % , depending on the strategy. Moreover, the proportion of energy self-satisfaction approaches reaches 98 % .

  7. A Novel Strategy for Optimising Decentralised Energy Exchange for Prosumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sha, Ang; Aiello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The realization of the Smart Grid vision will change the way of producing and distributing electrical energy. It paves the road for end-users to become pro-active in the distribution system and, equipped with renewable energy generators such as a photovoltaic panel, to become a so called “prosumer”.

  8. A Novel Strategy for Optimising Decentralised Energy Exchange for Prosumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sha, Ang; Aiello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The realization of the Smart Grid vision will change the way of producing and distributing electrical energy. It paves the road for end-users to become pro-active in the distribution system and, equipped with renewable energy generators such as a photovoltaic panel, to become a so called “prosumer”.

  9. Proceedings of NewERA's 1. annual Canadian policy conference on decentralised energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This conference focused on the role of decentralised energy (DE) in meeting future electricity needs at a time when Canada's energy industry is undergoing transformation. Energy plans are currently in favour of the DE industry which is supportive of the Kyoto Protocol commitments for the development of clean energy technologies. The presentations were directed at learning more about the federal, provincial and municipal positions on DE, as well as the perspectives of industry stakeholders. Decentralised energy is defined as the production, management and storage of heat and/or power, regardless of generator size, fuel or technology; that is located close to a customer's load and point of consumption. Grid-connected or off-grid DE complements traditional, centralized, large-scale power generation plants which are typically located far from end-users and connected to customers via bulk transmission systems or grids. The issues that need immediate attention in DE include price instability; diminishing available capacity; an aging infrastructure and changing regulatory environments. The advantages offered by DE in terms of economics, energy security, fuel efficiency, health and safety, emissions reductions and power quality were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Decentralised CHP in a competitive market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The article agues that decentralised CHP plants is an important part of energy supply in Denmark.......The article agues that decentralised CHP plants is an important part of energy supply in Denmark....

  11. Centralised and decentralised heat-pump systems considered from the energy and economics points of view; Chauffage central ou decentralise: perspectives energetiques et economiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubacher, P.

    2006-07-01

    This article was one of ten papers that were presented at the 13{sup th} Conference of the Research Programme on Ambient Heat, Combined Heat and Power Systems and Cold-generation held at the University of Applied Sciences in Burgdorf, Switzerland in 2006. The conference was organised by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In this paper, Peter Hubacher discussed the advantages and disadvantages offered by centralised and decentralised heat-pump systems from the energy and economics points of view. The use of such large heat-pump systems as a source of heating energy for district heating systems is discussed. The report presents the results of studies regarding pressure and heat loss, temperature differentials in the distribution network and in heat exchangers, which, according to the author, all have a direct influence on the heat pump's efficiency. The influences of these factors is examined. Also, the study takes a look at the large variations found in domestic hot-water preparation and the influence of secondary systems on overall heat-pump efficiency figures.

  12. Decentralised energy supply in 2020 - current situation and perspectives. Congress volume; Dezentrale Energieversorgung 2020 - Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokojski, M. (ed.) [Vattenfall Europe AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    In its study on ''Electric power supply in 2020'', which was published in 2005, the ETG made clear what consequences certain paths of development in the German power economy could have for the achievement of political goals regarding energy saving, environmental relief and the economy at large. One of the more important findings of the study was that the share of renewable energy is expected to grow and that decentralised energy supply systems will make a significant contribution to tomorrow's electricity supply. In autumn 1995 the ETG set up the ''2020 Electric Power Supply Task Force'' to assess this contribution. This working group analysed the possibilities and consequences of a growing decentralised power supply, taking into account all types of electricity and heat production such as cogeneration, wind power, photovoltaic and solar thermal plants. Another technology that fall into this category are thermal or electrical energy storages, which permit dissociating the exigencies of supply and demand. Following the conception of energy supply systems as holistic systems the Task Force also studied IT and telecommunication technologies and outlined possible communication systems for decentralised power supply plants, including even virtual power plants.

  13. Renewable Energy Technologies for Decentralised Rural Electricity Services. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Bjoern; Arvidson, Anders; Forslund, Helena; Martinac, Ivo (eds.)

    2005-02-01

    The developing countries represented at the workshop were Brazil, India, Kenya, Mali, Mongolia, Nepal and Uganda. After keynote presentations which covered the experiences of different renewable electricity generation technologies in selected developing countries, the participants discussed the role of electrification in rural development, needs for further technological improvements and the needs for development of government policies for promotion of renewable energy for electricity generation. Finally, the participants discussed and agreed on recommendations addressed to donor agencies for consideration when formulating a revised Energy Policy. Renewable energy technologies should only be considered when these offer more advantages than the conventional alternatives - grid connection or stand-alone diesel generators. Such advantages may be lower costs, better supply reliability, fewer adverse local environmental impacts or better possibilities for local income-generating activities. Local needs and priorities must determine the choice of technology. Biomass-fuelled renewable technologies have a particularly strong potential in generating local economic activities compared to conventional supply options. Technologies for decentralised electricity generation using mini-hydro power plants, solar photovoltaics (PV), wind generators and biomass fuels are commercially available and are being applied in many developing countries. The limiting factors for further penetration of renewable energy are today linked to issues of cost, reliability, financing, service infrastructure, awareness of available technology and trust in the technologies from the perspective of entrepreneurs and end-users. One important limiting factor related to cost, is the capacity range within which each technology can compete with the conventional options. PV systems are still only realistic for very small power demands, whereas technologies using biomass fuels are unrealistic for small power

  14. Renewable Energy Technologies for Decentralised Rural Electricity Services. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Bjoern; Arvidson, Anders; Forslund, Helena; Martinac, Ivo (eds.)

    2005-02-01

    The developing countries represented at the workshop were Brazil, India, Kenya, Mali, Mongolia, Nepal and Uganda. After keynote presentations which covered the experiences of different renewable electricity generation technologies in selected developing countries, the participants discussed the role of electrification in rural development, needs for further technological improvements and the needs for development of government policies for promotion of renewable energy for electricity generation. Finally, the participants discussed and agreed on recommendations addressed to donor agencies for consideration when formulating a revised Energy Policy. Renewable energy technologies should only be considered when these offer more advantages than the conventional alternatives - grid connection or stand-alone diesel generators. Such advantages may be lower costs, better supply reliability, fewer adverse local environmental impacts or better possibilities for local income-generating activities. Local needs and priorities must determine the choice of technology. Biomass-fuelled renewable technologies have a particularly strong potential in generating local economic activities compared to conventional supply options. Technologies for decentralised electricity generation using mini-hydro power plants, solar photovoltaics (PV), wind generators and biomass fuels are commercially available and are being applied in many developing countries. The limiting factors for further penetration of renewable energy are today linked to issues of cost, reliability, financing, service infrastructure, awareness of available technology and trust in the technologies from the perspective of entrepreneurs and end-users. One important limiting factor related to cost, is the capacity range within which each technology can compete with the conventional options. PV systems are still only realistic for very small power demands, whereas technologies using biomass fuels are unrealistic for small power

  15. Model-based energy optimisation of a small-scale decentralised membrane bioreactor for urban reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrecht, Bart; Maere, Thomas; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Nopens, Ingmar; Judd, Simon

    2010-07-01

    The energy consumption of a small-scale membrane bioreactor, treating high strength domestic wastewater for community level wastewater recycling, has been optimised using a dynamic model of the plant. ASM2d was chosen as biological process model to account for the presence of phosphate accumulating organisms. A tracer test was carried out to determine the hydraulic behaviour of the plant. To realistically simulate the aeration demand, a dedicated aeration model was used incorporating the dependency of the oxygen transfer on the mixed liquor concentration and allowing differentiation between coarse and fine bubble aeration, both typically present in MBRs. A steady state and dynamic calibration was performed, and the calibrated model was able to predict effluent nutrient concentrations and MLSS concentrations accurately. A scenario analysis (SCA) was carried out using the calibrated model to simulate the effect of varying SRT, recirculation ratio and DO set point on effluent quality, MLSS concentrations and aeration demand. Linking the model output with empirically derived correlations for energy consumption allowed an accurate prediction of the energy consumption. The SCA results showed that decreasing membrane aeration and SRT were most beneficial towards total energy consumption, while increasing the recirculation flow led to improved TN removal but at the same time also deterioration in TP removal. A validation of the model was performed by effectively applying better operational parameters to the plant. This resulted in a reduction in energy consumption by 23% without compromising effluent quality, as was accurately predicted by the model. This modelling approach thus allows the operating envelope to be reliably identified for meeting criteria based on energy demand and specific water quality determinants.

  16. Decentralisation, managerialism and accountability:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Educational reforms have largely been analysed from the perspective of the effects on students, teachers and schools, their practices and performance. While there is also a large body of literature that draws on the rhetoric and discourses found in policy documents, there has been little attention...... given to the organisations in which the educational reforms are born. Following on from previous debates on the neo-liberalisation of education, this study provides an ethnographic examination of an educational administration attempting to decentralise services to schools. This study focuses...... on the people inside an Australian state education administration during the time when the organisation was being restructured. It examines how decentralisation, managerialism and accountability result in the loss of professional expertise. This study contributes to the literature on the neo...

  17. Geoexchange technology, its advantages, potential and role in decentralised energy context : Canada's geothermal energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantrowitz, T. [Canadian GeoExchange Coalition, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The advantages and role of geothermal technology in a decentralized energy context were presented. Geoexchange refers to a system of buried pipes that carry a heat transfer fluid that either takes heat from the earth or releases heat to it. The pipes circulate the heat transfer fluid through a heat pump. The heat pump removes heat from the fluid or releases heat to the fluid depending on whether the home is being heated or cooled. Warm or cool air is distributed through a ductwork by a fan in the heat pump enclosure. This presentation included two case studies where a geoexchange system has been used in a decentralized energy context. Examples included geothermal industrial parks and a deep lake water cooling system used to heat and cool more than 130 buildings in downtown Toronto. This paper described the customer, economic and environmental advantages of geoexchange. Geoexchange offers the lowest local emissions and no concerns for flammability. It is quiet and saves usable space and possibly requires less maintenance. It can also significantly lower exposure to future variable fossil fuel costs. tabs., figs.

  18. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - Basic technologies for decentralised production; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Grundlagen der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeckel, M.; Haldi, R.

    2003-07-01

    This is the fourth part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This third appendix to the main report describes five types of distributed production facilities - photovoltaics (PV), wind power, hydropower, combined heat and power units and fuel-cell-based power generation. Each of these types of power generation equipment is briefly described and its particular characteristics are discussed. In particular, the effects of PV inverters on the mains is examined, as are the active and reactive power aspects of hydropower installations. Also the state-of-the-art of wind technologies are looked at and the various types of combined heat and power units and fuel cells are described.

  19. Decentralisation of Health Services in Fiji: A Decision Space Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Decentralisation aims to bring services closer to the community and has been advocated in the health sector to improve quality, access and equity, and to empower local agencies, increase innovation and efficiency and bring healthcare and decision-making as close as possible to where people live and work. Fiji has attempted two approaches to decentralisation. The current approach reflects a model of deconcentration of outpatient services from the tertiary level hospital to the peripheral health centres in the Suva subdivision. Methods Using a modified decision space approach developed by Bossert, this study measures decision space created in five broad categories (finance, service organisation, human resources, access rules, and governance rules within the decentralised services. Results Fiji’s centrally managed historical-based allocation of financial resources and management of human resources resulted in no decision space for decentralised agents. Narrow decision space was created in the service organisation category where, with limited decision space created over access rules, Fiji has seen greater usage of its decentralised health centres. There remains limited decision space in governance. Conclusion The current wave of decentralisation reveals that, whilst the workload has shifted from the tertiary hospital to the peripheral health centres, it has been accompanied by limited transfer of administrative authority, suggesting that Fiji’s deconcentration reflects the transfer of workload only with decision-making in the five functional areas remaining largely centralised. As such, the benefits of decentralisation for users and providers are likely to be limited.

  20. Utilising integrated urban water management to assess the viability of decentralised water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Stewart; Maheepala, Shiroma; Sharma, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Cities worldwide are challenged by a number of urban water issues associated with climate change, population growth and the associated water scarcity, wastewater flows and stormwater run-off. To address these problems decentralised solutions are increasingly being considered by water authorities, and integrated urban water management (IUWM) has emerged as a potential solution to most of these urban water challenges, and as the key to providing solutions incorporating decentralised concepts at a city wide scale. To incorporate decentralised options, there is a need to understand their performance and their impact on a city's total water cycle under alternative water and land management options. This includes changes to flow, nutrient and sediment regimes, energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and the impacts on rivers, aquifers and estuaries. Application of the IUWM approach to large cities demands revisiting the fundamental role of water system design in sustainable city development. This paper uses the extended urban metabolism model (EUMM) to expand a logical definition for the aims of IUWM, and discusses the role of decentralised systems in IUWM and how IUWM principles can be incorporated into urban water planning.

  1. Installed base registration of decentralised solar panels with applications in crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarsen, R.; Janssen, M.; Ramkisoen, M.; Biljecki, F.; Quak, W.; Verbree, E.

    2015-01-01

    In case of a calamity in the Netherlands - e.g. a dike breach - parts of the nationwide electric network can fall out. In these occasions it would be useful if decentralised energy sources of the Smart Grid would contribute to balance out the fluctuations of the energy network. Decentralised energy

  2. Installed base registration of decentralised solar panels with applications in crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarsen, R.; Janssen, M.; Ramkisoen, M.; Biljecki, F.; Quak, W.; Verbree, E.

    2015-01-01

    In case of a calamity in the Netherlands - e.g. a dike breach - parts of the nationwide electric network can fall out. In these occasions it would be useful if decentralised energy sources of the Smart Grid would contribute to balance out the fluctuations of the energy network. Decentralised energy

  3. Has decentralisation affected child immunisation status in Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Maharani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The past two decades have seen many countries, including a number in Southeast Asia, decentralising their health system with the expectation that this reform will improve their citizens’ health. However, the consequences of this reform remain largely unknown. Objective: This study analyses the effects of fiscal decentralisation on child immunisation status in Indonesia. Design: We used multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate these effects, and multilevel multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2011 publication of Indonesia's national socio-economic survey (Susenas is the source of household data, while the Podes village census survey from the same year provides village-level data. We supplement these with local government fiscal data from the Ministry of Finance. Results: The findings show that decentralising the fiscal allocation of responsibilities to local governments has a lack of association with child immunisation status and the results are robust. The results also suggest that increasing the number of village health centres (posyandu per 1,000 population improves probability of children to receive full immunisation significantly, while increasing that of hospitals and health centres (puskesmas has no significant effect. Conclusion: These findings suggest that merely decentralising the health system does not guarantee improvement in a country's immunisation coverage. Any successful decentralisation demands good capacity and capability of local governments.

  4. Has decentralisation affected child immunisation status in Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharani, Asri; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2014-01-01

    Background The past two decades have seen many countries, including a number in Southeast Asia, decentralising their health system with the expectation that this reform will improve their citizens’ health. However, the consequences of this reform remain largely unknown. Objective This study analyses the effects of fiscal decentralisation on child immunisation status in Indonesia. Design We used multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate these effects, and multilevel multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2011 publication of Indonesia's national socio-economic survey (Susenas) is the source of household data, while the Podes village census survey from the same year provides village-level data. We supplement these with local government fiscal data from the Ministry of Finance. Results The findings show that decentralising the fiscal allocation of responsibilities to local governments has a lack of association with child immunisation status and the results are robust. The results also suggest that increasing the number of village health centres (posyandu) per 1,000 population improves probability of children to receive full immunisation significantly, while increasing that of hospitals and health centres (puskesmas) has no significant effect. Conclusion These findings suggest that merely decentralising the health system does not guarantee improvement in a country's immunisation coverage. Any successful decentralisation demands good capacity and capability of local governments. PMID:25160515

  5. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results from an on-going project concerning new design procedures for mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use. Conventional constant air volume (CAV) systems are usually balanced using flat plate dampers. The purpose of using balancing dampers is to intentionally...... flawed. This paper presents a new procedure for balancing of CAV systems in combination with decentralised fans. The new system was based on replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans. By replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans, airflows can be balanced by adjusting the speed...... of the fans. In conventional air distribution systems the fan provides the necessary pressure to overcome the resistance in the branch with the highest pressure resistance. This gives an unnecessary overpressure in the remaining branches that does not provide any useful purpose. In order to decrease the fan...

  6. Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications; Optimalite des elements d'un systeme decentralise de production d'energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, D

    2006-07-15

    In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

  7. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    there is a potential for energy saving. In this study the calculated saving in the power consumption for the main fan was found to be 40%. The results also show that when dampers are replaced with decentralised fans with the same efficiency the overall power saving potential was 16%. In the study a mock-up...

  8. Decentralising the health sector: issues in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C; Araujo, J; Barbosa, J

    2000-06-01

    The health sector in Brazil has undergone important changes, particularly with the development of the Unified Health System (SUS). Decentralisation is an important principle of SUS and advances have been made in transferring responsibilities and resources to the local government units, known as municipios. This article describes the changes introduced, focusing on the system of municipio classification and the funding mechanisms introduced through the basic operating rule (BOR) of 1996. The paper then moves on to analysing three key issues of decentralisation in Brazil that are related to the policy process, the system of decentralisation and the output of decentralisation. Firstly, the formal process by which decisions on health sector reform are made is discussed with particular attention being paid to the negotiated and relatively open policy space. Secondly, the role of the states is discussed within the decentralised system. Thirdly, the impact of decentralisation on equity is discussed with particular reference to the resourcing of the Municipal Health Funds. The article concludes by emphasising the political nature of health sector decentralisation and the need to develop the conditions for effectiveness in decentralisation programmes.

  9. Licensing failure in the European decentralised procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langedijk, Joris; Ebbers, Hans C; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Kruger-Peters, Alexandra G; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the licensing applications in the European Union are submitted via the decentralised procedure. Little is known about licensing failure (i.e. refusal or withdrawal of a marketing authorisation application) in the EU decentralised procedure compared to the EU centralised procedure and

  10. Centralisering overfor decentralisering af varelagre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard Pedersen, Søren; Zachariassen, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    store virksomheder. I Danmark går langt størstedelen af virksomheder under betegnelsen små og mellemstore virksomheder (SMV) og for en stor andel af disse, er udfordringen med effektiv styring af varelagre også relevant. Denne artikel beskæftiger sig med udfordringen mellem centralisering overfor...... decentralisering af varelagre i SMV. Det viser sig, at der er betydelige forskelle i, hvilke argumenter der er for og imod, når udfordringen ses fra et SMV-perspektiv....

  11. Installed Base Registration of Decentralised Solar Panels with Applications in Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsen, R.; Janssen, M.; Ramkisoen, M.; Biljecki, F.; Quak, W.; Verbree, E.

    2015-08-01

    In case of a calamity in the Netherlands - e.g. a dike breach - parts of the nationwide electric network can fall out. In these occasions it would be useful if decentralised energy sources of the Smart Grid would contribute to balance out the fluctuations of the energy network. Decentralised energy sources include: solar energy, wind energy, combined heat and power, and biogas. In this manner, parts of the built environment - e.g. hospitals - that are in need of a continuous power flow, could be secured of this power. When a calamity happens, information about the Smart Grid is necessary to control the crisis and to ensure a shared view on the energy networks for both the crisis managers and network operators. The current situation of publishing, storing and sharing data of solar energy has been shown a lack of reliability about the current number, physical location, and capacity of installed decentralised photovoltaic (PV) panels in the Netherlands. This study focuses on decentralised solar energy in the form of electricity via PV panels in the Netherlands and addresses this challenge by proposing a new, reliable and up-to-date database. The study reveals the requirements for a registration of the installed base of PV panels in the Netherlands. This new database should serve as a replenishment for the current national voluntary registration, called Production Installation Register of Energy Data Services Netherland (EDSN-PIR), of installed decentralised PV panel installations in the Smart Grid, and provide important information in case of a calamity.

  12. The myth of the decentralised internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin J. Mathew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In popular culture, and in policy discussions, the internet is often conceived of as a decentralised technology, which cannot be controlled. Drawing from research into internet infrastructure, focusing on the Border Gateway Protocol, I show that the internet has never been, and never can be, decentralised. I argue that the internet is better viewed as being distributed, both in terms of technologies and governance arrangements. The shift in perspective, from decentralised to distributed, is essential to understand the past and present internet, and to imagine possible future internets which preserve and support the public good.

  13. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    of the fans. In conventional air distribution systems the fan provides the necessary pressure to overcome the resistance in the branch with the highest pressure resistance. This gives an unnecessary overpressure in the remaining branches that does not provide any useful purpose. In order to decrease the fan......This paper presents results from an on-going project concerning new design procedures for mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use. Conventional constant air volume (CAV) systems are usually balanced using flat plate dampers. The purpose of using balancing dampers is to intentionally...... pressure requirements the fan was dimensioned for the branch with the least pressure resistance. The decentralised fans then provided sufficient pressure to overcome the exact resistance in the corresponding branch. The results show that by using decentralised fans in duct systems instead of dampers...

  14. Decentralising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Søren Qvist; Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    regionalisation was widely perceived as a solution, while at the same time providing an overview of the policy processes and various inputs that led to the provisions of recent regulation. Subsequently, the article presents empirical experiences related to the actual implementation and performance of the regional...... structures in the North and Baltic Seas and discusses the extent to which the adopted model of regionalisation is appropriate in light of the objectives it was intended to advance. Finally, the article offers some scenarios of possible 'futures' of the regional structures....

  15. Introduction: Decentralisation and Livelihoods in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-08-25

    Aug 25, 2006 ... still in the first stages of translating these laws into practice. .... provides us with an important guiding principle for decentralisation reforms. ..... resource management' serve more to produce taxes and rents than to protect.

  16. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    information, collective agreements and interviews with representatives from tradeunions and employers' associations in Germany and Denmark. Based on our preliminary findings three explanatory theses for further research are developed in the article: 1) The level of specification, i.e. the level where...... response to this pressure from the company level can be described as a form of organised decentralisation in both countries, the response within the Danish collective bargaining system can be characterised as a proactive organised decentralisation while the response of the German system should rather...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...

  17. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    information, collective agreements and interviews with representatives from tradeunions and employers' associations in Germany and Denmark. Based on our preliminary findings three explanatory theses for further research are developed in the article: 1) The level of specification, i.e. the level where...... response to this pressure from the company level can be described as a form of organised decentralisation in both countries, the response within the Danish collective bargaining system can be characterised as a proactive organised decentralisation while the response of the German system should rather...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...

  18. Planning for equality? : decentralisation in cultural policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Nobuko

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the theoretical and practical issues related to ‘decentralisation’ in\\ud cultural policy, with a particular focus on the British experience. It consists of three major\\ud parts, in which each of the following is developed:\\ud • a conceptual framework for the discussion of ‘decentralisation’ in the context of cultural\\ud policy (Part 1);\\ud • the examination of decentralisation in British cultural policy (Part 2);\\ud • the analysis of the problems which decentralisation in ...

  19. Modular pump-turbine concept supporting the integration of renewable energy sources in a decentralised grid; Modulare Pumpturbine als Unterstuetzung bei der Einbindung alternativer Energien ins dezentrale Stromnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doujak, Eduard; Unterberger, Philipp; Bauer, Christian [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Energietechnik und Thermodynamik

    2012-11-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems in Europe leads to several challenges in the energy market. Energy storage for stable grid operation has become a necessity. Pumped storage is the only technology available today that is able to store large amounts of energy efficiently and with low specific storage costs. The Vienna University of Technology is currently investigating how existing artificial lakes for snow production could be integrated in pumped storage production systems. A new modular pump turbine concept and its application prospects are presented. (orig.)

  20. INSTALLED BASE REGISTRATION OF DECENTRALISED SOLAR PANELS WITH APPLICATIONS IN CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aarsen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In case of a calamity in the Netherlands - e.g. a dike breach - parts of the nationwide electric network can fall out. In these occasions it would be useful if decentralised energy sources of the Smart Grid would contribute to balance out the fluctuations of the energy network. Decentralised energy sources include: solar energy, wind energy, combined heat and power, and biogas. In this manner, parts of the built environment - e.g. hospitals - that are in need of a continuous power flow, could be secured of this power. When a calamity happens, information about the Smart Grid is necessary to control the crisis and to ensure a shared view on the energy networks for both the crisis managers and network operators. The current situation of publishing, storing and sharing data of solar energy has been shown a lack of reliability about the current number, physical location, and capacity of installed decentralised photovoltaic (PV panels in the Netherlands. This study focuses on decentralised solar energy in the form of electricity via PV panels in the Netherlands and addresses this challenge by proposing a new, reliable and up-to-date database. The study reveals the requirements for a registration of the installed base of PV panels in the Netherlands. This new database should serve as a replenishment for the current national voluntary registration, called Production Installation Register of Energy Data Services Netherland (EDSN-PIR, of installed decentralised PV panel installations in the Smart Grid, and provide important information in case of a calamity.

  1. Is Decentralisation in Ghana pro-poor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a popular belief among decentralists that if local governments have the power to generate and spend revenue, without relying on central government funding, their expenditure will be pro-poor and will improve the lives of local people. Such views have influenced recent calls for greater decentralisation in developing countries in general and Africa in particular. However, evidence from Ghana casts some doubts on this view. A brief comparison of the expenditure and revenue patterns of the poorest and richest local governments there suggests that local governments are not inherently pro-poor and that locally generated funds might be used in ways that do not reflect the needs of the locality as a whole. Thus the fiscal devolution view of decentralisation appears to be out of kilter with reality. To discuss this issue, the three sections in this paper summarise the assumptions and perceived benefits of decentralisation, describe decentralisation in Ghana, and analyse the revenue and expenditure patterns of the Kumasi Metropolitan Authority and the Kasena Nankana District Assembly.

  2. On Secure Workflow Decentralisation on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Kaskenpalo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Decentralised workflow management systems are a new research area, where most work to-date has focused on the system's overall architecture. As little attention has been given to the security aspects in such systems, we follow a security driven approach, and consider, from the perspective of available security building blocks, how security can be implemented and what new opportunities are presented when empowering the decentralised environment with modern distributed security protocols. Our research is motivated by a more general question of how to combine the positive enablers that email exchange enjoys, with the general benefits of workflow systems, and more specifically with the benefits that can be introduced in a decentralised environment. This aims to equip email users with a set of tools to manage the semantics of a message exchange, contents, participants and their roles in the exchange in an environment that provides inherent assurances of security and privacy. This work is based on a survey of contemporary distributed security protocols, and considers how these protocols could be used in implementing a distributed workflow management system with decentralised control . We review a set of these protocols, focusing on the required message sequences in reviewing the protocols, and discuss how these security protocols provide the foundations for implementing core control-flow, data, and resource patterns in a distributed workflow environment.

  3. Decentralisation, Local Taxation and Citizenship in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    What makes people willing or unwilling to pay taxes and to whom are they willing to pay?This article examines the politics of revenue collection in a Senegalese village within a framework of decentralisation, democratisation and multi-party politics. The tranfer of tax-collection from state agents...

  4. Decentralising HIV treatment in lower- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kredo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Policy makers, health staff and communities recognise that health services in lower- and middle-income countries need to improve people's access to HIV treatment and retention to treatment programmes. One strategy is to move antiretroviral delivery from hospitals to more peripheral health facilities or even beyond health facilities. This could increase the number of people with access to care, improve health outcomes, and enhance retention in treatment programmes. On the other hand, providing care at less sophisticated levels in the health service or at community-level may decrease quality of care and result in worse health outcomes. To address these uncertainties, we summarised the research studies examining the risks and benefits of decentralising antiretroviral therapy service delivery.OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of various models that decentralised HIV treatment and care to more basic levels in the health system for initiating and maintaining antiretroviral therapy.METHODS:Search methods: We conducted a comprehensive search to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, and in progress from 1 January 1996 to 31 March 2013, and contacted relevant organisations and researchers. The search terms included "decentralisation", "down referral", "delivery of health care", and "health services accessibility". Selection criteria: Our inclusion criteria were controlled trials (randomised and non-randomised, controlled-before and after studies, and cohorts (prospective and retrospective in which HIV-infected people were either initiated on antiretroviral therapy or maintained on therapy in a decentralised setting in lower- and middle-income countries. We define decentralisation as providing treatment at a more basic level in the health system to the comparator. Data collection and analysis: Two authors applied the inclusion criteria and extracted data independently. We

  5. Increased energy efficiency of hobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is to save energy when cooking food on hobs. A great part of the total energy consumption used for cooking is consumed by hobs. The amount of energy depends on the temperature used for cooking and energy used for evaporation of liquid, focussing especially on the latter in this project. CHEC B is a method for controlling the supply of energy to the zone, so that a minimum of energy is used for reaching a set temperature of the food/liquid in the pot and maintaining this temperature. Today the efficiency of hobs is between 50 - 75%. Using CHEC B the energy efficiency is expected to be higher. (au)

  6. SOFC solid oxide fuel cell power plants for the decentralised electric energy supply; SOFC-Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer die dezentrale elektrische Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogang Tchonla, Etienne

    2012-07-01

    investigation was focused on the boost converter because it is the main component of the considered power plant. The measured results agreed well with the previously calculated and simulated values. The experiments demonstrated that it is possible to use a fuel cell SOFC-power plant with high output power (1 MW electrical), with hydrogen as a primary energy source, as a contribution to the fight against the global climate warming. Also, the integration of the fuel cell power plant in the electric energy supply network is feasible. The recent nuclear disaster in Japan (nuclear power plant Fukushima) has shown us that we must rethink not only the reasons for the falling fossil energy source stocks, but also the basis of the security of the used nuclear power plants. The project DESERTEC could be an opportunity for the final setting up of the fuel cell technology. The introduced investigation results are applicable not only for the fuel cell type SOFC but also for all other fuel cell types which are suitable for the electric energy production.

  7. Decentralisation in developing countries: preconditions for successful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Olum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Decentralisation has been implemented and is being implemented in many developing countries without much success. Although several unique factors inhibit the implementation of decentralisation in individual countries, the paper argues that there are six pre-conditions that these countries should fulfill before decentralisation can be successfully implemented. These preconditions are: institutional mechanisms; creation of spaces for participation; political will and civil will; capacity development at the local level; careful implementation; and democratic governance.

  8. The Politics of Decentralisation in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    2004-07-01

    Largely following the advice of and loans from the World Bank, many Latin American countries decentralised education to the state, municipal and local levels. Such decentralisation was part of an effort to provide universal access to primary education with massive investments near one billion dollars per year during the 1990s. The rationale was simple and appealing: The more local the decision, the greater the voice of the voter-consumer was supposed to be; while the larger number of suppliers was assumed to lead to greater variety. Research documented here shows that while authority and resources could be transferred downward in the system in a short amount of time, the so-called `autonomous schools programs' failed to generate significant improvement in pupils' achievement. Decentralisation could be successful, however, when combined with reliable strategies such as good initial teacher-training employing a wide set of teaching models; the use of well-tested scripts, guides or frameworks; and the systematic assignment of the best teachers to first grade.

  9. The Spanish decentralised international cooperation in Central America in the area of municipalism and decentralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Haedo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to link the international dimension with the local one, this article lays out an approach to the situation of Spanish decentralised international cooperation in the area of municipalism and decentralisation in the countries of Central America. In the firstplace, it offers a characterisation of the current state of Spanish decentralised cooperation in order to thus frame the cooperation actions carried out by the Barcelona Provincial Council; the UIM (Unión Iberoamericana de Municipios together with CEMCI (Centro de Estudios Municipales y de Cooperación Internacional; and the Confederación de Fondos de Cooperación y Solidaridad. Finally, it describes bankruptcies and it recovers some of the achievements ofthis kind of cooperation specifically in reference to the field of municipalism.

  10. Fiscal decentralisation and infant mortality rate: the Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Farfan, Maria Isabel; Lorant, Vincent

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of research analysing the influence of fiscal decentralisation on health outcomes. Colombia is an interesting case study, as health expenditure there has been decentralising since 1993, leading to an improvement in health care insurance. However, it is unclear whether fiscal decentralisation has improved population health. We assess the effect of fiscal decentralisation of health expenditure on infant mortality rates in Colombia. Infant mortality rates for 1080 municipalities over a 10-year period (1998-2007) were related to fiscal decentralisation by using an unbalanced fixed-effect regression model with robust errors. Fiscal decentralisation was measured as the locally controlled health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure. We also evaluated the effect of transfers from central government and municipal institutional capacity. In addition, we compared the effect of fiscal decentralisation at different levels of municipal poverty. Fiscal decentralisation decreased infant mortality rates (the elasticity was equal to -0.06). However, this effect was stronger in non-poor municipalities (-0.12) than poor ones (-0.081). We conclude that decentralising the fiscal allocation of responsibilities to municipalities decreased infant mortality rates. However, this improved health outcome effect depended greatly on the socio-economic conditions of the localities. The policy instrument used by the Health Minister to evaluate municipal institutional capacity in the health sector needs to be revised.

  11. General Technical Approvals for Decentralised Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS—The Current Situation in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Dierkes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of decentralised, sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS for the treatment of stormwater runoff is becoming increasingly prevalent in Germany. Decentralised SUDS can offer a viable and attractive alternative to end of pipe treatment systems for stormwater runoff from urban areas. However, there is still some uncertainty regarding the long-term performance of SUDS, and the general legislative requirements for SUDS approval and testing. Whilst the allowable pollution levels in stormwater runoff that infiltrate into ground and/or water table are regulated across Germany by the Federal Soil Protection Law, there is presently no federal law addressing the discharge requirements for surface water runoff. The lack of clear guidance can make it difficult for planners and designers to implement these innovative and sustainable stormwater treatment systems. This study clarifies the current understanding of urban stormwater treatment requirements and new technical approval guidelines for decentralised SUDS devices in Germany. The study findings should assist researchers, designers and asset managers to better anticipate and understand the performance, effective life-spans, and the planning and maintenance requirements for decentralised SUDS systems. This should help promote even greater use of these systems in the future.

  12. Decentralised combined heat and power in the German Ruhr Valley; assessment of factors blocking uptake and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vietor, Birte; Hoppe, Thomas; Clancy, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Germany, the energy system is undergoing reorganisation from a centralised system based on fossil fuels and nuclear power to a sustainable system based on decentralised production and consumption of energy, the so-called Energiewende. Recently, there has been more attention to impro

  13. Decentralising Indonesian education: the promise and the price

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirrachman, A.; Syafi'i, S.; Welch, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines patterns of decentralisation in education in Indonesia, which were prompted by forces of globalisation and the World Bank in particular. The authors conclude that decentralisation in a country with little experience in local autonomy and democracy is unlikely to produce desirab

  14. Decentralised systems and fuel poverty: Are there any links or risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gordon [Department of Geography, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Farrer Avenue, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: g.p.walker@lancaster.ac.uk

    2008-12-15

    This paper considers the possible links between the development of decentralised or distributed energy systems and the problem of fuel poverty in the UK. The discussion takes on board that decentralised energy systems can take many different forms, in the range of potential technologies that can be used for the local microgeneration of electricity and heat and in the range of ways in which the installation, ownership, operation, networking and maintenance of these technologies can be organised [Walker, G., Cass, N., 2007. Carbon reduction, 'the public' and renewable energy: engaging with sociotechnical configurations. Area 39(4), 458-469; Watson, J., Sauter, R., Bahaj, B., James, A., Myers, L., Wing, R., 2006. Unlocking the Power House: Policy and System Change for Domestic Microgeneration in the UK. SPRU, Brighton]. The focus is on housing and, in particular, on those forms of housing occupied by social groups vulnerable to fuel poverty. Both potential negative links (or risks) and positive links between decentralised generation and fuel poverty are considered. As this is a new area, there is comparatively little literature to draw on and there are significant gaps in knowledge, so some of the discussion is necessarily rather speculative.

  15. Decentralised systems and fuel poverty. Are there any links or risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gordon [Department of Geography, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Farrer Avenue, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    This paper considers the possible links between the development of decentralised or distributed energy systems and the problem of fuel poverty in the UK. The discussion takes on board that decentralised energy systems can take many different forms, in the range of potential technologies that can be used for the local microgeneration of electricity and heat and in the range of ways in which the installation, ownership, operation, networking and maintenance of these technologies can be organised [Walker, G., Cass, N., 2007. Carbon reduction, 'the public' and renewable energy: engaging with sociotechnical configurations. Area 39(4), 458-469; Watson, J., Sauter, R., Bahaj, B., James, A., Myers, L., Wing, R., 2006. Unlocking the Power House: Policy and System Change for Domestic Microgeneration in the UK. SPRU, Brighton]. The focus is on housing and, in particular, on those forms of housing occupied by social groups vulnerable to fuel poverty. Both potential negative links (or risks) and positive links between decentralised generation and fuel poverty are considered. As this is a new area, there is comparatively little literature to draw on and there are significant gaps in knowledge, so some of the discussion is necessarily rather speculative. (author)

  16. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  17. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    L.L. Goshka

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  18. Reliable regulation in decentralised control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Arturo; Schiavoni, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    This article addresses the design of decentralised regulators which supply the control systems with signal tracking and disturbance rejection. This property has to be attained, to the maximum possible extent, even when instrumentation faults occur, thus causing the opening of some feedback loops. The problem is tackled for LTI asymptotically stable plants, subject to perturbations, under the assumption that the Laplace transforms of the exogenous signals have multiple poles on the imaginary axis. The proposed regulator is composed of an LTI nominal controller supervised by a reconfiguration block. Once the actions of the reconfiguration block have been settled, the synthesis of the nominal controller is reformulated as a suitable regulation problem. A constructive sufficient condition for its solvability is established. This condition turns out to be also necessary if the exogenous signals are polynomial in time.

  19. Income inequality, decentralisation, and regional development in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tselios, Vassilis; Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Pike, Andy; Tomaney, John; Torrisi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between decentralisation, regional economic development, and income inequality within regions. Using multiplicative interaction models and regionally aggregated microeconomic data for more than 100000 individuals in the European Union (EU), it addresses two mai

  20. Decentralisation, Decision Space and Directions for Future Research; Comment on “Decentralisation of Health Services in Fiji: A Decision Space Analysis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zahmatkesh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Decentralisation continues to re-appear in health system reform across the world. Evaluation of these reforms reveals how research on decentralisation continues to evolve. In this paper, we examine the theoretical foundations and empirical references which underpin current approaches to studying decentralisation in health systems.

  1. Housing submarket differentiation under conditions of capital decentralisation -- Albury - Wodonga, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    R J King; J A Fitzmaurice

    1990-01-01

    Albury - Wodonga was designated a 'national growth centre' in 1974. Whereas the metropolitan centres, most notably Sydney and Melbourne, have been subject to capital centralisation, deindustrialisation, and the shift to a 'service economy', Albury - Wodonga has been a recipient centre for capital decentralisation and for industrial growth, with dependent links to the dominant economies of Sydney and, principally, Melbourne, In this paper, housing market behaviour, especially the increasing di...

  2. A Hybrid Continuous Max-Sum Algorithm for Decentralised Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Voice, Thomas; Stranders, Ruben; Rogers, Alex; Jennings, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in decentralised coordination of multiple agents have led to the proposal of the max-sum algorithm for solving distributed constraint optimisation problems (DCOPs). The max-sum algorithm is fully decentralised, converges to optimality for problems with acyclic constraint graphs and otherwise performs well in empirical studies. However, it requires agents to have discrete state spaces, which are of practical size to conduct repeated searches over. In contrast, there are decentr...

  3. Does Decentralisation Enhance a School's Role of Promoting Social Cohesion? Bosnian School Leaders' Perceptions of School Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Taro

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand whether and how decentralised school governance in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) enhances the schools' role of promoting social cohesion. This includes increasing "horizontal" trust among different ethnic groups and "vertical" trust between civilians and public institutes. The study examined…

  4. The Wind Energy in Power Production and Its Importance in Geography Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkacsy, Bela

    2005-01-01

    Wind energy is an increasingly important factor of the power system in Europe. But it is still just a small part of the significant changes of the new millennium, namely the spreading of micro power and decentralisation of the whole energy system which are very important elements of sustainability. This paper shows the importance of wind power…

  5. SOFC high-temperature fuel cell for decentralised energy supply - state of the art and first operating experiences; Die Hochtemperatur Brennstoffzelle SOFC in der dezentralen Energieversorgung - Technischer Stand und erste Betriebserfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, L. [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Sukkel, J. [NUON Milieubedrijf, Arnheim (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    Due to its high efficiency and environmental friendliness, which is accounted for by its perfect adaptability to natural gas, the SOFC high-temperature fuel cell is especially well suited for decentralised power and heat supply systems. While the planar SOFC version is still largely in the development stage, with units of up to 10kW under study at various research institutions, the pipe version of Siemens Westinghouse has already reached a more advanced technical stage. A first 100 kW demonstration plant is being operated in the Netherlands by the Dutch/Danish EDB/ELSAM consortium. Despite certain starting difficulties the first 6,000 operating hours showed a very satisfactory behaviour. Net electrical efficiency reached 46%, a globally unrivalled achievement for a plant of this size. Using this concept as a starting point Siemens plans to put demonstration plants of up to 3 MW into operation in the course of the next three years. [German] Die Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzelle SOFC ist aufgrund ihres hohen Wirkungsgrades und ihrer Umweltfreundlichkeit und durch den problemlosen Einsatzes von Erdgas besonders gut fuer die dezentrale Versorgung mit Strom und Waerme geeignet. Waehrend sich die planare SOFC noch weitgehend im Entwicklungsstadium von Einheiten bis 10 kW befindet und in Deutschland vorwiegend an Forschungseinrichtungen untersucht wird hat das Roehrenkonzept von Siemens Westinghouse bereits einen fortgeschrittenen technischen Stand erreicht. Eine erste 100 kW Demo-Anlage wird in den Niederlanden von dem hollaendisch/daenischen Konsortium EDB/ELSAM betrieben. Trotz einiger Startschwierigkeiten zeigten die ersten 6000 Betriebsstunden ein sehr zufriedenstellendes Verhalten. Mit 46% elektrischem Nettowirkungsgrad wurde ein fuer Anlagen dieser Groessenordnung bislang weltweit einmaliger Wert erreicht. Die Siemens AG plant, basierend auf diesem Konzept, in den naechsten drei Jahren Demonstrationsanlagen bis 1 MW in Betrieb zu nehmen. (orig.)

  6. A Design Pattern for Decentralised Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreagiovanni Reina

    Full Text Available The engineering of large-scale decentralised systems requires sound methodologies to guarantee the attainment of the desired macroscopic system-level behaviour given the microscopic individual-level implementation. While a general-purpose methodology is currently out of reach, specific solutions can be given to broad classes of problems by means of well-conceived design patterns. We propose a design pattern for collective decision making grounded on experimental/theoretical studies of the nest-site selection behaviour observed in honeybee swarms (Apis mellifera. The way in which honeybee swarms arrive at consensus is fairly well-understood at the macroscopic level. We provide formal guidelines for the microscopic implementation of collective decisions to quantitatively match the macroscopic predictions. We discuss implementation strategies based on both homogeneous and heterogeneous multiagent systems, and we provide means to deal with spatial and topological factors that have a bearing on the micro-macro link. Finally, we exploit the design pattern in two case studies that showcase the viability of the approach. Besides engineering, such a design pattern can prove useful for a deeper understanding of decision making in natural systems thanks to the inclusion of individual heterogeneities and spatial factors, which are often disregarded in theoretical modelling.

  7. A Design Pattern for Decentralised Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Andreagiovanni; Valentini, Gabriele; Fernández-Oto, Cristian; Dorigo, Marco; Trianni, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The engineering of large-scale decentralised systems requires sound methodologies to guarantee the attainment of the desired macroscopic system-level behaviour given the microscopic individual-level implementation. While a general-purpose methodology is currently out of reach, specific solutions can be given to broad classes of problems by means of well-conceived design patterns. We propose a design pattern for collective decision making grounded on experimental/theoretical studies of the nest-site selection behaviour observed in honeybee swarms (Apis mellifera). The way in which honeybee swarms arrive at consensus is fairly well-understood at the macroscopic level. We provide formal guidelines for the microscopic implementation of collective decisions to quantitatively match the macroscopic predictions. We discuss implementation strategies based on both homogeneous and heterogeneous multiagent systems, and we provide means to deal with spatial and topological factors that have a bearing on the micro-macro link. Finally, we exploit the design pattern in two case studies that showcase the viability of the approach. Besides engineering, such a design pattern can prove useful for a deeper understanding of decision making in natural systems thanks to the inclusion of individual heterogeneities and spatial factors, which are often disregarded in theoretical modelling.

  8. Increasing Resiliency Through Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [unaffiliated

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology to quantify the economic and resiliency benefit provided by renewable energy (RE) in a hybrid RE-storage-diesel microgrid. We present a case study to show how this methodology is applied to a multi-use/ multi-function telecommunications facility in southern California. In the case study, we first identify photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) technologies that minimize the lifecycle cost of energy at the site under normal, grid-connected operation. We then evaluate how those technologies could be incorporated alongside existing diesel generators in a microgrid to increase resiliency at the site, where resiliency is quantified in terms of the amount of time that the microgrid can sustain the critical load during a grid outage. We find that adding PV and BESS to the existing backup diesel generators with a fixed fuel supply extends the amount of time the site could survive an outage by 1.8 days, from 1.7 days for the existing diesel-only backup system to 3.5 days for the PV/diesel/BESS hybrid system. Furthermore, even after diesel fuel supplies are exhausted, the site can continue to operate critical loads during daytime hours using just the PV/BESS when there is sufficient solar resource. We find that the site can save approximately $100,000 in energy costs over the 25-year lifecycle while doubling the amount of time they can survive an outage. The methodology presented here provides a template for increasing resiliency at telecomm sites by implementing renewable energy solutions, which provide additional benefits of carbon emission reduction and energy cost savings.

  9. ASEAN energy cooperation an increasingly daunting challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, F.

    2009-07-01

    East Asia has been the fastest growing region in the world since the early 1980's. Arguably, all countries in the region are set for a period of economic, to some extent demographic, and urban expansion. Since energy is a vital factor in driving economic growth, higher energy consumption can be expected in the coming decades in this part of the world. Although the strong growth is to a large extent due to China, Southeast Asian economies also record stellar economic performances and account for the dramatic rise in energy consumption. The Tokyo-based Asia-Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC) projects that energy demand in the region (excluding Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar) will double from 252 million tons of oil equivalent (mtoe) to 525 mtoe between 1999 and 2020. How to best meet this demand poses a range of policy challenges for the region's governments not only at the individual but also at the regional level (Symon 2004). In Southeast Asia (SEA), energy sector development has implications for inter-governmental relations for a number of reasons. First, the pursuit of domestic energy goals can affect neighboring countries, as exemplified for instance by the construction of dams for hydropower in shared river systems in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Secondly, domestic gas and power systems are expected to be increasingly supported by pipelines and transmission links with other countries, thus opening the possibilities of system integration to meet demand at lower cost. Lastly, with fossil fuels as the primary source of energy supply, problems of environmental degradation as well as of availability (associated in particular with high oil dependency) are doomed to loom large in this part of the world and could be better met through intra-regional cooperation. A major characteristic of the region is the presence of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which is the only formal grouping of economic cooperation in Asia. Prima facie

  10. Centralised versus Decentralised Control Reconfiguration for Collaborating Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furno, Lidia; Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The present paper introduces an approach to fault-tolerant reconfiguration for collaborating underwater robots. Fault-tolerant reconfiguration is obtained using the virtual actuator approach, Steen (2005). The paper investigates properties of a centralised versus a decentralised implementation...... an underwater drill needs to be transported and positioned by three collaborating robots as part of an underwater autonomous operation....... and assesses the capabilities under communication constraints between the individual robots. In the centralised case, each robot sends information related to its own status to a unique virtual actuator that computes the necessary reconfiguration. In the decentralised case, each robot is equipped with its own...

  11. ON INCREASING ENERGY SECURITY OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is provided by the minimum required ratio of domestic and imported energy resources. Therefore, in the energy sector energy efficiency should be increased through the use of its own energy resources. Over the last hundred years of development of geological science a preferential distribution of oil and gas fields to areas (blocks of geological faults, many of which reach the surface of the foundation of our planet, has been determined. The complex process of oil and gas formation is predetermined by geological, geochemical, hydrogeological and other factors. The concepts of organic and inorganic origin of oil and gas are also relevant in the context under consideration. The formation of sufficient oil and gas fields is possible in the presence of highly porous and fractured rocks (for oil or so-called gas traps. Promising for the discovery of sufficient oil and gas fields are the central and southern areas of the Pripyat trough and the areas on the borders Mikashevichsi-Zhitkovichi ledge. The geological conditions of the areas in the Southern part of the Podlaska-Brest and the North-Eastern part of the Orsha troughs require most thorough investigations. In the area of the Belarusian anteclise, especially near the Baltic syneclise, at great depths in porous rocks the presence of oil and gas deposits of inorganic origin is possible. The use of plasma-pulse impact (that is a very effective one on the oil and gas underground reservoirs requires a study of the feasibility of their use in new and existing waste deposits. In the exploration of minerals such “exotic” methods, as the assessment of the discharge of helium, radon, radioactive analysis, etc. should also be applied. It is necessary to detect a possible fault zones and prospective search of hydrocarbon energy resources. To ensure energy security of Belarus, the evaluation of the possibility of using associated gas to supply with it a significant part of the country should

  12. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  13. The Politics of Privatisation, Decentralisation and Education Reform in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Reform in the Mexican education system accords with global patterns of liberalisation, decentralisation, compensatory programs and accountability. The present study analyses reform in that country during the past 15 years. It reveals that despite expectations of change attending the installation of the new government which replaced the ruling…

  14. Decentralisation in Uganda: Prospects for Improved Service Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    ... for this focus is that most of the social services such as health, education, water and sanitation .... In Mexico, decentralisation was seen as strengthening .... 1996 found that the most common problem facing the health sector was that no drugs ...

  15. Health system decentralisation in Nepal: identifying the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Charles; Omar, Mayeh; Adhikari, Damodar; Dhakal, Ramji; Emmel, Nick; Dhakal, Megha Raj; Chand, Padam; Thapa, Druba; Singh, Arjun B

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss policy analysis in Nepal and review the wide range of choices feasible in decentralisation decision making. In this paper an iterative qualitative method was developed and used in the research, which consisted of focus group interviews, key informant interviews, document analysis, including descriptive statistics, and analysis of the policy context. Participants in the research reflected the urban/rural mix of districts and the geography of Nepal. Analysis combined transcribed interviews with findings from document searches and analysis of the policy context. Coding was pre-determined during the training workshop and further codes were generated during and after the fieldwork. The paper finds that Nepal is in the process of decentralising public services from the central level to the local level, particularly to local bodies: District Development Committees (DDCs), Village Development Committees (VDCs) and Municipalities. Key contextual factors referred to are the overall structure of decentralisation, the social context of poverty and the political instability leading to a fluid political situation characterised by political tension, armed conflict, controversies and agreements while carrying out the research. The key issues identified and discussed in the paper are the policy process leading to decentralisation, the organisational structure and tension in the proposed system, the systems of resource generation, allocation, planning and management and lastly the forms of accountability, participation, public-private relations and collaborative strategies. The paper discusses the challenges faced in conducting such a policy analysis, the broad ranging and unremitting nature of the decentralisation process, and the contextual setting of the process of change.

  16. An analysis of marketing authorisation applications via the mutual recognition and decentralised procedures in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbers, Hans C; Langedijk, Joris; Bouvy, Jacoline C;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the outcomes of marketing authorisation applications via the mutual recognition and decentralised procedures (MRP/DCP) and assess determinants of licensing failure during CMDh referral procedures. METHODS: All MRP...... in a referral has reduced substantially over the past years, no specific time trend could be observed regarding the frequency of referrals resulting in licensing failure. Increased knowledge at the level of companies and regulators has reduced the frequency of late-stage failure of marketing applications via...

  17. 2009 Melbourne metropolitan sewerage strategy: a portfolio of decentralised and on-site concept designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V; Jackson, D W; Khalifé, M

    2010-01-01

    The bulk and retail water companies of the greater Melbourne area are developing the 2009 Metropolitan Sewerage Strategy to provide sustainable sewerage services to 2060. The objective of the strategy is to establish long term principles and near term actions to produce a robust sewage management system for Melbourne. Melbourne's existing sewerage system is largely centralised and discharges to two major treatment plants. Several small satellite treatment plants service local urban areas generally more distant from the centralised system. Decentralised and on-site wastewater systems are options for future sewage management and could play a role in local recycling. A portfolio of 18 on-site and decentralised concept designs was developed, applicable to the full range of urban development types in Melbourne. The concepts can be used in evaluation of metropolitan system configurations as part of future integrated water cycle planning. The options included secondary and tertiary treatment systems incorporating re-use of water for non potable uses, urine separation, black and greywater separation and composting toilets. On-site and cluster treatment systems were analysed. Each option is described by its indicative capital and operating costs, energy use and water and nutrient balances. This paper summarises and compares the portfolio mix of decentralized and on-site options in Melbourne's context.

  18. Regional Decentralisation in the Greek Health Care System: Rhetoric and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Athanasios; Kostopoulou, Stella; Philalithis, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Decentralisation is a complex, yet basic feature of health care systems in many countries entailing the transfer of authority or dispersal of power in public planning, management and decision making from higher to lower levels of government. This paper describes the attempts made in Greece from 1923 until today to decentralise its highly centralised health care system, drawing on a thorough documentary analysis of legislative acts and official reports regarding regional health policy. The analysis shows that, although decentralisation has been attempted on several occasions, in the end it was abandoned every time. The first ever implementation of a decentralised system of governance in 2001 was also curtailed, resulting in only minor decentralisation of authority and real powers. It is suggested that decentralisation has been impeded by many factors, especially obstruction by opposition from key interest groups, absence of policy continuity between governments, the inability to tackle the bureaucratic and highly centralised system and lack of political will. PMID:26153163

  19. Regional Decentralisation in the Greek Health Care System: Rhetoric and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Athanasios; Kostopoulou, Stella; Philalithis, Anastas

    2015-03-30

    Decentralisation is a complex, yet basic feature of health care systems in many countries entailing the transfer of authority or dispersal of power in public planning, management and decision making from higher to lower levels of government. This paper describes the attempts made in Greece from 1923 until today to decentralise its highly centralised health care system, drawing on a thorough documentary analysis of legislative acts and official reports regarding regional health policy. The analysis shows that, although decentralisation has been attempted on several occasions, in the end it was abandoned every time. The first ever implementation of a decentralised system of governance in 2001 was also curtailed, resulting in only minor decentralisation of authority and real powers. It is suggested that decentralisation has been impeded by many factors, especially obstruction by opposition from key interest groups, absence of policy continuity between governments, the inability to tackle the bureaucratic and highly centralised system and lack of political will.

  20. Centralising and optimising decentralised stroke care systems: a simulation study on short-term costs and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten M. H. Lahr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Centralisation of thrombolysis may offer substantial benefits. The aim of this study was to assess short term costs and effects of centralisation of thrombolysis and optimised care in a decentralised system. Methods Using simulation modelling, three scenarios to improve decentralised settings in the North of Netherlands were compared from the perspective of the policy maker and compared to current decentralised care: (1 improving stroke care at nine separate hospitals, (2 centralising and improving thrombolysis treatment to four, and (3 two hospitals. Outcomes were annual mean and incremental costs per patient up to the treatment with thrombolysis, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (iCER per 1% increase in thrombolysis rate, and the proportion treated with thrombolysis. Results Compared to current decentralised care, improving stroke care at individual community hospitals led to mean annual costs per patient of $US 1,834 (95% CI, 1,823–1,843 whereas centralising to four and two hospitals led to $US 1,462 (95% CI, 1,451–1,473 and $US 1,317 (95% CI, 1,306–1,328, respectively (P < 0.001. The iCER of improving community hospitals was $US 113 (95% CI, 91–150 and $US 71 (95% CI, 59–94, $US 56 (95% CI, 44–74 when centralising to four and two hospitals, respectively. Thrombolysis rates decreased from 22.4 to 21.8% and 21.2% (P = 0.120 and P = 0.001 in case of increasing centralisation. Conclusions Centralising thrombolysis substantially lowers mean annual costs per patient compared to raising stroke care at community hospitals simultaneously. Small, but negative effects on thrombolysis rates may be expected.

  1. A framework for the decentralised management of wastewater in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhapi, Innocent

    The traditional wastewater management style is now presenting some problems, having evolved from a situation of small communities, little industrial activities, and abundance of freshwater. The style is characterized by high water consumption and large treatment plants that employ sophisticated treatment systems with final effluent discharged to rivers. This paper focuses on analysis and development of an alternative strategy of decentralised wastewater management in Zimbabwe. Serious pollution problems related to inappropriate effluent discharges are prevalent necessitating an efficient and reliable strategy of controlling environmental pollution whilst obtaining optimal benefits from wastewater reuse. A conceptual plan for the decentralised strategy was developed taking into account capital and operational costs, wastewater generation patterns and quality, and urban agriculture. Maize cultivation was used to illustrate the implications of water and nutrient utilisation potential of the strategy. It was concluded that the strategy would suit high and medium density dwellings in Zimbabwe and that greywater separation can be used as part of the strategy.

  2. Decentralisation and Poverty Reduction: A Conceptual Framework for the Economic Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Steiner

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to providing insights into the impact of decentralisation on poverty. It starts out with an overview of which role decentralisation plays in strategies and policies for poverty eradication and derives economic and political impact channels. It concentrates on the economic channel, the reasoning of which is rooted in fiscal federalism theory. It shows that decentralisation cannot only influence poverty by assigning expenditure responsibility to lower levels of government...

  3. Decentralisation in India: Towards ‘Localism’ or ‘Regionalism’?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gopinath

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a commentary on what decentralisation has come to mean in India, based on recent research conducted in Kerala, one of the southern states. In particular, the paper discusses the tensions between ‘regionalism’ and ‘localism’. It begins with a brief outline of how decentralisation is conceived within the broad literature. This is followed by a case study, where the shifts in forms of decentralisation adopted by the Kerala state government are examined. The paper concludes with key findings that underpin an understanding of decentralisation within the Indian context.

  4. The Implementation of the Decentralisation and Deconcentration Strategies in the Romanian Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BILOUSEAC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Both deconcentration and decentralisation are used in the organisation of public services in Romania, but the lack of additional details has brought about confusion in the practical application of the two principles. When implementing decentralisation and deconcentration in the management of public services, one must use a series of specific public management principles and regulations that should be constantly interdependent, aspects that the present paper will tackle. The reform of public administration is currently focused on continuing the decentralisation process in several types of activities, while the apparent trend is to turn certain deconcentrated public services into decentralised ones.

  5. Fostering Sustained Energy Behavior Change and Increasing Energy Literacy in a Student Housing Energy Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Robert Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We designed the Kukui Cup challenge to foster energy conservation and increase energy literacy. Based on a review of the literature, the challenge combined a variety of elements into an overall game experience, including: real-time energy feedback, goals, commitments, competition, and prizes. We designed a software system called Makahiki to…

  6. Reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by means of expansion, information technological cross-linking and grid optimization of plans for the utilization of decentral, fluctuating and renewable energy in Germany; CO{sub 2}-Emissionsminderung durch Ausbau, informationstechnische Vernetzung und Netzoptimierung von Anlagen dezentraler, fluktuierender und erneuerbarer Energienutzung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanz, Marco; Fricke, Barbara; Anthrakidis, Anette [FH Aachen (DE). Solar-Institut Juelich] (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The German energy system is currently in a state of extensive transformation, which is primarily driven by the set of problems stemming from fossil energy sources and nuclear fuels being a finite resource and the largely unsolved problems arising from their use and the waste products and by-products that are generated through this use. An important goal of the pursued transformation of the German energy system, which has already been set in motion, is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions - in particular carbon dioxide, which is a by-product of the provision of the effective energies electricity and heat. Renewable energy sources and - in a transitional phase - decentralised fossil energy sources are to be used as alternatives to conventional fuels. But the question arises of the extent to which basic structural characteristics of the existing energy supply system should change: not only could the provision of electricity in Germany, which has been produced in large centralised power plants up to now, be decentralised, but also regulatory entities and the power marketplaces on which decentralised demand and supply are coordinated. This analysis examines - on the basis of a comprehensive description of the different system components on which the modelling of a specific distribution grid is based - the extent to which decentralisation of the German energy system can contribute to the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. To this end the dimensions of a possible decentralisation and their complex interactions are examined: - Basic framework conditions of policy and the energy industry for this decentralisation and the sub-markets of the electricity sector, which have already started to change, partly as a result of the increasing share of fluctuating production. In future the sub-markets are to play an important role in equalising fluctuating production; - Questions related to the integration of decentralised and renewable production, above all in terms of their integration

  7. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  8. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  9. Fostering sustained energy behavior change and increasing energy literacy in a student housing energy challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Robert Stephen

    We designed the Kukui Cup challenge to foster energy conservation and increase energy literacy. Based on a review of the literature, the challenge combined a variety of elements into an overall game experience, including: real-time energy feedback, goals, commitments, competition, and prizes. We designed a software system called Makahiki to provide the online portion of the Kukui Cup challenge. Energy use was monitored by smart meters installed on each floor of the Hale Aloha residence halls on the University of Hawai'i at Manoa campus. In October 2011, we ran the UH Kukui Cup challenge for the over 1000 residents of the Hale Aloha towers. To evaluate the Kukui Cup challenge, I conducted three experiments: challenge participation, energy literacy, and energy use. Many residents participated in the challenge, as measured by points earned and actions completed through the challenge website. I measured the energy literacy of a random sample of Hale Aloha residents using an online energy literacy questionnaire administered before and after the challenge. I found that challenge participants' energy knowledge increased significantly compared to non-challenge participants. Positive self-reported energy behaviors increased after the challenge for both challenge participants and non-participants, leading to the possibility of passive participation by the non-challenge participants. I found that energy use varied substantially between and within lounges over time. Variations in energy use over time complicated the selection of a baseline of energy use to compare the levels during and after the challenge. The best team reduced its energy use during the challenge by 16%. However, team energy conservation did not appear to correlate to participation in the challenge, and there was no evidence of sustained energy conservation after the challenge. The problems inherent in assessing energy conservation using a baseline call into question this common practice. My research has

  10. Decentralisation and Development: Can Uganda now pass the test of being a role model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ssonko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uganda’s Government of the National Resistance Movement (NRM assumed power in 1986, in an environment of political turmoil, and initiated a policy of decentralisation as a way of restoring state credibility and deepening democracy. Decentralisation was accordingly legislated under the Local Government Act of 1997, as a framework act directing the decentralisation process. The aim of the Act was to enable implementation of decentralisation provisions provided for under Chapter 11 of the 1995 National Constitution. The decentralisation policy in Uganda aimed at improving local democracy, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability in the delivery of essential services country-wide. Improved service delivery was in turn expected to make significant positive impact on people’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the implementation of decentralisation appears to have concentrated more on administrative objectives as a means of promoting popular democracy and less on service delivery which would have led to economic transformation and better lives for the majority of Ugandans, and now new districts are being created without corresponding improvements in service delivery. Surprisingly, this is happening in the midst of external praise that decentralisation reform in Uganda is one of the most far-reaching local government reform programmes in the developing world. The paper explores the role of decentralisation in development and how it can be undermined by political factors. It highlights the development of decentralisation in Uganda, discusses its achievements, failure and challenges, and concludes that the decentralisation programme which was ambitious and politically driven has had mixed results in terms of enhancing service delivery and should be seriously reviewed and strengthened if it is to remain as a role model in Africa.

  11. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse...... of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and technologies...... which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial gravel...

  12. An analysis of marketing authorisation applications via the mutual recognition and decentralised procedures in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbers, Hans C; Langedijk, Joris; Bouvy, Jacoline C; Hoekman, Jarno; Boon, Wouter P C; de Jong, Jean Philippe; De Bruin, Marie L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the outcomes of marketing authorisation applications via the mutual recognition and decentralised procedures (MRP/DCP) and assess determinants of licensing failure during CMDh referral procedures. All MRP/DCP procedures to the Co-ordination group for Mutual recognition and Decentralised procedures-human (CMDh) during the period from January 2006 to December 2013 were analysed. Reasons for starting referral procedures were scored. In addition, a survey under pharmaceutical companies was performed to estimate the frequency of licensing failure prior to CMDh referrals. During the study period, 10392 MRP/DCP procedures were finalized. Three hundred seventy-seven (3.6%) resulted in a referral procedure, of which 70 (19%) resulted in licensing failure, defined as refusal or withdrawal of the application. The frequency of CMDh referrals decreased from 14.5% in 2006 to 1.6% in 2013. Of all referrals, 272 (72%) were resolved through consensus within the CMDh, the remaining 105 (28%) were resolved at the level of the CHMP. Most referrals were started because of objections raised about the clinical development program. Study design issues and objections about the demonstration of equivalence were most likely to result in licensing failure. An estimated 11% of all MRP/DCP procedures resulted in licensing failure prior to CMDh referral. Whereas the absolute number of MRP/DCP procedures resulting in a referral has reduced substantially over the past years, no specific time trend could be observed regarding the frequency of referrals resulting in licensing failure. Increased knowledge at the level of companies and regulators has reduced the frequency of late-stage failure of marketing applications via the MRP/DCP.

  13. Can Holographic dark energy increase the mass of the wormhole?

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Altaibayeva, Aziza; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have studied accretion of dark energy (DE) onto Morris- Thorne wormhole with three different forms, namely, holographic dark energy, holographic Ricci dark energy and modified holographic Ricci dark energy . Considering the scale factor in power-law form we have observed that as the holographic dark energy accretes onto wormhole, the mass of the wormhole is decreasing. In the next phase we considered three parameterization schemes that are able to get hold of quintessence as well as phantom phases. Without any choice of scale factor we reconstructed Hubble parameter from conservation equation and dark energy densities and subsequently got the mass of the wormhole separately for accretion of the three dark energy candidates. It was observed that if these dark energies accrete onto the wormhole, then for quintessence stage, wormhole mass decreases up to a certain finite value and then again increases to aggressively during phantom phase of the universe.

  14. DDDRC: decentralised data dissemination in VANET using raptor codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dave, Mayank

    2015-06-01

    The design of data dissemination protocol has been a great challenge due to the highly dynamic and unreliable wireless channel in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET). In literature, several interesting solutions are proposed to perform data dissemination for this environment. But these solutions either use architectures requiring centralised coordination or global network knowledge or large intermediate buffers. In this paper, we propose a decentralised technique that overcomes above requirements and provides reliable and scalable communication in both dense and sparse traffic for VANET. Random walks are used in the proposed technique to disseminate data from one vehicle to other vehicles in the network. We use raptor codes to provide low decoding complexity and more scalability for data dissemination. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed technique has better fault tolerance with lower complexity than general random-walk-based dissemination process and more scalability as compared to the other protocols.

  15. Anaerobic treatment in decentralised and source-separation-based sanitation concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater should be a core technology employed in decentralised sanitation systems especially when their objective is also resource conservation and reuse. The most efficient system involves separate collection and anaerobic digestion of the most concentrated domestic wastewa

  16. Local level service delivery, decentralisation and governance: A comparative study of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Tidemand

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises key findings from a comprehensive analysis commissioned by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA of the nature of decentralisation in the three East African countries: Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The specific objectives of the study were: • Provide a basic comparative analysis of the forms and processes of decentralisation reforms in the three countries • Analyse the specific modalities in the three countries for local service delivery planning and provision within the three sectors of basic education, primary health care and agricultural extension, with a particular emphasis on rural areas. TIDEMAND: Local level service delivery, decentralisation and governance: A comparative study of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania CJLG May 2009 145 • Explore the impact of the specific forms of decentralisation and local level service delivery arrangements in terms of efficiency, accountability (transparency and democratic process (participation.

  17. Decentralised stabilising controllers for a class of large-scale linear systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Jha; K Patralekh; R Singh

    2000-12-01

    A simple method for computing decentralised stabilising controllers for a class of large-scale (interconnected) linear systems has been developed. Decentralised controls are optimal controls at subsystem level and are generated from the solution of algebraic Riccati equations for decoupled subsystems resulting from a new aggregation-decomposition technique. The method has been illustrated through a numerical example of a large-scale linear system consisting of three subsystems each of the fourth order.

  18. Heavy Industry Share Increase Is Causing Higher Energy Consumptioni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐志新; 陈文颖; 吴宗鑫

    2007-01-01

    The"11th Five-Year"plan sets the objective of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% in five years.Readjusting industrial structure is one of the possible means to reach this goal.As for energy consumption reduction through industrial readjustment,however,present research only explores the effects of industry structural change in the six sectors such as agriculture,industry,construction,transportation and commerce,yet without considering the ramifications of sub-sector two-digit code industry structure.In this paper,we have calculated the effects of structural change in light- heavy industries on energy consumption and energy intensity from 1993 to 2005 using the factor decomposition method.As a result,we found for each percentage point gain in favour of heavy industry in the light-heavy industry mix,China’s energy consumption increases by nearly 9 million metric tons of coal equivalent.However the overall effects of structural change in light-heavy industry are less than those of sub-sector intensity factors on industrial energy intensity and energy consumption per unit of GDP.The heavy industry share gain has over recent years exerted a significant impact on industrial energy intensity.For example,78% of the abnormal increase in industrial energy intensity in 2003 could be attributed to this factor.Finally,an analytical framework for energy intensity based on this study is presented.

  19. A novel decentralised event-triggered ? control for network control systems with communication delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuqiang; Fu, Jingqi; Du, Dajun

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies a novel decentralised event-triggered ? control for network control systems with communication delays and external disturbances. To overcome the drawbacks that the relative event-triggered mechanism (ETM) generates many events when system is close to the origin and the absolute ETM produces many events when system is far away from the origin, a novel decentralised sampled-data-based ETM is first proposed. By using both local state-dependent and state-independent information, the decentralised ETM can effectively reduce network loads in each channel during the whole operation time. Then, a novel general system model with parameters of the decentralised ETM, communication delays and external disturbances is presented, and sufficient conditions for the ultimately bounded stability and asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system are obtained. Specially, the quantitative relationship between the boundness of the stability region and the parameters of the decentralised ETM is established. Moreover, to overcome the inconvenience of the two-step design method that controllers are required to be given a priori, a co-design scheme is presented to design the decentralised event generators and the output-based controller simultaneously. Finally, numerical examples confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Do increases in energy efficiency improve environmental quality and sustainability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Nick [Department of Economics, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland (United Kingdom); McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim; Turner, Karen [Fraser of Allander Institute and Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Governments world-wide increasingly see energy efficiency as an important aspect of sustainability. However, there is a debate in the literature as to whether the impact of improved energy efficiency on reducing energy use might be partially, or more than wholly, offset through 'rebound' and 'backfire' effects. This paper clarifies the theoretical conditions under which such effects would occur and explores their likely significance using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Scottish economy. We find that for Scotland a general improvement in energy efficiency in the production sectors of the economy initially produces rebound effects that eventually grow into backfire. Energy use ultimately increases in response to an efficiency gain and the ratio of GDP to CO{sub 2} emissions falls. The economic factors underpinning rebound effects are straightforward: energy efficiency improvements result in an effective cut in energy prices, which produces output, substitution, competitiveness and income effects that stimulate energy demands. However, the presence of strong rebound or even backfire does not mean that efficiency-enhancing policies are irrelevant: rather it suggests that such policies operating alone are insufficient to generate environmental improvements. The implication is that a co-ordinated portfolio of energy policies is required. (author)

  1. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  2. Low-energy proton increases associated with interplanetary shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, R. A. R.; Allum, F. R.; Rao, U. R.

    1971-01-01

    Impulsive increases in the low energy proton flux observed by the Explorer 34 satellite, in very close time association with geomagnetic storm sudden commencements are described. It is shown that these events are of short duration (20-30 min) and occur only during the decay phase of a solar cosmic-ray flare event. The differential energy spectrum and the angular distribution of the direction of arrival of the particles are discussed. Two similar increases observed far away from the earth by the Pioneer 7 and 8 deep-space probes are also presented. These impulsive increases are compared with Energetic Storm Particle events and their similarities and differences are discussed. A model is suggested to explain these increases, based on the sweeping and trapping of low energy cosmic rays of solar origin by the advancing shock front responsible for the sudden commencement detected on the earth.

  3. RATIONAL INCREASING OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF SACRAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra REPELEWICZ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of increasing energy efficiency of sacral buildings. Churches in the Zawiercie pastoral district of the Archdiocese of Czestochowa have been used as examples of typical sacral buildings of low energy efficiency. Such structures need to be thermally insulated during their use. Certain possibilities of raisingthe energy efficiency of churches have been presented. The paper describes different systems: increasingof wall and roof insulation, installation of new windows, and modern heating systems. Installation of a new heating system has been considered the most effective and the easiest to be implemented one.

  4. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  5. Coordination of decentralised CHP units for a grid-oriented operation mode; Koordination dezentraler Kraft-Waerme-Kopplungsanlagen fuer die Verwendung einer netzorientierten Betriebsweise im Verbund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, M. [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. fuer Informatik; Troeschel, M. [OFFIS e.V., Oldenburg (Germany). Betriebliches Informationsmanagement; Schulz, C.; Pielke, M.; Kurrat, M. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochspannungstechnnk und Elektrische Energieanlagen; Slomka, F. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Eingebettete Systeme/Echtzeitsysteme

    2007-07-01

    Decentralised combined heat and power micro-units are considered as an interesting option to reduce the primary energy need and thus the carbon dioxide emissions of buildings. The technology of simultaneous generation of usable heat and electrical power is already available through combustion engine CHPs. In the next years fuel cell CHPs will be added. Due to the current energy price development a rising number of CHP micro-units in the mains electricity grid is expected. Thus for the power supplier the questions, which strategies are used in order to be able to integrate them technically into the grid and economically into the business field, become ever more important. (orig.)

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE INCREASING DEMAND FOR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perticas Diana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During human society’s development on large geographical areas, a series of cultural systems have appeared and have determined a certain approach concerning the environment and social relations. These systems of thought persist even today and they are strongly influenced by individuals’ thinking and approaches in that society, thing that requires a specific approach for the implementation of these relatively new concepts (e.g. sustainable development, pollution, ecological approaches on social life. Furthermore, the continuous growth of the demand for energy in the world is seen as an alarm. Between 1970 and 1997 world energy consumption has almost doubled and it is projected to grow by about 57% during 2004-2030 and the thing which should be mentioned is that with the increasing energy demand, pollution levels will increase too. But we must not forget that electric and thermal power represent one of the basic needs of mankind, and when the fulfilment of this need started to affect the climate and implicitly human health this problem turned into a hardly manageable one. We must not forget that the world’s population is growing rapidly and the level of pollution per capita increased we might even say in direct proportion. In many cases, increased pollution has its explanation in the growing number of individuals at global level and also the increasing needs, desires, aspirations, standard of living, of these. This paper intends to objectively analyse the interconnections that arise between the environment and the growth of the demand for energy, emphasizing the devastating effects of pollution created by burning fossil fuels in order to obtain electric and thermal power as well as the current and future possibilities for the replacement of these energy reserves with renewable energy reserves. The whole analysis will be accompanied by case studies and will follow strictly imposed goals by sustainable development.

  7. Innovative technologies for decentralised water-, wastewater and biowaste management in urban and peri-urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterpohl, R; Braun, U; Oldenburg, M

    2003-01-01

    Avoiding the comingling of water flows coming from different sources and thus obtaining flows with a very low dilution factor is the first and major step key to technical solutions for adequate treatment of household wastewaters. Through their decentral structure and effective recovery of water, energy and fertiliser these systems can be highly cost efficient. Fresh water consumption can be reduced by up to 80% while nutrients can be recovered to a large extent. Source control is also advantageous for hygienic reasons: low volumes are far easier to sanitise. Source separation technology in municipal waste water treatment does often lead decentralised or semicentral systems. The first essential step is the separate collection and treatment of toilet waste in households, which contains almost all pathogens and nutrients. New toilet systems with very low dilution factors, ranging from vacuum- through urine sorting to dry toilets, have been introduced in several projects and proven feasible. New ideas such as the black- and greywater cycle systems are presently under research at the Technical University Hamburg Harburg. Such modular, integrated and small scale systems are only possible through recent advances in membrane technology and, due to their small scale, do have the potential to be installed in densely populated regions. These technologies are options for following the principles of ecological sanitation, to contain, to sanitise and to reuse also in urban areas (EcoSanRes, 2003).

  8. MINDFULNESS – MAY DIMINISH STRESS AND INCREASE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronicus TORP

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is increasingly being applied in companies as a means to increase, among others, employee wellbeing and energy, and in the same time to diminish stress. This paper argues that there seems to be scientific evidence showing that certain mindfulness techniques may diminish stress and increase energy, yet it seems that there is a period in the beginning of the mindfulness practice where the techniques have the opposite effects. These findings seem to be contradictory to past findings, which indicated that only two thirds of people practicing mindfulness techniques have positive effects from that practice. It may be that everybody can have positive effects from the practice of the mentioned techniques, just that some need to practice for a longer period before obtaining these positive effects. Further scientific studies seem to be needed in order to clarify the full spectrum of effects and consequences of practicing different mindfulness techniques, and just as important, if these effects are valid for everybody.

  9. Pedagogical Reforms within a Centralised-Decentralised System: A Singapore's Perspective to Diffuse 21st Century Learning Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Yancy; Hung, Wei Loong David; Chua, Paul Meng-Huat; He, Sujin; Jamaludin, Azilawati

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the dialectical interplay between centralisation and decentralisation forces so as to understand how schools leverage on its autonomous pedagogical space, influence the diffusion of innovations in the educational landscape of Singapore and how a centralised-decentralised system supports (or…

  10. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  11. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2009-06-30

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people's needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities.

  12. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Griffiths, Roland R.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Methods Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from one large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was measured with DSM-IV criteria. Results After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%wt of students were classified as “low-frequency” energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%wt as “high-frequency” users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both non-users (AOR=2.40, 95% CI=1.27-4.56, p=.007) and low-frequency users (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.10, 3.14, p=.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from non-users on their risk for alcohol dependence. Conclusions Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. PMID:21073486

  13. Auxetic piezoelectric energy harvesters for increased electric power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Kuang, Yang; Zhu, Meiling

    2017-01-01

    This letter presents a piezoelectric bimorph with auxetic (negative Poisson's ratio) behaviors for increased power output in vibration energy harvesting. The piezoelectric bimorph comprises a 2D auxetic substrate sandwiched between two piezoelectric layers. The auxetic substrate is capable of introducing auxetic behaviors and thus increasing the transverse stress in the piezoelectric layers when the bimorph is subjected to a longitudinal stretching load. As a result, both 31- and 32-modes are simultaneously exploited to generate electric power, leading to an increased power output. The increasing power output principle was theoretically analyzed and verified by finite element (FE) modelling. The FE modelling results showed that the auxetic substrate can increase the transverse stress of a bimorph by 16.7 times. The average power generated by the auxetic bimorph is 2.76 times of that generated by a conventional bimorph.

  14. Can Energy Drinks Increase the Desire for More Alcohol?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. PMID:25593148

  15. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence.

  16. Increasing nuclear power at liberalised energy markets- case Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syri, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Satka, V.

    2012-10-01

    Several Finnish projections for future electricity demand and the need for peak load capacity indicate a demand growth of about 2 GW from the present to the year 2030. The retirement of existing fossil fuel plants and old nuclear power plants will cause increased net import needs during 2020's, even when assuming additional energy efficiency measures and the commissioning of two new nuclear power plants recently approved by the Finnish Parliament. By the year 2030, the need for additional new capacity will be about 6 GW. The increased dependence on import is in contradiction with the official Government targets. This situation is not unique to Finland, but rather is likely to be the case in many other European countries as well. Both the energy company Fortum and energy-intensive industry in Finland see nuclear energy as a viable future generation technology. We describe the « Mankala » concept which is successfully used to build new nuclear capacity at liberalised electricity market in Finland.

  17. Increasing nuclear power at liberalised energy markets- case Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satka V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several Finnish projections for future electricity demand and the need for peak load capacity indicate a demand growth of about 2 GW from the present to the year 2030. The retirement of existing fossil fuel plants and old nuclear power plants will cause increased net import needs during 2020’s, even when assuming additional energy efficiency measures and the commissioning of two new nuclear power plants recently approved by the Finnish Parliament. By the year 2030, the need for additional new capacity will be about 6 GW. The increased dependence on import is in contradiction with the official Government targets. This situation is not unique to Finland, but rather is likely to be the case in many other European countries as well. Both the energy company Fortum and energy-intensive industry in Finland see nuclear energy as a viable future generation technology. We describe the « Mankala » concept which is successfully used to build new nuclear capacity at liberalised electricity market in Finland.

  18. The invisible politics of Bitcoin: governance crisis of a decentralised infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bitcoin is a decentralised currency and payment system that seeks to eliminate the need for trusted authorities. It relies on a peer-to-peer network and cryptographic protocols to perform the functions of traditional financial intermediaries, such as verifying transactions and preserving the integrity of the system. This article examines the political economy of Bitcoin, in light of a recent dispute that divided the Bitcoin community with regard to a seemingly simple technical issue: whether or not to increase the block size of the Bitcoin blockchain. By looking at the socio-technical constructs of Bitcoin, the article distinguishes between two distinct coordination mechanisms: governance by the infrastructure (achieved via the Bitcoin protocol and governance of the infrastructure (managed by the community of developers and other stakeholders. It then analyses the invisible politics inherent in these two mechanisms, which together display a highly technocratic power structure. On the one hand, as an attempt to be self-governing and self-sustaining, the Bitcoin network exhibits a strong market-driven approach to social trust and coordination, which has been embedded directly into the technical protocol. On the other hand, despite being an open source project, the development and maintenance of the Bitcoin code ultimately relies on a small core of highly skilled developers who play a key role in the design of the platform.

  19. [Marketing of medicinal products in the European Community. The Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The Mutual Recognition Procedure (MRP) and the Decentralised Procedure (DCP), which were first established in late 2005, can be regarded as the backbone for marketing authorisation of medicinal products in the European Community (EC) and the European Economic Area (EEA). Both procedures are compared and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. However, the focus is more related to current developments than the detailed comparison of both procedures. The role of the Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures-Human (CMD(h)) and the decision making process in relation to the MRP and DCP is also discussed.

  20. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  1. Mex3c mutation reduces adiposity and increases energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yan; George, Sunil K; Zhao, Qingguo; Hulver, Matthew W; Hutson, Susan M; Bishop, Colin E; Lu, Baisong

    2012-11-01

    The function of MEX3C, the mammalian homolog of Caenorhabditis elegans RNA-binding protein muscle excess 3 (MEX-3), was unknown until our recent report that MEX3C is necessary for normal postnatal growth and enhances the expression of local bone Igf1 expression. Here we report the pivotal role of Mex3c in energy balance regulation. Mex3c mutation caused leanness in both heterozygous and homozygous transgenic mice, as well as a more beneficial blood glucose and lipid profile in homozygous transgenic mice, in both sexes. Although transgenic mice showed normal food intake and fecal lipid excretion, they had increased energy expenditure independent of physical activity. Mutant mice had normal body temperature, Ucp1 expression in brown adipose tissue, and muscle and liver fatty acid oxidation. Mex3c is expressed in neurons and is detectable in the arcuate nucleus, the ventromedial nucleus, and the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Mex3c was not detected in NPY or POMC neurons but was detected in leptin-responsive neurons in the ventromedial nucleus. Mex3c and Leptin double mutant mice were growth retarded and obese and had blood profiles similar to those of ob/ob mice but showed none of the steatosis observed in ob/ob mice. Our data show that Mex3c is involved in energy balance regulation.

  2. Operational simulation, design and management of decentralized energy systems; Betriebliche Modellierung, Auslegung und Management von dezentralen Energiesystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matics, J.

    2007-06-28

    Chapter 2 describes the worldwide increase of primary energy consumption, which is expected in coming decades and results in possible solutions of a decentralised energy supply that is mainly based upon renewable energy carriers and the use of cogeneration systems. Chapter 3 shows the characteristics of decentralised system components that have been investigated in the frame of this research work as well as the resulting model library to depict the operational performance of the individual components and their mutual influence. A detailed dynamic simulation of a complete fuel cell system based on a steam reformer including the concept of local and superordinate control circuits is presented in chapter 4. Chapter 5 includes the integrated concepts for the intelligent and adaptable management of complex decentralised energy systems as well as a description of their implementation. Apart from the applied metaheuristic optimization methods the adaptable fuzzy-system, used in this case, is presented. The components of the model library of decentralised system components (chapter 3), the dynamic simulation of a complete fuel cell system based on a reformer (chapter 4), as well as the intelligent and adaptable plant management (chapter 5) are used in chapter 6 to investigate the various decentralised energy systems. The investigation focuses in particular on a) the electricity supply of a one-family home based on photovoltaics including different storage technologies and an increasing degree of energetic independence; b) the operational performance of a wind park with 72 individual plants as well as the combination of flywheel mass storage and wind energy plant; c) the control concepts, which have been developed for a fuel cell test stand based on a steam reformer, and their effects on the operation of the individual components as well as their interaction; d) the use of the developed management modules for the flexible and adaptable operation of a cogeneration system for

  3. Decentralisation and Water Resources Management in the Indian Himalayas: The Contribution of New Institutional Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current debate on decentralisation offers a polarised view on the dynamic power relations involved in water resources management. Drawing New Institutionalism as applied in the social and ecological sciences, the paper argues that decentralisation represents a complex adaptive process that involves a combination of natural and a political endeavour by actors and agents to draw on existing structures to negotiate and renegotiate the existing unequal power relations to (mismanage water. Examining a Village in the Indian Himalayas as a case study, the paper demonstrates the significance of New Institutionalism for a comprehensive understanding of the decentralisation as a process, with an intention to identify the opportunities and barriers presented by institutional factors on water resources management. The paper reveals the contemporary top-down decentralised reforms though has helped actors to voice their concern and empowered the agents to remain adaptive, these have not ensured resource use efficiency, addressed poverty and promoted greater participation of the actors. Facilitating these will require a strengthening the role of statutory public organisations to regulate water distribution, build capacity of actors and offer diverse forums to facilitate informed water-related decisions for a sustainable future.

  4. Disconnect and Capture of Education Decentralisation Reforms in Nepal: Implications for Community Involvement in Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that processes of disconnect and capture have affected Nepal's efforts to decentralise its education system, leading to a failure to engage the very stakeholders--parents and communities--that the reforms sought to reach. Specifically, disconnect occurred in the development and implementation of the latest…

  5. An analysis of marketing authorisation applications via the mutual recognition and decentralised procedures in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, Hans C; Langedijk, Joris; Bouvy, Jacoline C; Hoekman, Jarno; Boon, Wouter P C; de Jong, Jean Philippe; De Bruin, Marie L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the outcomes of marketing authorisation applications via the mutual recognition and decentralised procedures (MRP/DCP) and assess determinants of licensing failure during CMDh referral procedures. METHODS: All MRP/DCP procedure

  6. Decentralisation, Participation and Boundaries of Transformation: Forest Rights Act, Wayanad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheesh R. Chemmencheri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Participation and decentralisation have been shown to yield democratic outcomes in terms of efficiency, accountability and transparency through citizen engagement and devolution of powers. It has been a matter of debate whether they also benefit marginalised communities like the indigenous peoples. This paper analyzes the implications of decentralised governance in a tribal zone in India using the case of the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights Act 2006 − the Forest Rights Act. The effects of the Act are studied in the district of Wayanad, Kerala, through the theoretical framework of transformative decentralisation and spatial politics of participation. The key objectives of the Act − securing tenure and access to Minor Forest Produce − have achieved limited success in Wayanad as a result of a narrowly construed ideas of people’s participation. While the process prescribed by the Forest Rights Act has the potential to create new spaces for participation, most of these spaces remain closed in Wayanad. The absence of a larger vision and a radical motive to engage with the underlying patterns of domination and subordination in society has confined the process of decentralisation to its technocratic essentials, raising questions on the extent to which the Act can pave the way for transformation.

  7. Increasing RES Penetration and Security of Energy Supply by Use of Energy Storages and Heat Pumps in Croatian Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajačić, Goran; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duić, Neven;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper integration of wind power generation into the Croatian electricity supply is analysed using available technologies. The starting point is a model of the energy system in Croatia in 2007. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting...... electricity, heat and transport demands, and including renewable energy, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating. Using the 2007 energy system the wind power share is increased by two energy storage options: Pumped hydro and heat pumps in combination with heat storages...... with specific regulation of power system could additionally increase wind penetration for 0.37 TWh. Hence, with the current technologies installed in the Croatian energy system the installed pumped hydro-plant may facilitate more than 10% wind power in the electricity system. Large-scale integration of wind...

  8. Smart sustainable energy for the rural built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available robust methodology to adapt innovative and renewable smart grid technologies to deliver real and sustainable decentralised energy solutions for remote and rural communities, thereby improving livelihoods and opportunities for inclusive growth...

  9. Monitoring the impact of decentralised chronic care services on patient travel time in rural Africa--methods and results in Northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Rein M G J; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Mwinuka, Venance; Mzumara, Peter; Branson, Keith; Linard, Catherine; Chimbwandira, Frank; French, Neil; Glynn, Judith R; Crampin, Amelia C

    2012-11-15

    Decentralised health services form a key part of chronic care strategies in resource-limited settings by reducing the distance between patient and clinic and thereby the time and costs involved in travelling. However, few tools exist to evaluate the impact of decentralisation on patient travel time or what proportion of patients attend their nearest clinic. Here we develop methods to monitor changes in travel time, using data from the antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll-out in a rural district in North Malawi. Clinic position was combined with GPS information on the home village of patients accessing ART services in Karonga District (North Malawi) between July 2005 and July 2009. Potential travel time was estimated as the travel time for an individual attending their nearest clinic, and estimated actual travel time as the time to the clinic attended. This allowed us to calculate changes in potential and actual travel time as new clinics opened and track the proportion and origin of patients not accessing their nearest clinic. The model showed how the opening of further ART clinics in Karonga District reduced median potential travel time from 83 to 43 minutes, and median actual travel time fell from 83 to 47 minutes. The proportion of patients not attending their nearest clinic increased from 6% when two clinics were open, to 12% with four open. Integrating GPS information with patient data shows the impact of decentralisation on travel time and clinic choice to inform policy and research questions. In our case study, travel time decreased, accompanied by an increased uptake of services. However, the model also identified an increasing proportion of ART patients did not attend their nearest clinic.

  10. CAN DECENTRALISATION CONTRIBUTE TO PROMOTING RULE-OF-LAW STRUCTURES? THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, RWANDA AND BURUNDI AS EXAMPLES*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Hamann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Decentralisation can enable a country's population to exercise political influence at regional and local level. This presupposes a willingness to assume responsibility. It also presupposes that those in power are willing to hand over some of the power. Together these two factors can foster rule-of-law structures. This paper describes the constitutional and administrative framework for decentralisation in DR Congo, Rwanda and Burundi. It also explores the actual situation in those countries with reference to legal literature from those countries.In addition, it raises questions regarding the effect of instruments of international law on the decentralisation processes (international organisations, regional integration and international cooperation.

  11. Energy budget closure and field scale estimation of canopy energy storage with increased and sustained turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. G.; Wang, D.

    2012-12-01

    Eddy Covariance (EC) is widely used for direct, non-invasive observations of land-atmosphere energy and mass fluxes. However, EC observations of available energy fluxes are usually less than fluxes inferred from radiometer and soil heat flux observations; thus introducing additional uncertainty in using and interpreting EC flux measurements. We compare EC observations from two towers established over sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in Hawai'i, USA under similar cultivation, temperature, sunlight, and precipitation, but drastically different wind conditions due to orographic effects. At a daily scale, we find that energy closure for both towers occurs on days when the entire 24 hours has sufficient turbulence. At our windier site, this turbulence condition occurs over 60% of the time, which contributes to substantially better daily energy closure (~98%) than at the calmer site (~75%). At our windy site, we then invert the daily energy closure for continuously windy days to calculate canopy energy storage. At full canopy, peak daily canopy energy storage fluxes (200-400 Wm-2) are approximately an order of magnitude larger than soil heat flux (20-40 Wm-2). As a fraction of net radiation, canopy energy storage appears to vary seasonally and shows substantially greater variability than soil heat flux. The results illustrate the importance of sustained turbulence for accurate, direct measurement of land-atmosphere fluxes. As increasing number of EC towers are established in complex terrain, these results indicate the need for preliminary wind studies to optimize tower placement where orography enhances, rather than suppresses, turbulence.

  12. Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Russel, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by an Ames-led project team under a 4-year DOE-ITP sponsored project titled, 'Advanced Wear-resistant Nanocomposites for Increased Energy Efficiency.' The Report serves as the project deliverable for the CPS agreement number 15015. The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a family of lightweight, bulk composite materials that are highly resistant to degradation by erosive and abrasive wear. These materials, based on AlMgB{sub 14}, are projected to save over 30 TBtu of energy per year when fully implemented in industrial applications, with the associated environmental benefits of eliminating the burning of 1.5 M tons/yr of coal and averting the release of 4.2 M tons/yr of CO{sub 2} into the air. This program targeted applications in the mining, drilling, machining, and dry erosion applications as key platforms for initial commercialization, which includes some of the most severe wear conditions in industry. Production-scale manufacturing of this technology has begun through a start-up company, NewTech Ceramics (NTC). This project included providing technical support to NTC in order to facilitate cost-effective mass production of the wear-resistant boride components. Resolution of issues related to processing scale-up, reduction in energy intensity during processing, and improving the quality and performance of the composites, without adding to the cost of processing were among the primary technical focus areas of this program. Compositional refinements were also investigated in order to achieve the maximum wear resistance. In addition, synthesis of large-scale, single-phase AlMgB{sub 14} powder was conducted for use as PVD sputtering targets for nanocoating applications.

  13. Chewing gum increases energy expenditure before and after controlled breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresge, Daniel L; Melanson, Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    Chewing has been associated with improved satiation and satiety, but little is known about the metabolic impact of gum chewing. We tested the hypothesis that gum chewing would increase energy expenditure (EE) and reduce respiratory exchange ratio (RER) before and after a controlled test meal. Seventeen males and 13 females (age 21.5 ± 6.6 years, body mass index 23.9 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum for a total of 1 h (3 sessions of 20 min) on the test day (GC) and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). EE and RER were measured by indirect calorimetry after an overnight fast. Subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured energy needs, and then postprandial EE and RER were measured for 3 h. Blood glucose (GLC) was measured in the fasting and postprandial states at regular intervals. Fasting EE was higher during GC (1.23 ± 0.04 kcal/min; 1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) than during NG (1.17 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p = 0.016). Postprandial EE was also higher during GC (1.46 ± 0.05 kcal/min) than during NG (1.42 ± 0.05 kcal/min; p = 0.037). Fasting and postprandial RER and GLC did not differ between GC and NG. The findings demonstrate that GC is associated with higher fasting and postprandial EE without altering blood glucose or substrate oxidation as measured by RER. These data suggest that gum chewing potentially could influence short-term energy balance in this population; however, longer-term research is needed.

  14. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source: Preference for electricity products when the share of renewable energy increases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...... a discrete choice experiment to infer consumers' preferences when the share of renewable energy increases. The study results indicate that consumers are generally willing to pay extra for an increasing share of renewable energy, but the renewable energy should come from a mixture of renewable energy sources...

  15. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  16. Budget Increases Proposed for NOAA and Energy Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    In addition to the Obama administration's proposed budget increases for NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009, and 90(20), 175, 2009), other federal Earth and space science agencies also would receive boosts in the proposed fiscal year (FY) 2010 budget. The proposed budget comes on top of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act's (ARRA) US$18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development that can be apportioned between the FY 2009 and FY 2010 budgets. This news item focuses on the budget proposals for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Next week, Eos will look at the budget proposal for the National Science Foundation.

  17. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  18. Inter-organisational communication networks in healthcare: centralised versus decentralised approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Pirnejad

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To afford efficient and high quality care, healthcare providers increasingly need to exchange patient data. The existence of a communication network amongst care providers will help them to exchange patient data more efficiently. Information and communication technology (ICT has much potential to facilitate the development of such a communication network. Moreover, in order to offer integrated care interoperability of healthcare organizations based upon the exchanged data is of crucial importance. However, complications around such a development are beyond technical impediments. Objectives: To determine the challenges and complexities involved in building an Inter-organisational Communication network (IOCN in healthcare and the appropriations in the strategies. Case study: Interviews, literature review, and document analysis were conducted to analyse the developments that have taken place toward building a countrywide electronic patient record and its challenges in The Netherlands. Due to the interrelated nature of technical and non-technical problems, a socio-technical approach was used to analyse the data and define the challenges. Results: Organisational and cultural changes are necessary before technical solutions can be applied. There are organisational, financial, political, and ethicolegal challenges that have to be addressed appropriately. Two different approaches, one “centralised” and the other “decentralised” have been used by Dutch healthcare providers to adopt the necessary changes and cope with these challenges. Conclusion: The best solutions in building an IOCN have to be drawn from both the centralised and the decentralised approaches. Local communication initiatives have to be supervised and supported centrally and incentives at the organisations' interest level have to be created to encourage the stakeholder organisations to adopt the necessary changes.

  19. INCREASE OF ACCURACY ESTIMATION OF BRAKING MECHANISM ENERGY LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The components of the energy balance of the braking vehicle that can be used at braking mechanisms energy loading for specified algorithm of qualimetric estimation carrying out are deter-mined.

  20. The Impact of Increased Efficiency in the Transport Sectors‟ Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None

    efficient by 2016 and are the largest energy-consumers. ... factors motivating the investigation of the effects of energy efficiency ...... Hotels & Restaurants .... some existing empirical evidence indicating that the choice of model closures affects ...

  1. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.H.; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator-sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of

  2. Political economy of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities in three Nigerian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Ezumah, Nkoli; Ajayi, Olayinka; Sanwo, Olusola; Uzochukwu, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Decentralisation is defined as the dispersion, distribution or transfer of resources, functions and decision-making power from a central authority to regional and local authorities. It is usually accompanied by assignment of accountability and responsibility for results. Fundamental to understanding decentralisation is learning what motivates central governments to give up power and resources to local governments, and the practical significance of this on their positions regarding decentralisation. This study examined key political and institutional influences on role-players' capacity to support decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, and implications for sustainability. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 purposively selected key informants, drawn from three Nigerian states that were at different stages of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary care facilities. Key informants represented different categories of role-players involved in HIV and AIDS control programmes. Thematic framework analysis of data was done. Support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities was substantial among different categories of actors. Political factors such as the local and global agenda for health, political tenure and party affiliations, and institutional factors such as consolidation of decision-making power and improvements in career trajectories, influenced role-players support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services. It is feasible and acceptable to decentralise HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, to help improve coverage. However, role-players' support largely depends on how well the reform aligns with political structures and current institutional practices.

  3. Using Radio Irregularity for Increasing Residential Energy Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Miljković

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio irregularity phenomenon is often considered as a shortcoming of wireless networks. In this paper, the method of using radio irregularity as an efficient human presence detection sensor in smart homes is presented. The method is mainly based on monitoring variations of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI within the messages used for the communication between wireless smart power outlets. The radio signals used for the inter-outlets communication can be absorbed, diffracted or reflected by objects in their propagation paths. When a human enters the existing radio communication field, the variation of the signal strength at the receiver is even more expressed. Based on the detected changes and compared to the initial thresholds set during the initialization phase, the system detects human presence. The proposed solution increases user awareness and automates the power control in households, with the primary goal to contribute in residential energy savings. Compared to conventional sensor networks, this approach preserves the sensorial intelligence, simplicity and low installation costs, without the need for additional sensors integration.

  4. Adaptive fuzzy decentralised control for stochastic nonlinear large-scale systems in pure-feedback form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shaocheng; Xu, Yinyin; Li, Yongming

    2015-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fuzzy decentralised output-feedback control for a class of uncertain stochastic nonlinear pure-feedback large-scale systems with completely unknown functions, the mismatched interconnections and without requiring the states being available for controller design. With the help of fuzzy logic systems approximating the unknown nonlinear functions, a fuzzy state observer is designed estimating the unmeasured states. Therefore, the nonlinear filtered signals are incorporated into the backstepping recursive design, and an adaptive fuzzy decentralised output-feedback control scheme is developed. It is proved that the filter system converges to a small neighbourhood of the origin based on appropriate choice of the design parameters. Simulation studies are included illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Decentralisation and convergence in health among the provinces of Spain (1980-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Granados, Roberto; Jiménez, Juan de Dios; Martín, José

    2007-03-01

    This study measures the process of convergence in the state of health among the provinces and regions of Spain during 1980-2001 in order to analyse the possible influence of the decentralisation of healthcare management to the regions in this period. Sigma and beta convergence models, traditionally employed in macroeconomics, have been used, taking Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB) and Infant Mortality (IM) as health indicators. The analysis was carried out at two territorial levels: provinces and regions. The results reveal that the process of decentralisation either does not affect convergence or leads to divergence in health. Indeed, in the case of IM the so-called change of role scenario seems to have occurred. Thus, certain provinces with initially poor indicators have improved, overtaking those that were originally in a better position. The final result, however, is of greater dispersion than initially.

  6. Decentralised internet governance: the case of a ‘peer-to-peer cloud’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article retraces the early stages of development of the 'peer-to-peer cloud' storage service Drizzle, with the aim of providing an example of decentralised network architecture as internet governance 'in practice'. More specifically, this paper sheds light on how changes in the architectural design of networked services affect the circulation, storage and privacy of data, as well as the rights and responsibilities exerted by different actors on them. This article does not mean to be a compendium of the implications of the decentralisation option in building a cloud platform, which entails a number of technical complications as well as advantages, including how to ensure the reliability and redundancy of data, and the soundness of the encryption mechanism. However, the privacy-related design choices described here are some of the many possible ways to illustrate the extent to which changes in network architecture are, indeed, changes in network governance.

  7. Emissions from decentralised CHP plants 2007 - Energinet.dk Environmental project no. 07/1882

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Thomsen, Marianne

    Updated emission factors for decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) plants with a capacity valid for 2006/2007 have been...... values in Danish legislation since 2006 that has lead to installation of new and improved flue gas cleaning systems in most MSW incineration plants. For CHP plants combusting wood or straw no major technical improvements have been implemented. The emission factors for natural gas fuelled reciprocating...

  8. Fiscal Decentralisation and Economic Development in Nigeria: Empirical Evidence from VECM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammed Adetola Adefeso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines long run and causal relationship between fiscal decentralization and economic development in Nigeria using annual data from 1970-2011. Both sub-national expenditures ratio and sub national revenue ratio were used to measure fiscal decentralisation in Nigeria. The result of the analysis showed that the federally allocated expenditures to sub-national has been greater than its corresponding allocated revenue in Nigeria and this has became pronounced from the year 1999 up till date under the administration of a dominant political party known as People Democratic Party (PDP in Nigeria. Using VECM, the study found that fiscal decentralisation is cointegrated with economic development in Nigeria. That is, there is a long run relationship between fiscal decentralisation and economic development. The results from the VEC granger causality test showed a unidirectional causality run from economic development to fiscal decentralization i.e. economic development granger causes fiscal decentralization (only sub-national revenue decentralization ratio in Nigeria. By implication, economic benefits derived from fiscal decentralization are the products of economic development simply because as economy is developing, these benefits emerge in Nigeria.

  9. Deforestation in Decentralised Indonesia: What's Law Got to Do with it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Lazarus Arnold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies point to significant changes in the dynamics of deforestation in Indonesia since the introduction of decentralised governance in 2001. This essay argues that law plays an important and underestimated role in facilitating these new dynamics. This role is not limited to mere implementation failures; many of the ways in which Indonesian law makes deforestation possible can be traced back to the content of the laws themselves. In order to demonstrate this point, the essay first examines the context in which Indonesia's forestry and decentralisation laws were formulated and the salient provisions of these laws. This is followed by a discussion of the dynamics of deforestation since decentralisation and an analysis of five key ways in which law is partly responsible for the current situation: a flawed division of authority between the Central Government and the regions'; inconsistent, ambiguous and 'hollow' legislation; legislatively entrenched departmentalism; the marginalisation of forest communities; and a lack of legislative support for public participation, public interest litigation and other processes to promote sustainable forest management.

  10. Participation, decentralisation and déjà vu: Remaking democracy in response to AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Nora J

    2014-01-01

    Participation, decentralisation and community partnership have served as prominent motifs and driving philosophies in the global scale-up of HIV programming. Given the fraught histories of these ideas in development studies, it is surprising to encounter their broad appeal as benchmarks and moral practices in global health work. This paper examines three intertwined, government-endorsed projects to deepen democratic processes of HIV policy-making in Lesotho: (1) the 'Gateway Approach' for decentralising and coordinating local HIV responses; (2) the implementation of a community council-driven priority-setting process; and (3) the establishment of community AIDS councils. Taken together, these efforts are striking and well intentioned, but nonetheless struggle in the face of powerful global agendas to establish meaningful practices of participation and decentralisation. Examining these efforts shows that HIV scale-up conveys formidable lessons for citizens about the politics of global health and their place in the world. As global health initiatives continue to remake important dimensions of political functioning, practitioners, agencies and governments implementing similar democratising projects may find the warnings of earlier development critics both useful and necessary.

  11. Decentralised governance and planning in India: case study of a tribal district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushnu Prasad Mohapatra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the process of the formulation of decentralised planning in the Tribal regions of Odisha, a state located in eastern part of India, while examining the powers devolved to the local governments in such regions in the state to formulate plan, and the ground reality of the preparation of such plans in the context of the implementation of the Provisions of Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas Act (PESA Act. Formulation of decentralised planning in Odisha was taken up in the year 2008. However, based on the secondary data and interacting with the various people in field, the paper has revealed that “structural impediments” and “functional incapacity” of the local governments in the Scheduled Areas have hampered the spirit of such institutions with regard to the planning and implementation of the development programs. The paper argues that decentralised plans should be realistic, based on the effective utilisation of local resources, and the local development issues should be prioritised and implemented accordingly. The paper suggests policy measures such as effective participation, prioritisation of development needs, and rationalisation of the required and available funds, considering the significance of the PESA Act. While doing so, the issues of the tribals should receive priority.

  12. Government policies increasingly promote renewable energy sources : wood energy markets in the UNECE region, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olle Olsson; Bengt Hillring; Rens Hartkamp; Kenneth Skog; Henry Spelter; Francisco Aguilar; Warren Mabee; Christopher Gaston; Antje Wahl

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability issues about wood fuels are increasingly being debated, but the European Union has decided not to impose EU-wide sustainability criteria for solid biomass. United Kingdom energy companies plan massive increases in their utilization of wood energy, further fuelling European demand for wood energy. In order to increase control of the value chain, European...

  13. Global Research Alliance (GRA) -Smart sustainable energy for rural community development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available spider web of infrastructure and dependence on decades-old technologies), the developing world can harness modern, low carbon, renewable, agile, smart and decentralised generation to rapidly deliver tailored, appropriate and sustainable energy...

  14. Experiments to increase the used Energy with the PEGASUS Railgun

    CERN Document Server

    Hundertmark, Stephan; Simicic, Dejian; Vincent, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The French-German Research Institute (ISL) has several railguns installed, the largest of these is the PEGASUS accelerator. It is a 6m long, 4x4 cm2 caliber distributed energy supply (DES) railgun. It has a 10 MJ capacitor bank as energy supply attached to it. In the past, this installation was used to accelerate projectiles with a mass of about 300 g to velocities up to 2500 m/s. In the ongoing investigation, it is attempted to accelerate heavier projectiles to velocities above 2000m/s. For this a new type of projectile including a payload section was developed. In this paper the results of the experiments with payload projectiles using a primary energy between 3.8 MJ and 4.8 MJ are discussed.

  15. The economic situation of large hydropower in Bavaria. Increasing burdens but dwindling revenues; Zur wirtschaftlichen Situation der grossen Wasserkraft in Bayern. Steigende Lasten - schwindende Erloese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Klaus; Gollum, Carsten [Uniper Kraftwerke GmbH, Landshut (Germany). Sparte Wasserkraft; Gruber, Karl Heinz [VERBUND Wasserkraft, Wien/Simbach/Toeging (Austria); Poehler, Frank [Bayerische Elektrizitaetswerke GmbH, Augsburg (Germany); Schleich, Albrecht [Rhein-Main-Donau AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    The current price development in the German electricity market results in significant economic challenges also for larger hydropower assets. Although an ideal partner for the transformation of the German energy system (''Energiewende''), the decline of electricity prices increasingly endangers adequate operations and sustainable investments, too. Hence, not only the renewable, emission-free, flexible and decentralised generation is questions but also multiple additional services for the society which are not remunerated by an ''energy only'' market. Price determination mechanisms as well as remunerations system in general need to be reviewed - an improvement of these structures is essential for larger hydropower assets.

  16. Decentralising Zimbabwe’s water management: The case of Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambudzai, Rashirayi; Everisto, Mapedza; Gideon, Zhou

    Smallholder irrigation schemes are largely supply driven such that they exclude the beneficiaries on the management decisions and the choice of the irrigation schemes that would best suit their local needs. It is against this background that the decentralisation framework and the Dublin Principles on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) emphasise the need for a participatory approach to water management. The Zimbabwean government has gone a step further in decentralising the management of irrigation schemes, that is promoting farmer managed irrigation schemes so as to ensure effective management of scarce community based land and water resources. The study set to investigate the way in which the Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme is managed with specific emphasis on the role of the Irrigation Management Committee (IMC), the level of accountability and the powers devolved to the IMC. Merrey’s 2008 critique of IWRM also informs this study which views irrigation as going beyond infrastructure by looking at how institutions and decision making processes play out at various levels including at the irrigation scheme level. The study was positioned on the hypothesis that ‘decentralised or autonomous irrigation management enhances the sustainability and effectiveness of irrigation schemes’. To validate or falsify the stated hypothesis, data was gathered using desk research in the form of reviewing articles, documents from within the scheme and field research in the form of questionnaire surveys, key informant interviews and field observation. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyse data quantitatively, whilst content analysis was utilised to analyse qualitative data whereby data was analysed thematically. Comparative analysis was carried out as Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme was compared with other smallholder irrigation scheme’s experiences within Zimbabwe and the Sub Saharan African region at large. The findings were that whilst the

  17. Energy Efficiency of Robot Locomotion Increases Proportional to Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    The task of producing steady, stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in un- known terrain have for many years been a big challenge in robotics. This work is focusing on how different robots build from the modular robotic system, LocoKit by Larsen et. la [3...

  18. Energy Efficiency of Robot Locomotion Increases Proportional to Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J. C.; Stoy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The task of producing steady, stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in unknown terrain have for many years been a big challenge in robotics. This work is focusing on how different robots build from the modular robotic system, LocoKit by Larsen et al. [1...

  19. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  20. Is increased Nuclear Energy a practical response to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jeanne

    2007-05-01

    With the threat of global warming there has been renewed interest in nuclear energy as a carbon-free energy source. There are currently 15 nuclear power plants planned for completion in the U.S. by 2014. In the last 30 years, however, investment and public support for nuclear energy has been minimal. Some factors that led to this loss of interest - high economic costs, risk of accident and radiation exposure, and the challenges of storing nuclear waste - have been analyzed in several recent publications. Comparing the costs and risks of nuclear energy to the benefits in reduced carbon emissions is the goal of this report. Coal plants contribute the most carbon dioxide of all types of power plants. The method of this study is a direct comparison of coal plants and nuclear plants in four areas: the current cost per kWh, the predicted annual cost for health issues, the statistically predicted deaths, and the clean-up costs assuming each facility is as ``green'' as possible. A normalized cost/risk value is then calculated for each plant type. Discussion for how these values are likely to vary is included. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.C1.11

  1. Significant increase of chromosomal damage in protein energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Ghazali, S; Mikhail, M; Awadallah, M; Shatla, H

    1990-12-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the impact of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) on chromosomes. Twenty infants suffering from marasmus and kwashiorkor were chosen from the in-patient paediatric hospital of Ain Shams University. They were matched by age and sex and socioeconomic status to ten healthy infants (controls). Whole blood lymphocytic cultures were set up for every infant and harvested after 48 h incubation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was found to be nearly nine times greater among infants with PEM compared to controls (6.7% versus 0.7% respectively); the difference was statistically highly significant, P less than 0.001. The recorded aberrations were mainly chromatid gaps and isogaps. In addition, chromatid breaks, dicentrics and acentric fragments were observed. Moreover, the younger the age of the infant the greater the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. The results direct our attention to the genetic risk effect of PEM.

  2. Increased use of solar energy in commercial buildings by integrating energy storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Nina

    2016-01-01

    From a comparison of available thermal energy storage (TES) technologies it can be concluded that the most mature and suitable storage methods for modern commercial buildings in Sweden are storage tanks, either for heat or cold energy, and underground storage solutions such as borehole thermal energy storage (BTES), aquifer storage and energy piles. In this study an integrated solar energy storage system for heating purpose has been designed with BTES, hot water storage tank(s) and solar ther...

  3. Increased energy maize production reduces farmland bird diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauerbrei, Ralf; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Wolters, Volkmar; Gottschalk, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    ...‐scale changes in agricultural landscapes. Here, we quantify the potential impact of an increase in maize fields on the diversity of farmland birds by means of high resolution (25 × 25 m) land‐use scenarios...

  4. Increased use of Renewable Energy in Africa through a Program of Energy Enterprise Development and Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christine Eibs Singer

    2005-03-11

    To provide training in enterprise development and technical applications, local partner capacity building, individualized enterprise development services and seed capital investment to catalyze the creation of sustainable renewable energy enterprises that deliver clean energy services to households and businesses in South Africa, Ethiopia and Tanzania.

  5. Energy budget closure and field scale estimation of canopy energy storage with increased and sustained turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy Covariance (EC) is widely used for direct, non-invasive observations of land-atmosphere energy and mass fluxes. However, EC observations of available energy fluxes are usually less than fluxes inferred from radiometer and soil heat flux observations; thus introducing additional uncertainty in u...

  6. A planning algorithm for quantifying decentralised water management opportunities in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Peter M; McCarthy, David T; Urich, Christian; Sitzenfrei, Robert; Kleidorfer, Manfred; Rauch, Wolfgang; Deletic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    With global change bringing about greater challenges for the resilient planning and management of urban water infrastructure, research has been invested in the development of a strategic planning tool, DAnCE4Water. The tool models how urban and societal changes impact the development of centralised and decentralised (distributed) water infrastructure. An algorithm for rigorous assessment of suitable decentralised stormwater management options in the model is presented and tested on a local Melbourne catchment. Following detailed spatial representation algorithms (defined by planning rules), the model assesses numerous stormwater options to meet water quality targets at a variety of spatial scales. A multi-criteria assessment algorithm is used to find top-ranking solutions (which meet a specific treatment performance for a user-defined percentage of catchment imperviousness). A toolbox of five stormwater technologies (infiltration systems, surface wetlands, bioretention systems, ponds and swales) is featured. Parameters that set the algorithm's flexibility to develop possible management options are assessed and evaluated. Results are expressed in terms of 'utilisation', which characterises the frequency of use of different technologies across the top-ranking options (bioretention being the most versatile). Initial results highlight the importance of selecting a suitable spatial resolution and providing the model with enough flexibility for coming up with different technology combinations. The generic nature of the model enables its application to other urban areas (e.g. different catchments, local municipal regions or entire cities).

  7. Decentralised composting of urban waste--an overview of community and private initiatives in Indian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbrügg, Christian; Drescher, Silke; Patel, Almitra; Sharatchandra, H C

    2004-01-01

    The national waste legislation, introduced in India in 2000, endorses the principle of "Recycle Before Disposal" and clearly stipulates composting as an option for organic waste treatment. It also recommends waste separation as prerequisite for treatment. Although various composting schemes of different scale, type and organisational structure currently exist in the country, a general overview is lacking and very little independent site-specific information is available. This paper presents the results of a study assessing 17 decentralised systems from the cities of Bangalore, Chennai, Pune, and Mumbai. The schemes were classified according to their organisational setup into: (1) citizens' and community initiatives; (2) business and institution initiatives operating on their premises; and (3) small and medium-size private sector initiatives. These categories also coincide with different operational scales. Community initiatives have developed from unreliable collection services, and composting emerged mainly as a spin-off activity from the collection system to reduce waste delivery to the communal containers emptied by the municipal services. The potential to launch and sustain decentralised composting schemes is dependent on the municipal provision of adequate space. This paper summarises further key issues pertaining to the assessed schemes and reveals overall deficiencies in the field of accounting and transparency, composting technique and marketing, as well as municipal authority involvement.

  8. The quiet revolution: decentralisation and fuel cells; Leise Revolution: Dezentralisierung und Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbrenner, N

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses how major changes in the electricity supply industry can take place in the next few years due to market liberalisation and efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Decentralisation is discussed as being a 'mega-trend' and fuel cells in particular are emphasised as being a suitable means of generating heat and power locally, i.e. where they are needed. Also, the ecological advantages of using natural gas to 'fire' the fuel cell units that are to complement or replace coal-fired or gas-fired combined gas and steam-turbine power stations is discussed. Various types of fuel cell are briefly described. Market developments in the USA, where the power grid is extensive and little reserve capacity is available, are noted. New designs of fuel cell are briefly examined and it is noted that electricity utilities, originally against decentralisation, are now beginning to promote this 'quiet revolution'.

  9. Application of energy and exergy analysis to increase efficiency of a hot water gas fired boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Milena N.; Živković Dragoljub S.; Mančić Marko V.; Ilić Gradimir S.

    2014-01-01

    In engineering practice exergy can be used for technical and economic optimization of energy conversion processes. The problem of increasing energy consumption suggests that heating plants, i.e. hot water boilers, as energy suppliers for household heating should be subjected to exergy and energy analysis. Heating plants are typically designed to meet energy demands, without the distinguished difference between quality and quantity of the produced heat. In t...

  10. Increasing the percentage of energy from dietary sugar, fats, and alcohol in adults is associated with increased energy intake but has minimal association with biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory L; Krueger, Patrick M

    2013-10-01

    The optimal diet composition to prevent obesity and its complications is unknown. Study aims were to determine the association of diet composition with energy intake, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were from the NHANES for eligible adults aged 20-74 y from 2005 to 2006 (n = 3073). Energy intake and diet composition were obtained by dietary recall. HOMA-IR was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose concentrations, and CRP was measured directly. Changes for a 1-point increase in percentage of sugar, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alcohol were determined across their means in exchange for a 1-point decrease in percentage of nonsugar carbohydrates. Regression analyses were performed, and means ± SEs were estimated. Increasing the percentage of sugar was associated with increased energy intake in men (23 ± 5 kcal; P intake. In women, increasing percentages of SFAs (27 ± 10 kcal; P = 0.02), PUFAs (43 ± 6 kcal; P intake. Increasing the percentage of alcohol was associated with increased energy intake in men (38 ± 7 kcal; P sugar, fats, and alcohol was associated with substantially increased energy intake but had minimal association with HOMA-IR and CRP.

  11. Access Control in Decentralised Publish/Subscribe Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri I.W. Pesonen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Publish/subscribe has emerged as an attractive communication paradigm for building Internet-wide distributed systems by decoupling message senders from receivers. Large scale publish/subscribe systems are likely to employ components of the event transport network owned by cooperating, but independent organisations. As the number of participants in the network increases, security becomes an increasing concern. So far most of the research on publish/subscribe has focused on efficient event routing, event filtering, and composite event detection. Very little research has been published regarding securing publish/subscribe systems. This paper extends our previous work to present and evaluate a secure multi-domain publish/subscribe infrastructure that supports and enforces fine-grained access control over the individual attributes of event types.

  12. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  13. Developing a regional energy plan for two counties in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    facilities begin to develop. In this paper, a regional energy plan is begun for two counties located on the west coast of Ireland to identify how they can reduce their overall CO2 emission by 20% by the year 2020. The two counties in question are called Limerick and Clare, which have a combined population......Developing a sustainable energy supply will most likely require a transition from large-scale centralised plants to decentralised distributed generation. Consequently, local planning authorities will play a more important role in energy planning in the coming years, as more decentralised energy...

  14. Decentralisation Policy and Practice in Ghana: The Promise and Reality of Community Participation in Education in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essuman, Ato; Akyeampong, Kwame

    2011-01-01

    In 1987, the government of Ghana embarked on a process to decentralise education management to districts as part of wider social and democratic governance reforms. A central part of this reform was the prescription of active community participation in the affairs of schools within their locality. This paper explores the different meanings…

  15. The Reforming Trajectory of the Italian Educational System. Site-Based Management and Decentralisation as a Challenge for Democratic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Emiliano; Serpieri, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to present some tensions embedded in the Italian educational reform, arising both from the enactment of neo-liberal policies and the possibilities of democratic development opened up by the introduction of schools' site-based management and decentralisation. The article uses discourses as heuristic devices and presents two case…

  16. Decentralising Multicell Cooperative Processing: A Novel Robust Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesbert David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicell cooperative processing (MCP has the potential to boost spectral efficiency and improve fairness of cellular systems. However the typical centralised conception for MCP incurs significant infrastructural overheads which increase the system costs and hinder the practical implementation of MCP. In Frequency Division Duplexing systems each user feeds back its Channel State Information (CSI only to one Base Station (BS. Therefore collaborating BSs need to be interconnected via low-latency backhaul links, and a Control Unit is necessary in order to gather user CSI, perform scheduling, and coordinate transmission. In this paper a new framework is proposed that allows MCP on the downlink while circumventing the aforementioned costly modifications on the existing infrastructure of cellular systems. Each MS feeds back its CSI to all collaborating BSs, and the needed operations of user scheduling and signal processing are performed in a distributed fashion by the involved BSs. Furthermore the proposed framework is shown to be robust against feedback errors when quantized CSI feedback and linear precoding are employed.

  17. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  18. Increases in Physical Activity Result in Diminishing Increments in Daily Energy Expenditure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Timothy J; Friend, Danielle M; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-06

    Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use. We hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms accounted for the lack of increase in daily energy expenditure after the first week. Supporting this idea, we observed a decrease in off-wheel ambulation when mice were using the wheels, indicating behavioral compensation. Finally, we asked whether individual variation in wheel use within a group of mice would be associated with different levels of daily energy expenditure. Despite a large variation in wheel running, we did not observe a significant relationship between the amount of daily wheel running and total daily energy expenditure or energy intake across mice. Together, our experiments support a model in which the transition from sedentary to light activity is associated with an increase in daily energy expenditure, but further increases in physical activity produce diminishingly small increments in daily energy expenditure.

  19. Solar energy and urban morphology: Scenarios for increasing the renewable energy potential of neighbourhoods in London

    OpenAIRE

    Sarralde, Juan José; Quinn, David James; Wiesmann, Daniel; Steemers, Koen

    2014-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It was first published in Renewable Energy here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148114003681. Amongst academics and practitioners working in the fields of urban planning and design, there has been an on-going discussion regarding the relationships between urban morphology and environmental sustainability. A main focus of analysis has been to investigate whether the form of cities and neighbourhoods can be related to their ene...

  20. Decentralised coordination of a multi-agent system based on intermittent data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Garofalo, Franco; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Mancini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel decentralised and non-cooperative algorithm for estimation and control of a multi-agent system. The control goal is to achieve a balanced formation on a generic closed curve. Different from previous work, each agent only gathers a measurement of its Euclidean distance from the other agents when they are in its proximity. This distance is usually different from the controlled distance along the curve, thus producing an uncertain and intermittent information on the actual spacing among agents. This fleeting data flow is processed by an estimation algorithm to produce an interval estimate of the relative position, which is then used by an 'interval feedback control law' to steer the system dynamics. The effectiveness of the approach and its performance are demonstrated through an extensive numerical analysis on two representative examples.

  1. Decentralised consensus for multiple Lagrangian systems based on event-triggered strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Du, Changkun; Lu, Pingli; Yang, Dapeng

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers the decentralised event-triggered consensus problem for multi-agent systems with Lagrangian dynamics under undirected graphs. First, a distributed, leaderless, and event-triggered consensus control algorithm is presented based on the definition of generalised positions and velocities for all agents. There is only one triggering function for both the generalised positions and velocities and no Zeno behaviour exhibited under the proposed consensus strategy. Second, an adaptive event-triggered consensus control algorithm is proposed for such multi-agent systems with unknown constant parameters. Third, based on sliding-mode method, an event-triggered consensus control algorithm is considered for the case with external disturbance. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  2. Inversion-free decentralised quantitative feedback design of large-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labibi, B.; Mahdi Alavi, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new method for robust decentralised control of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems using quantitative feedback theory (QFT) is suggested. The proposed method does not need inversion of the plant transfer function matrix in the design process. For a given system, an equivalent descriptor system representation is defined. By using this representation, sufficient conditions for closed-loop diagonal dominance over the uncertainty space are obtained. These conditions transform the original MIMO system into a set of isolated multi-input single-output (MISO) subsystems. Then, the local controllers are designed by using the typical MISO QFT technique for each isolated subsystem to satisfy the predefined desired specifications and the closed-loop diagonal dominance sufficient conditions. The proposed technique is less conservative in comparison to the approaches using the over-bounding concept in the design procedure. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is finally assessed on a MIMO Scara robot.

  3. Implementing case-based teaching strategies in a decentralised nursing management programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zethu Nkosi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Case-based education has a long history in the disciplines of education, business, law and the health professions. Research suggests that students who learn via a case-based method have advanced critical thinking skills and a greater ability for application of knowledge in practice. In medical education, case-based methodology is widely used to facilitate knowledge transfer from theoretical knowledge to application in patient care. Nursing education has also adopted case-based methodology to enhance learner outcomes and critical thinking.Objectives: The objectives of the study was to describe a decentralised nursing management education programme located in Durban, South Africa and describe the perceptions of nursing faculty facilitators regarding implementation of this teaching method.Method: Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews and also focus groups amongst the fifteen facilitators who were using a case-based curriculum to teach the programme content. The average facilitator was female, between 41 and 50 years of age, working part-time, educated with a baccalaureate degree, working as a professional nurse for between 11 and 20 years; slightly more than half had worked as a facilitator for three or more years.Results: The facilitators identified themes related to the student learners, the learning environment, and strengths and challenges of using facilitation to teach the content through cases. Decentralised nursing management educational programmes can meet the needs of nurses who are located in remote areas which are characterised by poor transportation patterns and limited resources and have great need for quality healthcare services.Conclusion: Nursing faculty facilitators need knowledgeable and accessible contact with centrally based full-time nursing faculty in order to promote high quality educational programmes.

  4. Implementing case-based teaching strategies in a decentralised nursing management programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zethu Nkosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Case-based education has a long history in the disciplines of education, business, law and the health professions. Research suggests that students who learn via acase-based method have advanced critical thinking skills and a greater ability for application of knowledge in practice. In medical education, case-based methodology is widely used to facilitate knowledge transfer from theoretical knowledge to application in patient care. Nursing education has also adopted case-based methodology to enhance learner outcomes and critical thinking.Objectives: The objectives of the study was to describe a decentralised nursing management education programme located in Durban, South Africa and describe the perceptions of nursing faculty facilitators regarding implementation of this teaching method.Method: Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews and also focus groups amongst the fifteen facilitators who were using a case-based curriculum to teach the programme content. The average facilitator was female, between 41 and 50 years of age,working part-time, educated with a baccalaureate degree, working as a professional nurse for between 11 and 20 years; slightly more than half had worked as a facilitator for three or more years.Results: The facilitators identified themes related to the student learners, the learning environment, and strengths and challenges of using facilitation to teach the content through cases. Decentralised nursing management educational programmes can meet the needs of nurses who are located in remote areas which are characterised by poor transportation patterns and limited resources and have great need for quality healthcare services.Conclusion: Nursing faculty facilitators need knowledgeable and accessible contact with centrally based full-time nursing faculty in order to promote high quality educational programmes.

  5. Fusion of Redundant Aided-inertial Sensors with Decentralised Kalman Filter for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Awale

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most submarines carry more than one set of inertial navigation system (INS for redundancy and reliability. Apart from INS systems, the submarine carries other sensors that provide different navigation information. A major challenge is to combine these sensors and INS estimates in an optimal and robust manner for navigation. This issue has been addressed by Farrell1. The same approach is used in this paper to combine different sensor measurements along with INS system. However, since more than one INS system is available onboard, it would be better to use multiple INS systems at the same time to obtain a better estimate of states and to provide autonomy in the event of failure of one INS system. This would require us to combine the estimates obtained from local filters (one set of INS system integrated with external sensors, in some optimal way to provide a global estimate. Individual sensor and IMU measurements cannot be accessed in this scenario. Also, autonomous operation requires no sharing of information among local filters. Hence a decentralised Kalman filter approach is considered for combining the estimates of local filters to give a global estimate. This estimate would not be optimal, however. A better optimal estimate can be obtained by accessing individual measurements and augmenting the state vector in Kalman filter, but in that case, corruption of one INS system will lead to failure of the whole filter. Hence to ensure satisfactory performance of the filter even in the event of failure of some INS system, a decentralised Kalman filtering approach is considered.

  6. Increasing the energy-efficiency in the production of bricks; Steigerung der Energieeffizienz in der Backsteinproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurche, J.-P. [Kiefer und Partners AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gubler, Ch. [Ziegelei Fisibach AG, Bauma (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a research project that defined a universally valid concept for the analysis of potential for the reduction of the energy consumption of the installations in older brick-manufacturing facilities. The brick manufacturing process is described and the energy-households of the ovens and dryers are analysed. Methods used for the measurement of energy flows are described and the development of a simulation tool is discussed. Various possibilities for increasing energy-efficiency are looked at. The paper is rounded off with graphically-illustrated listings of the results obtained.

  7. Settlement development and energy logistics in Germany between the poles of centralism and decentralism; Siedlungsentwicklung und Energielogistik in Deutschland im Spannungsfeld von Zentralitaet und Dezentralitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelter, Annika

    2009-07-01

    The title of this publication, ''Settlement development and energy logistics in Germany between the poles of centralism and decentralism'', addresses a both topical and scientifically interesting problem relating to the business administration disciplines of production and logistics. While the main focus of the study is of course on urban energy supply, it also clearly has implications for network theory, network management and for the design and controlling of logistic supply structures. In these disciplines too it is usually necessary to consider centralised and decentralised control logistics, and the question of whether to organise network structures in one or the other manner presents itself. Both focal topics, i.e. settlement development and energy logistics, are currently faced with new challenges. In the area of settlement development they concern the demographic shift in the German population, the segmentation of settlement areas and individual lifestyle and living preferences such as the increasing share of single households. As far as energy logistics are concerned they consist in securing the energy supply and managing the transition to renewable energy resources, taking into account the renewal of the power plant fleet which should be possible starting around 2015. In both cases the question presents itself whether centralised or decentralised solutions are to be or should preferred.

  8. ENET News July 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Juli 2004, Nr. 58 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Magazine (SFOE) with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include research strategies, a discussion on oil reserves, technology transfer and innovation, Swiss biomass activities, winning power from the drinking water mains and the use of ambient heat. Further articles cover the topics of energy-efficiency and lighting in buildings, the use of batteries in vehicles, the increasing decentralisation of power generation and the use of supra-conducting current-limiters. Also, research on improved fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the wood fuels, photovoltaics and wind-energy areas as well as heat storage using geothermal techniques.

  9. Multiperspective Analysis of Microscale Trigeneration Systems and Their Role in the Crowd Energy Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parantapa Sawant; Naim Meftah; Jens Pfafferott

    2015-01-01

    Abstract-The energy system of the future will transform from the current centralised fossil based to a decentralised, clean, highly efficient, and intelligent network. This transformation will require innovative technologies and ideas like trigeneration and the crowd energy concept to pave the way ahead. Even though trigeneration systems are extremely energy efficient and can play a vital role in the energy system, turning around their deployment is hindered by various barriers. These barriers are theoretically analysed in a multiperspective approach and the role decentralised trigeneration systems can play in the crowd energy concept is highlighted. It is derived from an initial literature research that a multiperspective (technological, energy-economic, and user) analysis is necessary for realising the potential of trigeneration systems in a decentralised grid. And to experimentally quantify these issues we are setting up a microscale trigeneration lab at our institute and the motivation for this lab is also briefly introduced.

  10. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy.

  11. Emissions from decentralised CHP plants 2007 - Energinet.dk Environmental project no. 07/1882. Project report 5 - Emission factors and emission inventory for decentralised CHP production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Thomsen, M.

    2010-06-15

    Updated emission factors for decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) plants with a capacity < 25MWe have been estimated based on project emission measurements as well as emission measurements performed in recent years that were collected. The emission factors valid for 2006/2007 have been estimated for the plant technologies: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, plants combusting straw or wood, natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines, biogas fuelled engines, natural gas fuelled gas turbines, gas oil fuelled reciprocating engines, gas oil fuelled gas turbines, steam turbines combusting residual oil and reciprocating engines combusting biomass producer gas based on wood. The emission factors for MSW incineration plants are much lower than the emission factors that were estimated for year 2000. The considerable reduction in the emission factors is a result of lower emission limit values in Danish legislation since 2006 that has lead to installation of new and improved flue gas cleaning systems in most MSW incineration plants. For CHP plants combusting wood or straw no major technical improvements have been implemented. The emission factors for natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines have been reduced since year 2000 as a result of technical improvements that have been carried out due to lower emission limit values in Danish legislation. The NO{sub x} emission factor for natural gas fuelled gas turbines has decreased 62 % since year 2000. This is a result of installation of low-NO{sub x} burners in almost all gas turbines that has been necessary to meet new emission limits in Danish legislation. The emission measurements programme included screening of the emissions of HCB, PCB, PCDD/-F and PBDD/-F. Compared to the Danish national emission decentralized CHP plants are major emission sources for CH{sub 4}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and HCB. (author)

  12. 75 FR 80717 - Increased Safety Measures for Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf; Availability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Safety Measures for Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf; Availability, Initial Regulatory... the report entitled, ``Increased Safety Measures for Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf... development on the Outer Continental Shelf in light of the Deepwater Horizon event on April 20, 2010, and...

  13. Capsaicin increases sensation of fullness in energy balance, and decreases desire to eat after dinner in negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-06-01

    Addition of capsaicin (CAPS) to the diet has been shown to increase satiety; therefore, CAPS is of interest for anti-obesity therapy. We investigated the effects of CAPS on appetite profile and ad libitum energy intake in relation to energy balance. Fifteen subjects (seven women and eight men, age: 29.7 ± 10.8yrs, BMI: 23.3 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) underwent four conditions in a randomized crossover design in 36 hour sessions in a respiration chamber; they received 100% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions "100%Control" and "100%CAPS", and 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions "75%Control" and "75%CAPS", followed by an ad libitum dinner. In the 100%CAPS and 75%CAPS conditions, CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units) with every meal. Satiety (P energy balance, addition of capsaicin to the diet increases satiety and fullness, and tends to prevent overeating when food intake is ad libitum. After dinner, capsaicin prevents the effects of the negative energy balance on desire to eat.

  14. Increased postprandial energy expenditure in obese women after peroral K- and Mg-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaedig, S; Lindgärde, F; Arborelius, M

    1994-01-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) was studied in 15 obese (BMI > 27.5, median 29.2) and 15 lean (BMI magnesium-phosphate to glucose increases the postprandial thermogenesis in obese postmenopausal women, but not in lean ones.

  15. CONTROLLING AS A MECHANISM TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT ENTERPRISES OF FUEL-ENERGY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ostashkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibility of application of controlling as mechanism of increasing the efficiency of management of enterprises of fuel- energy complex. The research was conducted on the materials of the JSC «Gazprom».

  16. Policy Instruments for an Increased Supply of Energy Crops; Styrmedel foer ett utoekat utbud av biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Widmark, Annika; Wiklund, Sven-Erik; Liljeblad, Anna

    2009-05-15

    At present, energy crops are not commonly used as fuel for heat and power production in Sweden, but as a result of increased competition for biomass, the interest for agricultural fuels such as willow, straw, reed canary grass and hemp increases. The purpose of this study is through a qualitative study that includes a literature study as well as case studies carried out by interviews, with respondents in the agriculture- and energy sectors highlight the conditions for increased production and use of energy crops. The main objective is to propose relevant policy instruments that could increase the production and use of energy crops. The purpose with the proposed policy instruments is that they should serve as a basis for discussions with politicians and authorities regarding the supply of bio fuels through the use of energy crops. The result of the study indicates that the main obstacle for increasing the production and use of energy crops is that the cultivation of energy crops today is unprofitable. To reduce the production costs it is necessary to improve the competitiveness of energy crops, primarily in relation to wood chips. The study shows that there is a potential for reduction of production costs through development of the logistics chain. Policy measures promoting the use of bio fuels exists today, but are not fully used to increase the share of energy crops in the bio fuel energy mix. The reason for this is that they are generally not as cost efficient as alternative bio fuels. It is important that competition issues are addressed, both regarding competition issues between different bio fuels, but also competition issues between various energy crops that exists today. Further obstacles to accelerate the introduction of energy crops at the market are high investment costs for establishment of some of the energy crops. From the analysis in this study, the following policy instruments are suggested in order to increase the production and the use of energy

  17. Application of energy and exergy analysis to increase efficiency of a hot water gas fired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milena N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineering practice exergy can be used for technical and economic optimization of energy conversion processes. The problem of increasing energy consumption suggests that heating plants, i.e. hot water boilers, as energy suppliers for household heating should be subjected to exergy and energy analysis. Heating plants are typically designed to meet energy demands, without the distinguished difference between quality and quantity of the produced heat. In this paper, the energy and exergy analysis of a gas fired hot water boiler is conducted. Energy analysis gives only quantitative results, while exergy analysis provides an insight into the actually available useful energy with respect to the system environment. In this paper, a hot water boiler was decomposed into control volumes with respect to its functional components. Energy and exergy of the created physical model of the hot water boiler is performed and destruction of exergy and energy loss in each of the components is calculated. The paper describes the current state of energy and exergy efficiency of the hot water boiler. The obtained results are analyzed and used to investigate possibilities for improvement of availability and reliability of the boiler. A comparison between the actual and the proposed more reliable solution is made.

  18. A Simple Method to Increase the Amount of Energy Produced by the Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Tudor Cotfas; Petru Adrian Cotfas

    2014-01-01

    The photovoltaic energy can become competitive by the conjugate effort of the researchers and manufacturers. Increasing the amount of electricity supplied by photovoltaic panels is a challenge. The paper briefly presents some methods which can lead to achieving this goal. A simple method to increase the quantity of the electrical energy delivered by the photovoltaic panels is also presented in this paper alongside the experimental setup and the software created in LabVIEW for monitoring the o...

  19. Decentralised robust stabilisation of uncertain large-scale interconnected time-delay systems with unknown upper bounds of uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hansheng

    2016-09-01

    The problem of decentralised robust stabilisation is considered for a class of uncertain large-scale time-delay interconnected dynamical systems. In the paper, the upper bounds of delayed state perturbations, uncertainties, interconnection terms, and external disturbances are assumed to be completely unknown, and the delays are assumed to be any non-negative constants. For such a class of uncertain large-scale time-delay interconnected systems, a new method is presented whereby a class of adaptation-free decentralised local robust state feedback controllers can be constructed. In addition, it is also shown that the solutions of uncertain large-scale time-delay interconnected systems can be guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, as an application to the practical mechanical systems, some simulations of a numerical example are provided to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  20. Decentralised adaptive output feedback stabilisation for stochastic time-delay systems via LaSalle-Yoshizawa-type theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ticao; Xu, Shengyuan; Lu, Junwei; Wei, Yunliang; Zou, Yun

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the decentralised output feedback stabilisation problem for a class of large-scale stochastic time-delay nonlinear systems. A general theorem is firstly given to guarantee the global existence and uniqueness of the solution for stochastic time-delay systems. In addition, a stochastic version of the well-known LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem with time-varying delay is initially proposed for the controller design and stability analysis. Then, for a class of large-scale stochastic systems with time-varying delays, totally decentralised adaptive delay-dependent controllers are designed by using K-filter and backstepping approach. Via LaSalle-Yoshizawa-type theorem and constructing a general Lyapunov function, it is shown that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded almost surely and the solution is almost surely asymptotically stable. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results of this paper.

  1. Territorial approach to increased energy consumption of water extraction from depletion of a highlands Mexican aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Esteller, María Vicenta; Díaz-Delgado, Carlos

    2013-10-15

    This work proposes a method to estimate increased energy consumption of pumping caused by a drawdown of groundwater level and the equivalent energy consumption of the motor-pump system in an aquifer under intensive exploitation. This method has been applied to the Valley of Toluca aquifer, located in the Mexican highlands, whose intensive exploitation is reflected in a decline in the groundwater level of between 0.10 and 1.6 m/year. Results provide a summary of energy consumption and a map of energy consumption isopleths showing the areas that are most susceptible to increases in energy consumption due to pumping. The proposed method can be used to estimate the effect of the intensive exploitation of the Valley of Toluca aquifer on the energy consumption of groundwater extraction. Finding reveals that, for the year 2006, groundwater extraction in the urban zone required 2.39 times more energy than the conditions observed 38 years earlier. In monetary terms, this reflects an increase of USD$ 3 million annually, according to 2005 energy production costs.

  2. Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Branislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible ways to provide heating to the building is to use thermally activated building systems. This type of heating, besides providing significant increase in building energy efficiency, allows using low-temperature heating sources. In this paper, special attention is given to opaque part of the building façade with integrated thermally activated building systems. Due to fact that this type of system strongly depends on temperature of this construction-thermal element and type and thickness of other materials of the façade, influence of these parameters on energy efficiency was analyzed in this paper. Since the simplest and most promising way of using geothermal energy is to use it directly, for our analysis this source of energy was selected. Building energy needs for heating were obtained for real residential multi-family building in Serbia by using EnergyPlus software. The building with all necessary input for simulation was modeled in Google SketchUp with aid of Open Studio Plug-in. Obtained results were compared with measured heating energy consumption. The results show that thermally activated building systems represent good way to increase building energy efficiency and that applying certain temperatures within this element, low-energy house standard can be achieved.

  3. Increased resting energy expenditure in subjects with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, N; Katzenellenbogen, S; Nevo, Y

    2004-02-01

    We have studied changes in energy expenditure and body composition in adult males with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, age-matched males with hyperCKemia and age-matched healthy controls. All participants were studied twice, 2-3 years apart. Resting energy expenditure was studied by indirect calorimetry, lean body mass and body fat by dual X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle mass was estimated based on 24-h urinary creatinine excretion. At baseline and 2-3 years later, body fat was significantly higher (P energy expenditure, over the study period, increased significantly in patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (P energy expenditure relative to healthy subjects. If not met by increased caloric intake, this greater energy expenditure may partially contribute to a further deterioration in their muscle performance.

  4. Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Oestersund (Sweden); Bergh, Johan [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Oestersund (Sweden); Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO{sub 2equiv} if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission. (author)

  5. Medical workforce education and training: A failed decentralisation attempt to reform organisation, financing, and planning in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Buchan, Alastair M

    2015-12-01

    The 2010-2015 Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government proposed introducing a radical decentralisation reform of the organisation, financing, and planning of medical workforce education and training in England. However, following public deliberation and parliamentary scrutiny of the government's proposals, it had to abandon and alter its original proposals to the extent that they failed to achieve their original decentralisation objectives. This failed decentralisation attempt provides important lessons about the policy process and content of both workforce governance and health system reforms in Europe and beyond. The organisation, financing, and planning of medical workforce education is as an issue of national importance and should remain in the stewardship of the national government. Future reform efforts seeking to enhance the skills of the workforce needed to deliver high-quality care for patients in the 21st century will have a greater chance of succeeding if they are clearly articulated through engagement with stakeholders, and focus on the delivery of undergraduate and postgraduate multi-professional education and training in universities and teaching hospitals.

  6. An Approach to Increase the Battery Time of a Mobile Phone Using Free Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Jensen, Jesper; Jessen, Kasper; Laugesen, Kasper;

    2016-01-01

    The increasing market of mobile phones, has increased the need for electricity to power mobile phones, as well. This paper investigates the possibilities to charge a mobile phone by harvesting energy from the surroundings. Some technologies are better suited for this purpose than others. Through...

  7. Implications of increased beam energy on QPS, EE, time constants, PC

    CERN Document Server

    Steckert, J

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the beam energy of LHC is coupled with an increase in current in the main dipole and quadrupole circuits. This paper will show the implications of increased beam energy on the circuit protection (CP) systems. Relevant system details and their limits will be discussed for several operational scenarios. The main focus lays on the system’s behavior during the fast power abort (FPA) which is the most challenging mode of operation. Furthermore measures to mitigate the EM-transients during FPAs are shown.

  8. Analog self-powered harvester achieving switching pause control to increase harvested energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Asahina, Kei

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog controller circuit to increase the efficiency of electrical energy harvesting from vibrational energy using piezoelectric materials. Although the existing synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) method is designed to produce efficient harvesting, its switching operation generates a vibration-suppression effect that reduces the harvested levels of electrical energy. To solve this problem, the authors proposed—in a previous paper—a switching method that takes this vibration-suppression effect into account. This method temporarily pauses the switching operation, allowing the recovery of the mechanical displacement and, therefore, of the piezoelectric voltage. In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog circuit to implement this switching control method. Self-powered vibration harvesting is achieved in this study by attaching a newly designed circuit to an existing analog controller for SSHI. This circuit aims to effectively implement the aforementioned new switching control strategy, where switching is paused in some vibration peaks, in order to allow motion recovery and a consequent increase in the harvested energy. Harvesting experiments performed using the proposed circuit reveal that the proposed method can increase the energy stored in the storage capacitor by a factor of 8.5 relative to the conventional SSHI circuit. This proposed technique is useful to increase the harvested energy especially for piezoelectric systems having large coupling factor.

  9. Measurement of pulse lengthening with pulse energy increase in picosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutolo, A.; Zeni, L.; Berardi, V.; Bruzzese, R.; Solimeno, S.; Spinelli, N.

    1989-03-15

    Taking advantage of a new technique, we have monitored the relative variations of time duration and mode size as a function of the pulse energy for 30-ps-long Nd:YAG laser pulses. In particular, by carrying out a statistical analysis, we have observed that the pulse time duration is an increasing function of the pulse energy, according to the theoretical modeling of passively mode-locked lasers. The measurements can be easily extended to the femtosecond regime.

  10. Increase the Performance of Companies in the Energy Sector by Implementing the Activity-Based Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Letitia-Maria Rof; Sorinel Capusneanu

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the increasing performances as result of implementation stages of the ActivityBased Costing in the companies operating in the energy sector in Romania. There are presented some aspects of the usefulness of applying the Activity-Based Costing in the energy sector and the advantages it offers compared to traditional costing. There are also outlined the steps for applying the Activity-Based Costing and its implementation in the largest hydropower producer in Romania. The ...

  11. FORMING OF THE SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINS BASED ON INCREASING OF THEIR INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHVETS V. J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Key challenges and barriers of mining machinery enterprises in the context of forming sustainable supply chains in the mining industry are specified. Methodology. The algorithm of forming the industrial relations, which are carried out by the enterprises of mining machinery in order to increase the sustainable development of a mining industry, is offered. Conclusions.. Modern supply chains are confronted with dynamic trends and developments that are hard to predict. In order to respond to these changes and remain competitive advantage, companies should be able to identify and understand new sustainability issues in their branches. It is established that in the conditions of globalization of the market and the general orientation of Ukraine’s economy to the European principles of development, for mining machinery enterprises a proof of the commitment and observance of requirements of energy efficiency, i.e. energy saving, energy safety and social energy responsibility are very important. Supply channels should increase not only energy efficiency, economic and production stability of the company, but also strengthen the stability of all participants in the production chain, as well as other stakeholders (business partners, customers, investors, local communities, etc.. Originality. The interrelation of an indicator of energy efficiency in forming sustainable supply chain in a mining industry is established. Practical value. Using the principles of sustainable development in the forming of value chains will improve energy efficiency of industry in general; provide a competitive advantage to entry into the global production chains in terms of European integration of Ukraine.

  12. Manpower assessment brief: Employment of energy related doctoral scientists and engineers increased between 1981 and 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the nearly 45,000 energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers represented 11% of all employed doctoral scientists and engineers. Engineers comprised 40%, physical scientists, 21%, and earth scientists, almost 10% of those involved in energy-related activities - a significantly different distribution than occurs among all Ph.D. scientists and engineers. Between 1981 and 1985, by far the largest increase in energy-related Ph.D.'s occurred in employment in the life sciences - up over 120%. Employment in the social sciences and pyschology (primarily the latter) grew by 17% and in engineering by 7%.

  13. The human face of decentralisation and integration of health services: experience from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Di; Klugman, Barbara

    2003-05-01

    This paper explores the processes of policy-making, budgeting and service implementation in three provinces of South Africa, drawing on interviews with health managers at different levels of government. It illustrates how the process of decentralisation creates disjunctures between the policy-making authority of higher levels of government and the implementation capacity of service provision levels. It also explores the complex dynamics between those responsible for specific policies, such as reproductive health policies, and those responsible for managing the integrated delivery of all policies, with their resultant contestations over authority and resources. The pace of change in South Africa and the enormous capacity it requires, both in relation to financial management and the technical skills needed for specific programmes, has created a sense of frustration and demoralisation. Whilst shortage of financial resources, particularly as reflected in shortage of staff, is frequently assumed to be the biggest constraint in this context, most managers identified other issues, particularly staff morale, as greater barriers to the delivery of high quality health services. The paper concludes that it is the complexity of experience and feelings described by health managers that may determine the extent and quality of service delivery. For this reason, both practice and research need to give greater attention to issues of power relations and personal experience of change.

  14. Improving the recall of decentralised linked data querying through implicit knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Umbrich, Jürgen; Polleres, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Aside from crawling, indexing, and querying RDF data centrally, Linked Data principles allow for processing SPARQL queries on-the-fly by dereferencing URIs. Proposed link-traversal query approaches for Linked Data have the benefits of up-to-date results and decentralised (i.e., client-side) execution, but operate on incomplete knowledge available in dereferenced documents, thus affecting recall. In this paper, we investigate how implicit knowledge - specifically that found through owl:sameAs and RDFS reasoning - can improve the recall in this setting. We start with an empirical analysis of a large crawl featuring 4 m Linked Data sources and 1.1 g quadruples: we (1) measure expected recall by only considering dereferenceable information, (2) measure the improvement in recall given by considering rdfs:seeAlso links as previous proposals did. We further propose and measure the impact of additionally considering (3) owl:sameAs links, and (4) applying lightweight RDFS reasoning (specifically {\\rho}DF) for finding ...

  15. Truncated adaptation design for decentralised neural dynamic surface control of interconnected nonlinear systems under input saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shigen; Dong, Hairong; Lyu, Shihang; Ning, Bin

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies decentralised neural adaptive control of a class of interconnected nonlinear systems, each subsystem is in the presence of input saturation and external disturbance and has independent system order. Using a novel truncated adaptation design, dynamic surface control technique and minimal-learning-parameters algorithm, the proposed method circumvents the problems of 'explosion of complexity' and 'dimension curse' that exist in the traditional backstepping design. Comparing to the methodology that neural weights are online updated in the controllers, only one scalar needs to be updated in the controllers of each subsystem when dealing with unknown systematic dynamics. Radial basis function neural networks (NNs) are used in the online approximation of unknown systematic dynamics. It is proved using Lyapunov stability theory that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded. The tracking errors of each subsystems, the amplitude of NN approximation residuals and external disturbances can be attenuated to arbitrarily small by tuning proper design parameters. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Parameter investigation for decentralised dewatering and solar thermic drying of sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wett, B; Demattio, M; Becker, W

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is an experimental and model assisted investigation of the capabilities of a dewatering system for sewage sludge for decentralised sites. Laboratory and field tests are performed with different initial conditions and the influences of filter medium, initial height, initial total suspended solids, temperature and relative humidity are discussed. The experimental work shows the feasibility of geotextile media for dewatering high water content sewage sludge and that the textile structure is of secondary importance. The specific filter resistance of the sludge cake is found to be the most significant factor in dewatering applications. The mathematical description of the dewatering process is based on the superposition of two models, the Conventional Filtration Theory for the filtration phase and the BT-model for the drying phase. Feasibility and limits of the theoretical approach are evaluated by means of a comparison between measurements and simulated data of cyclic reloading tests. It is found that a better filtration efficiency is achieved at higher TSS and at lower initial height of the slurry layer. Due to the viscosity decrease, a higher temperature enhances not only evaporation, but also filtration rate.

  17. On increasing network lifetime in body area networks using global routing with energy consumption balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouri, Gill R; Prieto, Alvaro; Argade, Nikhil

    2012-09-26

    Global routing protocols in wireless body area networks are considered. Global routing is augmented with a novel link cost function designed to balance energy consumption across the network. The result is a substantial increase in network lifetime at the expense of a marginal increase in energy per bit. Network maintenance requirements are reduced as well, since balancing energy consumption means all batteries need to be serviced at the same time and less frequently. The proposed routing protocol is evaluated using a hardware experimental setup comprising multiple nodes and an access point. The setup is used to assess network architectures, including an on-body access point and an off-body access point with varying number of antennas. Real-time experiments are conducted in indoor environments to assess performance gains. In addition, the setup is used to record channel attenuation data which are then processed in extensive computer simulations providing insight on the effect of protocol parameters on performance. Results demonstrate efficient balancing of energy consumption across all nodes, an average increase of up to 40% in network lifetime corresponding to a modest average increase of 0.4 dB in energy per bit, and a cutoff effect on required transmission power to achieve reliable connectivity.

  18. An obesity-associated FTO gene variant and increased energy intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Joanne E; Tavendale, Roger; Watt, Peter; Hetherington, Marion M; Palmer, Colin N A

    2008-12-11

    Variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has provided the most robust associations with common obesity to date. However, the role of FTO variants in modulating specific components of energy balance is unknown. We studied 2726 Scottish children, 4 to 10 years of age, who underwent genotyping for FTO variant rs9939609 and were measured for height and weight. A subsample of 97 children was examined for possible association of the FTO variant with adiposity, energy expenditure, and food intake. In the total study group and the subsample, the A allele of rs9939609 was associated with increased weight (P=0.003 and P=0.049, respectively) and body-mass index (P=0.003 and P=0.03, respectively). In the intensively phenotyped subsample, the A allele was also associated with increased fat mass (P=0.01) but not with lean mass. Although total and resting energy expenditures were increased in children with the A allele (P=0.009 and P=0.03, respectively), resting energy expenditure was identical to that predicted for the age and weight of the child, indicating that there is no defect in metabolic adaptation to obesity in persons bearing the risk-associated allele. The A allele was associated with increased energy intake (P=0.006) independently of body weight. In contrast, the weight of food ingested by children who had the allele was similar to that in children who did not have the allele (P=0.82). The FTO variant that confers a predisposition to obesity does not appear to be involved in the regulation of energy expenditure but may have a role in the control of food intake and food choice, suggesting a link to a hyperphagic phenotype or a preference for energy-dense foods. 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  19. Increased monolayer domain size and patterned growth of tungsten disulfide through controlling surface energy of substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Kyle; Kang, Kyungnam; Fu, Shichen; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2016-08-01

    We report a surface energy-controlled low-pressure chemical vapor deposition growth of WS2 monolayers on SiO2 using pre-growth oxygen plasma treatment of substrates, facilitating increased monolayer surface coverage and patterned growth without lithography. Oxygen plasma treatment of the substrate caused an increase in the average domain size of WS2 monolayers by 78%  ±  2% while having a slight reduction in nucleation density, which translates to increased monolayer surface coverage. This substrate effect on growth was exploited to grow patterned WS2 monolayers by patterned plasma treatment on patterned substrates and by patterned source material with resolutions less than 10 µm. Contact angle-based surface energy measurements revealed a dramatic increase in polar surface energy. A growth model was proposed with lowered activation energies for growth and increased surface diffusion length consistent with the range of results observed. WS2 samples grown with and without oxygen plasma were similar high quality monolayers verified through transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman, and photoluminescence measurements. This technique enables the production of large-grain size, patterned WS2 without a post-growth lithography process, thereby providing clean surfaces for device applications.

  20. Increasing the energy conservation awareness using the influential power of a lottery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amruta Vijay

    This thesis presents an influence maximization-driven approach to promoting energy conservation awareness, with the objective to generate a competitive environment for energy consumption supervision. As consumers are typically reluctant to invest their time and effort in the activities beyond their business, an incentive-based distribution strategy is proposed to encourage consumers to actively take part in energy conservation. The key idea of the thesis lies in leveraging the consumer instincts as a driving factor for spreading positive social influence, via a smart lottery program. In the proposed framework, saving energy automatically increases the consumers' chances of winning the lottery, thereby motivating them to save more, while the smart winner selection will maximize the word-of-mouth effect of the program. The thesis collects and organizes a large body of literature in support of the claim that the spread of awareness in a social network can play a key role in the emergence of energy conscious behavior. It also reports on the findings of a survey conducted to determine the present day consumer perspective toward energy conservation and the level of influence required to motivate them to conserve more energy. Finally, a mathematical model for smart lottery winner selection is presented, and insightful observations are made concerning the properties of optimal solutions to tractable, small problem instances.

  1. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucharski, TJ; Ferralis, N; Kolpak, AM; Zheng, JO; Nocera, DG; Grossman, JC

    2014-04-13

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  2. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  3. Application Of Sustainable Design Principles To Increase Energy Efficiency Of Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoury B.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of different energy retrofitting techniques and examines the impact of employing those methods on energy consumption of existing residential buildings. Based on the research findings, the most effective and practical method of retrofitting has been proposed in order to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings. In order to achieve this goal, an existing residential building has been simulated in FirstRate 5 software so as to determine the existing thermal performance of the building. Afterwards, considering sustainable design principles, different insulation layers, glazing, and construction materials have been employed to conduct a comprehensive thermal performance study. Based on the research outcomes, the best technique for increasing energy efficiency of existing buildings and reducing their environmental impact and footprint has been identified and proposed for practical purposes.

  4. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.

  5. Do Management and Leadership Practices in the Context of Decentralisation Influence Performance of Community Health Fund? Evidence From Iramba and Iringa Districts in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakupewa Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In early 1990s, Tanzania like other African countries, adopted health sector reform (HSR. The most strongly held centralisation system that informed the nature of services provision including health was, thus, disintegrated giving rise to decentralisation system. It was within the realm of HSR process, user fees were introduced in the health sector. Along with user fees, various types of health insurances, including the Community Health Fund (CHF, were introduced. While the country’s level of enrolment in the CHF is low, there are marked variations among districts. This paper highlights the role of decentralised health management and leadership practices in the uptake of the CHF in Tanzania. Methods A comparative exploratory case study of high and low performing districts was carried out. In-depth interviews were conducted with the members of the Council Health Service Board (CHSB, Council Health Management Team (CHMT, Health Facility Committees (HFCs, in-charges of health facilities, healthcare providers, and Community Development Officers (CDOs. Minutes of the meetings of the committees and district annual health plans and district annual implementation reports were also used to verify and triangulate the data. Thematic analysis was adopted to analyse the collected data. We employed both inductive and deductive (mixed coding to arrive to the themes. Results There were no differences in the level of education and experience of the district health managers in the two study districts. Almost all district health managers responsible for the management of the CHF had attended some training on management and leadership. However, there were variations in the personal initiatives of the top-district health leaders, particularly the district health managers, the council health services board and local government officials. Similarly, there were differences in the supervision mechanisms, and incentives available for the health providers

  6. Do Management and Leadership Practices in the Context of Decentralisation Influence Performance of Community Health Fund? Evidence From Iramba and Iringa Districts in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Chakupewa; Maluka, Stephen Oswald

    2016-09-26

    In early 1990s, Tanzania like other African countries, adopted health sector reform (HSR). The most strongly held centralisation system that informed the nature of services provision including health was, thus, disintegrated giving rise to decentralisation system. It was within the realm of HSR process, user fees were introduced in the health sector. Along with user fees, various types of health insurances, including the Community Health Fund (CHF), were introduced. While the country's level of enrolment in the CHF is low, there are marked variations among districts. This paper highlights the role of decentralised health management and leadership practices in the uptake of the CHF in Tanzania. A comparative exploratory case study of high and low performing districts was carried out. In-depth interviews were conducted with the members of the Council Health Service Board (CHSB), Council Health Management Team (CHMT), Health Facility Committees (HFCs), in-charges of health facilities, healthcare providers, and Community Development Officers (CDOs). Minutes of the meetings of the committees and district annual health plans and district annual implementation reports were also used to verify and triangulate the data. Thematic analysis was adopted to analyse the collected data. We employed both inductive and deductive (mixed coding) to arrive to the themes. There were no differences in the level of education and experience of the district health managers in the two study districts. Almost all district health managers responsible for the management of the CHF had attended some training on management and leadership. However, there were variations in the personal initiatives of the top-district health leaders, particularly the district health managers, the council health services board and local government officials. Similarly, there were differences in the supervision mechanisms, and incentives available for the health providers, HFCs and board members in the two study

  7. Vagus nerve stimulation increases energy expenditure: relation to brown adipose tissue activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy H E J Vijgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human brown adipose tissue (BAT activity is inversely related to obesity and positively related to energy expenditure. BAT is highly innervated and it is suggested the vagus nerve mediates peripheral signals to the central nervous system, there connecting to sympathetic nerves that innervate BAT. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS is used for refractory epilepsy, but is also reported to generate weight loss. We hypothesize VNS increases energy expenditure by activating BAT. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen patients with stable vns therapy (age: 45 ± 10 yrs; body mass index; 25.2 ± 3.5 kg/m(2 were included between January 2011 and June 2012. Ten subjects were measured twice, once with active and once with inactivated VNS. Five other subjects were measured twice, once with active VNS at room temperature and once with active VNS under cold exposure in order to determine maximal cold-induced BAT activity. BAT activity was assessed by 18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography-and-Computed-Tomography. Basal metabolic rate (BMR was significantly higher when VNS was turned on (mean change; +2.2%. Mean BAT activity was not significantly different between active VNS and inactive VNS (BAT SUV(Mean; 0.55 ± 0.25 versus 0.67 ± 0.46, P = 0.619. However, the change in energy expenditure upon VNS intervention (On-Off was significantly correlated to the change in BAT activity (r = 0.935, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: VNS significantly increases energy expenditure. The observed change in energy expenditure was significantly related to the change in BAT activity. This suggests a role for BAT in the VNS increase in energy expenditure. Chronic VNS may have a beneficial effect on the human energy balance that has potential application for weight management therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Register under the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01491282.

  8. Efficient Control of Energy Storage for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    hosting capacity of LV grids by determining dynamic set points for EESS management. The method has the effectiveness of central control methods and can effectively decrease the energy storage required for overvoltage prevention, yet it eliminates the need for a broadband and fast communication. The net...... power injected into the grid and the amount of reactive power absorbed by PV inverters are estimated using the PV generation forecast and load consumption forecast, and the dynamic operating points for energy storage management are determined for a specific period of time by solving a linear...... grid is usually limited by overvoltage, and the efficient control of distributed electrical energy storage systems (EESSs) can considerably increase this capacity. In this paper, a new control approach based on the voltage sensitivity analysis is proposed to prevent overvoltage and increase the PV...

  9. An Approach to Increase the Battery Time of a Mobile Phone Using Free Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Jensen, Jesper; Jessen, Kasper; Laugesen, Kasper;

    2016-01-01

    The increasing market of mobile phones, has increased the need for electricity to power mobile phones, as well. This paper investigates the possibilities to charge a mobile phone by harvesting energy from the surroundings. Some technologies are better suited for this purpose than others. Through...... the harvested energy. Calculations regarding the power produced by amorphous silicon solar cells in both sun light and light from different light emitting sources will be examined. Furthermore calculations of the spring for the electromagnetic generator and the power produced by this device will be examined....... Through experiments and data processing the energy delivered by the solar cells and the electromagnetic generator is investigated, furthermore an experiment regarding the movement of the phone will be executed....

  10. A solution for increasing the efficiency of diesel - electric locomotives with super capacitive energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destraz, B.; Barrade, P.; Rufer, A. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Lab. of Industrial Electronics, CH Lausanne EPFL (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    Diesel - electric traction is a well established technology in railways systems, mainly for lines with a low traffic potential. In those conditions, a diesel powered locomotive is chosen because the infrastructure costs are lower in comparison to a standard electric train. The main inconvenience of that technology is the primary energy source: oil resources are not infinite, prices are difficult to forecast and CO{sub 2} production increases global warming. It is therefore important to develop new strategies to increase the energy efficiency of diesel - electric trains. To reach that goal, a system with super-capacitive energy storage will be proposed in this paper. The aspects of production and exploitation costs are going to be presented in more details. The proposed solution will reduce diesel consumption and therefore also CO{sub 2} and other pollutant emissions while being economically viable. (authors)

  11. An Approach to Increase the Battery Time of a Mobile Phone Using Free Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Jensen, Jesper; Jessen, Kasper; Laugesen, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The increasing market of mobile phones, has increased the need for electricity to power mobile phones, as well. This paper investigates the possibilities to charge a mobile phone by harvesting energy from the surroundings. Some technologies are better suited for this purpose than others. Through...... the harvested energy. Calculations regarding the power produced by amorphous silicon solar cells in both sun light and light from different light emitting sources will be examined. Furthermore calculations of the spring for the electromagnetic generator and the power produced by this device will be examined....... Through experiments and data processing the energy delivered by the solar cells and the electromagnetic generator is investigated, furthermore an experiment regarding the movement of the phone will be executed....

  12. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2009-06-21

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  13. The impact of forecasted energy price increases on low-income consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, Joel F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-10-31

    The Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2005-2006. The forecast indicates significant increases in fuel costs, particularly for natural gas, propane, and home heating oil, for the year ahead. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation’s low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The statistics are intended for the use of policymakers in the Department of Energy’s Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2006 fiscal year.

  14. Efficiency increase in ship's primal energy system using a multistage compression with intercooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landeka Petar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an analysis of the potential increase of efficiency in ship's primal energy system using a turbocharger with multistage compression with intercooling, and diverting a greater flow of exhaust gases to power turbine of waste heat recovery system (WHR. Analysis of potential efficiency increase has been made for various stages of compression for a 100 % main engine load, and an analysis of five stage compression with intercooling for a main engine load between 50% and 100%.

  15. Anammox brings WWTP closer to energy autarky due to increased biogas production and reduced aeration energy for N-removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, H; Salzgeber, D; Eugster, J; Joss, A

    2008-01-01

    Fifty years ago when only BOD was removed at municipal WWTPs primary clarifiers were designed with 2-3 hours hydraulic retention time (HRT). This changed with the introduction of nitrogen removal in activated sludge treatment that needed more BOD for denitrification. The HRT of primary clarification was reduced to less than one hour for dry weather flow with the consequence that secondary sludge had to be separately thickened and biogas production was reduced. Only recently the ammonia rich digester liquid (15-20% of the inlet ammonia load) could be treated with the very economic autotrophic nitritation/anammox process requiring half of the aeration energy and no organic carbon source compared to nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification. With the introduction of this new innovative digester liquid treatment the situation reverts, allowing us to increase HRT of the primary clarifier to improve biogas production and reduce aeration energy for BOD removal and nitrification at similar overall N-removal.

  16. Increased binding energy of impurities near a semiconductor-vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnheijmer, A.P.; Garleff, J.K.; Koenraad, P.M. [PSN, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Teichmann, K.; Wenderoth, M.; Loth, S.; Ulbrich, R.G. [IV. Phys. Inst., Georg-August Univ. Goettingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We have recently shown that a STM tip can be used as a tool to manipulate the charge state of individual impurities below the cleavage surface of a semiconductor. This manipulation allowed us to determine the binding energy of single donors and acceptors as a function of their depth (up to 1 nm) below the surface. We found that the binding energy strongly increases near the surface. In the case of a Si-donor in GaAs the binding energy increases continuously from 5.6 meV in the bulk to about 150 meV close to the surface. Our STM techniques also allowed for the determination of the size and shape of the Coulomb field of single ionized donors. We found that the range of the potential is strongly reduced relative to the bulk value. Both the reduced range of the Coulomb potential and the increased binding energy can be related to a reduced dielectric constant and increased effective mass near the surface. We discuss the implications of these findings.

  17. Direct load control for electricity supply and demand matching : increasing reliability of wind energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve ten, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden as well as in The Netherlands energy policy is increasingly aiming at extending the use of renew-able sources. In accordance with the targets of the European Union, both countries have formulated national targets for the year 2020. For wind ener

  18. 75 FR 64348 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0182, Increased Safety Measures for Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... a safe manner by well- trained personnel using technology, precautions, and techniques sufficient to... techniques or other forms of information technology. Agencies must also estimate the non-hour paperwork cost...: 1010-0182, Increased Safety Measures for Energy Development on the OCS NTL, Extension of a Collection...

  19. Increase of energy efficiency of testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulsating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Afanasov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the effect of the load current of traction electric machines when tested for heating on the total electricity consumption for the test are presented. It is shown that increase of load current at the heating test permits to significantly reduce the consumption of electrical energy, and reduce the testing time without reducing its quality.

  20. Increasing National Energy Mix through Carbon Sequestration of Coal for Improved Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. U. Ugwu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel technology of increasing national energy mix through carbon sequestration of coal has been advocated as a panacea for improving the nation’s power generation for electricity utilization and consumption. Consequently, electricity and petroleum products which have become the energy forms relied upon in most economic sectors of the world significantly exist with some changes in time vis-à-vis the energy consumption due to changes in the structure of the economy, energy prices, level of production of goods and services, technology and population, etc. Also, the exclusive dependence on income from oil for infrastructural development thus became the order of the day. These, are considered unsustainable especially with the total neglect of the agrarian nature of the country and the unproductive capabilities of other goods and services derivable from electricity generated. Hence, these seriously portend that urgent and drastic engineering strategies must be introduced in the energy sector to revamp the dwindling power generation. Thus, carbon sequestration of coal is the suggested option as a clean coal energy technology for power plant optimization. In this study, some air-dried Nigerian coals collected from different coal deposits across the country were utilized for the analyses to investigate their characteristics and rheology. The result obtained shows that chemically re-characterized Enugu sub-bituminous air dried coal has the highest carbon content ranging from 3.8% to 46.27% while its calorific value was found to be also high among others at the range of 22.3 to 28.4MJ/Kg, respectively. The result also shows that increase in carbon contents for all the coal samples resulted to increase in calorific value which would reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere if released by the burning of these fossil fuels. The technology of a good sequestered carbon if adopted will help in revamping the dwindling

  1. Increased power to weight ratio of piezoelectric energy harvesters through integration of cellular honeycomb structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, N.; Thompson, L. L.

    2016-04-01

    The limitations posed by batteries have compelled the need to investigate energy harvesting methods to power small electronic devices that require very low operational power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods with piezoelectric transduction in particular has been shown to possess potential towards energy harvesters replacing batteries. Current piezoelectric energy harvesters exhibit considerably lower power to weight ratio or specific power when compared to batteries the harvesters seek to replace. To attain the goal of battery-less self-sustainable device operation the power to weight ratio gap between piezoelectric energy harvesters and batteries need to be bridged. In this paper the potential of integrating lightweight honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) towards achieving higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of conventional bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power to weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. At higher driving frequency ranges it is shown that unlike the traditional piezoelectric bimorph with solid continuous substrate, the honeycomb substrate bimorph can preserve optimum global design parameters through manipulation of honeycomb unit cell parameters. Increased operating lifetime and design flexibility of the honeycomb core piezoelectric bimorph is demonstrated as unit cell parameters of the honeycomb structures can be manipulated to alter mass and stiffness properties of the substrate, resulting in unit cell parameter significantly influencing power generation.

  2. Theoretical Investigation of Substituent Effects on the Dihydroazulene/Vinylheptafulvene Photoswitch: Increasing the Energy Storage Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mia Harring; Elm, Jonas; Olsen, Stine T; Gejl, Aske Nørskov; Storm, Freja E; Frandsen, Benjamin N; Skov, Anders B; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2016-12-15

    We have investigated the effects of substituents on the properties of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photoswitch. The focus is on the changes of the thermochemical properties by placing electron withdrawing and donating groups on the monocyano and dicyano structures of the parent dihydroazulene and vinylheptafulvene compounds. We wish to increase the energy storage capacity, that is, the energy difference between the dihydroazulene and vinylheptafulvene isomers, of the photoswitch by computational molecular design and have performed over 9000 electronic structure calculations using density functional theory. Based on these calculations, we obtain design rules for how to increase the energy storage capacity of the photoswitch. Furthermore, we have investigated how the activation energy for the thermally induced vinylheptafulvene to dihydroazulene conversion depends on the substitution pattern, and based on these results, we have outlined molecular design considerations for obtaining new desired target structures exhibiting long energy storage times. Selected candidate systems have also been investigated in terms of optical properties to elucidate how sensitive the absorption maxima are to the functionalizations.

  3. A Single Oral Administration of Theaflavins Increases Energy Expenditure and the Expression of Metabolic Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Kudo

    Full Text Available Theaflavins are polyphenols found in black tea, whose physiological activities are not well understood. This study on mice evaluated the influence of a single oral administration of theaflavins on energy metabolism by monitoring the initial metabolic changess in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT. Oxygen consumption (VO2 and energy expenditure (EE were increased significantly in mice treated with theaflavin rich fraction (TF compared with the group administered vehicle alone. There was no difference in locomotor activity. Fasting mice were euthanized under anesthesia before and 2 and 5, 20-hr after treatment with TF or vehicle. The mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α in BAT were increased significantly 2-hr after administration ofTF. The levels of UCP-3 and PGC-1α in the gastrocnemius muscle were increased significantly 2 and 5-hr after administration of TF. The concentration of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK 1α was also increased significantly in the gastrocnemius 2 and 5-hr after treatment with TF. These results indicate that TF significantly enhances systemic energy expenditure, as evidenced by an increase in expression of metabolic genes.

  4. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature.

  5. Possibility to Increase Biofuels Energy Efficiency used for Compression Ignition Engines Fueling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin D. Iclodean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of optimizing the use of biofuels in terms of energy efficiency in compression ignition (CI engines fueling. Based on the experimental results was determinate the law of variation of the rate of heat released by the combustion process for diesel fuel and different blends of biodiesel. Using this law, were changed parameters of the engine management system (fuel injection law and was obtain increased engine performance (in terms of energy efficiency for use of different biofuel blends.

  6. Yoga Poses Increase Subjective Energy and State Self-Esteem in Comparison to 'Power Poses'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Lantos, Dorottya; Bowden, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of 'power poses,' which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010). The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to 'high power' and 'low power' poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body (n = 19), two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body (n = 22), two expansive, high power poses (n = 21), or two constrictive, low power poses (n = 20) for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to 'power poses' increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses' association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min.

  7. A new wireless system for decentralised measurement of physiological parameters from shake flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illmann Lutz

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shake flasks are widely used because of their low price and simple handling. Many researcher are, however, not aware of the physiological consequences of oxygen limitation and substrate overflow metabolism that occur in shake flasks. Availability of a wireless measuring system brings the possibilities for quality control and design of cultivation conditions. Results Here we present a new wireless solution for the measurement of pH and oxygen from shake flasks with standard sensors, which allows data transmission over a distance of more than 100 metres in laboratory environments. This new system was applied to monitoring of cultivation conditions in shake flasks. The at-time monitoring of the growth conditions became possible by simple means. Here we demonstrate that with typical protocols E. coli shake flask cultures run into severe oxygen limitation and the medium is strongly acidified. Additionally the strength of the new system is demonstrated by continuous monitoring of the oxygen level in methanol-fed Pichia pastoris shake flask cultures, which allows the optimisation of substrate feeding for preventing starvation or methanol overfeed. 40 % higher cell density was obtained by preventing starvation phases which occur in standard shake flask protocols by adding methanol when the respiration activity decreased in the cultures. Conclusion The here introduced wireless system can read parallel sensor data over long distances from shake flasks that are under vigorous shaking in cultivation rooms or closed incubators. The presented technology allows centralised monitoring of decentralised targets. It is useful for the monitoring of pH and dissolved oxygen in shake flask cultures. It is not limited to standard sensors, but can be easily adopted to new types of sensors and measurement places (e.g., new sensor points in large-scale bioreactors.

  8. Relative effects of submersion and increased pressure on respiratory mechanics, work, and energy cost of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Heather E; Pendergast, David R

    2013-03-01

    Submersion and increased pressure (depth) characterize the diving environment and may independently increase demand on the respiratory system. To quantify changes in respiratory mechanics, this study employed a unique protocol and techniques to measure, in a hyperbaric chamber, inspiratory and expiratory alveolar pressures (interrupter technique), inspiratory and expiratory resistance in the airways (RawI and RawE, esophageal balloon technique), nitric oxide elimination (thought to correlate with Raw), inspiratory and expiratory mechanical power of breathing, and the total energy cost of ventilation. Eight healthy adult men underwent experiments at 1, 2.7, and 4.6 atmospheres absolute (ATA) in dry and fully submersed conditions. Subjects rested, cycled on an ergometer at 100 W, and rested while voluntarily matching their ventilation to their own exercise hyperpnea (isocapnic simulated exercise ventilation). During isocapnic simulated exercise ventilation, increased O2 uptake (above rest values) resulted from increased expired ventilation. RawI decreased with submersion (mean 43% during rest and 20% during exercise) but increased from 1 to 4.6 ATA (19% during rest and 75% during exercise), as did RawE (53% decrease with submersion during rest and 10% during exercise; 9% increase from 1 to 4.6 ATA during rest and 66% during exercise). Nitric oxide elimination did not correlate with Raw. Depth increased inspiratory mechanical power of breathing during rest (40%) and exercise (20%). Expiratory mechanical power of breathing was largely unchanged. These results suggest that the diving environment affects ventilatory mechanics primarily by increasing Raw, secondary to increased gas density. This necessitates increased alveolar pressure and increases the work and energy cost of breathing as the diver descends. These findings can inform physician assessment of diver fitness and the pulmonary risks of hyperbaric O2 therapy.

  9. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  10. Pharmacologic activation of estrogen receptor β increases mitochondrial function, energy expenditure, and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Suriyan; Tran, Quynh T; Harvey, Innocence; Smallwood, Heather S; Thiyagarajan, Thirumagal; Banerjee, Souvik; Johnson, Daniel L; Dalton, James T; Sullivan, Ryan D; Miller, Duane D; Bridges, Dave; Narayanan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Most satiety-inducing obesity therapeutics, despite modest efficacy, have safety concerns that underscore the need for effective peripherally acting drugs. An attractive therapeutic approach for obesity is to optimize/maximize energy expenditure by increasing energy-utilizing thermogenic brown adipose tissue. We used in vivo and in vitro models to determine the role of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) and its ligands on adipose biology. RNA sequencing and metabolomics were used to determine the mechanism of action of ER-β and its ligands. Estrogen receptor β (ER-β) and its selective ligand reprogrammed preadipocytes and precursor stem cells into brown adipose tissue and increased mitochondrial respiration. An ER-β-selective ligand increased markers of tricarboxylic acid-dependent and -independent energy biogenesis and oxygen consumption in mice without a concomitant increase in physical activity or food consumption, all culminating in significantly reduced weight gain and adiposity. The antiobesity effects of ER-β ligand were not observed in ER-β-knockout mice. Serum metabolite profiles of adult lean and juvenile mice were comparable, while that of adult obese mice was distinct, indicating a possible impact of obesity on age-dependent metabolism. This phenotype was partially reversed by ER-β-selective ligand. These data highlight a new role for ER-β in adipose biology and its potential to be a safer alternative peripheral therapeutic target for obesity.-Ponnusamy, S., Tran, Q. T., Harvey, I., Smallwood, H. S., Thiyagarajan, T., Banerjee, S., Johnson, D. L., Dalton, J. T., Sullivan, R. D., Miller, D. D., Bridges, D., Narayanan, R. Pharmacologic activation of estrogen receptor β increases mitochondrial function, energy expenditure, and brown adipose tissue. © FASEB.

  11. Electromechanical modeling of a honeycomb core integrated vibration energy converter with increased specific power for energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Nataraj

    Innovation in integrated circuit technology along with improved manufacturing processes has resulted in considerable reduction in power consumption of electromechanical devices. Majority of these devices are currently powered by batteries. However, the issues posed by batteries, including the need for frequent battery recharge/replacement has resulted in a compelling need for alternate energy to achieve self-sufficient device operation or to supplement battery power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods through piezoelectric transduction provides with a promising potential towards replacing or supplementing battery power source. However, current piezoelectric energy harvesters generate low specific power (power-to-weight ratio) when compared to batteries that the harvesters seek to replace or supplement. In this study, the potential of integrating lightweight cellular honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) to achieve higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of a conventional piezoelectric bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power-to-weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. In order to maximize the electrical response of vibration based power harvesters, the natural frequency of these harvesters is designed to match the input driving frequency. The commonly used technique of adding a tip mass is employed to lower the natural frequency (to match driving frequency) of both, solid and honeycomb substrate bimorphs. At higher excitation frequency, the natural frequency of the traditional solid substrate bimorph can only be altered (to match driving frequency) through a change in global geometric design parameters, typically achieved by increasing the thickness of the harvester. As a result, the size of the harvester is increased and can be disadvantageous

  12. Dystropathology increases energy expenditure and protein turnover in the mdx mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah G Radley-Crabb

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the mdx mouse model lack functional dystrophin and undergo repeated bouts of necrosis, regeneration, and growth. These processes have a high metabolic cost. However, the consequences for whole body energy and protein metabolism, and on the dietary requirements for these macronutrients at different stages of the disease, are not well-understood. This study used juvenile (4- to 5- wk-old and adult (12- to 14-wk-old male dystrophic C57BL/10ScSn-mdx/J and age-matched C57BL/10ScSn/J control male mice to measure total and resting energy expenditure, food intake, spontaneous activity, body composition, whole body protein turnover, and muscle protein synthesis rates. In juvenile mdx mice that have extensive muscle damage, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were higher than in age-matched controls. Adaptations in food intake and decreased activity were insufficient to meet the increased energy and protein needs of juvenile mdx mice and resulted in stunted growth. In (non-growing adult mdx mice with less severe dystropathology, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were also higher than in age-matched controls. Food intake was sufficient to meet their protein and energy needs, but insufficient to result in fat deposition. These data show that dystropathology impacts the protein and energy needs of mdx mice and that tailored dietary interventions are necessary to redress this imbalance. If not met, the resultant imbalance blunts growth, and may limit the benefits of therapies designed to protect and repair dystrophic muscles.

  13. Dystropathology increases energy expenditure and protein turnover in the mdx mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Marini, Juan C; Sosa, Horacio A; Castillo, Liliana I; Grounds, Miranda D; Fiorotto, Marta L

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the mdx mouse model lack functional dystrophin and undergo repeated bouts of necrosis, regeneration, and growth. These processes have a high metabolic cost. However, the consequences for whole body energy and protein metabolism, and on the dietary requirements for these macronutrients at different stages of the disease, are not well-understood. This study used juvenile (4- to 5- wk-old) and adult (12- to 14-wk-old) male dystrophic C57BL/10ScSn-mdx/J and age-matched C57BL/10ScSn/J control male mice to measure total and resting energy expenditure, food intake, spontaneous activity, body composition, whole body protein turnover, and muscle protein synthesis rates. In juvenile mdx mice that have extensive muscle damage, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were higher than in age-matched controls. Adaptations in food intake and decreased activity were insufficient to meet the increased energy and protein needs of juvenile mdx mice and resulted in stunted growth. In (non-growing) adult mdx mice with less severe dystropathology, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were also higher than in age-matched controls. Food intake was sufficient to meet their protein and energy needs, but insufficient to result in fat deposition. These data show that dystropathology impacts the protein and energy needs of mdx mice and that tailored dietary interventions are necessary to redress this imbalance. If not met, the resultant imbalance blunts growth, and may limit the benefits of therapies designed to protect and repair dystrophic muscles.

  14. Increased demand-side flexibility: market effects and impacts on variable renewable energy integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Grytli Tveten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of increased demand-side flexibility (DSF on integration and market value of variable renewable energy sources (VRE. Using assumed potentials, system-optimal within-day shifts in demand are investigated for the Northern European power markets in 2030, applying a comprehensive partial equilibrium model with high temporal and spatial resolution. Increased DSF is found to cause only a minor (less than 3% reduction in consumers’ cost of electricity. VRE revenues are found to increase (up to 5% and 2% for wind and solar power, respectively, and total VRE curtailment decreases by up to 7.2 TWh. Increased DSF causes only limited reductions in GHG emissions. The emission reduction is, however, sensitive to underlying assumptions. We conclude that increased DSF is a promising measure for improving VRE integration. However, low consumers’ savings imply that policies stimulating DFS will be needed to fully use the potential benefits of DSF for VRE integration

  15. Negative energy balance increases periprandial ghrelin and growth hormone concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Barry J; Allen, Michael S

    2008-02-01

    The reported effects of feeding on growth hormone (GH) secretion in ruminants have been inconsistent, and are likely influenced by energy status of animals. High-producing dairy cows in early lactation and late lactation were used to assess the effects of energy balance on temporal variation of plasma metabolites and hormones. Cows were fed a single diet once daily, and feed was withdrawn for 90 min prior to feeding. Beginning at the time of feed withdrawal, plasma samples were collected via jugular catheters hourly for 24h. Concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and GH were measured for all samples, while insulin, glucose, and acylated (active) ghrelin were quantified for four sample times around feeding. As expected, calculated energy balance was significantly lower in early lactation than late lactation cows (-43.5 MJ retained/day versus 7.2 MJ retained/day). Following the primary meal of the day, a GH surge was observed in early lactation but not in late lactation cows. This difference was not explained by temporal patterns in non-esterified fatty acid, insulin, or glucose concentrations. However, a preprandial ghrelin surge was observed in early lactation only, suggesting that ghrelin was responsible for the prandial GH surge in this group. Results of a stepwise regression statistical analysis showed that both preprandial ghrelin concentration and energy balance were significant predictors of prandial GH increase over baseline. Adaptations to negative energy balance in lactating dairy cattle likely include enhanced ghrelin secretion and greater GH response to ghrelin.

  16. U.S. energy research and development: Declining investment, increasing need, and the feasibility of expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall 3050, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)]. E-mail: gnemet@berkeley.edu; Kammen, Daniel M. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall 3050, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States) and Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: kammen@berkeley.edu

    2007-01-15

    Investment in energy research and development in the U.S. is declining despite calls for an enhancement of the nation's capacity for innovation to address environmental, geopolitical, and macroeconomic concerns. We examine investments in research and development in the energy sector, and observe broad-based declines in funding since the mid-1990s. The large reductions in investment by the private sector should be a particular area of concern for policy makers. Multiple measures of patenting activity reveal widespread declines in innovative activity that are correlated with research and development (R and D) investment-notably in the environmentally significant wind and solar areas. Trends in venture capital investment and fuel cell innovation are two promising cases that run counter to the overall trends in the sector. We draw on prior work on the optimal level of energy R and D to identify a range of values which would be adequate to address energy-related concerns. Comparing simple scenarios based on this range to past public R and D programs and industry investment data indicates that a five to ten-fold increase in energy R and D investment is both warranted and feasible.

  17. Resveratrol does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Goiuri; Macarulla, M Teresa; Portillo, María P; Rodríguez, Víctor M

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is known to have an antiobesogenic effect because it mimics energy restriction. However, hardly any evidence exists concerning the combined effects of RSV and energy restriction on body fat reduction. So, the aim of the present study was to determine whether RSV increases body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks to obtain a diet-induced obesity model. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25%) without or with RSV supplementation (30 mg/kg body weight/day) for 2 weeks. Final body weight, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose tissues weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin were assessed. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) activities, as well as their genetic expressions, were measured in white adipose tissue. Final body weight, white adipose tissue weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and insulin were reduced in both groups, but no differences were found among them. FAS, ACC, and LPL activities and expressions were also similar in both groups. These results suggest a lack of any adjuvant effect of RSV on energy restriction for obesity treatment purposes.

  18. Does EU's energy dependence on Russia increase price volatility for consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekeler, Zeynep

    Europe's dependence on natural gas imports from Russia has raised questions about energy risk and the vulnerability of the European countries, especially after the supply cuts in 2006, 2008, 2009, and 2012. The implementation of the Third Energy Package to finally unify European energy markets by linking the states located on the periphery to the well connected gas hubs in Northern Europe has been slow due to a lack of political will across Europe. This has enabled Russian Gazprom to retain its position as a major player in European markets and hinder any European effort to diversify the energy portfolio of the region. Using residential natural gas and electricity price data from 2000 through 2014, this paper analyzes the impact of EU's import reliance on natural gas from Russia and the supply disruptions on the volatility of natural gas and electricity prices through a fixed effects regression model. Results indicate that while the size of Russian natural gas imports does not significantly affect natural gas and electricity price volatility in EU countries, security supply measures such as natural gas stocks matter, especially for Southeast European countries that consistently pay more according to the results. The paper concludes by discussing the importance of formulating policies that not only aim to reduce overall EU dependence but minimize Southeastern Europe's vulnerabilities. Policy suggestions include increasing cross-border interconnectors and storage capacity as well as increasing LNG import capacity by building regasification terminals in periphery countries like Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia.

  19. REDESIGN OF COMMONLY USED TOBACCO CURING BARNS IN ZIMBABWE FOR INCREASED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPECIAL MUSONI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Zimbabwe two types of barns are commonly used for tobacco curing, namely the traditional and Rocket barns. The traditional barn and the Rocket Barn loose 98.5% and 55.6% of the energy supplied respectively. The latter is 43.6% more thermally efficient than the traditional barn. There is, however, potential of increasing the energy efficiency of both barns. In this study, a design that incorporates structural changes to reduce heat loss as well as recovery of heat was developed. The design is a combination of commercially available components, and allows for ventilation heat re-use and increased heat transfer from furnace ducts to the drying chamber. The structure was found to be 54.7% more thermally efficient than the Rocket barn and 74.2% more efficient than the traditional barn. The new design needs to be field-tested so that it can be adopted by tobacco farmers.

  20. Injection of a Phase Modulated Source into the Z-Beamlet Laser for Increased Energy Extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Armstrong, Darrell J.; Schwarz, Jens; Smith, Ian C; Shores, Jonathon; Speas, Christopher; Porter, John L.

    2014-11-01

    The Z-Beamlet laser has been operating at Sandia National Laboratories since 2001 to provide a source of laser-generated x-rays for radiography of events on the Z-Accelerator. Changes in desired operational scope have necessitated the increase in pulse duration and energy available from the laser system. This is enabled via the addition of a phase modulated seed laser as an alternative front-end. The practical aspects of deployment are discussed here.

  1. New Operational Modes to Increase Energy Efficiency in Capacitive Deionization Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Soria, Jorge; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A

    2016-06-07

    In order for capacitive deionization (CDI) as a water treatment technology to achieve commercial success, substantial improvements in the operational aspects of the system should be improved in order to efficiently recover the energy stored during the deionization step. In the present work, to increase the energy efficiency of the adsorption-desorption processes, we propose a new operational procedure that utilizes a concentrated brine stream as a washing solution during regeneration. Using this approach, we demonstrate that by replacing the electrolyte during regeneration for a solution with higher conductivity, it is possible to substantially increase round-trip energy efficiency. This procedure was experimentally verified in a flow cell reactor using a pair of carbon electrodes (10(2) cm geometric area) and NaCl solutions having concentrations between 50 and 350 mmol·L(-1). According to experimental data, this new operational mode allows for a better utilization of the three-dimensional structure of the porous material. This increases the energetic efficiency of the global CDI process to above 80% when deionization/regeneration currents ratio are optimized for brackish water treatment.

  2. Exploring the Potential for Increased Production from the Wave Energy Converter Lifesaver by Reactive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molinas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fred Olsen is currently testing their latest wave energy converter (WEC, Lifesaver, outside of Falmouth Bay in England, preparing it for commercial operation at the Wavehub test site. Previous studies, mostly focusing on hydrodynamics and peak to average power reduction, have shown that this device has potential for increased power extraction using reactive control. This article extends those analyses, adding a detailed model of the all-electric power take-off (PTO system, consisting of a permanent magnet synchronous generator, inverter and DC-link. Time domain simulations are performed to evaluate the PTO capabilities of the modeled WEC. However, when tuned towards reactive control, the generator losses become large, giving a very low overall system efficiency. Optimal control with respect to electrical output power is found to occur with low added mass, and when compared to pure passive loading, a 1% increase in annual energy production is estimated. The main factor reducing the effect of reactive control is found to be the minimum load-force constraint of the device. These results suggest that the Lifesaver has limited potential for increased production by reactive control. This analysis is nevertheless valuable, as it demonstrates how a wave-to-wire model can be used for investigation of PTO potential, annual energy production estimations and evaluations of different control techniques for a given WEC device.

  3. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A Gibson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to improve maternal and child welfare may also incur costs associated with increased family sizes if they do not include a family planning component. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in a rural Ethiopian community benefiting from a recent labour-saving development technology that reduces women's energetic expenditure (n = 1,976 households. Using logistic hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households. CONCLUSIONS: This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a link between a technological development intervention and an increase in both birth rate and childhood malnutrition. Women's nutritional status was not improved by the energy-saving technology, because energy was diverted into higher birth rates. We argue that the contribution of biological processes to increased birth rates in areas of the developing world without access to modern contraception has been overlooked. This highlights the continued need for development programmes to be multisectoral, including access to and promotion of contraception.

  4. Increased bone marrow adiposity in a context of energy deficit: the tip of the iceberg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Ghali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Elevated bone marrow adiposity is defined as an increase in the proportion of the bone marrow cavity volume occupied by adipocytes. This can be caused by an increase in the size and/or number of adipocytes. Bone marrow adiposity increases with age in a bone-site-specific manner. This increase may be linked to certain pathophysiological situations. Osteoporosis or compromised bone quality is frequently associated with high bone marrow adiposity. The involvement of bone marrow adipocytes in bone loss may be due to commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the adipogenic pathway rather than the osteogenic pathway. However, adipocytes may also act on their microenvironment by secreting factors with harmful effects for the bone health. Here, we review evidence that in a context of energy deficit (such as anorexia nervosa and restriction rodent models bone alterations can occur in the absence of an increase in bone marrow adiposity. In severe cases, bone alterations are even associated with gelatinous bone marrow transformation. The relationship between bone marrow adiposity and energy deficit, and the potential regulators of this adiposity in this context are also discussed. On the basis of clinical studies and preliminary results on animal model we propose that competition between differentiation into osteoblasts and differentiation into adipocytes might trigger bone loss at least in moderate-to severe anorexia nervosa and in some calorie restriction models. Finally, some of the main questions resulting from this hypothesis are discussed.

  5. Increased Bone Marrow Adiposity in a Context of Energy Deficit: The Tip of the Iceberg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Olfa; Al Rassy, Nathalie; Hardouin, Pierre; Chauveau, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Elevated bone marrow adiposity (BMA) is defined as an increase in the proportion of the bone marrow (BM) cavity volume occupied by adipocytes. This can be caused by an increase in the size and/or number of adipocytes. BMA increases with age in a bone-site-specific manner. This increase may be linked to certain pathophysiological situations. Osteoporosis or compromised bone quality is frequently associated with high BMA. The involvement of BM adipocytes in bone loss may be due to commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the adipogenic pathway rather than the osteogenic pathway. However, adipocytes may also act on their microenvironment by secreting factors with harmful effects for the bone health. Here, we review evidence that in a context of energy deficit (such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and restriction rodent models) bone alterations can occur in the absence of an increase in BMA. In severe cases, bone alterations are even associated with gelatinous BM transformation. The relationship between BMA and energy deficit and the potential regulators of this adiposity in this context are also discussed. On the basis of clinical studies and preliminary results on animal model, we propose that competition between differentiation into osteoblasts and differentiation into adipocytes might trigger bone loss at least in moderate-to-severe AN and in some calorie restriction models. Finally, some of the main questions resulting from this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:27695438

  6. The energy used worldwide may be increased fivefold and 80% renewable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2008-02-25

    50 m high closing high basins at sea with pumping plants between them and the sea. This solution (called Emerald lakes) avoids inland impacts of traditional dams and is based upon well known technologies: breakwaters, dams, pumping stations. This investment for storage, requiring along 50 years one per thousand of the world revenue, should later be used for centuries. The importance and flexibility of these storages will favour the quick adjustment of the energy supply to variable needs and an optimization of all energies utilization. Tidal and waves intermittent energies will be also favoured. A five fold increase of the worldwide energy utilization can be obtained with 80% renewable energies if storing them at some extent. This may be obtained at a rather low cost by proofed technologies. Using then essentially the local energy resources in most countries will reduce the risk of world conflicts.

  7. Energy Management Challenges and Opportunities with Increased Intermittent Renewable Generation on the California Electrical Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichman, Joshua David

    Renewable resources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric, wave and tidal, represent an opportunity for environmentally preferred generation of electricity that also increases energy security and independence. California is very proactive in encouraging the implementation of renewable energy in part through legislation like Assembly Bill 32 and the development and execution of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS); however renewable technologies are not without challenges. All renewable resources have some resource limitations, be that from location, capacity, cost or availability. Technologies like wind and solar are intermittent in nature but represent one of the most abundant resources for generating renewable electricity. If RPS goals are to be achieved high levels of intermittent renewables must be considered. This work explores the effects of high penetration of renewables on a grid system, with respect to resource availability and identifies the key challenges from the perspective of the grid to introducing these resources. The HiGRID tool was developed for this analysis because no other tool could explore grid operation, while maintaining system reliability, with a diverse set of renewable resources and a wide array of complementary technologies including: energy efficiency, demand response, energy storage technologies and electric transportation. This tool resolves the hourly operation of conventional generation resources (nuclear, coal, geothermal, natural gas and hydro). The resulting behavior from introducing additional renewable resources and the lifetime costs for each technology is analyzed.

  8. How to meet the increasing demands of water, food and energy in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haiyun; Chen, Ji; Sivakumar, Bellie; Peart, Mervyn

    2017-04-01

    Regarded as a driving force in water, food and energy demands, the world's population has been increasing rapidly since the beginning of the 20th century. According to the medium-growth projection scenario of the United Nations, the world's population will reach 9.5 billion by 2050. In response to the continuously growing population during this century, water, food and energy demands have also been increasing rapidly, and social problems (e.g., water, food, and energy shortages) will be most likely to occur, especially if no proper management strategies are adopted. Then, how to meet the increasing demands of water, food and energy in the future? This study focuses on the sustainable developments of population, water, food, energy and dams, and the significances of this study can be concluded as follows: First, we reveal the close association between dams and social development through analysing the related data for the period 1960-2010, and argue that construction of additional large dams will have to be considered as one of the best available options to meet the increasing water, food and energy demands in the future. We conduct the projections of global water, food and energy consumptions and dam development for the period 2010-2050, and the results show that, compared to 2010, the total water, food and energy consumptions in 2050 will increase by 20%, 34% and 37%, respectively. Moreover, it is projected that additional 4,340 dams will be constructed by 2050 all over the world. Second, we analyse the current situation of global water scarcity based on the related data representing water resources availability (per capita available water resources), dam development (the number of dams), and the level of economic development (per capita gross domestic product). At the global scale, water scarcity exists in more than 70% of the countries around the world, including 43 countries suffering from economic water scarcity and 129 countries suffering from physical water

  9. Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Increase Energy and Macronutrient Intakes from Complementary Food among Malawian Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, Jaimie; Kumwenda, Chiza; Arimond, Mary; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Rehman, Andrea M; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Ulla; Filteau, Suzanne; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Per; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-02-01

    Low intakes of good-quality complementary foods (CFs) contribute to undernutrition and consequently negatively affect health, growth, and development. Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are designed to ensure dietary adequacy in micronutrients and essential fatty acids and to provide some energy and high-quality protein. In populations in which acute energy deficiency is rare, the dose-dependent effect of LNSs on CF intakes is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference in energy and macronutrient intakes from CF between a control (no supplement) group and 3 groups that received 10, 20, or 40 g LNS/d. We collected repeated interactive 24-h dietary recalls from caregivers of rural Malawian 9- to 10-mo-old infants (n = 748) to estimate dietary intakes (LNS and all non-breast-milk foods) of energy and macronutrients and their dietary patterns. All infants were participating in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of various doses of LNS for preventing undernutrition. Dietary energy intakes were significantly higher among infants in the LNS intervention groups than in the control group (396, 406, and 388 kcal/d in the 10-, 20-, and 40-g LNS/d groups, respectively, compared with 345 kcal/d; each pairwise P energy intakes between groups who were administered the different LNS doses (10 g LNS/d compared with 20 g LNS/d: P = 0.72; 10 g LNS/d compared with 40 g LNS/d: P ≥ 0.67; 20 g LNS/d compared with 40 g LNS/d: P = 0.94). Intakes of protein and fat were significantly higher in the LNS intervention groups than in the control group. No significant intergroup differences were found in median intakes of energy from non-LNS CFs (357, 347, and 296 kcal/d in the 10-, 20-, and 40-g LNS/d groups, respectively, compared with 345 kcal/d in the control group; P = 0.11). LNSs in doses of 10-40 g/d increase intakes of energy and macronutrients among 9- to 10-mo-old Malawian infants, without displacing locally available CFs

  10. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases energy consumption through activation of BAT in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Susumu; Kim, Minji; Awa, Riyo; Kuwahara, Hiroshige; Kano, Yuriko; Kawada, Teruo

    2014-11-01

    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is a member of the ginger family and is known in Thailand as Thai ginseng, Krachai Dam or Black Ginger. TheK. parviflora extract (KPE) was previously reported to have a number of physiological effects; however, the antiobesity effects of KPE and its mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted KPE feeding experiments (low dose: 0.5% KPE, high dose: 1.0% KPE) in mice to examine the antiobesity effects. For both 0.5% KPE and 1.0% KPE, 7 weeks' feeding of KPE contained in a high-fat diet (HFD) significantly decreased body weight gain, intraabdominal fat accumulation, and plasma triglyceride and leptin levels. Concurrently, KPE administration increased oxygen consumption in mice fed on a HFD. We also found that 1.0% KPE feeding significantly increased the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Moreover, KPE administration increased urinary noradrenaline secretion levels. These results demonstrate that KPE promotes energy metabolism by activation of BAT, at both doses and up-regulation of UCP1 protein at a high dose. Although numerous challenges remain, the present study demonstrated that KPE suppresses HFD-induced obesity through increased energy metabolism.

  11. Energy dense, protein restricted diet increases adiposity and perturbs metabolism in young, genetically lean pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Fisher

    Full Text Available Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12, containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1-12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11 with 12.2-19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (P<0.001 energy per kg body weight. At wk 15, pigs were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; blood glucose increased (P<0.05 in control pigs and returned to baseline levels within 60 min. HED pigs were hyperglycemic at time 0, and blood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01, even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001. Chronic HED intake increased (P<0.05 subcutaneous, intramuscular, and perirenal fat deposition, and induced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and low-density lipoprotein hypercholesterolemia. A subset of HED pigs (n = 7 was transitioned back to a control diet for an additional six weeks. These pigs were subjected to an additional OGTT at 22 wk. Glucose AUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs.

  12. Increasing Energy-harvesting ability of piezoelectric unimorph cantilevers using Spring Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Bum; Nahm, San; Sung, Tae Hyun; Paik, Jong Hoo; Kim, Hyoung Jae

    2016-06-01

    We fabricated a spring-supported piezoelectric unimorph cantilever (SPUC) with enhanced energy-harvesting characteristics by using a 0.69Pb(Zr0.47Ti0.53)O3-0.31Pb(Ni0.6Zn0.4)1/3Nb2/3)O3 + CuO (0.5 mol%) thick film sintered at 950 °C; a spring having a spring constant of 14,320 N/m was used as the cantilever support. The SPUC could generate an output power as high as 29 mW with a spring constant of 14,320 N/m across a resistance of 150 kΩ; this corresponded to a power density of 34 mW/cm3. We, therefore, that the thus-fabricated SPUCs when supported by a spring can harvest increased levels of energy.

  13. Only lower limb controlled interactive computer gaming enables an effective increase in energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Mark; Donne, Bernard; Fletcher, David

    2011-07-01

    Limited research documents if new and existing interactive computer gaming "exergaming" increase energy expenditure and cardio-respiratory costs comparable to common exercise modalities. To address this, healthy male volunteers (n = 15) completed six by 12-min test elements: PlayStation2 (PS2(hand)), Nintendo Wii boxing, walk at 5.6 km h(-1), cycle at 120 W, playing an adapted lower limb controlled PS2 (PS2(limb)) and run at 9.6 km h(-1). In addition, they played PS2(limb) for 30 min and performed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Tukey tests, P energy expenditure (EE) and post-exercise blood lactate (BLa) significantly higher (P met ACSM guidelines for cardiovascular fitness; however, current Wii technology failed. In conclusion, gaming interactive technology must be adapted or designed to include the lower limbs in order to provide a significant exercise stimulus.

  14. Four-terminal organic solar cell modules with increased annual energy yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlhaar, Robert; Cheyns, David; Van Willigenburg, Luuk; Hadipour, Afshin; Gilot, Jan; Radbeh, Roshanak; Aernouts, Tom

    2013-10-01

    The authors present experimental results on mechanically stacked organic solar modules and their advantage over standard tandem architectures. A four-terminal configuration of two single junction modules with complementary absorbing active layers uses the more efficient energy conversion of a tandem structure without the necessity of matching currents or voltages of electrically connected subcells. The presented combination of semitransparent and opaque solar cells consists of solution processed polymer-fullerene blends as active materials. A cost-effective mechanical scribing process is applied for the patterning of the deposited layers. The best devices have an efficiency of over 6.5% on an aperture area of 16 cm2 which equals a gain of 30% over the best single junction module fabricated by the same process. Optical simulations demonstrate a 32% increased annual energy output of a mechanically stacked device in comparison to a monolithic tandem structure using an equivalent geometry.

  15. Increased energy harvesting and reduced accelerative load for backpacks via frequency tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Longhan; Cai, Mingjing

    2015-06-01

    In this research, a backpack-based frequency-tuneable harvesting device was developed to harvest part of the human kinetic energy during walking and to relieve part of the accelerative load of the backpack from the bearer. The harvester employed a tuning mechanism to adjust the stretch ratio of the springs to adjust the system's stiffness so that the harvesting device can work in an appropriate status to generate more power and relieve a greater load from the bearer. The analysis indicates that adjusting the stiffness harvesting system to fit well with various external excitation conditions, can not only achieve more power output but also relieve part of the accelerative load from the bearer; and the experimental results agreed with the simulation. Compared with previous work, the harvester in this work had a higher efficiency in energy harvesting and could relieve an increased accelerative load from the bearer.

  16. A switch from white to brown fat increases energy expenditure in cancer-associated cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, Michele; Schweiger, Martina; Schreiber, Renate; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Tsoli, Maria; Allen, John; Swarbrick, Michael; Rose-John, Stefan; Rincon, Mercedes; Robertson, Graham; Zechner, Rudolf; Wagner, Erwin F

    2014-09-02

    Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a wasting syndrome characterized by systemic inflammation, body weight loss, atrophy of white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle. Limited therapeutic options are available and the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. Here we show that a phenotypic switch from WAT to brown fat, a phenomenon termed WAT browning, takes place in the initial stages of CAC, before skeletal muscle atrophy. WAT browning is associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which uncouples mitochondrial respiration toward thermogenesis instead of ATP synthesis, leading to increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure in cachectic mice. Chronic inflammation and the cytokine interleukin-6 increase UCP1 expression in WAT, and treatments that reduce inflammation or β-adrenergic blockade reduce WAT browning and ameliorate the severity of cachexia. Importantly, UCP1 staining is observed in WAT from CAC patients. Thus, inhibition of WAT browning represents a promising approach to ameliorate cachexia in cancer patients.

  17. Disruption of the Class IIa HDAC Corepressor Complex Increases Energy Expenditure and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhi Gaur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drugs that recapitulate aspects of the exercise adaptive response have the potential to provide better treatment for diseases associated with physical inactivity. We previously observed reduced skeletal muscle class IIa HDAC (histone deacetylase transcriptional repressive activity during exercise. Here, we find that exercise-like adaptations are induced by skeletal muscle expression of class IIa HDAC mutants that cannot form a corepressor complex. Adaptations include increased metabolic gene expression, mitochondrial capacity, and lipid oxidation. An existing HDAC inhibitor, Scriptaid, had similar phenotypic effects through disruption of the class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Acute Scriptaid administration to mice increased the expression of metabolic genes, which required an intact class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Chronic Scriptaid administration increased exercise capacity, whole-body energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, and reduced fasting blood lipids and glucose. Therefore, compounds that disrupt class IIa HDAC function could be used to enhance metabolic health in chronic diseases driven by physical inactivity.

  18. New energy efficiency technologies associated with increased natural gas demand in delivery and consumption sectors of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghalandis, Saeid Mansouri

    2010-09-15

    Increasing population and economic growth in developing countries has changed their energy consumption patterns. So, the conventional systems of energy supply have become inadequate to deal with rising energy demand. Iran has great reservoirs of natural gas and its natural gas usage is far more than average international standard. Dominance of natural gas share in energy basket in Iran, make it necessary to consider energy efficient technologies and solutions for this domain. In this study new technologies for increasing energy efficiency (EE) in natural gas delivery and consumption sub sectors are discussed and evaluated according to available infrastructures in Iran.

  19. Increased lipolysis and energy expenditure in a mouse model with severely impaired glucagon secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phing-How Lou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Secretion of insulin and glucagon is triggered by elevated intracellular calcium levels. Although the precise mechanism by which the calcium signal is coupled to insulin and glucagon granule exocytosis is unclear, synaptotagmin-7 has been shown to be a positive regulator of calcium-dependent insulin and glucagon secretion, and may function as a calcium sensor for insulin and glucagon granule exocytosis. Deletion of synaptotagmin-7 leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and nearly abolished Ca(2+-dependent glucagon secretion in mice. Under non-stressed resting state, however, synaptotagmin-7 KO mice exhibit normal insulin level but severely reduced glucagon level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied energy expenditure and metabolism in synaptotagmin-7 KO and control mice using indirect calorimetry and biochemical techniques. Synaptotagmin-7 KO mice had lower body weight and body fat content, and exhibited higher oxygen consumption and basal metabolic rate. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER was lower in synaptotagmin-7 KO mice, suggesting an increased use of lipid in their energy production. Consistent with lower RER, gene expression profiles suggest enhanced lipolysis and increased capacity for fatty acid transport and oxidation in synaptotagmin-7 KO mice. Furthermore, expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 in skeletal muscle was approximately doubled in the KO mice compared with control mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the lean phenotype in synaptotagmin-7 KO mice was mostly attributed to increased lipolysis and energy expenditure, and suggest that reduced glucagon level may have broad influence on the overall metabolism in the mouse model.

  20. Increasing wind energy penetration level using pumped hydro storage in island micro-grid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sheikh Mominul [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Ramea is a small island in southern Newfoundland. Since 2004, it has a wind-diesel hybrid power system to provide power for approximately 600 inhabitants. In this paper, wind speed data, load data, and sizing of pumped hydro system at Ramea, Newfoundland are presented. The dynamic model of wind turbine, pumped hydro system, and diesel generator are included in this paper. The dynamic model is simulated in SIMULINK/MATLAB to determine the system voltage and frequency variation and also to visualize different power outputs. Sizing of pumped hydro system indicates that a 150-kW pumped hydro storage system can be installed in Ramea to increase the renewable energy fraction to 37% which will reduce non-renewable fuel consumption on this island. Also, it is found that a pumped hydro energy storage system for Ramea is a much better choice than a hydrogen energy storage system. Such a system will have a higher overall efficiency and could be maintained using local technical expertise, therefore, a more appropriate technology for Ramea. (orig.)

  1. Scaling of surface-plasma reactors with a significantly increased energy density for NO conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Xiao, Shu; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2012-03-30

    Comparative studies revealed that surface plasmas developing along a solid-gas interface are significantly more effective and energy efficient for remediation of toxic pollutants in air than conventional plasmas propagating in air. Scaling of the surface plasma reactors to large volumes by operating them in parallel suffers from a serious problem of adverse effects of the space charges generated at the dielectric surfaces of the neighboring discharge chambers. This study revealed that a conductive foil on the cathode potential placed between the dielectric plates as a shield not only decoupled the discharges, but also increased the electrical power deposited in the reactor by a factor of about forty over the electrical power level obtained without shielding and without loss of efficiency for NO removal. The shield had no negative effect on efficiency, which is verified by the fact that the energy costs for 50% NO removal were about 60 eV/molecule and the energy constant, k(E), was about 0.02 L/J in both the shielded and unshielded cases.

  2. Benefits to the United States of Increasing Global Uptake of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, D.

    2010-07-01

    A previous report describes an opportunity for the United States to take leadership in efforts to transform the global energy system toward clean energy technologies (CET). An accompanying analysis to that report provides estimates of the economic benefits to the United States of such a global transformation on the order of several hundred billion dollars per year by 2050. This report describes the methods and assumptions used in developing those benefit estimates. It begins with a summary of the results of the analysis based on an updated and refined model completed since the publication of the previous report. The framework described can be used to estimate the economic benefits to the U.S. of coordinated global action to increase the uptake of CETs worldwide. Together with a Monte Carlo simulation engine, the framework can be used to develop plausible ranges for benefits, taking into account the large uncertainty in the driving variables and economic parameters. The resulting estimates illustrate that larger global clean energy markets offer significant opportunities to the United States economy.

  3. Holographic lens spectrum splitting photovoltaic system for increased diffuse collection and annual energy yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby D.; Wu, Yuechen; Ayala, Silvana; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrating and spectrum splitting photovoltaic (PV) modules have a limited acceptance angle and thus suffer from optical loss under off-axis illumination. This loss manifests itself as a substantial reduction in energy yield in locations where a significant portion of insulation is diffuse. In this work, a spectrum splitting PV system is designed to efficiently collect and convert light in a range of illumination conditions. The system uses a holographic lens to concentrate shortwavelength light onto a smaller, more expensive indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) PV cell. The high efficiency PV cell near the axis is surrounded with silicon (Si), a less expensive material that collects a broader portion of the solar spectrum. Under direct illumination, the device achieves increased conversion efficiency from spectrum splitting. Under diffuse illumination, the device collects light with efficiency comparable to a flat-panel Si module. Design of the holographic lens is discussed. Optical efficiency and power output of the module under a range of illumination conditions from direct to diffuse are simulated with non-sequential raytracing software. Using direct and diffuse Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) irradiance measurements, annual energy yield of the module is calculated for several installation sites. Energy yield of the spectrum splitting module is compared to that of a full flat-panel Si reference module.

  4. The role of transportation and co-fermentation in the CO2 balance for utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    at 19 decentralised joint biogas plants involving a varying number of farms (5-100). All of these plants use to some extent co-fermentation with industrial organic waste to increase biogas yield.A fuel chain approach for utilisation of biogas for energy purposes is carried out for determining the role...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases biogas...... production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  5. Increasing energy relaxation time of superconducting qubits with nonmagnetic infrared filter and shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhao, Liu; Mengmeng, Li; Dong, Lan; Guangming, Xue; Xinsheng, Tan; Haifeng, Yu; Yang, Yu

    2016-05-01

    One of the primary origins of the energy relaxation in superconducting qubits is the quasiparticle loss. The quasiparticles can be excited remarkably by infrared radiation. In order to minimize the density of quasiparticle and increase the qubit relaxation time, we design and fabricate the infrared filter and shield for superconducting qubits. In comparison with previous filters and shields, a nonmagnetic dielectric is used as the infrared absorbing material, greatly suppressing the background magnetic fluctuations. The filters can be made to impedance-match with other microwave devices. Using the as-fabricated infrared filter and shield, we increased the relaxation time of a transmon qubit from 519 ns to 1125 ns. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91321310, 11274156, 11474152, 11474153, 61521001, and 11504165) and the State Key Program for Basic Research of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB922104 and 2011CBA00205).

  6. Shifts in the myosin heavy chain isozymes in the mouse heart result in increased energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Kirsten; Krenz, Maike; Robbins, Jeffrey; Ingwall, Joanne S.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac-specific transgenesis in the mouse is widely used to study the basic biology and chemistry of the heart and to model human cardiovascular disease. A fundamental difference between mouse and human hearts is the background motor protein: mouse hearts contain predominantly the αα-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isozyme while human hearts contain predominantly the ββ-MyHC isozyme. Although the intrinsic differences in mechanical and enzymatic properties of the αα- and ββ-MyHC molecules are well known, the consequences of isozyme shifts on energetic of the intact beating heart remain unknown. Therefore, we compared the free energy of ATP hydrolysis (|ΔG~ATP|) determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy in isolated perfused littermate mouse hearts containing the same amount of myosin comprised of either >95% αα-MyHC or ~83% ββ-MyHC. |ΔG~ATP| was ~2 kJ mol−1 higher in the ββ-MyHC hearts at all workloads. Furthermore, upon inotropic challenge, hearts containing predominantly ββ-MyHC hearts increased developed pressure more than αα-MyHC hearts whereas heart rate increased more in αα-MyHC hearts. Thus, hearts containing predominantly the ββ-MyHC isozyme are more energy efficient than αα-MyHC hearts. We suggest that these fundamental differences in the motor protein energy efficiency at the whole heart level should be considered when interpreting results using mouse-based cardiovascular modeling of normal and diseased human heart. PMID:17054980

  7. Methodological and practical viewpoints of qualitative-driven mixed method design: the case of decentralisation of primary healthcare services in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Krishna

    2017-09-11

    Although considerable attention has been paid to the use of quantitative methods in health research, there has been limited focus on decentralisation research using a qualitative-driven mixed method design. Decentralisation presents both a problematic concept and methodological challenges, and is more context-specific and is often multi-dimensional. Researchers often consider using more than one method design when researching phenomena is complex in nature. Aim To explore the effects of decentralisation on the provision of primary healthcare services. Qualitative-driven mixed method design, employing three methods of data collections: focus group discussions (FGDs), semi-structured interviews (SSIs) and participant observations under two components, that is, core component and supplementary components were used. Four FGDs with health service practitioners, three FGDs with district stakeholders, 20 SSIs with health service users and 20 SSIs with national stakeholders were carried out. These were conducted sequentially. NVivo10, a data management program, was utilised to code the field data, employing a content analysis method for searching the underlying themes or concepts in the text material. Findings Both positive and negative experiences related to access, quality, planning, supplies, coordination and supervision were identified. This study suggests some evidence of the effects of decentralisation on health outcomes in general, as well as filling a gap of understanding and examining healthcare through a qualitative-driven mixed methods approach, in particular. Future research in the area of qualitative in-depth understanding of the problems (why decentralisation, why now and what for) would provoke an important data set that benefits the researchers and policy-makers for planning and implementing effective health services.

  8. Soil disturbance as a driver of increased stream salinity in a semiarid watershed undergoing energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Clark, Melanie L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Mcdougal, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Salinization is a global threat to the quality of streams and rivers, but it can have many causes. Oil and gas development were investigated as one of several potential causes of changes in the salinity of Muddy Creek, which drains 2470 km2 of mostly public land in Wyoming, U.S.A. Stream discharge and salinity vary with seasonal snowmelt and define a primary salinity-discharge relationship. Salinity, measured by specific conductance, increased substantially in 2009 and was 53-71% higher at low discharge and 33-34% higher at high discharge for the years 2009-2012 compared to 2005-2008. Short-term processes (e.g., flushing of efflorescent salts) cause within-year deviations from the primary relation but do not obscure the overall increase in salinity. Dissolved elements associated with increased salinity include calcium, magnesium, and sulfate, a composition that points to native soil salts derived from marine shales as a likely source. Potential causes of the salinity increase were evaluated for consistency by using measured patterns in stream chemistry, slope of the salinity-discharge relationship, and inter-annual timing of the salinity increase. Potential causes that were inconsistent with one or more of those criteria included effects from precipitation, evapotranspiration, reservoirs, grazing, irrigation return flow, groundwater discharge, discharge of energy co-produced waters, and stream habitat restoration. In contrast, surface disturbance of naturally salt-rich soil by oil and gas development activities, such as pipeline, road, and well pad construction, is a reasonable candidate for explaining the salinity increase. As development continues to expand in semiarid lands worldwide, the potential for soil disturbance to increase stream salinity should be considered, particularly where soils host substantial quantities of native salts.

  9. Soil disturbance as a driver of increased stream salinity in a semiarid watershed undergoing energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Clark, Melanie L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; McDougal, Robert R.

    2015-05-01

    Salinization is a global threat to the quality of streams and rivers, but it can have many causes. Oil and gas development were investigated as one of several potential causes of changes in the salinity of Muddy Creek, which drains 2470 km2 of mostly public land in Wyoming, U.S.A. Stream discharge and salinity vary with seasonal snowmelt and define a primary salinity-discharge relationship. Salinity, measured by specific conductance, increased substantially in 2009 and was 53-71% higher at low discharge and 33-34% higher at high discharge for the years 2009-2012 compared to 2005-2008. Short-term processes (e.g., flushing of efflorescent salts) cause within-year deviations from the primary relation but do not obscure the overall increase in salinity. Dissolved elements associated with increased salinity include calcium, magnesium, and sulfate, a composition that points to native soil salts derived from marine shales as a likely source. Potential causes of the salinity increase were evaluated for consistency by using measured patterns in stream chemistry, slope of the salinity-discharge relationship, and inter-annual timing of the salinity increase. Potential causes that were inconsistent with one or more of those criteria included effects from precipitation, evapotranspiration, reservoirs, grazing, irrigation return flow, groundwater discharge, discharge of energy co-produced waters, and stream habitat restoration. In contrast, surface disturbance of naturally salt-rich soil by oil and gas development activities, such as pipeline, road, and well pad construction, is a reasonable candidate for explaining the salinity increase. As development continues to expand in semiarid lands worldwide, the potential for soil disturbance to increase stream salinity should be considered, particularly where soils host substantial quantities of native salts.

  10. Informing energy and climate policies using energy systems models insights from scenario analysis increasing the evidence base

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakidis, George; Ó Gallachóir, Brian; Tosato, GianCarlo

    2015-01-01

    This book highlights how energy-system models are used to underpin and support energy and climate mitigation policy decisions at national, multi-country and global levels. It brings together, for the first time in one volume, a range of methodological approaches and case studies of good modeling practice on a national and international scale from the IEA-ETSAP energy technology initiative. It provides insights for the reader into the rich and varied applications of energy-system models and the underlying methodologies and policy questions they can address. The book demonstrates how these mode

  11. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases whole-body energy expenditure in humans: roles of brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Mami; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Aita, Sayuri; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Sugie, Hiroki; Saito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora extract (KP) has been reported to have a preventive effect on obesity in mice, probably by increasing energy expenditure (EE). The aims of the current study were to examine the acute effects of KP ingestion on whole-body EE in humans and to analyze its relation to the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a site of non-shivering thermogenesis. After an oral ingestion of an ethanol extract of KP, EE increased significantly, showing a maximal increase of 229±69 kJ/d at 60 min, while it did not change after placebo ingestion. To evaluate BAT activity, the subjects underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, and divided into two groups with high- and low-BAT activities. A similar and greater response of EE to KP ingestion was observed in the high-BAT group (351±50 kJ/d at 60 min), but not in the low activity group. Placebo ingestion did not cause any significant EE change in either group. These results indicate that a single oral ingestion of the KP extract can potentially increase whole-body EE probably through the activation of BAT in healthy men, and may be useful as an anti-obesity regimen.

  12. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Edward [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States); Gough, Charles [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2015-07-07

    This report summarizes activities conducted in support of the project “The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-EE0005654, as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated May 2012.

  13. Gender Identification Using High-Frequency Speech Energy: Effects of Increasing the Low-Frequency Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donai, Jeremy J; Halbritter, Rachel M

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of normal-hearing listeners to use high-frequency energy for gender identification from naturally produced speech signals. Two experiments were conducted using a repeated-measures design. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of increasing high-pass filter cutoff (i.e., increasing the low-frequency spectral limit) on gender identification from naturally produced vowel segments. Experiment 2 studied the effects of increasing high-pass filter cutoff on gender identification from naturally produced sentences. Confidence ratings for the gender identification task were also obtained for both experiments. Listeners in experiment 1 were capable of extracting talker gender information at levels significantly above chance from vowel segments high-pass filtered up to 8.5 kHz. Listeners in experiment 2 also performed above chance on the gender identification task from sentences high-pass filtered up to 12 kHz. Cumulatively, the results of both experiments provide evidence that normal-hearing listeners can utilize information from the very high-frequency region (above 4 to 5 kHz) of the speech signal for talker gender identification. These findings are at variance with current assumptions regarding the perceptual information regarding talker gender within this frequency region. The current results also corroborate and extend previous studies of the use of high-frequency speech energy for perceptual tasks. These findings have potential implications for the study of information contained within the high-frequency region of the speech spectrum and the role this region may play in navigating the auditory scene, particularly when the low-frequency portion of the spectrum is masked by environmental noise sources or for listeners with substantial hearing loss in the low-frequency region and better hearing sensitivity in the high-frequency region (i.e., reverse slope hearing loss).

  14. Total daily energy expenditure is increased following a single bout of sprint interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevits, Kyle J; Melanson, Edward L; Swibas, Tracy; Binns, Scott E; Klochak, Anna L; Lonac, Mark C; Peltonen, Garrett L; Scalzo, Rebecca L; Schweder, Melani M; Smith, Amy M; Wood, Lacey M; Melby, Christopher L; Bell, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    REGULAR ENDURANCE EXERCISE IS AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY FOR HEALTHY WEIGHT MAINTENANCE, MEDIATED VIA INCREASED TOTAL DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURE (TDEE), AND POSSIBLY AN INCREASE IN RESTING METABOLIC RATE (RMR: the single largest component of TDEE). Sprint interval training (SIT) is a low-volume alternative to endurance exercise; however, the utility of SIT for healthy weight maintenance is less clear. In this regard, it is feasible that SIT may evoke a thermogenic response above and beyond the estimates required for prevention of weight gain (i.e., >200-600 kJ). The purpose of these studies was to investigate the hypotheses that a single bout of SIT would increase RMR and/or TDEE. Study 1: RMR (ventilated hood) was determined on four separate occasions in 15 healthy men. Measurements were performed over two pairs of consecutive mornings; each pair was separated by 7 days. Immediately following either the first or third RMR measurement (randomly assigned) subjects completed a single bout of SIT (cycle ergometer exercise). RMR was unaffected by a single bout of SIT (7195 ± 285 kJ/day vs. 7147 ± 222, 7149 ± 246 and 6987 ± 245 kJ/day (mean ± SE); P = 0.12). Study 2: TDEE (whole-room calorimeter) was measured in 12 healthy men, on two consecutive days, one of which began with a single bout of SIT (random order). Sprint exercise increased TDEE in every research participant (9169 ± 243 vs. 10,111 ± 260 kJ/day; P < 0.0001); the magnitude of increase was 946 ± 62 kJ/day (∼10%). These data provide support for SIT as a strategy for increasing TDEE, and may have implications for healthy body weight maintenance.

  15. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - Literature; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen: Literatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsponer, O.; Mauchle, P.

    2003-07-01

    This is the tenth and last part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. This ninth appendix to the main report presents an overview and details of the literature and internet sources used in the project. Also, similar projects that discuss the problem area dealt with are briefly described. These include the Dispower, EDIson, DEMS, AMOEVES and ELSAD projects.

  16. Transition? What transition? : Changing energy systems in an increasingly carbon constrained world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, J.A.; Lopez de Silanes, Florencio; de Roode, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Energy transitions have been taking place continuously since the Industrial Revolution. These transitions primarily involve national energy mixes. In general, countries keep moving up the energy ladder, meaning that they integrate larger and larger proportions of specialized fuels into their energy

  17. Transition? What transition? : Changing energy systems in an increasingly carbon constrained world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, J.A.; Lopez de Silanes, Florencio; de Roode, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Energy transitions have been taking place continuously since the Industrial Revolution. These transitions primarily involve national energy mixes. In general, countries keep moving up the energy ladder, meaning that they integrate larger and larger proportions of specialized fuels into their energy

  18. Will climate change increase ozone depletion from low-energy-electron precipitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. Baumgaertner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of a strengthened Brewer-Dobson circulation on the transport of nitric oxide (NO produced by energetic particle precipitation. During periods of high geomagnetic activity, low-energy-electron precipitation is responsible for winter time ozone loss in the polar middle atmosphere between 1 and 6 hPa. However, as climate change is expected to increase the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, the enhancements of NOx concentrations are expected to be transported to lower altitudes in extra-tropical regions, becoming even more significant in the ozone budget. We use simulations with the chemistry climate model system ECHAM5/MESSy to compare present day effects of low-energy-electron precipitation with expected effects in a climate change scenario for the year 2100. In years of strong geomagnetic activity, similar to that observed in 2003, an additional polar ozone loss of up to 0.5 μmol/mol at 5 hPa is found. However, this would be approximately compensated by an ozone enhancement originating from a stronger poleward transport of ozone from lower latitudes caused by a strengthened Brewer-Dobson circulation, as well as by slower photochemical ozone loss reactions in a stratosphere cooled by risen greenhouse gas concentrations.

  19. Novel Approach to Increase the Energy-related Process Efficiency and Performance of Laser Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, C.; Seefeld, T.; Radel, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    Although laser brazing is well established, the energy-related efficiency of this joining method is quite low. That is because of low absorptivity of solid-state laser radiation, especially when copper base braze metals are used. Conventionally the laser beam is set close to the vertical axis and the filler wire is delivered under a flat angle. Therefore, the most of the utilized laser power is reflected and thus left unexploited. To address this situation an alternative processing concept for laser brazing, where the laser beam is leading the filler wire, has been investigated intending to make use of reflected shares of the laser radiation. Process monitoring shows, that the reflection of the laser beam can be used purposefully to preheat the substrate which is supporting the wetting and furthermore increasing the efficiency of the process. Experiments address a standard application from the automotive industry joining zinc coated steels using CuSi3Mn1 filler wire. Feasibility of the alternative processing concept is demonstrated, showing that higher processing speeds can be attained, reducing the required energy per unit length while maintaining joint properties.

  20. Increasing self-regulatory energy using an Internet-based training application delivered by smartphone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranwell, Jo; Benford, Steve; Houghton, Robert J; Golembewski, Michael; Golembewksi, Michael; Fischer, Joel E; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-03-01

    Self-control resources can be defined in terms of "energy." Repeated attempts to override desires and impulses can result in a state of reduced self-control energy termed "ego depletion" leading to a reduced capacity to regulate future self-control behaviors effectively. Regular practice or "training" on self-control tasks may improve an individual's capacity to overcome ego depletion effectively. The current research tested the effectiveness of training using a novel Internet-based smartphone application to improve self-control and reduce ego depletion. In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, which received a daily program of self-control training using a modified Stroop-task Internet-based application delivered via smartphone to participants over a 4-week period, or a no-training control group. Participants assigned to the experimental group performed significantly better on post-training laboratory self-control tasks relative to participants in the control group. Findings support the hypothesized training effect on self-control and highlight the effectiveness of a novel Internet-based application delivered by smartphone as a practical means to administer and monitor a self-control training program. The smartphone training application has considerable advantages over other means to train self-control adopted in previous studies in that it has increased ecological validity and enables effective monitoring of compliance with the training program.

  1. Black ginger extract increases physical fitness performance and muscular endurance by improving inflammation and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Toda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs in black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE increased energy production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in C2C12 myoblasts. We herein evaluated the effects of KPE on physical fitness performance and muscular endurance in mice. Male mice were orally administered KPE for 4 weeks, and then forced swimming test, open-field test, inclined plane test, and wire hanging test were performed. KPE significantly increased the swimming time, motility after swimming, and grip strength. IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were decreased in the soleus muscle, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC-1α and glycogen synthase mRNA expression levels, mitochondrial number, and glycogen content were increased. These results were in agreement with those obtained for KPE and PMFs in C2C12. Therefore, the activation of AMPK by PMFs may be one of the mechanisms by which KPE improves physical fitness performance and muscular endurance.

  2. Black ginger extract increases physical fitness performance and muscular endurance by improving inflammation and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Kazuya; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Takeda, Shogo; Shimoda, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) in black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) extract (KPE) increased energy production by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 myoblasts. We herein evaluated the effects of KPE on physical fitness performance and muscular endurance in mice. Male mice were orally administered KPE for 4 weeks, and then forced swimming test, open-field test, inclined plane test, and wire hanging test were performed. KPE significantly increased the swimming time, motility after swimming, and grip strength. IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were decreased in the soleus muscle, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and glycogen synthase mRNA expression levels, mitochondrial number, and glycogen content were increased. These results were in agreement with those obtained for KPE and PMFs in C2C12. Therefore, the activation of AMPK by PMFs may be one of the mechanisms by which KPE improves physical fitness performance and muscular endurance.

  3. Water Governance Decentralisation and River Basin Management Reforms in Hierarchical Systems: Do They Work for Water Treatment Policy in Mexico’s Tlaxcala Atoyac Sub-Basin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Casiano Flores

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, policy reforms, new instruments development, and economic resources investment have taken place in water sanitation in Mexico; however, the intended goals have not been accomplished. The percentage of treated wastewater as intended in the last two federal water plans has not been achieved. The creation of River Basin Commissions and the decentralisation process have also faced challenges. In the case of Tlaxcala, the River Basin Commission exists only on paper and the municipalities do not have the resources to fulfil the water treatment responsibilities transferred to them. This lack of results poses the question whether the context was sufficiently considered when the reforms were enacted. In this research, we will study the Tlaxcala Atoyac sub-basin, where water treatment policy reforms have taken place recently with a more context sensitive approach. We will apply the Governance Assessment Tool in order to find out whether the last reforms are indeed apt for the context. The Governance Assessment Tool includes four qualities, namely extent, coherence, flexibility, and intensity. The assessment allows deeper understanding of the governance context. Data collection involved semi-structured in-depth interviews with stakeholders. The research concludes that the observed combination of qualities creates a governance context that partially supports the implementation of the policy. This has helped to increase the percentage of wastewater treated, but the water quality goals set by the River Classification have not been achieved. With the last reforms, in this hierarchical context, decreasing the participation of municipal government levels has been shown to be instrumental for improving water treatment plants implementation policy, although many challenges remain to be addressed.

  4. Successful development of decentralised district heating: Application of a theoretical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooimeijer, F.L.; Puts, H.; Geerdink, T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important goals for energy transition is to reduce CO2 by turning to renewable energy, such as solar and wind energy. However, the production of renewable energy is not always an integral part of the energy system. Instead, it may have a decentralized basis, even up to the household

  5. Successful development of decentralised district heating: Application of a theoretical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooimeijer, F.L.; Puts, H.; Geerdink, T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important goals for energy transition is to reduce CO2 by turning to renewable energy, such as solar and wind energy. However, the production of renewable energy is not always an integral part of the energy system. Instead, it may have a decentralized basis, even up to the household

  6. Innovation strategies for renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, S.

    1999-01-01

    Innovation is the commercial exploitation of an invention requiring marketing, management, financial and legal skills. Renewable energy is a high technology, knowledge-based business with a global market and, being decentralised, is suited to all regions of the world. Key issues for an innovation strategy for renewable energy are identified. They include: accessing the available finance for innovation; developing local expertise; networking with renewable energy experts; identifying the best available technology, expertise and technology transfer arrangements and adapting these to the region and enterprise. The ultimate success of the strategy will be judged by the new level of economic activity in the enterprise. (UK)

  7. Caffeine and taurine containing energy drink increases left ventricular contractility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, Jonas M; Kuetting, Daniel L; Luetkens, Julian A; Naehle, Claas P; Dabir, Darius; Homsi, Rami; Nadal, Jennifer; Schild, Hans H; Thomas, Daniel K

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the impact of a caffeine and taurine containing energy drink (ED) on myocardial contractility in healthy volunteers using cardiac MR and cardiac MR based strain analysis. 32 healthy volunteers (mean age 28 years) were investigated before and 1 h after consumption of a caffeine and taurine containing ED. For assessment of global cardiac functional parameters balanced SSFP-Cine imaging was performed, whereas CSPAMM tagging was used to evaluate global and regional myocardial strain. In addition, ten randomly chosen subjects were investigated once more using a caffeine only protocol to further evaluate the effect of caffeine solely. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded throughout all studies. ED consumption led to a significant increase in peak systolic strain (PSS) and peak systolic strain rate (PSSR) 1 h after consumption (PSS: w/o ED -22.8 ± 2.1%; w ED -24.3 ± 2.4%, P = caffeine only group. In contrast, global left ventricular function was unchanged (P = 0.2076). No significant changes of vital parameters and diastolic filling pattern were detected 1 h after ED consumption. Consumption of a caffeine and taurine containing ED results in a subtle, but significant increase of myocardial contractility 1 h after consumption.

  8. Reading and listening to music increase resting energy expenditure during an indirect calorimetry test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Blaire; Fullmer, Susan; Eggett, Dennis L

    2014-12-01

    Indirect calorimetry is often done early in the morning in a fasting state, with the subject unshowered and abstained from caffeine or other stimulants. Subjects often fall asleep, resulting in measurement of a sleeping metabolic rate rather than a resting metabolic rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected relaxing music or reading an electronic device or magazine affects resting energy expenditure (REE) during measurement in healthy adults. A randomized trial comparing three different conditions (ie, resting, reading, and listening to music) was performed. Sixty-five subjects (36 female and 29 male) were used in final data analysis. Inclusion criteria included healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 50 years with a stable weight. Exclusion criteria included pregnant or lactating women or use of medications known to affect metabolism. Results showed that reading either a magazine or an electronic device significantly increased REE by 102.7 kcal/day when compared with resting (Pmusic increased REE by 27.6 kcal/day compared with rest (P=0.0072). Based on our results, we recommend subjects refrain from reading a magazine or electronic device during an indirect calorimetry test. Whether or not the smaller difference found while listening to music is practically significant would be a decision for the indirect calorimetry test administrator.

  9. Stochastic Rating of Storage Systems in Isolated Networks with Increasing Wave Energy Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The future success of wave energy in the renewable energy mix depends on the technical advancements of the specific components and systems, on the grid access availability and, ultimately, on the economical profitability of the investment. Small and remote islands represent an ideal framework for wave energy exploitation, due both to resource availability and to the current high cost of electricity that mostly relies on diesel generation. Energy storage can be the enabling technology to match...

  10. Institutional options for rural energy access: Exploring the concept of the multifunctional platform in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    in the dominant discourse of development, and how including concerns, such as poverty alleviation, gender equity, local democracy, decentralisation and the environment, have attracted donors outside the energy sector. The paper thus argues that, while the integration of multiple technical functions, preconceived...

  11. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and obesity : increased energy intake or decreased physical activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.; Postma, A.; Stolk, R. P.; Kamps, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity is a well-known problem in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL), and it might be the result of an excess in energy intake, reduced energy expenditure, or both. The aim of this study is to describe energy intake and physical activity during treatment for ALL with inter

  12. L-propionylcarnitine increases postischemic blood flow but does not affect recovery of energy charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, L M; Bezstarosti, K; Van der Giessen, W J; Lamers, J M; Verdouw, P D

    1991-07-01

    Effects of pretreatment with L-propionylcarnitine (50 mg/kg, n = 9) or saline (n = 10) were studied in open-chest anesthetized pigs, in which ischemia was induced by decreasing left anterior descending coronary artery blood flow to 20% of baseline. After 60 min of ischemia, myocardium was reperfused for 2 h. In both groups, flow reduction abolished contractile function of the affected myocardium and caused similar decreases in ATP (by 55%) and energy charge [(ATP + 0.5ADP)/(ATP + ADP + AMP); decrease from 0.91 to 0.60], mean arterial blood pressure (by 10-24%), the maximum rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (by 26-32%), and cardiac output (by 20-30%). During reperfusion, "no-reflow" was attenuated by L-propionylcarnitine, because myocardial blood flow returned to 61 and 82% of baseline in the saline- and L-propionylcarnitine-treated animals, respectively. Cardiac output of the saline-treated animals further decreased (to 52% of baseline), and systemic vascular resistance increased from 46 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 9 mmHg.min.l-1, thereby maintaining arterial blood pressure. In L-propionylcarnitine-treated pigs, cardiac output remained at 75% of baseline, and systemic vascular resistance decreased from 42 +/- 3 to 38 +/- 4 mmHg.min.l-1. In both groups, energy charge but not the ATP level of the ischemic-reperfused myocardium tended to recover, whereas the creatine phosphate level showed significantly more recovery in saline-treated animals. We conclude that L-propionylcarnitine partially preserved vascular patency in ischemic-reperfused porcine myocardium but had no immediate effect on "myocardial stunning." Potential markers for long-term recovery were not affected by L-propionylcarnitine.

  13. The competition of different measures to increase flexibility in energy systems with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Christoph; Teufel, Felix [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Research and Innovation Dept.

    2013-04-01

    The continuous expansion of electricity generation from intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) is changing the present generation structure that has been designed to follow fluctuating demand considerably. In order to utilise a high share of supply-dependent RES, the future energy system needs to become more flexible than it is today. This paper describes the different flexibility options that can be implemented with regard to their major restrictions as well as their suitability to balance a certain deficit or surplus of RES generation. Furthermore, it outlines the importance of competition between these different balancing measures to meet the required level of flexibility at lowest cost. (orig.)

  14. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Increases Respiratory Quotient and Energy Expenditure during Food Intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Werling

    Full Text Available The mechanisms determining long-term weight maintenance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB remain unclear. Cross sectional studies have suggested that enhanced energy expenditure (EE may play a significant role and the aim of this study was to reveal the impact of RYGB on each major component constituting total EE.Six obese female subjects, without other co-morbidities, were assessed before and at 10 days, 3 and 20 months after RYGB. Indirect calorimetry in a metabolic chamber was used to assess 24 h EE at each study visit. Other measurements included body composition by DEXA, gut hormone profiles and physical activity (PA using high sensitivity accelerometers.Median Body Mass Index decreased from 41.1 (range 39.1-44.8 at baseline to 28 kg/m2 (range 22.3-30.3 after 20 months (p<0.05. Lean tissue decreased from 55.9 (range 47.5-59.3 to 49.5 (range 41.1-54.9 kg and adipose tissue from 61 (range 56-64.6 to 27 (range 12-34.3 kg (both p<0.05. PA over 24 h did not change after surgery whereas 24 h EE and basal metabolic rate (BMR decreased. EE after a standard meal increased after surgery when adjusted for total tissue (p<0.05. After an initial drop, RQ (respiratory quotient had increased at 20 months, both as measured during 24 h and after food intake (p<0.05.RYGB surgery up-regulates RQ and EE after food intake resulting in an increased contribution to total EE over 24 h when corrected for total tissue.

  15. COMPANY AIKIDO – IT SEEMS TO BE A PRACTICAL METHOD TO REDUCE STRESS AND INCREASE A PERSON’S ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronicus TORP

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies are increasingly using methods such as massage, sports, mindfulness, etc. in order for example to improve employee well-being, reduce stress, or increase the energy level of the employees. This article examines, based on a case study, if Aikido may be a practical way to reduce stress and/or increase energy. The empirical study is based on measuring the energy and stress level of the practitioners before and after the practice of Aikido by the use of the ElectroPhotonic Imaging Device developed by Prof. Dr. Korotkov.

  16. COMPANY AIKIDO – IT SEEMS TO BE A PRACTICAL METHOD TO REDUCE STRESS AND INCREASE A PERSON’S ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronicus TORP

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies are increasingly using methods such as massage, sports, mindfulness, etc. in order for example to improve employee well-being, reduce stress, or increase the energy level of the employees. This article examines, based on a case study, if Aikido may be a practical way to reduce stress and/or increase energy. The empirical study is based on measuring the energy and stress level of the practitioners before and after the practice of Aikido by the use of the ElectroPhotonic Imaging Device developed by Prof. Dr. Korotkov.

  17. Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sven; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bäfver, Linda; Jones, Frida; Davidsson, Kent; Froitzheim, Jan; Karlsson, Martin; Larsson, Erik; Liske, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. It was demonstrated in full-scale tests at a Waste to Energy plant in Göteborg (Sweden) during nearly two months of operation. Sulfur was recirculated as sulfuric acid from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, thus creating a sulfur loop. The new technology was evaluated by extensive measurement campaigns during operation under normal conditions (reference case) and operation with sulfur recirculation. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulfur content increased during the sulfur recirculation tests. The deposit growth and the particle concentration decreased with sulfur recirculation and the dioxin concentration (I-TEQ) of the flue gas was reduced by approximately 25%. Sulfuric acid dew point measurements showed that the sulfuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO3 concentrations, which may otherwise induce low temperature corrosion. In the sulfur recirculation corrosion probe exposures, the corrosion rate decreased for all tested materials (16Mo3, Sanicro 28 and Inconel 625) and material temperatures (450 °C and 525 °C) compared to the reference exposure. The corrosion rates were reduced by 60-90%. Sulfur recirculation prevented the formation of transition metal chlorides at the metal/oxide interface, formation of chromate and reduced the presence of zinc in the corrosion products. Furthermore, measured corrosion rates at 525 °C with sulfur recirculation in operation were similar or lower compared to those measured at 450 °C material temperature in reference conditions, which corresponds to normal operation at normal steam temperatures. This implies that sulfur recirculation allows for higher steam data and electricity production without increasing corrosion.

  18. Economic Impacts of Increased U.S. Exports of Natural Gas: An Energy System Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sarıca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent shale gas boom, the U.S. is expected to have very large natural gas resources. In this respect, the key question is would it be better to rely completely on free market resource allocations which would lead to large exports of natural gas or to limit natural gas exports so that more could be used in the U.S.. After accounting for the cost of liquefying the natural gas and shipping it to foreign markets, the current price difference leaves room for considerable profit to producers from exports. In addition, there is a large domestic demand for natural gas from various sectors such as electricity generation, industrial applications, and the transportation sector etc. A hybrid modeling approach has been carried out using our version of the well-known MARket ALlocation (MARKAL-Macro model to keep bottom-up model richness with macro effects to incorporate price and gross domestic product (GDP feedbacks. One of the conclusion of this study is that permitting higher natural gas export levels leads to a small reduction in GDP (0.04%–0.17%. Higher exports also increases U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and electricity prices (1.1%–7.2%. We also evaluate the impacts of natural gas exports in the presence of a Clean Energy Standard (CES for electricity. In this case, the GDP impacts are similar, but the electricity and transport sector impacts are different.

  19. Protein energy malnutrition associates with different types of hearing impairments in toddlers: Anemia increases cochlear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Deraz, Tharwat Ezzat; Elkabarity, Rasha H; Ahmed, Rasha K

    2016-06-01

    This work aimed to highlight a challenging asymptomatic problem which is early detection of hearing impairment in toddlers with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) as a neuro-cognitive effect of PEM on developing brain in relation to hemoglobin level. 100 toddlers, aged 6-24 months, fifty with moderate/severe PEM and fifty healthy children, were included in study. Both TEOAEs and ABR testing were used to assess auditory function. Study reported an association between malnutrition and hearing impairment, 26% of cases had conductive deafness secondary to otitis media with effusion using tympanometry; 84.6% showed type B and 15.4% type C which may suggest developing or resolving otitis media. Their ABR showed 46% mild and 53% moderate impairment. 32% of PEM cases had sensory neural hearing loss and with type (A) tympanometry. Those were assessed using ABR; 58% had mild, 34% moderate and 8% profound impairment. 10% of PEM cases had mixed hearing loss with 50% type B and 50% type C tympanometry and their ABR showed moderate to profound impairment. TEOAEs latencies at different frequencies correlate negatively with hemoglobin level. Toddlers with moderate/severe PEM had hearing impairments of different types and degrees. Neuro-physiological methods could be early and safe detectors of auditory disorders especially in high-risk toddlers. Anemia increases risk for auditory dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategies for increasing hydrogen storage capacity and adsorption energy in MOFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Omar

    2007-03-01

    Storage of hydrogen in its molecular form is difficult and expensive because it requires employing either extremely high pressures as a gas or very low temperatures as a liquid. Worldwide effort is focused on storage of hydrogen with sufficient efficiency to allow its use in stationary and mobile fueling applications. DOE has set performance targets for on-board automobile storage systems to have densities of 60 mg H2/g (gravimetric) and 45 g H2/L (volumetric) for year 2010. These are system goals. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been identified as promising adsorbents (physisorption) for H2 storage, although little data are available for their adsorption behavior at saturation: a critical parameter for gauging the practicality of any material. This presentation will report adsorption data collected for seven MOF materials at 77 K which leads to saturation at pressures between 25 and 80 bar with uptakes from 2% to 7.5%. Strategies for increasing the adsorption energy of hydrogen in MOFs will also be presented.

  1. Dexamethasone reduces energy expenditure and increases susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggioli, Raffaella; Ueta, Cintia B; Drigo, Rafael Arrojo E; Castillo, Melany; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Bianco, Antonio C

    2013-09-01

    To investigate how long-term treatment with dexamethasone affects energy expenditure and adiposity in mice and whether this is influenced by feeding on a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were placed on a HFD for 2 weeks and started on dexamethasone at 5 mg/kg every other day during the next 7 weeks. Treatment with dexamethasone increased body fat, an effect that was more pronounced in the animals kept on HFD; dexamethasone treatment also worsened liver steatosis caused by the HFD. At the same time, treatment with dexamethasone lowered the respiratory quotient in chow-fed animals and slowed nightly metabolic rate in the animals kept on HFD. In addition, the acute VO2 acceleration in response to β3 adrenergic-stimulation was significantly limited in the dexamethasone-treated animals, as a result of marked decrease in UCP-1 mRNA observed in the brown adipose tissue of these animals. Long-term treatment with dexamethasone in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity decreases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and exaggerates adiposity and liver steatosis. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2013. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...... to use low backup energy prices during the day if electricity is used. The storage function and both stratified charging and extraction of heat, are very important, to separate different temperature zones in the storage. This paper describes a step towards forecast control for electricity based auxiliary...

  3. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  4. Needs for Flexibility in Energy Systems Caused by the Increasing Share of Variable Renewable Energy Generation in 2020, 2030 and 2050 Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Maule, Petr

    The growing share of variable renewable energy (VRE) is expected to increase the need for flexibility in the energy systems in many countries. VRE generation is highly variable because it is determined by weather conditions. The geographical distribution of installed wind generation affects...... scenarios are the baseline scenarios from3. Variable renewable energy generation is analysed using the CorWind tool developed at DTU Wind Energya. In addition to analysing VRE generation, the variability of net load (electricity consumption subtracted by VRE generation) is analysed. Compared to 2014...... deviation (STD) of the hourly net load increases notably in 2050 (22% higher than in 2014). At the same time, the expected value of the net load decreases. Thus, there will be less energy to be generated by the other generation types, such as hydro power, while the need for flexibility increases...

  5. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  6. Controlled storage for distributed power generation and optimised energy flow in low-voltage mains; Steuerbare Speicher zur Optimierung des Energieflusses in Niederspannungsnetzen mit DEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeckel, M.; Vollenwyder, R. [Berner Fachhochschule, Hochschule fuer Technik und Informatik (BFH-HTI), Biel (Switzerland); Buholzer, M.; Kreyenbuehl, U. [RIPEnergy AG, Zollikon (Switzerland); Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Huenenberg (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines ways to optimise energy flows in mains networks that include distributed generation facilities. Increasing use of decentralised generation, its effects on the operation of low-voltage mains and the efficient use of the 400 V mains is discussed. The principles of operation and construction of controlled storage installations are discussed and concrete examples of their use in both grid-connected and island operation are quoted. Alternatives to storage are looked at from both the technical and economic points of view. The storage technologies used such as flywheels, supercaps, redox-flow batteries and lead-acid accumulators are briefly assessed and the results of simulations are discussed.

  7. Increasing energy efficiency by geometric modification of hoe-type furrow opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rahimzadeh

    2016-09-01

    grain and biological yield was measured. ANOVA test, uniformity test and mean comparison were conducted by using Genstat software. Results and Discussion The soil bin test results showed that opener design and forward speed both have significant influences on the horizontal force (p<0.01. Horizontal force was increased with increasing of forward speeds. The same result was reported by Wheeler and Godwin, 1996 and Astafford, 1979. The lowest horizontal force (average 1.66 kN occurred at 1 m.s-1 and the highest (average 1.94 kN occurred at 2 m.s-1 forward speeds. Horizontal force increased in O2 (2.8% and decreased in O1 (3.4% compared with the control (average 1.77 kN. Moreover, openers had significant influence on the vertical force (p<0.01. Vertical force values were negative in O1 (average -0.05 kN and O2 (average -0.07 kN in comparison with positive value in the control (average +0.01 kN. The effect of forward speed on vertical force was not statistically significant. The field results showed that there were significant differences among the openers in the numbers of seedling, grain and biological yield (p<0.01. The O2 opener (with the average of 48 seedlings per one meter row had 33% and 24% more seedlings in comparison with O1 and check furrow openers, respectively. Probably, using dick bald in O2 design leads to increased seed germination. Increasing of seed germination by using disk furrow opener as an advantage is reported by Kushwaha and Foster, 1993. The O2 furrow opener would also increase grain yield about 36% compared with both O1 and check furrow openers. Conclusions It can be concluded that the newly designed furrow opener (O2 could improve the energy efficiency with increasing crop yield. Hence, O2 furrow opener could be recommended for direct planting in rain-fed farming.

  8. Increasing energy efficiency by geometric modification of hoe-type furrow opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rahimzadeh

    2016-09-01

    grain and biological yield was measured. ANOVA test, uniformity test and mean comparison were conducted by using Genstat software. Results and Discussion The soil bin test results showed that opener design and forward speed both have significant influences on the horizontal force (p<0.01. Horizontal force was increased with increasing of forward speeds. The same result was reported by Wheeler and Godwin, 1996 and Astafford, 1979. The lowest horizontal force (average 1.66 kN occurred at 1 m.s-1 and the highest (average 1.94 kN occurred at 2 m.s-1 forward speeds. Horizontal force increased in O2 (2.8% and decreased in O1 (3.4% compared with the control (average 1.77 kN. Moreover, openers had significant influence on the vertical force (p<0.01. Vertical force values were negative in O1 (average -0.05 kN and O2 (average -0.07 kN in comparison with positive value in the control (average +0.01 kN. The effect of forward speed on vertical force was not statistically significant. The field results showed that there were significant differences among the openers in the numbers of seedling, grain and biological yield (p<0.01. The O2 opener (with the average of 48 seedlings per one meter row had 33% and 24% more seedlings in comparison with O1 and check furrow openers, respectively. Probably, using dick bald in O2 design leads to increased seed germination. Increasing of seed germination by using disk furrow opener as an advantage is reported by Kushwaha and Foster, 1993. The O2 furrow opener would also increase grain yield about 36% compared with both O1 and check furrow openers. Conclusions It can be concluded that the newly designed furrow opener (O2 could improve the energy efficiency with increasing crop yield. Hence, O2 furrow opener could be recommended for direct planting in rain-fed farming.

  9. Unit GDP Energy Consumption in 2006:Moving from Increase to Decline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On July 12, Xie Fuzhan, Commissioner of National Bureau of Statistics of China attended the press conference held by State Council Information Office, and delivered the report on China's national unit GDP energy consumption in 2006, presenting with major indicators of unit GDP energy consumption both at national and regional levels in the year 2006.

  10. Stochastic Rating of Storage Systems in Isolated Networks with Increasing Wave Energy Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Tedeschi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The future success of wave energy in the renewable energy mix depends on the technical advancements of the specific components and systems, on the grid access availability and, ultimately, on the economical profitability of the investment. Small and remote islands represent an ideal framework for wave energy exploitation, due both to resource availability and to the current high cost of electricity that mostly relies on diesel generation. Energy storage can be the enabling technology to match the intermittent power generation from waves to the energy needs of the local community. In this paper real data from La Palma, in the Canary Islands, are used as a basis for the considered test case. As a first step the study quantifies the expected power production from Wave Energy Converter (WEC arrays, based on data from the Lifesaver point absorber developed by Fred. Olsen. Then, a stochastic optimization approach is applied to evaluate the convenience of energy storage introduction for reducing the final cost of energy and to define the corresponding optimal rating of the storage devices.

  11. Detecting and investigating transnational corporate bribery in centralised and decentralised enforcement systems: discretion and (de-)prioritisation in the UK and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Nicholas James

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses how two contrasting enforcement systems, those of the UK (centralised) and Germany (decentralised), go about detecting and investigating transnational corporate bribery and corruption. Comparing these practices in contrasting systems is a useful empirical focus as both jurisdictions inhabit similar institutional contexts for corporate bribery (e.g. relatively strong western European economies, fellow members of the EU/G8, subject to international conventions) while both ...

  12. From Goals to Action: The Efforts for Increasing Energy Efficiency and Integration of Renewable Sources in Eskilstuna, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Vassileva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cities’ energy usage accounts for two thirds of global primary energy consumption. Energy efficiency in urban areas is, therefore, one of the most important topics to consider when dealing with urban sustainability. This paper evaluates the goals for increasing energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources in the areas of transportation, buildings and consumers’ awareness, as stated in the Climate action plan, for the municipality of Eskilstuna, Sweden. The efforts of the municipality to successfully reach their energy efficiency goals, are described in this paper including future perspectives. The results show that although the municipality counts with the advantage of owning and working together with the local housing company and energy provider, in order to reach the established goals, additional strategies need to be considered. For an increased use of renewable energy sources, analysis of rooftops suitable for photovoltaic (PV installation should be carried out as well as the integration of goals for self-consumption. In the transport field, the city needs to prepare for large-scale electric vehicle (EV market penetration and to consider different bike or car sharing options. Finally, more specific awareness campaigns are needed to engage the citizens in reducing their energy consumption and living a more sustainable life.

  13. Increased energy efficiency of a steel foundry plant by using a cleaner production quick-E-scan methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmeni, Zelda; Pan, Xiaowei

    2017-07-01

    The Quick-E-Scan methodology is a simple and quick method that is used to achieve operational energy efficiency as opposed to detailed energy audits, which therefore offers a no cost or less cost solutions for energy management programs with a limited budget. The quick-E-scan methodology was used to assesses a steel foundry plant based in Benoni through dividing the foundry into production sections which entailed a review of the current processes and usage patterns of energy within the plant and a detailed analysis of options available for improvement and profitable areas in which energy saving measures may be implemented for an increase energy efficiency which can be presented to management of the company.

  14. Effects of increased wind power generation on Mid-Norway's energy balance under climate change: A market based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Martino, Sara; Tofte, Lena; Hingray, Benoit; Mo, Birger; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2017-04-01

    Thanks to its huge water storage capacity, Norway has an excess of energy generation at annual scale, although significant regional disparity exists. On average, the Mid-Norway region has an energy deficit and needs to import more electricity than it exports. We show that this energy deficit can be reduced with an increase in wind generation and transmission line capacity, even in future climate scenarios where both mean annual temperature and precipitation are changed. For the considered scenarios, the deficit observed in winter disappears, i.e. when electricity consumption and prices are high. At the annual scale, the deficit behavior depends more on future changes in precipitation. Another consequence of changes in wind production and transmission capacity is the modification of electricity exchanges with neighboring regions which are also modified both in terms of average, variability and seasonality. Keywords: Variable renewable energy, Wind, Hydro, Energy balance, Energy market

  15. Increasing efficiency of a wireless energy transfer system by spatial translational transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shichao; An, Di; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    An optical translational projector (OTP) designed by transformation optics is applied to improve the energy transfer efficiency in a wireless energy transfer (WET) system. Numerical simulation results show our OTP can greatly enhance the energy transfer efficiency (e.g. nearly 2 orders, compared to the case without our OTP) in WET systems, which is much larger than previous methods (e.g. magnetic super-lens). A 3D reduced OTP composed by layered isotropic magnetic materials is designed, whose performance has been verified by 3D numerical simulations in 10MHz. We also study the influence of loss of metamaterials on the performance of proposed OTP.

  16. Does Global seismic energy release increase? An analysis based on the Lithospheric Seismic Energy Flow Model (LSEFM). The case of mega - earthquakes (M > 9)

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C; Verveniotis, G; Zymaris, N

    2012-01-01

    In this work the data of the earthquake catalog of the NOAA, National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) are processed in terms of global seismic energy release. The determined Global Cumulative Seismic Energy Release (GCSER) graph as a function of time, is analyzed in the magnitude domain (discrete energy windows). Characteristic components of the analyzed graph are: its accelerated deformation character observed for energy windows lower than the background seismicity (M = 7.0 - 7.5), its lock state that started on 1923 and long seismic quiescence periods that preceded recent mega - earthquakes. The background GCSER value oscillates during the last century with a period of 60 years and with increasing amplitude. The recent (1952 - 2012) 5 mega - earthquakes are closely related to the amplitude increase of the GCSER oscillation. Hence, it is suggested that more mega - earthquakes are probable due to occur in the future. A global mechanism is postulated for the generation of the mega - earthquakes based on the pri...

  17. Increasing the gravimetric energy density of organic based secondary battery cathodes using small radius cations (Li+ and Mg2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Burgos, Kenneth; Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G; Zhou, Weidong; Burkhardt, Stephen E; Abruña, Héctor D

    2013-10-02

    One of the major challenges in electrochemical energy storage (EES) is increasing the gravimetric capacity and energy density of the cathode material. Here we demonstrate how to increase the gravimetric energy density of electrical energy storage devices based on the use of organic materials through exploitation of the strong ionic coupling between a reduced carbonyl functionality and small cations such as lithium (Li(+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)). Binding of the cation to the reduced carbonyl results in a positive shift of the formal reduction potential of the carbonyl couple. This has the effect of increasing the cell voltage which, in turn, results in an increase in the energy density. We show how this interaction can be used to dramatically increase, by up to a factor of 2, the energy density for a selected case study using 1,2-di(thiophen-2-yl)ethane-1,2-dione (DTED). We have carried out electrochemical and computational studies in order to understand the thermodynamic (positive shift of 250 mV and 1 V in the formal potential for the first and second reductions, respectively, of the carbonyl groups of DTED) and kinetic effects between small radii cations (Li(+) and Mg(2+)) and the reduced carbonyl functionality of carbonyl-based organic molecules (C-bOMs).

  18. Increasing durability and lowering the overall cost of wave energy converters using Ultra High Performance Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars; Hansen, Niels A.

    2013-01-01

    Lowering the overall cost of wave energy converters is a necessity for creating a feasible solution to renewable energy. The design of wave energy converters is in general based on traditional steel design methods. In the design of steel structures subjected to significant dynamical loading...... and a harsh environment issues such fatigue resistance and durability are of major concern. The welded joints in steel structures significantly reduce the fatigue resistance and give a low utilization ratio of the steel material. Furthermore is coating of all exposed steel surfaces a necessity to secure...... as primary material in the design of wave energy converters is a feasible and promising solution, which reduce the overall cost of the structure significantly. This will be illustrated by means of a feasibility study carried out on the Wavestar project, where special attention is pointed at the arm and float...

  19. Engaging with ENERGY STAR[R]: How to Increase Student Involvement in Your Energy Management Plan Energy Efficiency in K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grene, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    It is no secret that school budgets are growing smaller, forcing districts to make tough financial choices. Building operating costs drain a massive portion of most districts' budgets. As such, energy efficiency is a powerful tool to cut short- and long-term operating costs, and reductions in energy use. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's…

  20. The effects of feeding increasing concentrations of corn oil on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of added fat source is common in high-concentrate finishing diets. The objective of our experiment was to determine if feeding increasing concentrations of added dietary corn oil would decrease enteric methane production, increase the ME:DE ratio, and improve recovered energy (RE) in finish...

  1. Static compensation of reactive for increasing the energy availability; Compensacao estatica de reativos para aumentar a disponibilidade de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunbaum, Rolf; Rasmussen, J.; Silva, A. [ABB Suica (Sweden); Canal, Mauricio [ISA Brasil (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    This paper describes the implementation of a static compensation system of the reactive at an oil field which was experiencing frequent production interruptions due to power level variations and shutdown. Besides the increasing of energy power absorbed from the grid and the power stabilization of the installation, the system increased the dynamic answer when occurring voltage slags, load rejection and power generator shutdowns.

  2. Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) resin increases water demands and reduces energy availability in desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Antonio M; Dearing, M Denise; Karasov, William H

    2004-07-01

    Although many plant secondary compounds are known to have serious consequences for herbivores, the costs of processing them are generally unknown. Two potential costs of ingestion and detoxification of secondary compounds are elevation of the minimum drinking water requirement and excretion of energetically expensive metabolites (i.e., glucuronides) in the urine. To address these impacts, we studied the costs of ingestion of resin from creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) on desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida). The following hypotheses were tested: ingestion of creosote resin by woodrats (1) increases minimum water requirement and (2) reduces energy available by increasing fecal and urinary energy losses. We tested the first hypothesis, by measuring the minimum water requirement of woodrats fed a control diet with and without creosote resin. Drinking water was given in decreasing amounts until woodrats could no longer maintain constant body mass. In two separate experiments, the minimum drinking water requirement of woodrats fed resin was higher than that of controls by 18-30% (about 1-1.7 ml/d). We tested several potential mechanisms of increased water loss associated with the increase in water requirement. The rate of fecal water loss was higher in woodrats consuming resin. Neither urinary water nor evaporative water loss was affected by ingestion of resin. Hypothesis 2 was tested by measuring energy fluxes of woodrats consuming control vs. resin-treated diets. Woodrats on a resin diet had higher urinary energy losses and, thus, metabolized a lower proportion of the dietary energy than did woodrats on control diet. Fecal energy excretion was not affected by resin. The excretion of glucuronic acid represented almost half of the energy lost as a consequence of resin ingestion. The increased water requirement and energy losses of woodrats consuming a diet with resin could have notable ecological consequences.

  3. Perspectives of increasing energy efficiency on designing new and reconstruction of present city districts: World experiences and local recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available With 20th century along came a significant increase of energy consumption and a serious ecological crisis caused by the extensive usage of fossil fuels (oil, coal. Because of that, many countries have declared regulations to lower the traditional energy consumption and to stimulate usage of renewable energy sources. This problem is particularly evident in residential buildings sector, because over 50% of the overall energy produced is slinked in this way. This paper gives methodological recommendations regarding the principles of energy efficient housing and general comfort improvement as well as evident advantages of passive solar panels compared to traditional energy sources (fossil fuels. These possibilities are considered in two different scenarios: reconstruction of already built city blocks, and energy efficient implementation in case of brand new structures. This paper considers two different case studies, one reconstructive - a city block in France, built in the mid 60’s and the other of energy efficient settlement in Greece "Solar Village", built in the 80’s, which was designed by bioclimatic principles from the very beginning. Energy efficient planning and design methodological recommendations based on these two examples are regarding the New Belgrade block 7/3, which has been built in the 50’s.

  4. German enterprises and the changes in energy economics due to increased concerns regarding environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Gregor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a first year doctoral research regarding the current state of knowledge in environmental sustainability, energy economics and their impact on European enterprises. As the current changes and modifications of the German energy economics system are observed by people all around the globe, the current paper analyzes what has been said until now in the scientific literature on character of the new strategy for energy consumption and production in Germany and its impact on environmental and social sustainability. With the help of two questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2013 and 2014 through the German DIHK1, German enterprises were surveyed in order to: identify potential differences and similarities between the two periods, identify the effects of the energy transition on companies’ profitability, and analyze these effects and compare the results in terms of potential trend developments. The research findings confirmed that changes in the energy system affect not only the environmental sustainability only, but also the economy, in some cases even independent of the stage in which the changing system of the economy presently is.

  5. Russian Energy Policy Looks Increasingly Eastward: Changing an Export Vector or Diversifying of Supply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alexandrovna Gerasimchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new trends in the global gas market and, as a consequence the displacement of the center of gravity towards the Asia-Pacific region, today's major energy consumer in the world, had a significant impact on Russia's export policy review. The gradual «decline» of the European gas market, recently demonstrating a constant decrease in gas consumption, as well as unreasonable politicization of the question concerning European gas pipeline «South Stream» construction in the context of the ongoing Ukrainian crisis further strengthened the tendency to Russia's redirection to the Eastern energy market. A vigorous activity of state-owned energy companies as Gazprom and Rosneft in Eastern Siberia and Far East, including gas pipelines «Altai» and «Power of Siberia» designed for Russian natural gas supply to China demonstrate Russia to overcome the historical «Eurocentrism» in national oil and gas sector. This paper discusses the role and the place of Russia in the European gas market, as well as the perspectives of the Russian energy resources in the Chinese energy market.

  6. Optimal Control to Increase Energy Production of Wind Farm Considering Wake Effect and Lifetime Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi;

    2017-01-01

    In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to the downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. Meanwhile, the energy production is determined by the power generation and the lifetime of the wind turbine. In this paper, an optimal active power control method is proposed...... to maximize the energy production of wind farms by considering the wake effect and the lifetime of wind turbine. It starts with the analysis of the pitch angle curve and active power curve seen from the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of individual wind turbines. Taking the wake effect into account......, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized with the aim of Maximum Power Generation (MPG) of the wind farm. Afterwards, considering the lifetime of wind turbines, a comparison is offered between the MPPT method and the MPG method for energy production using a simplified two-turbine wind farm...

  7. Increasing innovation in home energy efficiency: Monte Carlo simulation of potential improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soratana, Kullapa; Marriott, Joe [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, 949 Benedum Hall, 3700 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Despite the enormous potential for savings, there is little penetration of market-based solutions in the residential energy efficiency market. We hypothesize that there is a failure in the residential efficiency improvement market: due to lack of customer knowledge and capital to invest in improvements, there is unrecovered savings. In this paper, we model a means of extracting profit from those unrecovered energy savings with a market-based residential energy services company, or RESCO. We use a Monte Carlo simulation of the cost and performance of various improvements along with a hypothetical business model to derive general information about the financial viability of these companies. Despite the large amount of energy savings potential, we find that an average contract length with residential customers needs to be nearly 35 years to recoup the cost of the improvements. However, our modeling of an installer knowledge parameter indicates that experience plays a large part in minimizing the time to profitability for each home. Large numbers of inexperienced workers driven by government investment in this area could result in the installation of improvements with long payback periods, whereas a free market might eliminate companies making poor decisions. (author)

  8. Controls Upgrade at a Winery Saves Energy and Increases Equipment Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-01-01

    In early 2001, Fetzer Vineyards installed controls on the refrigeration system at its Hopland Winery in Hopland, California. The controls installation lowered the winery's annual energy consumption by over 168,000 kWh, and maintenance costs by $4,000.

  9. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    to use low backup energy prices during the day if electricity is used. The storage function and both stratified charging and extraction of heat, are very important, to separate different temperature zones in the storage. This paper describes a step towards forecast control for electricity based auxiliary...

  10. Increasing the Kill Effectiveness of High Energy Laser (HEL) Combat System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Thomas Laskoski, Raymond Leon, Michael McLachlan, Quang Nquyen, Michael Roth , and Michael Zalewski. 2011. “High Energy Laser Technology for Navy...Doctrine Analysis Division. Katzman, Kenneth, Neelesh Nerurkar, Ronald O’Rourke, R. Chuck Mason and Michael Ratner. 2012. Iran’s Threat to the Strait

  11. Prêt-à-Loger: zero-energy home with maximum living quality increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    At the Solar Decathlon Europe 2014 (SDE2014) competition (Versailles, France), the team from the Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) took a stance by not constructing a new-built house but demonstrating the energy renovation of a typical Dutch terraced house. Around a quarter of Dutch housing

  12. Four-terminal organic solar cell modules with increased annual energy yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlhaar, R.; Cheyns, D.; Willigenburg, L. van; Hadipour, A.; Gilot, J.; Radbeh, R.; Aernouts, T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors present experimental results on mechanically stacked organic solar modules and their advantage over standard tandem architectures. A four-terminal configuration of two single junction modules with complementary absorbing active layers uses the more efficient energy conversion of a tandem

  13. Smart Power Partnership Initiative (SPPI): An Innovative Approach to Increasing Navy Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    installations into regional smart grids 1 Gigawatt Initiative Producing or purchasing enough renewable energy to power the equivalent of a quarter of a...Ventura County Coronado 3 MC Recruit Depot Balboa • Create Regional Smart Grids , groupings of Navy and Marine Corps installations capable of sharing

  14. Controls Upgrade at a Winery Saves Energy and Increases Equipment Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-01-01

    In early 2001, Fetzer Vineyards installed controls on the refrigeration system at its Hopland Winery in Hopland, California. The controls installation lowered the winery's annual energy consumption by over 168,000 kWh, and maintenance costs by $4,000.

  15. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chusak, Jared Daiber, Ramesh Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a an all-air overhead system, (b a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling, (c an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation, and (d a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room. Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  16. Four-terminal organic solar cell modules with increased annual energy yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlhaar, R.; Cheyns, D.; Willigenburg, L. van; Hadipour, A.; Gilot, J.; Radbeh, R.; Aernouts, T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors present experimental results on mechanically stacked organic solar modules and their advantage over standard tandem architectures. A four-terminal configuration of two single junction modules with complementary absorbing active layers uses the more efficient energy conversion of a tandem

  17. Optimal Control to Increase Energy Production of Wind Farm Considering Wake Effect and Lifetime Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    , the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized with the aim of Maximum Power Generation (MPG) of the wind farm. Afterwards, considering the lifetime of wind turbines, a comparison is offered between the MPPT method and the MPG method for energy production using a simplified two-turbine wind farm...

  18. Increase of energy balance significantly alters major lipogenic gene expression in lactation ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif; Vitsa, Alkistis; Rogdakis, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine changes observed in the expression of cytosolic NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) genes, the major implicated genes in ruminant lipogenesis in terms of produce NADPH, during the early post-weaning period in dairy ewes in respect to energy intake, and to further correlate the noted changes with their respective enzymatic activities. A total of 21 subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained from seven lactating (2nd lactation period) dairy ewes of the Chios breed. Adipose tissue samples were taken from the tail head region at weeks 1, 2, and 4 after weaning (45 days after parturition). Dairy ewes were in negative energy balance during weeks 1 and 2 after weaning and they moved into a strong positive energy balance at week 4 after weaning. Expression of ICDH and G6PD genes and their respective enzymatic activity was determined. Results showed that both genes' expression and enzymatic activities were significantly minimal at week 1 after weaning, reaching a maximum level at week 4 after weaning (P gene expression (P energy intake changes. Almost similar changes were observed for enzymatic activities, rendering these enzymes as potential biochemical markers of ovine lipogenesis. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Growth Failure in Children with Intractable Epilepsy Is Not Due to Increased Resting Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, A. G. Christina; Trabulsi, Jillian; Schall, Joan I.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD 2y…

  20. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chusak, Lee; Daiber, Jared; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a) an all-air overhead system, (b) a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling), (c) an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation), and (d) a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period) and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room). Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  1. Increasing the energy dynamic range of solid-state nuclear track detectors using multiple surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors, such as CR-39, are widely used in physics and in many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. In the ICF experiments, the particles of interest, such as D{sup 3}He-protons, have ranges of order of the detector thickness. In this case, the dynamic range of the detector can be extended by recording data on both the front and back sides of the detector. Higher energy particles which are undetectable on the front surface can then be measured on the back of the detector. Studies of track formation under the conditions on the front and back of the detector reveal significant differences. Distinct front and back energy calibrations of CR-39 are therefore necessary and are presented for protons. Utilizing multiple surfaces with additional calibrations can extend the range of detectable energies on a single piece of CR-39 by up to 7-8 MeV. The track formation process is explored with a Monte Carlo code, which shows that the track formation difference between front and back is due to the non-uniform ion energy deposition in matter.

  2. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. PMID:27053828

  3. Dystropathology increases energy expenditure and protein turnover in the Mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the mdx mouse model lack functional dystrophin and undergo repeated bouts of necrosis, regeneration, and growth. These processes have a high metabolic cost. However, the consequences for whole body energy and protein metabolism, and on the diet...

  4. Decentralisation and devolution in Nicaragua’s North Atlantic autonomous region: Natural resources and indigenous peoples’ rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Larson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of governments, particularly in Latin America, have begun to recognise the rights of indigenous peoples and traditional communities to the lands on which they live. Recognition has often taken the form of constitutional provisions or laws that grant use rights in perpetuity or provide land titles. These provisions usually establish rights for multiple communities over a large territory, at a scale that may be ideal for promoting broader, ecosystem management approaches. At the same time, however, indigenous communities often do not have existing territorial governance structures at these scales. Nicaragua’s North Atlantic Autonomous Region provides a rich setting in which to study issues of multilevel natural resource governance. In addition to the devolution policies that have created official indigenous territories, the central government has decentralised important powers over natural resources to the regional autonomous authority, while municipal authorities still exist but have been marginalised. At the same time, however, the community scale is the one at which local people have traditionally managed resources. This paper examines these issues in light of efforts to establish democratic governance institutions at the territory level and argues that communities continue to lose out under multilevel governance regimes without concerted efforts to level the playing field. The findings are based on several years of research in the region, emerging research on newly titled territories and a six month training and dialogue with territory leaders, organised by a consortium of international and local NGOs.

  5. Innovative low cost procedure for nutrient removal as an integrated element of a decentralised water management concept for rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burde, M; Rolf, F; Grabowski, F

    2001-01-01

    The absence of large rivers with rather high niveau of self purifying effect in parts of east Germany leads to a discharging of the effluent of wastewater treatment plants into the groundwater in many cases. One useful consequence is the idea of realisation of decentralised measures and concepts in urban water resources management concerning municipal wastewater as well as rainfall, precipitation. At the same time, only the upper soil zone--a few decimetres--is water--saturated and thus discharge effective, even when extreme rainfall takes place. Underneath, however, there generally exists an unsaturated soil zone, which is up to now a rather unexplored retardation element of the hydrologic- and substrate-cycle. Nutrient removal in small wastewater treatment plants that are emptying into ground waters is often beneficial. The presented studies optimised an inexpensive method of subsequent enhanced wastewater treatment. The developed reactor is similar to a concentrated subsoil passage. The fixed bed reactor is divided in two sections to achieve aerobic and anoxic conditions for nitrification/denitrification processes. To enhance phosphorus removal, ferrous particles are put into the aerobic zone. Two series of column tests were carried out and a technical pilot plant was built to verify the efficiency of the process. The results show that this method can be implemented successfully.

  6. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator-sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low sound transmission at high frequencies, low heat transmission, and low weight. The double panel structure is widely used, such as in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nevertheless, the resonance of the cavity and the poor sound transmission loss at low frequencies limit the double panel's noise control performance. Applying active structural acoustic control to the panels or active noise control to the cavity has been discussed in many papers. In this paper, the resonances of the panels and the cavity are considered simultaneously to further reduce the transmitted noise through an existing double panel structure. A structural-acoustic coupled model is developed to investigate and compare various structural control and cavity control methods. Numerical analysis and real-time control results show that structural control should be applied to both panels. Three types of cavity control sources are presented and compared. The results indicate that the largest noise reduction is obtained with cavity control by loudspeakers modified to operate as incident pressure sources.

  7. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR−/−) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Kenneth A.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; DiStefano, Peter S.; Geddes, Brad J.; Kopchick, John

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR −/− mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (Mb) changes and physical activity in 17 month-old female GHR −/− mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR −/− mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit Mb, had greater EE per unit Mb and had an increase in 24-h EE/Mb that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR −/− mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, Mb and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for Mb and LMA, the GHR −/− mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR −/− mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR −/− mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final three hours of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR −/− mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable Mb. Relative to wild type mice, the GHR −/− mice consumed more calories per unit Mb, which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR −/− mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. PMID:19747867

  8. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR -/-) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Kenneth A; Berryman, Darlene E; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Distefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J; Kopchick, John J

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR -/- mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (M(b)) changes and physical activity in 17month-old female GHR -/- mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR -/- mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit M(b), had greater EE per unit M(b) and had an increase in 24-h EE/M(b) that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR -/- mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, M(b) and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for M(b) and LMA, the GHR -/- mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR -/- mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR -/- mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final 3h of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR -/- mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable M(b). Relative to wild type mice, the GHR -/- mice consumed more calories per unit M(b), which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR -/- mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Theoretical basis and industrial applications of energy – saving and increased durability belt conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniak Jerzy

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical basis used to build new generation of belt conveyors is presented is this paper. These conveyors are characterized by better energy-saving parameters of the transport of run-of-mine and higher reliability. Examples of current technical solutions applied in coal mines have been used to present the results of this research. The paper is summarized with conclusions and remarks.

  10. China Committed to Environmental Protection with Increase of Clean Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Construction of the West-East gas transmission pipeline is a significant decision that the Chinese government made at the turn of the century, aiming at bringing the long-term benefits to the Chinese people. The project, starting from Tarim basin in West China's Xinjiang Autonomous Region and ending in Shanghai on China's eastern coastline, will stimulate the western economic development,accelerate adjustment of the eastern energy consumption structure and improve the environmental protection in the areas along the giant pipeline.

  11. Active flow control integrated diffuser (afcid) for increased energy efficiency in variable air volume systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Schijff, Hermanus P.

    Variable air volume (VAV) air terminals are designed to save energy by reducing airflow into a given space based on occupancy and required load. Systems are typically designed to operate at peak load, however as load is reduced, performance is compromised due to inadequate throw. As a result, fans are installed to adjust for the losses, negating many of the energy savings. Additionally flow is vectored by the use of vanes, a basic passive type of flow control. An experimental investigation was performed to study the application of flow control on that of a HVAC diffuser using synthetic jets distributed evenly along the diffuser edge parallel to the flow field. The study was conducted on a 1:3 scale typical office space (150 ft2), which included a simulated scale HVAC system supplied by compressed air. Two different jet blowing ratios were investigated for system loads of 60% and 90%. The flow field was established using hot wire anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of synthetic jet based active flow control at controlling airflow, showing ability to affect throw parameters for changing flow rates within the test chamber. Vectoring of up to 20% and improvement in jet spread of 200% was demonstrated. The use of such devices has the potential to improve air quality and air distribution in building while simultaneously lowering energy demands of HVAC systems.

  12. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel. Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications. The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency evaluation in order to optimize space; it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows. A design procedure for a solar array configuration based on shadow analysis for competition vehicles is presented. The principle is that shadows in moving objects can be simulated, since the vehicle, the earth and the sun are are moving in semipredictable patterns, thus net energy collection can be forecast. The case study presented is the solar array design of a vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013. The obtained results illustrate how the employment of the procedure gives insights on important aspects to consider and also delivers qualitative and quantitative information for decision making. In addition, the experience in competition highlights some issues to be considered, modified, or improved in further vehicle designs.

  13. Potentials of energy conservation and increase in capacity of industrial sewage plantes; Energieeinspar- und Kapazitaetssteigerungspotenziale von Industrieklaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombeck, Markus; Rudolph, Karl-Ulrich [Universitaet Witten/Herdecke gGmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management (IEEM); Mueller-Czygan, Guenter [HST Systemtechnik GmbH und Co. KG, Meschede (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    With respect to investigations on the potentials of energy conservation and the increase in capacity by means of in-situ generated pure oxygen within a pilot project energy conservations and increases in capacity can be attained if certain operating conditions are fulfilled. In most cases, the biggest advantages of in-situ generated pure oxygen exist in the case of waste water with sufficient buffering capacity, in the case of an operation of production plants preferably in full-load with the possibility of an adjustment to off-peak periods as well as in the case of an optimal input of pure oxygen into the waste water.

  14. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brameld, John M.; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  15. Can prescription of sip-feed supplements increase energy intake in hospitalised older people with medical problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Margaret; Potter, Jan; McColl, John; Reilly, John

    2003-08-01

    A blinded randomised controlled trial of prescribed oral sip-feed supplements compared with routine hospital practice was undertaken in acute admissions to a geriatric medicine department. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were admitted from home, were not obese (BMI>75th percentile), had no swallowing difficulties and were not deemed to be in the terminal stage of illness. On admission they were stratified by nutritional status (BMI5th to 25th to supplement prescribed three times per d in the medicine prescription chart (22.5 g protein, 2260 kJ (540 kcal) energy/d) distributed at medication rounds for the duration of hospital stay. The control group received routine hospital care. Outcomes were patient compliance with supplement, total energy intake and nursing staff views of the method. Patients were randomised to receive supplements (n 186 of total n 381). Half had full compliance and three-quarters at least moderate compliance. Total energy intake was significantly increased, on average, in the intervention group (P=0.001). The proportion of patients meeting estimated minimum energy requirements was significantly increased (P=0.023), but was still energy intake. However, the amount prescribed did not ensure minimum energy requirements were met in all cases.

  16. Shortage of energy increases profitability of district heating; Energiknapphet gjoer fjernvarme mer loennsomt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Increased demand will cause the price of district heating to increase, but not to the level of the price of electricity. The cheapest heating alternative in Denmark, Norway and Sweden is district heating. In Norway, district heating is developed primarily for commercial buildings and housing cooperatives. Thirty per cent of all buildings under construction are prepared for district heating and the percentage will increase strongly in the coming time. The total net production of district heating in Norway in 2001 was 2000 GWh, which is only a small part of the total potential for district heating.

  17. Prenatal high protein exposure decreases energy expenditure and increases adiposity in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenzer, Maren; Ortmann, Sylvia; Klaus, Susanne; Metges, Cornelia C

    2002-02-01

    Epidemiologic results suggest that protein intake in infancy and later adiposity might be related. We examined whether high dietary protein exposure in utero and/or during postnatal life affects body fatness. Two groups of female rats were mated and pair-fed isocaloric high (40% protein; HP) or adequate protein (20% protein; AP) diets throughout pregnancy. The male offspring were suckled (3 wk) by foster mothers pair-fed HP or AP diets, resulting in 4 pre-/postnatal groups (AP-AP, AP-HP, HP-AP, HP-HP). Subsequently, they were pair-fed the same diets their nurses received during lactation until wk 9. Offspring of HP dams had a lower body weight on d 2 of life than their AP counterparts (7.6 +/- 0.7 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.8 g; P total energy expenditure at wk 9 (P < 0.05). Postnatal HP alone had no significant effect on body composition or metabolic rate. These results indicate that in utero exposure to a high protein level reprograms body weight and energy homeostasis.

  18. BTL: a solution to increase energy efficiency in the Brazilian alcohol business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Aguiar, Eduardo Falabella; Alves de Sousa, Sirlei Sebastiao; Barbosa de Oliveira, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    Brazil is the world largest producer of sugarcane, which has an energy potential of 1.2 barrels of petroleum per ton. On average, 55% of Brazilian sugarcane is converted into ethanol. When sugarcane is processed, the cane stalks are shredded and crushed to extract the cane juice while the fibrous outer residue (bagasse) is sent to the boiler to provide steam and electricity. With the availability of advanced cogeneration technologies, these units can nowadays employ the onsite bagasse resource to go beyond meeting their own energy requirements and produce surplus electricity. This work proposes a new route for 'green' diesel production. Gasification of biomass coupled with a high-conversion Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactor. The FT synthesis produces hydrocarbons of different chain lengths from a synthesis gas (mixture of H{sub 2} and CO). The large hydrocarbons can be further hydrocracked to form mainly a high-quality diesel. The fraction of short hydrocarbons is used in a Combined Cycle with the unconverted syngas. The perspectives for application of this route - production of FT synthesis fuels based on biomass residue - ate promising in Brazil. (auth)

  19. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such ro

  20. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such

  1. Effect of Energy Storage in Increasing the Penetration of RES in the Remote Island of Agios Efstratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Ioannis; Braun, Philipp; Chaudhary, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Most of the inhabited Greek islands are not connected to the central electricity grid and their energy needs are satisfied by diesel power stations. The operation of such stations has negative economic and environmental effects related to the high transportation cost of fuels, increasing oil prices...

  2. Increased lipolysis and energy expenditure in a mouse model with severely impaired glucagon secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Phing-How; Gustavsson, Natalia; Wang, Yue

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secretion of insulin and glucagon is triggered by elevated intracellular calcium levels. Although the precise mechanism by which the calcium signal is coupled to insulin and glucagon granule exocytosis is unclear, synaptotagmin-7 has been shown to be a positive regulator of calcium......-dependent insulin and glucagon secretion, and may function as a calcium sensor for insulin and glucagon granule exocytosis. Deletion of synaptotagmin-7 leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and nearly abolished Ca(2+)-dependent glucagon secretion in mice. Under non-stressed resting state, however......, synaptotagmin-7 KO mice exhibit normal insulin level but severely reduced glucagon level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied energy expenditure and metabolism in synaptotagmin-7 KO and control mice using indirect calorimetry and biochemical techniques. Synaptotagmin-7 KO mice had lower body weight...

  3. Polymerase gamma mutator mice rely on increased glycolytic flux for energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ayesha; Safdar, Adeel; Kitaoka, Yu; Ma, Xiaoxing; Marquez, Olivia S; Akhtar, Mahmood; Nazli, Aisha; Suri, Rahul; Turnbull, John; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have illustrated that the polymerase gamma mutator (PolG) mice have reduced mitochondrial content secondary to systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, and subsequently a lower capacity to perform aerobic respiration and endurance exercise. We sought to delineate the extent of glycolysis as a means of energy production in the PolG mice in the absence of optimal mitochondrial function. PolG mice display an enhanced reliance on glycolysis as compared to their wild-type counterparts. This is evident by the resting hypoglycemia, higher PFK content, and elevated plasma lactate levels in the PolG mice. In vitro experiments provide further proof that PolG derived dermal fibroblasts have a higher rate of, and capacity for, glycolysis. PolG mice also have enhanced capacity to perform hepatic gluconeogenesis that is likely enhancing the Cori cycle capacity. Copyright © 2015 © Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring applications of power generators for the increase of energy efficiency using novel fiber optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villnow, Michael; Willsch, Michael; Bosselmann, Thomas; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2011-05-01

    To verify optimization measures of power generators to improve the energy efficiency and to monitor critical parameters, fiber optical sensors have been developed and investigated. A fiber optical hot wire anemometer based on the thermooptic effect of Fiber Bragg Gratings was investigated to measure the flow distribution along the stator core. Fiber optical magnetic field sensors, based on the strain-optic effect of FBGs, were used to measure the magnetic field distribution on the end windings of a power generator. A novel fiber-optical accelerometer was used to measure the end winding vibrations. In this paper the functionality of each sensor is described and results of field test under real conditions are shown and discussed.

  5. Tendon elastic strain energy in the human ankle plantar-flexors and its role with increased running speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Adrian; Schache, Anthony G; Lin, Yi-Chung; Pandy, Marcus G

    2014-09-01

    The human ankle plantar-flexors, the soleus and gastrocnemius, utilize tendon elastic strain energy to reduce muscle fiber work and optimize contractile conditions during running. However, studies to date have considered only slow to moderate running speeds up to 5 m s(-1). Little is known about how the human ankle plantar-flexors utilize tendon elastic strain energy as running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting. We used data obtained from gait experiments in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling and optimization techniques to calculate muscle-tendon unit (MTU) work, tendon elastic strain energy and muscle fiber work for the ankle plantar-flexors as participants ran at five discrete steady-state speeds ranging from jogging (~2 m s(-1)) to sprinting (≥8 m s(-1)). As running speed progressed from jogging to sprinting, the contribution of tendon elastic strain energy to the positive work generated by the MTU increased from 53% to 74% for the soleus and from 62% to 75% for the gastrocnemius. This increase was facilitated by greater muscle activation and the relatively isometric behavior of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers. Both of these characteristics enhanced tendon stretch and recoil, which contributed to the bulk of the change in MTU length. Our results suggest that as steady-state running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting, the human ankle plantar-flexors continue to prioritize the storage and recovery of tendon elastic strain energy over muscle fiber work.

  6. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  7. 11th Kasseler symposium energy systems technology. Information and communication technologies for tommorow's energy supply; Elftes Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik. Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien fuer die Energieversorgung von morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The theme of the 11{sup th} Kassel Symposium Energy System Technology is 'Information and Communication Technologies for tomorrow's Energy Supply' and is aimed at technical engineering experts. The symposium intends to provide an overview of the state of the art, the newest trends and practical experiences in the 'Energy and Communication' field within a decentralised power supply environment. The speeches cover a range of topics from standards and norms for communication interfaces and protocols for decentralised power supply through contributions concerning decentralised generators, quality of supply, the potentials of effective energy management in distribution networks and the role of information management in virtual power stations. The network theme 'Energy and Communication' is also concluded during this symposium. Within this network, which has been supported by the Federal Ministry of Research and Education, the capacity and abilities of non-university institutes which are active in the field of research and knowledge-management could be optimally linked with the extensive concept potential of universities and the market-oriented line taken by industry through consolidating and linking up colleges and universities, commercial companies and non-university research facilities in the energy and communication technology sphere. With the aim of 'Optimising the Use of Decentralised Power Supply Systems by Integrating Modern Methods of Communication', the network has developed proposals for the following areas - Decentralized power quality and grid management - Communication structures and technology - Energy management and operation control strategies - Information management which, in the form of project ideas and proposals for research projects, should be realised after the scheme expires. The results of the networks and relevant research results will be presented by scientists in four blocks of lectures, each one

  8. Improved growth performance in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at high densities is linked to increased energy retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2015-01-01

    ), a higher fraction of the dietary energy intake was used to fuel activity rather than growth, as evidenced by significantly higher routine metabolism, reduced feed utilisation efficiency and a tendency for lower growth performance compared to fish reared at the higher densities. These results indicate......Behaviour has been suggested as an underlying factor influencing how rearing density affects growth performance in Salmonid fishes. At low densities there is an elevated intensity of aggressive interactions and the formation of dominance hierarchies. As density increases, it is commonly assumed...... that aggression decreases, as the cost and effort required to establish and maintain dominance hierarchies increase. The increased energy expenditure associated with aggressive interactions has been identified as one mechanism causing a reduced efficiency in feed utilisation and therefore decreased growth...

  9. Decreased elastic energy storage, not increased material stiffness, characterizes central artery dysfunction in fibulin-5 deficiency independent of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, J; Bersi, M R; Uman, S; Yanagisawa, H; Humphrey, J D

    2015-03-01

    Central artery stiffness has emerged over the past 15 years as a clinically significant indicator of cardiovascular function and initiator of disease. Loss of elastic fiber integrity is one of the primary contributors to increased arterial stiffening in aging, hypertension, and related conditions. Elastic fibers consist of an elastin core and multiple glycoproteins; hence defects in any of these constituents can adversely affect arterial wall mechanics. In this paper, we focus on mechanical consequences of the loss of fibulin-5, an elastin-associated glycoprotein involved in elastogenesis. Specifically, we compared the biaxial mechanical properties of five central arteries-the ascending thoracic aorta, descending thoracic aorta, suprarenal abdominal aorta, infrarenal abdominal aorta, and common carotid artery-from male and female wild-type and fibulin-5 deficient mice. Results revealed that, independent of sex, all five regions in the fibulin-5 deficient mice manifested a marked increase in structural stiffness but also a marked decrease in elastic energy storage and typically an increase in energy dissipation, with all differences being most dramatic in the ascending and abdominal aortas. Given that the primary function of large arteries is to store elastic energy during systole and to use this energy during diastole to work on the blood, fibulin-5 deficiency results in a widespread diminishment of central artery function that can have significant effects on hemodynamics and cardiac function.

  10. Yoga Poses Increase Subjective Energy and State Self-Esteem in Comparison to ‘Power Poses’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Golec de Zavala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of ‘power poses,’ which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010. The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to ‘high power’ and ‘low power’ poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body (n = 19, two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body (n = 22, two expansive, high power poses (n = 21, or two constrictive, low power poses (n = 20 for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to ‘power poses’ increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses’ association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min.

  11. Yoga Poses Increase Subjective Energy and State Self-Esteem in Comparison to ‘Power Poses’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Lantos, Dorottya; Bowden, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of ‘power poses,’ which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010). The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to ‘high power’ and ‘low power’ poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body (n = 19), two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body (n = 22), two expansive, high power poses (n = 21), or two constrictive, low power poses (n = 20) for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to ‘power poses’ increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses’ association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min. PMID:28553249

  12. Application of methods for identifying broiler chicken gut bacterial species linked with increased energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Valeria A; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Loo, Maylene; Hughes, Robert J

    2008-02-01

    A high-throughput microbial profiling tool based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was developed to monitor the poultry gut microbiota in response to dietary manipulations. Gut microbial communities from the duodena, jejuna, ilea, and ceca of 48 birds fed either a barley control diet or barley diet supplemented with exogenous enzymes for degrading nonstarch polysaccharide were characterized by using multivariate statistical methods. Analysis of samples showed that gut microbial communities varied significantly among gut sections, except between the duodenum and jejunum. Significant diet-associated differences in gut microbial communities were detected within the ileum and cecum only. The dissimilarity in bacterial community composition between diets was 73 and 66% within the ileum and cecum, respectively. Operational taxonomic units, representing bacterial species or taxonomically related groups, contributing to diet-associated differences were identified. Several bacterial species contributed to differences between diet-related gut microbial community composition, with no individual bacterial species contributing more than 1 to 5% of the total. Using canonical analysis of principal coordinates biplots, we correlated differences in gut microbial community composition within the ileum and cecum to improved performance, as measured by apparent metabolizable energy. This is the first report that directly links differences in the composition of the gut microbial community with improved performance, which implies that the presence of specific beneficial and/or absence of specific detrimental bacterial species may contribute to the improved performance in these birds.

  13. Tackling energy management by increasing efficiencies and changing the nature of work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, M.; Kabazo, A. [Telus, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Telus launched a pilot program in 2006 to reduce their environmental impact through the use of communications and information technology (IT) solutions. The Workstyles pilot program delivered sustainable solutions for flexible work styles, such as telework, video conferencing, paperless forms and managed data services. The pilot program provided an opportunity to track how often team members worked remotely and to calculate emissions savings. Results revealed that 13,865 hours of commute time were saved; approximately $125,000 in fuel and car maintenance costs were saved; greenhouse gas emissions were reduced by 114 tons; air pollutants were reduced by 4 tons; and 82 per cent of the team members involved in the pilot expressed that teleworking had a very positive impact on their desire to stay with Telus. This presentation identified the benefits of shifting workstyles with respect to individual companies, departments, teams and individuals. It also described Telus's experiences, best practices and opportunities that exist for organizations to reduce their energy consumption and carbon footprint. Telus's managed IT and server virtualization take on the daily management of network and servers, allowing organizations to eliminate the need for additional data centre capacity. Telus has acquired many benefits by applying a range of data centre technologies such as virtualization and an integrated management and a technological approach for flexible work styles. tabs., figs.

  14. 5. Kassel symposium on energy systems engineering: On-site energy generation using renewable energy sources. Proceedings 2000; 5. Kasseler Symposium: Energie-Systemtechnik. Erneuerbare Energien- und rationelle Energieverwendung. Dezentrale Energieversorgung mit hohem regenerativen Anteil. Tagungsband 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R. (comp.)

    2000-07-01

    The focal topic of the 5th Kassel Symposium on Energy Systems Engineering was ''Decentralised energy supply with a high share of renewable energies''. The contributions covered a wide range of issues including the potential of renewable energies, supply and operating concepts, components, systems engineering and future perspectives. [German] Das 5. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik legt seinen Schwerpunkt auf das Thema: 'Dezentrale Energieversorgung mit hohem regenerativem Anteil'. Es spannt hierzu einen Bogen von den Potenzialen der Erneuerbaren Energien ueber Versorgungs- und Betriebsfuehrungskonzepte sowie Komponenten und Systemtechnik bis hin zu zukuenftigen Perspektiven. (orig.)

  15. Radiation-pressure-dominant acceleration: Polarization and radiation reaction effects and energy increase in three-dimensional simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, M; Liseykina, T V; Pegoraro, F; Macchi, A

    2012-01-01

    Polarization and radiation reaction (RR) effects in the interaction of a superintense laser pulse (I>10(23) W cm-2) with a thin plasma foil are investigated with three dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. For a linearly polarized laser pulse, strong anisotropies such as the formation of two high-energy clumps in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction and significant radiation reactions effects are observed. On the contrary, neither anisotropies nor significant radiation reaction effects are observed using circularly polarized laser pulses, for which the maximum ion energy exceeds the value obtained in simulations of lower dimensionality. The dynamical bending of the initially flat plasma foil leads to the self-formation of a quasiparabolic shell that focuses the impinging laser pulse strongly increasing its energy and momentum densities.

  16. Effects of Increased Wind Power Generation on Mid-Norway’s Energy Balance under Climate Change: A Market Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste François

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its huge water storage capacity, Norway has an excess of energy generation at annual scale, although significant regional disparity exists. On average, the Mid-Norway region has an energy deficit and needs to import more electricity than it exports. We show that this energy deficit can be reduced with an increase in wind generation and transmission line capacity, even in future climate scenarios where both mean annual temperature and precipitation are changed. For the considered scenarios, the deficit observed in winter disappears, i.e., when electricity consumption and prices are high. At the annual scale, the deficit behaviour depends more on future changes in precipitation. Another consequence of changes in wind production and transmission capacity is the modification of electricity exchanges with neighbouring regions which are also modified both in terms of average, variability and seasonality.

  17. OMI-measured increasing SO2 emissions due to energy industry expansion and relocation in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zaili; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Yuan; Li, Jixiang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Jinxiang; Lian, Lulu; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2017-07-01

    The rapid growth of economy makes China the largest energy consumer and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitter in the world. In this study, we estimated the trends and step changes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) vertical column density (VCD) of SO2 from 2005 to 2015 over China measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We show that these trends and step change years coincide with the effective date and period of the national strategy for energy development and relocation in northwestern China and the regulations in the reduction of SO2 emissions. Under the national regulations for the reduction of SO2 emissions in eastern and southern China, SO2 VCD in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of southern China exhibited the largest decline during 2005-2015 at a rate of -7 % yr-1, followed by the North China Plain (NCP) (-6.7 % yr-1), Sichuan Basin (-6.3 % yr-1), and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) (-6 % yr-1). The Mann-Kendall (MK) test reveals the step change points of declining SO2 VCD in 2009 for the PRD and 2012-2013 for eastern China responding to the implementation of SO2 control regulation in these regions. In contrast, the MK test and regression analysis also revealed increasing trends of SO2 VCD in northwestern China, particularly for several hot spots featured by growing SO2 VCD in those large-scale energy industry bases in northwestern China. The enhanced SO2 VCD is potentially attributable to increasing SO2 emissions due to the development of large-scale energy industry bases in energy-abundant northwestern China under the national strategy for the energy safety of China in the 21st century. We show that these large-scale energy industry bases could overwhelm the trends and changes in provincial total SO2 emissions in northwestern China and contribute increasingly to the national total SO2 emissions in China. Given that northwestern China is more ecologically fragile and uniquely susceptible to atmospheric pollution than the rest of China, increasing SO2 emissions in

  18. Pluralistic heat supply concept. Strategies and technologies for decentralised district heating in a liberalized energy market with an emphasis on CHP technology and renewable energies. AGFW principal study, first part of work. Vol. 2. Part 1: District heating systems, existing stock of buildings. Part 2: Technology development and assessment; Pluralistische Waermeversorgung. Strategien und Technologien einer pluralistischen Fern- und Nahwaermeversorgung in einem liberalisierten Energiemarkt unter besonder Beruecksichtigung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und regenerativer Energien. AGFW-Hauptstudie. 1. Bearbeitungsabschnitt. Bd. 2. T. 1: Waermeversorgung des Gebaeudebestandes. T. 2: Technologieentwicklung und -bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, H.; Witterhold, F.G. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Fernwaerme e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pfaffenberger, W. [Bremer Energie Institut, Bremen (DE)] [and others

    2001-08-01

    In order to prepare the basis for the comparative analysis of various carbon dioxide mitigation policies in terms of energy performance of buildings, economic efficiency and ecologic benefits, the wide variety of community district heating services is defined in part A, based on a very differential and extensive characterisation of selected dwellings and the building types. The last chapter of part A discusses the impacts of an enhanced CHP electricity production on the energy system of the Federal Republic of Germany. Part B explains the basic aspects and the approaches used for a building-specific modelling of the various structures of dwellings and the further development of methods applied for energy analysis and energy system modelling at the national level. (orig./CB) [German] Zur Vorbereitung des energetischen, oekonomischen und oekologischen Vergleichs verschiedener CO{sub 2}-Minderungsmassnahmen werden zunaechst in Teil A die unterschiedlichen Versorgungsaufgaben kommunaler Fernwaermeversorgungssysteme anhand einer sehr differenzierten und umfangreichen Charakterisierung der ausgewaehlten Siedlungs- und Gebaeudestrukturen definiert. Im letzten Kapitel von Teil A werden ausserdem die Rueckwirkungen einer verstaerkten KWK-Stromerzeugung auf das Energiesystem der Bundesrepublik Deutschland diskutiert. Teil B erlaeutert die Grundlagen und die Entwicklung der gebaeudescharfen Modellierung von Siedlungsstrukturen und eine Weiterentwicklung von Energiesystemmodellen. (orig./CB)

  19. Southern African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines the ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested in cooperation with the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Initial results from the System Planning and Test (SPLAT) model show that the share of renewable technologies in Southern Africa could increase from the current 10% to as much as 46% in 2030, with 20% of decentralised capacity coming from renewable sources and nearly 80% of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 being provided by renewable energy technologies. Deployment and export of hydropower from the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Inga hydropower project to the SADC region would significantly reduce average electricity generation costs. Analysis using SPLAT – along with a similar model developed for West Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  20. THE ANALYSIS OF POPULATION MORBIDITY RATE DUE TO INCREASED ENERGY DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perticas Diana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development as general acceptance is that form of ensuring the bio-socio-economic needs of the present generation without affecting the existence and development opportunities for the generations to come. Secondary, the concept refers to the protection of the environment that is at present greatly affected by externalities of the socio-economic activity of previous and present generations. As it is shown in this paper the negative effects of the environmental pollution records higher and higher values in a short period of time of which we analyze their impact on population health, focusing on the situation of Romania. I started the analysis from the assumptions that the health of an organism is a normal physical and physiological state, being the opposite of the concept disease. The most common diseases are: hereditary, infectious, internal, infantile, autoimmune, allergic, socio-professional, tumorous, degenerative diseases etc. Of these infant, allergic, tumorous and autoimmune diseases are mainly generated by environmental pollution. Extremely special, regarding the incidence of harmful environmental factors, are the socio-professional diseases or of civilization that are represented by those diseases that are more common in industrialized countries than in the so called third world. In respect to air pollution-generated illnesses with products resulting from burning fossil fuels are highlighted respiratory diseases, immunological diseases, benign and malignant neoplasm of the airways and also dermatitis. Most activities follow sooner or later to increase welfare. Economic growth, environmental protection as well as fulfilling social needs of individuals are only a few elements that lead to the increase of population welfare. If we accept the above mentioned things, then it means that promoting the realisation of sustainable development based on clean and renewable resources and the rationally using the conventional ones is an

  1. Cylindrical shock waves in rotational axisymmetric non-ideal dusty gas with increasing energy under the action of monochromatic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, P. K.

    2017-08-01

    The propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a rotational axisymmetric non-ideal dusty gas under the action of monochromatic radiation with increasing energy, which has variable azimuthal and axial components of fluid velocity, is investigated. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. Similarity solutions are obtained as well as the effects of the variation of the radiation parameters, the parameter of non-idealness of the gas, the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture, the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas, and the piston velocity index are worked out in detail. The total energy of the shock wave is varying and increases with time. It is observed that the radiation parameter and the piston velocity index have opposite behaviour on the flow variables as well as the shock strength.

  2. Food commercials increase preference for energy-dense foods, particularly in children who watch more television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma J; Harrold, Joanne A; Kirkham, Tim C; Corker, Catherine; Cuddy, Jenna; Evans, Deborah; Dovey, Terence M; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E; Halford, Jason C G

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to determine if levels of television viewing (a proxy measure for habitual commercial exposure) affect children's food preference responses to television food commercials. A total of 281 children aged 6 to 13 years from northwest England viewed toy or food television commercials followed by a cartoon on 2 separate occasions; they then completed 3 food preference measures, a commercial recognition task, and a television viewing questionnaire. After viewing the food commercials, all children selected more branded and nonbranded fat-rich and carbohydrate-rich items from food preference checklists compared with after viewing the toy commercials. The food preferences of children with higher habitual levels of television viewing were more affected by food commercial exposure than those of low television viewers. After viewing food commercials, high television viewing children selected a greater number of branded food items compared with after the toy commercials as well as compared with the low television viewers. Children correctly recognized more food commercials than toy commercials. Exposure to television food commercials enhanced high television viewers' preferences for branded foods and increased reported preferences for all food items (branded and nonbranded) relative to the low television viewers. This is the first study to demonstrate that children with greater previous exposure to commercials (high television viewers) seemed to be more responsive to food promotion messages than children with lower previous advertising exposure. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Financial analysis as a marketing tool in the process of awareness increase in the area of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Taušová

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative sources of energy represent a great area of progress nowadays. The trend of the 21. century is energetically demanding with an increaming tendency to use fossil fuels, sources of which are however limited. The article will deal with an inevitability of the use of marketing tools with the aim to increase the share of these energetical resources on the Slovak market. The result will be obtaining of some financial advantage for future users on one side and the increase of volume of sales for vendors on the other side.

  4. Will climate change increase ozone depletion from low-energy-electron precipitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. Baumgaertner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of a strengthened stratospheric/mesospheric residual circulation on the transport of nitric oxide (NO produced by energetic particle precipitation. During periods of high geomagnetic activity, energetic electron precipitation (EEP is responsible for winter time ozone loss in the polar middle atmosphere between 1 and 6 hPa. However, as climate change is expected to increase the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation including extratropical downwelling, the enhancements of EEP NOx concentrations are expected to be transported to lower altitudes in extratropical regions, becoming more significant in the ozone budget. Changes in the mesospheric residual circulation are also considered. We use simulations with the chemistry climate model system EMAC to compare present day effects of EEP NOx with expected effects in a climate change scenario for the year 2100. In years of strong geomagnetic activity, similar to that observed in 2003, an additional polar ozone loss of up to 0.4 μmol/mol at 5 hPa is found in the Southern Hemisphere. However, this would be approximately compensated by an ozone enhancement originating from a stronger poleward transport of ozone from lower latitudes caused by a strengthened Brewer-Dobson circulation, as well as by slower photochemical ozone loss reactions in a stratosphere cooled by risen greenhouse gas concentrations. In the Northern Hemisphere the EEP NOx effect appears to lose importance due to the different nature of the climate-change induced circulation changes.

  5. Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-08-24

    A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

  6. Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-08-24

    A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

  7. Chronic pyruvate supplementation increases exploratory activity and brain energy reserves in young and middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennariikka eKoivisto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer's disease (AD and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~ 800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2- 6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the paradoxical impairment in passive avoidance. We also assessed pyruvate effects on body weight, muscle force and endurance, and found no effects. Metabolic post-mortem assays revealed increased energy compounds in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as increased brain glycogen storages in the pyruvate group. Pyruvate supplementation may counteract aging-related behavioral impairment but its beneficial effect seems related to increased explorative activity rather than direct memory enhancement.

  8. Climate warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2 - Simulations with a multilayer coupled atmosphere-ocean seasonal energy balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chou, Ming-Dah; Arking, Albert

    1987-01-01

    The transient response of the climate to increasing CO2 is studied using a modified version of the multilayer energy balance model of Peng et al. (1982). The main characteristics of the model are described. Latitudinal and seasonal distributions of planetary albedo, latitude-time distributions of zonal mean temperatures, and latitudinal distributions of evaporation, water vapor transport, and snow cover generated from the model and derived from actual observations are analyzed and compared. It is observed that in response to an atmospheric doubling of CO2, the model reaches within 1/e of the equilibrium response of global mean surface temperature in 9-35 years for the probable range of vertical heat diffusivity in the ocean. For CO2 increases projected by the National Research Council (1983), the model's transient response in annually and globally averaged surface temperatures is 60-75 percent of the corresponding equilibrium response, and the disequilibrium increases with increasing heat diffusivity of the ocean.

  9. Inter-organisational communication networks in healthcare: centralised versus decentralised approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Pirnejad (Habibollah); R.A. Bal (Roland); A. Stoop; M. Berg (Marc)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To afford efficient and high quality care, healthcare providers increasingly need to exchange patient data. The existence of a communication network amongst care providers will help them to exchange patient data more efficiently. Information and communication technology (ICT)

  10. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto

    2015-02-15

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates diet-induced obesity in mice by decreasing energy absorption and increasing fat oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, S; Pültz, S; Thöne-Reineke, C; Wolfram, S

    2005-06-01

    To examine the antiobesity effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea bioactive polyphenol in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in male New Zealand black mice by feeding of a high-fat diet. EGCG purified from green tea (TEAVIGO) was supplemented in the diet (0.5 and 1%). Body composition (quantitative magnetic resonance), food intake, and food digestibility were recorded over a 4-week period. Animals were killed and mRNA levels of uncoupling proteins (UCP1-3), leptin, malic enzyme (ME), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), glucokinase (GK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) were analysed in different tissues. Also investigated were acute effects of orally administered EGCG (500 mg/kg) on body temperature, activity (transponders), and energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry). Dietary supplementation of EGCG resulted in a dose-dependent attenuation of body fat accumulation. Food intake was not affected but faeces energy content was slightly increased by EGCG, indicating a reduced food digestibility and thus reduced long-term energy absorption. Leptin and SCD1 gene expression in white fat was reduced but SCD1 and UCP1 expression in brown fat was not changed. In liver, gene expression of SCD1, ME, and GK was reduced and that of UCP2 increased. Acute oral administration of EGCG over 3 days had no effect on body temperature, activity, and energy expenditure, whereas respiratory quotient during night (activity phase) was decreased, supportive of a decreased lipogenesis and increased fat oxidation. Dietary EGCG attenuated diet-induced body fat accretion in mice. EGCG apparently promoted fat oxidation, but its fat-reducing effect could be entirely explained by its effect in reducing diet digestibility.

  12. Proposal for the integration of decentralised composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste into the waste management system of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, I; Saborit-Sánchez, I; Aguilera-Corrales, Y

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and management in Cuba was studied with a view to integrating composting of the organic fractions of MSW into the system. Composting is already included as part of the environmental strategy of the country as an appropriate waste management solution. However, no programme for area-wide implementation yet exists. The evaluation of studies carried out by some Cuban and international organisations showed that organic matter comprises approximately 60-70% of the MSW, with households being the main source. If all organic waste fractions were considered, the theoretical amount of organic waste produced would be approximately 1 Mio. Mg/a, leading to the production of approximately 0.5 Mio. Mg/a of compost. Composting could, therefore, be a suitable solution for treating the organic waste fractions of the MSW. Composting would best be carried out in decentralised systems, since transportation is a problem in Cuba. Furthermore, low technology and low budget composting options should be considered due to the problematic local economic situation. The location for such decentralised composting units would optimally be located at urban agricultural farms, which can be found all over Cuba. These farms are a unique model for sustainable farming in the world, and have a high demand for organic fertiliser. In this paper, options for the collection and impurity-separation in urban areas are discussed, and a stepwise introduction of source-separation, starting with hotel and restaurant waste, is suggested. For rural areas, the implementation of home composting is recommended.

  13. Delivery Models for Decentralised Rural Electrification Case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadoo, Annabel

    2012-06-15

    Access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is fundamental for poverty reduction and sustainable development; without it, the Millennium Development Goals cannot be achieved. Electrification, along with access to modern cooking fuels and mechanical power, is a catalyst for improvements in the fields of poverty reduction, food security, health, education and gender equality. Nevertheless, 1.3 billion people still lack access to electricity, over 95 per cent living in sub-Saharan Africa or developing Asia and 84 per cent of them living in rural areas. There are many different ways to electrify rural areas, not only with regard to the different technologies used, but also to the types of delivery models applied. Common rural electrification technologies include grid extension, community mini-grids, stand-alone household systems, multifunctional platforms, and central charging stations with battery banks. This report will focus on the delivery models used for community mini-grids, as there is evidence to show that mini-grids can be one of the cheaper forms of electrification (on a per unit basis, calculated over the system's lifetime) and also potentially offer a 24 hour AC service that can power a wide range of appliances.

  14. Interactions between electromobility and energy economies with increasing shares of renewable energy carriers; Elektroautos in einer von erneuerbaren Energien gepraegten Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehnt, Martin; Helms, Hinrich; Lambrecht, Udo [Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg (DE)] (and others)

    2011-09-15

    The German Federal Government wants to establish Germany as a leading market for electric mobility. Potential environmental benefits and changes in the economic framework conditions of the energy sector are described in this paper. In order to quantify the electricity split which is actually used for charging electric vehicles, two economic models for the energy sector, a model for the market penetration of electric vehicles, a vehicle model and an LCA model are brought together. Based on an assumed dynamic increase of electric vehicles to 12 million in 2030, an additional electricity demand of about 18 TWh is calculated. If the vehicles are charged directly after their last daily trip, the peak load increases by 12% - despite the small increase in electricity demand. First model calculations for the development of the European power generation system show that the direct impact on the construction of new power plants remains low even until 2030. An impact of electric mobility on CO2 certificate prices can only be seen from 2025 onwards and is limited to an increase in certificate prices by a maximum of 8 % in 2030. An optimisation is possible with intelligent charging strategies: The peak load without demand side management can be reduced by 5 GW and about 600 GWh of additional wind energy can used which would otherwise have been throttled due to feed-in management - about 3.5 % of the total electricity demand of electric vehicles. On the other hand, demand side management leads to more coal power plants instead of gas power plants being used to meet the additional electricity demand. If additional renewable sources are installed along with demand side management, the electricity for electric vehicles is almost carbon free. This is also reflected in the life cycle balance of electric vehicles which also includes vehicle and battery production: With today's average electricity split in Germany, the greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles are about

  15. Decentralised Management and Community Participation : A Minor Field Study about Irrigation and Communication in Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Glaas, Erik

    2007-01-01

    India and many other developing countries confront serious problems of declining water tables. In India there is no real water shortage, but ineffective use of surface water leads to freshwater run-off. By building dams and irrigation water systems the Indian government has been trying to find a more effective use of surface water and thereby increase the agricultural productivity. But mismanagement of irrigation systems by local governments called for alternative management techniques, and d...

  16. Centralised and decentralised control of active distribution systems: models, algorithms and applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggeri, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Power system were traditionally planned and designed by assuming unidirectional power flows from power stations to loads. Nowadays, several factors (e.g., liberalization of the electricity market, need of increased reliability, and environmental issues) lead to a situation where electricity is produced also downstream the transmission level. Connecting generators to the distribution networks could provide several benefits to the whole system, but also technical and safety problems that must b...

  17. Study on computation of optimal depth increase of embossed panels of stainless water tank for energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hung Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compute the optimal depth increase of the embossed panels of a stainless water tank used for an energy storage system. The pressing used to emboss the panels of the stainless water tank decreases their thickness. By assuming that the panels had the same volume before ( V o and after the change ( V c , we found an equation that computed how much the thickness of the panels decreased. According to the obtained thickness equation, the thickness of arch-embossed panels decreased by 50% relative to flat panels, and that of pyramid-embossed panels decreased by up to 30%. We also performed finite element method analyses of four flat panels, four arch-embossed panels, and four pyramid-embossed panels by applying the thickness equation for different depth increase. As a result, the optimal depth increase of the arch-embossed panels was 70–90 mm, and that of the pyramid-embossed panels was 150–200 mm. We concluded that these computed optimal depth increase could be useful in the economic design of a stainless water tank for an energy storage system.

  18. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Rotor-gas bearings are attracting increasing interest because of their high speed capabilities, low friction and clean operation. However, hydrostatic rotor-gas bearings show reduced damping characteristics, which makes it challenging to operate the rotating machine at and about the resonance...... directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed...

  19. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L. F.; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-01

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  20. Indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy: a targeted approach to increase biological efficiency of x-rays based on energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaria, Sianne; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael L F; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B; Tehei, Moeava

    2015-10-21

    Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using radiation sensitization enhancement factors at 10% clonogenic survival (SER10%). The cell cycle distribution was investigated using flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide staining. Incorporation of BrUdR in the DNA was detected by the fluorescence of labelled anti-BrUdR antibodies. The radiation sensitization enhancement exhibits energy dependence with a maximum of 2.3 at 125 kVp for the combined drug treated cells. At this energy, the shape of the clonogenic survival curve of the pharmacological agents treated cells changes substantially. This change is interpreted as an increased lethality of the local radiation environment and is attributed to supplemented inhibition of DNA repair. Radiation induced chemo-beta therapy was demonstrated in vitro by the targeted activation of combined pharmacological agents with optimized energy tuning of x-ray beams on 9 L cells. Our results show that this is a highly effective form of chemo-radiation therapy.

  1. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States); Hollingsworth, Russell [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  2. Structural Testing at the NWTC Helps Improve Blade Design and Increase System Reliability; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    Since 1990, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has tested more than 150 wind turbine blades. NWTC researchers can test full-scale and subcomponent articles, conduct data analyses, and provide engineering expertise on best design practices. Structural testing of wind turbine blades enables designers, manufacturers, and owners to validate designs and assess structural performance to specific load conditions. Rigorous structural testing can reveal design and manufacturing problems at an early stage of development that can lead to overall improvements in design and increase system reliability.

  3. Enhancement of energy expenditure following a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols associated with an increase in catecholamine secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Matsumura

    Full Text Available Numerous clinical studies have reported that ingestion of chocolate reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. In this murine study, the metabolic-enhancing activity of a 10 mg/kg mixture of flavan-3-ol fraction derived from cocoa (FL was compared with the same single dose of (--epicatechin (EC. Resting energy expenditure (REE was significantly increased in mice treated with the FL versus the group administered the distilled water vehicle (Cont during periods of ad libitum feeding and fasting. Mice were euthanized under the effect of anesthesia 2, 5, and 20 hr after treatment with FL or Cont while subsequently fasting. The mRNA levels of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α in brown adipose tissue (BAT were significantly increased 2 hr after administration of FL. UCP-3 and PGC-1α in the gastrocnemius were significantly increased 2 and 5 hr after administration of the FL. The concentrations of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK 1α were found to be significant in the gastrocnemius of mice 2 and 5 hr after ingesting FL. However, these changes were not observed following treatment with EC. Plasma was collected for measurement of catecholamine levels in other animals euthanized by decapitation 2 and 4 hr after their respective group treatment. Plasma adrenaline level was significantly elevated 2 hr after treatment with FL; however, this change was not observed following the administration of EC alone. The present results indicated that FL significantly enhanced systemic energy expenditure, as evidenced by an accompanying increase in the type of gene expression responsible for thermogenesis and lipolysis, whereas EC exhibited this less robustly or effectively. It was suggested the possible interaction between thermogenic and lipolytic effects and the increase in plasma catecholamine concentrations

  4. An expeditious risk analysis of intense rainfall events in low mountain ranges of Central German Uplands under the aspect of a sustainable and decentralised flood retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertermann, D.; Bialas, C.; Zacherl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to increasing settlement pressure, intensifying pressure as a result of the utilisation of flood-threatened surfaces and also in consequence of the climate change with its effects even on local scales an accumulation of flood events is to be expected. Areas that have not been influenced by flood events in the past, like low mountain ranges, can certainly be affected in the near future. Against this background applicable solution and adjustment strategies are required in practice to mitigate such events or to even prevent them. The key aim of the research activities is the development of a standardised and expeditious risk analysis of intense rainfall events in low mountain ranges of Central German Uplands under the aspect of sustainable and decentralised flood retention and protection. Hydrologic characteristics, expressed by the 'run-off-coefficient' and the 'surface roughness', for clearly defined biotope types of German low mountain ranges should be derived with the help of already existing standardised soil/utilisation/vegetation units. According to the current state-of-the-art of flood models land use changes do not have great impact on the slow-flowing, large flood events in widespread watersheds. On the contrary, small, swift-flowing floods in small watersheds can be influenced by land use or management changes. Thus, the focus of the research work is aimed on these small quick flood events. However, also differentiated information for the solution of flood problems in large watersheds can be reached by the summation of statements about small watersheds. The development of a standardised planning method (incl. the GI-System implementation) for the optimization of the drain regulation serves for the reduction of the flood danger. Land use and vegetation is so optimised in adaptation to soil and land management and by taking into account prevailing drain roads that an essential contribution to the regulation of the surface run-off can be performed. The

  5. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal A. Barwais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™ was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001 was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day. Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day, p < 0.001, moderate- (33% (1 h/day p < 0.001, vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day, p < 0.001, and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day, p < 0.001. Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns.

  6. Increasing the sludge energy potential of wastewater treatment plants by introducing fine mesh sieves for primary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsrud, Bjarne; Rusten, Bjørn; Aas, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare some basic characteristics of sludge from fine mesh sieves (sieve sludge) with sludge from primary clarifiers (primary sludge) regarding their energy potential with a focus on anaerobic digestion and/or incineration. Nineteen samples of sludge from fine mesh sieve plants (most of them without fine screens and grit chambers as pre-treatment) and 10 samples of primary sludge were analysed for the content of dry solids (DS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), calorific value and methane potential. The results demonstrated that the sieve sludges have significantly higher VS content and higher methane potential than primary sludges, clearly indicating an increased sludge energy potential if fine mesh sieves are used for primary treatment instead of primary clarifiers at wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic digesters. If the sludges from primary treatment are to be incinerated or used as fuel in cement kilns, there is no significant difference in energy potential (given as calorific values) for the two types of primary treatment.

  7. CNF1 increases brain energy level, counteracts neuroinflammatory markers and rescues cognitive deficits in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Loizzo

    Full Text Available Overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular energy failure are associated with neuroinflammatory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Transgenic mice homozygous for human ApoE4 gene, a well known AD and atherosclerosis animal model, show decreased levels of ATP, increased inflammatory cytokines level and accumulation of beta amyloid in the brain. All these findings are considered responsible for triggering cognitive decline. We have demonstrated that a single administration of the bacterial E. coli protein toxin CNF1 to aged apoE4 mice, beside inducing a strong amelioration of both spatial and emotional memory deficits, favored the cell energy restore through an increment of ATP content. This was accompanied by a modulation of cerebral Rho and Rac1 activity. Furthermore, CNF1 decreased the levels of beta amyloid accumulation and interleukin-1β expression in the hippocampus. Altogether, these data suggest that the pharmacological modulation of Rho GTPases by CNF1 can improve memory performances in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease via a control of neuroinflammation and a rescue of systemic energy homeostasis.

  8. Vision of future energy networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, K.; Andersson, G.; Arnold, M.; Favre-Perrod, P.; Geidl, M.; Kienzle, F.; Koeppel, G.; Schulze, M.

    2006-11-15

    This annual report for 2006 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the work done in 2006 in the area of electricity distribution networks and the effects resulting from decentralised and stochastic power generation. This includes modelling to provide new approaches for the optimisation of structures, distributed storage, combined operation of gas and electricity mains systems and the development of models for the description of the reliability and availability of such systems. A model distribution system for electrical, chemical and thermal energy is presented and theoretical considerations concerning the storage of energy are examined. Co-operation in industrial and academic areas is discussed and the dynamic modelling and control of so-called 'energy-hubs' is examined. Finally, a plan for further work to be carried out in 2007 is presented.

  9. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Arrate; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Portillo, María Puy

    2008-12-01

    Very little evidence exists concerning the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Moreover, although an effect of trans-10, cis-12-CLA on lipolysis has been suggested, it has not been consistently shown. The aims of the present study were to determine whether trans-10, cis-12-CLA increases the reduction of body fat induced by energy restriction, and to analyse its effect on lipolysis and adipose tissue lipase expression (hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose tissue TAG lipase (ATGL)). Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed a high-fat diet during 7 weeks in order to make them fatter. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25 %) without or with supplementation of 0.5 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 3 weeks. Basal glycerol release and lipolysis stimulated by several drugs acting at different levels of the lipolytic cascade were measured in epididymal adipose tissue. The expression of HSL and ATGL was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. No differences were found in adipose tissues size between the experimental groups. Medium adipocyte size and total number of adipocytes were similar in both experimental groups. Animals fed the CLA-enriched diet showed similar lipolytic rates as well as HSL and ATGL expressions to the controls. In conclusion, trans-10, cis-12-CLA does not promote adipose tissue lipid mobilisation nor does it heighten body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Consequently, this CLA isomer does not seem to be a useful tool to be included in body weight-loss strategies followed in obesity treatment.

  10. Enhancement of IUdR Radiosensitization by Low-Energy Photons Results from Increased and Persistent DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayart, Emilie; Pouzoulet, Frédéric; Calmels, Lucie; Dadoun, Jonathan; Allot, Fabien; Plagnard, Johann; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Bridier, André; Denozière, Marc; Bourhis, Jean; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy X-rays induce Auger cascades by photoelectric absorption in iodine present in the DNA of cells labeled with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR). This photoactivation therapy results in enhanced cellular sensitivity to radiation which reaches its maximum with 50 keV photons. Synchrotron core facilities are the only way to generate such monochromatic beams. However, these structures are not adapted for the routine treatment of patients. In this study, we generated two beams emitting photon energy means of 42 and 50 keV respectively, from a conventional 225 kV X-ray source. Viability assays performed after pre-exposure to 10 μM of IUdR for 48h suggest that complex lethal damage is generated after low energy photons irradiation compared to 137Cs irradiation (662KeV). To further decipher the molecular mechanisms leading to IUdR-mediated radiosensitization, we analyzed the content of DNA damage-induced foci in two glioblastoma cell lines and showed that the decrease in survival under these conditions was correlated with an increase in the content of DNA damage-induced foci in cell lines. Moreover, the follow-up of repair kinetics of the induced double-strand breaks showed the maximum delay in cells labeled with IUdR and exposed to X-ray irradiation. Thus, there appears to be a direct relationship between the reduction of radiation survival parameters and the production of DNA damage with impaired repair of these breaks. These results further support the clinical potential use of a halogenated pyrimidine analog combined with low-energy X-ray therapy.

  11. Enhancement of IUdR Radiosensitization by Low-Energy Photons Results from Increased and Persistent DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayart, Emilie; Pouzoulet, Frédéric; Calmels, Lucie; Dadoun, Jonathan; Allot, Fabien; Plagnard, Johann; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Bridier, André; Denozière, Marc; Bourhis, Jean; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy X-rays induce Auger cascades by photoelectric absorption in iodine present in the DNA of cells labeled with 5-iodo-2’-deoxyuridine (IUdR). This photoactivation therapy results in enhanced cellular sensitivity to radiation which reaches its maximum with 50 keV photons. Synchrotron core facilities are the only way to generate such monochromatic beams. However, these structures are not adapted for the routine treatment of patients. In this study, we generated two beams emitting photon energy means of 42 and 50 keV respectively, from a conventional 225 kV X-ray source. Viability assays performed after pre-exposure to 10 μM of IUdR for 48h suggest that complex lethal damage is generated after low energy photons irradiation compared to 137Cs irradiation (662KeV). To further decipher the molecular mechanisms leading to IUdR-mediated radiosensitization, we analyzed the content of DNA damage-induced foci in two glioblastoma cell lines and showed that the decrease in survival under these conditions was correlated with an increase in the content of DNA damage-induced foci in cell lines. Moreover, the follow-up of repair kinetics of the induced double-strand breaks showed the maximum delay in cells labeled with IUdR and exposed to X-ray irradiation. Thus, there appears to be a direct relationship between the reduction of radiation survival parameters and the production of DNA damage with impaired repair of these breaks. These results further support the clinical potential use of a halogenated pyrimidine analog combined with low-energy X-ray therapy. PMID:28045991

  12. Human-centered sensor-based Bayesian control: Increased energy efficiency and user satisfaction in commercial lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granderson, Jessica Ann

    2007-12-01

    The need for sustainable, efficient energy systems is the motivation that drove this research, which targeted the design of an intelligent commercial lighting system. Lighting in commercial buildings consumes approximately 13% of all the electricity generated in the US. Advanced lighting controls1 intended for use in commercial office spaces have proven to save up to 45% in electricity consumption. However, they currently comprise only a fraction of the market share, resulting in a missed opportunity to conserve energy. The research goals driving this dissertation relate directly to barriers hindering widespread adoption---increase user satisfaction, and provide increased energy savings through more sophisticated control. To satisfy these goals an influence diagram was developed to perform daylighting actuation. This algorithm was designed to balance the potentially conflicting lighting preferences of building occupants, with the efficiency desires of building facilities management. A supervisory control policy was designed to implement load shedding under a demand response tariff. Such tariffs offer incentives for customers to reduce their consumption during periods of peak demand, trough price reductions. In developing the value function occupant user testing was conducted to determine that computer and paper tasks require different illuminance levels, and that user preferences are sufficiently consistent to attain statistical significance. Approximately ten facilities managers were also interviewed and surveyed to isolate their lighting preferences with respect to measures of lighting quality and energy savings. Results from both simulation and physical implementation and user testing indicate that the intelligent controller can increase occupant satisfaction, efficiency, cost savings, and management satisfaction, with respect to existing commercial daylighting systems. Several important contributions were realized by satisfying the research goals. A general

  13. Francois Loos is presenting the 2005 energy accounting: the energy consumption stayed stable and the energy efficiency increased; Francois Loos presente le bilan energetique 2005: la consommation d'energie est restee stable et l'efficacite energetique a progresse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The major characteristics of the 2005 situation are: the whole primary energy consumption arises 276,5 Mtoe; the french energy intensity decreases of 1,6 %; the fossil fuels prices increase leads to the consumption decrease in the transportation sector; the energy independence is under 50%; the wind power expansion; the energy bill increase and the carbon dioxide emissions little increase. (A.L.B.)

  14. Problem-oriented system solutions in the use of alternative energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E.

    1982-01-01

    The share of alternative energies in the energy supply of the earth that is solar-, wind- and bio-energy will rise to about 20% within the next 50 years. Use of alternative energy on a large basis will, however, not take place in central power stations but in decentralised plants within the KW- and lower MW-range. Utilization of alternative energies demands individual solution for individual problems depending on the site and consumer-demands, and at this point they differ from conventional energy technology.

  15. Determinants of the risk of dying of HIV/AIDS in a rural South African community over the period of the decentralised roll-out of antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has significantly reduced HIV mortality in South Africa. The benefits have not been experienced by all groups. Here we investigate the factors associated with these inequities. Design: This study was located in a rural South African setting and used data collected from 2007 to 2010, the period when decentralised ART became available. Approximately one-third of the population were of Mozambican origin. There was a pattern of repeated circular migration between urban areas and this community. Survival analysis models were developed to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and spatial risk factors for HIV mortality. Results: Among the study population of 105,149 individuals, there were 2,890 deaths. The HIV/TB mortality rate decreased by 27% between 2007–2008 and 2009–2010. For other causes of death, the reduction was 10%. Bivariate analysis found that the HIV/TB mortality risk was lower for: those living within 5 km of the Bhubezi Community Health Centre; women; young adults; in-migrants with a longer period of residence; permanent residents; and members of households owning motorised transport, holding higher socioeconomic positions, and with higher levels of education. Multivariate modelling showed, in addition, that those with South Africa as their country of origin had an increased risk of HIV/TB mortality compared to those with Mozambican origins. For males, those of South African origin, and recent in-migrants, the risk of death associated with HIV/TB was significantly greater than that due to other causes. Conclusions: In this community, a combination of factors was associated with an increased risk of dying of HIV/TB over the period of the roll-out of ART. There is evidence for the presence of barriers to successful treatment for particular sub-groups in the population, which must be addressed if the recent improvements in population-level mortality are to be maintained.

  16. Synergies between renewable energy and fresh water production. Scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, F.; Noothout, P.; Schaap, A. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The IEA Implementing Agreement for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) investigated the opportunities for coupling renewable energy systems with fresh water supply systems. The four main conclusions of the scoping study, carried out by Ecofys, are: (1) Fresh water production based on desalination technologies provide most options for synergies with renewable energy production; (2) Linking desalination to renewable sources is currently not economically viable; (3) There is a large potential for small scale (decentralised) desalination plants; (4) Current commercially-sized desalination technologies are in need of a constant operation point. Reverse osmosis and thermal membrane technologies might give future synergies as deferrable load.

  17. Acute partial sleep deprivation due to environmental noise increases weight gain by reducing energy expenditure in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Jennifer B; Teske, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Chronic partial sleep deprivation (SD) by environmental noise exposure increases weight gain and feeding in rodents, which contrasts weight loss after acute SD by physical methods. This study tested whether acute environmental noise exposure reduced sleep and its effect on weight gain, food intake, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE). It was hypothesized that acute exposure would (1) increase weight gain and feeding and (2) reduce sleep, physical activity, and EE (total and individual components); and (3) behavioral changes would persist throughout recovery from SD. Three-month old male Sprague-Dawley rats slept ad libitum, were noise exposed (12-h light cycle), and allowed to recover (36 h). Weight gain, food intake, sleep/wake, physical activity, and EE were measured. Acute environmental noise exposure had no effect on feeding, increased weight gain (P sleep (P sleep, rest, and physical activity reduce total EE and contribute to weight gain during acute SD and recovery from SD. These data emphasize the importance of increasing physical activity after SD to prevent obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Decentralisation in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropix

    of accountability, transparency, efficiency in governance and service delivery, ... 7 According to the 2011 corruption perception report produced by a global ..... and the village council are merely administrative unit councils without corporate.

  19. Increased susceptibility to the innovative energy-saving technologies in the oil and fat industry by improving regulatory and institutional framework

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Dyuzhev; Popov, N A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to increase the susceptibility to innovative energy saving technologies in oil and fat industry basing on the formation of organizational and economic section of the regulatory framework of energy efficiency programs. The results of the analysis. Angle susceptibility innovative energy conservation program in the oilseed industry is analyzed in this article. Stages of formation of the organizational and economic section sectoral energy savin...

  20. Process for increased biogas production and energy efficient hygienisation of sludge; Process foer oekad biogasproduktion och energieffektiv hygienisering av slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogstrand, Gustav; Olsson, Henrik; Andersson Chan, Anneli; Johansson, Niklas; Edstroem, Mats

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden there is a need to increase biogas production to meet the rising demand for biomethane as vehicle fuel but the amount of domestically available biomass to digest is limited. One way to help meet current and future demand for methane is to enhance the digestion of the substrates that are currently utilized. Vaexjoe municipality in southern Sweden is in the process of upgrading their facilities for biogas production at the Sundet waste water treatment plant. Their aim is to produce more biogas in order to meet the demand from an increasing methane-based local transit fleet. This is the backdrop to a joint project between JTI and Vaexjoe municipality where JTI's mobile pilot plant was used to study the possibility of extracting more biogas from the existing sewage sludge. In the future, Vaexjoe municipality also plans to co-digest source separated municipal organics with the sewage sludge, which will likely result in stricter demands in terms of hygienization of all utilized substrates. The goal of the project at hand was to demonstrate the possibility to produce more than enough additional biogas from existing sewage sludge to yield a net energy profit even with the added energy demand of ensuring the hygienic quality of the digestate through conventional pasteurization. Although the project was focused on the conditions at Sundet waste water treatment plant, the issues dealt with are general and the results are relevant to many waste water treatment plants in Sweden. The research, conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 were divided into two trials. The two trials, described schematically in Figure 1, represented two possible process configurations designed to reach the goal stated above. The key component of both process configurations is the addition of a post-digestion step to the existing single-step digestion process. In trial 1 the additional feature of dewatering between the two digestion steps served to reduce energy demand for

  1. Postprandial Increase in Energy Expenditure Correlates with Body Weight Reduction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Receiving Diet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoyama, Daisuke; Nagao, Mototsugu; Asai, Akira; Nakamura, Yuko; Sato, Kazumi; Nakajima, Yasushi; Oikawa, Shinichi; Sugihara, Hitoshi

    2017-04-03

    The clinical significance of energy expenditure (EE) in the treatment of type 2 diabetes has not been fully elucidated. Here we analyzed the relationships between EE and clinical measurements in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving diet therapy. A total of 100 patients (34 women and 66 men) with type 2 diabetes admitted to our hospital for glycemic control were enrolled. The participants received an energy-restricted diet during their hospitalization (median, 15 days). EE was measured in the fasted (FEE) and postprandial (PPEE) states using indirect calorimetry. The postprandial increment of EE (ΔEE) was calculated from the FEE and PPEE (ΔEE=PPEE-FEE). FEE, PPEE, and ΔEE were 0.997±0.203, 1.104±0.213, and 0.107±0.134 kcal/min, respectively. Body weight decreased from 68.7±16.6 to 66.8±16.0 kg (p<0.0001) during hospitalization. FEE and PPEE showed positive correlations with height, body weight, body mass index, and abdominal circumference at admission, but ΔEE was not correlated with these anthropometric measurements. On the other hand, ΔEE was inversely correlated with the body weight change. The association between ΔEE and the body weight change was independent of age, sex, and HbA1c. Postprandial increase in energy expenditure may be a determinant of individual differences in weight reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes on diet therapy. As a simple surrogate for diet-induced thermogenesis, ΔEE may serve as a useful predictive marker for the efficacy of diet therapy.

  2. Off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower plant to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Inês; Gueifão, Carlos; Ferreira de Jesus, J.

    2017-04-01

    In order to reduce the high dependence on imported fuels and to meet the ongoing growth of electricity demand, Cape Verde government set the goal to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island until 2020. To help maximize renewable energy penetration, an off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plant will be installed in Santiago, in one of the following locations: Chã Gonçalves, Mato Sancho and Ribeira dos Picos. This paper summarizes the studies carried out to find the optimal location and connection point of the PSH plant in Santiago’s electricity network. This goal was achieved by assessing the impact of the PSH plant, in each location, on power system stability. The simulation tool PSS/E of Siemens was used to study the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the future (2020) Santiago MV grid. Different scenarios of demand and renewable resources were created. Each hydro unit of the PSH plant was modeled as an adjustable speed reversible turbine employing a DFIM. The results show that Santiago’s grid with the PSH plant in Chã Gonçalves is the one that has the best performance.

  3. Procedure to determine module distribution within a solar array to increase the net energy collection in a solar competition vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás.; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    In solar vehicle competition, the available space for installation of the solar panel in the car is limited. In order to optimize space, it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows, even if they cause reduction of efficiency in the overall photoelectric generation. Shadow patterns arise from the relative position of the sun to the earth, and the relative position of the vehicle towards both of them. Since vehicle, earth and sun are moving in semi-predictable patterns, computer simulations can cross and match data from such sources to forecast generation behavior. The outputs of such simulations are shadow patterns on the surface of the vehicle, indicating locations that are suitable or unsuitable to install solar cells. This paper will show the design procedure of the solar panel for a Challenger Class solar vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013, intended to increase the net energy collection. The results obtained, illustrate how the employment of a computational tool can help in the acquisition of both qualitative and quantitative information, related to shadows position and their impact on energy collection. With data inputs such as vehicle geometry and its relative position towards the route, the tool was used to evaluate different possible configurations of solar panel module distribution and select the ones that are more convenient to the given scenario. Therefore, this analysis allows improving the solar panel design by considering important variables that were often overlooked.

  4. Acyl CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5 ablation in mice increases energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity and delays fat absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Bowman

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: In summary, ACSL5−/− mice have increased hepatic and serum FGF21 levels, reduced adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, increased energy expenditure and delayed triglyceride absorption. These studies suggest that ACSL5 is an important regulator of whole-body energy metabolism and ablation of ACSL5 may antagonize the development of obesity and insulin resistance.

  5. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  6. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity; Ydinvoimahankkeiden periaatepaeaetoekseen liittyvaet energia- ja kansantaloudelliset selvitykset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstrom, J.; Pursiheimo, E.; Kekkonen, V.; Honkatukia, J.

    2010-04-15

    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  7. Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, James E; Graham, James L; Morton, Gregory J; Bales, Karen L; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G; Havel, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Despite compelling evidence that oxytocin (OT) is effective in reducing body weight (BW) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, studies of the effects of OT in humans and rhesus monkeys have primarily focused on noningestive behaviors. The goal of this study was to translate findings in DIO rodents to a preclinical translational model of DIO. We tested the hypothesis that increased OT signaling would reduce BW in DIO rhesus monkeys by inhibiting food intake and increasing energy expenditure (EE). Male DIO rhesus monkeys from the California National Primate Research Center were adapted to a 12-h fast and maintained on chow and a daily 15% fructose-sweetened beverage. Monkeys received 2× daily subcutaneous vehicle injections over 1 wk. We subsequently identified doses of OT (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) that reduced food intake and BW in the absence of nausea or diarrhea. Chronic administration of OT for 4 wk (0.2 mg/kg for 2 wk; 0.4 mg/kg for 2 wk) reduced BW relative to vehicle by 3.3 ± 0.4% (≈0.6 kg; P intake by 26 ± 7% (P intake by 27 ± 5% (P intake by 18 ± 8% (P food intake as well as increased EE and lipolysis.

  8. Effects of diets with increasing levels of citrus pulp on the blood parameters linked to energy metabolism in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Lima Menezes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of alternative energy ingredients for horses has increased because these foods contain "superfibers", making safer diet for these animals. To study the influence of diets containing increasing levels of citrus pulp on albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin and short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations in the blood, five animals were used, with an average age of 3.5 years and a live weight of 460.66±76.86 kg, they were fed twice a day, at 7:00 am and 4:00 pm. The diets were formulated to meet the requirements of the animals at maintenance. 60% of the energy was obtained from forage, and 40% from concentrate, containing the following inclusion levels of citrus pulp (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28%. The area under the curve (AUC and the glucose and insulin peaks were calculated, and no differences were observed between the treatments. There was no effect of diet on the blood concentrations of the evaluated parameters tested, and there was no effect of the time of collection on the following variables: SCFAs, cholesterol, triglycerides and albumin. However, the diet did have quadratic effect on the glucose (Ŷ =-0.5327X²+4.2130X+84.5276 and insulin (Ŷ=-0.1002X² +0.8233X + 1.6336 concentrations. Up to 28% of the concentrate can be composed of citrus pulp in horse diets without causing any alterations on the concentrations of the parameters analyzed in the blood. High-fiber diets with easily fermentable fibers are beneficial because they maintain the glucose and insulin curves close to the baseline levels.

  9. Assessing the impact of transitions from centralised to decentralised water solutions on existing infrastructures--integrated city-scale analysis with VIBe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-12-15

    Traditional urban water management relies on central organised infrastructure, the most important being the drainage network and the water distribution network. To meet upcoming challenges such as climate change, the rapid growth and shrinking of cities and water scarcity, water infrastructure needs to be more flexible, adaptable and sustainable (e.g., sustainable urban drainage systems, SUDS; water sensitive urban design, WSUD; low impact development, LID; best management practice, BMP). The common feature of all solutions is the push from a central solution to a decentralised solution in urban water management. This approach opens up a variety of technical and socio-economic issues, but until now, a comprehensive assessment of the impact has not been made. This absence is most likely attributable to the lack of case studies, and the availability of adequate models is usually limited because of the time- and cost-intensive preparation phase. Thus, the results of the analysis are based on a few cases and can hardly be transferred to other boundary conditions. VIBe (Virtual Infrastructure Benchmarking) is a tool for the stochastic generation of urban water systems at the city scale for case study research. With the generated data sets, an integrated city-scale analysis can be performed. With this approach, we are able to draw conclusions regarding the technical effect of the transition from existing central to decentralised urban water systems. In addition, it is shown how virtual data sets can assist with the model building process. A simple model to predict the shear stress performance due to changes in dry weather flow production is developed and tested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of fortified food for a public supplementary nutrition program: performance and viability of a decentralised production model for the Integrated Child Development Services Program, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antier, Clémentine; Kumar, Salil; Bhagwat, Sadhana; Sankar, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Child Development Services in India through its supplementary nutrition programme covers over 100 million children, pregnant and lactating women across the country. Providing a hot cooked meal each day to children aged between 3-6 years and a take-home ration to children aged between 6-36 months, pregnant and lactating women, the Integrated Child Development Services faces a monumental task to deliver this component of services of desired quality and regularity at scale. From intermediaries or contractors who acted as agents for procuring and distributing food to procurement directly from large food manufacturers to using women groups as food producers, different State Governments have adopted a variety of strategies to procure and distribute food, especially the take-home ration. India's Supreme Court, through its directive of 2004, encouraged the Government to engage women's groups for the production of the supplementary food. This study was conducted to determine the operational performance, economic sustainability and social impact of a decentralised production model for India's Supplementary Nutrition Program, in which women groups run smallscale industrialised units. Data were collected through observation, interviews and group discussions with key stakeholders. Operational performance was analysed through standard performance indicators that measured consistency in production, compliance with quality standards and distribution regularity. Assessment of the economic viability included cost structure analysis, five-year projections, and financial ratios. Social impact was assessed using a qualitative approach. The pilot unit has demonstrated its operational performance and cost-efficiency. More data is needed to evaluate the scalability and sustainability of this decentralised model.

  11. Cinnamomum cassia Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice through the Increase of Muscle Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi Young; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, Anna; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Yong-Ki; Jung, Hyo Won

    2017-01-01

    The cortex of Cinnamomum cassia Presl (Cinnamomi Cortex: CC) has commonly been used for weight control in traditional medicines, but without a scientific basis. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the anti-obesity effect of CC extract in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model and in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet or a HFD for 16 consecutive weeks, and orally administered CC extract (100 or 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg) or metformin (250[Formula: see text]mg/kg; positive control) daily for 16 weeks. CC extract administration significantly decreased body weights, food intakes, and serum levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and ALT levels, prevented oral glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, inhibited the protein expressions of MyHC and PGC1[Formula: see text] and the phosphorylation of AMPK, suppressed lipid accumulation in liver, decreased adipocyte size and increased muscle mass in obese mice. For this in vitro study, C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into the myotubes for five days, and then treated with CC extract (0.1 or 0.2[Formula: see text]mg/ml) for 24[Formula: see text]h. CC extract significantly increased ATP levels by increasing the mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors, such as, PGC1[Formula: see text], NRF-1, and Tfam, and the phosphorylations of AMPK and ACC. Our results suggest CC extract controls weight gain in obese mice by inhibiting lipid accumulation and increasing energy expenditure, and that its action mechanism involves the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells.

  12. Knockout of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons decreases fat mass via increasing energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuzhong; Xia, Tingting; Yu, Junjie; Deng, Yalan; Liu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous functions of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) have been identified, a role of IRE1α in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is largely unknown. Here, we showed that mice lacking IRE1α specifically in POMC neurons (PIKO) are lean and resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance, liver steatosis and leptin resistance. Furthermore, PIKO mice had higher energy expenditure, probably due to increased thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. Additionally, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone production was increased in the hypothalamus of PIKO mice. These results demonstrate that IRE1α in POMC neurons plays a critical role in the regulation of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Our results also suggest that IRE1α is not only an endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, but also a new potential therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. PMID:27558934

  13. THE INCREASE OF NORTHEAST ASIAN REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION AND ITS IMPACT ON REGIONAL INTEGRATION INDEX: FOCUS ON THE PETROLEUM SECTOR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sang-Hee Jeong; Ki-Sik Hwang; Hyun-Jung Kim

    2009-01-01

    ... stages of cooperation if energy security cooperation occurs in Northeast Asia. It analyzes the fluctuations in the regional integration index during the progress of the early stages of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia...

  14. Industry Stakeholder Recommendations for DOE's RD&D for Increasing Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plympton, P.; Dagher, L.; Zwack, B.

    2007-06-01

    This technical report documents feedback for Industry Stakeholders on the direction of future U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development in the area of improving energy efficiency in existing residential buildings.

  15. ICSC – Policy for energy saving and increase of efficiency in Russia in the spheres of construction, housing and community amenities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyarinov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s GDP energy intensity today is approximately 2.5–3.5 times higher than that of economically developed countries. To increase its economic competitive ability, Russia needs to achieve energy efficiency in different spheres, including construction, housing and community amenities. Close examination of implemented management measures and world experience revealed that in order to achieve a further energy efficiency increase Russia needs to boost economic interest of the participants concerned and to form effective mechanisms of economic management, and this should be done along with improvement of administrative governance. The paper focuses on the barriers that hamper economic motivation and provides recommendations for energy efficiency increase. Even partial implementation of suggested measures, in our opinion, will increase energy efficiency in the spheres of construction and housing accommodation, which is illustrated through the example of a residential building located in Yekaterinburg (Russia, Middle Urals.

  16. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  17. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  18. Preexercise energy drink consumption does not improve endurance cycling performance but increases lactate, monocyte, and interleukin-6 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Melody D; Rola, Kelyn S; Christensen, Kenneth V; Ross, Jacob W; Mitchell, Joel B

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an energy drink (ED) on cycling performance and immune-related variables. Eleven trained male cyclists (33.4 ± 8.9 years; 81 ± 7.6 kg; maximal VO2, 52 ± 3.4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) consumed 500 ml of (a) ED (2.0 g taurine, 1.2 g glucuronolactone, 160 mg caffeine, 56 g carbohydrate [CHO], and B vitamins), (b) cola matched for caffeine and CHO (CC), or (c) flavored placebo (PL: sparking water and flavoring) 50 minutes before racing in a randomized, crossover design. Performance was measured as time to complete (TTC) a 25-mile simulated road race. Blood was collected at baseline, 30 minutes after drink consumption, during exercise at miles 5 (M5), 15 (M15), and immediately (POEX) and 30 minutes (30minPO) after exercise. TTC was not different (p > 0.05) among trials (ED, 68.6 ± 2.7; CC, 68.9 ± 3.8; PL, 69.6 ± 3.8 minutes). Consumption of CC and ED elicited a mild hypoglycemia elicited a mild hypoglycemia during cycling. POEX interleukin-6 (IL-6) was greatest after ED, whereas CC IL-6 was greater than PL (10.2 ± 1.6, 6.7 ± 0.6, and 4.8 ± 0.7 pg·ml(-1), respectively; p Cycling increased leukocyte number in all conditions with ED leukocyte number greater than that of PL at M15 (9.8 ± 0.6, 8.5 ± 0.3 × 10(6) cells·mL(-1)). Energy drink induced an earlier recruitment of monocytes to the blood stream than CC. Mean fat oxidation was greater in PL compared with CC (0.43 ± 0.06 and 0.28 ± 0.04 g·min(-1); p = 0.033) but did not differ between ED (0.32 ± 0.06) and PL. Lactate was higher in ED compared with CC and PL at M5 and M15 (p = 0.003), but there was no significant influence of either ED or CC on performance. Carbohydrate and caffeine consumption before endurance cycling significantly increased the IL-6 release and leukocytosis, and the additional ingredients in ED seem to have further augmented these responses.

  19. Peltier- and energy saving refrigerating devices increase efficiency and lower energy consumption; Peltier- und Energiespar-Kuehlgeraete steigern Wirkungsgrad und senken Energieverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maage, M. [Rittal GmbH und Co. KG, Herborn (Germany)

    2008-08-25

    Energy efficiency is a central future theme for industrial production processes as in the IT-infrastructures. In the sector of systems climatization distinct energy saving can be achieved. Advanced air conditioning and software tools and the know-how of competent manufacturers are presented in this contribution. Presented are in special Peltier components being used as heat pump and generator. (GL)

  20. Electrodeposition of Ag nanoparticles on conductive polyaniline/cellulose aerogels with increased synergistic effect for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Peng, Dengfeng; Wu, Xia; Li, Wei; Deng, Hongbing; Liu, Shilin

    2017-01-20

    In many revolutions of the cellulose based conductive materials, the most significant one was the developed material could be either directly used as a working electrode or used as the underlying substrate for the electrochemical deposition metal electrodes. In this work, an in situ polymerization of aniline monomer onto the porous structured cellulose scaffolds has been carried out, and then electrodeposition of Ag nanoparticles on the obtained conductive composites directly by using it as electrode. The Ag nanoparticles were deposited homogeneously on the matrix of polyaniline (PANI)/cellulose gels. The conductivity of PANI/cellulose nanocomposite gels containing Ag nanoparticles was increased to 0.94 SCm(-1), which was higher than that of pure PANI/cellulose composites (3.45×10(-2)SCm(-1)). Furthermore, it could be used as electrode for the supercapacitors, and the highest specific capacitance of the cellulose/PANI/Ag aerogels was 217Fg(-1). This approach offered a facile method for improving the electronic conductivity of native polymer nanohybrids, and suggested a new strategy for fabricating nanostructured polymer nanohybrids for application in energy storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of a marketing program designed to increase consumer consideration of energy-efficient products in Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    A demonstration marketing program to sensitize Denver homeowners to incorporate the energy cost of ownership orientation in their decision process regarding purchase of energy-efficient products is described. Personal interviews with Denver homeowners were conducted. A first survey established a baseline for consumer awareness and acceptance of energy conservation and conservation-related products and provided information which could be utilized in developing marketing strategies related to energy conservation and the concept of energy cost of ownership. A second survey measured shifts in awareness and attitudes which might have occurred as a result of the marketing demonstration program. The methodology and results of the evaluation are discussed in detail. The Denver Test Market Media Campaign conducted through multi-media advertising and public relations campaigns to sensitize the residents to the positive consideraton of energy-efficient products is described. (MCW)

  2. Evaluation of a marketing program designed to increase consumer consideration of energy-efficient products in Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    A demonstration marketing program to sensitize Denver homeowners to incorporate the energy cost of ownership orientation in their decision process regarding purchase of energy-efficient products is described. Personal interviews with Denver homeowners were conducted. A first survey established a baseline for consumer awareness and acceptance of energy conservation and conservation-related products and provided information which could be utilized in developing marketing strategies related to energy conservation and the concept of energy cost of ownership. A second survey measured shifts in awareness and attitudes which might have occurred as a result of the marketing demonstration program. The methodology and results of the evaluation are discussed in detail. The Denver Test Market Media Campaign conducted through multi-media advertising and public relations campaigns to sensitize the residents to the positive consideraton of energy-efficient products is described. (MCW)

  3. Increasing the reliability of power semiconductors using DAB-substrates; Steigerung der Zuverlaessigkeit von Leistungshalbleitern durch Verwendung von DAB-Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieger, F.; Lindemann, A. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany); Boettge, B.; Klengel, S.; Petzold, M. [Fraunhofer IWM, Halle an der Saale (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Besides power electronic loads, power electronic sources for decentralised generation have established in the grid. In the smart grid, the use of power electronics will even increase because of the introduction of more HVDC transmission lines and the necessity to control power flows. This paper deals with direct aluminium bonded (DAB) substrates which can serve as carriers of power electronic components with further increased reliability as desirable for long-term usage in the smart grid. (orig.)

  4. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta;

    2013-01-01

    Background:Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high...... at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect...

  5. Analyzing the Impact of Increasing Mechanical Index and Energy Deposition on Shear Wave Speed Reconstruction in Human Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yufeng; Palmeri, Mark L; Rouze, Ned C; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2015-07-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) has found success in liver fibrosis staging. This work evaluates hepatic SWEI measurement success as a function of push pulse energy using two mechanical index (MI) values (1.6 and 2.2) over a range of pulse durations. Shear wave speed (SWS) was measured in the livers of 26 study subjects with known or potential chronic liver diseases. Each measurement consisted of eight SWEI sequences, each with different push energy configurations. The rate of successful SWS estimation was linearly proportional to the push energy. SWEI measurements with higher push energy were successful in patients for whom standard push energy levels failed. The findings also suggest that liver capsule depth could be used prospectively to identify patients who would benefit from elevated output. We conclude that there is clinical benefit to using elevated acoustic output for hepatic SWS measurement in patients with deeper livers.

  6. Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Jun; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Hatano, Takuya; Aita, Sayuri; Ikemoto, Takeshi; Uchiwa, Hideyo; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Kawai, Yuko; Saito, Masayuki

    2013-08-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis, and thereby contributes to the control of whole-body energy expenditure (EE) and body fat content. BAT activity can be assessed by fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in human subjects. Grains of paradise (GP, Aframomum melegueta), a species of the ginger family, contain pungent, aromatic ketones such as 6-paradol, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol. An alcohol extract of GP seeds and 6-paradol are known to activate BAT thermogenesis in small rodents. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the GP extract on whole-body EE and to analyse its relation to BAT activity in men. A total of nineteen healthy male volunteers aged 20-32 years underwent FDG-PET after 2 h of exposure to cold at 19°C with light clothing. A total of twelve subjects showed marked FDG uptake into the adipose tissue of the supraclavicular and paraspinal regions (BAT positive). The remaining seven showed no detectable uptake (BAT negative). Within 4 weeks after the FDG-PET examination, whole-body EE was measured at 27°C before and after oral ingestion of GP extract (40 mg) in a single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The resting EE of the BAT-positive group did not differ from that of the BAT-negative group. After GP extract ingestion, the EE of the BAT-positive group increased within 2 h to a significantly greater (Pwhole-body EE through the activation of BAT in human subjects.

  7. Automation solutions for increased energy efficiency in both existing thermo processing plants; Automatisierungsloesungen fuer mehr Energieeffizienz in vorhandenen Thermoprozess-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, Peter [Heitec AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    By 2020, the emission of the climate-damaging greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} is to be reduced by 20 % as required by the Government of the European Union. Within the same time frame, 20 % of EU energy consumption is to come from renewable resources as well as a 20 % reduction in primary energy use is to be achieved through improved energy efficiency. Environmental protection and the increase of energy efficiency are challenges we must collectively face. These tasks can only be accomplished by adopting innovative and intelligent, wholistic industrial systems solutions. The rise of energy efficiency is today, and increasingly in the future, an integral part of the business success of any firm. (orig.)

  8. Slowing of electrical activity in ventricular fibrillation is not associated with increased defibrillation energies in the isolated rabbit heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane eCaldwell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF arrests are associated with reduced ECG dominant frequency (DF and diminished defibrillation success. Partial reversal of ischaemia increases ECG DF and improves defibrillation outcome. We have investigated the metabolic components of ischaemia responsible for the decline in ECG DF and defibrillation success.Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were loaded with the voltage-sensitive dye RH237. Using a photodiode array, epicardial membrane potentials were recorded at 252 sites (15x15mm on the anterior surface of the left & right ventricles. Simultaneously, a global ECG was recorded. VF was induced by burst pacing, and after 60s, perfusion was either reduced to 6ml/min or the perfusate composition changed to impose hypoxia (95%N2/5%CO2, pH 6.7 (80%O2/20%CO2, or hyperkalaemia (8mM. Using Fast Fourier Transform, power spectra were created from the optical signals and the global ECG. The optical power spectra were summated to give a global power spectrum (pseudoECG. At 600s the minimum defibrillation voltage (MDV was determined by step-up protocol.During VF, the ECG and pseudoECG DF were reduced by low-flow ischaemia (9.0±1.0Hz, p<0.01, n=5 and raised [K+]o (12.2±1.3 Hz, p<0.05, n=7 compared to control (19.2±1.5 Hz, n=20, but were unaffected by acidic pHo (16.7±1.1 Hz, n=11 and hypoxia (14.0±1.2 Hz, n=10. In contrast, the MDV was raised by acidic pH (156.1±26.4V, p<0.001 and hypoxia (154.1±22.1V, p<0.01 compared to control (65.6±2.3V, but comparable changes were not observed in low-flow ischaemia (61.0±0.5V or raised [K+]o (56±3V. In summary, different metabolites are responsible for the reduction in DF and the increase in defibrillation energy during ischaemic VF.

  9. A spatially explicit whole-system model of the lignocellulosic bioethanol supply chain: an assessment of decentralised processing potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Nilay

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignocellulosic bioethanol technologies exhibit significant capacity for performance improvement across the supply chain through the development of high-yielding energy crops, integrated pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation technologies and the application of dedicated ethanol pipelines. The impact of such developments on cost-optimal plant location, scale and process composition within multiple plant infrastructures is poorly understood. A combined production and logistics model has been developed to investigate cost-optimal system configurations for a range of technological, system scale, biomass supply and ethanol demand distribution scenarios specific to European agricultural land and population densities. Results Ethanol production costs for current technologies decrease significantly from $0.71 to $0.58 per litre with increasing economies of scale, up to a maximum single-plant capacity of 550 × 106 l year-1. The development of high-yielding energy crops and consolidated bio-processing realises significant cost reductions, with production costs ranging from $0.33 to $0.36 per litre. Increased feedstock yields result in systems of eight fully integrated plants operating within a 500 × 500 km2 region, each producing between 1.24 and 2.38 × 109 l year-1 of pure ethanol. A limited potential for distributed processing and centralised purification systems is identified, requiring developments in modular, ambient pretreatment and fermentation technologies and the pipeline transport of pure ethanol. Conclusion The conceptual and mathematical modelling framework developed provides a valuable tool for the assessment and optimisation of the lignocellulosic bioethanol supply chain. In particular, it can provide insight into the optimal configuration of multiple plant systems. This information is invaluable in ensuring (near-cost-optimal strategic development within the sector at the regional and national scale. The framework

  10. Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...meet an emerging national crisis (war), emergency (natural disaster), or major impact event (Y2K). Certain resources are generally critical to the

  11. 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply; Executive Summary (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-01

    This document is a 21-page summary of the 200+ page analysis that explores one clearly defined scenario for providing 20% of our nation's electricity demand with wind energy by 2030 and contrasts it to a scenario of no new U.S. wind power capacity.

  12. Risoe energy report 4: The future energy system - distributed production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L.

    2005-10-01

    The world is facing major challenges in providing energy services to meet the future needs of the developed world and the growing needs of developing countries. These challenges are exacerbated by the need to provide energy services with due respect to economic growth, sustainability and security of supply. Today, the world's energy system is based mainly on oil, gas and coal, which together supply around 80% of our primary energy. Only around 0.5% of primary energy comes from renewable sources such as wind, solar and geothermal. Despite the rapid development of new energy technologies, the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for several decades to come - and global primary energy demand is forecasted to grow by 60% between 2002 and 2030. The expected post Kyoto targets call for significant CO{sub 2} reductions, increasing the demand to decouple the energy and transport systems from fossil fuels. There is a strong need for closer links between electricity, heat and other energy carriers, including links to the transport sector. On a national scale Denmark has three main characteristics. Firstly, it has a diverse and distributed energy system based on the power grid, the district heating grid and the natural gas grid. Secondly, renewable energy, especially wind power, plays an increasingly important role in the Danish energy system. Thirdly, Denmark's geographical location allows it to act as a buffer between the energy systems of the European continent and the Nordic countries. Energy systems can be made more robust by decentralising both power generation and control. Distributed generation (DG) is characterised by a variety of energy production technologies integrated into the electricity supply system, and the ability of different segments of the grid to operate autonomously. The use of a more distributed power generation system would be an important element in the protection of the consumers against power interruptions and blackouts, whether

  13. Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Li, Shengli; Wu, Zhaohai; Cao, Zhijun

    2017-06-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL )/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NEL /kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NEL /kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Cash and in-kind transfers in poor rural communities in Mexico increase household fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient consumption but also lead to excess energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; de Cossío, Teresa González

    2010-03-01

    Conditional transfer programs are increasingly popular, but the impact on household nutrient consumption has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), a cash and in-kind transfer program, on the energy and nutrient consumption of poor rural households in Mexico. The program has been shown to reduce poverty. Beneficiary households received either a food basket (including micronutrient-fortified milk) or cash. A random sample of 206 rural communities in Southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a monthly food basket with or without health and nutrition education, a cash transfer with a cost to the government equivalent to the food basket (14 USD/mo) with education, or control. The impact after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in a panel of 5823 households using a double difference regression model with household fixed effects. PAL was associated with increases (P consumption of total energy (5-9%), energy from fruits and vegetables (24-28%), and energy from animal source foods (24-39%). It also affected iron, zinc, and vitamin A and C consumption (P consumption of energy and all nutrients was greater in the food basket group (P energy-deficient should be carefully redesigned to ensure that pulling poor families out of poverty leads to improved micronutrient intake but not to increased energy consumption.

  15. Evaluation of biomass combustion based energy systems by cumulative energy demand and energy yield coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.; Oser, M.

    2004-07-01

    This final report prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 32 presents a method for a comparison of different energy systems with respect to the overall energy yield during their life cycles. For this purpose, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) based on primary energy and the Energy Yield Factor (EYC) are introduced and determined for the following scenarios: Log wood, wood chips, and wood pellets for residential heating and - except for log wood - also for district heating. As an alternative to heat production, power production via combustion and use of the electricity for decentralised heat pumps is also looked at. The evaluation and comparison of both the EYC for all fuels and the EYC{sub N}R for the non-renewable part enables a ranking of energy systems without a subjective weighing of non-renewable and renewable fuels to be made. For a sustainable energy supply, it is proposed to implement renewable energy systems in future which achieve an energy yield EYC{sub N}R of at least greater than 2 but favourably greater than 5. The evaluation of the different scenarios presented is proposed as the future basis for the choice of the most efficient energy systems based on biomass combustion.

  16. SPECIFIC ALLOCATION FUND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY TO INCREASE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDONESIA (Mekanisme Dana Alokasi Khusus Efisiensi Energi dalam Mendukung Perbaikan Lingkungan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Related to the climate change and economic development of environmentally friendly (green economy issues, the President has committed to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG by 26% on their own sources (BAU, and up to 41% with international support in 2020 through Presidential Decree No. 61 in 2011 about the National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (RAN-GRK. In addition to regulating the sectors that are considered to be the largest contributor to GHG emissions, the regulation also establishes funding sources RAN-GRK either through the APBN, APBD, as well as a variety of other sources constituted under the legislation. The main research question are; Is specific allocation fund (DAK can be used to fund energy efficiency?; if so, what procedure should be done? and how monitoring and evaluating of the energy efficiency of the use of DAK ? To answer those questions, researcher using qualitative library research, cross sectional collection of data for intensive analysis, interviews to some leading experts in the field and a number of Focused Group Discussions were also conducted to construct the policy analysis. Based on the analysis of the mechanism of transfer to the regions in Indonesia, it is possible to enlarge of DAK field for energy efficiency by asking Line Minister to proposed mechanism and send to the Ministry of Finance. This can be addressed to support the achievement of environmental friendly activities and reduce the burden of state budget subsidies. Some of things that must be done is to propose the allocation of DAK EE into government programs and to develop a variety of specificized and technical indicators related. ABSTRAK Terkait dengan komitmen dalam mengatasi dampak perubahan iklim serta isu pengembangan ekonomi rendah karbon, Pemerintah telah mengesahkan Peraturan Presiden (Perpres Nomor 61 Tahun 2011 tentang rencana Aksi Nasional Penurunan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca Nasional (RAN-GRK tahun 2020

  17. Persistence of energy-dependent localization in the Anderson-Hubbard model with increasing system size and doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, P.; Wortis, R.

    2016-05-01

    Non-interacting systems with bounded disorder have been shown to exhibit sharp density of state peaks at the band edge which coincide with an energy range of abruptly suppressed localization. Recent work has shown that these features also occur in the presence of on-site interactions in ensembles of two-site Anderson-Hubbard systems at half filling. Here we demonstrate that this effect in interacting systems persists away from half filling, and moreover that energy regions with suppressed localization continue to appear in ensembles of larger systems despite a loss of sharp features in the density of states.

  18. Combining gait optimization with passive system to increase the energy efficiency of a humanoid robot walking movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ana I. [Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (Portugal); ALGORITMI,University of Minho (Portugal); Lima, José [Polytechnic Institute of Bragança (Portugal); INESC TEC (formerly INESC Porto) Porto (Portugal); Costa, Paulo [Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (Portugal); INESC TEC (formerly INESC Porto) Porto (Portugal)

    2015-03-10

    There are several approaches to create the Humanoid robot gait planning. This problem presents a large number of unknown parameters that should be found to make the humanoid robot to walk. Optimization in simulation models can be used to find the gait based on several criteria such as energy minimization, acceleration, step length among the others. The energy consumption can also be reduced with elastic elements coupled to each joint. The presented paper addresses an optimization method, the Stretched Simulated Annealing, that runs in an accurate and stable simulation model to find the optimal gait combined with elastic elements. Final results demonstrate that optimization is a valid gait planning technique.

  19. Hydraulic ram —a device lifting water without conventional energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaChi; HuYingde

    2003-01-01

    In the southern part of China, due to the rich rainfalls and favourably topographical landscape, there is abundant hydraulic energy resources contained in the countless small streams and rivers in the mountainous and semi-mountainous areas. Besides the small hydro power generation which transfers the potential energy to the electrical power, there is other technology available to utilise the potential energy directly for the water lifting in the irrigation and decentralised do-mestic water supply in the village level. This paper introduces the basic principle of the hydraulic ram op-eration and describes the applicable opportunities for the hydraulic ram.

  20. Increased Activity or Energy as a Primary Criterion for the Diagnosis of Bipolar Mania in DSM-5: Findings From the STEP-BD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Luckenbaugh, David A; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Henter, Ioline D; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha; Zarate, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    DSM-5 describes "a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy" as a primary criterion for mania. Thus, increased energy or activity is now considered a core symptom of manic and hypomanic episodes. Using data from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder study, the authors analyzed point prevalence data obtained at the initial visit to assess the diagnostic validity of this new DSM-5 criterion. The study hypothesis was that the DSM-5 criterion would alter the prevalence of mania and/or hypomania. The authors compared prevalence, clinical characteristics, validators, and outcome in patients meeting the DSM-5 criteria (i.e., DSM-IV criteria plus the DSM-5 criterion of increased activity or energy) and those who did not meet the new DSM-5 criterion (i.e., who only met DSM-IV criteria). All 4,360 participants met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder, and 310 met DSM-IV criteria for a manic or hypomanic episode. When the new DSM-5 criterion of increased activity or energy was added as a coprimary symptom, the prevalence of mania and hypomania was reduced. Although minor differences were noted in clinical and concurrent validators, no changes were observed in longitudinal outcomes. The findings confirm that including increased activity or energy as part of DSM-5 criterion A decreases the prevalence of manic and hypomanic episodes but does not affect longitudinal clinical outcomes.

  1. Short and Long-Term Perspectives: The Impact on Low-Income Consumers of Forecasted Energy Price Increases in 2008 and A Cap & Trade Carbon Policy in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short-term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2007-2008. The forecast indicates increases in costs for low-income consumers in the year ahead, particularly for those using fuel oil to heat their homes. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation's low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The report provides an update of bill estimates provided in a previous study, "The Impact Of Forecasted Energy Price Increases On Low-Income Consumers" (Eisenberg, 2005). The statistics are intended for use by policymakers in the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2008 fiscal year. In addition to providing expenditure forecasts for the year immediately ahead, this analysis uses a similar methodology to give policy makers some insight into one of the major policy debates that will impact low-income energy expenditures well into the middle decades of this century and beyond. There is now considerable discussion of employing a cap-and-trade mechanism to first limit and then reduce U.S. emissions of carbon into the atmosphere in order to combat the long-range threat of human-induced climate change. The Energy Information Administration has provided an analysis of projected energy prices in the years 2020 and 2030 for one such cap-and-trade carbon reduction proposal that, when integrated with the RECS 2001 database, provides estimates of how low-income households will be impacted over the long term by such a carbon reduction policy.

  2. Innovation-enabling policy and regime transformation towards increased energy efficiency: The case of the circulator pump industry in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    2015-01-01

    When new energy efficient products are struggling with their commercialisation and diffusion into widespread applications you would typically expect policy-makers and green lead-users to guide the way. This paper examines the case of the hot water circulator pump industry in Europe, where parts o...

  3. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  4. Chronic pyruvate supplementation increases exploratory activity and brain energy reserves in young and middle-aged mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Hennariikka; Leinonen, Henri; Puurula, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to b...

  5. Restoration and conversion to re-use of historic buildings incorporating increased energy efficiency: A case study - the Haybarn complex, Hilandar Monastery, Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Šekularac Jelena A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper approach to restoration of historic buildings is crucial for monumental heritage protection. The objective of the paper is to define a methodology for historic buildings restoration in order to increase energy efficiency and re-usability in accordance with modern standards. The main method used in the paper is the observation of historic buildings during their restoration and exploitation, analysis and evaluation of achieved results regarding energy efficiency and energy saving, through the examples of the buildings belonging to Hilandar Monastery, Mount Athos, in Greece. Mount Athos was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for its cultural and natural values. This case study discusses the abandoned and dilapidated historic buildings of the Haybarn Complex (Stable, Mulekeepers’ House and Haybarn, the achieved results regarding the restoration of these buildings, their energy efficiency and turning into the premises for occasional stays. The research results are recommendations for increasing energy efficiency while performing the restoration of historic buildings, so that these buildings could be re-used in a new way. The most significant contribution of the paper is the practical test of energy refurbishment of these historic buildings conducted using the principles and methods of energy efficiency, in compliance with conservation requirements and authenticity of historic buildings.

  6. Increase in the number of distributed power generation installations in electricity distribution grids - Main report; Zunahme der dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen in elektrischen Verteilnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Huenenberg (Switzerland); Hoeckel, M.; Luschinger, P. [Berner Fachhochschule (HTI Biel), Biel (Switzerland); Firtz, O.; Haederli, C.; Jaggy, E. [ABB Schweiz AG, Corporate Research, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This first part of a ten-part final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the main findings of a project that looked into potential problems relating to the Swiss electricity distribution grid with respect to the increasing number of distributed power generation facilities being put into service. The identification of special conditions for the grid's operation and future development that take increasing decentralised power production into account are discussed. The results of the project activities encompass the analysis and evaluation of various problem areas associated with planning and management of the grid during normal operation and periods of malfunction, as well as required modifications to safety systems and grid configurations. The analyses, based on simulation calculations on specific medium and low voltage grids, are discussed. The results of simulations are discussed that involved grids partly fed by already existing distributed power plants and, additionally, by a varying number of further distributed production units. In addition to an intensive evaluation of the normal grid status, considerations and analyses were carried out concerning isolated operation ('islanding') and transitions from one grid status to another. The findings obtained from these studies are discussed, including effects such as voltage-fluctuation caused by power flow, harmonics caused by inverters and grid resonance effects.

  7. Increased susceptibility to the innovative energy-saving technologies in the oil and fat industry by improving regulatory and institutional framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Dyuzhev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to increase the susceptibility to innovative energy saving technologies in oil and fat industry basing on the formation of organizational and economic section of the regulatory framework of energy efficiency programs. The results of the analysis. Angle susceptibility innovative energy conservation program in the oilseed industry is analyzed in this article. Stages of formation of the organizational and economic section sectoral energy saving program to improve the level of susceptibility to specific innovative energy-saving technologies are developed. Step 1. To conduct classification measures in the oil and fat industry by: structural and institutional facilities; types of energy savings; the level of expenses; typical beneficial effects. Step 2. Analysis of information flows from various sources on the problems of energy saving based on the use of energy-saving measures in terms of enterprise in oil and fat industries. Step 3. This step is based on the analysis and systematization of information flows (step 2, and in accordance with the classification criteria (stage 1 were isolated most current energy-saving areas, grouped by objects oil and fat industry, marked specificity processes, respectively, each object has their «targeted» energy efficiency measures. Received results of the group of energy-saving measures after the «address» information flow is an important element in the formation of secondary innovation susceptibility to energy conservation. Step 4. Forming a typical list of possible effects of energy-saving measures for implementation at different sites. Step 5. Combination of typical beneficial effects of specific measures will show the potential effects that are possible as a result of energy conservation on specific sites for specific fuel and energy resources, in particular the level of capital expenditures. It is necessary to improve the innovative capabilities of

  8. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy intake in Scandinavian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Schei, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    and according to stage of lactation; either DIM 1 to 100 (Early) or DIM 101 to 200 (Mid). All analyzed ration characteristics were calculated from NorFor principles or estimated from NorFor feed table values. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects model with trials as random effect. Residuals were......The objectives of this analysis were to develop empirical prediction models for milk yield based on cow characteristics and dry matter intake (DMI) or net energy intake (NEL) and to evaluate the effect of breed, parity, stage of lactation and the additional prediction value of using NEL estimates...... versus DMI estimates for incorporation in future economical optimization models of the energy level in dairy cow rations. Previous Danish response models are outdated due to higher yield capacity of cows and the use of the new Nordic feed evaluation system NorFor since 2011. A data set with 195 treatment...

  9. Increase of the Density, Temperature and Velocity of Plasma Jets driven by a Ring of High Energy Laser Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Wen; Liang, Edison P.; Fatenejad, Milad; Lamb, Donald Q.; Grosskopf, Michael; Park, Hye-Sook; Remington, Bruce; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic plasma outflows driven by multi-beam, high-energy lasers, such as Omega and NIF, have been and will be used as platforms for a variety of laboratory astrophysics experiments. Here we propose a new way of launching high density and high velocity, plasma jets using multiple intense laser beams in a hollow ring formation. We show that such jets provide a more flexible and versatile platform for future laboratory astrophysics experiments. Using high resolution hydrodynamic simulations,...

  10. Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Donnelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. OBJECTIVE: TO ADDRESS THE QUESTION: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-January 2013 for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies were included. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete adults (mean age 18-64 years. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. RESULTS: No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17, 69% of acute (n = 40, 50% of short-term (n = 10, 92% of non-randomized (n = 12 and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24. Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. LIMITATIONS: The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or

  11. On the Possibility of Quantum-Mechanical Interpretation the Relativistic Effect of Energy Increase in a Particle Freely Moving in Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Gestrina, G N

    2005-01-01

    The relativistic effect of energy increase in a particle freely moving in vacuum is discussed on the basis of quantum field theory and probability theory using some ideas of super-symmetrical theories. The particle is assumed to consist of a "seed" whose energy is equal to the particle rest energy and whose pulse is equal to the product of the particle mass by its velocity and of a "fur coat" - the system of virtual quanta of the material field - vacuum. Each of these quanta possesses the same energy and pulse as the "seed" but have no mass. The system of the quanta is in a state being the superposition of quantum states with energies and pulses multiple of the "seed" energy and pulse. The virtual quanta is created (or destroyed) in of such states. The probability of creating a quanta in any state is the inverse of the relativistic factor, and the average number of the quanta making up the "fur coat" with a "seed" is equal to this particular factor. The kinetic energy and the relativistic addition to the part...

  12. Diet with LPP for renal patients increases daily energy expenditure and improves motor function in Parkinsonian patients with motor fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Barichella, Michela; Savardi, Chiara; Mauri, Andrea; Marczewska, Agnieszka; Vairo, Antonella; Baldo, Cinzia; Massarotto, Arianna; Cordara, Sara Elisabetta; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    Objective To establish whether a diet based on the usage of low-protein products for renal patients (LPP) is associated with higher energy expenditure (EE) than a free low-protein diet (NO-LPP) by calculating 24 h EE by indirect calorimetry using an electronic armband monitor. Design Randomized, cross-over, single-blind, pilot clinical trial performed comparing two different low-protein dietary regimens. Subjects Forty-two days with LPP and 42 days with NO-LPP regimen in six patients with Par...

  13. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  14. Photovoltaics as a renewable energy technology in Bangladesh and its potential for increasing welfare, gender equity, and environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sarwat

    Situated in the northeast corner of the South Asian sub-continent, Bangladesh is a developing country with high population density, low life expectancy, low rate of literacy and extremely low access to modern energy sources. Lack of access to electrification remains a major constraint to the country's economic development. In this context, as in other countries, Bangladeshi development practitioners have tended to pursue outputs that rely on new technologies as a means to leapfrog to higher levels of development. However, independent analysis of such efforts, in terms of achieving sustainable development outcomes, remains lacking. The full potential of renewable energy technologies in Bangladesh has yet to attract widespread recognition from policy makers. In this thesis, I review solar PV technology since it has already been attempted as a rural off-grid electrification option in Bangladesh. I argue that the applications of technology should follow, and not precede, considerations for human well-being. It is also important to have a more holistic perspective on human welfare, which should include the basic dimensions of choice and opportunities, and not just income levels. The Government of Bangladesh and its development partners need to expand support to renewable energy technologies and so redirect the focus of policy formulation and implementation to sustainable human development. I emphasize that people-centered public policy has a key role to play in the introduction of a technology such as the solar photovoltaics pioneered by Grameen Shakti, a not-for-profit company in Bangladesh. While equity in terms of a fair distribution of wealth and income may continue to be an illusion, innovations such as solar PV are indeed promising with respect to opening up opportunities and possible benefits for women, the environment and---more generally---human well-being. This thesis is based on work in rural areas complementary to various professional responsibilities that I

  15. TIWAG-Tiroler Wasserkraft AG reconstruction and new construction projects for the energy turnaround; Um- und Neubauprojekte der Tiroler Wasserkraft AG fuer die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroppa, Wolfgang [TIWAG-Tiroler Wasserkraft AG, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    The whole of Europe is facing the challenge of transforming its energy management system into a more sustainable, more economical and decentralised system with a lower CO{sub 2} footprint. The Province of the Tyrol must contribute to the energy turnaround at a regional level. Hydropower's energy efficiency ratio is more than 90 % so it is the most important renewable energy in terms of volume and cost efficiency. It is for this reason that the use and expansion of hydropower facilities are key components of a sustainable energy and climate policy in the Alpine region.

  16. The Effect of de-Sitter Like Background on Increasing the Zero Point Budget of Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Sheikhahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During this work, using subtraction renormalization mechanism, zero point quantum fluctuations for bosonic scalar fields in a de-Sitter like background are investigated. By virtue of the observed value for spectral index, ns(k, for massive scalar field the best value for the first slow roll parameter, ϵ, is achieved. In addition, the energy density of vacuum quantum fluctuations for massless scalar field is obtained. The effects of these fluctuations on other components of the universe are studied. By solving the conservation equation, for some different examples, the energy density for different components of the universe is obtained. In the case which all components of the universe are in an interaction, the different dissipation functions, Q~i, are considered. The time evolution of ρDE(z/ρcri(z shows that Q~=3γH(tρm has the best agreement in comparison to observational data including CMB, BAO, and SNeIa data set.

  17. Microbial fuel cell coupled to biohydrogen reactor: a feasible technology to increase energy yield from cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, J; Fuentes, L; Cabezas, A; Etchebehere, C

    2017-02-20

    An important pollutant produced during the cheese making process is cheese whey which is a liquid by-product with high content of organic matter, composed mainly by lactose and proteins. Hydrogen can be produced from cheese whey by dark fermentation but, organic matter is not completely removed producing an effluent rich in volatile fatty acids. Here we demonstrate that this effluent can be further used to produce energy in microbial fuel cells. Moreover, current production was not feasible when using raw cheese whey directly to feed the microbial fuel cell. A maximal power density of 439 mW/m(2) was obtained from the reactor effluent which was 1000 times more than when using raw cheese whey as substrate. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that potential electroactive populations (Geobacter, Pseudomonas and Thauera) were enriched on anodes of MFCs fed with reactor effluent while fermentative populations (Clostridium and Lactobacillus) were predominant on the MFC anode fed directly with raw cheese whey. This result was further demonstrated using culture techniques. A total of 45 strains were isolated belonging to 10 different genera including known electrogenic populations like Geobacter (in MFC with reactor effluent) and known fermentative populations like Lactobacillus (in MFC with cheese whey). Our results show that microbial fuel cells are an attractive technology to gain extra energy from cheese whey as a second stage process during raw cheese whey treatment by dark fermentation process.

  18. Renew Europe - Technological developments in renewable energy. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This event is a symposium for international stakeholders in the field of renewable energy. An accompanying fair addresses the public in the Northern German regions. Especially SMEs interested in meeting their energy demands with renewable energy sources are invited. The main focus of the symposium will be technological aspects of renewable energy production, with a special emphasis to the political and economic framework conditions for renewable energies in North Sea countries and in Central and Eastern Europe. We will introduce and showcase the latest technology trends and research. The symposium aims to stimulate further innovation in the efficient production of energy, especially polygeneration technologies (combined electricity and heat production) for small and decentralised use in companies, schools and housing estates. Best practice examples will be shown and solutions shall be worked out by manufacturers, researchers and policy makers. Only power point presentations available.

  19. Enhanced energy storage and suppressed dielectric loss in oxide core-shell-polyolefin nanocomposites by moderating internal surface area and increasing shell thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, Lisa A; Li, Zhong; Ratner, Mark A; Lanagan, Michael T; Marks, Tobin J

    2012-11-20

    Dielectric loss in metal oxide core/Al(2)O(3) shell polypropylene nanocomposites scales with the particle surface area. By moderating the interfacial surface area between the phases and using increasing shell thicknesses, dielectric loss is significantly reduced, and thus the energy stored within, and recoverable from, capacitors fabricated from these materials is significantly increased, to as high as 2.05 J/cm(3).

  20. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase the dietary energy levels for Saanen goats and their effects on the lactation curve, dry matter intake, body weight, and economic results of the goats. Twenty multiparous goats, weighing an average of 63.5±10.3 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, each receiving one of the following dietary energy levels: a control diet consisting of 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM or a test diet supplemented with CSFA (Lactoplus® to obtain 2.7, 2.8, or 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM. Goats were housed in individual stalls and were fed and milked twice daily. The animals were evaluated until 180 days in milk by measuring dry matter intake and milk yield. These measurements were used to calculate feed efficiencies and the cost-benefit ratio of diet and lactation curves using Wood's nonlinear model. Increasing dietary energy levels showed no effect on body weight. Supplementation with CSFA did not limit dry matter intake; however, it changed the shape of the lactation curve by promoting a late peak lactation with a longer duration. Milk yields at 180 days in milk had a quadratic increase with a maximum energy level at 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Increasing the dietary energy level for Saanen goats using CSFA changes their lactation curves, with the best milk production achieved with a 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM diet; however, the greatest economic results were obtained with a 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM diet.