WorldWideScience

Sample records for increased pro-angogenic activity

  1. Chemoresistance acquisition induces a global shift of expression of aniogenesis-associated genes and increased pro-angogenic activity in neuroblastoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaelis, Martin; Klassert, Denise; Barth, Susanne; Suhan, Tatyana; Breitling, Rainer; Mayer, Bernd; Hinsch, Nora; Doerr, Hans W.; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Cinatl, Jindrich; Cinatl jr., Jindrich

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chemoresistance acquisition may influence cancer cell biology. Here, bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data was used to identify chemoresistance-associated changes in neuroblastoma biology. Results: Bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data revealed that expression of

  2. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  3. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  4. Barriers to increased market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    1999-01-01

    and related activities still seem to attract relatively few resources is not answered by supplying another checklist or package of facilitators. Based on published conceptual writings and empirical studies this article makes an account of what the intra-organizational barriers may be to increased market......Most research on market orientation has dealt with assessing how market orientation behaviour is related to business performance. This work has established an intense market-oriented activity as significantly and positively related to business performance under most circumstances. In a maturing......-oriented activity. A framework of six generic domains is suggested: Organizational structure, human resource management, market-oriented activity competence, psychological climate, managers' personality characteristics, and individually held beliefs. A model is suggested inter-relating the domains....

  5. Clusters - Tourism Activity Increase Competitiveness Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen IORDACHE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism represents one of those areas with the greatest potential of global expansion. Tourism development strategy in terms of maximizing its positive effects on regional economic increase and implicitly on the national one starts from the premise that in global economy value is created in regions which are defined as particular geographical entities, separated by geographical reasons and not as political-administrative structures, and economic increase is centrally cumulated and valued according to the economic policy and the national legal system.Regional economic system approach based on “cluster” concept is explained by the fact that the regional activities portfolio is based on an inter and intra-industry networking grouped by cluster, in which is created the value that increases as the activity results are leading to the final consumers.This type of communication aims to highlight the tourism role as a factor in regional development, the clustering process significance in obtaining some competitiveness advantages, clusters development in tourism beginnings, and also the identification methodology used to select one touristic area to create the cluster.

  6. Workplace pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Cumpston, Miranda; Peeters, Anna; Clemes, Stacy A

    2013-04-30

    The World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum have recommended further research to strengthen current knowledge of workplace health programmes, particularly on effectiveness and using simple instruments. A pedometer is one such simple instrument that can be incorporated in workplace interventions. To assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (671 potential papers), MEDLINE (1001), Embase (965), CINAHL (1262), OSH UPDATE databases (75) and Web of Science (1154) from the earliest record to between 30th January and 6th February 2012 yielded 3248 unique records. Reference lists of articles yielded an additional 34 papers. Contact with individuals and organisations did not produce any further records. We included individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials of workplace health promotion interventions with a pedometer component in employed adults. The primary outcome was physical activity and was part of the eligibility criteria. We considered subsequent health outcomes, including adverse effects, as secondary outcomes. Two review authors undertook the screening of titles and abstracts and the full-text papers independently. Two review authors (RFP and MC) independently completed data extraction and risk of bias assessment. We contacted authors to obtain additional data and clarification. We found four relevant studies providing data for 1809 employees, 60% of whom were allocated to the intervention group. All studies assessed outcomes immediately after the intervention had finished and the intervention duration varied between three to six months. All studies had usual treatment control conditions; however one study's usual treatment was an alternative physical activity programme while the other three had minimally active controls. In general, there was high risk of bias mainly

  7. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2015-01-05

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components

  8. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip Ra; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2011-04-13

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, The British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORTDiscus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.ca; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were followed up. We contacted experts in the field from the National Obesity Observatory Oxford, Oxford University; Queensland Health, Queensland University of Technology, the University of Central Queensland; the University of Tennessee and Washington University; and handsearched six relevant journals. The searches were last updated to the end of November 2009 and were not restricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials (RCT), quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series (ITS) studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies (PCCS) were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised

  9. Active Learning Increases Children's Physical Activity across Demographic Subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M; Roberts, Gregory; Fall, Anna-Mária; Errisuriz, Vanessa L; Vaughn, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Given the need to find more opportunities for physical activity within the elementary school day, this study was designed to asses the impact of I-CAN!, active lessons on: 1) student physical activity (PA) outcomes via accelerometry; and 2) socioeconomic status (SES), race, sex, body mass index (BMI), or fitness as moderators of this impact. Participants were 2,493 fourth grade students (45.9% male, 45.8% white, 21.7% low SES) from 28 central Texas elementary schools randomly assigned to intervention (n=19) or control (n=9). Multilevel regression models evaluated the effect of I-CAN! on PA and effect sizes were calculated. The moderating effects of SES, race, sex, BMI, and fitness were examined in separate models. Students in treatment schools took significantly more steps than those in control schools (β = 125.267, SE = 41.327, p = .002, d = .44). I-CAN! had a significant effect on MVPA with treatment schools realizing 80% (β = 0.796, SE =0.251, p = .001; d = .38) more MVPA than the control schools. There were no significant school-level differences on sedentary behavior (β = -0.177, SE = 0.824, p = .83). SES, race, sex, BMI, and fitness level did not moderate the impact of active learning on step count and MVPA. Active learning increases PA within elementary students, and does so consistently across demographic sub-groups. This is important as these sub-groups represent harder to reach populations for PA interventions. While these lessons may not be enough to help children reach daily recommendations of PA, they can supplement other opportunities for PA. This speaks to the potential of schools to adopt policy change to require active learning.

  10. Fire activity increasing as climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie; Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of images from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellites shows that more than 2.5 million hectares were burned in 2012 from January through August in the United States. The amount is less than a record 3.2 million hectares in 2011 but greater than the area burned in 12 of 15 years since satellite monitoring began, scientists reported at the AGU Fall Meeting. With satellites "we can detect fires as they're actively burning," said Louis Giglio of the University of Maryland, College Park, at a press conference on 4 December. "We can also map the cumulative area burned on the landscape after the fire's over." He noted that "2012 has been a particularly big fire year" in the United States.

  11. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  12. Expected Increase of Activity of Eta Aquariids Meteor Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, N. V.; Chepurova, V. M.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of the results of modeling disintegration of Comet 1P/Halley after its flare in 1991 has allowed us to predict an increase of the activity of the associated Eta Aquariids meteor shower in April-May 2018.

  13. Increased sternocleidomastoid, but not trapezius, muscle activity in response to increased chewing load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Nordh, Erik; Eriksson, Per-Olof

    2013-10-01

    Previous findings, during chewing, that boluses of larger size and harder texture result in larger amplitudes of both mandibular and head-neck movements suggest a relationship between increased chewing load and incremental recruitment of jaw and neck muscles. The present report evaluated jaw (masseter and digastric) and neck [sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and trapezius] muscle activity during the chewing of test foods of different sizes and textures by 10 healthy subjects. Muscle activity was recorded by surface electromyography and simultaneous mandibular and head movements were recorded using an optoelectronic technique. Each subject performed continuous jaw-opening/jaw-closing movements whilst chewing small and large boluses of chewing gum and rubber silicone (Optosil). For jaw opening/jaw closing without a bolus, SCM activity was recorded for jaw opening concomitantly with digastric activity. During chewing, SCM activity was recorded for jaw closing concomitantly with masseter activity. Trapezius activity was present in some, but not all, cycles. For the masseter and SCM muscles, higher activity was seen with larger test foods, suggesting increased demand and recruitment of these muscles in response to an increased chewing load. This result reinforces the previous notion of a close functional connection between the jaw and the neck motor systems in jaw actions and has scientific and clinical significance for studying jaw function and dysfunction. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  14. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Building a Better Mousetrap (Exergame) to Increase Youth Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranowski, Tom; Maddison, Ralph; Maloney, Ann; Medina, Ernie; Simons, Monique

    Although exergames have been demonstrated to induce moderate levels of physical activity (PA) if played as designed, there is conflicting evidence on use of exergaming leading to increased habitual PA. Exergames have increased PA in some home and school studies, but not others. Exergames have been

  16. Increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Adrià; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Palou, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Physical inactivity is a health problem that affects people worldwide and has been identified as the fourth largest risk factor for overall mortality (contributing to 6% of deaths globally). Many researchers have tried to increase physical activity levels through traditional methods without much success. Thus, many researchers are turning to mobile technology as an emerging method for changing health behaviours. This systematic review sought to summarise and update the existing scientific literature on increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions, taking into account the methodological quality of the studies. The articles were identified by searching the PubMed, SCOPUS and SPORTDiscus databases for studies published between January 2003 and December 2013. Studies investigating efforts to increase physical activity through mobile phone or even personal digital assistant interventions were included. The search results allowed the inclusion of 11 studies that gave rise to 12 publications. Six of the articles included in this review reported significant increases in physical activity levels. The number of studies using mobile devices for interventions has increased exponentially in the last few years, but future investigations with better methodological quality are needed to draw stronger conclusions regarding how to increase physical activity through mobile device interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. The impact of motivational interventions for increasing physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneci Sobral Rocha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether incentives for practicing regular physical activities in fact help raising the frequency of exercising. Methods: Male and female subjects undergoing two to three assessments in the Check-Up Unit of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE were evaluated by noting any increase in levels of physical activity, improvements in mean metabolic unit numbers, and the sensitization index. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied to assess the sample. Results: There were 1,879 subjects – 1,559 (83% males and 320 (17% females – aged 20 to 76 years (mean age = 45.8 years, standard deviation ± 8.8 who underwent a Continued Health Review at the Center for Preventive Medicine of the HIAE, Check-Up Unit, Jardins. Initially, over half of the sample was insufficiently active (sedentary or poorly active; there were more women than men in this group. After the health review, most subjects increased their level of physical activity; this increase was higher among women. Males encouraged three times to exercising showed better results (increased level of physical activity as compared to males encouraged twice for exercising. The best results in females were found in the group that went through two evaluations. This result is due to the fact that the sample of females comprising the group that received incentives on three occasions was small. This was also the only group that showed no increase in mean metabolic units. The sensitization index assessment in the overall sample was very satisfactory, as the expected results were achieved. Conclusions: These results show that motivational interventions are effective for raising the level of physical activity. We concluded that to encourage the practice of regular physical activity through information programs about its health benefits is very important.

  18. [Increase of physical activity by improvement of the nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torún, B

    1989-09-01

    Physical activity is affected by nutritional modifications and, in turn, influences growth, cognition, social behavior, work performance and other functions. Studies in preschool children showed that: 1. A decrease in energy intake during four to seven days reduced the time allocated to energy-demanding activities and increased sedentary activities. 2. Children with mild weight deficit were more sedentary than well-nourished counterparts. 3. Children became more active when nutritional status improved. 4. A 10% reduction in energy intake reduced total energy expenditure by 15% without affecting weight gain nor basal metabolism. Studies of men working in non-mechanized agriculture showed that: 1. Dietary improvements led to faster salaried work, reduction of napping time and greater physical activity after work. 2. An increase in energy intake increased total daily energy expenditure, tending to maintain energy balance and relatively stable body weight within the cyclic variations of the agricultural year. 3. Food supplementation did not necessarily improve productivity. Other labor incentives without dietary improvements increased energy expenditure during working hours, which resulted in weight loss. In conclusion, good health and nutrition provide the biological basis for adequate physical activity that may improve cognitive development, social interactions, economic productivity and the quality of life of an individual or a population, but other incentives are required for the optimal expression of that biologic potential.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR delta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPARdelta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased hepatobiliary

  1. The marine toxin, Yessotoxin, induces apoptosis and increases mitochondrial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fernandez-Araujo

    2014-06-01

    Discussion: Colorimetric MTT assay is widely used as a viability measurement method (McHale and L., 1988;Chiba et al., 1998. But after YTX treatment, MTT assay had shown problems to detect a cell viability decrease. In this sense, in primary cardiac cell cultures, a false increment of the proliferation rate opposite to Sulforhodamine B assay (SRB results was reported after YTX treatment (Dell'Ovo et al., 2008. Also the same effect was obtained in different cancer cell lines after assaying anticancer therapies (Ulukaya et al., 2004. In our study, an increase in cell viability using MTT was observed when the number of cells was high, while by using the LDH assay a significant viability decrease was measured. In these conditions, YTX is activating extrinsic apoptosis cell death by increasing caspase 8 activity and caspase 3 levels. The explanation for this increase was found when the mitochondrial activity was quantified cell by cell in a cytometer. In these conditions a significant increment of mitochondrial activity was detected. Since the cell population is too high, the increase in mitochondrial activity that detects the MTT test disguised the decrease of signal due to the cell death and point to a false proliferation increase. In this sense, a mitochondrial activity decrease was observed after 48 hours YTX treatment in BE(2-M17 neuroblastoma cell line (Leira et al., 2002. However, this study was done in a microplate reader with a small number of cells (Leira et al., 2002. Therefore, to measure the viability by MTT assay is very important to take into account the number of cells per condition when the experiment is designed. Alternative assays, such as LDH test, independently of the direct mitochondrial activity, can be used.

  2. Physical activity increases survival after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2016-01-01

    physical activity levels 6-12 months after heart valve surgery and (1) survival, (2) hospital readmission 18-24 months after surgery and (3) participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with registry data from The CopenHeart survey, The Danish National Patient......OBJECTIVES: Increased physical activity predicts survival and reduces risk of readmission in patients with coronary heart disease. However, few data show how physical activity is associated with survival and readmission after heart valve surgery. Objective were to assess the association between...... Register and The Danish Civil Registration System of 742 eligible patients. Physical activity was quantified with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and analysed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression and logistic regression methods. RESULTS: Patients with a moderate to high physical...

  3. Increased renal alpha-epithelial sodium channel (ENAC) protein and increased ENAC activity in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Crystal; Zhang, Zheng; Ecker, Geoffrey; Masilamani, Shyama M E

    2010-11-01

    Pregnancy-mediated sodium (Na) retention is required to provide an increase in plasma volume for the growing fetus. The mechanisms responsible for this Na retention are not clear. We first used a targeted proteomics approach and found that there were no changes in the protein abundance compared with virgin rats of the β or γ ENaC, type 3 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), bumetanide-sensitive cotransporter (NKCC2), or NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in mid- or late pregnancy. In contrast, we observed marked increases in the abundance of the α-ENaC subunit. The plasma volume increased progressively during pregnancy with the greatest plasma volume being evident in late pregnancy. ENaC inhibition abolished the difference in plasma volume status between virgin and pregnant rats. To determine the in vivo activity of ENaC, we conducted in vivo studies of rats in late pregnancy (days 18-20) and virgin rats to measure the natriuretic response to ENaC blockade (with benzamil). The in vivo activity of ENaC (U(Na)V postbenzamil-U(Na)V postvehicle) was markedly increased in late pregnancy, and this difference was abolished by pretreatment with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone. These findings demonstrate that the increased α-ENaC subunit of pregnancy is associated with an mineralocorticoid-dependent increase in ENaC activity. Further, we show that ENaC activity is a major contributor of plasma volume status in late pregnancy. These changes are likely to contribute to the renal sodium retention and plasma volume expansion required for an optimal pregnancy.

  4. Does physical activity increase the risk of unsafe sun exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Andrew; Bright, Margaret; Knight, Libby; Perina, Heather; Vardon, Paul; Harper, Catherine

    2012-04-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of self-reported participation in physical activity are encouraging and beneficial for health overall. However, the implications for sun safety need to be considered, particularly in Australia, which has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world. This study investigated the relationship between physical activity and sunburn to determine if there is a need for integration of sun safety in physical activity promotion. During the 2009/10 southern hemisphere summer, 7802 adults aged 18 to 74 years participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview survey which included a range of self-reported health measures including physical activity, sunburn, skin type, sun protection behaviour and demographic questions. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was undertaken to estimate the association between physical activity and sunburn. Those who reported doing any level of physical activity were significantly more likely to report having experienced sunburn in the past 12 months and on the last weekend, compared with those who did none, with the strongest association among those who undertook 7 hours or more. Each hour of physical activity was associated with a modest increase in the odds of experiencing sunburn in the previous 12 months (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.010-1.037) and weekend (OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.023-1.065), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. This study highlights the need for sun protection to be given more prominence in physical activity promotion in order to optimise health benefits without increasing the prevalence of sunburn and associated skin cancer risk.

  5. Texting to increase adolescent physical activity: Feasibility assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasibility trials assess whether a behavior change program warrants a definite trial evaluation. This paper reports the feasibility of an intervention consisting of Self Determination Theory-informed text messages, pedometers, and goal prompts to increase adolescent physical activity. A 4-group ran...

  6. Increased NTPDase Activity in Lymphocytes during Experimental Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncheli, Claudia de Mello; Zimmermann, Carine Eloise Prestes; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto dos Santos; Leal, Cláudio Alberto Martins; Ruchel, Jader Betsch; Rocha, Bruna Cipolatto; Pinheiro, Kelly de Vargas; Souza, Viviane do Carmo Gonçalves; Stainki, Daniel Roulim; Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Leal, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in rats induced to sepsis the activity of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase; CD39; E.C. 3.6.1.5), an enzyme involved in the modulation of immune responses. After 12 hours of surgery, lymphocytes were isolated from blood and NTPDase activity was determined. It was also performed the histology of kidney, liver, and lung. The results demonstrated an increase in the hydrolysis of adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) (P 0.05). Histological analysis showed several morphological changes in the septic group, such as vascular congestion, necrosis, and infiltration of mononuclear cells. It is known that the intracellular milieu contains much more ATP nucleotides than the extracellular. In this context, the increased ATPasic activity was probably induced as a dynamic response to clean up the elevated ATP levels resulting from cellular death. PMID:22645477

  7. Increased physical activity decreases periodontitis risk in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Anwar T.; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Rimm, Eric B.; Joshipura, Kaumudi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Increased physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, and may therefore affect incidence of periodontitis. Methods: We studied the association of physical activity, walking and periodontitis in 39,461 male, US based, health professionals, 40-75 years old at baseline, more than half of whom were dentists, being followed up continuously since 1986. Participants were free of periodontitis, coronary heart disease and stroke at the start of follow-up. Physical activity and periodontitis were measured by validated questionnaires (expressed in metabolic equivalents - METs); the first report of professionally diagnosed periodontitis was considered a case. Results: Periodontitis risk decreased by 3% for every 10-MET increase in average physical activity after adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, BMI, alcohol consumption and total calories (RR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). The inverse trend remained significant in the categorical analysis. Compared to men in the lowest quintile of physical activity, those in the highest quintile had a 13% lower risk of periodontitis (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-1.01, p-value, test for trend = 0.02). In a sub-sample of men with radiographs (n = 137) the physically active had less average bone loss (β = -0.29, p-value = 0.03) after multivariate adjustment compared to those inactive. Conclusions: In this large-scale prospective study, we found an inverse, linear association between sustained physical activity and periodontitis independent of known risk factors. The benefits of a physically active lifestyle may extend to periodontal health

  8. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Invasive Glioblastoma Cells Acquire Stemness and Increased Akt Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Molina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most frequent and most aggressive brain tumor in adults. The dismal prognosis is due to postsurgery recurrences arising from escaped invasive tumor cells. The signaling pathways activated in invasive cells are under investigation, and models are currently designed in search for therapeutic targets. We developed here an in vivo model of human invasive GBM in mouse brain from a GBM cell line with moderate tumorigenicity that allowed simultaneous primary tumor growth and dispersal of tumor cells in the brain parenchyma. This strategy allowed for the first time the isolation and characterization of matched sets of tumor mass (Core and invasive (Inv cells. Both cell populations, but more markedly Inv cells, acquired stem cell markers, neurosphere renewal ability, and resistance to rapamycin-induced apoptosis relative to parental cells. The comparative phenotypic analysis between Inv and Core cells showed significantly increased tumorigenicity in vivo and increased invasion with decreased proliferation in vitro for Inv cells. Examination of a large array of signaling pathways revealed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk down-modulation and Akt activation in Inv cells and an opposite profile in Core cells. Akt activation correlated with the increased tumorigenicity, stemness, and invasiveness, whereas Erk activation correlated with the proliferation of the cells. These results underscore complementary roles of the Erk and Akt pathways for GBM proliferation and dispersal and raise important implications for a concurrent inhibitory therapy.

  10. Project U-Turn: increasing active transportation in Jackson, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenBrink, David S; McMunn, Randall; Panken, Sarah

    2009-12-01

    Jackson, Michigan, is a medium-sized city suffering from a bad economy and obesity-related health issues. Nearly 20% of the 36,000 residents live below the poverty line. It is a relatively young city (median age of 30 years) with a mixed ethnicity (20% black, 73% white, 4% Hispanic). The city offers many structured, active recreational opportunities, but has not integrated physical activity into daily life. Project U-Turn aimed to increase active transportation (e.g., biking, walking, and transit use) through an integrated approach to Active Living by Design's community action model and the Michigan Safe Routes to School model. Resources were focused on active living promotions and programs; partnership meetings were the source of changes in policy and physical projects. Each initiative was designed to introduce each of the 5Ps (preparation, promotion, programs, policy, and physical projects) to build support for the partnership's overall work. The partnership collected snapshot data of community walking and biking behavior, percentage of students walking to school, participation in events and programs, and new physical projects. Jackson saw a vast improvement in physical infrastructure and policy and a related increase in walking and biking in the community. The project engaged in purposeful partnership building to implement effective programs and promotions that built support for policy and physical projects. Limited resources were best used by encouraging partners to contribute and coordinate activities using existing staff, funding, and resources. Jackson has seen a shift toward awareness of the benefits of active living on community health, economic development, and environmental awareness.

  11. Chemically modified carboxypeptidase Y with increased amidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breddam, K.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of carboxypeptidase Y with 14 C-iodoacetamide caused a drastic reduction in the peptidase activity towards FA-Phe-Leu-OH while the esterase activity towards FA-Phe-OMe, the amidase activity towards FA-Phe-NH 2 and the peptidyl amino acid amide hydrolase activity towards FA-Phe-Gly-NH 2 were much less affected. The loss of peptidase activity could be correlated with the incorporation of a single equivalent of reagent and it was demonstrated that the site of reaction was a methionyl residue, thus forming a sulfonium derivative. Analogous methionyl modifications were performed: carboxypeptidase Y modified with phenacylbromide hydrolysed substrates with bulky leaving groups in the P position, i.e. -OEt, -OBzl, -Gly-NH 2 ,-Gly-OH, and -Leu-OH, at reduced rates while substrates with small groups in that position, i.e. -OMe and -NH 2 , were hydrolysed with increased rates. These results indicate that the methionyl residue modified by phenacylbromide is located in the S binding site of the enzyme. Similar results were obtained with carboxypeptidase Y modified with m-nitrophen- acylbromide and p-nitrophenacylbromide. The increase in amidase activity and decrease in peptidyl amino acid amide hydrolase activity of carboxypeptidase Y following modification with phenacylbromide, m-nitrophenacylbromide, and p-nitrophenacylbromide was exploited in deamidation of peptide amides. These modified enzymes deamidated peptide amides with the exception of those containing a C-terminal glycyl or seryl residue in yields of 80-100% which is significantly higher than with unmodified carboxypeptidase Y. (author)

  12. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

  13. Protein energy malnutrition increases arginase activity in monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corware, Karina; Yardley, Vanessa; Mack, Christopher; Schuster, Steffen; Al-Hassi, Hafid; Herath, Shanthi; Bergin, Philip; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition is commonly associated with immune dysfunctions and is a major factor in susceptibility to infectious diseases. In this study, we evaluated the impact of protein energy malnutrition on the capacity of monocytes and macrophages to upregulate arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression and increased pathogen replication. Our results show that monocytes and macrophages are significantly increased in the bone marrow and blood of mice fed on a protein low diet. No alteration in the capacity of bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from malnourished mice to phagocytose particles, to produce the microbicidal molecule nitric oxide and to kill intracellular Leishmania parasites was detected. However, macrophages and monocytes from malnourished mice express significantly more arginase both in vitro and in vivo. Using an experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis, we show that following protein energy malnutrition, the increased parasite burden measured in the spleen of these mice coincided with increased arginase activity and that macrophages provide a more permissive environment for parasite growth. Taken together, these results identify a novel mechanism in protein energy malnutrition that might contributes to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases by upregulating arginase activity in myeloid cells.

  14. Modafinil enhances thalamocortical activity by increasing neuronal electrotonic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Francisco J.; Leznik, Elena; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2007-01-01

    Modafinil (Provigil, Modiodal), an antinarcoleptic and mood-enhancing drug, is shown here to sharpen thalamocortical activity and to increase electrical coupling between cortical interneurons and between nerve cells in the inferior olivary nucleus. After irreversible pharmacological block of connexin permeability (i.e., by using either 18β-glycyrrhetinic derivatives or mefloquine), modafinil restored electrotonic coupling within 30 min. It was further established that this restoration is implemented through a Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II-dependent step. PMID:17640897

  15. Increased activation in Broca's area after cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianin, Pascal; Urben, Sébastien; Magistretti, Pierre; Marquet, Pierre; Fornari, Eleonora; Jaugey, Laure

    2014-03-30

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure changes in cerebral activity in patients with schizophrenia after participation in the Cognitive Remediation Program for Schizophrenia and other related disorders (RECOS). As RECOS therapists make use of problem-solving and verbal mediation techniques, known to be beneficial in the rehabilitation of dysexecutive syndromes, we expected an increased activation of frontal areas after remediation. Executive functioning and cerebral activation during a covert verbal fluency task were measured in eight patients with schizophrenia before (T1) and after (T2) 14 weeks of RECOS therapy. The same measures were recorded in eight patients with schizophrenia who did not participate in RECOS at the same intervals of time (TAU group). Increased activation in Broca's area, as well as improvements in performance of executive/frontal tasks, was observed after cognitive training. Metacognitive techniques of verbalization are hypothesized to be the main factor underlying the brain changes observed in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Technology to Increase Physical Activity in Health Profession Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann Stark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health profession students may need help establishing and maintaining positive health behaviors when they are in college. This study explored the effectiveness of text messaging as an innovative method for promoting an increase in daily physical activity. A convenience sample (N = 134 was recruited from students at a college of Health and Human Services in Michigan. The participants were randomized into an intervention or control group (n = 67 each. The intervention group received daily affective text messages encouraging more physical activity by taking more steps. The control group received only messages reminding them to report their number of steps. All of the participants received a pedometer, completed a demographics and daily habits questionnaire, and completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS. There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in their number of daily steps. However, the most inactive participants had a significant increase in steps during the study period. Health profession students’ lifestyle behaviors have consequences, as they become caregivers in our dynamic, demanding health-care system. For those with the greatest need for physical activity, encouraging such activity via text messaging may improve their ability to care for themselves and their clients.

  17. Systematic review of recess interventions to increase physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    With the rapid increase in obesity rates among youth, efforts to increase physical activity (PA) have become a priority. School-based strategies for PA promotion must be cost-effective, unobtrusive, and linked to improved academic performance. Efforts to maximize recess PA are advocated because of both health and academic benefits. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recess interventions aimed to improve PA among youth, and make recommendations to develop related best practices. An extensive literature search was conducted to include all primary research articles evaluating any recess intervention with PA as an outcome. The included 13 interventions represented both settings within the U.S and internationally, among preschools and elementary/primary schools. A variety of strategies were used within the design and implementation of each of the interventions including: added equipment/materials, markings, zones, teacher involvement, active video games, activity of the week, and activity cards. Of the included studies, 95% demonstrated positive outcomes as a result of the recess intervention. A number of simple, low-cost strategies can be implemented to maximize the amount of recess time students are allotted. Long-term follow-up studies are warranted for each of the recess strategies identified to be effective.

  18. Interactions Increase Forager Availability and Activity in Harvester Ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evlyn Pless

    Full Text Available Social insect colonies use interactions among workers to regulate collective behavior. Harvester ant foragers interact in a chamber just inside the nest entrance, here called the 'entrance chamber'. Previous studies of the activation of foragers in red harvester ants show that an outgoing forager inside the nest experiences an increase in brief antennal contacts before it leaves the nest to forage. Here we compare the interaction rate experienced by foragers that left the nest and ants that did not. We found that ants in the entrance chamber that leave the nest to forage experienced more interactions than ants that descend to the deeper nest without foraging. Additionally, we found that the availability of foragers in the entrance chamber is associated with the rate of forager return. An increase in the rate of forager return leads to an increase in the rate at which ants descend to the deeper nest, which then stimulates more ants to ascend into the entrance chamber. Thus a higher rate of forager return leads to more available foragers in the entrance chamber. The highest density of interactions occurs near the nest entrance and the entrances of the tunnels from the entrance chamber to the deeper nest. Local interactions with returning foragers regulate both the activation of waiting foragers and the number of foragers available to be activated.

  19. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Nest predation increases with parental activity: separating nest site and parental activity effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators h...

  1. Increasing physical activity with mobile devices: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jason; Mullen, Sean P; McAuley, Edward

    2012-11-21

    Regular physical activity has established physical and mental health benefits; however, merely one quarter of the U.S. adult population meets national physical activity recommendations. In an effort to engage individuals who do not meet these guidelines, researchers have utilized popular emerging technologies, including mobile devices (ie, personal digital assistants [PDAs], mobile phones). This study is the first to synthesize current research focused on the use of mobile devices for increasing physical activity. To conduct a meta-analysis of research utilizing mobile devices to influence physical activity behavior. The aims of this review were to: (1) examine the efficacy of mobile devices in the physical activity setting, (2) explore and discuss implementation of device features across studies, and (3) make recommendations for future intervention development. We searched electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, SCOPUS) and identified publications through reference lists and requests to experts in the field of mobile health. Studies were included that provided original data and aimed to influence physical activity through dissemination or collection of intervention materials with a mobile device. Data were extracted to calculate effect sizes for individual studies, as were study descriptives. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software suite. Study quality was assessed using the quality of execution portion of the Guide to Community Preventative Services data extraction form. Four studies were of "good" quality and seven of "fair" quality. In total, 1351 individuals participated in 11 unique studies from which 18 effects were extracted and synthesized, yielding an overall weight mean effect size of g = 0.54 (95% CI = 0.17 to 0.91, P = .01). Research utilizing mobile devices is gaining in popularity, and this study suggests that this platform is an effective means for influencing physical activity behavior. Our focus

  2. Playing active video games increases energy expenditure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Diana L; Pratt, Lauren V; Hester, Casey N; Short, Kevin R

    2009-08-01

    To compare energy expenditure rates in children playing the physically active video games, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) and Nintendo's Wii Sports in relation to treadmill walking. Energy expenditure, heart rate, step rate, and perceived exertion were measured in 14 boys and 9 girls (ages 10-13 years; BMI at 3-98th percentile for age and gender) while watching television at rest, playing DDR at 2 skill levels, playing Wii bowling and boxing, and walking at 2.6, 4.2, and 5.7 km/h. Arterial elasticity was measured at rest and immediately after gaming. Compared with watching television, energy expenditure while gaming or walking increased 2- to 3-fold. Similarly, high rates of energy expenditure, heart rate, and perceived exertion were elicited from playing Wii boxing, DDR level 2, or walking at 5.7 km/h. This occurred despite variations in step rate among activities, reflecting greater use of upper body during Wii play (lowest step rate) than during walking (highest step rate) or DDR play. Wii bowling and beginner level DDR elicited a 2-fold increase in energy expenditure compared to television watching. Large-artery elasticity declined immediately after both DDR and Wii. The change was inversely related to the increment in energy expenditure above rest achieved during the activity. Energy expenditure during active video game play is comparable to moderate-intensity walking. Thus, for children who spend considerable time playing electronic screen games for entertainment, physically active games seem to be a safe, fun, and valuable means of promoting energy expenditure.

  3. Increased dopaminergic activity in socially isolated rats: an electrophysiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The development of animal models mimicking symptoms associated with schizophrenia has been a critical step in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the disease. Long-term social isolation from weaning in rodents, a model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia......, has been suggested to mimic some of the deficits seen in schizophrenic patients. We confirm in the present study that socially isolated rats display an increase in both spontaneous and d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, as well as deficits in sensorimotor gating as assessed in a pre......, and a change of firing activity towards a more irregular and bursting firing pattern. Taken together, our findings suggest that the behavioral phenotype induced by social isolation may be driven by an overactive dopamine system....

  4. Both novelty and expertise increase action observation network activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Lei eLiew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON, is modulated by one’s expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal on AON activation. fMRI was used to scan 16 healthy participants without prior experience with individuals with amputations (novices, 11 experienced occupational therapists (OTs who had varying amounts of experience with individuals with amputations, and one individual born with below-elbow residual limbs (participant CJ, as they viewed video clips of goal-matched actions performed by an individual with residual limbs and by an individual with hands. Participants were given increased visual exposure to actions performed by both effectors midway through the scanning procedure. Novices demonstrated a large AON response to the initial viewing of an individual with residual limbs compared to one with hands, but this signal was attenuated after they received visual exposure to both effectors. In contrast, OTs, who had moderate familiarity with residual limbs, demonstrated a lower AON response upon initial viewing—similar to novices after they received visual exposure. At the other extreme, CJ, who has extreme familiarity with residual limbs both visually and motorically, shows a largely increased left-lateralized AON response, exceeding that of novices and experienced OTs, when viewing the residual limb compared to hand actions. These results suggest that a nuanced model of AON engagement is needed to explain how cases of both extreme experience (CJ and extreme novelty (novices can result in the greatest AON activity.

  5. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG

  6. Transient extracellular application of gold nanostars increases hippocampal neuronal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Kirstie; Kereselidze, Zurab; DeLuna, Frank; Peralta, Xomalin G; Santamaria, Fidel

    2014-08-20

    With the increased use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications there is a growing need to understand the effects that nanoparticles may have on cell function. Identifying these effects and understanding the mechanism through which nanoparticles interfere with the normal functioning of a cell is necessary for any therapeutic or diagnostic application. The aim of this study is to evaluate if gold nanoparticles can affect the normal function of neurons, namely their activity and coding properties. We synthesized star shaped gold nanoparticles of 180 nm average size. We applied the nanoparticles to acute mouse hippocampal slices while recording the action potentials from single neurons in the CA3 region. Our results show that CA3 hippocampal neurons increase their firing rate by 17% after the application of gold nanostars. The increase in excitability lasted for as much as 50 minutes after a transient 5 min application of the nanoparticles. Further analyses of the action potential shape and computational modeling suggest that nanoparticles block potassium channels responsible for the repolarization of the action potentials, thus allowing the cell to increase its firing rate. Our results show that gold nanoparticles can affect the coding properties of neurons by modifying their excitability.

  7. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  8. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  9. Activation of the zymogen to urokinase-type plasminogen activator is associated with increased interdomain flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Manja A; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Goswami, Sumit

    2011-01-01

    A key regulatory step for serine proteases of the trypsin clan is activation of the initially secreted zymogens, leading to an increase in activity by orders of magnitude. Zymogen activation occurs by cleavage of a single peptide bond near the N-terminus of the catalytic domain. Besides the catal...

  10. Use of active video games to increase physical activity in children: a (virtual) reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Maddison, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    There has been increased research interest in the use of active video games (in which players physically interact with images onscreen) as a means to promote physical activity in children. The aim of this review was to assess active video games as a means of increasing energy expenditure and physical activity behavior in children. Studies were obtained from computerized searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The last search was conducted in December 2008. Eleven studies focused on the quantification of the energy cost associated with playing active video games, and eight studies focused on the utility of active video games as an intervention to increase physical activity in children. Compared with traditional nonactive video games, active video games elicited greater energy expenditure, which was similar in intensity to mild to moderate intensity physical activity. The intervention studies indicate that active video games may have the potential to increase free-living physical activity and improve body composition in children; however, methodological limitations prevent definitive conclusions. Future research should focus on larger, methodologically sound intervention trials to provide definitive answers as to whether this technology is effective in promoting long-term physical activity in children.

  11. HYPNOBIRTHING INCREASE PAIN TOLERANCE AND ANXIETY IN ACTIVE PHASE LABOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main problem of inpartu mother was a labour pain and anxiety. The etiology of labour pain has been determained by dilatation and cervic’s tickness. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of hypnobirthing relaxation on the pain tolerance and anxiety responses in labor. Method: A pre experimental static group comparison purposive sampling design was used in this study. Population were all pregnant women in age of pregnancies between 38 until 39 weeks at RSUD Wangaya Denpasar. There were 12 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria divided into 6 respondents were given hypnobirthing relaxation intervention and 6 respondents as the control group. The independent variable was hypnobirthing relaxation and dependent variables were tolerance of pain and anxiety responses. Data were collected by using observation and questionnaire, then data were analyzed by using Mann Whitney U Test with significance level p=0.05. Result: The result showed that hypnobirthing relaxation had an effect on the pain tolerance and anxiety responses (p=0.015. Discussion: It can be concluded that the hypnobirthing relaxation has an effect to increase the pain tolerance and to decrease anxiety responses in active phase of labour. It is recommended to the hospital that have an ante natal care to hypnobirthing relaxation technique. Further studies should measure the effect of hynobirthing relaxation on increasing of β-endorfin in active phase labour.

  12. Interacting with wildlife tourism increases activity of white sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huveneers, Charlie; Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Payne, Nicholas L; Semmens, Jayson M

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities are dramatically changing marine ecosystems. Wildlife tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry and has the potential to modify the natural environment and behaviour of the species it targets. Here, we used a novel method to assess the effects of wildlife tourism on the activity of white sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ). High frequency three-axis acceleration loggers were deployed on ten white sharks for a total of ~9 days. A combination of multivariate and univariate analysis revealed that the increased number of strong accelerations and vertical movements when sharks are interacting with cage-diving operators result in an overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) ~61% higher compared with other times when sharks are present in the area where cage-diving occurs. Since ODBA is considered a proxy of metabolic rate, interacting with cage-divers is probably more costly than are normal behaviours of white sharks at the Neptune Islands. However, the overall impact of cage-diving might be small if interactions with individual sharks are infrequent. This study suggests wildlife tourism changes the instantaneous activity levels of white sharks, and calls for an understanding of the frequency of shark-tourism interactions to appreciate the net impact of ecotourism on this species' fitness.

  13. Hypocapnia induces caspase-3 activation and increases Abeta production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongcong; Moir, Robert D; Romano, Donna M; Tesco, Giuseppina; Kovacs, Dora M; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2004-01-01

    At least half of all cases of early onset (<60) familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) are caused by any of over 150 mutations in three genes: the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PS1), and presenilin 2 (PS2). Mutant forms of PS1 have been shown to sensitize cells to apoptotic cell death. We investigated the effects of hypocapnia, a risk factor for both cognitive and neurodevelopment deficits, on caspase-3 activation, apoptosis, and amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) production, and assessed the influence of the PS1Delta9 FAD mutation on these effects. For this purpose, we exposed stably transfected H4 human neuroglioma cells to conditions consistent with hypocapnia (PCO2<40 mm Hg) and hypocapnia plus hypoxia (PO2<21%). Hypocapnia (20 mm Hg CO2 for 6 h) induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis; the PS1Delta9 FAD mutation significantly potentiated these effects. Moreover, the combination of hypocapnia (20 mm Hg CO2) and hypoxia (5%O2) induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in a synergistic manner. Hypocapnia (5 and 20 mm Hg CO2 for 6 h) also led to an increased Abeta production. The findings suggest that hypocapnia (e.g. during general anesthesia) could exacerbate AD neuropathogenesis. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Municipal services as a means of increasing the citizens’ activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Yakhina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to propose ways of increasing the activity of Russian citizens through the institution of municipal services. Methods the methodological basis of the study was a systematic and integrated approach to the analysis of the institution of municipal services. The general philosophical method was used as well as general scientific methods of cognition dialectical systemic analysis and synthesis induction and deduction and specific scientific methods comparativelegal formallegal historicallegal sociological systemicfunctional theoreticalprognostic linguolegal methods. In particular the formallegal method was used to study the problem of the legal fixation of administrative regulations statuses the theoreticalprognostic method was used in preparing recommendations to increase the activity of citizens. Results the municipal services are regarded by the author as a way to meet the needs of the population of a particular territory and as a way of interaction between local public authorities and the citizens. The issue of the functioning of emunicipalities is studied as well as the shortcomings in the legal regulation in this field. The problem is discussed of insufficient use of the Internet in the local authoritiesrsquo interaction with citizens. The author suggests ways to improve the Federal Law quotOn the organization of state and municipal servicesquot N 210FZ of July 2 2010 regarding the use of the Internet as a means of feedback between the public authorities and the population of a territory. Special attention is paid to normative legal acts regulating the procedure of municipal services provision i.e. the administrative regulations of local authorities. The emerging challenges in the legal regulation of the specified institution are identified the solutions to the identified problems are proposed. Scientific novelty in 2010 the institution of municipal services has undergone significant modernization thus the necessity to its research

  15. Charcoal Increases Microbial Activity in Eastern Sierra Nevada Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary W. Carter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important component of forests in the western United States. Not only are forests subjected to wildfires, but fire is also an important management tool to reduce fuels loads. Charcoal, a product of fire, can have major impacts on carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycling in forest soils, but it is unclear how these effects vary by dominant vegetation. In this study, soils collected from Jeffrey pine (JP or lodgepole pine (LP dominated areas and amended with charcoal derived from JP or LP were incubated to assess the importance of charcoal on microbial respiration and potential nitrification. In addition, polyphenol sorption was measured in unamended and charcoal-amended soils. In general, microbial respiration was highest at the 1% and 2.5% charcoal additions, but charcoal amendment had limited effects on potential nitrification rates throughout the incubation. Microbial respiration rates decreased but potential nitrification rates increased over time across most treatments. Increased microbial respiration may have been caused by priming of native organic matter rather than the decomposition of charcoal itself. Charcoal had a larger stimulatory effect on microbial respiration in LP soils than JP soils. Charcoal type had little effect on microbial processes, but polyphenol sorption was higher on LP-derived than JP-derived charcoal at higher amendment levels despite surface area being similar for both charcoal types. The results from our study suggest that the presence of charcoal can increase microbial activity in soils, but the exact mechanisms are still unclear.

  16. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increases in Use and Activity Due to Urban Renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Klinker, Charlotte Demant

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Urban green space and other recreational facilities are associated with physical activity. For adolescents living in multistory housing, public outdoor spaces that support physical activity may play an important role in activity promotion strategies. However, stronger evidence for a ...

  18. Increased 5α-reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5α-reductase activity (5α-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5α-RA. In vitro 5α-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with 14 C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-androstane 3α-17β-estradiol (3α-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3α-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3α-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5α-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5α-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5α-RA

  19. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  20. Altered behavior in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Erin E.; Kapheim, Karen M.; Watts, Heather E.; Szykman, Micaela; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996–98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996–98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988–90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988–90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996–98 than in 1988–90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction.

  1. Trapezius muscle activity increases during near work activity regardless of accommodation/vergence demand level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H O; Zetterberg, C; Forsman, M

    2015-07-01

    To investigate if trapezius muscle activity increases over time during visually demanding near work. The vision task consisted of sustained focusing on a contrast-varying black and white Gabor grating. Sixty-six participants with a median age of 38 (range 19-47) fixated the grating from a distance of 65 cm (1.5 D) during four counterbalanced 7-min periods: binocularly through -3.5 D lenses, and monocularly through -3.5 D, 0 D and +3.5 D. Accommodation, heart rate variability and trapezius muscle activity were recorded in parallel. General estimating equation analyses showed that trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time in all four lens conditions. A concurrent effect of accommodation response on trapezius muscle activity was observed with the minus lenses irrespective of whether incongruence between accommodation and convergence was present or not. Trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time during the near work task. The increase in muscle activity over time may be caused by an increased need of mental effort and visual attention to maintain performance during the visual tasks to counteract mental fatigue.

  2. Processing of Building Binder Materials to Increase their Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Garmashov, I. S.; Kuzmin, D. E.; Stoyushko, N. Yu; Gladkova, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals modern physical methods of activation of building powder materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of Portland cement. Activated concrete has a number of features that are used as design characteristics of structures and are due to the structure of the activated binder and its contacts with concrete aggregates. These features also have a significant impact on the nature of the destruction of concrete under load, changing the boundaries of its microcracks and durability.

  3. Increased activity of the mannan-binding lectin complement activation pathway in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Christensen, I J

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative bacterial infectious complications are frequent in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), with subsequent increased recurrence rates and poor prognosis. Deficiency of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) complement activation pathway may cause increased risk of infection......: Serum MBL concentrations and MBL/MASP activity were determined using immunofluorometric assays. The levels are presented as the median, inter-quartile range and range. RESULTS: Serum MBL levels were significantly (P cancer (1384 (400-2188) ng/mL) (median...... in the colon or rectum, and disease stages according to Dukes' classification. No statistical difference (P=0.20) in frequency of MBL deficiency was found between the patients (20%) and the donors (27%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the MBL complement activation pathway is significantly increased in patients...

  4. Hydralazine administration activates sympathetic preganglionic neurons whose activity mobilizes glucose and increases cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lindsay M; Damanhuri, Hanafi A; Fletcher, Sophie P S; Goodchild, Ann K

    2015-04-16

    Hypotensive drugs have been used to identify central neurons that mediate compensatory baroreceptor reflex responses. Such drugs also increase blood glucose. Our aim was to identify the neurochemical phenotypes of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) and adrenal chromaffin cells activated following hydralazine (HDZ; 10mg/kg) administration in rats, and utilize this and SPN target organ destination to ascribe their function as cardiovascular or glucose regulating. Blood glucose was measured and adrenal chromaffin cell activation was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity (-ir) and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase, respectively. The activation and neurochemical phenotype of SPN innervating the adrenal glands and celiac ganglia were determined using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit, in combination with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Blood glucose was elevated at multiple time points following HDZ administration but little evidence of chromaffin cell activation was seen suggesting non-adrenal mechanisms contribute to the sustained hyperglycemia. 16±0.1% of T4-T11 SPN contained c-Fos and of these: 24.3±1.4% projected to adrenal glands and 29±5.5% projected to celiac ganglia with the rest innervating other targets. 62.8±1.4% of SPN innervating adrenal glands were activated and 29.9±3.3% expressed PPE mRNA whereas 53.2±8.6% of SPN innervating celiac ganglia were activated and 31.2±8.8% expressed PPE mRNA. CART-ir SPN innervating each target were also activated and did not co-express PPE mRNA. Neurochemical coding reveals that HDZ administration activates both PPE+SPN, whose activity increase glucose mobilization causing hyperglycemia, as well as CART+SPN whose activity drive vasomotor responses mediated by baroreceptor unloading to raise vascular tone and heart rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. RESEARCH ON INCREASING ACTIVE LIFE OF CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin STĂNCIOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available At the exploitation of dies the defections that occur, due mainly to non operating rules of exploration, the improperly conditions of the machine (press in terms of cinematic precision and the wearing elements in relative motion (ram displacement, wearing guides, etc as the incorrect mounting of dies on the press. When installing dies must consider several aspects. Among the techniques used, especially for restoring the active elements in the work area are rectified frontal surfaces, hard chromating, hardening with electric sparks and charging welding. Were restored active profile and size of the work active elements so after reconditioning they corresponded in terms of dimensional precision and resistance to wear, like initial elements

  6. Effectiveness of Corporate Social Media Activities to Increase Relational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This study applies social media analytics to investigate the impact of different corporate social media activities on user word of mouth and attitudinal loyalty. We conduct a multilevel analysis of approximately 5 million tweets regarding the main Twitter accounts of 28 large global companies. We...... empirically identify different social media activities in terms of social media management strategies (using social media management tools or the web-frontend client), account types (broadcasting or receiving information), and communicative approaches (conversational or disseminative). We find positive...... effects of social media management tools, broadcasting accounts, and conversational communication on public perception....

  7. Increased expression of T-helper cell activation markers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    expression of these activation markers would be of value in monitoring asthma severity and the response to ... Key words: Children, atopic asthma, T-helper cell subsets, glucocorticoid inhalation, lower respiratory infections, CD45RO ...... budesonide, and placebo on mucosal inflammation and clinical indices in mild asthma.

  8. Counselling increases physical activity behaviour nine weeks after rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, H P; Streppel, K R M; van der Beek, A J; van der Woude, L H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R; van Harten, W H; van Mechelen, W

    BACKGROUND: For people with disabilities, a physically active lifestyle can reduce the risk of secondary health problems and improve overall functioning. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of the sport stimulation programme "rehabilitation and sports" (R&S) and R&S combined with the daily physical

  9. Compensation in resting metabolism for experimentally increased activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deerenberg, C; Overkamp, GJF; Visser, GH; Daan, S; Heldmaier, G.

    1998-01-01

    To study zebra finch allocation of energy to day and night at two different workloads, we assessed the daily energy turnover from: (1) metabolizable energy of the food, and (2) doubly-labeled water. In both experiments we imposed two levels of activity on captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata),

  10. Trunk muscle activity increases with unstable squat movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kenneth; Behm, David G

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in electromyographic (EMG) activity of the soleus (SOL), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), abdominal stabilizers (AS), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), and lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES) muscles while performing squats of varied stability and resistance. Stability was altered by doing the squat movement on a Smith machine, a free squat, and while standing on two balance discs. Fourteen male subjects performed the movements. Activities of the SOL, AS, ULES, and LSES were highest during the unstable squat and lowest with the Smith machine protocol (p squats on unstable surfaces may permit a training adaptation of the trunk muscles responsible for supporting the spinal column (i.e., erector spinae) as well as the muscles most responsible for maintaining posture (i.e., SOL).

  11. Xanthene derivatives increase glucose utilization through activation of LKB1-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghoon Kwon

    Full Text Available 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a highly conserved serine-threonine kinase that regulates energy expenditure by activating catabolic metabolism and suppressing anabolic pathways to increase cellular energy levels. Therefore AMPK activators are considered to be drug targets for treatment of metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. To identify novel AMPK activators, we screened xanthene derivatives. We determined that the AMPK activators 9H-xanthene-9-carboxylic acid {2,2,2-trichloro-1-[3-(3-nitro-phenyl-thioureido]-ethyl}-amide (Xn and 9H-xanthene-9-carboxylic acid {2,2,2-trichloro-1-[3-(3-cyano-phenyl-thioureido]-ethyl}-amide (Xc elevated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes by stimulating translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4. Treatment with the chemical AMPK inhibitor compound C and infection with dominant-negative AMPKa2-virus inhibited AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake in myotubes induced by either Xn or Xc. Of the two major upstream kinases of AMPK, we found that Xn and Xc showed LKB1 dependency by knockdown of STK11, an ortholog of human LKB1. Single intravenous administration of Xn and Xc to high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice stimulated AMPK phosphorylation of skeletal muscle and improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results suggest that Xn and Xc regulate glucose homeostasis through LKB1-dependent AMPK activation and that the compounds are potential candidate drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Motivational Interviewing to Increase Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    impact of physical activity on depressive symptoms, fatigue, and aerobic fitness over time. 4 BODY TRAINING ACCOMPLISHMENTS The SOW outlined 5...not count fruit drinks like Kooi-Aid, lemonade, Hi-C, cranberry juice drink, Tang, and Twister. Include juice you drank at all mealtimes and between...5. I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was D D D D doing 6. I felt depressed D D D D 7. I felt that everything I did was an effort D D D D

  13. Increasing evidence that bats actively forage at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Cecily F; Bennett, Victoria J; Hale, Amanda M; Korstian, Jennifer M; Schildt, Alison J; Williams, Dean A

    2017-01-01

    Although the ultimate causes of high bat fatalities at wind farms are not well understood, several lines of evidence suggest that bats are attracted to wind turbines. One hypothesis is that bats would be attracted to turbines as a foraging resource if the insects that bats prey upon are commonly present on and around the turbine towers. To investigate the role that foraging activity may play in bat fatalities, we conducted a series of surveys at a wind farm in the southern Great Plains of the US from 2011-2016. From acoustic monitoring we recorded foraging activity, including feeding buzzes indicative of prey capture, in the immediate vicinity of turbine towers from all six bat species known to be present at this site. From insect surveys we found Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera in consistently high proportions over several years suggesting that food resources for bats were consistently available at wind turbines. We used DNA barcoding techniques to assess bat diet composition of (1) stomach contents from 47 eastern red bat ( Lasiurus borealis ) and 24 hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus ) carcasses collected in fatality searches, and (2) fecal pellets from 23 eastern red bats that were found on turbine towers, transformers, and tower doors. We found that the majority of the eastern red bat and hoary bat stomachs, the two bat species most commonly found in fatality searches at this site, were full or partially full, indicating that the bats were likely killed while foraging. Although Lepidoptera and Orthoptera dominated the diets of these two bat species, both consumed a range of prey items with individual bats having from one to six insect species in their stomachs at the time of death. The prey items identified from eastern red bat fecal pellets showed similar results. A comparison of the turbine insect community to the diet analysis results revealed that the most abundant insects at wind turbines, including terrestrial insects such as crickets and several

  14. Myeloperoxidase activity is increased in gingival crevicular fluid and whole saliva after fixed orthodontic appliance activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaccini, Andrea M; Amato, Patricia A F; Leão, Fernanda V; Gerlach, Raquel F; Ferreira, Jose T L

    2010-11-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement uses mechanical forces that result in inflammation in the first days. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an enzyme found in polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) granules, and it is used to estimate the number of PMN granules in tissues. So far, MPO has not been used to study the inflammatory alterations after the application of orthodontic tooth movement forces. The aim of this study was to determine MPO activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva (whole stimulated saliva) of orthodontic patients at different time points after fixed appliance activation. MPO was determined in the GCF and collected by means of periopaper from the saliva of 14 patients with orthodontic fixed appliances. GCF and saliva samples were collected at baseline, 2 hours, and 7 and 14 days after application of the orthodontic force. Mean MPO activity was increased in both the GCF and saliva of orthodontic patients at 2 hours after appliance activation (P orthodontic force probably results in the increased MPO level observed at this time point. MPO might be a good marker to assess inflammation in orthodontic movement; it deserves further studies in orthodontic therapy. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of sport activities on increasing preschool children's creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shahbazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Torrance tests of creative thinking have been widely used to measure the impact of different items such as creativity on different groups of children. In this study, we perform an empirical study to measure the effects of endurance, power-based and flexibility on a group of children's creativity, originality and flexibility. The study chooses a sample of 341 from 2978 preschool children and distributes a questionnaire among them where 153 were female and 188 of them were male. Cronbach alpha for creativity, originality and fluency were calculated as 0.814, 0.822 and 0.788, respectively. The results of our study indicate that there are some positive and meaningful relationship among three components of creativity, originality and fluency before and after accomplishing test. The impact of test was measured for three types of sport activities including endurance, power-based and flexibility tests. After applying 32 sessions of sporting games, flexibility games represent a mean value of 32.40, which is higher than the other two tests and it maintains meaningful value compared with two other sporting tests of endurance and power base tests.

  16. Application of Pilates principles increases paraspinal muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Letícia Souza; Mochizuki, Luís; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; da Silva, Renato André Sousa; Mota, Yomara Lima

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effect of Pilates principles on the EMG activity of abdominal and paraspinal muscles on stable and unstable surfaces. Surface EMG data about the rectus abdominis (RA), iliocostalis (IL) and lumbar multifidus (MU) of 19 participants were collected while performing three repetitions of a crunch exercise in the following conditions: 1) with no Pilates technique and stable surface (nP + S); 2) with no Pilates technique and unstable surface (nP + U); 3) with Pilates technique and stable surface (P + S); 4) with Pilates and unstable surface (P + U). The EMG Fanalysis was conducted using a custom-made Matlab(®) 10. There was no condition effect in the RA iEMG with stable and unstable surfaces (F(1,290) = 0 p = 0.98) and with and without principles (F(1,290) = 1.2 p = 0.27). IL iEMG was higher for the stable surface condition (F(1,290) = 32.3 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 21.9 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 84.9 p < 0.001). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Complexing Methylene Blue with Phosphorus Dendrimers to Increase Photodynamic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dabrzalska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of photodynamic therapy is limited mainly due to low selectivity, unfavorable biodistribution of photosensitizers, and long-lasting skin sensitivity to light. However, drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles may overcome the limitations mentioned above. Among others, dendrimers are particularly attractive as carriers, because of their globular architecture and high loading capacity. The goal of the study was to check whether an anionic phosphorus dendrimer is suitable as a carrier of a photosensitizer—methylene blue (MB. As a biological model, basal cell carcinoma cell lines were used. We checked the influence of the MB complexation on its singlet oxygen production ability using a commercial fluorescence probe. Next, cellular uptake, phototoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and cell death were investigated. The MB-anionic dendrimer complex (MB-1an was found to generate less singlet oxygen; however, the complex showed higher cellular uptake and phototoxicity against basal cell carcinoma cell lines, which was accompanied with enhanced ROS production. Owing to the obtained results, we conclude that the photodynamic activity of MB complexed with an anionic dendrimer is higher than free MB against basal cell carcinoma cell lines.

  18. Prices dip, activity increases in unrestricted uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    April's activity in the restricted uranium market fluctuated in the same range as that observed in March. At the same time, NUKEM detects a weakening of prices in the unrestricted market to $7.45-$7.65. Unrestricted buyers seem to have detected lower prices as well; much of the new demand noted this month emerged in the unrestricted segment of the market. With this issue, NUKEM inaugurates a new market statistic. To better follow developments in the conversion market, we will report a spot price range for conversion services. This price measure will be derived in a manner analogous to NUKEM's other spot market price ranges. We will continue to publish the current NUKEM price range for new contracts for a few months. If you wish to retain the old conversion contract price range in future editions, please contact our US office. Four deals for near term delivery occurred in the uranium market in April, resulting in spot market transaction volume of 2.5 million lbs U3O8 equivalent. In the first week, a US non-utility purchased a small quantity of enriched uranium product from an intermediary in a spot transaction representing about 75,000 lbs U3O8. The second week saw the stealthy purchase of Portland General Electric's inventory of natural and enriched uranium. The buyer of PGE's 1.1 million lbs U3O8 equivalent has achieved an unusual degree of anonymity. Also during the second week, a US utility bought a small quantity of enriched uranium containing less than 25,000 lbs natural U3O8 equivalent

  19. Increased sales and thefts of candy as a function of sales promotion activities: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N; Kindstedt, A; Melin, L

    1995-01-01

    We used an A-B-A design to evaluate the effects of two commonly used promotional activities-price reduction and increased exposure, in combination and separately-on sales and thefts of candy at a grocery store. The combination of activities and the increased exposure condition produced the greatest increases in sales. The combination of activities was also associated with the greatest increase in thefts.

  20. The effect of increasing autonomy through choice on young children’s physical activity behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing autonomy by manipulating the choice of available physical activity options in a laboratory setting can increase physical activity in older children and adults. However, the effect of manipulating the number of physically active choices has yet to be examined in young children in a gymnas...

  1. An Evaluation of Photographic Activity Schedules to Increase Independent Playground Skills in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jessica S.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Pollard, Joy S.; Pellegrino, Azure J.; Gerencser, Kristina R.

    2016-01-01

    We used photographic activity schedules to increase the number of play activities completed by children with autism during unstructured time on the playground. All 3 participants engaged in more playground activities during and after training, and they continued to complete activities when novel photographs were introduced.

  2. The Effect of Increasing Autonomy Through Choice on Young Children's Physical Activity Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Juvancic-Heltzel, Judith; Williamson, Megan L; Roemmich, James N; Feda, Denise M; Barkley, Jacob E

    2016-04-01

    Increasing autonomy by manipulating the choice of available physical activity options in a laboratory setting can increase physical activity in older children and adults. However, the effect of manipulating the number of physically active choices has yet to be examined in young children in a gymnasium environment. Twenty children (n = 10 girls, 6.1 ± 1.4 years old) individually participated in 2 [low choice (LC), high choice (HC)] free-choice activity conditions for 30 minutes in a 4360 square foot gymnasium. Children had access to 2 or 8 physical activity options in the LC and HC conditions, respectively. Physical activity behavior was measured via accelerometry. Children's 30-minute accelerometer counts increased (P autonomy through choice of a greater number of physically active options increased young children's physical activity participation by 20.5%.

  3. Get Active Orlando: changing the built environment to increase physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreedy, Malisa; Leslie, Jill G

    2009-12-01

    Active Living by Design's Get Active Orlando partnership (GAO) focused on downtown Orlando's Community Redevelopment Area, including the Parramore Heritage District, home to many low-income and ethnically diverse residents, including many seniors. The area had undergone substantial development, and GAO aimed to incorporate active living considerations into the city's changing landscape. Get Active Orlando conducted a baseline survey of all streets, sidewalks, and bicycle lanes in the project area and identified a sequence of plans and policies in which to incorporate changes identified in the assessment. To create more immediate opportunities for active living, the partnership initiated a senior walking program, a bicycle refurbishment and giveaway program, and community bicycle-riding events, and led a social-marketing campaign that emphasized simple lifestyle changes. Get Active Orlando influenced adoption of public policies supporting active living in Orlando, including the Downtown Transportation Plan, Streetscape Guidelines, Design Standards Review Checklist, and growth management policies. Establishment of the Mayor's Advisory Council on Active Living is testament to the heightened significance of active living in Orlando. Initial assessment data served as a strong platform for policy change. Creating connections across disciplines including land-use planning, transportation, public health, and economic development allowed GAO to secure substantial policy change to influence design of the built environment. Engaging community members, including youth, as leaders was an important factor in program success. The physical environment in Orlando's Community Redevelopment Area is beginning to change as a reflection of a new policy framework designed to support active living.

  4. INCREASED TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY IN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AMONG PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat IŞIKAY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Celiac disease is an autoimmune systemic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals precipitated by gluten ingestion. Objective - In this study, we aimed to determine asymptomatic spike-and-wave findings on electroencephalography in children with celiac disease. Methods - A total of 175 children with the diagnosis of celiac disease (study group and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy children as controls (control group were included in the study. In order to determine the effects of gluten free diet on laboratory and electroencephalography findings, the celiac group is further subdivided into two as newly-diagnosed and formerly-diagnosed patients. Medical histories of all children and laboratory findings were all recorded and neurologic statuses were evaluated. All patients underwent a sleep and awake electroencephalography. Results - Among 175 celiac disease patients included in the study, 43 were newly diagnosed while 132 were formerly-diagnosed patients. In electroencephalography evaluation of patients the epileptiform activity was determined in 4 (9.3% of newly diagnosed and in 2 (1.5% of formerly diagnosed patients; on the other hand the epileptiform activity was present in only 1 (1.0% of control cases. There was a statistically significant difference between groups in regards to the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that epileptiform activity in both sleep and awake electroencephalography were positively correlated with tissue transglutaminase levels (P=0.014 and P=0.019, respectively. Conclusion - We have determined an increased epileptiform activity frequency among newly-diagnosed celiac disease patients compared with formerly-diagnosed celiac disease patients and control cases. Moreover the tissue transglutaminase levels were also correlated with the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Among newly diagnosed celiac disease patients

  5. Increased prevalence of late stage T cell activation antigen (VLA-1) in active juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Morling, Niels; Platz, P

    1987-01-01

    The presence of activated T cells as judged from the reaction with monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against (a) a late stage T cell activation antigen (VLA-1), (b) the interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor (CD25), and (c) four different HLA class II molecules (HLA-DR, DRw52, DQ, and DP) was studied in 15 pati...

  6. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  7. Low Dopamine D2 Receptor Increases Vulnerability to Obesity Via Reduced Physical Activity, Not Increased Appetitive Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Jeff A; Faust, Rudolf P; Turkson, Susie; Ye, Honggang; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2016-06-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) has received much attention in obesity studies. Data indicate that D2R is reduced in obesity and that the TaqA1 D2R variant may be more prevalent among obese persons. It is often suggested that reduced D2R generates a reward deficiency and altered appetitive motivation that induces compulsive eating and contributes to obesity. Although dopamine is known to regulate physical activity, it is often neglected in these studies, leaving open the question of whether reduced D2R contributes to obesity through alterations in energy expenditure and activity. We generated a D2R knockdown (KD) mouse line and assessed both energy expenditure and appetitive motivation under conditions of diet-induced obesity. The KD mice did not gain more weight or show increased appetitive motivation compared with wild-type mice in a standard environment; however, in an enriched environment with voluntary exercise opportunities, KD mice exhibited dramatically lower activity and became more obese than wild-type mice, obtaining no protective benefit from exercise opportunities. These data suggest the primary contribution of altered D2R signaling to obesity lies in altered energy expenditure rather than the induction of compulsive overeating. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. LOW DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTOR INCREASES VULNERABILITY TO OBESITY VIA REDUCED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY NOT INCREASED APPETITIVE MOTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Jeff A.; Faust, Rudolf P.; Turkson, Susie; Ye, Honggang; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2015-01-01

    Background The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) has received much attention in obesity studies. Data indicate that D2R is reduced in obesity and that the TaqA1 D2R variant may be more prevalent among obese persons. It is often suggested that reduced D2R generates a “reward deficiency” and altered appetitive motivation that induces compulsive eating and contributes to obesity. Although dopamine is known to regulate physical activity, it is often neglected in these studies, leaving open the question of whether reduced D2R contributes to obesity through alterations in energy expenditure and activity. Methods We generated a D2R knockdown (KD) mouse line and assessed both energy expenditure and appetitive motivation under conditions of diet-induced obesity. Results The KD mice did not gain more weight or show increased appetitive motivation compared to wild-type (WT) in a standard environment; however, in an enriched environment with voluntary exercise opportunities, KD mice exhibited dramatically lower activity and became more obese than WT, obtaining no protective benefit from exercise opportunities. Conclusions These data suggest the primary contribution of altered D2R signaling to obesity lies in altered energy expenditure rather than the induction of compulsive overeating. PMID:26281715

  9. Can schoolyard improvements increase physical activity for the least active students, or just provide better opportunities for the most active?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars; Toftager, M.; Troelsen, J.

    2014-01-01

    at the school had equal impact on all students regardless of their PA at baseline [1]. Method The SPACE-study used a cluster randomized controlled study design with a 2-year follow-up, and enrolled 1348 students aged 11–13 years from 14 schools in Denmark. A web-based questionnaire was used to obtain knowledge...... as “the most active”. At the intervention schools the proportion of student who reported good possibilities for outdoor PA increased (71% to 75%), while the proportion decreased at the comparison schools (87% to 68%). The proportion of students reporting to be active daily during recess decreased for all...... of PA during recess and in leisure time. The multicomponent intervention comprised 11 components, and included a combination of changes to the physical environment and organizational changes. Results At baseline, 73% of the students reported to engage in sport outside school and were characterized...

  10. Decreasing Stereotypy in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Increased Physical Activity and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Constance Ann Hylton

    2010-01-01

    This study used increased physical activity during recess to reduce stereotypy in preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Results indicate increasing physical activity can be used as an intervention to reduce automatically maintained stereotypy in preschoolers with ASD. The intervention had a lesser effect on a preschooler whose stereotypy was…

  11. Male Adolescents' Reasons for Participating in Physical Activity, Barriers to Participation, and Suggestions for Increasing Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kenneth R.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Goldenberg, Ellie; Fein, Allan; Yoshida, Karen K.; Boutilier, Marie

    2005-01-01

    This study explored male adolescents' reasons for participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity, perceived barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity, and suggestions as to what can be done to increase participation in physical activity. A total of 26 male 15- and 16-year-old adolescents participated in focus group sessions,…

  12. Texting to increase physical activity among teenagers (TXT Me!): Rationale, design, and methods proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity decreases from childhood through adulthood. Among youth, teenagers (teens) achieve the lowest levels of physical activity, and high school age youth are particularly at risk of inactivity. Effective methods are needed to increase youth physical activity in a way that can be maintai...

  13. Increased activity of the mannan-binding lectin complement activation pathway in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Christensen, I J

    2004-01-01

    in certain patient groups. It is hypothesized that a deficient MBL pathway might be more frequent among patients with CRC than in healthy individuals. The MBL pathway was therefore evaluated in serum obtained preoperatively from 193 patients with primary CRC and in serum from 150 healthy volunteers. METHODS......: Serum MBL concentrations and MBL/MASP activity were determined using immunofluorometric assays. The levels are presented as the median, inter-quartile range and range. RESULTS: Serum MBL levels were significantly (P ..., inter-quartile range) compared with levels in healthy blood donors (924 (230-1476) ng/mL). Similarly, the MBL/MASP activity was significantly (P age, gender, tumour location...

  14. Emotional outlook on life predicts increases in physical activity among initially inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Marcus, Bess H; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical activity level and emotional outlook on life. Emotional outlook on life was significantly and positively related to physical activity participation at the follow-up visit in men but not women. Men who were usually very happy and optimistic at baseline had significantly greater increases in physical activity compared to men who were not happy. Men with a more positive outlook on life (e.g., happier) may be more likely to increase physical activity levels. Physical activity interventions targeting men may be more successful if they first increase happiness.

  15. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  16. Extracellular Histones Increase Tissue Factor Activity and Enhance Thrombin Generation by Human Blood Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Travis J; Lysov, Zakhar; Swystun, Laura L; Dwivedi, Dhruva J; Zarychanski, Ryan; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Liaw, Patricia C

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis is characterized by systemic activation of inflammatory and coagulation pathways in response to infection. Recently, it was demonstrated that histones released into the circulation by dying/activated cells may contribute to sepsis pathology. Although the ability of extracellular histones to modulate the procoagulant activities of several cell types has been investigated, the influence of histones on the hemostatic functions of circulating monocytes is unknown. To address this, we investigated the ability of histones to modulate the procoagulant potential of THP-1 cells and peripheral blood monocytes, and examined the effects of plasmas obtained from septic patients to induce a procoagulant phenotype on monocytic cells. Tissue factor (TF) activity assays were performed on histone-treated THP-1 cells and blood monocytes. Exposure of monocytic cells to histones resulted in increases in TF activity, TF antigen, and phosphatidylserine exposure. Histones modulate the procoagulant activity via engagement of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and this effect was abrogated with inhibitory antibodies. Increased TF activity of histone-treated cells corresponded to enhanced thrombin generation in plasma determined by calibrated automated thrombography. Finally, TF activity was increased on monocytes exposed to plasma from septic patients, an effect that was attenuated in plasma from patients receiving unfractionated heparin (UFH). Our studies suggest that increased levels of extracellular histones found in sepsis contribute to dysregulated coagulation by increasing TF activity of monocytes. These procoagulant effects can be partially ameliorated in sepsis patients receiving UFH, thereby identifying extracellular histones as a potential therapeutic target for sepsis treatment.

  17. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Skouby, Sven O.; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P≤0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity......Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... by 59% (P0.05). The relative increase in FSAP activity was significantly higher in women carrying the 1601GG genotype (63%) than in women carrying 1601GA genotype (50%) (P=0.01) and was associated with an increased activation of FVII. In conclusion: OC use increases the plasma measures of FSAP...

  18. Low Amount of Salinomycin Greatly Increases Akt Activation, but Reduces Activated p70S6K Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungpil Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal.

  19. Social capital, desire to increase physical activity and leisure-time physical activity: A population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between social capital (trust) and leisure-time physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: The 2004 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: In total, 27,757 individuals aged 18-80 years answered a postal questionnaire (59% participation). Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between trust, desire to increase physical activity and leisure-time physical activity. RESULTS: ...

  20. Increased active von Willebrand factor during disease development in the aging diabetic patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang Feng; Xia, Zuo Li; Han, Ji Ju; Wang, Yi Ting; Wang, Ji Yue; Pan, Shao Dong; Wu, Ya Ping; Zhang, Bin; Li, Guang Yao; Du, Jing Wei; Gao, Hen Qiang; de Groot, Philip G; de Laat, Bas; Hollestelle, Martine J

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is known to cause endothelial activation resulting in the secretion of von Willebrand factor (VWF). We have shown that levels of VWF in a glycoprotein Ib-binding conformation are increased in specific clinical settings. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether active VWF levels increase during aging and the development of diabetes within the population of patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Patients and controls were divided into two groups based on age: older and younger than 60 years of age. VWF antigen, VWF propeptide, VWF activation factor and total active VWF were measured. Patients older than 60 years of age had increased levels of total active VWF, VWF activation factor and VWF propeptide compared to younger patients and controls. All measured VWF parameters were associated with age in diabetic patients. Total active VWF and VWF propeptide correlated with the period of being diagnosed with diabetes. Regression analyses showed that especially the VWF activation factor was strongly associated with diabetes in patients older than 60 years of age. In conclusion, we found that the conformation of VWF could be involved in the disease process of diabetes and that the VWF in a glycoprotein Ib-binding conformation could play a role as risk marker during the development of diabetes in combination with an increase in age. Our study shows that the active quality of VWF was more important than the quantity.

  1. Gonadotropin stimulates oocyte translation by increasing magnesium activity through intracellular potassium-magnesium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, S.B.; Tluczek, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    We previously showed that gonadotropin increases the K + activity in Xenopus oocytes and that this is a signal for increased translation. However, K + need not act to control synthesis directly but may act through an unidentified downstream effector. Using microinjection to vary the salt content of oocytes and concomitantly measuring [ 3 H]leucine incorporation, we found that small changes in Mg 2+ greatly affect translation rates. (Ca 2+ had little influence.) By measuring intracellular ion activities, we found that oocyte cations existed in a buffer-like (ion-exchange) equilibrium in which K + and Mg 2+ are the preponderant monovalent and divalent cations. Hence, increasing cellular K + activity might increase translation by causing Mg 2+ activity to rise. If so, the increased translation rates produced by hormone treatment or K + injection would be prevented by EDTA, a Mg 2+ chelating agent. This prediction was tested and confirmed. We conclude that, when gonadotropin increases K + activity, the cell's internal ion-exchange equilibrium is altered thereby increasing Mg 2+ activity and this up-regulates translation

  2. The rate of synthesis and decomposition of tissue proteins in hypokinesia and increased muscular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, I. V.; Chernyy, A. V.; Fedorov, A. I.

    1978-01-01

    During hypokinesia and physical loading (swimming) of rats, the radioactivity of skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, heart, and blood proteins was determined after administration of radioactive amino acids. Tissue protein synthesis decreased during hypokinesia, and decomposition increased. Both synthesis and decomposition increased during physical loading, but anabolic processes predominated in the total tissue balance. The weights of the animals decreased in hypokinesia and increased during increased muscle activity.

  3. Active Choice and Financial Incentives to Increase Rates of Screening Colonoscopy-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shivan J; Feingold, Jordyn; Vandertuyn, Matthew; Niewood, Tess; Cox, Catherine; Doubeni, Chyke A; Volpp, Kevin G; Asch, David A

    2017-11-01

    Behavioral economic approaches could increase uptake for colorectal cancer screening. We performed a randomized controlled trial of 2245 employees to determine whether an email containing a phone number for scheduling (control), an email with the active choice to opt in or opt out (active choice), or the active choice email plus a $100 incentive (financial incentive) increased colonoscopy completion within 3 months. Higher proportions of participants in the financial incentive group underwent screening (3.7%) than in the control (1.6%) or active choice groups (1.5%) (P = .01 and P < .01). We found no difference in uptake of screening between the active choice and control groups (P = .88). The $100 conditional incentive modestly but significantly increased colonoscopy use. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02660671. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction of Positions of Active Compounds Makes It Possible To Increase Activity in Fragment-Based Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a computational method that predicts the positions of active compounds, making it possible to increase activity as a fragment evolution strategy. We refer to the positions of these compounds as the active position. When an active fragment compound is found, the following lead generation process is performed, primarily to increase activity. In the current method, to predict the location of the active position, hydrogen atoms are replaced by small side chains, generating virtual compounds. These virtual compounds are docked to a target protein, and the docking scores (affinities are examined. The hydrogen atom that gives the virtual compound with good affinity should correspond to the active position and it should be replaced to generate a lead compound. This method was found to work well, with the prediction of the active position being 2 times more efficient than random synthesis. In the current study, 15 examples of lead generation were examined. The probability of finding active positions among all hydrogen atoms was 26%, and the current method accurately predicted 60% of the active positions.

  5. Increasing Physical Activity among Adults with Disabilities: Doctors Can Play a Key Role

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Dianna Carroll, a senior health scientist with CDC’s Division of Human Development and Disability, talks about the role of doctors and other health professionals in increasing physical activity among adults with disabilities.

  6. Statins Activate Human PPAR Promoter and Increase PPAR mRNA Expression and Activation in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Seo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR mRNA expression, but the mechanism of this increased PPAR production remains elusive. To examine the regulation of PPAR production, we examined the effect of 7 statins (atorvastatin, cerivastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin on human PPAR promoter activity, mRNA expression, nuclear protein levels, and transcriptional activity. The main results are as follows. (1 Majority of statins enhanced PPAR promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells transfected with the human PPAR promoter. This enhancement may be mediated by statin-induced HNF-4. (2 PPAR mRNA expression was increased by statin treatment. (3 The PPAR levels in nuclear fractions were increased by statin treatment. (4 Simvastatin, pravastatin, and cerivastatin markedly enhanced transcriptional activity in 293T cells cotransfected with acyl-coenzyme A oxidase promoter and PPAR/RXR expression vectors. In summary, these data demonstrate that PPAR production and activation are upregulated through the PPAR promoter activity by statin treatment.

  7. Targeting Reductions in Sitting Time to Increase Physical Activity and Improve Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah K; Conroy, David E; Buman, Matthew P; Dunstan, David W; Matthews, Charles E

    2017-08-01

    : New evidence suggests that reductions in sedentary behavior may increase physical activity and improve health. These findings point to new behavioral targets for intervention and new ways to think about intervening to increase overall physical activity in the population. This report provides a knowledge update reflecting the rapid accumulation of new evidence related to sedentary behavior and health among adults. Recent observational studies suggest that leveraging the time-inverse relationship between sedentary and active behaviors by replacing sitting with standing, light- or moderate-intensity activity can have important health benefits, particularly among less active adults. Clinical studies are providing evidence of the probable physiologic mechanisms underlying these associations, as well as insights into the cardiometabolic impact of breaking up and reducing sedentary behavior. In contrast to the well-established behavioral theories that guide the development and dissemination of evidence-based interventions to increase moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, much less is known about how to reduce sedentary time to increase daily activities. It has become clear that the environmental, social, and individual level determinants for sedentary time are distinct from those linked to the adoption and maintenance of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. As a result, novel intervention strategies that focus on sitting and lower-intensity activities by leveraging the surrounding environment (e.g., workplace, school, and home) as well as individual-level cues and habits of sedentary behavior are being tested to increase the potency of interventions designed to increase overall physical activity. Herein we summarize the solutions-oriented research across the behavioral research framework, with a focus on highlighting areas of synergy across disciplines and identifying gaps for future research.

  8. Seeing Is Eating: How and When Activation of a Negative Stereotype Increases Stereotype-Conducive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret C. Campbell; Gina S. Mohr

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the effect of activation of a negative stereotype on behaviors that are perceived to increase the chance of becoming a member of the stereotyped group. Activation of a negative stereotype (the overweight stereotype) is shown to lead to stereotype-consistent goal commitment (low health goal commitment), which partially explains increases in stereotype-conducive behavior (eating indulgent foods). Two theoretically relevant moderators are proposed and supported. Increa...

  9. Increased PDGFRα Activation Disrupts Connective Tissue Development and Drives Systemic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Lorin E.; Soriano, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    PDGF signaling regulates the development of mesenchymal cell types in the embryo and in the adult, but the role of receptor activation in tissue homeostasis has not been investigated. We have generated conditional knockin mice with mutations in PDGFRα that drive increased kinase activity under the control of the endogenous PDGFRα promoter. In embryos, increased PDGFRα signaling leads to hyperplasia of stromal fibroblasts that disturbs normal smooth muscle tissue in radially patterned organs. ...

  10. Increasing Children's Voluntary Physical Activity Outside of School Hours Through Targeting Social Cognitive Theory Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Walsh, Stephanie M; Greenwood, Brittney L

    2016-10-01

    Volume of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity completed during the elementary school day is insufficient, and associated with health risks. Improvements in theory-based psychosocial factors might facilitate increased out-of-school physical activity. A behaviorally based after-school care protocol, Youth Fit 4 Life, was tested for its association with increased voluntary, out-of-school physical activity and improvements in its theory-based psychosocial predictors in 9- to 12-year-olds. Increases over 12 weeks in out-of-school physical activity, and improvements in self-regulation for physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and mood, were significantly greater in the Youth Fit 4 Life group (n = 88) when contrasted with a typical care control group (n = 57). Changes in the 3 psychosocial variables significantly mediated the group-physical activity change relationship (R(2) = .31, P theory-based psychosocial changes within a structured after-school care physical activity program was associated with increases in children's overall time being physically active. After replication, large scale application will be warranted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Increased MMP-2 activity during intervertebral disc degeneration is correlated to MMP-14 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutges, J. P. H. J.; Kummer, J. A.; Oner, F. C.; Verbout, A. J.; Roestenburg, H. J. A.; Dhert, W. J. A.; Creemers, L. B.

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with the increased expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-2. However, little is known about the actual activity of MMP-2 in healthy and degenerated discs, or what mechanisms are involved in its activation. A

  12. Focused Campaign Increases Activity among Participants in "Nature's Notebook," a Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants' activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a…

  13. Does Physical Activity Increase Life Expectancy? A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Reimers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity reduces many major mortality risk factors including arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. All-cause mortality is decreased by about 30% to 35% in physically active as compared to inactive subjects. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the literature on life expectancy in relation to physical activity. A systematic PubMed search on life expectancy in physically active and inactive individuals was performed. In addition, articles comparing life expectancy of athletes compared to that of nonathletes were reviewed. Results of 13 studies describing eight different cohorts suggest that regular physical activity is associated with an increase of life expectancy by 0.4 to 6.9 years. Eleven studies included confounding risk factors for mortality and revealed an increase in life expectancy by 0.4 to 4.2 years with regular physical activity. Eleven case control studies on life expectancy in former athletes revealed consistently greater life expectancy in aerobic endurance athletes but inconsistent results for other athletes. None of these studies considered confounding risk factors for mortality. In conclusion, while regular physical activity increases life expectancy, it remains unclear if high-intensity sports activities further increase life expectancy.

  14. Increase the Performance of Companies in the Energy Sector by Implementing the Activity-Based Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Letitia-Maria Rof; Sorinel Capusneanu

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the increasing performances as result of implementation stages of the ActivityBased Costing in the companies operating in the energy sector in Romania. There are presented some aspects of the usefulness of applying the Activity-Based Costing in the energy sector and the advantages it offers compared to traditional costing. There are also outlined the steps for applying the Activity-Based Costing and its implementation in the largest hydropower producer in Romania. The ...

  15. Increased activities of mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Vinten, J; Ploug, T

    1991-01-01

    of 8-12 rats were swim trained for 10 wk or served as either sedentary, sham swim-trained, or cold-stressed controls. White adipose tissue was removed, and the activities of the respiratory chain enzyme cytochrome-c oxidase (CCO) and of the enzyme malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which participates...... 0.05). In female rats the CCO activity expressed per milligram protein was increased 4.5-fold in the trained compared with the sedentary control rats (P less than 0.01). Neither cold stress nor sham swim training increased CCO or MDH activities in white adipose tissue (P greater than 0...

  16. Building an urban park increases the intention of adults to practice physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaelly Machado Felix

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical activity levels in adults are low and strategies should be put in place to change this. The aim of this study was to investigate whether building an urban park can increase adult neighborhood residents' intentions to partake in physical activity. In total, 395 adults living near where the park was being built participated in the study. The following information was collected: sociodemographic characteristics, current physical activity levels, and intention to use the park for physical activity. Around 80% of the subjects intended to use the park for physical activity. This frequency was higher among those who were classified as physically active and gradually higher as the distance between the home of the subject and the park decreased (p < 0.05. The offer of a public leisure space can contribute positively to changing population behavior related to regular physical activity.

  17. A systematic review of workplace health promotion interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sumaira H; Blake, Holly; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    The benefits of an active lifestyle are widely documented, yet studies show that only a small proportion of adults engage in sufficient levels of physical activity. The workplace presents an ideal avenue for delivering initiatives to promote physical activity, overcoming commonly cited barriers such as a 'lack of time' and providing access to a large intersection of society. The purpose of this study was to (1) explore the types of interventions workplaces implement to promote physical activity among staff, (2) describe the characteristics of those interventions, (3) understand whether these interventions positively impact on activity levels, and (4) assess the methodological quality of studies. A systematic review of workplace physical activity interventions published up to April 2011 was conducted to identify types of interventions and their outcomes. Of the 58 studies included, the majority utilized health promotion initiatives. There were six physical activity/exercise interventions, 13 counselling/support interventions, and 39 health promotion messages/information interventions. Thirty-two of these studies showed a statistically significant increase in a measure of physical activity against a control group at follow-up. While the studies included in this review show some evidence that workplace physical activity interventions can be efficacious, overall the results are inconclusive. Despite the proliferation of research in this area, there is still a need for more well-designed studies to fully determine the effectiveness of workplace interventions for increasing physical activity and to identify the types of interventions that show the most promise. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. LaRowe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childcare and education (ECE is a prime setting for obesity prevention and the establishment of healthy behaviors. The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the efficacy of the Active Early guide, which includes evidenced-based approaches, provider resources, and training, to improve physical activity opportunities through structured (i.e. teacher-led activity and environmental changes thereby increasing physical activity among children, ages 2–5 years, in the ECE setting. Methods Twenty ECE programs in Wisconsin, 7 family and 13 group, were included. An 80-page guide, Active Early, was developed by experts and statewide partners in the fields of ECE, public health, and physical activity and was revised by ECE providers prior to implementation. Over 12 months, ECE programs received on-site training and technical assistance to implement the strategies and resources provided in the Active Early guide. Main outcome measures included observed minutes of teacher-led physical activity, physical activity environment measured by the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO instrument, and child physical activity levels via accelerometry. All measures were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months and were analyzed for changes over time. Results Observed teacher-led physical activity significantly increased from 30.9 ± 22.7 min at baseline to 82.3 ± 41.3 min at 12 months. The change in percent time children spent in sedentary activity decreased significantly after 12 months (−4.4 ± 14.2 % time, −29.2 ± 2.6 min, p < 0.02. Additionally, as teacher led-activity increased, percent time children were sedentary decreased (r = −0.37, p < 0.05 and percent time spent in light physical activity increased (r = 0.35, p < 0.05. Among all ECE programs, the physical activity environment improved significantly as indicated by multiple sub-scales of

  19. Will a game cause increased fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity in elementary school children?

    OpenAIRE

    Trimble, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Background Incentives increase healthy lifestyle choices. Schools don’t have financial resources for an incentive program. Research Question Is there a way to increase fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in elementary school children at little or no cost to the school?

  20. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Alonso-Azcarate, J. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Carlos III, s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Rodriguez, L., E-mail: Luis.Rromero@uclm.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: > Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. > Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. > Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.

  1. Glucocorticoid receptor number predicts increase in amygdala activity after severe stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Elbert; van Wingen, Guido A.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Rademaker, Arthur R.; Vermetten, Eric; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Fernández, Guillén; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals who are exposed to a traumatic event are at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that increased amygdala activity is frequently found in patients with PTSD. In addition, pre-trauma glucocorticoid

  2. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, E.; Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Rodriguez, L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: → Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. → Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. → Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.

  3. Increasing Physical Activity in Preschool: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Animal Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christine L.; Carter, Betty Jean; Kibbe, Debra L.; Dennison, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This report describes a pilot study to evaluate Animal Trackers (AT), a preschool program designed to (1) increase structured physical activity (PA) during the preschool day; (2) increase practice of gross motor skills; (3) provide teachers with an easy-to-use PA program regardless of teacher experience; and (4) implement a teacher…

  4. Prolonged seizure activity leads to increased Protein Kinase A activation in the rat pilocarpine model of status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, James M; Kurz, Jonathan E; Low, Brian; Churn, Severn B

    2009-08-04

    Status epilepticus is a life-threatening form of seizure activity that represents a major medical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Protein Kinase A is an important regulator of synaptic strength that may play an important role in the development of status epilepticus-induced neuronal pathology. This study demonstrated an increase in PKA activity against exogenous and endogenous substrates during later stages of SE. As SE progressed, a significant increase in PKA-mediated phosphorylation of an exogenous peptide substrate was demonstrated in cortical structures. The increased activity was not due to altered expression of either regulatory or catalytic subunits of the enzyme. Through the use of phospho-specific antibodies, this study also investigated the effects of SE on the phosphorylation of the GluR1 subunit of the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptor. After the onset of continuous seizure activity, an increase in phosphorylation of the PKA site on the GluR1 subunit of the AMPA receptor was observed. These data suggest a potential mechanism by which SE may increase neuronal excitability in the cortex, potentially leading to maintenance of seizure activity or long-term neuronal pathology.

  5. Potential to increase active commuting level in university area (Case study: Universitas Gadjah Mada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    In order to alleviate the negative impacts of motorized vehicle use as well as create sustainable environment within campus area, it is pivotal to encourage mode shifting among university students. Active transport modes such as walking, cycling, and using public transport can be considered as alternative modes. This paper tried to identify the potential to increase active commuting in UGM by understanding student’s travel behavior. ANOVA test was employed to identify the perceptions between students across residential zones toward motivators and barriers to actively commute. The findings were used to propose strategies for increasing active commuting level in UGM, which are: reducing barriers to actively commute, improving public transport services, improving walking and cycling facilities, and introducing programs to discourage motorized vehicle use.

  6. Evaluation of a faculty development program aimed at increasing residents' active learning in lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Bonnie C; English, Robin; Hescock, George; Hauser, Andrea; Roy, Melissa; Yang, Tong; Chauvin, Sheila W

    2012-12-01

    Active engagement in the learning process is important to enhance learners' knowledge acquisition and retention and the development of their thinking skills. This study evaluated whether a 1-hour faculty development workshop increased the use of active teaching strategies and enhanced residents' active learning and thinking. Faculty teaching in a pediatrics residency participated in a 1-hour workshop (intervention) approximately 1 month before a scheduled lecture. Participants' responses to a preworkshop/postworkshop questionnaire targeted self-efficacy (confidence) for facilitating active learning and thinking and providing feedback about workshop quality. Trained observers assessed each lecture (3-month baseline phase and 3-month intervention phase) using an 8-item scale for use of active learning strategies and a 7-item scale for residents' engagement in active learning. Observers also assessed lecturer-resident interactions and the extent to which residents were asked to justify their answers. Responses to the workshop questionnaire (n  =  32/34; 94%) demonstrated effectiveness and increased confidence. Faculty in the intervention phase demonstrated increased use of interactive teaching strategies for 6 items, with 5 reaching statistical significance (P ≤ .01). Residents' active learning behaviors in lectures were higher in the intervention arm for all 7 items, with 5 reaching statistical significance. Faculty in the intervention group demonstrated increased use of higher-order questioning (P  =  .02) and solicited justifications for answers (P  =  .01). A 1-hour faculty development program increased faculty use of active learning strategies and residents' engagement in active learning during resident core curriculum lectures.

  7. Clofibrate-induced increases in peroxisomal proteins: effect on synthesis, degradation, and mRNA activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of clofibrate on the polypeptide composition of peroxisomes was determined. A simple method was developed for the isolation of peroxisomes with a purity of 90-95% using sedimentation in a metrizamide gradient. The specific activities of HD did not change with clofibrate treatment so that the increases in enzyme activities are solely due to increases in protein amounts. The hepatic concentration of HD increased 63 times. The HD synthesis rate, as measured by the incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine, increased 74 times, so that the increase in the synthesis was sufficient to account for the increase in protein. Clofibrate caused no discernible change in the degradation rate of HD labeled with [ 14 C]bicarbonate. The half-life of HD was approximately 2 days. The translatable mRBA coding for HD increased 55 times. This value is not significantly different from the increase in HD protein or in HD synthesis. This observation was also true for several other peroxisomal proteins. Therefore, clofibrate causes an increase in the mRNA activity, which increases the synthesis of HD leading to an accumulation of protein and enzyme activity. The kinetics of the clofibrate-induced changes in HD synthesis rate, protein level, and enzymatic activity was analyzed using a simple model which included the half-lives of the drug, mRNA, and protein. The best fit of the model to the data gave an mRNA half-life of 10 hours and a protein half-life of 1.8 days, with no significant change by clofibrate

  8. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  9. Increased CSF-BACE1 activity associated with decreased hippocampus volume in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The enzyme beta-secretase (BACE1) is essentially involved in the production of cerebral amyloidogenic pathology in Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD). The measurement of BACE1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported, which may render CSF measurement of BACE1 a potential biomarker candidate of AD. In order to investigate whether BACE1 protein activity is correlated with regional brain atrophy in AD, we investigated the association between CSF levels of BACE1 and MRI-assessed hippocampus volume in patients with AD (n = 30). An increase in CSF-BACE1 activity was associated with decreased left and right hippocampus volume corrected for global head volume in the AD patients. Boot-strapped regression analysis showed that increased CSF levels of BACE1 activity were associated with increased CSF concentration of total tau but not amyloid-beta1-42 in AD. White matter hyperintensities did not influence the results. BACE1 activity and protein levels were significantly increased in AD compared to 19 elderly healthy controls. Thus, the CSF biomarker candidate of BACE1 activity was associated with hippocampus atrophy in AD in a robust manner and may reflect neurotoxic amyloid-beta-related processes.

  10. Shale gas activity and increased rates of sexually transmitted infections in Ohio, 2000-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C Deziel

    Full Text Available The growing shale gas ("fracking" industry depends on a mobile workforce, whose influx could have social impacts on host communities. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs can increase through sexual mixing patterns associated with labor migration. No prior studies have quantified the relationship between shale gas activity and rates of three reportable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.We conducted a longitudinal, ecologic study from 2000-2016 in Ohio, situated in a prolific shale gas region in the United States (US. Data on reported cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis by county and year were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. All 88 counties were classified as none, low, and high shale gas activity in each year, using data from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Annual rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated from mixed-effects Poisson regression models evaluating the relationship between shale gas activity and reported annual STI rates while adjusting for secular trends and potential confounders obtained from the US Census.Compared to counties with no shale gas activity, counties with high activity had 21% (RR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.08-1.36 increased rates of chlamydia and 19% (RR = 1.27; 95%CI 0.98-1.44 increased rates of gonorrhea, respectively. No association was observed for syphilis.This first report of a link between shale gas activity and increased rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea may inform local policies and community health efforts.

  11. Sex differences in functional activation patterns revealed by increased emotion processing demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey B C; Witelson, Sandra F; Szechtman, Henry; Nahmias, Claude

    2004-02-09

    Two [O(15)] PET studies assessed sex differences regional brain activation in the recognition of emotional stimuli. Study I revealed that the recognition of emotion in visual faces resulted in bilateral frontal activation in women, and unilateral right-sided activation in men. In study II, the complexity of the emotional face task was increased through tje addition of associated auditory emotional stimuli. Men again showed unilateral frontal activation, in this case to the left; whereas women did not show bilateral frontal activation, but showed greater limbic activity. These results suggest that when processing broader cross-modal emotional stimuli, men engage more in associative cognitive strategies while women draw more on primary emotional references.

  12. Estrogen increases Nrf2 activity through activation of the PI3K pathway in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juanjuan, E-mail: jwu32@emory.edu [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4211 WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Williams, Devin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 (United States); Walter, Grant A. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4211 WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Thompson, Winston E. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 (United States); Sidell, Neil [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4211 WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The actions of the transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in breast cancer have been shown to include both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities which is influenced, at least in part, by the hormonal environment. However, direct regulation of Nrf2 by steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) has received only scant attention. Nrf2 is known to be regulated by its cytosolic binding protein, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), and by a Keap1-independent mechanism involving a series of phosphorylation steps mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β). Here, we report that estrogen (E2) increases Nrf2 activity in MCF7 breast cancer cells through activation of the PI3K/GSK3β pathway. Utilizing antioxidant response element (ARE)-containing luciferase reporter constructs as read-outs for Nrf2 activity, our data indicated that E2 increased ARE activity >14-fold and enhanced the action of the Nrf2 activators, tertiary butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) and sulforaphane (Sul) 4 to 9 fold compared with cells treated with tBHQ or Sul as single agents. This activity was shown to be an estrogen receptor-mediated phenomenon and was antagonized by progesterone. In addition to its action on the reporter constructs, mRNA and protein levels of heme oxygenase 1, an endogenous target gene of Nrf2, was markedly upregulated by E2 both alone and in combination with tBHQ. Importantly, E2-induced Nrf2 activation was completely suppressed by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and Wortmannin while the GSK3β inhibitor CT99021 upregulated Nrf2 activity. Confirmation that E2 was, at least partly, acting through the PI3K/GSK3β pathway was indicated by our finding that E2 increased the phosphorylation status of both GSK3β and Akt, a well-characterized downstream target of PI3K. Together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which E2 can regulate Nrf2 activity in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

  13. Increased p21ras activity in human fibroblasts transduced with survivin enhances cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temme, Achim; Diestelkoetter-Bachert, Petra; Schmitz, Marc; Morgenroth, Agnieszka; Weigle, Bernd; Rieger, Michael A.; Kiessling, Andrea; Rieber, E. Peter

    2005-01-01

    Survivin is critically involved in mitosis and when overexpressed enhances the activity of the Aurora B kinase, a serine-threonine kinase belonging to the family of oncogenic Aurora/IpI1p-related kinases. Both proteins interact with Ras GTPase-activating protein suggesting an impact on the Ras pathway. This study aimed at defining the role of survivin in proliferation and potential transformation of cells. When survivin was overexpressed in normal human lung fibroblasts, the characteristic track lanes of fibroblasts were disturbed and the rate of cell proliferation was increased. An enhanced level of p21 ras mRNA and protein expression and concomitant rise in levels of activated p21 ras were observed. Despite increased proliferation cell survival remained dependent on serum and cells were not able to form colonies in soft agar assays. These data suggest that overexpression of survivin increases cell growth but, despite the increase in active p21 ras , is not sufficient to transform primary cells. Yet, in addition to its anti-apoptotic function it might contribute to the accelerated growth of tumour cells by increasing p21 ras activity

  14. Superoxide dismutase and catalase conjugated to polyethylene glycol increases endothelial enzyme activity and oxidant resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, J.S.; Minor, R.L. Jr.; White, C.W.; Repine, J.E.; Rosen, G.M.; Freeman, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Covalent conjugation of superoxide dismutase and catalase with polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases the circulatory half-lives of these enzymes from 125 I-PEG-catalase or 125 I-PEG-superoxide dismutase produced a linear, concentration-dependent increase in cellular enzyme activity and radioactivity. Fluorescently labeled PEG-superoxide dismutase incubated with endothelial cells showed a vesicular localization. Mechanical injury to cell monolayers, which is known to stimulate endocytosis, further increased the uptake of fluorescent PEG-superoxide dismutase. Addition of PEG and PEG-conjugated enzymes perturbed the spin-label binding environment, indicative of producing an increase in plasma membrane fluidity. Thus, PEG conjugation to superoxide dismutase and catalase enhances cell association of these enzymes in a manner which increases cellular enzyme activities and provides prolonged protection from partially reduced oxygen species

  15. Dietary resveratrol administration increases MnSOD expression and activity in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Ellen L.; Winkelmolen, Lieke; Visanji, Naomi; Brotchie, Jonathan; Stuart, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    trans-Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES) is of interest for its reported protective effects in a variety of pathologies, including neurodegeneration. Many of these protective properties have been attributed to the ability of RES to reduce oxidative stress. In vitro studies have shown an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities following exposure to RES, including upregulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that is capable of reducing both oxidative stress and cell death. We sought to determine if a similar increase in endogenous antioxidant enzymes is observed with RES treatment in vivo. Three separate modes of RES delivery were utilized; in a standard diet, a high fat diet and through a subcutaneous osmotic minipump. RES given in a high fat diet proved to be effective in elevating antioxidant capacity in brain resulting in an increase in both MnSOD protein level (140%) and activity (75%). The increase in MnSOD was not due to a substantial proliferation of mitochondria, as RES treatment induced a 10% increase in mitochondrial abundance (Citrate Synthase activity). The potential neuroprotective properties of MnSOD have been well established, and we demonstrate that a dietary delivery of RES is able to increase the expression and activity of this enzyme in vivo

  16. Activation of the Ca2+-sensing receptors increases currents through inward rectifier K+ channels via activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Hung; Chang, Hsueh-Kai; Lee, Sue-Ping; Shieh, Ru-Chi

    2016-11-01

    Inward rectifier K + channels are important for maintaining normal electrical function in many cell types. The proper function of these channels requires the presence of membrane phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ). Stimulation of the Ca 2+ -sensing receptor CaR, a pleiotropic G protein-coupled receptor, activates both G q/11 , which decreases PIP 2 , and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI-4-K), which, conversely, increases PIP 2 . How membrane PIP 2 levels are regulated by CaR activation and whether these changes modulate inward rectifier K + are unknown. In this study, we found that activation of CaR by the allosteric agonist, NPSR568, increased inward rectifier K + current (I K1 ) in guinea pig ventricular myocytes and currents mediated by Kir2.1 channels exogenously expressed in HEK293T cells with a similar sensitivity. Moreover, using the fluorescent PIP 2 reporter tubby-R332H-cYFP to monitor PIP 2 levels, we found that CaR activation in HEK293T cells increased membrane PIP 2 concentrations. Pharmacological studies showed that both phospholipase C (PLC) and PI-4-K are activated by CaR stimulation with the latter played a dominant role in regulating membrane PIP 2 and, thus, Kir currents. These results provide the first direct evidence that CaR activation upregulates currents through inward rectifier K + channels by accelerating PIP 2 synthesis. The regulation of I K1 plays a critical role in the stability of the electrical properties of many excitable cells, including cardiac myocytes and neurons. Further, synthetic allosteric modulators that increase CaR activity have been used to treat hyperparathyroidism, and negative CaR modulators are of potential importance in the treatment of osteoporosis. Thus, our results provide further insight into the roles played by CaR in the cardiovascular system and are potentially valuable for heart disease treatment and drug safety.

  17. Increased angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the left ventricle after infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C.W. Busatto

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE activity has been observed in the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. Since most studies have been conducted in chronically infarcted individuals exhibiting variable degrees of heart failure, the present study was designed to determine ACE activity in an earlier phase of MI, before heart failure development. MI was produced in 3-month old male Wistar rats by ligation of the anterior branches of the left coronary artery, control rats underwent sham surgery and the animals were studied 7 or 15 days later. Hemodynamic data obtained for the anesthetized animals showed normal values of arterial blood pressure and of end-diastolic pressure in the right and left ventricular cavities of MI rats. Right and left ventricular (RV, LV muscle and scar tissue homogenates were prepared to determine ACE activity in vitro by measuring the velocity of His-Leu release from the synthetic substrate Hyp-His-Leu. ACE activity was corrected to the tissue wet weight and is reported as nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1. No significant change in ACE activity in the RV homogenates was demonstrable. A small nonsignificant increase of ACE activity (11 ± 9%; P0.05 was observed 7 days after MI in the surviving left ventricular muscle. Two weeks after surgery, however, ACE activity was 46 ± 11% (P<0.05 higher in infarcted rats compared to sham-operated rats. The highest ACE activity was demonstrable in the scar tissue homogenate. In rats studied two weeks after surgery, ACE activity in the LV muscle increased from 105 ± 7 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 in control hearts to 153 ± 11 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 (P<0.05 in the remaining LV muscle of MI rats and to 1051 ± 208 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 (P<0.001 in the fibrous scar. These data indicate that ACE activity increased in the heart after infarction before heart failure was demonstrable by hemodynamic measurements. Since the blood vessels of the scar drain to the remaining LV myocardium, the

  18. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased cell surface metallopeptidase activity in cells undergoing UV-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piva, T.J.; Davern, C.M.; Ellem, K.A.O.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We have previously shown that UVC irradiation activated a range of cell surface peptidases (CSP) in HeLa cell monolayer cultures 20 h post-irradiation (1). In cells undergoing apoptosis there is an increase in CSP activity compared to control viable cells in cultures which have been treated by a wide range of agents including UV-irradiation (2). In order to further understand the mechanism involved in this process, we induced apoptosis in HeLa cells using 500 Jm -2 UVB. The separation of viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells of irradiated HeLa cell cultures was made by FACS analysis and sorting. The three populations were distinguished by their staining with PI and Hoechst 33342 dyes. CSP activity was measured using the P9 assay developed in this laboratory (1-3). The viable fraction of the irradiated cells had a higher level of CSP activity compared to unirradiated controls. The level of CSP activity in the apoptotic fraction was higher than that of the viable fraction, however that of the necrotic fraction was significantly lower. This finding agreed with that seen in UVC-irradiated (50 Jm -2 ) cultures (2). In order to elucidate the mechanism by which CSP activity was increased in UVB-irradiated cells undergoing apoptosis, the cultures were treated with the following agents: bestatin, aminopeptidase inhibitor, DEVD, caspase 3 inhibitor, and 3-aminobenzamide (3AB), PARP activation inhibitor. Bestatin and DEVD did not affect the level of CSP activity in the different cell subpopulations following UVB-irradiation. Treatment with 3AB abolished the increased CSP activity seen in the viable and apoptotic fraction following UVB-irradiation. All treated cells had the same morphology as observed under EM. The degree of phosphatidylserine eversion on the cell membrane was similar as were the cleavage profiles of PARP and actin. Only DEVD-treated cells had reduced caspase 3 activity which confirmed that the activation of CSP activity in apoptotic cells is

  20. Integrative exercise and lifestyle intervention increases leisure-time activity in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, Soraya; Hojman, Pernille; Cubedo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been demonstrated to increase survival in breast cancer patients, but few breast cancer patients meet the general recommendations for physical activity. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if a supervised integrated counseling and group-based exercise...... program could increase leisure-time activity in women with breast cancer. METHODS: This pilot project, designed as a single-arm study with pre-post testing, consisted of 24 classes of combined aerobic and strength exercise training as well as classes on dietary and health behavior. A total of 48 women...... with breast cancer who were undergoing or had recently completed anticancer treatment completed the study. Leisure-time physical activity, grip strength, functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), and depression were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at the 12-week follow-up after intervention...

  1. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  2. INCREASING EFL STUDENTS’ WRITING ABILITIES USING PEER RESPONSE ACTIVITIES VIA FACEBOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zaini Miftah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to increase EFL students’ abilities in writing argumentative essay via Facebook by developing peer response activities. The classroom action research was employed in cyclic activities. The subjects were 25 Indonesian fourth-year undergraduate EFL students who enrolled in Writing III course. The data were gained from writing task, observation, and field notes. The result shows that this strategy with the appropriate instructional procedures can increase the EFL students’ abilities in writing argumentative essay. It is indicated by the increases of the students’ writing achievement and involvement in writing class during peer response activities via Facebook. Hence, it gives insights to employ this way as an alternative teaching technique in writing classroom because of its effectiveness.

  3. Increasing EFL Students’ Writing Abilities Using Peer Response Activities via Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zaini Miftah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to increase EFL students’ abilities in writing argumentative essay via Facebook by developing peer response activities. The classroom action research was employed in cyclic activities. The subjects were 25 Indonesian fourth-year undergraduate EFL students who enrolled in Writing III course. The data were gained from writing task, observation, and field notes. The result shows that this strategy with the appropriate instructional procedures can increase the EFL students’ abilities in writing argumentative essay. It is indicated by the increases of the students’ writing achievement and involvement in writing class during peer response activities via Facebook. Hence, it gives insights to employ this way as an alternative teaching technique in writing classroom because of its effectiveness.

  4. Carnosine: effect on aging-induced increase in brain regional monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-03-01

    Aging is a natural biological process associated with several neurological disorders along with the biochemical changes in brain. Aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of carnosine (0.5-2.5μg/kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) on aging-induced changes in brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity with its kinetic parameters. The results of the present study are: (1) The brain regional mitochondrial MAO-A activity and their kinetic parameters (except in Km of pons-medulla) were significantly increased with the increase of age (4-24 months), (2) Aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity including its Vmax were attenuated with higher dosages of carnosine (1.0-2.5μg/kg/day) and restored toward the activity that observed in young, though its lower dosage (0.5μg/kg/day) were ineffective in these brain regional MAO-A activity, (3) Carnosine at higher dosage in young rats, unlike aged rats significantly inhibited all the brain regional MAO-A activity by reducing their only Vmax excepting cerebral cortex, where Km was also significantly enhanced. These results suggest that carnosine attenuated the aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity by attenuating its kinetic parameters and restored toward the results of MAO-A activity that observed in corresponding brain regions of young rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Construction of Mutant Glucose Oxidases with Increased Dye-Mediated Dehydrogenase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horaguchi, Yohei; Saito, Shoko; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ferri, Stefano; Sode, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Mutagenesis studies on glucose oxidases (GOxs) were conducted to construct GOxs with reduced oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity. We focused on two representative GOxs, of which crystal structures have already been reported—Penicillium amagasakiense GOx (PDB ID; 1gpe) and Aspergillus niger GOx (PDB ID; 1cf3). We constructed oxygen-interacting structural models for GOxs, and predicted the residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen on the basis of the crystal structure of cholesterol oxidase as well as on the fact that both enzymes are members of the glucose/methanol/choline (GMC) oxidoreductase family. Rational amino acid substitution resulted in the construction of an engineered GOx with drastically decreased oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity, which was higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. As a result, the dehydrogenase/oxidase ratio of the engineered enzyme was more than 11-fold greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. These results indicate that alteration of the dehydrogenase/oxidase activity ratio of GOxs is possible by introducing a mutation into the putative functional residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen of these enzymes, resulting in a further increased dehydrogenase activity. This is the first study reporting the alteration of GOx electron acceptor preference from oxygen to an artificial electron acceptor. PMID:23203056

  6. Construction of Mutant Glucose Oxidases with Increased Dye-Mediated Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Sode

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutagenesis studies on glucose oxidases (GOxs were conducted to construct GOxs with reduced oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity. We focused on two representative GOxs, of which crystal structures have already been reported—Penicillium amagasakiense GOx (PDB ID; 1gpe and Aspergillus niger GOx (PDB ID; 1cf3. We constructed oxygen-interacting structural models for GOxs, and predicted the residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen on the basis of the crystal structure of cholesterol oxidase as well as on the fact that both enzymes are members of the glucose/methanol/choline (GMC oxidoreductase family. Rational amino acid substitution resulted in the construction of an engineered GOx with drastically decreased oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity, which was higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. As a result, the dehydrogenase/oxidase ratio of the engineered enzyme was more than 11-fold greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. These results indicate that alteration of the dehydrogenase/oxidase activity ratio of GOxs is possible by introducing a mutation into the putative functional residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen of these enzymes, resulting in a further increased dehydrogenase activity. This is the first study reporting the alteration of GOx electron acceptor preference from oxygen to an artificial electron acceptor.

  7. Construction of mutant glucose oxidases with increased dye-mediated dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horaguchi, Yohei; Saito, Shoko; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ferri, Stefano; Sode, Koji

    2012-11-02

    Mutagenesis studies on glucose oxidases (GOxs) were conducted to construct GOxs with reduced oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity. We focused on two representative GOxs, of which crystal structures have already been reported—Penicillium amagasakiense GOx (PDB ID; 1gpe) and Aspergillus niger GOx (PDB ID; 1cf3). We constructed oxygen-interacting structural models for GOxs, and predicted the residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen on the basis of the crystal structure of cholesterol oxidase as well as on the fact that both enzymes are members of the glucose/methanol/choline (GMC) oxidoreductase family. Rational amino acid substitution resulted in the construction of an engineered GOx with drastically decreased oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity, which was higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. As a result, the dehydrogenase/oxidase ratio of the engineered enzyme was more than 11-fold greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. These results indicate that alteration of the dehydrogenase/oxidase activity ratio of GOxs is possible by introducing a mutation into the putative functional residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen of these enzymes, resulting in a further increased dehydrogenase activity. This is the first study reporting the alteration of GOx electron acceptor preference from oxygen to an artificial electron acceptor.

  8. Troxerutin Reduces Kidney Damage against BDE-47-Induced Apoptosis via Inhibiting NOX2 Activity and Increasing Nrf2 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Shan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 2,2,4,4-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47, one of the persistent organic pollutants, seriously influences the quality of life; however, its pathological mechanism remains unclear. Troxerutin is a flavonoid with pharmacological activity of antioxidation and anti-inflammation. In the present study, we investigated troxerutin against BDE-47-induced kidney cell apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanism. The results show that troxerutin reduced renal cell apoptosis and urinary protein secretion in BDE-47-treated mice. Western blot analysis shows that troxerutin supplement enhanced the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax; inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, the activation of procaspase-9 and procaspase-3, and the cleavage of PARP; and reduced FAS, FASL, and caspase-8 levels induced by BDE-47. In addition, troxerutin decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and increased the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Furthermore, troxerutin blunted Nrf2 ubiquitylation, enhanced the activity of Nrf2, decreased the activity of NOX2, and ameliorated kidney oxidant status of BDE-47-treated mice. Together, these results confirm that troxerutin could alleviate the cytotoxicity of BDE-47 through antioxidation and antiapoptosis, which suggests that its protective mechanism is involved in the inhibition of apoptosis via suppressing NOX2 activity and increasing Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  9. Acrolein activates matrix metalloproteinases by increasing reactive oxygen species in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Zheng, Yu-Ting; Hellmann, Jason; Conklin, Daniel J; Barski, Oleg; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2009-04-15

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous component of environmental pollutants such as automobile exhaust, cigarette, wood, and coal smoke. It is also a natural constituent of several foods and is generated endogenously during inflammation or oxidation of unsaturated lipids. Because increased inflammation and episodic exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants such as traffic emissions or cigarette smoke have been linked to acute myocardial infarction, we examined the effects of acrolein on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which destabilize atherosclerotic plaques. Our studies show that exposure to acrolein resulted in the secretion of MMP-9 from differentiated THP-1 macrophages. Acrolein-treatment of macrophages also led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i)), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. ROS production was prevented by allopurinol, but not by rotenone or apocynin and by buffering changes in [Ca2+](I) with BAPTA-AM. The increase in MMP production was abolished by pre-treatment with the antioxidants Tiron and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or with the xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol or oxypurinol. Finally, MMP activity was significantly stimulated in aortic sections from apoE-null mice containing advanced atherosclerotic lesions after exposure to acrolein ex vivo. These observations suggest that acrolein exposure results in MMP secretion from macrophages via a mechanism that involves an increase in [Ca2+](I), leading to xanthine oxidase activation and an increase in ROS production. ROS-dependent activation of MMPs by acrolein could destabilize atherosclerotic lesions during brief episodes of inflammation or pollutant exposure.

  10. Acrolein activates matrix metalloproteinases by increasing reactive oxygen species in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, Timothy E.; Zheng Yuting; Hellmann, Jason; Conklin, Daniel J.; Barski, Oleg; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2009-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous component of environmental pollutants such as automobile exhaust, cigarette, wood, and coal smoke. It is also a natural constituent of several foods and is generated endogenously during inflammation or oxidation of unsaturated lipids. Because increased inflammation and episodic exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants such as traffic emissions or cigarette smoke have been linked to acute myocardial infarction, we examined the effects of acrolein on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which destabilize atherosclerotic plaques. Our studies show that exposure to acrolein resulted in the secretion of MMP-9 from differentiated THP-1 macrophages. Acrolein-treatment of macrophages also led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), free intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. ROS production was prevented by allopurinol, but not by rotenone or apocynin and by buffering changes in [Ca 2+ ] I with BAPTA-AM. The increase in MMP production was abolished by pre-treatment with the antioxidants Tiron and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or with the xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol or oxypurinol. Finally, MMP activity was significantly stimulated in aortic sections from apoE-null mice containing advanced atherosclerotic lesions after exposure to acrolein ex vivo. These observations suggest that acrolein exposure results in MMP secretion from macrophages via a mechanism that involves an increase in [Ca 2+ ] I , leading to xanthine oxidase activation and an increase in ROS production. ROS-dependent activation of MMPs by acrolein could destabilize atherosclerotic lesions during brief episodes of inflammation or pollutant exposure.

  11. Increasing acidification of nonreplicating Lactococcus lactis Delta thyA mutants by incorporating ATPase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bastian; Købmann, Brian Jensen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2002-01-01

    % of that of exponentially growing MBP71. However, when nonspecific ATPase activity was incorporated into MBP71, the lactic acid flux was restored to 100% but not above that point, indicating that control over the flux switched from ATP demand to ATP supply (i.e., to sugar transport and glycolysis). As determined by growing...... nonreplicating cells with high ATPase activity on various sugar sources, it appeared that glycolysis exerted the majority of the control. ATPase activity also stimulated the rate of acidification by noureplicating MBP71 growing in milk, and pH 5.2 was reached 40% faster than it was without ATPase activity. We...... concluded that ATPase activity is a functional means of increasing acidification by nonreplicating L. lactis....

  12. Apple, Cherry, and Blackcurrant Increases Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation in Liver of Transgenic Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balstad, Trude; Paur, Ingvild; Poulsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) is essential in normal physiology, and several human disorders involve inappropriate regulation of NF-B. Diets dominated by plant-based foods protect against chronic diseases, and several food derived compounds have been identified as promising NF-B modulators. We...... investigated the effects of diets supplemented with apple, blackcurrant, or cherries on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-B activation in transgenic NF-B-luciferase mice. Whole body and organ specific NF-B activities were determined. The mice had ad libitum access to the respective experimental diets for 7...... slightly higher whole-body NF-B activation at 4 h, and all 3 experimental groups had higher NF-B activation at 6 h. LPS-induced NF-B activation in liver was increased with all 3 experimental diets, but no effects were observed in other organs. Our findings indicate that high intakes of lyophilized fruits...

  13. Increased premotor cortex activation in high functioning autism during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Tom J; Bittar, Richard G; McGillivray, Jane A; Cox, Ivanna I; Stokes, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    The mirror neuron (MN) hypothesis of autism has received considerable attention, but to date has produced inconsistent findings. Using functional MRI, participants with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome were compared to typically developing individuals (n=12 in each group). Participants passively observed hand gestures that included waving, pointing, and grasping. Concerning the MN network, both groups activated similar regions including prefrontal, inferior parietal and superior temporal regions, with the autism group demonstrating significantly greater activation in the dorsal premotor cortex. Concerning other regions, participants with autism demonstrated increased activity in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, and reduced activation in calcarine, cuneus, and middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that during observation of hand gestures, frontal cortex activation is affected in autism, which we suggest may be linked to abnormal functioning of the MN system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of transient increases in bleeding risk associated with physical activity in children with haemophilia

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    Latimer Jane

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is widely appreciated that vigorous physical activity can increase the risk of bleeding episodes in children with haemophilia, the magnitude of the increase in risk is not known. Accurate risk estimates could inform decisions made by children with haemophilia and their parents about participation in physical activity and aid the development of optimal prophylactic schedules. The aim of this study is to provide an accurate estimate of the risks of bleeding associated with vigorous physical activity in children with haemophilia. Methods/Design The study will be a case-crossover study nested within a prospective cohort study. Children with moderate or severe haemophilia A or B, recruited from two paediatric haematology departments in Australia, will participate in the study. The child, or the child's parent or guardian, will report bleeding episodes experienced over a 12-month period. Following a bleeding episode, the participant will be interviewed by telephone about exposures to physical activity in the case period (8 hours before the bleed and 2 control periods (an 8 hour period at the same time on the day preceding the bleed and an 8 hour period two days preceding the bleed. Conditional logistic regression will be used to estimate the risk of participating in vigorous physical activity from measures of exposure to physical activity in the case and control periods. Discussion This case-control study will provide estimates of the risk of participation in vigorous physical activity in children with haemophilia.

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of After-School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina B. Gesell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. Methods. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. Results. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7. Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<.001. Cost analysis suggested that children attending traditional school-based ASPs—at an average cost of $17.67 per day—would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. Conclusions. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program.

  16. Improvements in knee biomechanics during walking are associated with increased physical activity after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Olds, Timothy S; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2015-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in people with knee osteoarthritis increases knee-specific and general physical function, but it has not been established if there is a relationship between changes in these elements of functional ability. This study investigated changes and relationships between knee biomechanics during walking, physical activity, and use of time after TKA. Fifteen people awaiting TKA underwent 3D gait analysis before and six months after surgery. Physical activity and use of time were determined in free-living conditions from a high resolution 24-h activity recall. After surgery, participants displayed significant improvements in sagittal plane knee biomechanics and improved their physical activity profiles, standing for 105 more minutes (p=0.001) and performing 64 min more inside chores on average per day (p=0.008). Changes in sagittal plane knee range of motion (ROM) and peak knee flexion positively correlated with changes in total daily energy expenditure, time spent undertaking moderate to vigorous physical activity, inside chores and passive transport (r=0.52-0.66, p=0.005-0.047). Restoration of knee function occurs in parallel and is associated with improvements in physical activity and use of time after TKA. Increased functional knee ROM is required to support improvements in total and context specific physical activity. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. AM fungal exudates activate MAP kinases in plant cells in dependence from cytosolic Ca(2+) increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Doriana; Chiltz, Annick; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Pugin, Alain; Bonfante, Paola; Cardinale, Francesca

    2011-09-01

    The molecular dialogue occurring prior to direct contact between the fungal and plant partners of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses begins with the release of fungal elicitors, so far only partially identified chemically, which can activate specific signaling pathways in the host plant. We show here that the activation of MAPK is also induced by exudates of germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita in cultured cells of the non-leguminous species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), as well as in those of the model legume Lotus japonicus. MAPK activity peaked about 15 min after the exposure of the host cells to the fungal exudates (FE). FE were also responsible for a rapid and transient increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and tobacco cells, and pre-treatment with a Ca(2+)-channel blocker (La(3+)) showed that in these cells, MAPK activation was dependent on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. A partial dependence of MAPK activity on the common Sym pathway could be demonstrated for a cell line of L. japonicus defective for LjSym4 and hence unable to establish an AM symbiosis. Our results show that MAPK activation is triggered by an FE-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) transient, and that a Sym genetic determinant acts to modulate the intensity and duration of this activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L.; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-01-01

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy s...

  19. Increased SBPase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driever, Steven M; Simkin, Andrew J; Alotaibi, Saqer; Fisk, Stuart J; Madgwick, Pippa J; Sparks, Caroline A; Jones, Huw D; Lawson, Tracy; Parry, Martin A J; Raines, Christine A

    2017-09-26

    To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf photosynthesis in wheat, the level of the Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-biphosphatase (SBPase) has been increased through transformation and expression of a Brachypodium distachyon SBPase gene construct. Transgenic lines with increased SBPase protein levels and activity were grown under greenhouse conditions and showed enhanced leaf photosynthesis and increased total biomass and dry seed yield. This showed the potential of improving yield potential by increasing leaf photosynthesis in a crop species such as wheat. The results are discussed with regard to future strategies for further improvement of photosynthesis in wheat.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  1. Alkalosis and Dialytic Clearance of Phosphate Increases Phosphatase Activity: A Hidden Consequence of Hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Villa-Bellosta

    Full Text Available Extracellular pyrophosphate is a potent endogenous inhibitor of vascular calcification, which is degraded by alkaline phosphatase (ALP and generated by hydrolysis of ATP via ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (eNPP1. ALP activity (as routinely measured in clinical practice represents the maximal activity (in ideal conditions, but not the real activity (in normal or physiological conditions. For the first time, the present study investigated extracellular pyrophosphate metabolism during hemodialysis sessions (including its synthesis via eNPP1 and its degradation via ALP in physiological conditions.45 patients in hemodialysis were studied. Physiological ALP activity represents only 4-6% of clinical activity. ALP activity increased post-hemodialysis by 2% under ideal conditions (87.4 ± 3.3 IU/L vs. 89.3 ± 3.6 IU/L and 48% under physiological conditions (3.5 ± 0.2 IU/L vs. 5.2 ± 0.2 IU/L. Pyrophosphate synthesis by ATP hydrolysis remained unaltered post-hemodialysis. Post-hemodialysis plasma pH (7.45 ± 0.02 significantly increased compared with the pre-dialysis pH (7.26 ± 0.02. The slight variation in pH (~0.2 units induced a significant increase in ALP activity (9%. Addition of phosphate in post-hemodialysis plasma significantly decreased ALP activity, although this effect was not observed with the addition of urea. Reduction in phosphate levels and increment in pH were significantly associated with an increase in physiological ALP activity post-hemodialysis. A decrease in plasma pyrophosphate levels (3.3 ± 0.3 μmol/L vs. 1.9 ± 0.1 μmol/L and pyrophosphate/ATP ratio (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.4 ± 0.1 post-hemodialysis was also observed.Extraction of uremic toxins, primarily phosphate and hydrogen ions, dramatically increases the ALP activity under physiological conditions. This hitherto unknown consequence of hemodialysis suggests a reinterpretation of the clinical value of this parameter.

  2. Reactive oxygen species mediate TNFR1 increase after TRPV1 activation in mouse DRG neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westlund Karin N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1 is activated by low pH/protons and is well known to be involved in hyperalgesia during inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine, is involved in nociceptive responses causing hyperalgesia through TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1 activation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production is also prominently increased in inflamed tissue. The present study investigated TNFR1 receptors in primary cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons after TRPV1 activation and the involvement of ROS. C57BL/6 mice, both TRPV1 knockout and wild type, were used for immunofluorescent and live cell imaging. The L4 and L5 DRGs were dissected bilaterally and cultured overnight. TRPV1 was stimulated with capsaicin or its potent analog, resiniferatoxin. ROS production was measured with live cell imaging and TNFR1 was detected with immunofluorescence in DRG primary cultures. The TRPV1 knockout mice, TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, and ROS scavenger, N-tert-Butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN, were employed to explore the functional relationship among TRPV1, ROS and TNFR1 in these studies. Results The results demonstrate that TRPV1 activation increases TNFR1 receptors and ROS generation in primary cultures of mouse DRG neurons. Activated increases in TNFR1 receptors and ROS production are absent in TRPV1 deficient mice. The PBN blocks increases in TNFR1 and ROS production induced by capsaicin/resiniferatoxin. Conclusion TRPV1 activation increases TNFR1 in cultured mouse DRG neurons through a ROS signaling pathway, a novel sensitization mechanism in DRG neurons.

  3. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Activation-Induced Increase in Glycine-Activated Current in Mouse Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengwen Qi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Glycine plays an important role in regulating hippocampal inhibitory/ excitatory neurotransmission through activating glycine receptors (GlyRs and acting as a co-agonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4 is reported to inhibit hippocampal A-type γ-aminobutyric acid receptor, a ligand-gated chloride ion channel. GlyRs are also ligand-gated chloride ion channels and this paper aimed to explore whether activation of TRPV4 could modulate GlyRs. Methods: Whole-cell patch clamp recording was employed to record glycine-activated current (IGly and Western blot was conducted to assess GlyRs subunits protein expression. Results: Application of TRPV4 agonist (GSK1016790A or 5,6-EET increased IGly in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. This action was blocked by specific antagonists of TRPV4 (RN-1734 or HC-067047 and GlyR (strychnine, indicating that activation of TRPV4 increases strychnine-sensitive GlyR function in mouse hippocampal pyramidal neurons. GSK1016790A-induced increase in IGly was significantly attenuated by protein kinase C (PKC (BIM II or D-sphingosine or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII (KN-62 or KN-93 antagonists but was unaffected by protein kinase A or protein tyrosine kinase antagonists. Finally, hippocampal protein levels of GlyR α1 α2, α3 and β subunits were not changed by treatment with GSK1016790A for 30 min or 1 h, but GlyR α2, α3 and β subunits protein levels increased in mice that were intracerebroventricularly (icv. injected with GSK1016790A for 5 d. Conclusion: Activation of TRPV4 increases GlyR function and expression, and PKC and CaMKII signaling pathways are involved in TRPV4 activation-induced increase in IGly. This study indicates that GlyRs may be effective targets for TRPV4-induced modulation of hippocampal inhibitory neurotransmission.

  4. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate Treatment Increases Glucosinolate Biosynthesis and Quinone Reductase Activity in Kale Leaf Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Juvik, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties ‘Dwarf Blue Curled Vates’ and ‘Red Winter’ in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar ‘Red Winter’ in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r = 0.800, Pkale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined increases in phenolics (quercetin and kaempferol) and GS hydrolysis product concentrations rather than by individual products alone. PMID:25084454

  5. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Yao, Shen; Qiao, Rui-Fang; Levine, Alice C.; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong; Qin, Weiping; Bauman, William A.; Cardozo, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nerve transection increased Notch signaling in paralyzed muscle. → Nandrolone prevented denervation-induced Notch signaling. → Nandrolone induced the expression of an inhibitor of the Notch signaling, Numb. → Reduction of denervation-induced Notch signaling by nandrolone is likely through upregulation of Numb. -- Abstract: Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy.

  6. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Hua [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Yao, Shen; Qiao, Rui-Fang; Levine, Alice C. [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Kirschenbaum, Alexander [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Qin, Weiping [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Bauman, William A. [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher P., E-mail: chris.cardozo@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Nerve transection increased Notch signaling in paralyzed muscle. {yields} Nandrolone prevented denervation-induced Notch signaling. {yields} Nandrolone induced the expression of an inhibitor of the Notch signaling, Numb. {yields} Reduction of denervation-induced Notch signaling by nandrolone is likely through upregulation of Numb. -- Abstract: Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy.

  7. Acute administration of fenproporex increased acetylcholinesterase activity in brain of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorak, Brena P; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Scaini, Giselli; Wessler, Letícia B; Heylmann, Alexandra S; Deroza, Pedro; Valvassori, Samira S; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2015-08-01

    Fenproporex is the second most commonly amphetamine-based anorectic consumed worldwide; this drug is rapidly converted into amphetamine, in vivo, and acts by increasing dopamine levels in the synaptic cleft. Considering that fenproporex effects on the central nervous system are still poorly known and that acetylcholinesterase is a regulatory enzyme which is involved in cholinergic synapses and may indirectly modulate the release of dopamine, the present study investigated the effects of acute administration of fenproporex on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain of young rats. Young male Wistar rats received a single injection of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5 or 25mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle (2% Tween 80). Two hours after the injection, the rats were killed by decapitation and the brain was removed for evaluation of acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that fenproporex administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus and posterior cortex, whereas in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum the enzyme activity was not altered. In conclusion, in the present study we demonstrated that acute administration of fenproporex exerts an effect in the cholinergic system causing an increase in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner in the hippocampus and posterior cortex. Thus, we suggest that the imbalance in cholinergic homeostasis could be considered as an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying the brain damage observed in patients who use amphetamines such as fenproporex.

  8. Acute administration of fenproporex increased acetylcholinesterase activity in brain of young rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRENA P. TEODORAK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fenproporex is the second most commonly amphetamine-based anorectic consumed worldwide; this drug is rapidly converted into amphetamine, in vivo, and acts by increasing dopamine levels in the synaptic cleft. Considering that fenproporex effects on the central nervous system are still poorly known and that acetylcholinesterase is a regulatory enzyme which is involved in cholinergic synapses and may indirectly modulate the release of dopamine, the present study investigated the effects of acute administration of fenproporex on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain of young rats. Young male Wistar rats received a single injection of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5 or 25mg/kg i.p. or vehicle (2% Tween 80. Two hours after the injection, the rats were killed by decapitation and the brain was removed for evaluation of acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that fenproporex administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus and posterior cortex, whereas in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum the enzyme activity was not altered. In conclusion, in the present study we demonstrated that acute administration of fenproporex exerts an effect in the cholinergic system causing an increase in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner in the hippocampus and posterior cortex. Thus, we suggest that the imbalance in cholinergic homeostasis could be considered as an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying the brain damage observed in patients who use amphetamines such as fenproporex.

  9. rTMS Induced Tinnitus Relief Is Related to an Increase in Auditory Cortical Alpha Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Langguth, Berthold; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, the continuous perception of a phantom sound, is a highly prevalent audiological symptom. A promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as this directly affects tinnitus-related brain activity. Several studies indeed show tinnitus relief after rTMS, however effects are moderate and vary strongly across patients. This may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding how rTMS affects oscillatory activity in tinnitus sufferers and which modulations are associated with tinnitus relief. In the present study we examined the effects of five different stimulation protocols (including sham) by measuring tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related brain activity with Magnetoencephalography before and after rTMS. Changes in oscillatory activity were analysed for the stimulated auditory cortex as well as for the entire brain regarding certain frequency bands of interest (delta, theta, alpha, gamma). In line with the literature the effects of rTMS on tinnitus loudness varied strongly across patients. This variability was also reflected in the rTMS effects on oscillatory activity. Importantly, strong reductions in tinnitus loudness were associated with increases in alpha power in the stimulated auditory cortex, while an unspecific decrease in gamma and alpha power, particularly in left frontal regions, was linked to an increase in tinnitus loudness. The identification of alpha power increase as main correlate for tinnitus reduction sheds further light on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. This will hopefully stimulate the development of more effective therapy approaches. PMID:23390539

  10. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs M Nater

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies.In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies.Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest.Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals.

  11. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  12. Increase in Operator's Sympathetic Nerve Activity during Complicated Hepatobiliary Surgery: Evidence for Surgeons' Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Kosho; Hayashida, Naomi; Kuba, Sayaka; Sakimura, Chika; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Noritada; Takamura, Noboru; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    Surgeons often experience stress during operations. The heart rate variability (HRV) is the variability in the beat-to-beat interval, which has been used as parameters of stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mental stress of surgeons before, during and after operations, especially during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Additionally, the parameters were compared in various procedures during the operations. By frequency domain method using electrocardiograph, we measured the high frequency (HF) component, representing the parasympathetic activity, and the low frequency (LF)/HF ratio, representing the sympathetic activity. In all 5 cases of PD, the surgeon showed significantly lower HF component and higher LF/HF during operation, indicating predominance of sympathetic nervous system and increased stress, than those before the operation (p operation. Out of the 4 LDLT cases, the value of HF was decreased in two and the LF/HF increased in three cases (p operation compared to those before the operation. In all cases, the value of HF was decreased and/or the LF/HF increased significantly during the reconstruction of the vessels or bile ducts than during the removal of the liver. Thus, sympathetic nerve activity increased during hepatobiliary surgery compared with the level before the operation, and various procedures during the operations induced diverse changes in the autonomic nervous activities. The HRV analysis could assess the chronological changes of mental stress by measuring the autonomic nervous balances.

  13. Increase in natural killer cell activity during diethylcarbamazine treatment of patients with filariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Svenson, M

    1987-01-01

    Two patients, one with Bancroftian filariasis and the other with onchocerciasis, and two healthy controls were treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). The natural killer (NK) cell activity of the two patients increased during DEC treatment to 2.5 and 2.8 times, respectively, while that of the cont...

  14. Effects of increasing use of trifluralin and glyphosate on the microbial activity of a lea soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Edna Santos de; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim; Peixoto, Maria de Fatima da Silva Pinto; Fay, Elizabeth Francisconi

    1997-01-01

    This work considers the importance of the glyphosate and trifluralin, which are the most used herbicides by the brazilian plantations, applying approximately fifteen and nine millions of liters by crop, respectively, for the evaluation of the increasing use of these herbicides effects on the microbial activity of a lea soil which are used for beans cultivation

  15. Increasing physical activity in patients with mental illness--A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhner, Wiebke; Dietsche, Christine; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether a motivational-volitional intervention program offered in addition to an existing sport program during stationary treatment is capable of establishing a post-stationary increase in physical activity in persons with mental illness. N=112 in-patients were initially randomly assigned to the control group (CG; standard rehabilitation) or intervention group (IG; standard rehabilitation plus intervention). Assessments were conducted at four measurement points. At 6 months follow up, the level of exercise in the IG was 95 min/week higher than in the CG (p=.02). The participants of the IG were able to increase their level of goal intention until 6 months follow up (t2: p=.03; t4: p=.005); levels of self-efficacy of the IG increased during intervention (t2: p=.001). Changes in volitional aspects were significant over time (t1-t3), but not specifically for the IG. The intervention was effective at increasing the level of physical activity in patients with mental illness who were initially minimally active. Our results suggest that it could be of great use to place the emphasis of a physical activity-enhancing intervention on its motivational effect since volitional aspects are already taken into sufficient account in standard rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced Response to Activated Protein C Is Associated with Increased Risk for Cerebrovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, J.G. van der; Bots, M.L.; Haverkate, F.; Slagboom, P.E.; Meijer, P.; Jong, P.T.V.M. de; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Background: Resistance to activated protein C (APC), which results from various factors, including a mutation in the gene for coagulant factor V, has been associated with increased risk for venous thrombosis. However, its relation to arterial disease is still not well defined. Objective: To

  17. 75 FR 64348 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0182, Increased Safety Measures for Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0052] BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0182, Increased Safety Measures for... the likelihood of blowouts, loss of well control, fires, spillages, physical obstruction to other... subsequent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. These events highlight the importance of ensuring safe operations...

  18. Increased Granulocyte Heparanase Activity in Neutrophils from Patients with Lupus Nephritis and Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Maciej; Kuźniar, Jakub; Kopeć, Wacław; Żabińska, Marcelina; Marchewka, Zofia; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Klinger, Marian

    2017-02-01

    Heparanase is a β-glucuronidase that cleaves sugar chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. It is believed that heparanase may be involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of heparanase in the pathogenesis of particular glomerulonephritis types. The evaluation of heparanase activity in serum, urine, and granulocytes and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in granulocytes of patients with lupus nephritis (n = 17), membranous nephropathy (n = 11), IgA nephropathy (n = 12), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 18), mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (n = 12) and in 19 healthy volunteers were performed. The heparanase activity in granulocytes of patients with lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy was higher than heparanase activity in granulocytes in the control group (p = 0.02 in both cases). This is the first observation of this phenomenon. There was no difference between SOD activity in granulocytes of patients with all assessed types of glomerulonephritis and the control group. A positive correlation between heparanase activity in urine and double-strain DNA antibodies (r = 0.51; p = 0.04), and reverse correlations between heparanase in urine and hemolytic activity of the complement (r = -0.57; p = 0.03) in the lupus nephritis group, and between heparanase activity in granulocytes and serum total protein level (r = -0.69; p = 0.02) in membranous nephropathy were observed. Increase in heparanase activity without changes in superoxide dismutase activity in the granulocytes from patients with lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy was observed. It may be used as one of the markers of these disease activities.

  19. Increased Arf/p53 activity in stem cells, aging and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Moreno, Manuel; Moreno-Cugnon, Leire; Matheu, Ander

    2017-04-01

    Arf/p53 pathway protects the cells against DNA damage induced by acute stress. This characteristic is the responsible for its tumor suppressor activity. Moreover, it regulates the chronic type of stress associated with aging. This is the basis of its anti-aging activity. Indeed, increased gene dosage of Arf/p53 displays elongated longevity and delayed aging. At a cellular level, it has been recently shown that increased dosage of Arf/p53 delays age-associated stem cell exhaustion and the subsequent decline in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. However, p53 can also promote aging if constitutively activated. In this context, p53 reduces tissue regeneration, which correlates with premature exhaustion of stem cells. We discuss here the current evidence linking the Arf/p53 pathway to the processes of aging and cancer through stem cell regulation. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Plants increase laccase activity in soil with long-term elevated CO2 legacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partavian, Asrin; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Vestergård, Mette

    2015-01-01

    [CO2] stimulate laccase activity. We incubated soil exposed to seven years of elevated or ambient field [CO2] in ambient or elevated [CO2] chambers for six months either with or without plants (Deschampsia flexuosa). Elevated chamber [CO2] increased D. flexuosa production and belowground respiration....... Interestingly, plants also grew larger in soil with an elevated [CO2] legacy. Plants stimulated soil microbial biomass, belowground respiration and laccase activity, and the plant-induced laccase stimulation was particularly apparent in soil exposed to long-term elevated [CO2] in the field, whereas laccase......Actively growing plants can stimulate mineralization of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), and increased atmospheric [CO2] can further enhance such plant-mediated SOM degradation. Laccases are central for recalcitrant SOM decomposition, and we therefore hypothesized that plants and elevated...

  1. Local Factors Influencing The Increase In Development Activity In Selected Cities Of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak-Stępniak Agata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development activity in Poland began to increase in the 1990's as a result of market-oriented reforms, with the process continuing to this day. The beginnings were, however, not easy due to, among others, the absence of many important legal regulations and the lack of commercial financing. The situation changed in the second half of the 1990's, positively affecting residential development activity. The years 2008 - 2009 were particularly relevant in the course of the studied trend as a sharp increase in the number of completed developer-built residential dwelling units was recorded at this time. After this period, a decline in the number of dwelling units completed by developers was recorded, which indicates its strong dependence on changes in the economic environment. Fluctuations in the number of dwelling units completed by developers were also visible before Poland's accession to the European Union. This means that the diversity of development activity is influenced by many factors.

  2. Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros A. Kavouras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in total antioxidant capacity (TAC. A random sample of 1514 men and 1528 women was selected from Attica region. Physical activity was assessed with a translated version of the validated “International Physical Activity Questionnaire” (iPAQ, and dietary intake through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore that incorporated the inherent characteristics of this diet. TAC was positively correlated with the degree of physical activity (P<.05. TAC was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (r=0.24, P<.001. Stratified analysis by diet status revealed that the most beneficial results were observed to highly active people as compared to inactive, who also followed the Mediterranean diet (288  ±  70 μmol/L, 230  ±  50 μmol/L, resp., after adjusting for various confounders. Increased physical activity and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with increased total antioxidant capacity.

  3. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Skouby, Sven O; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P=0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  4. Activation of the Ca2+-sensing receptors increases currents through inward rectifier K+ channels via activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chung-Hung; Chang, Hsueh-Kai; Lee, Sue-Ping; Shieh, Ru-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Inward rectifier K+ channels are important for maintaining normal electrical function in many cell types. The proper function of these channels requires the presence of membrane phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Stimulation of the Ca2+-sensing receptor CaR, a pleiotropic G protein-coupled receptor, activates both Gq/11, which decreases PIP2, and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI-4-K), which, conversely, increases PIP2. How membrane PIP2 levels are regulated by CaR activation and wheth...

  5. Increases in plasma lutein through supplementation are correlated with increases in physical activity and reductions in sedentary time in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C; Bryan, Janet; Matsumoto, Megumi; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2014-03-03

    Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m²; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year) not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity) were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250 mL of full-cream milk per day for 4 weeks and encouraged to increase physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by self-report, pedometry and accelerometry (daily activity counts and sedentary time). Exercise self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-nine participants competed the study (Lutein = 19, Placebo = 20). Lutein increased plasma lutein concentrations compared with placebo (p lutein were inversely associated with absolute (r = -0.36, p = 0.03) and percentage changes (r = -0.39, p = 0.02) in sedentary time. Percentage change in plasma lutein was positively associated with the percentage change in average daily activity counts (r = 0.36, p = 0.03). Exercise self-efficacy did not change (p = 0.16). Lutein increased plasma lutein, which was associated with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary time in older adults. Larger trials should evaluate whether Lutein can provide health benefits over the longer term.

  6. EGF increases expression and activity of PAs in preimplantation rat embryos and their implantation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har-Vardi Iris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryo implantation plays a major role in embryogenesis and the outcome of pregnancy. Plasminogen activators (PAs have been implicated in mammalian fertilization, early stages of development and embryo implantation. As in-vitro developing embryos resulted in lower implantation rate than those developed in-vivo we assume that a reduced PAs activity may be involved. In the present work we studied the effect of EGF on PAs activity, quantity and embryo implantation. Methods Zygotes were flushed from rat oviducts on day one of pregnancy and grown in-vitro in R1ECM supplemented with EGF (10 ng/ml and were grown up to the blastocyst stage. The control groups were grown in the same medium without EGF. The distribution and quantity of the PAs were examined using fluorescence immunohistochemistry followed by measurement of PAs activity using the chromogenic assay. Implantation rate was studied using the embryo donation model. Results PAs distribution in the embryos was the same in EGF treated and untreated embryos. Both PAs were localized in the blastocysts' trophectoderm, supporting the assumption that PAs play a role in the implantation process in rats. EGF increased the quantity of uPA at all stages studied but the 8-cell stage as compared with controls. The tissue type PA (tPA content was unaffected except the 8-cell stage, which was increased. The activity of uPA increased gradually towards the blastocyst stage and more so due to the presence of EGF. The activity of tPA did not vary with the advancing developmental stages although it was also increased by EGF. The presence of EGF during the preimplantation development doubled the rate of implantation of the treated group as compared with controls.

  7. Shale gas activity and increased rates of sexually transmitted infections in Ohio, 2000–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Zoe; Elliott, Elise G.; Warren, Joshua L.; Niccolai, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    Background The growing shale gas (“fracking”) industry depends on a mobile workforce, whose influx could have social impacts on host communities. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can increase through sexual mixing patterns associated with labor migration. No prior studies have quantified the relationship between shale gas activity and rates of three reportable STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Methods We conducted a longitudinal, ecologic study from 2000–2016 in Ohio, situated in a prolific shale gas region in the United States (US). Data on reported cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis by county and year were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. All 88 counties were classified as none, low, and high shale gas activity in each year, using data from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Annual rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated from mixed-effects Poisson regression models evaluating the relationship between shale gas activity and reported annual STI rates while adjusting for secular trends and potential confounders obtained from the US Census. Results Compared to counties with no shale gas activity, counties with high activity had 21% (RR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.08–1.36) increased rates of chlamydia and 19% (RR = 1.27; 95%CI 0.98–1.44) increased rates of gonorrhea, respectively. No association was observed for syphilis. Conclusion This first report of a link between shale gas activity and increased rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea may inform local policies and community health efforts. PMID:29570712

  8. Increasing girls’ physical activity during an organised youth sport basketball program: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation in organised youth sports (OYS) has been recommended as an opportunity to increase young peoples’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. Participants, however, spend a considerable proportion of time during OYS inactive. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether coaches who attended coach education sessions (where education on increasing MVPA and decreasing inactivity during training was delivered) can increase players’ MVPA during training sessions over a 5-day basketball program compared to coaches who did not receive coach education sessions. Methods/design A convenience sample of 80 female players and 8 coaches were recruited into the UWS School Holiday Basketball Program in Greater Western Sydney, Australia. A two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was employed to investigate whether coaches who attended 2 coach education sessions (compared with a no-treatment control) can increase their players’ MVPA during training sessions over a 5-day basketball program. Objectively measured physical activity, directly observed lesson context and leader behaviour, player motivation, players’ perceived autonomy support, and coaching information (regarding training session planning, estimations on player physical activity and lesson context during training, perceived ability to modify training sessions, perceived importance of physical activity during training, intention to increase physical activity/reduce inactivity, and likelihood of increasing physical activity/reducing inactivity) were assessed at baseline (day 1) and at follow-up (day 5). Linear mixed models will be used to analyse between arm differences in changes from baseline to follow-up on all outcomes. Discussion The current trial protocol describes, to our knowledge, the first trial conducted in an OYS context to investigate the efficacy of an intervention, relative to a control, in increasing MVPA. This study’s findings will

  9. Neuropeptide FF increases M2 activation and self-renewal of adipose tissue macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Syed F. Hassnain; Hoang, Anh Cuong; Ampem, Grace; Azegrouz, Hind; Balogh, Lajos; Thuróczy, Julianna; Gerling, Ivan C.; Nam, Sorim; Lim, Jong-Seok; Martinez-Ibañez, Juncal; Real, José T.; Paschke, Stephan; Quillet, Raphaëlle; Ayachi, Safia; Simonin, Frédéric; Schneider, E. Marion; Brinkman, Jacqueline A.; Seroogy, Christine M.

    2017-01-01

    The quantity and activation state of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) impact the development of obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Appetite-controlling hormones play key roles in obesity; however, our understanding of their effects on ATMs is limited. Here, we have shown that human and mouse ATMs express NPFFR2, a receptor for the appetite-reducing neuropeptide FF (NPFF), and that NPFFR2 expression is upregulated by IL-4, an M2-polarizing cytokine. Plasma levels of NPFF decreased in obese patients and high-fat diet–fed mice and increased following caloric restriction. NPFF promoted M2 activation and increased the proliferation of murine and human ATMs. Both M2 activation and increased ATM proliferation were abolished in NPFFR2-deficient ATMs. Mechanistically, the effects of NPFF involved the suppression of E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF128 expression, resulting in enhanced stability of phosphorylated STAT6 and increased transcription of the M2 macrophage–associated genes IL-4 receptor α (Il4ra), arginase 1 (Arg1), IL-10 (Il10), and alkylglycerol monooxygenase (Agmo). NPFF induced ATM proliferation concomitantly with the increase in N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (Ndrg2) expression and suppressed the transcription of Ifi200 cell-cycle inhibitor family members and MAF bZIP transcription factor B (Mafb), a negative regulator of macrophage proliferation. NPFF thus plays an important role in supporting healthy adipose tissue via the maintenance of metabolically beneficial ATMs. PMID:28581443

  10. CYP24A1 exacerbated activity during diabetes contributes to kidney tubular apoptosis via caspase-3 increased expression and activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Tourigny

    Full Text Available Decreases in circulating 25,hydroxyl-vitamin D3 (25 OH D3 and 1,25,dihydroxyl-vitamin D3 (1,25 (OH2 D3 have been extensively documented in patients with type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, the molecular reasons behind this drop, and whether it is a cause or an effect of disease progression is still poorly understood. With the skin and the liver, the kidney is one of the most important sites for vitamin D metabolism. Previous studies have also shown that CYP24A1 (an enzyme implicated in vitamin D metabolism, might play an important role in furthering the progression of kidney lesions during diabetic nephropathy. In this study we show a link between CYP24A1 increase and senescence followed by apoptosis induction in the renal proximal tubules of diabetic kidneys. We show that CYP24A1 expression was increased during diabetic nephropathy progression. This increase derived from protein kinase C activation and increased H(2O(2 cellular production. CYP24A1 increase had a major impact on cellular phenotype, by pushing cells into senescence, and later into apoptosis. Our data suggest that control of CYP24A1 increase during diabetes has a beneficial effect on senescence induction and caspase-3 increased expression. We concluded that diabetes induces an increase in CYP24A1 expression, destabilizing vitamin D metabolism in the renal proximal tubules, leading to cellular instability and apoptosis, and thereby accelerating tubular injury progression during diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Theobromine increases NAD⁺/Sirt-1 activity and protects the kidney under diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Silva, Kamila C; Peixoto, Elisa B M I; Borges, Cynthia M; Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M; Lopes de Faria, José B

    2015-02-01

    Reduction in sirtuin 1 (Sirt-1) is associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in the diabetic kidney. Theobromine may reduce kidney ECM accumulation in diabetic rats. In the current study, we aimed to unravel, under diabetic conditions, the mechanism of kidney ECM accumulation induced by a reduction in Sirt-1 and the effect of theobromine in these events. In vitro, we used immortalized human mesangial cells (iHMCs) exposed to high glucose (HG; 30 mM), with or without small interfering RNA for NOX4 and Sirt-1. In vivo, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were rendered diabetic by means of streptozotocin and studied after 12 wk. The effects of treatment with theobromine were investigated under both conditions. HG leads to a decrease in Sirt-1 activity and NAD(+) levels in iHMCs. Sirt-1 activity could be reestablished by treatment with NAD(+), silencing NOX4, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) blockade, or with theobromine. HG also leads to a low AMP/ATP ratio, acetylation of SMAD3, and increased collagen IV, which is prevented by theobromine. Sirt-1 or AMPK blockade abolished these effects of theobromine. In diabetic SHR, theobromine prevented increases in albuminuria and kidney collagen IV, reduced AMPK, elevated NADPH oxidase activity and PARP-1, and reduced NAD(+) levels and Sirt-1 activity. These results suggest that in diabetes mellitus, Sirt-1 activity is reduced by PARP-1 activation and NAD(+) depletion due to low AMPK, which increases NOX4 expression, leading to ECM accumulation mediated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling. It is suggested that Sirt-1 activation by theobromine may have therapeutic potential for diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Increased separase activity and occurrence of centrosome aberrations concur with transformation of MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppenthal, Sabrina; Kleiner, Helga; Nolte, Florian; Fabarius, Alice; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Nowak, Daniel; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    ESPL1/separase, a cysteine endopeptidase, is a key player in centrosome duplication and mitotic sister chromatid separation. Aberrant expression and/or altered separase proteolytic activity are associated with centrosome amplification, aneuploidy, tumorigenesis and disease progression. Since centrosome alterations are a common and early detectable feature in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and cytogenetic aberrations play an important role in disease risk stratification, we examined separase activity on single cell level in 67 bone marrow samples obtained from patients with MDS, secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML), de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and healthy controls by a flow cytometric separase activity assay. The separase activity distribution (SAD) value, a calculated measure for the occurrence of cells with prominent separase activity within the analyzed sample, was tested for correlation with the centrosome, karyotype and gene mutation status. We found higher SAD values in bone marrow cells of sAML patients than in corresponding cells of MDS patients. This concurred with an increased incidence of aberrant centrosome phenotypes in sAML vs. MDS samples. No correlation was found between SAD values and the karyotype/gene mutation status. During follow-up of four MDS patients we observed increasing SAD values after transformation to sAML, in two patients SAD values decreased during azacitidine therapy. Cell culture experiments employing MDS-L cells as an in vitro model of MDS revealed that treatment with rigosertib, a PLK1 inhibitor and therapeutic drug known to induce G2/M arrest, results in decreased SAD values. In conclusion, the appearance of cells with unusual high separase activity levels, as indicated by increased SAD values, concurs with the transformation of MDS to sAML and may reflect separase dysregulation potentially contributing to clonal evolution during MDS progression. Separase activity measurement may therefore be useful as a

  13. TRPA1 activation by lidocaine in nerve terminals results in glutamate release increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, L.-H.; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, C.-Y.; Liu Tao; Yue, H.-Y.; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Bath-applied lidocaine (1-5 mM) dose-dependently and reversibly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in SG neurons. Lidocaine activity was unaffected by the Na + -channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, and the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, but was inhibited by the TRP antagonist, ruthenium red. In the same neuron, the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate, and lidocaine both increased sEPSC frequency. In contrast, procaine did not produce presynaptic enhancement. These results indicate that lidocaine activates TRPA1 in nerve terminals presynaptic to SG neurons to increase the spontaneous release of L-glutamate.

  14. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    :Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet....... The findings suggest that high-fat diets increase non-fasting FVII:C, and consequently may be associated with increased risk of thrombosis. Udgivelsesdato: 1994-Jun......Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20...

  15. Nephropathy in type 1 diabetes is associated with increased circulating activated platelets and platelet hyperreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Michelson, Alan D.; Barnard, Marc R.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased platelet activation compared to non-diabetic controls. Platelet hyperreactivity has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in Type 2 DM, and with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the relationship between platelet activation...... and nephropathy in Type 1 DM. Patients with Type 1 DM and diabetic nephropathy (n = 35), age- and sex-matched Type 1 DM patients with persistent normoalbuminuria (n = 51), and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 30) were studied. Platelet surface P-selectin, platelet surface activated GPIIb/IIIa, monocyte...... controls (P = 0.0075). There were no differences between groups in activated GPIIb/IIIa or in response to TRAP at any end-point. More patients with nephropathy received aspirin (71.4%) compared to normoalbuminuric patients (27.4%) (P Type 1 diabetic nephropathy, as compared with normoalbuminuria...

  16. Resveratrol Reactivates Latent HIV through Increasing Histone Acetylation and Activating Heat Shock Factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoyun; Pan, Xiaoyan; Xu, Xinfeng; Lin, Jian; Que, Fuchang; Tian, Yuanxin; Li, Lin; Liu, Shuwen

    2017-06-07

    The persistence of latent HIV reservoirs presents a significant challenge to viral eradication. Effective latency reversing agents (LRAs) based on "shock and kill" strategy are urgently needed. The natural phytoalexin resveratrol has been demonstrated to enhance HIV gene expression, although its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that resveratrol was able to reactivate latent HIV without global T cell activation in vitro. Mode of action studies showed resveratrol-mediated reactivation from latency did not involve the activation of silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1), which belonged to class-3 histone deacetylase (HDAC). However, latent HIV was reactivated by resveratrol mediated through increasing histone acetylation and activation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Additionally, synergistic activation of the latent HIV reservoirs was observed under cotreatment with resveratrol and conventional LRAs. Collectively, this research reveals that resveratrol is a natural LRA and shows promise for HIV therapy.

  17. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology. PMID:26861509

  18. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology.

  19. Increasing value in plagiocephaly care: a time-driven activity-based costing pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverso, Gino; Lappi, Michael D; Flath-Sporn, Susan J; Heald, Ronald; Kim, David C; Meara, John G

    2015-06-01

    Process management within a health care setting is poorly understood and often leads to an incomplete understanding of the true costs of patient care. Using time-driven activity-based costing methods, we evaluated the high-volume, low-complexity diagnosis of plagiocephaly to increase value within our clinic. A total of 59 plagiocephaly patients were evaluated in phase 1 (n = 31) and phase 2 (n = 28) of this study. During phase 1, a process map was created, encompassing each of the 5 clinicians and administrative personnel delivering 23 unique activities. After analysis of the phase 1 process maps, average times as well as costs of these activities were evaluated for potential modifications in workflow. These modifications were implemented in phase 2 to determine overall impact on visit-time and costs of care. Improvements in patient education, workflow coordination, and examination room allocation were implemented during phase 2, resulting in a reduced patient visit-time of 13:25 (19.9% improvement) and an increased cost of $8.22 per patient (7.7% increase) due to changes in physician process times. However, this increased cost was directly offset by the availability of 2 additional appointments per day, potentially generating $7904 of additional annual revenue. Quantifying the impact of a 19.9% reduction in patient visit-time at an increased cost of 7.7% resulted in an increased value ratio of 1.113. This pilot study effectively demonstrates the novel use of time-driven activity-based costing in combination with the value equation as a metric for continuous process improvement programs within the health care setting.

  20. Pulsed Light Stimulation Increases Boundary Preference and Periodicity of Episodic Motor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Qiu

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the therapeutic benefits of long-term sensory stimulation for improving cognitive abilities and motor performance of stroke patients. The rationale is that such stimulation would activate mechanisms of neural plasticity to promote enhanced coordination and associated circuit functions. Experimental approaches to characterize such mechanisms are needed. Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most attractive model organisms to investigate neural mechanisms responsible for stimulation-induced behaviors with its powerful accessibility to genetic analysis. In this study, the effect of chronic sensory stimulation (pulsed light stimulation on motor activity in w1118 flies was investigated. Flies were exposed to a chronic pulsed light stimulation protocol prior to testing their performance in a standard locomotion assay. Flies responded to pulsed light stimulation with increased boundary preference and travel distance in a circular arena. In addition, pulsed light stimulation increased the power of extracellular electrical activity, leading to the enhancement of periodic electrical activity which was associated with a centrally-generated motor pattern (struggling behavior. In contrast, such periodic events were largely missing in w1118 flies without pulsed light treatment. These data suggest that the sensory stimulation induced a response in motor activity associated with the modifications of electrical activity in the central nervous system (CNS. Finally, without pulsed light treatment, the wild-type genetic background was associated with the occurrence of the periodic activity in wild-type Canton S (CS flies, and w+ modulated the consistency of periodicity. We conclude that pulsed light stimulation modifies behavioral and electrophysiological activities in w1118 flies. These data provide a foundation for future research on the genetic mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying such behavioral modification.

  1. Self-efficacy enhancing intervention increases light physical activity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Janet L; Covey, Margaret K; Kapella, Mary C; Alex, Charles G; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lead sedentary lives and could benefit from increasing their physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention could increase physical activity and functional performance when delivered in the context of 4 months of upper body resistance training with a 12-month follow-up. IN THIS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL, SUBJECTS WERE ASSIGNED TO: exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention with upper body resistance training (SE-UBR), health education with upper body resistance training (ED-UBR), or health education with gentle chair exercises (ED-Chair). Physical activity was measured with an accelerometer and functional performance was measured with the Functional Performance Inventory. Forty-nine people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease completed 4 months of training and provided valid accelerometry data, and 34 also provided accelerometry data at 12 months of follow-up. The self-efficacy enhancing intervention emphasized meeting physical activity guidelines and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Differences were observed in light physical activity (LPA) after 4 months of training, time by group interaction effect (P=0.045). The SE-UBR group increased time spent in LPA by +20.68±29.30 minutes/day and the other groups decreased time spent in LPA by -22.43±47.88 minutes/day and -25.73±51.76 minutes/day. Changes in LPA were not sustained at 12-month follow-up. There were no significant changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time, or functional performance. Subjects spent most of their waking hours sedentary: 72%±9% for SE-UBR, 68%±10% for ED-UBR, and 74%±9% for ED-Chair. The self-efficacy enhancing intervention produced a modest short-term increase in LPA. Further work is needed to increase the magnitude and duration of effect, possibly by targeting LPA.

  2. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahim Noor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide

  3. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahim, Noor Nazirahanie; Kanthimathi, M S; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina

    2012-11-15

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense

  4. Increased glucocerebrosidase (GBA) 2 activity in GBA1 deficient mice brains and in Gaucher leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Derek G; Rahim, Ahad A; Waddington, Simon N; Karlsson, Stefan; Enquist, Ida; Bhatia, Kailash; Mehta, Atul; Vellodi, Ashok; Heales, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) deficiency is causative for Gaucher disease. Not all individuals with GBA1 mutations develop neurological involvement raising the possibility that other factors may provide compensatory protection. One factor may be the activity of the non-lysosomal β-glucosidase (GBA2) which exhibits catalytic activity towards glucosylceramide and is reported to be highly expressed in brain tissue. Here, we assessed brain GBA2 enzymatic activity in wild type, heterozygote and GBA1 deficient mice. Additionally, we determined activity in leucocytes obtained from 13 patients with Gaucher disease, 10 patients with enzymology consistent with heterozygote status and 19 controls. For wild type animals, GBA2 accounted for over 85 % of total brain GBA activity and was significantly elevated in GBA1 deficient mice when compared to heterozygote and wild types (GBA1 deficient; 92.4 ± 5.6, heterozygote; 71.5 ± 2.4, wild type 76.8 ± 5.1 nmol/h/mg protein). For the patient samples, five Gaucher patients had GBA2 leucocyte activities markedly greater than controls. No difference in GBA2 activity was apparent between the control and carrier groups. Undetectable GBA2 activity was identified in four leucocyte preparations; one in the control group, two in the carrier group and one from the Gaucher disease group. Work is now required to ascertain whether GBA2 activity is a disease modifying factor in Gaucher disease and to identify the mechanism(s) responsible for triggering increased GBA2 activity in GBA1 deficiency states.

  5. Application of high hydrostatic pressure for increasing activity and stability of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, V V; Lange, R; Kudryashova, E V; Balny, C

    1996-10-20

    Elevated hydrostatic pressure has been used to increase catalytic activity and thermal stability of alpha-chymotrypsin (CT). For an anilide substrate, characterized by a negative value of the reaction activation volume (DeltaV( not equal)), an increase in pressure at 20 degrees C results in an exponential acceleration of the hydrolysis rate catalyzed by CT reaching a 6.5-fold increase in activity at 4700 atm (4.7 kbar). Due to a strong temperature dependence of DeltaV( not equal), the acceleration effect of high pressure becomes more pronounced at high temperatures. For example, at 50 degrees C, under a pressure of 3.6 kbar, CT shows activity which is more than 30 times higher than the activity at normal conditions (20 degrees C, 1 atm). At pressures of higher than 3.6 kbar, the enzymatic activity is decreased due to a pressure-induced denaturation.Elevated hydrostatic pressure is also efficient for increasing stability of CT against thermal denaturation. For example, at 55 degrees C, CT is almost instantaneously inactivated at atmospheric pressure, whereas under a pressure of 1.8 kbar CT retains its anilide-hydrolyzing activity during several dozen minutes. Additional stabilization can be achieved in the presence of glycerol, which is most effective for protection of CT at an intermediate concentration of 40% (v/v). There has been observed an additivity in stabilization effects of high pressure and glycerol: thermal inactivation of pressure-stabilized CT can be decelerated in a supplementary manner by addition of 40% (v/v) glycerol. The protection effect of glycerol on the catalytic activity and stability of CT becomes especially pronounced when both extreme factors of temperature and pressure reach critical values. For example, at approximately 55 degrees C and 4.7 kbar, enzymatic activity of CT in the presence of 40% (v/v) glycerol is severalfold higher than in aqueous buffer.The results of this study are discussed in terms of the hypotheses which explain the

  6. A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla FJ Nooijen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions: For people with subacute spinal cord injury, does rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote physical activity lead to a more active lifestyle than rehabilitation alone? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. Participants: Forty-five adults with subacute spinal cord injury who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and were dependent on a manual wheelchair. The spinal cord injuries were characterised as: tetraplegia 33%; motor complete 62%; mean time since injury 150 days (SD 74. Intervention: All participants received regular rehabilitation, including handcycle training. Only the experimental group received a behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge. This intervention involved 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach who was trained in motivational interviewing; it began 2 months before and ended 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical activity, which was objectively measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor 2 months before discharge, at discharge, and 6 and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The accelerometry data were analysed as total wheeled physical activity, sedentary time and motility. Self-reported physical activity was a secondary outcome. Results: The behavioural intervention significantly increased wheeled physical activity (overall between-group difference from generalised estimating equation 21 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 35. This difference was evident 6 months after discharge (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 48 and maintained at 12 months after discharge (25 minutes per day, 95% CI 1 to 50. No significant intervention effect was found for sedentary time or motility. Self-reported physical activity also significantly improved. Conclusion: The behavioural

  7. The most physically active Danish adolescents are at increased risk for developing spinal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Boyle, Eleanor; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The overall aim of this study was to determine to what extent objectively measured physical activity in a school-based sample aged 11-13 years predicted incident cases of spinal pain (neck pain, mid back pain or low back pain) over the following 2 years. METHODS: Data were collected...... was defined as a report of pain in at least one spinal area at follow-up. Physical activity was measured objectively using the Actigraph GT3X Triaxial Activity Monitor for 1 week. RESULTS: Objectively measured sedentary activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and vigorous physical activity were...... generally not predictive of the 2-year incidence of spinal pain. However, 10% of participants with the highest proportion of the day spent in vigorous physical activity were at increased risk of reporting spinal pain at follow-up with a relative risk (RR) of 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.91). For the overall...

  8. Increase of a Calcium Independent Transglutaminase Activity in the Erythrocyte during the Infection with Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasserman Moisés

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the activity of a calcium dependent transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13 during the growth of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum inside the infected human erythrocyte. There is only one detectable transglutaminase in the two-cell-system, and its origin is erythrocytic. No activity was detected in preparations of the parasite devoid of erythrocyte cytoplasm. The Michaelis Menten constants (Km of the enzyme for the substrates N'N'dimethylcaseine and putrescine were undistinguishable whether the cell extracts used in their determination were obtained from normal or from infected red cells. The total activity of transglutaminase in stringently synchronized cultures, measured at 0.5mM Ca2+, decreased with the maturation of the parasite. However, a fraction which became irreversibly activated and independent of calcium concentration was detected. The proportion of this fraction grew with maturation; it represented only 20% of the activity in 20 hr-old-trophozoites while in 48-hr-schizonts it was more than 85% of the total activity. The activation of this fraction of transglutaminase did not depend on an increase in the erythrocyte cytoplasmic calcium, since most of the calcium was shown to be located in the parasite.

  9. Increasing the amount of usual rehabilitation improves activity after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Schneider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Questions: In people receiving rehabilitation aimed at reducing activity limitations of the lower and/or upper limb after stroke, does adding extra rehabilitation (of the same content as the usual rehabilitation improve activity? What is the amount of extra rehabilitation that needs to be provided to achieve a beneficial effect? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: Adults aged 18 years or older that had a diagnosis of stroke. Intervention: Extra rehabilitation with the same content as usual rehabilitation aimed at reducing activity limitations of the lower and/or upper limb. Outcome measures: Activity measured as lower or upper limb ability. Results: A total of 14 studies, comprising 15 comparisons, met the inclusion criteria. Pooling data from all the included studies showed that extra rehabilitation improved activity immediately after the intervention period (SMD = 0.39, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.71, I2 = 66%. When only studies with a large increase in rehabilitation (> 100% were included, the effect was greater (SMD 0.59, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.94, I2 = 44%. There was a trend towards a positive relationship (r = 0.53, p = 0.09 between extra rehabilitation and improved activity. The turning point on the ROC curve of false versus true benefit (AUC = 0.88, p = 0.04 indicated that at least an extra 240% of rehabilitation was needed for significant likelihood that extra rehabilitation would improve activity. Conclusion: Increasing the amount of usual rehabilitation aimed at reducing activity limitations improves activity in people after stroke. The amount of extra rehabilitation that needs to be provided to achieve a beneficial effect is large. Trial registration: PROSPERO CRD42012003221. [Schneider EJ, Lannin NA, Ada L, Schmidt J (2016 Increasing the amount of usual rehabilitation improves activity after stroke: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 182–187

  10. The Efficacy of a Walking Intervention Using Social Media to Increase Physical Activity: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Aubrianne E; Klos, Lori A; Brondino, Michael J; Harley, Amy E; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-06-16

    Facebook may be a useful tool to provide a social support group to encourage increases in physical activity. This study examines the efficacy of a Facebook social support group to increase steps/day in young women. Female college freshmen (N = 63) were randomized to one of two 8-week interventions: a Facebook Social Support Group (n = 32) or a Standard Walking Intervention (n = 31). Participants in both groups received weekly step goals and tracked steps/day with a pedometer. Women in the Facebook Social Support Group were also enrolled in a Facebook group and asked to post information about their steps/day and provide feedback to one another. Women in both intervention arms significantly increased steps/day pre- to postintervention (F(8,425) = 94.43, P Facebook Social Support Group increased steps/day significantly more (F(1,138) = 11.34, P Facebook to offer a social support group to increase physical activity in young women. Women in the Facebook Social Support Group increased walking by approximately 1.5 miles/day more than women in the Standard Walking Intervention which, if maintained, could have a profound impact on their future health.

  11. Using pedometers to increase physical activity in overweight and obese women: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most public health guidelines recommend that adults participate in 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Establishing new ways to achieve these targets in sedentary populations need to be explored. This research evaluated whether the daily use of pedometers could increase physical activity and improve health outcomes in sedentary overweight and obese women. Methods Twenty six overweight and obese middle-aged women were randomized into two groups: The control group was not able to record their steps daily, whilst the pedometer group, were asked to record the number of steps on a daily basis for 12 weeks. Results Our data showed that the pedometer group significantly increased their steps/day, by 36%, at the end of the 12 weeks, whereas the control group's physical activity levels remained unchanged. There was no significant difference in weight or body fat composition in the pedometer group compared to the control group. However, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure in the pedometer group (112.8 ± 2.44 mm Hg compared to the control group (117.3 ± 2.03 mm Hg (p = 0.003. Conclusion In conclusion, this pilot study shows that the combination of having step goals and immediate feedback from using a pedometer was effective in increasing physical activity levels in sedentary overweight and obese women. Trial registration ACTRN12609000176268

  12. Aversive emotional interference impacts behavior and prefronto-striatal activity during increasing attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RT) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load.

  13. Increase of rutin antioxidant activity by generating Maillard reaction products with lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; He, Ting; Yi, Ting; Yang, Ji-Ping; He, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Rutin exists in medicinal herbs, fruits, vegetables, and a number of plant-derived sources. Dietary sources containing rutin are considered beneficial because of their potential protective roles in multiple diseases related to oxidative stresses. In the present study, the change and antioxidation activity of rutin in Maillard reaction with lysine through a heating process were investigated. There is release of glucose and rhamnose that interact with lysine to give Maillard reaction products (MRPs), while rutin is converted to less-polar quercetin and a small quantity of isoquercitrin. Because of their high cell-membrane permeability, the rutin-lysine MRPs increase the free radical-scavenging activity in HepG2 cells, showing cellular antioxidant activity against Cu(2+)-induced oxidative stress higher than that of rutin. Furthermore, the MRPs significantly increased the Cu/Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity and Cu/Zn SOD gene expression of HepG2 cells, consequently enhancing antioxidation activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intermittent long-wavelength red light increases the period of daily locomotor activity in mice

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    Hughes Amanda M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We observed that a dim, red light-emitting diode (LED triggered by activity increased the circadian periods of lab mice compared to constant darkness. It is known that the circadian period of rats increases when vigorous wheel-running triggers full-spectrum lighting; however, spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors in mice suggests little or no response to red light. Thus, we decided to test the following hypotheses: dim red light illumination triggered by activity (LEDfb increases the circadian period of mice compared to constant dark (DD; covering the LED prevents the effect on period; and DBA2/J mice have a different response to LEDfb than C57BL6/J mice. Methods The irradiance spectra of the LEDs were determined by spectrophotometer. Locomotor activity of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice was monitored by passive-infrared sensors and circadian period was calculated from the last 10 days under each light condition. For constant dark (DD, LEDs were switched off. For LED feedback (LEDfb, the red LED came on when the mouse was active and switched off seconds after activity stopped. For taped LED the red LED was switched on but covered with black tape. Single and multifactorial ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests were done. Results The circadian period of mice was longer under LEDfb than under DD. Blocking the light eliminated the effect. There was no difference in period change in response to LEDfb between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Conclusion An increase in mouse circadian period due to dim far-red light (1 lux at 652 nm exposure was unexpected. Since blocking the light stopped the response, sound from the sensor's electronics was not the impetus of the response. The results suggest that red light as background illumination should be avoided, and indicator diodes on passive infrared motion sensors should be switched off.

  15. Prompts to disrupt sitting time and increase physical activity at work, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ann M; Rote, Aubrianne E; Welch, Whitney A; Maeda, Hotaka; Hart, Teresa L; Cho, Young Ik; Strath, Scott J

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess change in sitting and physical activity behavior in response to a workplace intervention to disrupt prolonged sitting time. Sixty office workers were randomized to either a Stand group (n = 29), which received hourly prompts (computer-based and wrist-worn) to stand up, or a Step group (n = 31), which received the same hourly prompts and an additional prompt to walk 100 steps or more upon standing. An ActivPAL monitor was used to assess sitting and physical activity behavior on the same 3 consecutive workdays during baseline and intervention periods. Mixed-effect models with random intercepts and random slopes for time were performed to assess change between groups and across time. Both groups significantly reduced duration of average sitting bouts (Stand group, by 16%; Step group, by 19%) and the number of sitting bouts of 60 minutes or more (Step group, by 36%; Stand group, by 54%). The Stand group significantly reduced total sitting time (by 6.6%), duration of the longest sitting bout (by 29%), and number of sitting bouts of 30 minutes or more (by 13%) and increased the number of sit-to-stand transitions (by 15%) and standing time (by 23%). Stepping time significantly increased in the Stand (by 14%) and Step (by 29%) groups, but only the Step group significantly increased (by 35%) the number of steps per workday. Differences in changes from baseline to intervention between groups were not significant for any outcome. Interventions that focus on disrupting sitting time only in the workplace may result in less sitting. When sitting time disruptions are paired with a physical activity prompt, people may be more likely to increase their workday physical activity, but the effect on sitting time may be attenuated.

  16. Transient increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate during activation of human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traynor-Kaplan, A.E.; Thompson, B.L.; Harris, A.L.; Taylor, P.; Omann, G.M.; Sklar, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    We recently showed that phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3) was present in a unique lipid fraction generated in neutrophils during activation. Here, we demonstrate that the band containing this fraction isolated from thin layer chromatography consists primarily of PIP3 and that only small amounts of radiolabeled PIP3 exist prior to activation. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography of deacylated phospholipids from stimulated cells reveals an increase in a fraction eluting ahead of glycerophosphoinositol 4,5-P2. After removal of the glycerol we found that it coeluted with inositol 1,3,4-P3 when resubjected to high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, we have detected a second, novel form of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in activated neutrophils, PI-(3,4)P2. The elevation of PIP3 through the formyl peptide receptor is blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, implicating mediation of the increase in PIP3 by a guanosine triphosphate-binding (G) protein. The rise in PIP3 is not secondary to calcium elevation. Buffering the rise in intracellular calcium did not diminish the increase in PIP3. The elevation of PIP3 appears to occur during activation with physiological agonists, its level varying with the degree of activation. Leukotriene B4, which elicits many of the same responses as stimulation of the formyl peptide receptor but with minimal oxidant production, stimulates a much attenuated rise in PIP3. Isoproterenol, which inhibits oxidant production also reduces the rise in PIP3. Hence formation of PI(3,4)P2 and PIP3 (presumed to be PI(3,4,5)P3) correlates closely with the early events of neutrophil activation

  17. Oral Administration of Probiotics Increases Paneth Cells and Intestinal Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia I. Cazorla

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of intestinal bacteria represents a continuing threat to the intestinal barrier. To meet this challenge, gut epithelial cells produce antimicrobial peptides (AMP that act at the forefront of innate immunity. We explore whether this antimicrobial activity and Paneth cells, the main intestinal cell responsible of AMP production, are influenced by probiotics administration, to avoid the imbalance of intestinal microbiota and preserve intestinal barrier. Administration of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (Lc 431 and L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 (Lp 1518 to 42 days old mice, increases the number of Paneth cells on small intestine, and the antimicrobial activity against the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium in the intestinal fluids. Specifically, strong damage of the bacterial cell with leakage of cytoplasmic content, and cellular fragmentation were observed in S. Typhimurium and S. aureus. Even more important, probiotics increase the antimicrobial activity of the intestinal fluids at the different ages, from weaning (21 days old to old age (180 days old. Intestinal antimicrobial activity stimulated by oral probiotics, do not influence significantly the composition of total anaerobic bacteria, lactobacilli and enterobacteria in the large intestine, at any age analyzed. This result, together with the antimicrobial activity observed against the same probiotic bacteria; endorse the regular consumption of probiotics without adverse effect on the intestinal homeostasis in healthy individuals. We demonstrate that oral probiotics increase intestinal antimicrobial activity and Paneth cells in order to strengthen epithelial barrier against pathogens. This effect would be another important mechanism by which probiotics protect the host mainly against infectious diseases.

  18. Increased RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) activity contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byoung Kwon; Santhekadur, Prasanna K; Gredler, Rachel; Chen, Dong; Emdad, Luni; Bhutia, Sujit; Pannell, Lewis; Fisher, Paul B; Sarkar, Devanand

    2011-05-01

    There is virtually no effective treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and novel targets need to be identified to develop effective treatment. We recently documented that the oncogene Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a seminal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Employing yeast two-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, we identified staphylococcal nuclease domain containing 1 (SND1), a nuclease in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) facilitating RNAi-mediated gene silencing, as an AEG-1 interacting protein. Coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization studies confirmed that AEG-1 is also a component of RISC and both AEG-1 and SND1 are required for optimum RISC activity facilitating small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA)-mediated silencing of luciferase reporter gene. In 109 human HCC samples SND1 was overexpressed in ≈74% cases compared to normal liver. Correspondingly, significantly higher RISC activity was observed in human HCC cells compared to immortal normal hepatocytes. Increased RISC activity, conferred by AEG-1 or SND1, resulted in increased degradation of tumor suppressor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are target of oncomiRs. Inhibition of enzymatic activity of SND1 significantly inhibited proliferation of human HCC cells. As a corollary, stable overexpression of SND1 augmented and siRNA-mediated inhibition of SND1 abrogated growth of human HCC cells in vitro and in vivo, thus revealing a potential role of SND1 in hepatocarcinogenesis. We unravel a novel mechanism that overexpression of AEG-1 and SND1 leading to increased RISC activity might contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis. Targeted inhibition of SND1 enzymatic activity might be developed as an effective therapy for HCC. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Deletion of creB in Aspergillus oryzae increases secreted hydrolytic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A J; Morris, T A; Jin, B; Saint, C P; Kelly, J M

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. Targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. Phenotypes of an Aspergillus nidulans strain null for the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various enzymes. We show that Aspergillus oryzae contains a functional homologue of the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme and that a null strain shows increased activity levels of industrially important secreted enzymes, including cellulases, xylanases, amylases, and proteases, as well as alleviated inhibition of spore germination on glucose medium. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that the increased levels of enzyme activity in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae are mirrored at the transcript level, indicating transcriptional regulation. We report that Aspergillus oryzae DAR3699, originally isolated from soy fermentation, has a similar phenotype to that of a creB deletion mutant of the RIB40 strain, and it contains a mutation in the creB gene. Collectively, the results for Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium decumbens show that deletion of creB may be broadly useful in diverse fungi for increasing production of a variety of enzymes.

  20. Acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity impairs memory and inhibits synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Paul D.; Eng, Dave; Lecker, Irene; Martin, Loren J.; Wang, Dian-Shi; Orser, Beverley A.

    2013-01-01

    Extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors that contain the δ subunit (δGABAA receptors) are expressed in several brain regions including the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus. Drugs that increase δGABAA receptor activity have been proposed as treatments for a variety of disorders including insomnia, epilepsy and chronic pain. Also, long-term pretreatment with the δGABAA receptor–preferring agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) enhances discrimination memory and increases neurogenesis in the DG. Despite the potential therapeutic benefits of such treatments, the effects of acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity on memory behaviors remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of THIP (4 mg/kg, i.p.) on memory performance in wild-type (WT) and δGABAA receptor null mutant (Gabrd−/−) mice. Additionally, the effects of THIP on long-term potentiation (LTP), a molecular correlate of memory, were studied within the DG and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus using electrophysiological recordings of field potentials in hippocampal slices. The results showed that THIP impaired performance in the Morris water maze, contextual fear conditioning and object recognition tasks in WT mice but not Gabrd−/− mice. Furthermore, THIP inhibited LTP in hippocampal slices from WT but not Gabrd−/− mice, an effect that was blocked by GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. Thus, acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity impairs memory behaviors and inhibits synaptic plasticity. These results have important implications for the development of therapies aimed at increasing δGABAA receptor activity. PMID:24062648

  1. Acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity impairs memory and inhibits synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul David Whissell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA receptors that contain the δ subunit (δGABAA receptors are expressed in several brain regions including the dentate gyrus (DG and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus. Drugs that increase δGABAA receptor activity have been proposed as treatments for a variety of disorders including insomnia, epilepsy and chronic pain. Also, long-term pretreatment with the δGABAA receptor–preferring agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP enhances discrimination memory and increases neurogenesis in the DG. Despite the potential therapeutic benefits of such treatments, the effects of acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity on memory behaviors remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of THIP (4 mg/kg, i.p. on memory performance in wild-type (WT and δGABAA receptor null mutant (Gabrd–/– mice. Additionally, the effects of THIP on long-term potentiation (LTP, a molecular correlate of memory, were studied within the DG and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus using electrophysiological recordings of field potentials in hippocampal slices. The results showed that THIP impaired performance in the Morris water maze, contextual fear conditioning and object recognition tasks in WT mice but not Gabrd–/– mice. Furthermore, THIP inhibited LTP in hippocampal slices from WT but not Gabrd–/– mice, an effect that was blocked by GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. Thus, acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity impairs memory behaviors and inhibits synaptic plasticity. These results have important implications for the development of therapies aimed at increasing δGABAA receptor activity.

  2. Antiretroviral treatment is associated with increased attentional load-dependent brain activation in HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L; Yakupov, R; Nakama, H; Stokes, B; Ernst, T

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine whether antiretroviral medications, especially the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, lead to altered brain activation due to their potential neurotoxic effects in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Forty-two right-handed men were enrolled in three groups: seronegative controls (SN, n = 18), HIV subjects treated with antiretroviral medications (HIV+ARV, n = 12), or not treated with antiretroviral medications (HIV+NARV, n = 12). Each subject performed a set of visual attention tasks with increasing difficulty or load (tracking two, three or four balls) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. HIV subjects, both groups combined, showed greater load-dependent increases in brain activation in the right frontal regions compared to SN (p-corrected = 0.006). HIV+ARV additionally showed greater load-dependent increases in activation compared to SN in bilateral superior frontal regions (p-corrected = 0.032) and a lower percent accuracy on the performance of the most difficult task (tracking four balls). Region of interest analyses further demonstrated that SN showed load-dependent decreases (with repeated trials despite increasing difficulty), while HIV subjects showed load-dependent increases in activation with the more difficult tasks, especially those on ARVs. These findings suggest that chronic ARV treatments may lead to greater requirement of the attentional network reserve and hence less efficient usage of the network and less practice effects in these HIV patients. As the brain has a limited reserve capacity, exhausting the reserve capacity in HIV+ARV would lead to declined performance with more difficult tasks that require more attention.

  3. Increases in Plasma Lutein through Supplementation Are Correlated with Increases in Physical Activity and Reductions in Sedentary Time in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Rebecca L.; Coates, Alison M.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Bryan, Janet; Matsumoto, Megumi; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year) not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity) were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250...

  4. Selective downregulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain activity and increased oxidative stress in human atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanova, Larisa; Ashary, Zain; Cosic, Milanka; Negmadjanov, Ulugbek; Ross, Gracious; Rizvi, Farhan; Olet, Susan; Kress, David; Sra, Jasbir; Tajik, A Jamil; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Shi, Yang; Jahangir, Arshad

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondria are critical for maintaining normal cardiac function, and a deficit in mitochondrial energetics can lead to the development of the substrate that promotes atrial fibrillation (AF) and its progression. However, the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and AF in humans is still not fully defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate differences in the functional activity of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes and oxidative stress in right atrial tissue from patients without (non-AF) and with AF (AF) who were undergoing open-heart surgery and were not significantly different for age, sex, major comorbidities, and medications. The overall functional activity of the electron transport chain (ETC), NADH:O2 oxidoreductase activity, was reduced by 30% in atrial tissue from AF compared with non-AF patients. This was predominantly due to a selective reduction in complex I (0.06 ± 0.007 vs. 0.09 ± 0.006 nmol·min(-1)·citrate synthase activity(-1), P = 0.02) and II (0.11 ± 0.012 vs. 0.16 ± 0.012 nmol·min(-1)·citrate synthase activity(-1), P = 0.003) functional activity in AF patients. Conversely, complex V activity was significantly increased in AF patients (0.21 ± 0.027 vs. 0.12 ± 0.01 nmol·min(-1)·citrate synthase activity(-1), P = 0.005). In addition, AF patients exhibited a higher oxidative stress with increased production of mitochondrial superoxide (73 ± 17 vs. 11 ± 2 arbitrary units, P = 0.03) and 4-hydroxynonenal level (77.64 ± 30.2 vs. 9.83 ± 2.83 ng·mg(-1) protein, P = 0.048). Our findings suggest that AF is associated with selective downregulation of ETC activity and increased oxidative stress that can contribute to the progression of the substrate for AF. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor {gamma} activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Jinkyoung; Yoon, Doyoung; Kim, Yangmee [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eunrhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPAR{gamma} and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPAR{gamma} expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPAR{gamma} in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPAR{gamma} activation.

  6. Local increase of anticyclonic wave activity over northern Eurasia under amplified Arctic warming: WAVE ACTIVITY RESPONSE TO ARCTIC MELTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Daokai [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Lu, Jian [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Sun, Lantao [CIRES, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; PSD, ESRL, NOAA, Boulder Colorado USA; Chen, Gang [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles California USA; Zhang, Yaocun [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China

    2017-04-10

    In an attempt to resolve the controversy as to whether Arctic sea ice loss leads to more mid-latitude extremes, a metric of finite-amplitude wave activity is adopted to quantify the midlatitude wave activity and its change during the observed period of the drastic Arctic sea ice decline in both ERA Interim reanalysis data and a set of AMIP-type of atmospheric model experiments. Neither the experiment with the trend in the SST or that with the declining trend of Arctic sea ice can simulate the sizable midlatitude-wide reduction in the total wave activity (Ae) observed in the reanalysis, leaving its explanation to the atmospheric internal variability. On the other hand, both the diagnostics of the flux of the local wave activity and the model experiments lend evidence to a possible linkage between the sea ice loss near the Barents and Kara seas and the increasing trend of anticyclonic local wave activity over the northern part of the central Eurasia and the associated impacts on the frequency of temperature extremes.

  7. Loss of catalase increases malignant mouse keratinocyte cell growth through activation of the stress activated JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Neale T; Finch, Joanne S; Bowden, G Timothy

    2008-05-01

    A cell line that produces mouse squamous cell carcinoma (6M90) was modified to develop a cell line with an introduced Tet-responsive catalase transgene (MTOC2). We have previously reported that the overexpressed catalase in the MTOC2 cells reverses the malignant phenotype in part by decreasing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. With this work we expanded the investigation into the differences between these two cell lines. We found that the decreased EGFR pathway activity of the MTOC2 cells is not because of reduced autocrine secretion of an epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand but rather because of lower basal receptor activity. Phosphorylated levels of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members JNK and p38 were both higher in the 6M90 cells with low catalase when compared with the MTOC2 cell line. Although treatment with an EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, blocked the increased activity of JNK in the 6M90 cells, a similar effect was not observed for p38. Basal levels of downstream c-jun transcription were also found to be higher in the 6M90 cells versus MTOC2 cells. Activated p38 was found to down-regulate the JNK MAPK pathway in the 6M90 cells. However, the 6M90 cells contain constitutively high levels of phosphorylated JNK, generating higher levels of phosphorylated c-jun and total c-jun than those in the MTOC2 cells. Inhibition of JNK activity in the 6M90 cells reduced AP-1 transcription and cell proliferation. The data confirm the inhibitory effects of catalase on tumor cell growth, specifically through a ligand-independent decrease in the stress activated JNK pathway. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004. 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321. Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006 over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions.

  9. Effectiveness of activity trackers with and without incentives to increase physical activity (TRIPPA): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Haaland, Benjamin A; Bilger, Marcel; Sahasranaman, Aarti; Sloan, Robert A; Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; Evenson, Kelly R

    2016-12-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of activity trackers, little evidence exists that they can improve health outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether use of activity trackers, alone or in combination with cash incentives or charitable donations, lead to increases in physical activity and improvements in health outcomes. In this randomised controlled trial, employees from 13 organisations in Singapore were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) with a computer generated assignment schedule to control (no tracker or incentives), Fitbit Zip activity tracker, tracker plus charity incentives, or tracker plus cash incentives. Participants had to be English speaking, full-time employees, aged 21-65 years, able to walk at least ten steps continuously, and non-pregnant. Incentives were tied to weekly steps, and the primary outcome, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) bout min per week, was measured via a sealed accelerometer and assessed on an intention-to-treat basis at 6 months (end of intervention) and 12 months (after a 6 month post-intervention follow-up period). Other outcome measures included steps, participants meeting 70 000 steps per week target, and health-related outcomes including weight, blood pressure, and quality-of-life measures. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01855776. Between June 13, 2013, and Aug 15, 2014, 800 participants were recruited and randomly assigned to the control (n=201), Fitbit (n=203), charity (n=199), and cash (n=197) groups. At 6 months, compared with control, the cash group logged an additional 29 MVPA bout min per week (95% CI 10-47; p=0·0024) and the charity group an additional 21 MVPA bout min per week (2-39; p=0·0310); the difference between Fitbit only and control was not significant (16 MVPA bout min per week [-2 to 35; p=0·0854]). Increases in MVPA bout min per week in the cash and charity groups were not significantly greater than that of the Fitbit group. At 12 months, the Fitbit group logged an

  10. Focused campaign increases activity among participants in Nature's Notebook, a citizen science project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants’ activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a national-scale citizen science program. The campaign that we implemented was designed to answer a compelling scientific question. We invited participants in the phenology-observing program, Nature’s Notebook, to track trees throughout the spring of 2012, to ascertain whether the season arrived as early as the anomalous spring of 2010. Consisting of a series of six electronic newsletters and costing our office slightly more than 1 week of staff resources, our effort was successful; compared with previous years, the number of observations collected in the region where the campaign was run increased by 184%, the number of participants submitting observations increased by 116%, and the number of trees registered increased by 110%. In comparison, these respective metrics grew by 25, 55, and 44%, over previous years, in the southeastern quadrant of the United States, where no such campaign was carried out. The campaign approach we describe here is a model that could be adapted by a wide variety of programs to increase engagement and thereby positively influence participant retention.

  11. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use While Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads to 2,600 U.S. fatalities each year. An active prompting procedure was employed to increase seat belt use and decrease cell phone use among drivers ex...

  12. Identification of a DMBT1 polymorphism associated with increased breast cancer risk and decreased promoter activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchatchou, Sandrine; Riedel, Angela; Lyer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    ,466 unrelated German controls. Promoter studies in breast cancer cells demonstrate that the risk-increasing DMBT1 -93T allele displays significantly decreased promoter activity compared to the DMBT1 -93C allele, resulting in a loss of promoter activity. The data suggest that DMBT1 polymorphisms in the 5'-region......According to present estimations, the unfavorable combination of alleles with low penetrance but high prevalence in the population might account for the major part of hereditary breast cancer risk. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer...... and other cancer types. Genomewide mapping in mice further identified Dmbt1 as a potential modulator of breast cancer risk. Here, we report the association of two frequent and linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with increased breast cancer risk in women above the age of 60 years: DMBT1 c.-93C...

  13. Increasing the Lifetime of Mobile WSNs via Dynamic Optimization of Sensor Node Communication Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Dayan Adionel; Sakai, Lucas Jun; Alberti, Antonio Marcos; de Souza, Rausley Adriano Amaral

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, a simple and flexible method for increasing the lifetime of fixed or mobile wireless sensor networks is proposed. Based on past residual energy information reported by the sensor nodes, the sink node or another central node dynamically optimizes the communication activity levels of the sensor nodes to save energy without sacrificing the data throughput. The activity levels are defined to represent portions of time or time-frequency slots in a frame, during which the sensor nodes are scheduled to communicate with the sink node to report sensory measurements. Besides node mobility, it is considered that sensors' batteries may be recharged via a wireless power transmission or equivalent energy harvesting scheme, bringing to the optimization problem an even more dynamic character. We report large increased lifetimes over the non-optimized network and comparable or even larger lifetime improvements with respect to an idealized greedy algorithm that uses both the real-time channel state and the residual energy information.

  14. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma by rosiglitazone increases sirt6 expression and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sirt6 has been implicated in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism and the development of hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to address the potential role of Sirt6 in the protective effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ on hepatic steatosis. METHODS: To investigate the effect of RGZ on hepatic steatosis, rats were treated with RGZ (4 mg·kg⁻¹·day⁻¹ by stomach gavage for 6 weeks. The involvement of Sirt6 in the RGZ's regulation was evaluated by Sirt6 knockdown in AML12 mouse hepatocytes. RESULTS: RGZ treatment ameliorated hepatic lipid accumulation and increased expression of Sirt6, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivtor-1-α (Ppargc1a/PGC1-α and Forkhead box O1 (Foxo1 in rat livers. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation was also increased by RGZ, accompanied by alterations in phosphorylation of LKB1. Interestingly, in free fatty acid-treated cells, Sirt6 knockdown increased hepatocyte lipid accumulation measured as increased triglyceride contents (p = 0.035, suggesting that Sirt6 may be beneficial in reducing hepatic fat accumulation. In addition, Sirt6 knockdown abolished the effects of RGZ on hepatocyte fat accumulation, mRNA and protein expression of Ppargc1a/PGC1-α and Foxo1, and phosphorylation levels of LKB1 and AMPK, suggesting that Sirt6 is involved in RGZ-mediated metabolic effects. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that RGZ significantly decreased hepatic lipid accumulation, and that this process appeared to be mediated by the activation of the Sirt6-AMPK pathway. We propose Sirt6 as a possible therapeutic target for hepatic steatosis.

  15. Activation of D2 dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens increases motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Barbara; David-Pereira, Ana; Borges, Sonia; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Patricio; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana J.

    2016-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptor D1-expressing neurons have been classically associated with positive reinforcement and reward, whereas D2 neurons are associated with negative reinforcement and aversion. Here we demonstrate that the pattern of activation of D1 and D2 neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predicts motivational drive, and that optogenetic activation of either neuronal population enhances motivation in mice. Using a different approach in rats, we further show that activating NAc D2 neurons increases cue-induced motivational drive in control animals and in a model that presents anhedonia and motivational deficits; conversely, optogenetic inhibition of D2 neurons decreases motivation. Our results suggest that the classic view of D1–D2 functional antagonism does not hold true for all dimensions of reward-related behaviours, and that D2 neurons may play a more prominent pro-motivation role than originally anticipated. PMID:27337658

  16. The evidence for increased L1 activity in the site of human adult brain neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A Kurnosov

    Full Text Available Retroelement activity is a common source of polymorphisms in human genome. The mechanism whereby retroelements contribute to the intraindividual genetic heterogeneity by inserting into the DNA of somatic cells is gaining increasing attention. Brain tissues are suspected to accumulate genetic heterogeneity as a result of the retroelements somatic activity. This study aims to expand our understanding of the role retroelements play in generating somatic mosaicism of neural tissues. Whole-genome Alu and L1 profiling of genomic DNA extracted from the cerebellum, frontal cortex, subventricular zone, dentate gyrus, and the myocardium revealed hundreds of somatic insertions in each of the analyzed tissues. Interestingly, the highest concentration of such insertions was detected in the dentate gyrus-the hotspot of adult neurogenesis. Insertions of retroelements and their activity could produce genetically diverse neuronal subsets, which can be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.

  17. Increasing Physical Activity among Adults with Disabilities: Doctors Can Play a Key Role

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-22

    In this podcast, Dr. Dianna Carroll, a senior health scientist with CDC’s Division of Human Development and Disability, talks about the role of doctors and other health professionals in increasing physical activity among adults with disabilities.  Created: 4/22/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  18. VERB A Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Physical Activity Among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Faye Wong; Marian Huhman; Carrie Heitzler; Lori Asbury; Rosemary Bretthauer-Mueller; Susan McCarthy; Paula Londe

    2004-01-01

    The VERB campaign is a multiethnic media campaign with a goal to increase and maintain physical activity among tweens, or children aged nine to 13 years. Parents, especially mothers aged 29 to 46, and other sources of influence on tweens (e.g., teachers, youth program leaders) are the secondary audiences of the VERB initiative. VERB applies sophisticated commercial marketing techniques to address the public health problem of sedentary lifestyles of American children, using the social marketin...

  19. Increased Working Memory-Related Brain Activity in Middle-Aged Women with Cognitive Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Julie A.; Kutz, Amanda M.; McDonald, Brenna C.; R.Naylor, Magdalena; Pfaff, Ashley C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests may be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50–60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as th...

  20. Increased cloud activation potential of secondary organic aerosol for atmospheric mass loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. King

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic particle mass loading from 1 to ≥100 μg m−3 on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN properties of mixed organic-sulfate particles was investigated in the Harvard Environmental Chamber. Mixed particles were produced by the condensation of organic molecules onto ammonium sulfate particles during the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene. A continuous-flow mode of the chamber provided stable conditions over long time periods, allowing for signal integration and hence increased measurement precision at low organic mass loadings representative of atmospheric conditions. CCN activity was measured at eight mass loadings for 80- and 100-nm particles grown on 50-nm sulfate seeds. A two-component (organic/sulfate Köhler model, which included the particle heterogeneity arising from DMA size selection and from organic volume fraction for the selected 80- and 100-nm particles, was used to predict CCN activity. For organic mass loadings of 2.9 μg m−3 and greater, the observed activation curves were well predicted using a single set of physicochemical parameters for the organic component. For mass loadings of 1.74 μg m−3 and less, the observed CCN activity increased beyond predicted values using the same parameters, implying changed physicochemical properties of the organic component. A sensitivity analysis suggests that a drop in surface tension must be invoked to explain quantitatively the CCN observations at low SOA particle mass loadings. Other factors, such as decreased molecular weight, increased density, or increased van't Hoff factor, can contribute to the explanation but are quantitatively insufficient as the full explanation.

  1. [A workplace intervention aimed at increasing awareness in nursing personnel performing manual handling activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorpiniti, A; Lorusso, A; L'Abbate, N

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe a workplace intervention aimed at reducing the risk of low back pain in nursing personnel. The intervention we carried out included a specific ergonomic training and an exercise program according to the Feldenkrais Method. After the intervention, we evaluated its effect on the execution of manual handling activities in nurses. We found an increased rate of correct manual handling in the post-intervention period.

  2. Experimental substantiation of effectively administration of vinboron for analgesic activity increase of ibuprofen

    OpenAIRE

    F. V. Hladkykh; N. H. Stepaniuk

    2016-01-01

    Background. The increase of NSAIDs safety is current direction of modern pharmacology, because of so-called "class-specific" adverse reactions, which are common to this class, and the leading place among them is occupied by gastro-intestinal toxicity. In previous studies we have proved the ability of vinboron to neutralize ulcerogenic effect of ibuprofen (Hladkykh F.V. and al., 2014). The presence of the proven analgesic activity in the domestic antispasmodics (Stepaniuk H.I. and al., 2007) s...

  3. Increased CD39 Nucleotidase Activity on Microparticles from Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visovatti, Scott H.; Hyman, Matthew C.; Bouis, Diane; Neubig, Richard; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Pinsky, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a devastating disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance, smooth muscle and endothelial cell proliferation, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates, and in situ thrombosis. Circulating intravascular ATP, ADP, AMP and adenosine activate purinergic cell signaling pathways and appear to induce many of the same pathologic processes that underlie IPAH. Extracellular dephosphorylation of ATP to ADP and AMP occurs primarily via CD39 (ENTPD1), an ectonucleotidase found on the surface of leukocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells [1]. Microparticles are micron-sized phospholipid vesicles formed from the membranes of platelets and endothelial cells. Objectives: Studies here examine whether CD39 is an important microparticle surface nucleotidase, and whether patients with IPAH have altered microparticle-bound CD39 activity that may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. Methodology/ Principal Findings Kinetic parameters, inhibitor blocking experiments, and immunogold labeling with electron microscopy support the role of CD39 as a major nucleotidase on the surface of microparticles. Comparison of microparticle surface CD39 expression and nucleotidase activity in 10 patients with advanced IPAH and 10 healthy controls using flow cytometry and thin layer chromatograph demonstrate the following: 1) circulating platelet (CD39+CD31+CD42b+) and endothelial (CD39+CD31+CD42b−) microparticle subpopulations in patients with IPAH show increased CD39 expression; 2) microparticle ATPase and ADPase activity in patients with IPAH is increased. Conclusions/ Significance We demonstrate for the first time increased CD39 expression and function on circulating microparticles in patients with IPAH. Further research is needed to elucidate whether these findings identify an important trigger for the development of the disease, or reflect a physiologic response to IPAH. PMID:22792409

  4. Frequent Surfing on Social Health Networks is Associated With Increased Knowledge and Patient Health Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Dafna; Grinvald, Haya; Reuveni, Haim; Magnezi, Racheli

    2016-08-10

    The advent of the Internet has driven a technological revolution that has changed our lives. As part of this phenomenon, social networks have attained a prominent role in health care. A variety of medical services is provided over the Internet, including home monitoring, interactive communications between the patient and service providers, and social support, among others. This study emphasizes some of the practical implications of Web-based health social networks for patients and for health care systems. The objective of this study was to assess how participation in a social network among individuals with a chronic condition contributed to patient activation, based on the Patient Activation Measure (PAM). A prospective, cross-sectional survey with a retrospective component was conducted. Data were collected from Camoni, a Hebrew-language Web-based social health network, participants in the diabetes mellitus, pain, hypertension, and depression/anxiety forums, during November 2012 to 2013. Experienced users (enrolled at least 6 months) and newly enrolled received similar versions of the same questionnaire including sociodemographics and PAM. Among 686 participants, 154 of 337 experienced and 123 of 349 newly enrolled completed the questionnaire. Positive correlations (Psocial relationships, and chronic disease knowledge. Men surfed longer than women (χ²3=10.104, Psocial health network use were correlated with increased knowledge about a chronic disease. Experienced surfers had higher PAM than newly enrolled, suggesting that continued site use may contribute to increased activation. Web-based social health networks offer an opportunity to expand patient knowledge and increase involvement in personal health, thereby increasing patient activation. Further studies are needed to examine these changes on other aspects of chronic illnesses such as quality of life and costs.

  5. Activation of calcium-sensing receptor increases TRPC3 expression in rat cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shan-Li [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Sun, Ming-Rui [Department of Pharmacology, Qiqihaer Medical College, Qiqihaer 160001 (China); Li, Ting-Ting; Yin, Xin [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Xu, Chang-Qing [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Sun, Yi-Hua, E-mail: syh200415@126.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) activation stimulates TRP channels. {yields} CaR promoted transient receptor potential C3 (TRPC3) expression. {yields} Adult rat ventricular myocytes display capacitative calcium entry (CCE), which was operated by TRPCs. {yields} TRPC channels activation induced by CaR activator sustained the increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} to evoke cardiomyocytes apoptosis. -- Abstract: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes, which gate a type of influx of extracellular calcium, the capacitative calcium entry. TRP channels play a role in mediating Ca{sup 2+} overload in the heart. Calcium-sensing receptors (CaR) are also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and promote the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by Ca{sup 2+} overload. However, data about the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart are few. In this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine the expression of the TRP canonical proteins TRPC1 and TRPC3 in adult and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Laser scan confocal microscopy was used to detect intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} levels in isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes. The results showed that, in adult rat cardiomyocytes, the depletion of Ca{sup 2+} stores in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) by thapsigargin induced a transient increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and the subsequent restoration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} sustained the increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} for a few minutes, whereas, the persisting elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was reduced in the presence of the TRPC inhibitor SKF96365. The stimulation of CaR by its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) or spermine also resulted in the same effect and the duration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase was also shortened in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}. In adult and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, GdCl{sub 3

  6. Protease-activated receptor 2 agonist increases cell proliferation and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIE, LIQUN; DUAN, ZEXING; LIU, CAIJU; ZHENG, YANMIN; ZHOU, JING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the expression of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in the human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990, and to evaluate its effect on cell proliferation and invasion. The expression of PAR-2 protein and mRNA in SW1990 cells was determined by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. MTT and cell invasion and migration assays, as well as semi-quantitative PCR and zymography analysis, were additionally performed. PAR-2 mRNA was significantly upregulated in the cells treated with trypsin or the PAR-2 activating peptide Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Lys-Val (SLIGKV) (P0.05). Trypsin and SLIGKV significantly promoted SW1990 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, trypsin and SLIGKV significantly increased the mRNA expression (P<0.01) and gelatinolytic activity (P<0.01) of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. In conclusion, PAR-2 is expressed in SW1990 cells. PAR-2 activation may promote the invasion and migration of human pancreatic cancer cells by increasing MMP-2 expression. PMID:25452809

  7. Water-filled training tubes increase core muscle activation and somatosensory control of balance during squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditroilo, Massimiliano; O'Sullivan, Rory; Harnan, Brian; Crossey, Aislinn; Gillmor, Beth; Dardis, William; Grainger, Adam

    2018-09-01

    This study examined trunk muscle activation, balance and proprioception while squatting with a water-filled training tube (WT) and a traditional barbell (BB), with either closed (CE) or open eyes (OE). Eighteen male elite Gaelic footballers performed an isometric squat under the following conditions: BB-OE, BB-CE, WT-OE and WT-CE. The activity of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO) and multifidus (MF) was measured using electromyography, along with sway of the centre of pressure (CoP) using a force platform. Only the EO and the MF muscles exhibited an increased activity with WT (p velocity and range of the CoP increased significantly with WT (p velocity of the CoP was marginally reduced (d = 0.29). WT elicited a greater level core muscle activation and created a greater challenge to postural stability when compared to a BB. It appears that WT does not benefit from vision but emphasises the somatosensory control of balance. The use of WT may be beneficial in those sports requiring development of somatosensory/proprioceptive contribution to balance control.

  8. Neuropeptide S overcomes short term memory deficit induced by sleep restriction by increasing prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, Julien; Canini, Frédéric; Poly-Thomasson, Betty; Trousselard, Marion; Granon, Sylvie; Chauveau, Frédéric

    2017-12-01

    Sleep restriction (SR) impairs short term memory (STM) that might be related to different processes. Neuropeptide S (NPS), an endogenous neuropeptide that improves short term memory, activates arousal and decreases anxiety is likely to counteract the SR-induced impairment of STM. The objective of the present study was to find common cerebral pathways in sleep restriction and NPS action in order to ultimately antagonize SR effect on memory. The STM was assessed using a spontaneous spatial alternation task in a T-maze. C57-Bl/6J male mice were distributed in 4 groups according to treatment (0.1nmol of NPS or vehicle intracerebroventricular injection) and to 20h-SR. Immediately after behavioural testing, regional c-fos immunohistochemistry was performed and used as a neural activation marker for spatial short term memory (prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus) and emotional reactivity (basolateral amygdala and ventral hippocampus). Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using elevated-plus maze task. Results showed that SR impaired short term memory performance and decreased neuronal activation in cingular cortex.NPS injection overcame SR-induced STM deficits and increased neuronal activation in infralimbic cortex. SR spared anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze. Neural activation in basolateral nucleus of amygdala and ventral hippocampus were not changed after SR.In conclusion, the present study shows that NPS overcomes SR-induced STM deficits by increasing prefrontal cortex activation independently of anxiety-like behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial translocation is associated with increased monocyte activation and dementia in AIDS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Ancuta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD. To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4(+ T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection, compared to control groups. These results suggest a role for elevated LPS levels in driving monocyte activation in AIDS, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HAD, and provide evidence that cofactors linked to substance abuse and HCV co-infection influence these processes.

  10. Increased Staphylococcus-killing activity of an antimicrobial peptide, lactoferricin B, with minocycline and monoacylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Teraguchi, Susumu; Tamura, Yoshitaka

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed to find antibiotics or other compounds that could increase the antimicrobial activity of an antimicrobial peptide, lactoferricin B (LFcin B), against Staphylococcus aureus, including antibiotic-resistant strains. Among conventional antibiotics, minocycline increased the bactericidal activity of LFcin B against S. aureus, but methicillin, ceftizoxime, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim did not have such an effect. The combination of minocycline and LFcin B had synergistic effects against three antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus, according to result of checkerboard analysis. Screening of 33 compounds, including acids and salts, alcohols, amino acids, proteins and peptides, sugar, and lipids, showed that medium-chain monoacylglycerols increased the bactericidal activity of LFcin B against three S. aureus strains. The short-term killing test in water and the killing curve test in growing cultures showed that a combination of LFcin B and monolaurin (a monoacylglycerol with a 12-carbon acyl chain) killed S. aureus more rapidly than either agent alone. These findings may be helpful in the application of antimicrobial peptides in medical or other situations.

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury Increases Cortical Glutamate Network Activity by Compromising GABAergic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, David; Walker, Kendall; Andresen, Lauren; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Hampton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Dulla, Chris G

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for developing pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Although disruptions in brain circuitry are associated with TBI, the precise mechanisms by which brain injury leads to epileptiform network activity is unknown. Using controlled cortical impact (CCI) as a model of TBI, we examined how cortical excitability and glutamatergic signaling was altered following injury. We optically mapped cortical glutamate signaling using FRET-based glutamate biosensors, while simultaneously recording cortical field potentials in acute brain slices 2-4 weeks following CCI. Cortical electrical stimulation evoked polyphasic, epileptiform field potentials and disrupted the input-output relationship in deep layers of CCI-injured cortex. High-speed glutamate biosensor imaging showed that glutamate signaling was significantly increased in the injured cortex. Elevated glutamate responses correlated with epileptiform activity, were highest directly adjacent to the injury, and spread via deep cortical layers. Immunoreactivity for markers of GABAergic interneurons were significantly decreased throughout CCI cortex. Lastly, spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency decreased and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current increased after CCI injury. Our results suggest that specific cortical neuronal microcircuits may initiate and facilitate the spread of epileptiform activity following TBI. Increased glutamatergic signaling due to loss of GABAergic control may provide a mechanism by which TBI can give rise to post-traumatic epilepsy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cortical ensemble activity increasingly predicts behaviour outcomes during learning of a motor task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Mark; Wessberg, Johan; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2000-06-01

    When an animal learns to make movements in response to different stimuli, changes in activity in the motor cortex seem to accompany and underlie this learning. The precise nature of modifications in cortical motor areas during the initial stages of motor learning, however, is largely unknown. Here we address this issue by chronically recording from neuronal ensembles located in the rat motor cortex, throughout the period required for rats to learn a reaction-time task. Motor learning was demonstrated by a decrease in the variance of the rats' reaction times and an increase in the time the animals were able to wait for a trigger stimulus. These behavioural changes were correlated with a significant increase in our ability to predict the correct or incorrect outcome of single trials based on three measures of neuronal ensemble activity: average firing rate, temporal patterns of firing, and correlated firing. This increase in prediction indicates that an association between sensory cues and movement emerged in the motor cortex as the task was learned. Such modifications in cortical ensemble activity may be critical for the initial learning of motor tasks.

  13. Cycle Training Increased GLUT4 and Activation of mTOR in Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Charles A.; Howell, Mary E.A.; Baker, Jonathan D.; Dykes, Rhesa J.; Duffourc, Michelle M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; Stone, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine if cycle training of sedentary subjects would increase the expression of the principle muscle glucose transporters, six volunteers completed six weeks of progressively increasing intensity stationary cycle cycling. Methods In vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, changes in expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 were compared using quantitative immunoblots with specific protein standards. Regulatory pathway components were evaluated by immunoblots of muscle homogenates and immunohistochemistry of microscopic sections. Results GLUT1 was unchanged, GLUT4 increased 66%, GLUT12 increased 104%, and GLUT5 decreased 72%. A mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c) and regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and phospho-AMPK) were unchanged, but the muscle hypertrophy pathway component, phospho-mTOR increased 83% after the exercise program. In baseline biopsies, GLUT4 by immunohistochemical techniques was 37% greater in Type I (slow twitch, red) muscle fibers, but the exercise training increased GLUT4 expression in Type II (fast twitch, white) fibers by 50%, achieving parity with the Type I fibers. Baseline phospho-mTOR expression was 50% higher in Type II fibers and increased more in Type II fibers (62%) with training, but also increased in Type I fibers (34%). Conclusion Progressive intensity stationary cycle training of previously sedentary subjects increased muscle insulin-responsive glucose transporters (GLUT4 and GLUT12) and decreased the fructose transporter (GLUT5). The increase in GLUT4 occurred primarily in Type II muscle fibers and this coincided with activation of the mTOR muscle hypertrophy pathway. There was little impact on Type I fiber GLUT4 expression and no evidence of change in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:20010125

  14. Mixed lactate and caffeine compound increases satellite cell activity and anabolic signals for muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yoshimi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Yokokawa, Takumi; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Shimazu, Mariko; Uchida, Kenji; Tomi, Hironori; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a mixed lactate and caffeine compound (LC) could effectively elicit proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells or activate anabolic signals in skeletal muscles. We cultured C2C12 cells with either lactate or LC for 6 h. We found that lactate significantly increased myogenin and follistatin protein levels and phosphorylation of P70S6K while decreasing the levels of myostatin relative to the control. LC significantly increased protein levels of Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 in addition to myogenin, relative to control. LC also significantly increased follistatin expression relative to control and stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K. In an in vivo study, male F344/DuCrlCrlj rats were assigned to control (Sed, n = 10), exercise (Ex, n = 12), and LC supplementation (LCEx, n = 13) groups. LC was orally administered daily. The LCEx and Ex groups were exercised on a treadmill, running for 30 min at low intensity every other day for 4 wk. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in the mass of the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) relative to both the Sed and Ex groups. Furthermore, the LCEx group showed a significant increase in the total DNA content of TA compared with the Sed group. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in myogenin and follistatin expression of GA relative to the Ex group. These results suggest that administration of LC can effectively increase muscle mass concomitant with elevated numbers of myonuclei, even with low-intensity exercise training, via activated satellite cells and anabolic signals. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity Prevents Increases in Myocardial Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David B.; Levick, Scott P; Brower, Gregory L.; Janicki, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim TNF-α is known to cause adverse myocardial remodeling. While we have previously shown a role for cardiac mast cells in mediating myocardial TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) activation of TNF-α may also be contributory. We sought to determine the relative roles of MMPs and cardiac mast cells in the activation of TNF-α in the hearts of rats subjected to chronic volume overload. Methods Interventions with the broad spectrum MMP inhibitor, GM6001, or the mast cell stabilizer, nedocromil, were performed in the rat aortocaval fistula (ACF) model of volume overload. Results Myocardial TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the ACF. This increase was prevented by MMP inhibition with GM6001 (p ≤ 0.001 vs. ACF). Conversely, myocardial TNF-α levels were increased in the ACF + nedocromil treated fistula groups (p ≤ 0.001 vs. sham). The degradation of interstitial collagen volume fraction seen in the untreated ACF group was prevented in both the GM6001 and nedocromil treated hearts. Significant increases in LV myocardial ET-1 levels also occurred in the ACF group at 3 days post-fistula. Whereas administration of GM6001 significantly attenuated this increase, mast cell stabilization with nedocromil markedly exacerbated the increase, producing ET-1 levels 6.5 fold and 2 fold greater than that in the sham-operated control and ACF group, respectively. Conclusion The efficacy of the MMP inhibitor, GM6001, to prevent increased levels of myocardial TNF-α is indicative of MMP-mediated cleavage of latent extracellular membrane bound TNF-α protein as the primary source of bioactive TNF-α in the myocardium of the volume-overload heart. PMID:20403361

  16. Systemic and cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor levels increase in murine cerebral malaria along with increased Calpain and caspase activity and can be reduced by erythropoietin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) includes compromised microvascular perfusion, increased inflammation, cytoadhesion, and endothelial activation. These events cause blood-brain barrier disruption and neuropathology and associations with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signal...

  17. Family-based interventions to increase physical activity in children: a meta-analysis and realist synthesis protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.E.; Atkin, A.J.; Panter, J.; Corder, K.; Wong, G.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Sluijs, E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the established relationship between physical activity and health, data suggest that many children are insufficiently active, and that levels decline into adolescence. Engaging the family in interventions may increase and maintain children's physical activity levels at the

  18. LSD Increases Primary Process Thinking via Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Pokorny, Dan; Aicher, Helena; Preller, Katrin H.; Pokorny, Thomas; Bosch, Oliver G.; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking – an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD increases primary process thinking and that primary process thinking depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects. Methods: Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audio-recorded mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally) and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally). The main outcome variable in this study was primary index (PI), a formal measure of primary process thinking in the imagery reports. State of consciousness was evaluated using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC) rating scale. Results: LSD, compared with placebo, significantly increased primary index (p LSD-induced increase in primary index was positively correlated with LSD-induced disembodiment (p LSD-induced increases in primary index and changes in state of consciousness were fully blocked by ketanserin. Conclusion: LSD induces primary process thinking via activation of 5-HT2A receptors and in relation to disembodiment and blissful state. Primary process thinking appears to crucially organize inner experiences during both dreams and psychedelic states of consciousness. PMID:29167644

  19. LSD Increases Primary Process Thinking via Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Kraehenmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Stimulation of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A receptors by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD and related compounds such as psilocybin has previously been shown to increase primary process thinking – an ontologically and evolutionary early, implicit, associative, and automatic mode of thinking which is typically occurring during altered states of consciousness such as dreaming. However, it is still largely unknown whether LSD induces primary process thinking under placebo-controlled, standardized experimental conditions and whether these effects are related to subjective experience and 5-HT2A receptor activation. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypotheses that LSD increases primary process thinking and that primary process thinking depends on 5-HT2A receptor activation and is related to subjective drug effects.Methods: Twenty-five healthy subjects performed an audio-recorded mental imagery task 7 h after drug administration during three drug conditions: placebo, LSD (100 mcg orally and LSD together with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (40 mg orally. The main outcome variable in this study was primary index (PI, a formal measure of primary process thinking in the imagery reports. State of consciousness was evaluated using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC rating scale.Results: LSD, compared with placebo, significantly increased primary index (p < 0.001, Bonferroni-corrected. The LSD-induced increase in primary index was positively correlated with LSD-induced disembodiment (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected, and blissful state (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected on the 5D-ASC. Both LSD-induced increases in primary index and changes in state of consciousness were fully blocked by ketanserin.Conclusion: LSD induces primary process thinking via activation of 5-HT2A receptors and in relation to disembodiment and blissful state. Primary process thinking appears to crucially organize inner experiences during both dreams and

  20. Increasing extracellular matrix collagen level and MMP activity induces cyst development in polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Li, Chenghai; Liu, Zijuan; Dai, Zonghan; Tao, Yunxia

    2012-09-11

    Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) kidneys exhibit increased extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen expression and metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. We investigated the role of these increases on cystic disease progression in PKD kidneys. We examined the role of type I collagen (collagen I) and membrane bound type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) on cyst development using both in vitro 3 dimensional (3D) collagen gel culture and in vivo PCK rat model of PKD. We found that collagen concentration is critical in controlling the morphogenesis of MDCK cells cultured in 3D gels. MDCK cells did not form 3D structures at collagen I concentrations lower than 1 mg/ml but began forming tubules when the concentration reaches 1 mg/ml. Significantly, these cells began to form cyst when collagen I concentration reached to 1.2 mg/ml, and the ratios of cyst to tubule structures increased as the collagen I concentration increased. These cells exclusively formed cyst structures at a collagen I concentration of 1.8 mg/ml or higher. Overexpression of MT1-MMP in MDCK cells significantly induced cyst growth in 3D collagen gel culture. Conversely, inhibition of MMPs activity with doxycycline, a FDA approved pan-MMPs inhibitor, dramatically slowed cyst growth. More importantly, the treatment of PCK rats with doxycycline significantly decreased renal tubule cell proliferation and markedly inhibited the cystic disease progression. Our data suggest that increased collagen expression and MMP activity in PKD kidneys may induce cyst formation and expansion. Our findings also suggest that MMPs may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human PKD.

  1. Increasing extracellular matrix collagen level and MMP activity induces cyst development in polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD kidneys exhibit increased extracellular matrix (ECM collagen expression and metalloproteinases (MMPs activity. We investigated the role of these increases on cystic disease progression in PKD kidneys. Methods We examined the role of type I collagen (collagen I and membrane bound type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP on cyst development using both in vitro 3 dimensional (3D collagen gel culture and in vivo PCK rat model of PKD. Results We found that collagen concentration is critical in controlling the morphogenesis of MDCK cells cultured in 3D gels. MDCK cells did not form 3D structures at collagen I concentrations lower than 1 mg/ml but began forming tubules when the concentration reaches 1 mg/ml. Significantly, these cells began to form cyst when collagen I concentration reached to 1.2 mg/ml, and the ratios of cyst to tubule structures increased as the collagen I concentration increased. These cells exclusively formed cyst structures at a collagen I concentration of 1.8 mg/ml or higher. Overexpression of MT1-MMP in MDCK cells significantly induced cyst growth in 3D collagen gel culture. Conversely, inhibition of MMPs activity with doxycycline, a FDA approved pan-MMPs inhibitor, dramatically slowed cyst growth. More importantly, the treatment of PCK rats with doxycycline significantly decreased renal tubule cell proliferation and markedly inhibited the cystic disease progression. Conclusions Our data suggest that increased collagen expression and MMP activity in PKD kidneys may induce cyst formation and expansion. Our findings also suggest that MMPs may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human PKD.

  2. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  3. Engineered disulfide bonds increase active-site local stability and reduce catalytic activity of a cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Adalbjörnsson, Björn Vidar; Gylfason, Gudjón Andri

    2007-06-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an extracellular enzyme that is membrane-bound in eukaryotes but resides in the periplasmic space of bacteria. It normally carries four cysteine residues that form two disulfide bonds, for instance in the APs of Escherichia coli and vertebrates. An AP variant from a Vibrio sp. has only one cysteine residue. This cysteine is second next to the nucleophilic serine in the active site. We have individually modified seven residues to cysteine that are on two loops predicted to be within a 5 A radius. Four of them formed a disulfide bond to the endogenous cysteine. Thermal stability was monitored by circular dichroism and activity measurements. Global stability was similar to the wild-type enzyme. However, a significant increase in heat-stability was observed for the disulfide-containing variants using activity as a measure, together with a large reduction in catalytic rates (k(cat)) and a general decrease in Km values. The results suggest that a high degree of mobility near the active site and in the helix carrying the endogenous cysteine is essential for full catalytic efficiency in the cold-adapted AP.

  4. Is Increasing Coal Seam Gas Well Development Activity Associated with Increasing Hospitalisation Rates in Queensland, Australia? An Exploratory Analysis 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K; Cameron, Cate M; Watt, Kerrianne; Vink, Sue; Jagals, Paul; Page, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The majority of Australia's coal seam gas (CSG) reserves are in Queensland, where the industry has expanded rapidly in recent years. Despite concerns, health data have not been examined alongside CSG development. This study examined hospitalisation rates as a function of CSG development activity in Queensland, during the period 1995-2011. Admissions data were examined with CSG well numbers, which served as a proxy for CSG development activity. Time series models were used to assess changes in hospitalisation rates for periods of "low", "medium", "high", and "intense" activity compared to a period of "very low" activity, adjusting for covariates. "All-cause" hospitalisation rates increased monotonically with increasing gas well development activity in females (324.0 to 390.3 per 1000 persons) and males (294.2 to 335.4 per 1000 persons). Hospitalisation rates for "Blood/immune" conditions generally increased for both sexes. Female and male hospitalisation rates for "Circulatory" conditions decreased with increasing CSG activity. Hospitalisation rates were generally low for reproductive and birth outcomes; no clear associations were observed. This study showed some outcomes were associated with increasing CSG development activity. However, as a condition of data access, the population and outcomes were aggregated to a broad geographic study area rather than using higher geographic resolution data. Higher resolution data, as well as other data sources, should be explored. Further research should be conducted with an expanded time period to determine if these trends continue as the industry grows.

  5. An increase in pectin methyl esterase activity accompanies dormancy breakage and germination of yellow cedar seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, C; Kermode, A R

    2000-09-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) (EC 3.1.1.11) catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylester groups of cell wall pectins. We investigated the role of this enzyme in dormancy termination and germination of yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis [D. Don] Spach) seeds. PME activity was not detected in dormant seeds of yellow cedar but was induced and gradually increased during moist chilling; high activity coincided with dormancy breakage and germination. PME activity was positively correlated to the degree of dormancy breakage of yellow cedar seeds. The enzyme produced in different seed parts and in seeds at different times during moist chilling, germination, and early post-germinative growth consisted of two isoforms, both basic with isoelectric points of 8.7 and 8.9 and the same molecular mass of 62 kD. The pH optimum for the enzyme was between 7.4 and 8.4. In intact yellow cedar seeds, activities of the two basic isoforms of PME that were induced in embryos and in megagametophytes following dormancy breakage were significantly suppressed by abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid had a stimulatory effect on the activities of these isoforms in embryos and megagametophytes of intact seeds at the germinative stage. We hypothesize that PME plays a role in weakening of the megagametophyte, allowing radicle emergence and the completion of germination.

  6. Grape Polyphenols Increase the Activity of HDL Enzymes in Old and Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy L. Zagayko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HDL particles are protein-rich particles that act as a vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent changes in the functional activity of HDL and the effect of high-energy diet on this index, as well as to correct it under the influence of grape polyphenols from “Enoant” obtained from Vitis vinifera grapes. We observed the age-dependent composition changes in HDL particle. It was shown that total lipids and triacylglycerol (TG levels were higher in 24-month-old animals. In obese rats, HDL total lipids and TG levels were higher in 24-month-old than in the 3-month-old and 12-month-old groups but did not differ from 24-month-old group. The plasma HDL paraoxonase (PON and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity levels were decreased in old-aged rats, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP activity was higher in old rats. Keeping 12-month-old animals on high-fructose diet completely leveled the age differences in the data that have been measured between 12-month-old and 24-month-old rats. After “Enoant” administration, an increase of HDL PON and LCAT activity levels and a reduction of CETP activity were found in 24-month-old and obese rats.

  7. Personalized Social Network Activity Feeds for Increased Interaction and Content Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo eBerkovsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks were originally conceived as means of sharing information and activities with friends, and their success has been one of the primary contributors of the tremendous growth of the Web. Social network activity feeds were devised as a means to aggregate recent actions of friends into a convenient list. But the volume of actions and content generated by social network users is overwhelming, such that keeping users up-to-date with friend activities is an ongoing challenge for social network providers. Personalization has been proposed as a solution to combat social network information overload and help users to identify the nuggets of relevant information in the incoming flood of network activities. In this paper, we propose and thoroughly evaluate a personalized model for predicting the relevance of the activity feed items, which informs the ranking of the feeds and facilitates personalization. Results of a live study show that the proposed feed personalization approach successfully identifies and promotes relevant feed items and boosts the uptake of the feeds. In addition, it increases the contribution of user-generated content to the social network and spurs interaction between users.

  8. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among young girls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Braithwaite, Rock; Pearson, Natalie

    2014-05-01

    Pre-adolescent girls are an important target population for physical activity behaviour change as it may enhance tracking into the crucial period of adolescence. The quantification of intervention effectiveness for this age group of girls has not been previously reported. Studies published in English up to and including August 2013 were located from computerised (MedLine, PsychInfo, Science Direct, Web of Science, EPPI centre databases, and Cochrane Library database) and manual searches. Intervention studies aimed at promoting physical activity, which included pre-adolescent girls aged 5-11 years, and a non-physical activity control/comparison group were included. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted. The average treatment effect for pre-adolescent girls involved in physical activity interventions was significant but small (g=0.314, p<.001). Moderator analyses showed larger effects for interventions that catered for girls only and used educational and multicomponent strategies. Interventions to increase physical activity in pre-adolescent girls show small but significant effects, suggesting that behaviour change may be challenging, but results suggest some strategies that could be successful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Jensen-Otsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E. 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01. There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09–2.90, but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  10. Challenging effective public outreach activities for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko

    2006-01-01

    An outreach activity is two-way communication for communicating information. The public outreach activities of USA and Japan for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy, and the effective outreach activities are stated. On USA, many communicators in the member of ANS (American Nuclear Society) play an active part in the outreach activities for the policy makers, educators, students, and stakeholders. NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute, USA) provides people with useful information such as benefits and safety control system of nuclear energy, and it has carried out an attitude survey. FPL (Florida Power and Light Company) selected the communicators by ten evaluation items and they made a group and a clear grasp of the goal, needs, and plans and then communicated residents, and sent out questionnaires. Some examples of the special education program for training the communicators in USA are described. In Japan, JAEA gave lessons of nuclear energy, radiation and disaster prevention at the primary, junior high and high schools, friendly talks with local residents, preparing the teaching materials with residents and training of communicators. (S.Y.)

  11. Fermented soymilk increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Kaneko, Daisuke; Nishimura, Ikuko; Matsuyama, Asahi

    2010-12-01

    Wheel running by rodents is thought to reflect voluntary exercise in humans. The present study examined the effect of fermented soymilk (FSM) on voluntary wheel running in rats. FSM was prepared from soymilk (SM) using the bacteria Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The rats were fed a normal diet for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week administration of diet containing FSM or SM (5% w/w), and then the diets were switched back to a normal diet for 3 weeks. The voluntary wheel running activity was increased by FSM administration, although no changes were observed by SM administration. This effect was observed 2 weeks after FSM administration and lasted 1 week after deprivation of FSM. Then we evaluated the effect of FSM on sexual behavior in male rats. FSM administration for 10 days significantly increased the number of mounts. The protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increased in the hippocampus by FSM administration and it is suggested that FSM may change norepinephrine or dopamine signaling in the brain. Our study provides the first evidence that FSM increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior and suggests that TH may be involved in these effects.

  12. Role of endolymphatic anion transport in forskolin-induced Cl- activity increase of scala media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, I; Mori, N; Matsunaga, T

    1995-03-01

    To determine the role of anion transport in the forskolin-induced Cl- increase of scala media (SM), effects of forskolin on the EP (endocochlear potential) and Cl- activity (ACl) in SM were examined with double-barrelled Cl(-)-selective microelectrodes. The experiments were carried out on guinea pig cochleae, using a few anion transport inhibitors: IAA-94 for a Cl- channel blocker, bumetanide (BU) for an Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport blocker, and SITS and DIDS for Cl-/HCO3- exchange blockers. The application of forskolin (200 microM) into scala vestibuli (SV) caused a 20 mEq increase of endolymphatic ACl and a 15 mV elevation of EP, and IAA-94 with forskolin completely abolished these responses. Although each application of BU, SITS or DIDS did not completely suppress EP elevation, the concurrent application of these inhibitors completely suppressed EP with endolymphatic ACl increase. The results indicate the involvement of Cl- channels, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport and Cl-/HCO3- exchange in forskolin-induced increase of ACl and EP. The role of adenylate cyclase activation and Cl- transport in endolymph homeostasis was discussed.

  13. Intrauterine Growth Restriction Increases TNFα and Activates the Unfolded Protein Response in Male Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S. Riddle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR programs adult disease, including obesity and insulin resistance. Our group previously demonstrated that IUGR dysregulates adipose deposition in male, but not female, weanling rats. Dysregulated adipose deposition is often accompanied by the release of proinflammatory signaling molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. TNFα contributes to adipocyte inflammation and impaired insulin signaling. TNFα has also been implicated in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR, which impairs insulin signaling. We hypothesized that, in male rat pups, IUGR would increase TNFα, TNFR1, and components of the UPR (Hspa5, ATF6, p-eIF2α, and Ddit3 prior to the onset of obesity. We further hypothesized that impaired glucose tolerance would occur after the onset of adipose dysfunction in male IUGR rats. To test this hypothesis, we used a well-characterized rat model of uteroplacental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Our primary findings are that, in male rats, IUGR (1 increased circulating and adipose TNFα, (2 increased mRNA levels of UPR components as well as p-eIF2a, and (3 impaired glucose tolerance after observed TNFα increased and after UPR activation. We speculate that programmed dysregulation of TNFα and UPR contributed to the development of glucose intolerance in male IUGR rats.

  14. Can motivational signs prompt increases in incidental physical activity in an Australian health-care facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A L; Bauman, A E; Patch, C; Wilson, J; Chen, J

    2002-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether a stair-promoting signed intervention could increase the use of the stairs over the elevator in a health-care facility. A time-series design was conducted over 12 weeks. Data were collected before, during and after displaying a signed intervention during weeks 4-5 and 8-9. Evaluation included anonymous counts recorded by an objective unobtrusive motion-sensing device of people entering the elevator or the stairs. Self-report data on stair use by hospital staff were also collected. Stair use significantly increased after the first intervention phase (P = 0.02), but after the intervention was removed stair use decreased back towards baseline levels. Moreover, stair use did not significantly change after the re-introduction of the intervention. Lastly, stair use decreased below the initial baseline level during the final weeks of evaluation. Furthermore, there was no significant change in self-reported stair use by hospital staff. Therefore, the signed intervention aimed at promoting an increase in incidental physical activity produced small brief effects, which were not maintained. Further research is required to find more effective 'point of choice' interventions to increase incidental physical activity participation with more sustainable impact.

  15. Increasing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: reviewing safety, benefits, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Brett C; Thomas, D David; Scott, JoAnn B; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a difficult disease frequently diagnosed in late stages with a high mortality and symptom burden. In part because of frequent lung comorbidity, even lung cancer survivors often remain symptomatic and functionally limited. Though targeted therapy continues to increase treatment options for advanced-stage disease, symptom burden remains high with few therapeutic options. In the last several decades, exercise and physical activity have arisen as therapeutic options for obstructive lung disease and lung cancer. To date, exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms, increase exercise tolerance, improve quality of life, and potentially reduce length of stay and postoperative complications. Multiple small trials have been performed in perioperative non-small-cell lung cancer patients, although fewer studies are available for patients with advanced-stage disease. Despite the increased interest in this subject over the last few years, a validated exercise regimen has not been established for perioperative or advanced-stage disease. Clinicians underutilize exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation as a therapy, in part because of the lack of evidence-based consensus as to how and when to implement increasing physical activity. This review summarizes the existing evidence on exercise in lung cancer patients.

  16. Chemical stress induced by heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum L.) allelochemicals and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghader, Kalantar; Nojavan, Majid; Naghshbandi, Nabat

    2008-03-15

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the allelopathic potential of heliotrope on some biochemical processes of dodder. The preliminary experiments revealed that the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of heliotrope is higher than its seeds and roots. So, the aqueous extract of leaves was used in remaining experiments. Leaf extracts of 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O inhibited the germination of dodder seeds up to 95% and that of radish up to 100%. While, the aqueous extract of vine leaves which is a non-allelopathic plant did not have any inhibitory effect on these seeds. Vine leaf was used as a control to show that the inhibitory effect of heliotrope is due to an inhibitory compound but not due to the concentration. The leaf extract of heliotrope at 0.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O reduced the radish seedling growth from 14 cm to about 0.5 cm and that of dodder from 7.5 cm to about 0.25 cm. The effects of heliotrope allelochemicals on some physiological and biochemical processes of radish was also Investigated. The activity of auxin oxidase increased in leaves and roots of radish. Suggesting that the reduced radish growth is due to the decreased active auxin levels in its leaves and roots. The activity of alpha-amylase was reduced, so reduction of starch degradation and lack of respiratory energy is the prime reason of germination inhibition in dodder and radish seeds. The level of soluble sugars increased. This is an indication of reduction of the activity of some respiratory enzymes and reduced consumption of these sugars. Proline levels were also increased, indicating that, the chemical stress is induced by leaf extract. Finally, the activities of GPX and CAT which are antioxidant enzymes were increased, along with increased extract concentration. These finding shows that the chemical stress induced by leaf extract produces super oxide (O2*) and H2O2, which is neutralized to H2O and O2 by these enzymes.

  17. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumyeast extract then for those growing on glucose, i.e. the effect of elevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. This indicates the increased activity of microorganisms, which leads to accelerated C turnover in soil under elevated CO2. Our results clearly showed that the functional characteristics of the soil microbial community (i.e. specific growth rates and enzymes activity) rather than total microbial biomass

  18. Increased Neural Activation during Picture Encoding and Retrieval in 60-Year-Olds Compared to 20-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmans, S.; van Boxtel, M. P. J.; Vuurman, E. F. P. M.; Evers, E. A. T.; Jolles, J.

    2010-01-01

    Brain aging has been associated with both reduced and increased neural activity during task execution. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether increased neural activation during memory encoding and retrieval is already present at the age of 60 as well as to obtain more insight into the mechanism behind increased activity.…

  19. Does Spousal Support Can Increase the Women’s Physical Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Rezaee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous benefits of physical activity are well-known for the prevention and treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancers. However, the status of physical activities among women remains noticeably less than the recommended level. Considering the importance of the spouses’ participation in the promotion of women’s health, this study examined the impact of spousal support on women’s physical activity. Methods: This semi--experimental study was done in February 2015 on 100 couples in reproductive age referred to health centers of Falavarjan city. The participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The information related to women’s physical activity in both groups was collected by aquestionnaire in two steps, before and three months after the intervention. The spouses of women in the intervention group were trained in the field of the importance of physical activity in women’s health in two sessions. The data were analyzed by the software SPSS21 and suitable statistical tests (Independent t, paired t, and Chi-square. Results: The mean and standard deviation of women’s age in the both groups were 28.76±5.51 and 30.38±5.31, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the women under the study was generally estimated 44%. Physical activities of women in the intervention group were significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.0001. Also, the Body Mass Index in the intervention group was significantly decreased compared to before the intervention and control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Spouses could encourage women to perform physical activities. It is recommended that the health care system should implement educational sessions for men to encourage women to exercise.

  20. Self-efficacy enhancing intervention increases light physical activity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson JL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Janet L Larson,1,2 Margaret K Covey,2 Mary C Kapella,2 Charles G Alex,3,4 Edward McAuley,5 1Division of Acute, Critical and Long-Term Care Programs, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Edward Hines Jr VA Hospital, Hines, IL, 4Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oaklawn, IL, 5Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagne, Urbana, IL, USA Background: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lead sedentary lives and could benefit from increasing their physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention could increase physical activity and functional performance when delivered in the context of 4 months of upper body resistance training with a 12-month follow-up. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, subjects were assigned to: exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention with upper body resistance training (SE-UBR, health education with upper body resistance training (ED-UBR, or health education with gentle chair exercises (ED-Chair. Physical activity was measured with an accelerometer and functional performance was measured with the Functional Performance Inventory. Forty-nine people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease completed 4 months of training and provided valid accelerometry data, and 34 also provided accelerometry data at 12 months of follow-up. The self-efficacy enhancing intervention emphasized meeting physical activity guidelines and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results: Differences were observed in light physical activity (LPA after 4 months of training, time by group interaction effect (P=0.045. The SE-UBR group increased time spent in

  1. Increasing Physical Activity in Mothers Using Video Exercise Groups and Exercise Mobile Apps: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maya Nina; Chan, June Maylin; Vittinghoff, Eric; Van Blarigan, Erin Lynn; Hecht, Frederick

    2018-05-18

    Women significantly decrease their activity levels in the transition to motherhood. Digital health technologies are low cost, scalable, and can provide an effective delivery mechanism for behavior change. This is the first study that examines the use of videoconferencing and mobile apps to create exercise groups for mothers. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an individually adaptive and socially supportive physical activity intervention incorporating videoconferencing and mobile apps for mothers. The Moms Online Video Exercise Study was an 8-week, 2-armed, Web-based randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of a group exercise intervention with a waitlist control. Healthy mothers with at least 1 child under the age of 12 years were recruited through Facebook and email listservs. Intervention participants joined exercise groups using videoconferencing (Google Hangouts) every morning on weekdays and exercised together in real time, guided by exercise mobile apps (eg, Nike+, Sworkit) of their choice. Waitlist control participants had access to recommended mobile apps and an invitation to join an exercise group after the 8-week study period. Main outcomes assessed included changes in self-reported moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes per week in aggregate and stratified by whether women met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for sufficient aerobic activity at baseline. Outcomes were measured through self-assessed Web-based questionnaires at baseline and 8 weeks. The intervention was effective at increasing exercise for inactive women and proved to be feasible and acceptable to all participants. A total of 64 women were randomized, 30 to intervention and 34 to control. Women attended 2.8 sessions per week. There was a strong, but not statistically significant, trend toward increasing moderate, vigorous, and MVPA minutes for all women. As hypothesized, in

  2. Brain catalase activity inhibition as well as opioid receptor antagonism increases ethanol-induced HPA axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Raúl; Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2004-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that brain catalase activity is involved in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol. Recent data suggest that participation of this enzymatic system in some ethanol effects could be mediated by the endogenous opioid system. The present study assessed whether brain catalase has a role in ethanol-induced activation of the HPA axis, a neuroendocrine system modulated by the endogenous opioid neurotransmission. Swiss male mice received an intraperitoneal injection of the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg), and 0 to 20 hr after this administration, animals received an ethanol (0-4 g/kg; intraperitoneally) challenge. Thirty, 60, or 120 min after ethanol administration, plasma corticosterone levels were determined immunoenzymatically. In addition, we tested the effects of 45 mg/kg of cyanamide (another catalase inhibitor) and 0 to 2 mg/kg of naltrexone (nonselective opioid receptor antagonist) on ethanol-induced enhancement in plasma corticosterone values. The present study revealed that AT boosts ethanol-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, it did not affect corticosterone values when measured after administration of saline, cocaine (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), or morphine (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The catalase inhibitor cyanamide (45 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) also increased ethanol-related plasma corticosterone levels. These effects of AT and cyanamide on ethanol-induced corticosterone values were observed under treatment conditions that decreased significantly brain catalase activity. Indeed, a significant correlation between effects of catalase manipulations on both variables was found. Finally, we found that the administration of naltrexone enhanced the levels of plasma corticosterone after the administration of saline or ethanol. This study shows that the inhibition of brain catalase increases ethanol-induced plasma corticosterone levels. Results are

  3. Increased working memory-related brain activity in middle-aged women with cognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Julie A; Kutz, Amanda M; McDonald, Brenna C; Naylor, Magdalena R; Pfaff, Ashley C; Saykin, Andrew J; Newhouse, Paul A

    2013-04-01

    Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests might be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50-60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as the threshold, 12 women were categorized as cognitive complainers (CC) and 11 were noncomplainers (NC). All subjects then took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning session during which they completed a visual-verbal N-back test of working memory. Results showed no difference in working memory performance between CC and NC groups. However, the CC group showed greater activation relative to the NC group in a broad network involved in working memory including the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9 and 10), the precuneus (BA 7), and the cingulate gyrus (BA 24 and 32). The CC group recruited additional regions of the working memory network compared with the NC group as the working memory load and difficulty of the task increased. This study showed brain activation differences during working memory performance in a middle-aged group of postmenopausal women with subjective cognitive complaints but without objective cognitive deficit. These findings suggest that subjective cognitive complaints in postmenopausal women might be associated with increased cortical activity during effort-demanding cognitive tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholesterol regulates HERG K+ channel activation by increasing phospholipase C β1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yoon Sun; Oh, Hyun Geun; Park, Myoung Kyu; Cho, Hana; Chung, Sungkwon

    2013-01-01

    Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) K(+) channel underlies the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) conductance (IKr) during normal cardiac repolarization. Also, it may regulate excitability in many neuronal cells. Recently, we showed that enrichment of cell membrane with cholesterol inhibits HERG channels by reducing the levels of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] due to the activation of phospholipase C (PLC). In this study, we further explored the effect of cholesterol enrichment on HERG channel kinetics. When membrane cholesterol level was mildly increased in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing HERG channel, the inactivation and deactivation kinetics of HERG current were not affected, but the activation rate was significantly decelerated at all voltages tested. The application of PtdIns(4,5)P2 or inhibitor for PLC prevented the effect of cholesterol enrichment, while the presence of antibody against PtdIns(4,5)P2 in pipette solution mimicked the effect of cholesterol enrichment. These results indicate that the effect of cholesterol enrichment on HERG channel is due to the depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P2. We also found that cholesterol enrichment significantly increases the expression of β1 and β3 isoforms of PLC (PLCβ1, PLCβ3) in the membrane. Since the effects of cholesterol enrichment on HERG channel were prevented by inhibiting transcription or by inhibiting PLCβ1 expression, we conclude that increased PLCβ1 expression leads to the deceleration of HERG channel activation rate via downregulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2. These results confirm a crosstalk between two plasma membrane-enriched lipids, cholesterol and PtdIns(4,5)P2, in the regulation of HERG channels.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels are increased in active acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2017-07-01

    During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. The results need to be confirmed by a study that will be conducted in a larger patient group also including a healthy control group to demonstrate the

  6. Increased complement C1q level marks active disease in human tuberculosis.

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    Yi Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement functions as an important host defense system and complement C5 and C7 have been implicated in immunopathology of tuberculosis. However, little is known about the role of other complement components in tuberculosis. METHODS: Complement gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of tuberculosis patients and controls were determined using whole genome transcriptional microarray assays. The mRNA and protein levels of three C1q components, C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC, were further validated by qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The percentages of C1q expression in CD14 positive cells were determined by flow cytometry. Finally, C1qC protein level was quantified in the pleural fluid of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis pleurisy. RESULTS: C1q expression increases significantly in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis compared to healthy controls and individuals with latent TB infection. The percentage of C1q-expressing CD14 positive cells is significantly increased in active TB patients. C1q expression in the peripheral blood correlates with sputum smear positivity in tuberculosis patients and is reduced after anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Notably, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that C1qC mRNA levels in peripheral blood efficiently discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection and healthy controls. Additionally, C1qC protein level in pleural effusion shows improved power in discriminating tuberculosis from non-tuberculosis pleurisy when compared to other inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: C1q expression correlates with active disease in human tuberculosis. C1q could be a potential diagnostic marker to discriminate active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection as well as tuberculosis pleurisy from non-tuberculosis pleurisy.

  7. The QTL GNP1 Encodes GA20ox1, Which Increases Grain Number and Yield by Increasing Cytokinin Activity in Rice Panicle Meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Yun; Mi, Xue-Fei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Li, Xin-Min; Xu, Jian-Long; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-10-01

    Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem. However, little is known about the crosstalk among cytokinin and GA regulators together with KNOX proteins and how KNOX-mediated dynamic balancing of hormonal activity functions. Through map-based cloning of QTLs, we cloned a GA biosynthesis gene, Grain Number per Panicle1 (GNP1), which encodes rice GA20ox1. The grain number and yield of NIL-GNP1TQ were significantly higher than those of isogenic control (Lemont). Sequence variations in its promoter region increased the levels of GNP1 transcripts, which were enriched in the apical regions of inflorescence meristems in NIL-GNP1TQ. We propose that cytokinin activity increased due to a KNOX-mediated transcriptional feedback loop resulting from the higher GNP1 transcript levels, in turn leading to increased expression of the GA catabolism genes GA2oxs and reduced GA1 and GA3 accumulation. This rebalancing process increased cytokinin activity, thereby increasing grain number and grain yield in rice. These findings uncover important, novel roles of GAs in rice florescence meristem development and provide new insights into the crosstalk between cytokinin and GA underlying development process.

  8. Increases in Plasma Lutein through Supplementation Are Correlated with Increases in Physical Activity and Reductions in Sedentary Time in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Thomson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250 mL of full-cream milk per day for 4 weeks and encouraged to increase physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by self-report, pedometry and accelerometry (daily activity counts and sedentary time. Exercise self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-nine participants competed the study (Lutein = 19, Placebo = 20. Lutein increased plasma lutein concentrations compared with placebo (p < 0.001. Absolute and percentage changes in plasma lutein were inversely associated with absolute (r = −0.36, p = 0.03 and percentage changes (r = −0.39, p = 0.02 in sedentary time. Percentage change in plasma lutein was positively associated with the percentage change in average daily activity counts (r = 0.36, p = 0.03. Exercise self-efficacy did not change (p = 0.16. Lutein increased plasma lutein, which was associated with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary time in older adults. Larger trials should evaluate whether Lutein can provide health benefits over the longer term.

  9. Activation of the polyol pathway may contribute to increased risk of radiocontrast agent nephrotoxicity in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.L.; Mann, P.L.; Zager, P.G.; Smith, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of radiocontrast (RC) agent nephrotoxicity is higher in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. RC nephropathy involves both glomerular and tubular cells. The authors postulate that activation of the polyol pathway contributes to the increased susceptibility of diabetics to RC nephrotoxicity. Mesangial cells modulate GFR by altering the capillary surface area available for filtration. Toxic insult to mesangial cells can impair glomerular function. The present study was performed to determine if mesangial cells isolated from galactose fed rats, the classic model for studying the effects of polyol accumulation, demonstrate increased susceptibility to RC toxicity. A cellular model was developed to study the effects of RC agents on mesangial cells isolated from rats maintained on diets of 50% galactose (MCG) and 50% dextrin (MCD). MCG's and MCD's were plated in 96 well trays at a density of 6.25 x 10 4 cells/ml. Cells were exposed to Hypaque 90 at concentrations of 10 mM to 1 uM for 1, 2, 4 and 24 hrs. Cell viability was determined by fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining. 3H-thymidine incorporation was used to determine cell proliferation rates. Hypaque 90 produced no direct cytotoxicity at any time points or concentrations tested. An increase in cell proliferation was observed 1 hr after exposure to 1 uM to 1mM Hypaque. Higher concentrations blunted cell proliferation rates. Hypaque 90 produced no direct cytotoxicity at any time points or concentrations tested. An increase in cell proliferation was observed 1 hr after exposure to 1 uM to 1mM Hypaque. Higher concentrations blunted cell proliferation. No significant effects on 3H-thymidine incorporation were observed at later time points. The effects on 3H-thymidine incorporation were more pronounced in MCG's than MCD's. Activation of the polyol pathway amplifies the proliferative response of MC to RC agents. This activation may contribute to the risk of RC nephropathy in diabetics

  10. Behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in adults with coronary heart disease in Jordan

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    Eman Alsaleh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with coronary heart disease often do not follow prescribed physical activity recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease not attending structured cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Methods Parallel randomised controlled trial comparing 6-month multi-component behavioural change intervention (n = 71 with usual care (n = 85 was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan, Middle East. Intervention included one face-to-face individualised consultation, 6 telephone support calls (for goal-setting, feedback and self-monitoring and 18 reminder text messages. Patients were randomly allocated to the two groups by opening opaque sealed sequence envelopes. The patients and the researcher who provided the intervention and assessed the outcomes were not blinded. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Primary outcome was physical activity level, secondary outcomes were blood pressure, body mass index, exercise self-efficacy for exercise and health-related quality of life. Results Intervention and control groups were comparable at baseline. Moderate physical activity significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD of frequency: 0.23 (0.87 days/week versus -.06 (0.40; duration: 15.53 (90.15 minutes/week versus −3.67 (22.60 minutes/week; intensity: 31.05 (105.98 Metabolic equivalents (METs versus 14.68 (90.40 METs. Effect size was 0.03 for moderate PA frequency, 0.02 for moderate PA duration and 0.01 for moderate PA intensity. Walking significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD of frequency: 3.15 (2.75 days/week versus 0.37 (1.83 days/week; duration: 150.90 (124.47 minutes/week versus 24.05 (195.93 minutes/week; intensity: 495.12 (413.74 METs versus14.62 (265.06 METs. Effect size was 0.36 for walking

  11. Behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in adults with coronary heart disease in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Eman; Windle, Richard; Blake, Holly

    2016-07-26

    Patients with coronary heart disease often do not follow prescribed physical activity recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease not attending structured cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Parallel randomised controlled trial comparing 6-month multi-component behavioural change intervention (n = 71) with usual care (n = 85) was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan, Middle East. Intervention included one face-to-face individualised consultation, 6 telephone support calls (for goal-setting, feedback and self-monitoring) and 18 reminder text messages. Patients were randomly allocated to the two groups by opening opaque sealed sequence envelopes. The patients and the researcher who provided the intervention and assessed the outcomes were not blinded. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Primary outcome was physical activity level, secondary outcomes were blood pressure, body mass index, exercise self-efficacy for exercise and health-related quality of life. Intervention and control groups were comparable at baseline. Moderate physical activity significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD) of frequency: 0.23 (0.87) days/week versus -.06 (0.40); duration: 15.53 (90.15) minutes/week versus -3.67 (22.60) minutes/week; intensity: 31.05 (105.98) Metabolic equivalents (METs) versus 14.68 (90.40) METs). Effect size was 0.03 for moderate PA frequency, 0.02 for moderate PA duration and 0.01 for moderate PA intensity. Walking significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (mean change (SD) of frequency: 3.15 (2.75) days/week versus 0.37 (1.83) days/week; duration: 150.90 (124.47) minutes/week versus 24.05 (195.93) minutes/week; intensity: 495.12 (413.74) METs versus14.62 (265.06) METs). Effect size was 0.36 for walking frequency, 0.05 for walking duration, 0

  12. Peak season plant activity shift towards spring is reflected by increasing carbon uptake by extratropical ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M; Ooi, Ying W

    2018-05-01

    Climate change is lengthening the growing season of the Northern Hemisphere extratropical terrestrial ecosystems, but little is known regarding the timing and dynamics of the peak season of plant activity. Here, we use 34-year satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observations and atmospheric CO 2 concentration and δ 13 C isotope measurements at Point Barrow (Alaska, USA, 71°N) to study the dynamics of the peak of season (POS) of plant activity. Averaged across extratropical (>23°N) non-evergreen-dominated pixels, NDVI data show that the POS has advanced by 1.2 ± 0.6 days per decade in response to the spring-ward shifts of the start (1.0 ± 0.8 days per decade) and end (1.5 ± 1.0 days per decade) of peak activity, and the earlier onset of the start of growing season (1.4 ± 0.8 days per decade), while POS maximum NDVI value increased by 7.8 ± 1.8% for 1982-2015. Similarly, the peak day of carbon uptake, based on calculations from atmospheric CO 2 concentration and δ 13 C data, is advancing by 2.5 ± 2.6 and 4.3 ± 2.9 days per decade, respectively. POS maximum NDVI value shows strong negative relationships (p POS days. Given that the maximum solar irradiance and day length occur before the average POS day, the earlier occurrence of peak plant activity results in increased plant productivity. Both the advancing POS day and increasing POS vegetation greenness are consistent with the shifting peak productivity towards spring and the increasing annual maximum values of gross and net ecosystem productivity simulated by coupled Earth system models. Our results further indicate that the decline in autumn NDVI is contributing the most to the overall browning of the northern high latitudes (>50°N) since 2011. The spring-ward shift of peak season plant activity is expected to disrupt the synchrony of biotic interaction and exert strong biophysical feedbacks on climate by modifying the surface albedo and energy budget. © 2017

  13. Increased resiliency and activity of microbial mediated carbon cycling enzymes in diversified bioenergy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, R.; Bach, E.; Hofmockel, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    Microbes are mediators of soil carbon (C) and are influenced in membership and activity by nitrogen (N) fertilization and inter-annual abiotic factors. Microbial communities and their extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) are important parameters that influence ecosystem C cycling properties and are often included in microbial explicit C cycling models. In an effort to generate model relevant, empirical findings, we investigated how both microbial community structure and C degrading enzyme activity are influenced by inter-annual variability and N inputs in bioenergy crops. Our study was performed at the Comparison of Biofuel Systems field-site from 2011 to 2014, in three bioenergy cropping systems, continuous corn (CC) and two restored prairies, both fertilized (FP) and unfertilized (P). We hypothesized microbial community structure would diverge during the prairie restoration, leading to changes in C cycling enzymes over time. Using a sequencing approach (16S and ITS) we determined the bacterial and fungal community structure response to the cropping system, fertilization, and inter-annual variability. Additionally, we used EEA of β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and β-xylosidase to determine inter-annual and ecosystem impacts on microbial activity. Our results show cropping system was a main effect for microbial community structure, with corn diverging from both prairies to be less diverse. Inter-annual changes showed that a drought occurring in 2012 significantly impacted microbial community structure in both the P and CC, decreasing microbial richness. However, FP increased in microbial richness, suggesting the application of N increased resiliency to drought. Similarly, the only year in which C cycling enzymes were impacted by ecosystem was 2012, with FP supporting higher potential enzymatic activity then CC and P. The highest EEA across all ecosystems occurred in 2014, suggesting the continued root biomass and litter build-up in this no till system

  14. A Systematic Review of Culturally Specific Interventions to Increase Physical Activity for Older Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katigbak, Carina; Flaherty, Erin; Chao, Ying-Yu; Nguyen, Tam; Cheung, Daphne; Yiu-Cho Kwan, Rick

    Physical activity (PA) is a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. For older adults, engaging in PA is shown to improve cardiac status, reduce cognitive, and functional decline, and improve overall quality of life. However, only 17% of Asian American adults meet the 2008 federal recommended guidelines for aerobic and muscle strengthening activity; and there is a paucity of data reporting on older Asian Americans - a rapidly growing, underserved group. While data pertaining to Asian Americans is frequently reported at the aggregate level, this masks differences (eg, language, culture, income) among Asian ethnic subgroups that may impact health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to identify intervention, and cultural adaptation strategies in studies promoting PA for older Asian Americans. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify interventions published between 1996-2016 focused on improving PA among older Asian Americans (> 60 years old). Data were abstracted to examine intervention study designs, cultural adaptation strategies, theoretical frameworks, and physical activity measures. Nine studies met the review's inclusion criteria. Community-based recruitment approaches were widely used, and all studies employed cultural adaptation to varying degrees. Most studies reported improvements in PA outcomes, focused on Chinese Americans, and relied on self-reports of PA, while few aimed to increase PA using a multi-component approach. Future studies would benefit from larger sample sizes, a wider representation of Asian ethnic subgroups, and concentrated efforts to implement deep level adaptations that may increase the salience and sustainability of these interventions.

  15. Increased cardiac sympathetic activity in patients with hypothyroidism as determined by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuru; Inaba, Shigeki; Emori, Toshiaki; Imamura, Kimiharu; Kawano, Katsunori; Ueda, Tetsuro; Kobayashi, Hideki; Hosoda, Saichi

    1997-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism, such as bradycardia, suggest decreased sympathetic tone. However, previous studies in patients with hypothyroidism have suggested that increased plasma noradrenaline (NA) levels represent enhanced general sympathetic activity. As yet, cardiac sympathetic activity (CSA) in hypothyroidism has not been clarified. To evaluate CSA in patients with hypothyroidism, iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy was performed in eight patients with hypothyroidism before therapy and in ten normal control patients. Planar images were obtained at 15 min and 4 h after injection of MIBG. The ratio of early myocardial uptake to the total injected dose (MU) and myocardial clearance of MIBG within 4 h p.i. (MC) were calculated. Plasma NA was also measured, and echocardiography was performed in all patients. Those patients with hypothyroidism in the euthyroid state after medical therapy were also evaluated in a similar manner. Left ventricular ejection fraction, measured by echocardiography, did not differ significantly between the groups. NA, MU and MC were significantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in controls, and all parameters were decreased after therapy. MC was well correlated with NA in hypothyroidism (r=0.86) before therapy. We conclude that CSA is increased in patients with hypothyroidism, in parallel with the enhanced general sympathetic activity. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling The Economic And Health Impact Of Increasing Children's Physical Activity In The United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Adam, Atif; Zenkov, Eli; Hertenstein, Daniel; Ferguson, Marie C; Wang, Peggy I; Wong, Michelle S; Wedlock, Patrick; Nyathi, Sindiso; Gittelsohn, Joel; Falah-Fini, Saeideh; Bartsch, Sarah M; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Brown, Shawn T

    2017-05-01

    Increasing physical activity among children is a potentially important public health intervention. Quantifying the economic and health effects of the intervention would help decision makers understand its impact and priority. Using a computational simulation model that we developed to represent all US children ages 8-11 years, we estimated that maintaining the current physical activity levels (only 31.9 percent of children get twenty-five minutes of high-calorie-burning physical activity three times a week) would result each year in a net present value of $1.1 trillion in direct medical costs and $1.7 trillion in lost productivity over the course of their lifetimes. If 50 percent of children would exercise, the number of obese and overweight youth would decrease by 4.18 percent, averting $8.1 billion in direct medical costs and $13.8 billion in lost productivity. Increasing the proportion of children who exercised to 75 percent would avert $16.6 billion and $23.6 billion, respectively. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Food consumption and activity levels increase in rats following intranasal Hypocretin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuria, Shyeilla V; Fine, Jared M; Bingham, Deborah; Svitak, Aleta L; Burns, Rachel B; Baillargeon, Amanda M; Panter, Scott S; Kazi, Abdul N; Frey, William H; Hanson, Leah R

    2016-08-03

    Hypocretin-1 (HC, orexin-A) is a neuropeptide involved in regulating physiological functions of sleep, appetite and arousal, and it has been shown that intranasal (IN) administration can target HC to the brain. Recent clinical studies have shown that IN HC has functional effects in human clinical trials. In this study, we use rats to determine whether IN HC has an immediate effect on food consumption and locomotor activity, whether distribution in the brain after IN delivery is dose-dependent, and whether MAPK and PDK1 are affected after IN delivery. Food intake and wheel-running activity were quantified for 24h after IN delivery. Biodistribution was determined 30min after IN delivery of both a high and low dose of 125I-radiolabelled HC throughout the brain and other bodily tissues, while Western blots were used to quantify changes in cell signaling pathways (MAPK and PDK1) in the brain. Intranasal HC significantly increased food intake and wheel activity within 4h after delivery, but balanced out over the course of 24h. The distribution studies showed dose-dependent delivery in the CNS and peripheral tissues, while PDK1 was significantly increased in the brain 30min after IN delivery of HC. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that IN administration of HC is a promising strategy for treatment of HC related behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Temporal aspects of increases in eye-neck activation levels during visually deficient near work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans O; Camilla, Lodin; Forsman, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental study two levels of oculomotor load were induced via optical trial lenses. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Sixty-six subjects with a median age of 36 (range 19-47, std 8) viewed a black and white Gabor grating (5 c/deg) for two 7-min periods monocularly through a 0 D lens or binocularly through -3.5 D lenses. The effect of time was separately regressed to EMG in two different subgroups of responders: a High-Oculomotor-Load (HOL) and a Low-Oculomotor-Load (LOL) group. A linear regression model was fitted on group level with exposure time on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y-axis. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the -D blur condition for only the HOL subgroup of responders: 0.926 + Time(min 1-7) × 0.088 (p = 0.002, r(2)=0.865). There was no obvious sign of this activity to level off or to stabilize. These results suggest that professional information technology users that are exposed to a high level of oculomotor load, during extended times, are at an increased risk of exhibiting an increased trap.m. activity.

  20. Local increase of arginase activity in lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia.

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    Tamrat Abebe

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is in Ethiopia mainly caused by the parasite Leishmania aethiopica. This neglected tropical disease is common in rural areas and causes serious morbidity. Persistent nonhealing cutaneous leishmaniasis has been associated with poor T cell mediated responses; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood.We have recently shown in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis that arginase-induced L-arginine metabolism suppresses antigen-specific T cell responses at the site of pathology, but not in the periphery. To test whether these results translate to human disease, we recruited patients presenting with localized lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis and assessed the levels of arginase activity in cells isolated from peripheral blood and from skin biopsies. Arginase activity was similar in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from patients and healthy controls. In sharp contrast, arginase activity was significantly increased in lesion biopsies of patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis as compared with controls. Furthermore, we found that the expression levels of CD3ζ, CD4 and CD8 molecules were considerably lower at the site of pathology as compared to those observed in paired PBMCs.Our results suggest that increased arginase in lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis might play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease by impairing T cell effector functions.

  1. St Petersburg Business Information Centres and Their Role in Increasing the Efficiency of International Business Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yu.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation acknowledges the significant contribution of regions to the development of the state’s foreign policy. An increase in innovative production, a commitment to achieve complete import substitution, and the development of measures to promote non-raw material export are the principal objectives established by the state for its regions. The current trends in world economy and the geopolitical situation formulate new goals and objectives for regions and suggest the creation of innovative and universal mechanisms to increase the efficiency of international economic activities, promotion of a positive image of Saint Petersburg and other regions of the Russian Northwest. The article analyses the activities of Saint Petersburg business information centres abroad, similar experience of other Russian regions, and prerequisites for reforming the institution of regional offices abroad. In the course of the study, new theoretical and methodological questions as to improving the regulatory framework for development and functioning of Russian regional offices abroad, the use of public-private partnership mechanism in foreign economic activities and information technologies of positive image promotion were formulated.

  2. Hyperglycemia induces memory impairment linked to increased acetylcholinesterase activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; De Moraes, Daiani Almeida; Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus, which causes hyperglycemia, affects the central nervous system and can impairs cognitive functions, such as memory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia on memory as well as on the activity of acethylcholinesterase. Hyperglycemia was induced in adult zebrafish by immersion in glucose 111mM by 14 days. The animals were divided in 4 groups: control, glucose-treated, glucose-washout 7-days and glucose-washout 14-days. We evaluated the performance in inhibitory avoidance task and locomotor activity. We also determined acethylcholinesterase activity and gene expression from whole brain. In order to counteract the effect of hyperglycemia underlined by effects on acethylcholinesterase activity, we treated the animals with galantamine (0.05ng/g), an inhibitor of this enzyme. Also we evaluated the gene expression of insulin receptor and glucose transporter from zebrafish brain. The hyperglycemia promoted memory deficit in adult zebrafish, which can be explained by increased AChE activity. The ache mRNA levels from zebrafish brain were decrease in 111mM glucose group and returned to normal levels after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. Insulin receptors (insra-1, insra-2, insrb-1 and insrb-2) and glut-3 mRNA levels were not significantly changed. Our results also demonstrated that galantamine was able to reverse the memory deficit caused by hyperglycemia, demonstrating that these effects involve modulation of AChE activity. These data suggest that the memory impairment induced by hyperglycemia is underlined by the cholinergic dysfunction caused by the mechanisms involving the control of acetylcholinesterase function and gene expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased active hamstring stiffness after exercise in women with a history of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Rebecca J; Kim, Kyung-Min; Grindstaff, Terry L; Hart, Joseph M

    2013-02-01

    To compare active hamstring stiffness in female subjects with and without a history of low back pain (LBP) after a standardized 20-min aerobic-exercise session. Case control. Laboratory. 12 women with a history of recurrent episodes of LBP (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 y, mass = 67.1 ± 11.8 kg, height = 167.9 ± 8 cm) and 12 matched healthy women (age = 21.7 ± 1.7 y, mass = 61.4 ± 8.8 kg, height = 165.6 ± 7.3 cm). LBP subjects reported an average 6.5 ± 4.7 on the Oswestry Disability Index. Participants walked at a self-selected speed (minimum 3.0 miles/h) for 20 min. The treadmill incline was raised 1% grade per minute for the first 15 min. During the last 5 min, participants adjusted the incline of the treadmill so they would maintain a moderate level of perceived exertion through the end of the exercise protocol. During session 1, active hamstring stiffness, hamstring and quadriceps isometric strength, and concurrently collected electromyographic activity were recorded before and immediately after the exercise protocol. For session 2, subjects returned 48-72 h after exercise for repeat measure of active hamstring stiffness. Hamstring active stiffness (Nm/rad) taken immediately postexercise was not significantly different between groups. However, individuals with a history of recurrent LBP episodes presented significantly increased hamstring stiffness 48-72 h postexercise compared with controls. For other outcomes, there was no group difference. Women with a history of recurrent LBP episodes presented greater active hamstring stiffness 48-72 h after aerobic exercise.

  4. Piloting a mobile health intervention to increase physical activity for adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin; Moreno, Megan; Wilner, Molly; Whitlock, Kathryn B; Mendoza, Jason A

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) reduces symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); interventions to increase PA may improve functioning and health for adolescents with ADHD. Mobile health (mHealth) technology and social media constitute promising interactive modalities for engaging adolescents-who are at highest risk for ADHD treatment drop-out-in interventions to increase PA. The current pilot study evaluated feasibility and acceptability of an innovative intervention incorporating an mHealth-linked wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Flex) and a Facebook group to increase PA among adolescents with ADHD. 11 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (age 14-18, m = 15.5; 54% female) participated in a 4-week trial utilizing the Fitbit Flex in conjunction with (1) weekly personalized step count goals (2) social support through a Facebook group and (3) daily text messages about PA. The study took place in the greater Seattle, Washington area in the fall of 2015. Adolescents completed online surveys twice per week to rate their ADHD symptoms and positive and negative mood states, and parents rated adolescent ADHD symptoms weekly. Participants were adherent to the study protocol and acceptability of the intervention was high. Linear mixed models indicated that participants significantly increased their average weekly steps over the course of the study and demonstrated improvements in both adolescent and parent-reported ADHD Inattentive symptoms. Results indicate that this mHealth intervention is engaging and promising for increasing PA among adolescents with ADHD, and warrant further study. Implications for improving ADHD symptoms and overall functioning for this undertreated population are discussed.

  5. Walking associated with public transit: moving toward increased physical activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Amy L; Banerjee, Shailendra N; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Wendel, Arthur M

    2013-03-01

    We assessed changes in transit-associated walking in the United States from 2001 to 2009 and documented their importance to public health. We examined transit walk times using the National Household Travel Survey, a telephone survey administered by the US Department of Transportation to examine travel behavior in the United States. People are more likely to transit walk if they are from lower income households, are non-White, and live in large urban areas with access to rail systems. Transit walkers in large urban areas with a rail system were 72% more likely to transit walk 30 minutes or more per day than were those without a rail system. From 2001 to 2009, the estimated number of transit walkers rose from 7.5 million to 9.6 million (a 28% increase); those whose transit-associated walking time was 30 minutes or more increased from approximately 2.6 million to 3.4 million (a 31% increase). Transit walking contributes to meeting physical activity recommendations. Study results may contribute to transportation-related health impact assessment studies evaluating the impact of proposed transit systems on physical activity, potentially influencing transportation planning decisions.

  6. TMS-induced cortical potentiation during wakefulness locally increases slow wave activity during sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Huber

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic changes triggered by learning.To test this hypothesis directly, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in conjunction with high-density EEG in humans. We show that 5-Hz TMS applied to motor cortex induces a localized potentiation of TMS-evoked cortical EEG responses. We then show that, in the sleep episode following 5-Hz TMS, SWA increases markedly (+39.1+/-17.4%, p<0.01, n = 10. Electrode coregistration with magnetic resonance images localized the increase in SWA to the same premotor site as the maximum TMS-induced potentiation during wakefulness. Moreover, the magnitude of potentiation during wakefulness predicts the local increase in SWA during sleep.These results provide direct evidence for a link between plastic changes and the local regulation of sleep need.

  7. Increased riboflavin production from activated bleaching earth by a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoko; Sugimoto, Takashi; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2009-10-01

    The production of riboflavin from vegetable oil was increased using a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii. This mutant was generated by treating the wild-type strain with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Riboflavin production was 10-fold higher in the mutant compared to the wild-type strain. The specific intracellular catalase activity after 3 d of culture was 6-fold higher in the mutant than in the wild-type strain. For the mutant, riboflavin production in the presence of 40 mM hydrogen peroxide was 16% less than that in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, whereas it was 56% less for the wild-type strain. The isocitrate lyase (ICL) activity of the mutant was 0.26 mU/mg of protein during the active riboflavin production phase, which was 2.6-fold higher than the wild-type strain. These data indicate that the mutant utilizes the carbon flux from the TCA cycle to the glyoxylate cycle more efficiently than the wild-type strain, resulting in enhanced riboflavin production. This novel mutant has the potential to be of use for industrial-scale riboflavin production from waste-activated bleaching earth (ABE), thereby transforming a useless material into a valuable bioproduct.

  8. Increase in Social Activity of Citizens on the Basis of Grant Support of Rural Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogatchev Alexander I.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of development of social activity of population. The low activity of local population is now characterized by the following social trends: aloofness from public life, individualism, leading-strings mentality, consumer attitude, legal nihilism. The characteristic of the main reasons for the current situation is given in the article. It is noted that one of the effective tools to attract social investment and development is a grant support for local initiatives, which plays an important role in increasing the social activity of population. This article focuses on the development of grant support in the rural areas at the modern stage. The author analyzed the current status of grant support of rural initiatives in Russia and the Orel region. It is noted that the grant support has great potential, although it is at an early stage of its development. In the conclusion, actions for the development of social activity at the local level are planned.

  9. Colostral whey concentrate supplement increases complement activity in the sera of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, S; Korhonen, B H; Nousiainen, J; Marnila, P

    2001-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of a commercial bovine colostral whey on the complement-mediated immune responses of calves. Two groups of neonatal calves were fed, in addition to whole milk (WM) and pooled colostrum (PC), different amounts of a commercial immunoglobulin concentrate made from pooled colostral whey (Ig-C) for the first two feedings post natum. The control group was fed WM and PC only. Serum samples were obtained at the ages of 2, 7, 14 and 30 d. Bacteriolytic activity against complement-sensitive Escherichia coli JM103 and opsonic activity against complement-lysis-resistant E. coli IH3080 strains were studied, as well as the levels of C3 complement component and E. coli JM103 specific antibodies in the sera. Groups fed Ig-C had 2-3 times higher bacteriolytic activity than the control group of both the classic (P complement activities of serum can be increased substantially by feeding colostral whey concentrate to calves during their first days of life.

  10. Increased activity of digoxin-like substance in low-renin hypertension in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynski, P.; Slowinska-Srzednicka, J.; Zgliczynski, S. (Medical Center for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw (Poland))

    1990-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is common in acromegaly, but the pathogenesis of this complication remains unknown. To determine the role of an endogenous Na,K pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance (DLS) in the pathogenesis of hypertension in acromegaly 76 subjects: 28 with acromegaly, 20 with essential hypertension and 28 healthy controls were studied. Serum DLS was measured with the use of radioimmunoassay and bioassay by the inhibition of digoxin-sensitive erythrocyte 86-Rb uptake. In acromegaly, the activity of DLS was significantly increased and plasma renin activity decreased in the hypertensive group, as compared with that of the normotensive group and controls. Moreover, DLS was elevated in the low-renin group of essential hypertension, as compared with that of the normal/high-renin group or controls. The activity of DLS correlated positively with mean arterial pressure and negatively with plasma renin activity, but not with growth hormone levels. In conclusion, an endogenous sodium pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance may play a role in the pathogenesis of low-renin hypertension in acromegaly.

  11. Progressive Increase in Telomerase Activity From Benign Melanocytic Conditions to Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben D. Ramirez

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression of telomerase activity and the in situ localization of the human telomerase RNA component (hTR in melanocytic skin lesions was evaluated in specimens from sixty-three patients. Specimens of melanocytic nevi, primary melanomas and subcutaneous metastases of melanoma were obtained from fifty-eight patients, whereas metastasized lymph nodes were obtained from five patients. Telomerase activity was determined in these specimens by using a Polymerase Chain Reaction—based assay (TRAP. High relative mean telomerase activity levels were detected in metastatic melanoma (subcutaneous metastasess = 54.5, lymph node metastasess = 56.5. Much lower levels were detected in primary melanomas, which increased with advancing levels of tumor cell penetration (Clark II = 0.02, Clark III = 1.1, and Clark IV = 1.9. Twenty-six formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions were sectioned and analyzed for telomerase RNA with a radioactive in situ hybridization assay. In situ hybridization studies with a probe to the template RNA component of telomerase confirmed that expression was almost exclusively confined to tumor cells and not infiltrating lymphocytes. These results indicate that levels of telomerase activity and telomerase RNA in melanocytic lesions correlate well with clinical stage and could potentially assist in the diagnosis of borderline lesions.

  12. Activated STAT5 Confers Resistance to Intestinal Injury by Increasing Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Gilbert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs control the intestinal homeostatic response to inflammation and regeneration. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Cytokine-STAT5 signaling regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis and responses to injury. We link STAT5 signaling to IESC replenishment upon injury by depletion or activation of Stat5 transcription factor. We found that depletion of Stat5 led to deregulation of IESC marker expression and decreased LGR5+ IESC proliferation. STAT5-deficient mice exhibited worse intestinal histology and impaired crypt regeneration after γ-irradiation. We generated a transgenic mouse model with inducible expression of constitutively active Stat5. In contrast to Stat5 depletion, activation of STAT5 increased IESC proliferation, accelerated crypt regeneration, and conferred resistance to intestinal injury. Furthermore, ectopic activation of STAT5 in mouse or human stem cells promoted LGR5+ IESC self-renewal. Accordingly, STAT5 promotes IESC proliferation and regeneration to mitigate intestinal inflammation. STAT5 is a functional therapeutic target to improve the IESC regenerative response to gut injury.

  13. Th17 Cells and Activated Dendritic Cells Are Increased in Vitiligo Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Moussai, Dariush; Gulati, Nicholas; Sullivan-Whalen, Mary; Gilleaudeau, Patricia; Cohen, Jules A.; Krueger, James G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, characterized by progressive skin de-pigmentation due to the loss of cutaneous melanocytes. The exact cause of melanocyte loss remains unclear, but a large number of observations have pointed to the important role of cellular immunity in vitiligo pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we characterized T cell and inflammation-related dermal dendritic cell (DC) subsets in pigmented non-lesional, leading edge and depigmented lesional vitiligo skin. By immunohistochemistry staining, we observed enhanced populations of CD11c+ myeloid dermal DCs and CD207+ Langerhans cells in leading edge vitiligo biopsies. DC-LAMP+ and CD1c+ sub-populations of dermal DCs expanded significantly in leading edge and lesional vitiligo skin. We also detected elevated tissue mRNA levels of IL-17A in leading edge skin biopsies of vitiligo patients, as well as IL-17A positive T cells by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Langerhans cells with activated inflammasomes were also noted in lesional vitiligo skin, along with increased IL-1ß mRNA, which suggest the potential of Langerhans cells to drive Th17 activation in vitiligo. Conclusions/Significance These studies provided direct tissue evidence that implicates active Th17 cells in vitiligo skin lesions. We characterized new cellular immune elements, in the active margins of vitiligo lesions (e.g. populations of epidermal and dermal dendritic cells subsets), which could potentially drive the inflammatory responses. PMID:21541348

  14. Increased activity of digoxin-like substance in low-renin hypertension in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soszynski, P.; Slowinska-Srzednicka, J.; Zgliczynski, S.

    1990-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is common in acromegaly, but the pathogenesis of this complication remains unknown. To determine the role of an endogenous Na,K pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance (DLS) in the pathogenesis of hypertension in acromegaly 76 subjects: 28 with acromegaly, 20 with essential hypertension and 28 healthy controls were studied. Serum DLS was measured with the use of radioimmunoassay and bioassay by the inhibition of digoxin-sensitive erythrocyte 86-Rb uptake. In acromegaly, the activity of DLS was significantly increased and plasma renin activity decreased in the hypertensive group, as compared with that of the normotensive group and controls. Moreover, DLS was elevated in the low-renin group of essential hypertension, as compared with that of the normal/high-renin group or controls. The activity of DLS correlated positively with mean arterial pressure and negatively with plasma renin activity, but not with growth hormone levels. In conclusion, an endogenous sodium pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance may play a role in the pathogenesis of low-renin hypertension in acromegaly

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopy can reveal increases in brain activity related to animal-assisted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yuka; Ebara, Fumio; Morita, Yoshimitsu; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have indicated that animal-assisted therapy can promote recovery of psychological, social, and physiological function in mental disorders. This study was designed as a pilot evaluation of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to objectively identify changes in brain activity that could mediate the effect of animal-assisted therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy students (10 males and 10 females; age 19-21 years) of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University. Participants were shown a picture of a Tokara goat or shack (control) while prefrontal cortical oxygenated haemoglobin levels (representing neural activity) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. [Results] The prefrontal cortical near-infrared spectroscopy signal was significantly higher during viewing of the animal picture than during a rest condition or during viewing of the control picture. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that near-infrared spectroscopy can be used to objectively identify brain activity changes during human mentation regarding animals; furthermore, these preliminary results suggest the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy could be related to increased activation of the prefrontal cortex.

  16. Activated protein C (APC) can increase bone anabolism via a protease-activated receptor (PAR)1/2 dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kaitlin; Murphy, Ciara M; Chan, Ben; Kolind, Mille; Cheng, Tegan L; Mikulec, Kathy; Peacock, Lauren; Xue, Meilang; Park, Sang-Youel; Little, David G; Jackson, Chris J; Schindeler, Aaron

    2014-12-01

    Activated Protein C (APC) is an anticoagulant with strong cytoprotective properties that has been shown to promote wound healing. In this study APC was investigated for its potential orthopedic application using a Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP-2) induced ectopic bone formation model. Local co-administration of 10 µg rhBMP-2 with 10 µg or 25 µg APC increased bone volume at 3 weeks by 32% (N.S.) and 74% (pAPC are largely mediated by its receptors endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptors (PARs). Cultured pre-osteoblasts and bone nodule tissue sections were shown to express PAR1/2 and EPCR. When pre-osteoblasts were treated with APC, cell viability and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and p38 were increased. Inhibition with PAR1 and sometimes PAR2 antagonists, but not with EPCR blocking antibodies, ameliorated the effects of APC on cell viability and kinase phosphorylation. These data indicate that APC can affect osteoblast viability and signaling, and may have in vivo applications with rhBMP-2 for bone repair. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Experimental substantiation of effectively administration of vinboron for analgesic activity increase of ibuprofen

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    F. V. Hladkykh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increase of NSAIDs safety is current direction of modern pharmacology, because of so-called "class-specific" adverse reactions, which are common to this class, and the leading place among them is occupied by gastro-intestinal toxicity. In previous studies we have proved the ability of vinboron to neutralize ulcerogenic effect of ibuprofen (Hladkykh F.V. and al., 2014. The presence of the proven analgesic activity in the domestic antispasmodics (Stepaniuk H.I. and al., 2007 serves as the basis for research of vinboron action on analgesic aspect of ibuprofen pharmacotherapeutic effec. Aim is to conduct research in silico of the relation «molecular structure – anelgetic activity» of vinboron and to prove experimentally in vivo the practicability of vinboron using with the aim to increase the analgesic activity of ibuprofen on the model of adjuvant arthritis in rats. Materials and methods. The study of the relation «molecular structure – activity anelgetic» of vinboron was conducted in silico by PASS- analysis of biological activity spectrum. The analysis was set online with direct insertion of structural formula of vinboron in browser using Marvin JS web-resource «PASS Online» (http://www.way2drug.com/passonline. Analgesic activity in vivo was studied on the model of acute thermal pain, which was simulated in the conventional behavioral test of nociception «Hot plate». The lag of pain reaction was determined at the beginning («0» day, on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experiment. Results and discussion. According to the PASS-forecast the mechanisms of vinboron analgesic activity is caused by agonism towards the vanilloid (TRPV1 receptors (Pa=0,490; Pi=0,008, agonism to the μ (mu – receptor (Pa=0,323; Pi=0,036, inhibition of GABA (Pa=0,329; Pi=0,089 and others. Experimental studies have shown that the combined administration of ibuprofen and vinboron analgesic activity was higher than the results by ibuprofen monotherapy

  18. Efficient Control of Active Transformers for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Degner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . The potential interferences between the operation of active transformers and the reactive power absorption by PV inverters are investigated, and a voltage droop control approach is proposed for the efficient control of these transformers during high PV generation periods. The proposed method can potentially...... increase the PV hosting capacity of the grid, while eliminating the need for a complex and centralized controller. The voltages of specific locations or the grid state estimations provide adequate data for adjustments of the droop parameters. The simulations and field test results associated...... with the implementation of the proposed method to a newly developed active LV grid with high PV penetration in Felsberg, Germany, confirm the efficiency of the proposed method....

  19. Direct neuronal glucose uptake Heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two......-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anaesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover......, hexokinase, which catalyses the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identify the neuron as the principal locus...

  20. Direct neuronal glucose uptake heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu; Kang, Hongyi; Sanggaard, Simon; Haswell, John D R; Sun, Wei; Goldman, Siri; Blekot, Solomiya; Nielsen, Michael; Takano, Takahiro; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-04-23

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anaesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover, hexokinase, which catalyses the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identify the neuron as the principal locus of glucose uptake as visualized by functional brain imaging.

  1. Cueing vocabulary during sleep increases theta activity during later recognition testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Thomas; Göldi, Maurice; Rasch, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Neural oscillations in the theta band have repeatedly been implicated in successful memory encoding and retrieval. Several recent studies have shown that memory retrieval can be facilitated by reactivating memories during their consolidation during sleep. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation during sleep also enhances subsequent retrieval-related neural oscillations. We have recently demonstrated that foreign vocabulary cues presented during sleep improve later recall of the associated translations. Here, we examined the effect of cueing foreign vocabulary during sleep on oscillatory activity during subsequent recognition testing after sleep. We show that those words that were replayed during sleep after learning (cued words) elicited stronger centroparietal theta activity during recognition as compared to noncued words. The reactivation-induced increase in theta oscillations during later recognition testing might reflect a strengthening of individual memory traces and the integration of the newly learned words into the mental lexicon by cueing during sleep. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Phosphatidylcholine Reverses Ethanol-Induced Increase in Transepithelial Endotoxin Permeability and Abolishes Transepithelial Leukocyte Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzscherling, Katja; Volynets, Valentina; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse increases both intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Intestinal permeability of endotoxin, a component of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a crucial role in the development of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD......). As impaired bile flow leads to endotoxemia and the bile component phosphatidylcholine (PC) is therapeutically active in ALD, we tested the hypothesis that conjugated primary bile salts (CPBS) and PC inhibit ethanol-enhanced transepithelial permeability of endotoxin and the subsequent transepithelial...... activation of human leukocytes. For this purpose, we used a model in which intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were basolaterally cocultivated with mononuclear leukocytes. Cells were challenged apically with endotoxin from Escherichia coli K12 and were incubated with or without the addition of CPBS (1.5 m...

  3. Phosphatidylcholine reverses ethanol-induced increase in transepithelial endotoxin permeability and abolishes transepithelial leukocyte activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitscherling, K.; Volynets, V.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol abuse increases both intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Intestinal permeability of endotoxin, a component of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a crucial role in the development of alcohol-induced liver...... disease (ALD). As impaired bile flow leads to endotoxemia and the bile component phosphatidylcholine (PC) is therapeutically active in ALD, we tested the hypothesis that conjugated primary bile salts (CPBS) and PC inhibit ethanol-enhanced transepithelial permeability of endotoxin and the subsequent...... transepithelial activation of human leukocytes. METHODS: For this purpose, we used a model in which intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were basolaterally cocultivated with mononuclear leukocytes. Cells were challenged apically with endotoxin from Escherichia coli K12 and were incubated with or without...

  4. Direct neuronal glucose uptake heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu; Kang, Hongyi; Sanggaard, Simon; Haswell, John Douglas R; Sun, Wei; Goldman, Siri; Blekot, Solomiya; Nielsen, Michael; Takano, Takahiro; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-01-01

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using 2-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover, hexokinase, which catalyze the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identifies the neuron as the principal locus of glucose uptake as visualized by functional brain imaging. PMID:25904018

  5. Increased brain connectivity and activation after cognitive rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia; Peña, Javier; Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Alberto; Lucas-Jiménez, Olaia; Gómez-Esteban, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Beldarrain, Maria Ángeles; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Naroa

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated efficacy in improving cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about cerebral changes associated with an integrative cognitive rehabilitation in PD. To assess structural and functional cerebral changes in PD patients, after attending a three-month integrative cognitive rehabilitation program (REHACOP). Forty-four PD patients were randomly divided into REHACOP group (cognitive rehabilitation) and a control group (occupational therapy). T1-weighted, diffusion weighted and functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) during resting-state and during a memory paradigm (with learning and recognition tasks) were acquired at pre-treatment and post-treatment. Cerebral changes were assessed with repeated measures ANOVA 2 × 2 for group x time interaction. During resting-state fMRI, the REHACOP group showed significantly increased brain connectivity between the left inferior temporal lobe and the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared to the control group. Moreover, during the recognition fMRI task, the REHACOP group showed significantly increased brain activation in the left middle temporal area compared to the control group. During the learning fMRI task, the REHACOP group showed increased brain activation in the left inferior frontal lobe at post-treatment compared to pre-treatment. No significant structural changes were found between pre- and post-treatment. Finally, the REHACOP group showed significant and positive correlations between the brain connectivity and activation and the cognitive performance at post-treatment. This randomized controlled trial suggests that an integrative cognitive rehabilitation program can produce significant functional cerebral changes in PD patients and adds evidence to the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation programs in the therapeutic approach for PD.

  6. Oleanolic acid activates daf-16 to increase lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jiaolong; Lu, Lulu; Zhou, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is an active ingredient in natural plants. It has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities, but very little is known about its effects of anti-aging. We investigate here whether OA has an impact on longevity in vivo, and more specifically, we have examined effects of OA on the lifespan and stress tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that OA could extend the lifespan, increase its stress resistance and reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wild-type worms. Moreover, we have found that OA-induced longevity may not be associated with the calorie restriction (CR) mechanism. Our mechanistic studies using daf-16 loss-of-function mutant strains (GR1307) indicated that the extension of lifespan by OA requires daf-16. In addition, OA treatment could also modulate the nuclear localization, and the quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that up-regulation of daf-16 target genes such as sod-3, hsp-16.2 and ctl-1 could prolong lifespan and increase stress response in C. elegans. This study overall uncovers the longevity effect of OA and its underpinning mechanisms. - Graphical abstract: Oleanolic acid modulates the activity of DAF-16 to promote longevity and increase stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. - Highlights: • OA extends the lifespan of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans. • OA improves the stress resistance and reduces the intracellular ROS level in C. elegans. • OA induces lifespan extension may not proceed through the CR mechanism. • OA extends the lifespan in C. elegans is modulated by daf-16.

  7. Bone impairment in phenylketonuria is characterized by circulating osteoclast precursors and activated T cell increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Roato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU is a rare inborn error of metabolism often complicated by a progressive bone impairment of uncertain etiology, as documented by both ionizing and non- ionizing techniques. METHODOLOGY: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC cultures were performed to study osteoclastogenesis, in the presence or absence of recombinant human monocyte-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF and receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL. Flow cytometry was utilized to analyze osteoclast precursors (OCPs and T cell phenotype. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α, RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG were quantified in cell culture supernatants by ELISA. The effects of RANKFc and anti-TNF-α antibodies were also investigated to determine their ability to inhibit osteoclastogenesis. In addition, bone conditions and phenylalanine levels in PKU patients were clinically evaluated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Several in vitro studies in PKU patients' cells identified a potential mechanism of bone formation inhibition commonly associated with this disorder. First, PKU patients disclosed an increased osteoclastogenesis compared to healthy controls, both in unstimulated and M-CSF/RANKL stimulated PBMC cultures. OCPs and the measured RANKL/OPG ratio were higher in PKU patients compared to healthy controls. The addition of specific antagonist RANKFc caused osteoclastogenesis inhibition, whereas anti-TNF-α failed to have this effect. Among PBMCs isolated from PKU patients, activated T cells, expressing CD69, CD25 and RANKL were identified. Confirmatory in vivo studies support this proposed model. These in vivo studies included the analysis of osteoclastogenesis in PKU patients, which demonstrated an inverse relation to bone condition assessed by phalangeal Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS. This was also directly related to non-compliance to therapeutic diet reflected by hyperphenylalaninemia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that PKU spontaneous osteoclastogenesis

  8. Oleanolic acid activates daf-16 to increase lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaolong; Lu, Lulu; Zhou, Lijun, E-mail: lijunzhou@tju.edu.cn

    2015-12-25

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is an active ingredient in natural plants. It has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities, but very little is known about its effects of anti-aging. We investigate here whether OA has an impact on longevity in vivo, and more specifically, we have examined effects of OA on the lifespan and stress tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that OA could extend the lifespan, increase its stress resistance and reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wild-type worms. Moreover, we have found that OA-induced longevity may not be associated with the calorie restriction (CR) mechanism. Our mechanistic studies using daf-16 loss-of-function mutant strains (GR1307) indicated that the extension of lifespan by OA requires daf-16. In addition, OA treatment could also modulate the nuclear localization, and the quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that up-regulation of daf-16 target genes such as sod-3, hsp-16.2 and ctl-1 could prolong lifespan and increase stress response in C. elegans. This study overall uncovers the longevity effect of OA and its underpinning mechanisms. - Graphical abstract: Oleanolic acid modulates the activity of DAF-16 to promote longevity and increase stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. - Highlights: • OA extends the lifespan of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans. • OA improves the stress resistance and reduces the intracellular ROS level in C. elegans. • OA induces lifespan extension may not proceed through the CR mechanism. • OA extends the lifespan in C. elegans is modulated by daf-16.

  9. Activation of inflammatory signaling by lipopolysaccharide produces a prolonged increase of voluntary alcohol intake in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y.A.; Benavidez, J.M.; Geil, C.; Perra, S.; Morikawa, H.; Harris, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that mice with genetic predisposition for high alcohol consumption as well as human alcoholics show changes in brain expression of genes related to immune signaling. In addition, mutant mice lacking genes related to immune function show decreased alcohol consumption (Blednov et al., in press), suggesting that immune signaling promotes alcohol consumption. To test the possibility that activation of immune signaling will increase alcohol consumption, we treated mice with lipopolysaccaride (LPS; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and tested alcohol consumption in the continuous two-bottle choice test. To take advantage of the long-lasting activation of brain immune signaling by LPS, we measured drinking beginning one week or one month after LPS treatment and continued the studies for several months. LPS produced persistent increases in alcohol consumption in C57/Bl6 J (B6) inbred mice, FVBxB6F1 and B6xNZBF1 hybrid mice, but not in FVB inbred mice. To determine if this effect of LPS is mediated through binding to TLR4, we tested mice lacking CD14, a key component of TLR4 signaling. These null mutants showed no increase of alcohol intake after treatment with LPS. LPS treatment decreased ethanol-conditioned taste aversion but did not alter ethanol-conditioned place preference (B6xNZBF1 mice). Electro-physiological studies of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area showed that pretreatment of mice with LPS decreased the neuronal firing rate. These results suggest that activation of immune signaling promotes alcohol consumption and alters certain aspects of alcohol reward/aversion. PMID:21266194

  10. Rifampicin reduces advanced glycation end products and activates DAF-16 to increase lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golegaonkar, Sandeep; Tabrez, Syed S; Pandit, Awadhesh; Sethurathinam, Shalini; Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G; Bansode, Sneha; Sampathkumar, Srinivasa-Gopalan; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Mukhopadhyay, Arnab

    2015-06-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed when glucose reacts nonenzymatically with proteins; these modifications are implicated in aging and pathogenesis of many age-related diseases including type II diabetes, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, pharmaceutical interventions that can reduce AGEs may delay age-onset diseases and extend lifespan. Using LC-MS(E), we show that rifampicin (RIF) reduces glycation of important cellular proteins in vivo and consequently increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans by up to 60%. RIF analog rifamycin SV (RSV) possesses similar properties, while rifaximin (RMN) lacks antiglycation activity and therefore fails to affect lifespan positively. The efficacy of RIF and RSV as potent antiglycating agents may be attributed to the presence of a p-dihydroxyl moiety that can potentially undergo spontaneous oxidation to yield highly reactive p-quinone structures, a feature absent in RMN. We also show that supplementing rifampicin late in adulthood is sufficient to increase lifespan. For its effect on longevity, rifampicin requires DAF-18 (nematode PTEN) as well as JNK-1 and activates DAF-16, the FOXO homolog. Interestingly, the drug treatment modulates transcription of a different subset of DAF-16 target genes, those not controlled by the conserved Insulin-IGF-1-like signaling pathway. RIF failed to increase the lifespan of daf-16 null mutant despite reducing glycation, showing thereby that DAF-16 may not directly affect AGE formation. Together, our data suggest that the dual ability to reduce glycation in vivo and activate prolongevity processes through DAF-16 makes RIF and RSV effective lifespan-extending interventions. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evidence of more efficient whistler-mode transmission during periods of increased magnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Thomson

    Full Text Available In a previous study it was reported that whistler- mode signals received at Faraday, Antarctica (65°S,64°W and Dunedin, New Zealand (46°S,171°E with entry regions in Pacific longitudes (typically from the VLF transmitter NLK, Seattle, USA showed an increase in transmission of wave energy as magnetic activity increased. However, signals with entry regions in Atlantic longitudes (typically from the NSS transmitter, Annapolis, USA did not appear to show such a relationship. This paper reports the results of a study of the same two longitude ranges but with the opposite transmitter providing additional whistler-mode signal information, with L-values in the range 1.8–2.6. Transmissions from NLK once again indicate a relationship between the transmission of wave energy and magnetic activity even though the signals were propagating in Atlantic longitudes, not Pacific. Any trend in NSS events observed at Dunedin was obscured by a limited range of magnetic activity, and duct exit regions so close to the receiver that small-scale excitation effects appeared to be occurring. However, by combining data from both longitudes, i.e Pacific and Atlantic, and using only ducts with exit regions that were >500km from the receiver, NSS events were found to show the same trend as NLK events. No significant longitude-dependent or transmitter-dependent variations in duct efficiency could be detected. Duct efficiency increases by a factor of about 30 with Kp=2–8 and this result is discussed in terms of changes in wave-particle interactions and duct size.

  12. Evidence of more efficient whistler-mode transmission during periods of increased magnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Thomson

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study it was reported that whistler- mode signals received at Faraday, Antarctica (65°S,64°W and Dunedin, New Zealand (46°S,171°E with entry regions in Pacific longitudes (typically from the VLF transmitter NLK, Seattle, USA showed an increase in transmission of wave energy as magnetic activity increased. However, signals with entry regions in Atlantic longitudes (typically from the NSS transmitter, Annapolis, USA did not appear to show such a relationship. This paper reports the results of a study of the same two longitude ranges but with the opposite transmitter providing additional whistler-mode signal information, with L-values in the range 1.8–2.6. Transmissions from NLK once again indicate a relationship between the transmission of wave energy and magnetic activity even though the signals were propagating in Atlantic longitudes, not Pacific. Any trend in NSS events observed at Dunedin was obscured by a limited range of magnetic activity, and duct exit regions so close to the receiver that small-scale excitation effects appeared to be occurring. However, by combining data from both longitudes, i.e Pacific and Atlantic, and using only ducts with exit regions that were >500km from the receiver, NSS events were found to show the same trend as NLK events. No significant longitude-dependent or transmitter-dependent variations in duct efficiency could be detected. Duct efficiency increases by a factor of about 30 with Kp=2–8 and this result is discussed in terms of changes in wave-particle interactions and duct size.

  13. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hergenroeder Albert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of regular physical activity and consequent sub-optimal bone mass acquisition in youth has been implicated as a primary cause of adult-onset osteoporosis. IMPACT was a behavioral theory-based 1 1/2 year randomized controlled field study aimed at increasing bone accretion in middle school girls. The objective of this study was to determine the intervention effects of the IMPACT program upon key physical and sedentary activity endpoints among schools that participated in the IMPACT study. Endpoints examined included weight bearing physical activity (WBPA; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; vigorous physical activity (VPA; MET (metabolic equivalent – weighted WBPA and MVPA; sedentary activity; before/after-school physical activity; and weekend physical activity. Methods Primary data analysis using a pretest-posttest control group design was conducted utilizing mixed model analysis of covariance. Data gathered from the IMPACT cohort from 2000–2002 were analyzed to determine baseline versus follow-up differences in activity endpoints. Confounders investigated included ethnicity, body mass index, menarcheal status, participation in 7th grade PE/athletics, friend/familial support and neighborhood safety. Results Follow-up means were higher for participating intervention schools relative to control schools for all physical activity variables but were statistically significant only for the following variables: daily minutes of vigorous physical activity (mean difference between Intervention (I and Control (C = 6.00↑ minutes, 95% CI = 5.82–6.18, p = 0.05, daily after school activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 8.95↑ minutes, 95% CI = 8.69–9.21, p = 0.04, and daily weekend activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 19.00↑ minutes, 95% CI = 18.40–19.60, p = 0.05. The intervention significantly reduced duration of student daily TV/Video watching (mean difference between I and C = 12

  14. Pacing, Conventional Physical Activity and Active Video Games to Increase Physical Activity for Adults with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Katia Elizabeth; Smith, Ashleigh E; Davison, Kade

    2017-08-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a serious illness of biological origin characterized by profound physical and cognitive exhaustion and postexertion malaise. Pacing is a common strategy used to manage available energy and complete activities of daily living; yet little research has investigated this as a strategy to increase physical activity levels. Typically, people living with ME/CFS are faced by unique barriers to physical activity participation and are less physically active than healthy peers. As such they are at increased risk of physical inactivity-related health consequences. Active video games may be a feasible and acceptable avenue to deliver physical activity intervention by overcoming many of the reported barriers to participation. The primary objective of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and acceptability of active video games to increase physical activity levels of people with ME/CFS. The secondary aims are to explore the preliminary effectiveness of pacing and active video gaming to pacing alone and pacing plus conventional physical activity to increase the physical activity levels of adults with ME/CFS and explore the relationship between physical activity and cumulative inflammatory load (allostatic load). This study will use a mixed method design, with a 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial, exit interviews, and collection of feasibility and process data. A total of 30 adults with ME/CFS will be randomized to receive either (1) pacing, (2) pacing and conventional physical activity, or (3) pacing and active video gaming. The intervention duration will be 6 months, and participants will be followed up for 6 months postintervention completion. The intervention will be conducted in the participant's home, and activity intensity will be determined by continuously monitored heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion. Feasibility and acceptability and process data will be collected during and at the end

  15. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    a deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether...

  16. INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY OF WORKING WOMEN THROUGH PARTICIPATION IN REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES/ YOGIC EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanavee Ichchhaporia

    2017-01-01

    In today’s fast and globalized life style Women hold a key position in the shaping of the next generation, plays such an important part in the life of the family. Their value is beyond measure. The changing life style demands more financial steadiness, that’s why the percentage of women in the active work population has increased rapidly in many countries around the world, including ours. As a consequence, we have seen the proliferation of dual-income families where role expectations toward m...

  17. Breast Fibroadenoma With Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in women of reproductive age, carrying little to no risk of breast cancer development. We report on a case of a woman with history of neuroendocrine tumor who on follow-up imaging tests underwent whole-body PET/CT study using Ga DOTATATE. The scan showed increased focal activity in the right breast, which was biopsied revealing a fibroadenoma. The presented data suggests cell surface overexpression of somatostatin receptors by this benign breast tumor. Moreover, this finding emphasizes the need for cautious interpretation of Ga DOTATATE-avid breast lesions that could mimic malignancy in neuroendocrine tumor patients.

  18. Avascular necrosis of the hips with increased activity on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Millo, Corina; Karantanas, Apostolos H.; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to cortisol is one of the major causes of avascular bone necrosis (AVN). We report on a case of a woman with Cushing’s syndrome attributed to ectopic ACTH secreting tumor who was evaluated with whole body PET/CT study using 68Ga-DOTATATE. The scan showed increased activity by both femoral heads, corresponding to the margins of bilateral AVN seen on MRI. The presented data suggests AVN-induced reactive inflammatory alterations adjacent to the necrotic segment of the bone which can be effectively targeted using radiolabeled somatostatin (SST) analogues. PMID:28033218

  19. Increased activity of vascular adenosine deaminase in atherosclerosis and therapeutic potential of its inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutryb-Zajac, Barbara; Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Zukowska, Paulina; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Zabielska, Magdalena A; Toczek, Marta; Jablonska, Patrycja; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Sitek, Barbara; Rogowski, Jan; Lango, Romuald; Slominska, Ewa M; Chlopicki, Stefan; Smolenski, Ryszard T

    2016-11-01

    Extracellular nucleotides and adenosine that are formed or degraded by membrane-bound ecto-enzymes could affect atherosclerosis by regulating the inflammation and thrombosis. This study aimed to evaluate a relation between ecto-enzymes that convert extracellular adenosine triphosphate to adenine dinucleotide phosphate, adenosine monophosphate, adenosine, and inosine on the surface of the vessel wall with the severity or progression of experimental and clinical atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we tested whether the inhibition of adenosine deaminase will block the development of experimental atherosclerosis. Vascular activities of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and ecto-adenosine deaminase (eADA) were measured in aortas of apolipoprotein E-/- low density lipoprotein receptor (ApoE-/-LDLR-/-) and wild-type mice as well as in human aortas. Plaques were analysed in the entire aorta, aortic root, and brachiocephalic artery by Oil-Red O and Orcein Martius Scarlet Blue staining and vascular accumulation of macrophages. The cellular location of ecto-enzymes was analysed by immunofluorescence. The effect of eADA inhibition on atherosclerosis progression was studied by a 2-month deoxycoformycin treatment of ApoE-/-LDLR-/- mice. The vascular eADA activity prominently increased in ApoE-/-LDLR-/- mice when compared with wild type already at the age of 1 month and progressed along atherosclerosis development, reaching a 10-fold difference at 10 months. The activity of eADA correlated with atherosclerotic changes in human aortas. High abundance of eADA in atherosclerotic vessels originated from activated endothelial cells and macrophages. There were no changes in ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 activity, whereas ecto-5'-nucleotidase was moderately decreased in ApoE-/-LDLR-/- mice. Deoxycoformycin treatment attenuated plaque development in aortic root and brachiocephalic artery of ApoE-/-LDLR-/- mice, suppressed vascular

  20. Use of flax seed mucilage or its active component for increasing suppression of hunger, increasing reduction of prospective consumption, increasing reduction of appetite in a subject during or between meals or feedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for increasing the suppression of hunger and/or increasing the reduction of prospective consumption and/or increasing the reduction of appetite and/or increasing the feeling of satiety and/or reducing non-fat energy uptake in the gastrointestinal tract...... intervention comprises mucilage such as flax seed mucilage and/or one or more active compounds of mucilage useful for increasing the suppression of hunger and/or increasing the reduction of prospective consumption and/or increasing the reduction of appetite and/or increasing the feeling of satiety and...

  1. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study

    OpenAIRE

    Hergenroeder Albert; Kelder Steven H; Hoelscher Deanna M; Jones Desiree; Sharma Shreela V

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Lack of regular physical activity and consequent sub-optimal bone mass acquisition in youth has been implicated as a primary cause of adult-onset osteoporosis. IMPACT was a behavioral theory-based 1 1/2 year randomized controlled field study aimed at increasing bone accretion in middle school girls. The objective of this study was to determine the intervention effects of the IMPACT program upon key physical and sedentary activity endpoints among schools that participated i...

  2. Increased eosinophil activity in acute Plasmodium falciparum infection - association with cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Reimert, C M; Tette, E

    1998-01-01

    To assess the eosinophil response to Plasmodium falciparum infection a cohort of initially parasite-free Ghanaian children was followed for 3 months. Seven of nine children who acquired an asymptomatic P. falciparum infection showed increase in eosinophil counts, while a decrease was found in seven...... of nine children with symptomatic malaria, and no change was observed in 14 children who remained parasite-free. In a hospital-based study, paediatric patients with cerebral malaria (CM), severe anaemia (SA), or uncomplicated malaria (UM) had uniformly low eosinophil counts during the acute illness...... followed by eosinophilia 30 days after cure. Plasma levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) were measured as indicators of eosinophil activation. In spite of the low eosinophil counts, ECP levels were increased on day 0 and significantly higher in patients with CM...

  3. Increasing physical activity in stroke survivors using STARFISH, an interactive mobile phone application: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lorna; Wyke, Sally; Brewster, Stephen; Sattar, Naveed; Gill, Jason M R; Alexander, Gillian; Rafferty, Danny; McFadyen, Angus K; Ramsay, Andrew; Dybus, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    Following stroke, people are generally less active and more sedentary which can worsen outcomes. Mobile phone applications (apps) can support change in health behaviors. We developed STARFISH, a mobile phone app-based intervention, which incorporates evidence-based behavior change techniques (feedback, self-monitoring and social support), in which users' physical activity is visualized by fish swimming. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of STARFISH in stroke survivors. Twenty-three people with stroke (12 women; age: 56.0 ± 10.0 years, time since stroke: 4.2 ± 4.0 years) from support groups in Glasgow completed the study. Participants were sequentially allocated in a 2:1 ratio to intervention (n = 15) or control (n = 8) groups. The intervention group followed the STARFISH program for six weeks; the control group received usual care. Outcome measures included physical activity, sedentary time, heart rate, blood pressure, body mass index, Fatigue Severity Scale, Instrumental Activity of Daily Living Scale, Ten-Meter Walk Test, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale, and Psychological General Well-Being Index. The average daily step count increased by 39.3% (4158 to 5791 steps/day) in the intervention group and reduced by 20.2% (3694 to 2947 steps/day) in the control group (p = 0.005 for group-time interaction). Similar patterns of data and group-time interaction were seen for walking time (p = 0.002) and fatigue (p = 0.003). There were no significant group-time interactions for other outcome measures. Use of STARFISH has the potential to improve physical activity and health outcomes in people after stroke and longer term intervention trials are warranted.

  4. Control plasma renin activity and changes in sympathetic tone as determinants of minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, K; Velasco, M; Wells, J; McNay, J L

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible mechanism(s) underlying minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity (PRA). 10 patients with essential hypertension were treated with minoxidil and subsequently with a combination of minoxidil plus propranolol. Minoxidil lowered mean arterial pressure 31.6 plus or minus 3.3 mm Hg, mean plus or minus SEM. There was an associated increase in both PRA, 6.26 plus or minus 2.43 NG/ML/H, and heart rate, 21.4 plus or minus 2.7 beats/min. The changes in PRA and heart rate were positively correlated, r, 0.79. Addition of propranolol reduced mean arterial pressure by a further 10.1 plus or minus 1.5 mm Hg and returned heart rate to control levels. Propranolol reduced PRA significantly but not to control levels. Control PRA positively correlated with PRA on minoxidil, r, 0.97, and with PRA on minoxidil plus propranolol, r, 0.98. We conclude that control PRA is a major determinant of change in PRA with minoxidil. Minoxidil increased PRA by at least two mechanisms: (a) an adrenergic mechanism closely related to change in heart rate and blocked by propranolol, and (b) a mechanism(s) not sensitive to propranolol and possibly related to decrease in renal perfusion pressure. PMID:1127099

  5. Increase in vagal activity during hypotensive lower-body negative pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander-Jensen, K; Mehlsen, J; Stadeager, C

    1988-01-01

    Progressive central hypovolemia is characterized by a normotensive, tachycardic stage followed by a reversible, hypotensive stage with slowing of the heart rate (HR). We investigated circulatory changes and arterial hormone concentrations in response to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) in six...... volunteers before and after atropine administration. LBNP of 55 mmHg initially resulted in an increase in HR from 55 +/- 4 to 90 +/- 5 beats/min and decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 94 +/- 4 to 81 +/- 5 mmHg, in central venous pressure from 7 +/- 1 to -3 +/- 1 mmHg, and in cardiac output from 6.......1 +/- 0.5 to 3.7 +/- 0.11/min. Concomitantly, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels increased. After 8.2 +/- 2.3 min of LBNP, the MAP had decreased to 41 +/- 7 mmHg and HR had decreased to 57 +/- 3 beats/min. Vasopressin increased from 1.2 +/- 0.3 to 137 +/- 45 pg/ml and renin activity increased from 1...

  6. Active children through individual vouchers – evaluation (ACTIVE: protocol for a mixed method randomised control trial to increase physical activity levels in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela James

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many teenagers are insufficiently active despite the health benefits of physical activity (PA. There is strong evidence to show that inactivity and low fitness levels increase the risk of non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD, type 2 diabetes and breast and colon cancers (Lee et al. Lancet 380:219–29, 2012. A major barrier facing adolescents is accessibility (e.g. cost and lack of local facilities. The ACTIVE project aims to tackle this barrier through a multi-faceted intervention, giving teenagers vouchers to spend on activities of their choice and empowering young people to improve their fitness and PA levels. Design ACTIVE is a mixed methods randomised control trial in 7 secondary schools in Swansea, South Wales. Quantitative and qualitative measures including PA (cooper run test (CRT, accelerometery over 7 days, cardiovascular (CV measures (blood pressure, pulse wave analysis and focus groups will be undertaken at 4 separate time points (baseline, 6 months,12 months and follow-up at 18 months. Intervention schools will receive a multi-component intervention involving 12 months of £20 vouchers to spend on physical activities of their choice, a peer mentor scheme and opportunities to attend advocacy meetings. Control schools are encouraged to continue usual practice. The primary aim is to examine the effect of the intervention in improving cardiovascular fitness. Discussion This paper describes the protocol for the ACTIVE randomised control trial, which aims to increase fitness, physical activity and socialisation of teenagers in Swansea, UK via a voucher scheme combined with peer mentoring. Results can contribute to the evidence base on teenage physical activity and, if effective, the intervention has the potential to inform future physical activity interventions and policy. Trial registration ISRCTN75594310 (Assigned 06/03/2017.

  7. Increasing Physical Activity in Older Adults: Walking by Prescription in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Paisana Morais

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThe present study (PTDC/SAU-SAP/110799/2009 funded by the Portuguese Government (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia – FCT aimed to test the effectiveness of a behaviour based intervention combined with a cognitive based one, designed to increase physical activity levels in older adults at Primary Health Care Centres.MethodA total of 108 participants aged over 65 years participated in the study. Participants were referred by their General Practitioner (GP and randomized by gender and marital status at the moment they started the program (single vs. couple, and allocated into one of three conditions: goal intention, action planning, action planning and coping planning. All participants received a pedometer and a logbook and were asked to register their daily number of steps for a period of 24 weeks. Study follows a longitudinal design with five assessments over a 6-month after baseline.ResultsThe test between subjects’ effects revealed an interaction between condition and participating in the study as single vs. couple. Older adults participating as singles walked more steps on average in the condition goal intention plus action planning and coping planning, whereas participants that entered in the study with their spouse, goal intention without any other planning intervention was the most effective intervention.ConclusionThe 24-week physical activity program based on the recent developments of behavioural-cognitive framework, has proven useful increasing older adults daily walking behaviour.

  8. Inactivation of adipose angiotensinogen reduces adipose tissue macrophages and increases metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMieux, Monique J; Ramalingam, Latha; Mynatt, Randall L; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kim, Jung Han; Moustaïd-Moussa, Naïma

    2016-02-01

    The adipose renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been linked to obesity-induced inflammation, though mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, adipose-specific angiotensinogen knockout mice (Agt-KO) were generated to determine whether Agt inactivation reduces inflammation and alters the metabolic profile of the Agt-KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Adipose tissue-specific Agt-KO mice were created using the Cre-LoxP system with both Agt-KO and WT littermates fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet to assess metabolic changes. White adipose tissue was used for gene/protein expression analyses and WAT stromal vascular cells for metabolic extracellular flux assays. No significant differences were observed in body weight or fat mass between both genotypes on either diet. However, improved glucose clearance was observed in Agt-KO compared to WT littermates, consistent with higher expression of genes involved in insulin signaling, glucose transport, and fatty acid metabolism. Furthermore, Agt inactivation reduced total macrophage infiltration in Agt-KO mice fed both diets. Lastly, stroma vascular cells from Agt-KO mice revealed higher metabolic activity compared to WT mice. These findings indicate that adipose-specific Agt inactivation leads to reduced adipose inflammation and increased glucose tolerance mediated in part via increased metabolic activity of adipose cells. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. Increasing the Lifetime of Mobile WSNs via Dynamic Optimization of Sensor Node Communication Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Adionel Guimarães

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple and flexible method for increasing the lifetime of fixed or mobile wireless sensor networks is proposed. Based on past residual energy information reported by the sensor nodes, the sink node or another central node dynamically optimizes the communication activity levels of the sensor nodes to save energy without sacrificing the data throughput. The activity levels are defined to represent portions of time or time-frequency slots in a frame, during which the sensor nodes are scheduled to communicate with the sink node to report sensory measurements. Besides node mobility, it is considered that sensors’ batteries may be recharged via a wireless power transmission or equivalent energy harvesting scheme, bringing to the optimization problem an even more dynamic character. We report large increased lifetimes over the non-optimized network and comparable or even larger lifetime improvements with respect to an idealized greedy algorithm that uses both the real-time channel state and the residual energy information.

  10. Reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids correlates with increased plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, A M; Dabadie, H; Palos-Pinto, A; Dumon, M-F; Darmon, M

    2004-06-01

    Increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations have been associated with lower coronary heart disease risk. On the other hand, dietary fats are known to influence the fatty acid profile of plasma lipids, including phospholipids that are substrates of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and LCAT activity. An interventional study was performed in a monk community of 25 men. A French monk community, South West of France. The basal diet of the study cohort contained SFA in a proportion of 13.5% of their total energy intake (TEI). They were submitted to two experimental isocaloric diets containing either 8.4% of the TEI in SFA (diet A) or 11% (diet B), each lasting 5 weeks. The elevation of SFA in diet B was mainly obtained by decreasing carbohydrates. The only significant difference among total fats between diets A and B was the myristic acid content (0.6 and 1.2% of TEI, respectively). The elevation in SFA in diet B resulted in a significant increase of HDL-C (P<0.04), while plasma apo A-I concentration and LCAT activity both decreased (P<0.02). Altogether, these results are consistent with a negative effect of SFA on reverse cholesterol transport.

  11. Triangular gold nanoparticles modify shell characteristics and increase antioxidant enzyme activities in the clam Ruditapes decussatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafidh, Khazri; Badreddine, Sellami; Mezni, Amine; Mouhamed, Dellali; Wiem, Saidani; Imen, Bouzidi; David, Sheehan; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Hamouda, Beyrem

    2018-04-19

    Nanoparticles may cause adverse environmental effects but there is limited information on their interactions with marine organisms. Our aim was to examine the effects of triangular gold nanoparticles (Tr-Au NPs) on the clam, Ruditapes decussatus. Clams were exposed to Tr-Au1 = 5 µg/L and Tr-Au2 = 10 µg/L for 2 and 7 days. Effects on shell structure were investigated. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GST) activities, protein carbonyl levels and malondialdehyde content were used to assess biochemical status. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) showed that Tr-Au NPs modified shell structure and morphology. Tr-Au NPs size increased forming aggregate particles. Tr-Au NPs increased SOD, CAT and GST activities in gill and digestive gland in a concentration- and time-dependent manner indicating defence against oxidative stress. Enhanced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl levels confirmed oxidative stress. Tr-Au NPs cause oxidative stress and affect shell structure of clams. These findings may have relevance to other marine species.

  12. Interleukin-2 stimulates osteoclastic activity: Increased acid production and radioactive calcium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, W.L.; Seeds, M.C.; Key, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was studied to determine effects on acid production by individual osteoclasts in situ on mouse calvarial bones. This analysis was performed using a microspectrofluorimetric technique to quantify acid production in individual cells. Radioactive calcium release was determined using calvarial bones in a standard tissue culture system. This allowed us to correlate changes in acid production with a measure of bone resorption. IL-2 stimulated acid production and bone resorbing activity. Both effects were inhibited by calcitonin. No stimulation of bone resorption occurred when IL-2-containing test media was incubated with a specific anti-IL-2 antibody and ultrafiltered. Our data demonstrated a correlation between acid production and bone resorbing activity in mouse calvaria exposed to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The data obtained from cultured mouse calvaria exposed to IL-2 demonstrated similar stimulatory effects to those seen during PTH exposure. These data suggest that calvaria exposed to IL-2 in vitro have increased osteoclastic acid production corresponding with increased bone resorption. (author)

  13. Higher Physical Activity is Associated with Increased Attentional Network Connectivity in the Healthy Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Ha Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential alterations in structural network properties related to physical activity (PA in healthy elderly. We recruited 76 elderly individuals with normal cognition from Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. All participants underwent the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and 3.0T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Participants were subdivided into quartiles according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores, which represents the amount of PA. Through graph theory based analyses, we compared global and local network topologies according to PA quartile. The higher PA group demonstrated better performance in speed processing compared to the lower PA group. Regional nodal strength also significantly increased in the higher PA group, which involved the bilateral middle frontal, bilateral inferior parietal, right medial orbitofrontal, right superior and middle temporal gyri. These results were further replicated when the highest and the lowest quartile groups were compared in terms of regional nodal strengths and local efficiency. Our findings that the regional nodal strengths associated with the attentional network were increased in the higher PA group suggest the preventive effects of PA on age-related cognitive decline, especially in attention.

  14. Increased frontal and paralimbic activation following ayahuasca, the pan-Amazonian inebriant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Romero, Sergio; Grasa, Eva; Mena, Esther; Carrió, Ignasi; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2006-05-01

    Ayahuasca is a South American psychoactive plant tea which contains the serotonergic psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors that render DMT orally active. Previous investigations with ayahuasca have highlighted a psychotropic effect profile characterized by enhanced introspective attention, with individuals reporting altered somatic perceptions and intense emotional modifications, frequently accompanied by visual imagery. Despite recent advances in the study of ayahuasca pharmacology, the neural correlates of acute ayahuasca intoxication remain largely unknown. To investigate the effects of ayahuasca administration on regional cerebral blood flow. Fifteen male volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received a single oral dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca equivalent to 1.0 mg DMT/kg body weight and a placebo in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured 100-110 min after drug administration by means of single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Ayahuasca administration led to significant activation of frontal and paralimbic brain regions. Increased blood perfusion was observed bilaterally in the anterior insula, with greater intensity in the right hemisphere, and in the anterior cingulate/frontomedial cortex of the right hemisphere, areas previously implicated in somatic awareness, subjective feeling states, and emotional arousal. Additional increases were observed in the left amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus, a structure also involved in emotional arousal. The present results suggest that ayahuasca interacts with neural systems that are central to interoception and emotional processing and point to a modulatory role of serotonergic neurotransmission in these processes.

  15. Oleanolic acid activates daf-16 to increase lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaolong; Lu, Lulu; Zhou, Lijun

    2015-12-25

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is an active ingredient in natural plants. It has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities, but very little is known about its effects of anti-aging. We investigate here whether OA has an impact on longevity in vivo, and more specifically, we have examined effects of OA on the lifespan and stress tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that OA could extend the lifespan, increase its stress resistance and reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wild-type worms. Moreover, we have found that OA-induced longevity may not be associated with the calorie restriction (CR) mechanism. Our mechanistic studies using daf-16 loss-of-function mutant strains (GR1307) indicated that the extension of lifespan by OA requires daf-16. In addition, OA treatment could also modulate the nuclear localization, and the quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that up-regulation of daf-16 target genes such as sod-3, hsp-16.2 and ctl-1 could prolong lifespan and increase stress response in C. elegans. This study overall uncovers the longevity effect of OA and its underpinning mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cationic Amphiphiles Increase Activity of Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Tobramycin in the Presence of Airway Polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy Drew, Kirstin R.; Sanders, Lori K.; Culumber, Zachary W.; Zribi, Olena; Wong, Gerard C.L.

    2009-01-01

    It is empirically known that anionic polyelectrolytes present in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways due to bacterial infection significantly decrease the activity of cationic antimicrobials via electrostatic binding. In this work, we use synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering to investigate the interaction between tobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly administered to CF patients via inhalation, with DNA, which is found in high concentrations in the CF airway. We find that interactions between DNA and tobramycin are significantly modified by the presence of mixtures of amphiphilic molecules. We measure a hierarchy of self-assembled structures formed between tobramycin, DNA, and the amphiphile mixtures and show how interactions between these components can be controlled. Results indicate that mixtures of cationic and negative curvature amphiphiles optimized for DNA binding via charge matching and curvature matching can competitively displace bound tobramycin from DNA and thereby drastically suppress tobramycin-DNA binding and resultant antimicrobial inactivation. Growth inhibition assays confirm the increased activity of tobramycin in the presence of DNA with the addition of the amphiphiles. These results suggest that optimized cationic amphiphile solutions have the potential to enhance antimicrobial function in highly infected environments that contain increased concentrations of anionic inflammatory polymers.

  17. Cationic Amphiphiles Increase Activity of Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Tobramycin in the Presence of Airway Polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, K.R.Purdy; Sanders, L.K.; Culumber, Z.W.; Zribi, O.; Wong, G.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    It is empirically known that anionic polyelectrolytes present in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways due to bacterial infection significantly decrease the activity of cationic antimicrobials via electrostatic binding. In this work, we use synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering to investigate the interaction between tobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly administered to CF patients via inhalation, with DNA, which is found in high concentrations in the CF airway. We find that interactions between DNA and tobramycin are significantly modified by the presence of mixtures of amphiphilic molecules. We measure a hierarchy of self-assembled structures formed between tobramycin, DNA, and the amphiphile mixtures and show how interactions between these components can be controlled. Results indicate that mixtures of cationic and negative curvature amphiphiles optimized for DNA binding via charge matching and curvature matching can competitively displace bound tobramycin from DNA and thereby drastically suppress tobramycin-DNA binding and resultant antimicrobial inactivation. Growth inhibition assays confirm the increased activity of tobramycin in the presence of DNA with the addition of the amphiphiles. These results suggest that optimized cationic amphiphile solutions have the potential to enhance antimicrobial function in highly infected environments that contain increased concentrations of anionic inflammatory polymers

  18. Methyl Salicylate Level Increase in Flax after Fusarium oxysporum Infection Is Associated with Phenylpropanoid Pathway Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boba, Aleksandra; Kostyn, Kamil; Kostyn, Anna; Wojtasik, Wioleta; Dziadas, Mariusz; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flax ( Linum usitatissimum ) is a crop plant valued for its oil and fiber. Unfortunately, large losses in cultivation of this plant are caused by fungal infections, with Fusarium oxysporum being one of its most dangerous pathogens. Among the plant's defense strategies, changes in the expression of genes of the shikimate/phenylpropanoid/benzoate pathway and thus in phenolic contents occur. Among the benzoates, salicylic acid, and its methylated form methyl salicylate play an important role in regulating plants' response to stress conditions. Upon treatment of flax plants with the fungus we found that methyl salicylate content increased (4.8-fold of the control) and the expression profiles of the analyzed genes suggest that it is produced most likely from cinnamic acid, through the β-oxidative route. At the same time activation of some genes involved in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis was observed. We suggest that increased methyl salicylate biosynthesis during flax response to F. oxysporum infection may be associated with phenylpropanoid pathway activation.

  19. Avoidant Responses to Interpersonal Provocation Are Associated with Increased Amygdala and Decreased Mentalizing Network Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Ulrike M.

    2017-01-01

    When intentionally pushed or insulted, one can either flee from the provoker or retaliate. The implementation of such fight-or-flight decisions is a central aspect in the genesis and evolution of aggression episodes, yet it is usually investigated only indirectly or in nonsocial situations. In the present fMRI study, we aimed to distinguish brain regions associated with aggressive and avoidant responses to interpersonal provocation in humans. Participants (thirty-six healthy young women) could either avoid or face a highly (HP) and a lowly (LP) provoking opponent in a competitive reaction time task: the fight-or-escape (FOE) paradigm. Subjects avoided the HP more often, but retaliated when facing her. Moreover, they chose to fight the HP more quickly, and showed increased heart rate (HR) right before confronting her. Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and sensorimotor cortex were more active when participants decided to fight, whereas the mentalizing network was engaged when deciding to avoid. Importantly, avoiding the HP relative to the LP was associated with both higher activation in the right basolateral amygdala and lower relative activity in several mentalizing regions [e.g., medial and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), temporal-parietal junction (TPJ)]. These results suggest that avoidant responses to provocation might result from heightened threat anticipation and are associated with reduced perspective taking. Furthermore, our study helps to reconcile conflicting findings on the role of the mentalizing network, the amygdala, and the OFC in aggression. PMID:28660251

  20. Strategies to Increase After-School Program Staff Skills to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Beighle, Aaron; Webster, Collin; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B

    2016-01-01

    Standards targeting children's healthy eating and physical activity (HEPA) in after-school programs call for staff to display or refrain from HEPA-promoting or -discouraging behaviors that are linked to children's HEPA. This study evaluated strategies to align staff behaviors with HEPA Standards. Staff at four after-school programs serving approximately 500 children participated in professional development training from January 2012 to May 2013. Site leaders also attended workshops and received technical support during the same time frame. Changes in staff behaviors were evaluated using the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition in a pre- (fall 2011) multiple-post (spring 2012, fall 2012, and spring 2013), no-control group study design. A total of 8,949 scans were completed across the four measurement periods. Of the 19 behaviors measured, 14 changed in the appropriate direction. For example, staff engaging in physical activity with children increased from 27% to 40% of scans and staff eating unhealthy foods decreased from 56% to 14% of days. Ongoing training and technical assistance can have a measureable impact on staff behaviors linked to child-level HEPA outcomes. Future research should explore the feasibility of disseminating ongoing trainings to after-school program staff on a large scale. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. Using an alternate reality game to increase physical activity and decrease obesity risk of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jeanne D; Massey, Anne P; Marker-Hoffman, Rickie Lee

    2012-07-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated a game intervention--specifically, an alternate reality game (ARG)--as a means to influence college students' physical activity (PA). An ARG is an interactive narrative that takes place in the real world and uses multiple media to reveal a story. Three sections of a college health course (n = 115 freshman students) were assigned either to a game group that played the ARG or to a comparison group that learned how to use exercise equipment in weekly laboratory sessions. Pre- and post-intervention measures included weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (PBF), and self-reported moderate physical activity (MPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA), and PA (steps/week). A significant group x time interaction (p = .001) was detected for PA, with a significant increase in PA for the game (p students--collaborative and social, experiential and media-rich. Our results provide preliminary evidence that a game intervention can positively influence PA within the college student population. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Increased oxidative/nitrosative stress and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsova-Sarafinovska, Zorica; Eken, Ayse; Matevska, Nadica; Erdem, Onur; Sayal, Ahmet; Savaser, Ayhan; Banev, Saso; Petrovski, Daniel; Dzikova, Sonja; Georgiev, Vladimir; Sikole, Aleksandar; Ozgök, Yaşar; Suturkova, Ljubica; Dimovski, Aleksandar J; Aydin, Ahmet

    2009-08-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the oxidative/nitrosative stress status in prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 312 men from two different populations were included: 163 men from Macedonia (73 CaP patients, 67 BPH patients and 23 control subjects) and 149 men from Turkey (34 prostate cancer patients, 100 BPH patients and 15 control subjects). We measured erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, erythrocyte activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT); plasma nitrite/nitrate (NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-)), cGMP and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. A similar pattern of alteration in the oxidative/nitrosative stress-related parameters was found in both, Macedonian and Turkish studied samples: higher MDA concentrations with lower GPX and CuZn-SOD activities in CaP patients versus controls and BPH groups. The CAT activity was decreased in the CaP patients versus controls in the Turkish studied sample. Furthermore, CaP patients had increased plasma NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) and cGMP levels versus controls and BPH groups in both studied samples. This study has confirmed an imbalance in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status and revealed an altered nitrosative status in prostate cancer patients.

  3. Non-thermal hydrogen plasma processing effectively increases the antibacterial activity of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhigang; Ma, Yulong; Zhu, Zhongjie; Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Graphene-based materials (GMs) are promising antibacterial agents which provide an alternative route to treat pathogenic bacteria with resistance to conventional antibiotics. To further improve their antibacterial activity, many methods have been developed to functionalize the GMs with chemicals. However, the application of additional chemicals may pose potential risks to the environment and human being. Herein, a radio-frequency-driven inductively coupled non-thermal hydrogen plasma was used to treat and reduce graphene oxide (GO) without using any other chemicals, and we found that the plasma-reduced GO (prGO) is with significantly higher bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli. The mechanism of the increased antibacterial activity of prGO is due to that plasma processing breaks down the GO sheets into smaller layers with more rough surface defects, which can thus induce more destructive membrane damages to the bacteria. This work sets another good example, showing that plasma processing is a green and low-cost alternative for GM modification for biomedical applications.

  4. Increasing trend of wearables and multimodal interface for human activity monitoring: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Preeti; Mathew, Lini; Syal, Poonam

    2017-04-15

    Activity recognition technology is one of the most important technologies for life-logging and for the care of elderly persons. Elderly people prefer to live in their own houses, within their own locality. If, they are capable to do so, several benefits can follow in terms of society and economy. However, living alone may have high risks. Wearable sensors have been developed to overcome these risks and these sensors are supposed to be ready for medical uses. It can help in monitoring the wellness of elderly persons living alone by unobtrusively monitoring their daily activities. The study aims to review the increasing trends of wearable devices and need of multimodal recognition for continuous or discontinuous monitoring of human activity, biological signals such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrooculogram (EOG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrocardiogram (ECG) and parameters along with other symptoms. This can provide necessary assistance in times of ominous need, which is crucial for the advancement of disease-diagnosis and treatment. Shared control architecture with multimodal interface can be used for application in more complex environment where more number of commands is to be used to control with better results in terms of controlling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  6. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400-800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ˜9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  7. Improvements in Students' Understanding from Increased Implementation of Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Gehrke, Melissa N.; Prather, E. E.; Rudolph, A. L.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors are hesitant to implement active learning strategies in their introductory astronomy classrooms because they are not sure which techniques they should use, how to implement those techniques, and question whether the investment in changing their course will really bring the advertised learning gains. We present an example illustrating how thoughtful and systematic implementation of active learning strategies into a traditionally taught Astro 101 class can translate into significant increases in students' understanding. We detail the journey of one instructor, over several years, as she changes the instruction and design of her course from one that focuses almost exclusively on lecture to a course that provides an integrated use of several active learning techniques such as Lecture-Tutorials and Think-Pair-Share questions. The students in the initial lecture-only course achieved a low normalized gain score of only 0.2 on the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), while the students in the re-designed learner-centered course achieved a significantly better normalized gain of 0.43. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS), and Grant No. 0847170, a PAARE Grant for the Calfornia-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  8. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Prohormone convertase 2 activity is increased in the hippocampus of Wfs1 knockout mice

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    Karin eTein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMutations in WFS1 gene cause Wolfram syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy and deafness (DIDMOAD. The WFS1 gene product wolframin is located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mice lacking this gene exhibit disturbances in the processing and secretion of peptides, such as vasopressin and insulin. In the brain, high levels of the wolframin protein have been observed in the hippocampus, amygdala and limbic structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Wfs1 knockout on peptide processing in mouse hippocampus. A peptidomic approach was used to characterize individual peptides in the hippocampus of wild-type and Wfs1 knockout mice. ResultsWe identified 126 peptides in hippocampal extracts and the levels of 10 peptides differed between Wfs1 KO and wild-type mice at P<0.05. The peptide with the largest alteration was little-LEN, which level was 25 times higher in the hippocampus of Wfs1 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Processing (cleavage of little-LEN from the Pcsk1n gene product proSAAS involves prohormone convertase 2 (PC2. Thus, PC2 activity was measured in extracts prepared from the hippocampus of Wfs1 knockout mice. The activity of PC2 in Wfs1 mutant mice was significantly higher (149.9±2.3%, p<0.0001, n=8 than in wild-type mice (100.0±7.0%, n=8. However, Western blot analysis showed that protein levels of 7B2, proPC2 and PC2 were same in both groups, and so were gene expression levels.ConclusionsProcessing of proSAAS is altered in the hippocampus of Wfs1-KO mice, which is caused by increased activity of PC2. Increased activity of PC2 in Wfs1 knockout mice is not caused by alteration in the levels of PC2 protein. Our results suggest a functional link between Wfs1 and PC2. Thus, the detailed molecular mechanism of the role of Wfs1 in the regulation of PC2 activity needs further investigation.

  10. Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975-March 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David; Meier, Mark Frederick; Swanson, Donald A.; with contributions by Babcock, James W.; Fretwell, Marvin O.; Malone, Stephen D.; Rosenfeld, Charles L.; Shreve, Ronald L.; Wilcox, Ray E.

    1977-01-01

    In March 1975 Mount Baker showed a large increase in thermal emission, which has persisted for more than 1 year. Fumarole ejecta accompanied the thermal activity from March to September, but the ejecta had no constituents that suggest a magmatic source. Estimates of that part of the total heat flux that would account for the observed snow and ice loss show that the heat-flow increase was roughly one order of magnitude, from about 2 megawatts at 10 watts per square meter, averaged over Sherman Crater before 1975, to about 30 megawatts at 180 watts per square meter, during 1975. Almost half of the glacier that occupied the basin of Sherman Crater was melted in 1975. The new activity generated great concern among the public and the government agencies responsible for geological evaluation of potential hazards and for protection of life and property. The past geologic history, current topography, rock alteration, and location of major fumarolic activity indicate that large rock avalanches and mudflows on the east slope in Boulder Creek valley are the potential hazards of most significance related to present conditions. The most probable types of large mass movements would be mudflows, having speeds of as much as 50 kilometers per hour, that would originate from mixtures of snow, ice, and melt water and avalanches of structurally weak clay-rich rocks that make up the rim of Sherman Crater. Similar mudflows from the volcano have traveled at least 12 kilometers 8 times during the past 10,000 years. A possible worst case event, however, might be a larger, air-cushioned avalanche of as much as 20 to 30 million cubic meters that could hit Baker Lake at speeds of more than 300 kilometers per hour and generate a wave of water large enough to overtop Upper Baker Dam. At least 30 million cubic meters of potentially unstable material occurs as hydrothermally altered remnants of the rim of Sherman Crater and could provide the required volume for the estimated worst case event or

  11. Increased dopamine D1 receptor binding in the human mesocortical system following central cholinergic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedi, M.; Berkovic, S.F.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Reutens, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The interaction between the cholinergic and dopaminergic system has been implicated in many pathological processes including, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction. Little is known about the control of dopamine (DA) release following central cholinergic activation in humans, but experimental studies suggest that endogenously released Acetylcholine (ACh) achieved by the administration of cholinesterase inhibitors, can increase dopamine efflux in different regions of the brain. This leads to the activation of different types of post-synaptic dopaminergic receptors which belong to the family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). A common paradigm of the GPCRs desensitization is that agonist-induced receptor signaling is rapidly attenuated by receptor internalisation. Several experiments have shown that the activation of Dl receptors in acute conditions leads, within minutes, to translocation of the receptor from the surface of the neurons to the endosomal compartment in the cytoplasm and increased receptor turnover. To assess changes in Dl receptor density following an intravenous infusion of the selective cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine salicylate (PHY), we studied eleven normal subjects (10 male and 1 female, mean age 36.1 and 61617; 9.9) using [11C]-SCH23390 and PET The binding potential (BP) for SCH23390 was significantly (p 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between baseline and physostigmine Kl ratio (p>0.05) suggesting that BP changes observed were not secondary to regional blood flow changes or to an order effect of the scans. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  12. Increasing creatine kinase activity protects against hypoxia / reoxygenation injury but not against anthracycline toxicity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Zervou

    Full Text Available The creatine kinase (CK phosphagen system is fundamental to cellular energy homeostasis. Cardiomyocytes express three CK isoforms, namely the mitochondrial sarcomeric CKMT2 and the cytoplasmic CKM and CKB. We hypothesized that augmenting CK in vitro would preserve cell viability and function and sought to determine efficacy of the various isoforms. The open reading frame of each isoform was cloned into pcDNA3.1, followed by transfection and stable selection in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293. CKMT2- CKM- and CKB-HEK293 cells had increased protein and total CK activity compared to non-transfected cells. Overexpressing any of the three CK isoforms reduced cell death in response to 18h hypoxia at 1% O2 followed by 2h re-oxygenation as assayed using propidium iodide: by 33% in CKMT2, 47% in CKM and 58% in CKB compared to non-transfected cells (P<0.05. Loading cells with creatine did not modify cell survival. Transient expression of CK isoforms in HL-1 cardiac cells elevated isoenzyme activity, but only CKMT2 over-expression protected against hypoxia (0.1% for 24h and reoxygenation demonstrating 25% less cell death compared to non-transfected control (P<0.01. The same cells were not protected from doxorubicin toxicity (250nM for 48h, in contrast to the positive control. These findings support increased CK activity as protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury, in particular, protection via CKMT2 in a cardiac-relevant cell line, which merits further investigation in vivo.

  13. Ballistic stretching increases flexibility and acute vertical jump height when combined with basketball activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Griffiths, Christine M; Woolstenhulme, Emily M; Parcell, Allen C

    2006-11-01

    Stretching is often included as part of a warm-up procedure for basketball activity. However, the efficacy of stretching with respect to sport performance has come into question. We determined the effects of 4 different warm-up protocols followed by 20 minutes of basketball activity on flexibility and vertical jump height. Subjects participated in 6 weeks (2 times per week) of warm-up and basketball activity. The warm-up groups participated in ballistic stretching, static stretching, sprinting, or basketball shooting (control group). We asked 3 questions. First, what effect does 6 weeks of warm-up exercise and basketball play have on both flexibility and vertical jump height? We measured sit and reach and vertical jump height before (week -1) and after (week 7) the 6 weeks. Flexibility increased for the ballistic, static, and sprint groups compared to the control group (p vertical jump height did not change for any of the groups. Our second question was what is the acute effect of each warm-up on vertical jump height? We measured vertical jump immediately after the warm-up on 4 separate occasions during the 6 weeks (at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6). Vertical jump height was not different for any group. Finally, our third question was what is the acute effect of each warm-up on vertical jump height following 20 minutes of basketball play? We measured vertical jump height immediately following 20 minutes of basketball play at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Only the ballistic stretching group demonstrated an acute increase in vertical jump 20 minutes after basketball play (p basketball play, as it is beneficial to vertical jump performance.

  14. Increased expression of protease-activated receptor 4 and Trefoil factor 2 in human colorectal cancer.

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    Guoyu Yu

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4, a member of G-protein coupled receptors family, was recently reported to exhibit decreased expression in gastric cancer and esophageal squamous cancer, yet increased expression during the progression of prostate cancer. Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2, a small peptide constitutively expressed in the gastric mucosa, plays a protective role in restitution of gastric mucosa. Altered TFF2 expression was also related to the development of gastrointestinal cancer. TFF2 has been verified to promote cell migration via PAR4, but the roles of PAR4 and TFF2 in the progress of colorectal cancer are still unknown. In this study, the expression level of PAR4 and TFF2 in colorectal cancer tissues was measured using real-time PCR (n = 38, western blotting (n=38 and tissue microarrays (n = 66. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PAR4 and TFF2 were remarkably increased in colorectal cancer compared with matched noncancerous tissues, especially in positive lymph node and poorly differentiated cancers. The colorectal carcinoma cell LoVo showed an increased response to TFF2 as assessed by cell invasion upon PAR4 expression. However, after intervention of PAR4 expression, PAR4 positive colorectal carcinoma cell HT-29 was less responsive to TFF2 in cell invasion. Genomic bisulfite sequencing showed the hypomethylation of PAR4 promoter in colorectal cancer tissues and the hypermethylation in the normal mucosa that suggested the low methylation of promoter was correlated to the increased PAR4 expression. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of PAR4 and TFF2 frequently occurs in colorectal cancer tissues, and that overexpression of PAR4 may be resulted from promoter hypomethylation. While TFF2 promotes invasion activity of LoVo cells overexpressing PAR4, and this effect was significantly decreased when PAR4 was knockdowned in HT-29 cells. Our findings will be helpful in further investigations into the

  15. ANALYSIS OF MARKETING TOOLS AND ACTIVITIES WITHIN EDUCATIONAL SERVICES ORGANIZATIONS, IN ORDER TO INCREASE THEIR EFFICIENCY

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    Barbu Andreea Mihaela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian education, which is an important pillar for human resource forming process and the basis for economic development, suffered a lot of changes in the last decades. The main factors that have influenced the undergraduate and university training programs are the political and social-cultural ones. Educational services organizations are facing various challenges as: creating and maintaining a good institutional image, managing all types of resources efficiently, motivating the academic personnel, satisfying the community needs and supporting the public policy. The marketing tools and activities help these entities to improve the educational programs and adapt them to the individual needs of the clients, to keep under control the production costs, which are limited by the small public budget and to perform and promote these services efficiently, leading to an increased organizational performance. The paper begins by presenting the current situation of higher education in Romania, underlining the fierce competition among the universities, the increased market potential and the financing sources. It continues by mentioning the advantages of strategic marketing planning for universities, as superior results and effectiveness, improved decision making and multiple benefits for the people involved. The paper reveals also the characteristics of segmenting and positioning on higher education market and the specific of marketing mix. Thereby, educational product is more easily adapted to customer needs when it is designed in collaboration with existing and future students, their parents, with other universities in the field or even with graduates. Students themselves can contribute to the increase the quality of their education. Price may be a factor of choice when future student chooses to pursue a university course, especially in those situations where the price does not include only the payment of annual fees for education. Distribution takes into

  16. Activity of the anterior cingulate cortex and ventral hippocampus underlie increases in contextual fear generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Patrick K; Gilman, T Lee; Winiecki, Patrick; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Memories for context become less specific with time resulting in animals generalizing fear from training contexts to novel contexts. Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of a context fear memory, very little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the increase in fear generalization that occurs as the memory ages. Here, we examine the neural pattern of activation underlying the expression of a generalized context fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Animals were context fear conditioned and tested for fear in either the training context or a novel context at recent and remote time points. Animals were sacrificed and fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed to assay neural activation. Our results demonstrate activity of the prelimbic, infralimbic, and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices as well as the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) underlie expression of a generalized fear memory. To verify the involvement of the ACC and vHPC in the expression of a generalized fear memory, animals were context fear conditioned and infused with 4% lidocaine into the ACC, dHPC, or vHPC prior to retrieval to temporarily inactivate these structures. The results demonstrate that activity of the ACC and vHPC is required for the expression of a generalized fear memory, as inactivation of these regions returned the memory to a contextually precise form. Current theories of time-dependent generalization of contextual memories do not predict involvement of the vHPC. Our data suggest a novel role of this region in generalized memory, which should be incorporated into current theories of time-dependent memory generalization. We also show that the dorsal hippocampus plays a prolonged role in contextually precise memories. Our findings suggest a possible interaction between the ACC and vHPC controls the expression of fear generalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increase in MST activity correlates with visual motion learning: A functional MRI study of perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Stephanie J; Kennard, Chris; Bridge, Holly

    2018-01-01

    Repeated practice of a specific task can improve visual performance, but the neural mechanisms underlying this improvement in performance are not yet well understood. Here we trained healthy participants on a visual motion task daily for 5 days in one visual hemifield. Before and after training, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the change in neural activity. We also imaged a control group of participants on two occasions who did not receive any task training. While in the MRI scanner, all participants completed the motion task in the trained and untrained visual hemifields separately. Following training, participants improved their ability to discriminate motion direction in the trained hemifield and, to a lesser extent, in the untrained hemifield. The amount of task learning correlated positively with the change in activity in the medial superior temporal (MST) area. MST is the anterior portion of the human motion complex (hMT+). MST changes were localized to the hemisphere contralateral to the region of the visual field, where perceptual training was delivered. Visual areas V2 and V3a showed an increase in activity between the first and second scan in the training group, but this was not correlated with performance. The contralateral anterior hippocampus and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and frontal pole showed changes in neural activity that also correlated with the amount of task learning. These findings emphasize the importance of MST in perceptual learning of a visual motion task. Hum Brain Mapp 39:145-156, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effectiveness of a smartphone app in increasing physical activity amongst male adults: a randomised controlled trial

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    Tim Harries

    2016-09-01

    (individual vs social feedback was not statistically significant. Conclusions Always-on smartphone apps that provide step-counts can increase physical activity in young to early-middle-aged men but the provision of social feedback has no apparent incremental impact. This approach may be particularly suitable for inactive people with low levels of physical activity; it should now be tested with this population.

  19. Sympathetic network drive during water deprivation does not increase respiratory or cardiac rhythmic sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, Walter W; Toney, Glenn M

    2013-06-15

    Effects of water deprivation on rhythmic bursting of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were investigated in anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized, euhydrated (control) and 48-h water-deprived (WD) rats (n = 8/group). Control and WD rats had similar baseline values of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, and central respiratory drive. Although integrated splanchnic SNA (sSNA) was greater in WD rats than controls (P analysis of respiratory rhythmic bursting of sSNA revealed that inspiratory rhythmic burst amplitude was actually smaller (P analysis revealed that water deprivation had no effect on either the amplitude or periodicity of the cardiac rhythmic oscillation of sSNA. Collectively, these data indicate that the increase of sSNA produced by water deprivation is not attributable to either increased respiratory or cardiac rhythmic burst discharge. Thus the sympathetic network response to acute water deprivation appears to differ from that of chronic sympathoexcitation in neurogenic forms of arterial hypertension, where increased respiratory rhythmic bursting of SNA and baroreflex adaptations have been reported.

  20. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increase ros production by fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase activation.

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    Elaine Hatanaka

    Full Text Available The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47 (phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47 (phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts.

  1. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  2. Acrolein increases 5-lipoxygenase expression in murine macrophages through activation of ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae E; Lee, Seung J; Seo, Kyo W; Park, Hye M; Yun, Jung W; Bae, Jin U; Bae, Sun S; Kim, Chi D

    2010-05-15

    Episodic exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants has been linked to acute myocardial infarction, and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is involved in the production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques. Thus, the present study determined the effect of acrolein on 5-LO/leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) production in murine macrophages. Stimulation of J774A.1 cells with acrolein led to increased LTB(4) production in association with increased 5-LO expression. Acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway, but not by inhibitors for JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. In line with these results, acrolein exclusively increased the phosphorylation of ERK among these MAPK, suggesting a role for the ERK pathway in acrolein-induced 5-LO expression with subsequent production of LTB(4). Among the receptor tyrosine kinases including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), acrolein-evoked ERK phosphorylation was attenuated by AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, but not by AG1295, a PDGFR inhibitor. In addition, acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was also inhibited by inhibition of EGFR pathway, but not by inhibition of PDGFR pathway. These observations suggest that acrolein has a profound effect on the 5-LO pathway via an EGFR-mediated activation of ERK pathway, leading to acute ischemic syndromes through the generation of LTB(4), subsequent MMP-9 production and plaque rupture.

  3. Acrolein increases 5-lipoxygenase expression in murine macrophages through activation of ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chae E.; Lee, Seung J.; Seo, Kyo W.; Park, Hye M.; Yun, Jung W.; Bae, Jin U.; Bae, Sun S.; Kim, Chi D.

    2010-01-01

    Episodic exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants has been linked to acute myocardial infarction, and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is involved in the production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques. Thus, the present study determined the effect of acrolein on 5-LO/leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) production in murine macrophages. Stimulation of J774A.1 cells with acrolein led to increased LTB 4 production in association with increased 5-LO expression. Acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway, but not by inhibitors for JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. In line with these results, acrolein exclusively increased the phosphorylation of ERK among these MAPK, suggesting a role for the ERK pathway in acrolein-induced 5-LO expression with subsequent production of LTB 4 . Among the receptor tyrosine kinases including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), acrolein-evoked ERK phosphorylation was attenuated by AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, but not by AG1295, a PDGFR inhibitor. In addition, acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was also inhibited by inhibition of EGFR pathway, but not by inhibition of PDGFR pathway. These observations suggest that acrolein has a profound effect on the 5-LO pathway via an EGFR-mediated activation of ERK pathway, leading to acute ischemic syndromes through the generation of LTB 4 , subsequent MMP-9 production and plaque rupture.

  4. Platelet-activating factor increases platelet-dependent glycoconjugate secretion from tracheal submucosal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.; Shimura, S.; Ikeda, K.; Sasaki, H.; Takishima, T.

    1989-01-01

    Using isolated glands from feline trachea, we examined the effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on radiolabeled glycoconjugate release and glandular contraction by measuring induced tension in the absence or presence of platelets. PAF alone did not produce any significant glandular contraction nor any significant change in glycoconjugate release from isolated glands. In the presence of purified platelets containing no plasma, PAF (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) produced significant glycoconjugate secretion in a dose-dependent fashion, but it produced no significant glandular contraction. PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion was time dependent, reaching a peak response of 277% of control 15-30 min after the exposure of isolated glands to 10(-5) M PAF in the presence of platelets and returning to 135% of controls at 2 h. Platelets alone did not produce any significant stimulation in glycoconjugate release. CV-3988, a known PAF antagonist, inhibited the secretory response to PAF. Methysergide, a known antagonist to receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine, did not alter PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion. Both indomethacin and SQ 29,548, a thromboxane receptor antagonist, abolished the PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion from isolated submucosal glands. Epithiomethanothromboxane A2, a stable thromboxane A2 analogue, produced a significant increase in glycoconjugate secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings indicate that PAF increases glycoconjugate release in the presence of platelets and that the increase is dependent on some aspect of platelet function, namely thromboxane generation

  5. Increasing Student Physical Fitness through Increased Choice of Fitness Activities and Student Designed Fitness Activities for Ninth through Twelfth Graders in Physical Education Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Margo A.

    2011-01-01

    This action research project report began when the teacher researcher determined that students exhibited physical fitness levels below that of the state and national norms, and also displayed negative attitudes about physical education. The purpose of this action research project was to increase physical fitness and fitness attitudes through…

  6. Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine prevent increased pain sensitivity without altering neuroimmune activation following repeated social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Caroline M; Kim, January K; Weber, Michael D; Jarrett, Brant L; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F; Humeidan, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that stress influences the experience of pain. Exposure to psychosocial stress disrupts bi-directional communication pathways between the central nervous system and peripheral immune system, and can exacerbate the frequency and severity of pain experienced by stressed subjects. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine model of psychosocial stress that recapitulates the immune and behavioral responses to stress observed in humans, including activation of stress-reactive neurocircuitry and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. It is unclear, however, how these stress-induced neuroimmune responses contribute to increased pain sensitivity in mice exposed to RSD. Here we used a technique of regional analgesia with local anesthetics in mice to block the development of mechanical allodynia during RSD. We next investigated the degree to which pain blockade altered stress-induced neuroimmune activation and depressive-like behavior. Following development of a mouse model of regional analgesia with discrete sensory blockade over the dorsal-caudal aspect of the spine, C57BL/6 mice were divided into experimental groups and treated with Ropivacaine (0.08%), Liposomal Bupivacaine (0.08%), or Vehicle (0.9% NaCl) prior to exposure to stress. This specific region was selected for analgesia because it is the most frequent location for aggression-associated pain due to biting during RSD. Mechanical allodynia was assessed 12 h after the first, third, and sixth day of RSD after resolution of the sensory blockade. In a separate experiment, social avoidance behavior was determined after the sixth day of RSD. Blood, bone marrow, brain, and spinal cord were collected for immunological analyses after the last day of RSD in both experiments following behavioral assessments. RSD increased mechanical allodynia in an exposure-dependent manner that persisted for at least one week following cessation of the stressor. Mice treated with either Ropivacaine or

  7. Dietary patterns and physical activity in people with schizophrenia and increased waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ane Storch; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix; Karlsen, Mette; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Krogh, Jesper; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Toft, Ulla

    2018-03-16

    People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population. We interviewed a sample of 428 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and increased waist circumference enrolled in the CHANGE trial using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24h recall interview, a Physical Activity Scale (PAS), scale for assessment of positive and negative symptoms (SAPS and SANS, respectively), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). We compared with information on dietary intake and physical activity in the general Danish population from the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity in 2011-2013 (DANSDA). The CHANGE participants reported a very low energy intake and their distribution of nutrients (i.e. fat, protein and carbohydrates) harmonized with the recommendations from the Danish Health Authorities, and were similar to the latest report on the dietary habits in the Danish general population. However, the intake of saturated fat, sugar and alcohol exceed the recommended amounts and the corresponding intake in the general population. The intake of fiber, vegetables and fruit and fish were insufficient and also less than in the general population. The overall estimated quality of the dietary habits was poor, only 10.7% of the participants had healthy dietary patterns, and the quality was

  8. Active Hexose Correlated Compound Extends the Lifespan and Increases the Thermotolerance of Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Okuyama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC is the extract from cultured mycelia of Lentinula edodes, a species of Basidiomycetes mushroom. AHCC contains various polysaccharides, including partially acylated -1,4-glucan, which is one of its major constituents. The application of AHCC has been markedly increased in complementary and alternative medicine as a functional food because AHCC improved the prognosis of postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients. AHCC has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, such as the suppression of nitric oxide production in hepatocytes. AHCC might affect resistance to environmental stress, which is assumed to play a pivotal role in the longevity of many organisms.Objective: To investigate the effect of AHCC on longevity, we measured the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a model animal that is widely used to assess longevity. We also examined the effect of AHCC on resistance to heat stress, i.e., thermotolerance.Methods: The lifespan of C. elegans animals grown on media in the absence or presence of AHCC at 20°C was evaluated. Thermotolerance assays were performed at 35°C, the restrictive temperature of the animals. The effects of AHCC on lifespan and thermotolerance were analyzed with longevity mutants. Expression levels of stress-related genes, including heat shock genes, were measured by strand-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction after heat shock.Results: Wild-type C. elegans animals exhibited a longer mean lifespan by up to 10% in the presence of AHCC in the growth media than animals in the absence of AHCC. Furthermore, AHCC markedly increased thermotolerance at 35°C. Epistasis analyses showed that lifespan extension by AHCC at least partly required two longevity-promoting transcription factors: DAF-16 (C. elegans homolog of FOXO and HSF-1 (C. elegans homolog of heat shock transcription factor 1. After heat shock, AHCC activated the transcription

  9. Progressive increase in central nervous system immune activation in untreated primary HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Joome; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Peterson, Julia; Lee, Evelyn; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Li, Fang-Yong; Hagberg, Lars; Fuchs, Dietmar; Price, Richard W; Gisslen, Magnus; Spudich, Serena

    2014-12-03

    Central nervous system (CNS) inflammation is a mediator of brain injury in HIV infection. To study the natural course of CNS inflammation in the early phase of infection, we analyzed longitudinal levels of soluble and cellular markers of inflammation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, beginning with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). Antiretroviral-naïve subjects identified as having PHI (less than one year since HIV transmission) participated in phlebotomy and lumbar puncture at baseline and at variable intervals thereafter. Mixed-effects models were used to analyze longitudinal levels of CSF neopterin and percentages of activated cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ and CD8+ T-cells (co-expressing CD38 and human leukocyte antigen-D-related (HLA-DR)) in blood and CSF. A total of 81 subjects were enrolled at an average of 100 days after HIV transmission and had an average follow-up period of 321 days, with the number of visits ranging from one to 13. At baseline, the majority of subjects had CSF neopterin concentrations above the upper limit of normal. The baseline concentration was associated with the longitudinal trajectory of CSF neopterin. In subjects with baseline levels of less than 21 nmol/L, a cutoff value obtained from a mixed-effects model, CSF neopterin increased by 2.9% per 10 weeks (n = 33; P <0.001), whereas it decreased by 6.7% in subjects with baseline levels of more than 21 nmol/L (n = 11; P = 0.001). In a subset with available flow cytometry data (n = 42), the percentages of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in CSF increased by 0.8 (P <0.001) and 0.73 (P = 0.02) per 10 weeks, respectively. Neopterin levels and the percentages of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in CSF progressively increase in most subjects without treatment during early HIV-1 infection, suggesting an accrual of intrathecal inflammation, a major contributor to neuropathology in HIV infection.

  10. PERCEPTION STIMULATION GROUP ACTIVITY THERAPY INCREASES E CHILDREN SELF ESTEEM AT PRISON

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    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prison is societal implementer unit which accommodate care and develop the delinquent children. It was recorded that 57% of children at Blitar Child Prison undergo some self concept problems such as low self esteem. This was caused by some factors such as society’s stigmatization toward criminals, development pattern and education, and less support from family. If the self esteem problem is not being overcome soon, the children may  fell useless, disable to control their self and recrime when they are back to society. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of  GAT (Group Activity Therapy perception stimulation in increasing the children  self esteem at prison. Method:  A quasy experimental pre post control design was used in this study. Samples were recruited by using total sampling and there were 22 samples as on inclusion criteria. The independent variable was GAT perception stimulation and the dependent variable was increasing self esteem of these childen. Data were collected by using questionnare and analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Mann Whitney U Test with the significance level α≤0.05.Result:  The result showed that controlled group has significance level was p=0.654, it is mean there was no self esteem change before and after GAT perception stimulation was given. Whereas treatment group has significance level was p=0.001, it revealed that  there was self esteem change before and after GAT perception stimulation was given. The result of Mann Whitney U Test showed p=0.000 which means was accepted. Discussion: It can be concluded that perception stimulation can increase the children self esteem at prison. Further studies are recommended to study the effect of GAT perception stimulation modified by skill therapy in increasing children self esteem in prison.

  11. VERB - a social marketing campaign to increase physical activity among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Faye; Huhman, Marian; Heitzler, Carrie; Asbury, Lori; Bretthauer-Mueller, Rosemary; McCarthy, Susan; Londe, Paula

    2004-07-01

    The VERB campaign is a multiethnic media campaign with a goal to increase and maintain physical activity among tweens, or children aged nine to 13 years. Parents, especially mothers aged 29 to 46, and other sources of influence on tweens (e.g., teachers, youth program leaders) are the secondary audiences of the VERB initiative. VERB applies sophisticated commercial marketing techniques to address the public health problem of sedentary lifestyles of American children, using the social marketing principles of product, price, place, and promotion. In this paper, we describe how these four principles were applied to formulate the strategies and tactics of the VERB campaign, and we provide examples of the multimedia materials (e.g., posters, print advertising, television, radio spots) that were created.

  12. Desipramine increases cardiac parasympathetic activity via α2-adrenergic mechanism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Toru; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Shuji; Fukumitsu, Masafumi; Kamiya, Atsunori; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    Desipramine (DMI) is a blocker of neuronal norepinephrine (NE) uptake transporter. Although intravenous DMI has been shown to cause centrally-mediated sympathoinhibition and peripheral NE accumulation, its parasympathetic effect remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that intravenous DMI activates the cardiac vagal nerve via an α 2 -adrenergic mechanism. Using a cardiac microdialysis technique, changes in myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the left ventricular free wall in response to intravenous DMI (1mg·kg -1 ) were examined in anesthetized rats. In rats with intact vagi (n=7), intravenous DMI increased ACh from 1.67±0.43 to 2.48±0.66nM (Padrenergic stimulation in experimental settings in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Extracurricular Activities Targeted towards Increasing the Number of Engineers Working in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Leon Bonde; Stark Olsen, Kent; Ahrenkiel, Linda

    SERVICE ROBOTS in precision agriculture have the potential to ensure a more competitive and sustainable production, but the lack of skilled engineers within this area is limiting the industry’s ability to develop new and innovative agricultural technology products. Part of the reason...... is that engineers and scientists have little knowledge about agricultural technology, and they therefore choose to work in other domains. It is hypothesised that introducing engineering students to precision agriculture through practical work with small-scale service robots will increase their interest...... in agriculture and agricultural technology. This article presents the results of an interdisciplinary extracurricular activity for first year engineering students carried out in the Fall 2012 at the University of Southern Denmark. The case was based on practical group-work centered around an agricultural mobile...

  14. Breast fibroadenoma with increased activity on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in women of reproductive age, carrying little to no risk of breast cancer development. We report on a case of a woman with history of neuroendocrine tumor (NET), who on follow-up imaging tests underwent whole-body PET/CT study using 68Ga-DOTATATE. The scan showed increased focal activity in the right breast, which was biopsied revealing a fibroadenoma. The presented data suggests cell surface over-expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) by this benign breast tumor. Moreover, this finding emphasizes the need for cautious interpretation of 68Ga-DOTATATE avid breast lesions which could mimic malignancy in NET patients. PMID:27879489

  15. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah M. Maswadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes. The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  16. Active cocaine use does not increase the likelihood of hyperglycemic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzelewski, Katherine L; Rybin, Denis V; Weinberg, Janice M; Alexanian, Sara M; McDonnell, Marie E; Steenkamp, Devin W

    2017-09-01

    Hyperglycemic crisis encompasses a group of diabetes emergencies characterized by insulin deficiency with high morbidity and mortality. Cocaine use is increasingly prevalent in the United States and may be associated with increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. The objective was to determine if active cocaine use at hospital admission could be considered a risk factor for development of hyperglycemic crisis. A retrospective case-control analysis was performed on 950 inpatients with hyperglycemia at an urban academic hospital. Patients admitted with non-emergent hyperglycemia were compared to patients who met criteria for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), and hyperosmolar ketoacidosis (HK), based on the absence or presence of cocaine metabolites on urine toxicology screen. Outcomes included frequency of cocaine use in patients with DKA, HHS, HK, and non-emergent hyperglycemia; phenotypic characteristics of cocaine users vs. non-users with hyperglycemia; phenotypic characteristics of patients with hyperglycemic crisis vs. non-emergent hyperglycemia. 950 patients were admitted with hyperglycemia, 133 of which met criteria for hyperglycemic crisis. There was no significant difference in the frequency of cocaine use in individuals with non-emergent hyperglycemia compared to individuals with hyperglycemic crisis (16.9% vs. 17.2%, p = 0.90). 16.9% of patients with DKA, 16.4% of patients with HHS, and 6.4% of patients with HK were cocaine users. We found no association between active cocaine use at the time of hospital admission and development of hyperglycemic crisis, when compared to non-emergent hyperglycemia. The role of routine screening for cocaine use in patients with hyperglycemic crisis is unclear.

  17. [Increased sympathetic activity assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability in patients with CRPS I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, J; Troeger, C

    2010-02-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) is a painful neuropathic disorder with an antecedent disproportionate trauma leading to spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, impaired motor function, swelling, changes in sweating and vascular abnormalities without nerve injury. Whether this syndrome is the result of central or peripheral autonomic dysfunction is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in patients with CRPS I by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. This is a pilot study on 6 patients (mean age 50 years; 4 female, 2 male) diagnosed as suffering from CRPS I and 6 age-matched healthy controls. In the pain-free interval and after taking rest for 5 min, 512 subsequent heart beats were obtained with an ECG standard lead II in the supine and then sitting position. Using an autoregressive model, power spectral densities were calculated for the following frequency bands: CRPS I compared to the healthy controls in the supine position (LF/HF=4.01 vs. LF/HF=1.27; p=0.041). The application of stress by changing to the sitting position even increased that difference (6.72 vs. 1.93). Our results support the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of the early stage CRPS I might be related to an increased sympathetic activity. By assessing the autonomic influence on the heart rate variability in CRPS I patients we could also conclude that this disturbance occurs rather at a central level. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  18. Support or competition? How online social networks increase physical activity: A randomized controlled trial

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    Jingwen Zhang, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify what features of online social networks can increase physical activity, we conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in 2014 in Philadelphia, PA. Students (n = 790, mean age = 25.2 at an university were randomly assigned to one of four conditions composed of either supportive or competitive relationships and either with individual or team incentives for attending exercise classes. The social comparison condition placed participants into 6-person competitive networks with individual incentives. The social support condition placed participants into 6-person teams with team incentives. The combined condition with both supportive and competitive relationships placed participants into 6-person teams, where participants could compare their team's performance to 5 other teams' performances. The control condition only allowed participants to attend classes with individual incentives. Rewards were based on the total number of classes attended by an individual, or the average number of classes attended by the members of a team. The outcome was the number of classes that participants attended. Data were analyzed using multilevel models in 2014. The mean attendance numbers per week were 35.7, 38.5, 20.3, and 16.8 in the social comparison, the combined, the control, and the social support conditions. Attendance numbers were 90% higher in the social comparison and the combined conditions (mean = 1.9, SE = 0.2 in contrast to the two conditions without comparison (mean = 1.0, SE = 0.2 (p = 0.003. Social comparison was more effective for increasing physical activity than social support and its effects did not depend on individual or team incentives.

  19. Increased diagnostic activity in general practice during the year preceding colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pernille Libach; Hjertholm, Peter; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Accurate diagnostic activity in general practice before colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis is crucial for an early detection of CRC. This study aimed to investigate the rates of daytime consultations, hemoglobin (Hb) measurements and medicine prescriptions for hemorrhoids in general practice in the year preceding CRC diagnosis. Using Danish registries, we conducted a population-based matched cohort study including CRC patients aged 40-80 years (n = 19,209) and matched references (n = 192,090). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) using a conditional logistical regression model and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using a negative binomial regression model. The CRC patients had significantly more consultations from 9 months before diagnosis and significantly increased rates of Hb measurements from up to 17 months before diagnosis compared with references. Furthermore, up to 18 months before diagnosis, CRC patients had significantly higher rates of prescriptions for hemorrhoids; and 2 months before diagnosis, the IRR was 12.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.29-14.55) for men. The positive predictive value (PPV) of CRC for having a first-time prescription for hemorrhoids was highest among men aged 70-80 years [PPV = 3.2% (95% CI: 2.8-3.7)]. High prescription rates were predominantly seen among rectal cancer patients, whereas colon cancer patients had higher rates of consultations and Hb measurements. This study revealed a significant increase in healthcare seeking and diagnostic activity in general practice in the year prior to CRC diagnosis, which indicates the presence of a "diagnostic time window" and a potential for earlier diagnosis of CRC based on clinical signs and symptoms. © 2015 UICC.

  20. Losartan reduces the immediate and sustained increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity after hyperacute intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouett, Noah P; Moralez, Gilbert; Raven, Peter B; Smith, Michael L

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxemia, which produces elevations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and associated hypertension in experimental models that persist beyond the initial exposure. We tested the hypotheses that angiotensin receptor blockade in humans using losartan attenuates the immediate and immediately persistent increases in 1 ) SNA discharge and 2 ) mean arterial pressure (MAP) after hyperacute intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) using a randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures experimental design. We measured ECG and photoplethysmographic arterial pressure in nine healthy human subjects, while muscle SNA (MSNA) was recorded in seven subjects using microneurography. Subjects were exposed to a series of hypoxic apneas in which they inhaled two to three breaths of nitrogen, followed by a 20-s apnea and 40 s of room air breathing every minute for 20 min. Hyperacute IHT produced substantial and persistent elevations in MSNA burst frequency (baseline: 15.3 ± 1.8, IHT: 24 ± 1.5, post-IHT 20.0 ± 1.3 bursts/min, all P 0.70). This investigation confirms the role of angiotensin II type 1a receptors in the immediate and persistent sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses to IHT. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), abrogates the acute and immediately persistent increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in response to acute intermittent hypoxia. This investigation, along with others, provides important beginning translational evidence for using ARBs in treatment of the intermittent hypoxia observed in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Do walking strategies to increase physical activity reduce reported sitting in workplaces: a randomized control trial

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    Burton Nicola W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions designed to increase workplace physical activity may not automatically reduce high volumes of sitting, a behaviour independently linked to chronic diseases such as obesity and type II diabetes. This study compared the impact two different walking strategies had on step counts and reported sitting times. Methods Participants were white-collar university employees (n = 179; age 41.3 ± 10.1 years; 141 women, who volunteered and undertook a standardised ten-week intervention at three sites. Pre-intervention step counts (Yamax SW-200 and self-reported sitting times were measured over five consecutive workdays. Using pre-intervention step counts, employees at each site were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 60; maintain normal behaviour, a route-based walking group (n = 60; at least 10 minutes sustained walking each workday or an incidental walking group (n = 59; walking in workday tasks. Workday step counts and reported sitting times were re-assessed at the beginning, mid- and endpoint of intervention and group mean± SD steps/day and reported sitting times for pre-intervention and intervention measurement points compared using a mixed factorial ANOVA; paired sample-t-tests were used for follow-up, simple effect analyses. Results A significant interactive effect (F = 3.5; p t = 3.9, p t = 2.5, p Conclusion Compared to controls, both route and incidental walking increased physical activity in white-collar employees. Our data suggests that workplace walking, particularly through incidental movement, also has the potential to decrease employee sitting times, but there is a need for on-going research using concurrent and objective measures of sitting, standing and walking.

  2. The Proton-Activated Receptor GPR4 Modulates Glucose Homeostasis by Increasing Insulin Sensitivity

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    Luca Giudici

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proton-activated G protein-coupled receptor GPR4 is expressed in many tissues including white adipose tissue. GPR4 is activated by extracellular protons in the physiological pH range (i.e. pH 7.7 - 6.8 and is coupled to the production of cAMP. Methods: We examined mice lacking GPR4 and examined glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in young and aged mice as well as in mice fed with a high fat diet. Expression profiles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle was assessed. Results: Here we show that mice lacking GPR4 have an improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and increased insulin sensitivity. Insulin levels were comparable but leptin levels were increased in GPR4 KO mice. Gpr4-/- showed altered expression of PPARα, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, and TGF-1β in skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. High fat diet abolished the differences in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity between Gpr4+/+ and Gpr4-/- mice. In contrast, in aged mice (12 months old, the positive effect of GPR4 deficiency on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity was maintained. Liver and adipose tissue showed no major differences in the mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors between aged mice of both genotypes. Conclusion: Thus, GPR4 deficiency improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The effect may involve an altered balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in insulin target tissues.

  3. Anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer inhibits exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food intake, hoarding, and neural activation, but not food deprivation-induced increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Brett J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Circulating concentrations of the stomach-derived “hunger-peptide” ghrelin increase in direct proportion to the time since the last meal. Exogenous ghrelin also increases food intake in rodents and humans, suggesting ghrelin may increase post-fast ingestive behaviors. Food intake after food deprivation is increased by laboratory rats and mice, but not by humans (despite dogma to the contrary) or by Siberian hamsters; instead, humans and Siberian hamsters increase food hoarding, suggesting the latter as a model of fasting-induced changes in human ingestive behavior. Exogenous ghrelin markedly increases food hoarding by ad libitum-fed Siberian hamsters similarly to that after food deprivation, indicating sufficiency. Here, we tested the necessity of ghrelin to increase food foraging, food hoarding, and food intake, and neural activation [c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-ir)] using anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer NOX-B11–2 (SPM), an l-oligonucleotide that specifically binds active ghrelin, inhibiting peptide-receptor interaction. SPM blocked exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding the first 2 days after injection, and foraging and food intake at 1–2 h and 2–4 h, respectively, and inhibited hypothalamic c-Fos-ir. SPM given every 24 h across 48-h food deprivation inconsistently inhibited food hoarding after refeeding and c-Fos-ir, similarly to inabilities to do so in laboratory rats and mice. These results suggest that ghrelin may not be necessary for food deprivation-induced foraging and hoarding and neural activation. A possible compensatory response, however, may underlie these findings because SPM treatment led to marked increases in circulating ghrelin concentrations. Collectively, these results show that SPM can block exogenous ghrelin-induced ingestive behaviors, but the necessity of ghrelin for food deprivation-induced ingestive behaviors remains unclear. PMID:23804279

  4. Acetylation Increases EWS-FLI1 DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, Silke; Erkizan, Hayriye V.; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S.; Knights, Chad; Cheema, Amrita; Üren, Aykut; Avantaggiati, Maria L.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Ewing Sarcoma (ES) is associated with a balanced chromosomal translocation that in most cases leads to the expression of the oncogenic fusion protein and transcription factor EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 has been shown to be crucial for ES cell survival and tumor growth. However, its regulation is still enigmatic. To date, no functionally significant post-translational modifications of EWS-FLI1 have been shown. Since ES are sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI), and these inhibitors are advancing in clinical trials, we sought to identify if EWS-FLI1 is directly acetylated. We convincingly show acetylation of the C-terminal FLI1 (FLI1-CTD) domain, which is the DNA binding domain of EWS-FLI1. In vitro acetylation studies showed that acetylated FLI1-CTD has higher DNA binding activity than the non-acetylated protein. Over-expression of PCAF or treatment with HDI increased the transcriptional activity of EWS-FLI1, when co-expressed in Cos7 cells. However, our data that evaluates the acetylation of full-length EWS-FLI1 in ES cells remains unclear, despite creating acetylation specific antibodies to four potential acetylation sites. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 may either gain access to chromatin as a result of histone acetylation or undergo regulation by direct acetylation. These data should be considered when patients are treated with HDAC inhibitors. Further investigation of this phenomenon will reveal if this potential acetylation has an impact on tumor response.

  5. Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity

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    Ploj Karolina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Methods Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in a brain area thought to mediate central effects on MSAP regulation and in the adrenal medulla; (3 to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis regulation by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT levels in response to novel-environment stress; and (4 to measure abdominal obesity, sex steroids, and insulin sensitivity. Results The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and lower levels of alpha2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. After exposure to stress, PCO rats had higher ACTH and CORT levels. Plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in PCO rats, and no differences in insulin sensitivity or in the weight of intraabdominal fat depots were found. Conclusion Thus, rats with EV-induced PCO develop hypertension and increased sympathetic and HPA-axis activity without reduced insulin sensitivity, obesity, or hyperandrogenism. These findings may have implications for mechanisms underlying hypertension in PCOS.

  6. Novel phosphate-activated macrophages prevent ectopic calcification by increasing extracellular ATP and pyrophosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; Hamczyk, Magda R.; Andrés, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Phosphorus is an essential nutrient involved in many pathobiological processes. Less than 1% of phosphorus is found in extracellular fluids as inorganic phosphate ion (Pi) in solution. High serum Pi level promotes ectopic calcification in many tissues, including blood vessels. Here, we studied the effect of elevated Pi concentration on macrophage polarization and calcification. Macrophages, present in virtually all tissues, play key roles in health and disease and display remarkable plasticity, being able to change their physiology in response to environmental cues. Methods and results High-throughput transcriptomic analysis and functional studies demonstrated that Pi induces unpolarized macrophages to adopt a phenotype closely resembling that of alternatively-activated M2 macrophages, as revealed by arginine hydrolysis and energetic and antioxidant profiles. Pi-induced macrophages showed an anti-calcifying action mediated by increased availability of extracellular ATP and pyrophosphate. Conclusion We conclude that the ability of Pi-activated macrophages to prevent calcium-phosphate deposition is a compensatory mechanism protecting tissues from hyperphosphatemia-induced pathologic calcification. PMID:28362852

  7. Increased determinism in brain electrical activity occurs in association with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, Simona; Minagar, Alireza; Chesson, Andrew L; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Increased determinism (decreased complexity) of brain electrical activity has been associated with some brain diseases. Our objective was to determine whether a similar association occurred for multiple sclerosis (MS). Ten subjects with a relapsing-remitting course of MS who were in remission were studied; the controls were age- and gender-matched clinically normal subjects. Recurrence plots were calculated using representative electroencephalogram (EEG) epochs (1-7 seconds) from six derivations; the plots were quantified using the nonlinear variables percent recurrence (%R) and percent determinism (%D). The results were averaged over all derivations for each participant, and the means were compared between the groups. As a linear control procedure the groups were also compared using spectral analysis. The mean±SD of %R for the MS subjects was 6·6±1·3%, compared with 5·1±1·3% in the normal group (P = 0·017), indicating that brain activity in the subjects with MS was less complex, as hypothesized. The groups were not distinguishable using %D or spectral analysis. Taken together with our earlier report that %R could be used to discriminate between MS and normal subjects based on the ability to exhibit evoked potentials, the evidence suggests that complexity analysis of the EEG has potential for development as a diagnostic test for MS.

  8. Beta activity in the premotor cortex is increased during stabilized as compared to normal walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Bruijn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Walking on two legs is inherently unstable. Still, we humans perform remarkable well at it, mostly without falling. To gain more understanding of the role of the brain in controlling gait stability we measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG during stabilized and normal walking.Subjects walked on a treadmill in two conditions, each lasting 10 minutes; normal, and while being laterally stabilized by elastic cords. Kinematics of trunk and feet, electro-myography (EMG of neck muscles, as well as 64-channel EEG were recorded. To assess gait stability the local divergence exponent, step width, and trunk range of motion were calculated from the kinematic data. We used independent component analysis to remove movement, EMG, and eyeblink artifacts from the EEG, after which dynamic imaging of coherent sources beamformers were determined to identify cortical sources that showed a significant difference between conditions. Stabilized walking led to a significant increase in gait stability, i.e. lower local divergence exponents. Beamforming analysis of the beta band activity revealed significant sources in bilateral pre-motor cortices. Projection of sensor data on these sources showed a significant difference only in the left premotor area, with higher beta power during stabilized walking, specifically around push-off, although only significant around contralateral push-off. It appears that even during steady gait the cortex is involved in the control of stability.

  9. Increased photocatalytic activity induced by TiO2/Pt/SnO2 heterostructured films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Glaucio O.; Amoresi, Rafael A. C.; Lustosa, Glauco M. M. M.; Costa, João P. C.; Nogueira, Marcelo V.; Ruiz, Miguel; Zaghete, Maria A.; Perazolli, Leinig A.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a high photocatalytic activity was attained by intercalating a Pt layer between SnO2 and TiO2 semiconductors, which yielded a TiO2/Pt/SnO2 - type heterostructure used in the discoloration of blue methylene (MB) solution. The porous films and platinum layer were obtained by electrophoretic deposition and DC Sputtering, respectively, and were both characterized morphologically and structurally by FE-SEM and XRD. The films with the Pt interlayer were evaluated by photocatalytic activity through exposure to UV light. An increase in efficiency of 22% was obtained for these films compared to those without platinum deposition. Studies on the reutilization of the films pointed out high efficiency and recovery of the photocatalyst, rendering the methodology favorable for the construction of fixed bed photocatalytic reactors. A proposal associated with the mechanism is discussed in this work in terms of the difference in Schottky barrier between the semiconductors and the electrons transfer and trapping cycle. These are fundamental factors for boosting photocatalytic efficiency.

  10. Increased serum erythropoietin activity in rats following intrarenal injection of nickel subsulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopfer, S.M.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Fredrickson, T.N.; Morse, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    To investigate the pathopysiologic mechanisms of nickel-induced erythocytosis, serum erythropoietin activities were measured in (a) pooled serum from rats at 2 wk after intrarenal injection of αNi 3 S 2 (5 mg/rat), and (b) pooled serum from control rats at 2 wk after intrarenal injection of sterile NaCl vehicle (0.4 ml/rat). A sensitive erythropoietin bioassay was employed, which entailed repetitive administration of test serums to post-hypoxic polycythemic mice in divided doses (12 s.c. injections of 0.5 ml of serum at 6 h intervals for 3 da; total dose = 6 ml of serum/mouse). The erythropoietin detection limit was approx. = 20 I.U./liter of serum. In mice which received pooled serum from αNi 3 S 2 -treated rats, erythrocyte 59 Fe-uptake averaged 28% (S.D. +- 5) (vs 3.7 +- 1.1% in control rats; P 3 S 2 -treated rats averaged 130 I.U./liter (S.D. +- 18) (vs 27 +- 6 I.U./liter in control rats; P 3 S 2 is mediated by increased serum erythropoietin activity

  11. Goatpoxvirus ATPase activity is increased by dsDNA and decreased by zinc ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li; Wang, Chi-Young; Chen, Hui-Yu; Lin, Fong-Yuan; Chang, Ming-Huang; Chang, Hong-You; Wong, Min-Liang; Chan, Kun-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Viral-encoded ATPase can act as a part of molecular motor in genome packaging of DNA viruses, such as vaccinia virus and adenovirus, by ATP hydrolysis and interaction with DNA. Poxviral ATPase (also called A32) is involved in genomic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) encapsidation, and inhibition of the expression of A32 causes formation of immature virions lacking viral DNA. However, the role of A32 in goatpoxvirus genome packaging and its dsDNA binding property are not known. In this study, purified recombinant goatpoxvirus A32 protein (rA32) was examined for its dsDNA binding property as well as the effect of dsDNA on ATP hydrolysis. We found that rA32 could bind dsDNA, and its ATPase activity was significant increased with dsDNA binding. Effects of magnesium and calcium ions on ATP hydrolysis were investigated also. The ATPase activity was dramatically enhanced by dsDNA in the presence of Mg(2+); in contrast, ATPase function was not altered by Ca(2+). Furthermore, the enzyme activity of rA32 was completely blocked by Zn(2+). Regarding DNA-protein interaction, the rA32-ATP-Mg(2+) showed lower dsDNA binding affinity than that of rA32-ATP-Ca(2+). The DNA-protein binding was stronger in the presence of zinc ion. Our results implied that A32 may play a role in viral genome encapsidation and DNA condensation.

  12. Analysis of manual material handling activity to increase work productivity (Case study: manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryoputro Muhammad Ragil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual material handling is one of work activities that have an effect on the physical aspect of workers in manufacturing industry, it is necessary to do the analysis of the risks from such activities. Analysis was performed on worker when performing manual lifting activity and when using two tools (Automatic Handlift and Manual Handlift. In addition to analyse in ergonomics aspect, time study analysis and productivity measurement were carried out to determine the effects of the equipment. Nordic Body Map (NBM questionnaire on worker using Automatic Handlift showed declining level of musculoskeletal disorders by 22%. REBA method obtained score of 10 and was declined to 4 after using these tool. The results of MPL method showed declining of Fc value from 4756.37 N to 1346.56 N. The results of RWL method showed declining of LI value (Lifting Index origin and destination from 1.84 and 1.18 to 1.12 and 0.89 respectively. As for worker using Manual Handlift, NBM questionnaire result shows declining level of musculoskeletal disorders by 57%. REBA method obtained scores of 8 and was reduced to 5. For MPL methode result, the Fc value is 4906.99 N and reduced to 2047.88 N. RWL method results showed declining of LI value (Lifting Index origin and destination from 1.02 and 0.67 to 0.74 and 0.58. The results of time study analysis showed declining of Standard Time when use the two tools and make the increasing productivity of 9% by worker using Automatic Hadlift and 4% by worker using Manual Handlift.

  13. Framing Financial Incentives to Increase Physical Activity Among Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh S; Asch, David A; Rosin, Roy; Small, Dylan S; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Heuer, Jack; Sproat, Susan; Hyson, Chris; Haff, Nancy; Lee, Samantha M; Wesby, Lisa; Hoffer, Karen; Shuttleworth, David; Taylor, Devon H; Hilbert, Victoria; Zhu, Jingsan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Xingmei; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-03-15

    Financial incentive designs to increase physical activity have not been well-examined. To test the effectiveness of 3 methods to frame financial incentives to increase physical activity among overweight and obese adults. Randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 02030119). University of Pennsylvania. 281 adult employees (body mass index ≥27 kg/m2). 13-week intervention. Participants had a goal of 7000 steps per day and were randomly assigned to a control group with daily feedback or 1 of 3 financial incentive programs with daily feedback: a gain incentive ($1.40 given each day the goal was achieved), lottery incentive (daily eligibility [expected value approximately $1.40] if goal was achieved), or loss incentive ($42 allocated monthly upfront and $1.40 removed each day the goal was not achieved). Participants were followed for another 13 weeks with daily performance feedback but no incentives. Primary outcome was the mean proportion of participant-days that the 7000-step goal was achieved during the intervention. Secondary outcomes included the mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal during follow-up and the mean daily steps during intervention and follow-up. The mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.37) in the control group, 0.35 (CI, 0.28 to 0.42) in the gain-incentive group, 0.36 (CI, 0.29 to 0.43) in the lottery-incentive group, and 0.45 (CI, 0.38 to 0.52) in the loss-incentive group. In adjusted analyses, only the loss-incentive group had a significantly greater mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal than control (adjusted difference, 0.16 [CI, 0.06 to 0.26]; P = 0.001), but the adjusted difference in mean daily steps was not significant (861 [CI, 24 to 1746]; P = 0.056). During follow-up, daily steps decreased for all incentive groups and were not different from control. Single employer. Financial incentives framed as a loss were most effective for achieving physical

  14. Increased activity of 5-lipoxygenase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from asthmatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, H.; Yui, Y.; Taniguchi, N.; Yasueda, H.; Shida, T.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of 5-lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE, was determined in 100,000 x g supernatant of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from 17 healthy subjects, 17 patients with extrinsic asthma and 15 patients with intrinsic asthma. After the supernatant was incubated with 14 C-arachidonic acid in the presence of calcium and indomethacin, the lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid were separated by thin layer chromatography. The results were expressed as the percentage conversion of 14 C-arachidonic acid into the product per 10 7 cells. The formation of 5,12-diHETE, but not of the 5-HETE, was significantly increased in the cells from the group of patients with extrinsic asthma (4.38 +/- 0.78%, mean +/- S.E.; p 14 C-arachidonic acid into 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE. The percentage conversion in normal subjects was 4.19 +/- 0.39%, 6.24 +/- 0.84% for 17 patients with extrinsic asthma (p < 0.05), and 8.59 +/- 1.29% for 15 patients with intrinsic asthma (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between these asthmatic groups. These results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activity is increased in patients with bronchial asthma. 22 references, 3 figures

  15. Musical Expertise Increases Top–Down Modulation Over Hippocampal Activation during Familiarity Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gagnepain

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has classically been associated with episodic memory, but is sometimes also recruited during semantic memory tasks, especially for the skilled exploration of familiar information. Cognitive control mechanisms guiding semantic memory search may benefit from the set of cognitive processes at stake during musical training. Here, we examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging, whether musical expertise would promote the top–down control of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG over the generation of hippocampally based goal-directed thoughts mediating the familiarity judgment of proverbs and musical items. Analyses of behavioral data confirmed that musical experts more efficiently access familiar melodies than non-musicians although such increased ability did not transfer to verbal semantic memory. At the brain level, musical expertise specifically enhanced the recruitment of the hippocampus during semantic access to melodies, but not proverbs. Additionally, hippocampal activation contributed to speed of access to familiar melodies, but only in musicians. Critically, causal modeling of neural dynamics between LIFG and the hippocampus further showed that top–down excitatory regulation over the hippocampus during familiarity decision specifically increases with musical expertise – an effect that generalized across melodies and proverbs. At the local level, our data show that musical expertise modulates the online recruitment of hippocampal response to serve semantic memory retrieval of familiar melodies. The reconfiguration of memory network dynamics following musical training could constitute a promising framework to understand its ability to preserve brain functions.

  16. Cold stress increases reactive oxygen species formation via TRPA1 activation in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenwu; Wang, Zhonghua; Cao, Jianping; Cui, Haiyang; Ma, Zhuang

    2016-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for lung damage during inhalation of cold air. However, the mechanism of the ROS production induced by cold stress in the lung is still unclear. In this work, we measured the changes of ROS and the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in A549 cell. We observed that cold stress (from 20 to 5 °C) exposure of A549 cell resulted in an increase of ROS and [Ca(2+)]c, which was completely attenuated by removing Ca(2+) from medium. Further experiments showed that cold-sensing transient receptor potential subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) agonist (allyl isothiocyanate, AITC) increased the production of ROS and the level of [Ca(2+)]c in A549 cell. Moreover, HC-030031, a TRPA1 selective antagonist, significantly inhibited the enhanced ROS and [Ca(2+)]c induced by AITC or cold stimulation, respectively. Taken together, these data demonstrated that TRPA1 activation played an important role in the enhanced production of ROS induced by cold stress in A549 cell.

  17. Escherichia coli-Derived Uracil Increases the Antibacterial Activity and Growth Rate of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun-Mi

    2016-05-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a representative probiotic. In particular, L. plantarum is the first commensal bacterium to colonize the intestine of infants. For this reason, the initial settlement of L. plantarum can play an important role in determining an infant's health as well as their eventual health status as an adult. In addition, L. plantarum combats pathogenic infections (such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), one of the early pathogenic colonizers in an unhealthy infant gut) by secreting antimicrobial substances. The aim of this research was to determine how L. plantarum combats E. coli infection and why it is a representative probiotic in the intestine. Consequently, this research observed that E. coli releases uracil. L. plantarum specifically recognizes E. coli-derived uracil, which increases the growth rate and production of antimicrobial substance of L. plantarum. In addition, through the inhibitory activity test, this study postulates that the antimicrobial substance is a protein and can be considered a bacteriocin-like substance. Therefore, this research assumes that L. plantarum exerts its antibacterial ability by recognizing E. coli and increasing its growth rate as a result, and this phenomenon could be one of the reasons for L. plantarum settling in the intestine of infants as a beneficial bacterium.

  18. Longer repetition duration increases muscle activation and blood lactate response in matched resistance training protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cesar Martins-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the effect of different repetition durations on electromyographic and blood lactate responses of the bench press exercise. Fifteen recreationally trained male volunteers completed two training protocols, matched for intensity (% one-repetition maximum; 1RM, number of sets, number of repetitions, and rest intervals. One of the protocols was performed with a repetition duration of 4 s (2 s concentric: 2 s eccentric; 2:2 protocol, whereas the second protocol had a repetition duration of 6 s (2 s concentric: 4 s eccentric; 2:4 protocol. The results showed higher normalized integrated electromyography (pectoralis major and triceps brachii for the 2:4 protocol. Blood lactate concentration was also higher in the 2:4 protocol across all sets. These results show that adding 2 s to the eccentric action in matched training protocols increases muscle activation and blood lactate response, which reinforces the notion that increasing repetition duration is an alternative load progression in resistance training.

  19. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites.

  20. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites

  1. Increasing ocean temperatures reduce activity patterns of a large commercially important coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J L; Messmer, V; Coker, D J; Hoey, A S; Pratchett, M S

    2014-04-01

    Large-bodied fish are critical for sustaining coral reef fisheries, but little is known about the vulnerability of these fish to global warming. This study examined the effects of elevated temperatures on the movement and activity patterns of the common coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), which is an important fishery species in tropical Australia and throughout the Indo West-Pacific. Adult fish were collected from two locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (23°S and 14°S) and maintained at one of four temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 °C). Following >4 weeks acclimation, the spontaneous swimming speeds and activity patterns of individuals were recorded over a period of 12 days. At 24-27 °C, spontaneous swimming speeds of common coral trout were 0.43-0.45 body lengths per second (bls(-1)), but dropped sharply to 0.29 bls(-1) at 30 °C and 0.25 bls(-1) at 33 °C. Concurrently, individuals spent 9.3-10.6% of their time resting motionless on the bottom at 24-27 °C, but this behaviour increased to 14.0% at 30 °C and 20.0% of the time at 33 °C (mean ± SE). The impact of temperature was greatest for smaller individuals (55 cm TL) were first affected by 30 °C and 33 °C, respectively. Importantly, there was some indication that populations can adapt to elevated temperature if presented with adequate time, as the high-latitude population decreased significantly in swimming speeds at both 30 °C and 33 °C, while the low-latitude population only showed significant reductions at 33 °C. Given that movement and activity patterns of large mobile species are directly related to prey encounter rates, ability to capture prey and avoid predators, any reductions in activity patterns are likely to reduce overall foraging and energy intake, limit the energy available for growth and reproduction, and affect the fitness and survival of individuals and populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Euglycemia in Diabetic Rats Leads to Reduced Liver Weight via Increased Autophagy and Apoptosis through Increased AMPK and Caspase-3 and Decreased mTOR Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Euglycemia is the ultimate goal in diabetes care to prevent complications. However, the benefits of euglycemia in type 2 diabetes are controversial because near-euglycemic subjects show higher mortality than moderately hyperglycemic subjects. We previously reported that euglycemic-diabetic rats on calorie-control lose a critical liver weight (LW compared with hyperglycemic rats. Here, we elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of LW in euglycemic-diabetic rats and identified a potential risk in achieving euglycemia by calorie-control. Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats generated by subtotal-pancreatectomy were fed a calorie-controlled diet for 7 weeks to achieve euglycemia using 19 kcal% (19R or 6 kcal% (6R protein-containing chow or fed ad libitum (19AL. The diet in both R groups was isocaloric/kg body weight to the sham-operated group (19S. Compared with 19S and hyperglycemic 19AL, both euglycemic R groups showed lower LWs, increased autophagy, and increased AMPK and caspase-3 and decreased mTOR activities. Though degree of insulin deficiency was similar among the diabetic rats, Akt activity was lower, and PTEN activity was higher in both R groups than in 19AL whose signaling patterns were similar to 19S. In conclusion, euglycemia achieved by calorie-control is deleterious in insulin deficiency due to increased autophagy and apoptosis in the liver via AMPK and caspase-3 activation.

  3. You and me, how (in-)active are we? The potential of sharing physical activity information to increase motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijngaarden, J.; Van Halteren, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the theoretical background and development of an application to share physical activity information, as well as the results of a four-week field study in which people shared physical activity information as measured by the Philips Activity Monitor. The existing web-service

  4. Active living : the impact of renovating urban open spaces on increasing the level of physical activity among social groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The provision of active parks/public open space is the key factor in promoting active living, because people and specially low-income and elderlies are being more interested in doing non-organized/informal, and no-cost sports/physical activities in outdoor spaces in recent decades

  5. Using Wavelet Entropy to Demonstrate how Mindfulness Practice Increases Coordination between Irregular Cerebral and Cardiac Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sik, Hin Hung; Gao, Junling; Fan, Jicong; Wu, Bonnie Wai Yan; Leung, Hang Kin; Hung, Yeung Sam

    2017-05-10

    In both the East and West, traditional teachings say that the mind and heart are somehow closely correlated, especially during spiritual practice. One difficulty in proving this objectively is that the natures of brain and heart activities are quite different. In this paper, we propose a methodology that uses wavelet entropy to measure the chaotic levels of both electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) data and show how this may be used to explore the potential coordination between the mind and heart under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) was used to identify the brain regions in which the EEG wavelet entropy was the most affected by the experimental conditions. As an illustration, the EEG and ECG were recorded under two different conditions (normal rest and mindful breathing) at the beginning of an 8-week standard Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training course (pretest) and after the course (posttest). Using the proposed method, the results consistently showed that the wavelet entropy of the brain EEG decreased during the MBSR mindful breathing state as compared to that during the closed-eye resting state. Similarly, a lower wavelet entropy of heartrate was found during MBSR mindful breathing. However, no difference in wavelet entropy during MBSR mindful breathing was found between the pretest and posttest. No correlation was observed between the entropy of brain waves and the entropy of heartrate during normal rest in all participants, whereas a significant correlation was observed during MBSR mindful breathing. Additionally, the most well-correlated brain regions were located in the central areas of the brain. This study provides a methodology for the establishment of evidence that mindfulness practice (i.e., mindful breathing) may increase the coordination between mind and heart activities.

  6. Orexin-A increases the firing activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons through orexin-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Yi; Chen, Lei; Du, Yi-Feng

    2017-07-01

    Orexins including two peptides, orexin-A and orexin-B, are produced in the posterior lateral hypothalamus. Much evidence has indicated that central orexinergic systems play numerous functions including energy metabolism, feeding behavior, sleep/wakefulness, and neuroendocrine and sympathetic activation. Morphological studies have shown that the hippocampal CA1 regions receive orexinergic innervation originating from the hypothalamus. Positive orexin-1 (OX 1 ) receptors are detected in the CA1 regions. Previous behavioral studies have shown that microinjection of OX 1 receptor antagonist into the hippocampus impairs acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory. However, up to now, little has been known about the direct electrophysiological effects of orexin-A on hippocampal CA1 neurons. Employing multibarrel single-unit extracellular recordings, the present study showed that micropressure administration of orexin-A significantly increased the spontaneous firing rate from 2.96 ± 0.85 to 8.45 ± 1.86 Hz (P neurons in male rats. Furthermore, application of the specific OX 1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 alone significantly decreased the firing rate from 4.02 ± 1.08 to 2.11 ± 0.58 Hz in 7 out of the 17 neurons (P neurons. Coapplication of SB-334867 completely blocked orexin-A-induced excitation of hippocampal CA1 neurons. The PLC pathway may be involved in activation of OX 1 receptor-induced excitation of CA1 neurons. Taken together, the present study's results suggest that orexin-A produces excitatory effects on hippocampal neurons via OX 1 receptors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase activity on flavor profiles of wine and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, M; Lambrechts, M G; Pretorius, I S

    2000-02-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the aroma of wine and distillates by overexpressing one of the endogenous yeast genes that controls acetate ester production during fermentation. The synthesis of acetate esters by the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation is ascribed to at least three acetyltransferase activities, namely, alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), ethanol acetyltransferase, and iso-amyl AAT. To investigate the effect of increased AAT activity on the sensory quality of Chenin blanc wines and distillates from Colombar base wines, we have overexpressed the alcohol acetyltransferase gene (ATF1) of S. cerevisiae. The ATF1 gene, located on chromosome XV, was cloned from a widely used commercial wine yeast strain of S. cerevisiae, VIN13, and placed under the control of the constitutive yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator. Chromoblot analysis confirmed the integration of the modified copy of ATF1 into the genome of three commercial wine yeast strains (VIN7, VIN13, and WE228). Northern blot analysis indicated constitutive expression of ATF1 at high levels in these yeast transformants. The levels of ethyl acetate, iso-amyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate increased 3- to 10-fold, 3.8- to 12-fold, and 2- to 10-fold, respectively, depending on the fermentation temperature, cultivar, and yeast strain used. The concentrations of ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, and hexyl acetate only showed minor changes, whereas the acetic acid

  8. Synergistic co-activation increases the extent of mechanical interaction between rat ankle plantar-flexors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Tijs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Force transmission between rat ankle plantar-flexors has been found for physiological muscle lengths and relative positions, but only with all muscles maximally activated. The aims of this study were to assess intermuscular mechanical interactions between ankle plantar-flexors during (i fully passive conditions, (ii excitation of soleus (SO, (iii excitation of lateral gastrocnemius (LG, and (iv during co-activation of SO and LG (SO&LG. We assessed effects of proximal lengthening of LG and plantaris (PL muscles (i.e. simulating knee extension on forces exerted at the distal SO tendon (FSO and on the force difference between the proximal and distal LG+PL tendons (ΔFLG+PL of the rat. LG+PL lengthening increased FSO to a larger extent (p=0.017 during LG excitation (0.0026 N/mm than during fully passive conditions (0.0009 N/mm. Changes in FSO in response to LG+PL lengthening were lower (p=0.002 during SO only excitation (0.0056 N/mm than during SO&LG excitation (0.0101 N/mm. LG+PL lengthening changed ∆FLG+PL to a larger extent (p=0.007 during SO excitation (0.0211 N/mm than during fully passive conditions (0.0157 N/mm. In contrast, changes in ∆FLG+PL in response to LG+PL lengthening during LG excitation (0.0331 N/mm were similar (p=0.161 to that during SO&LG excitation (0.0370 N/mm. In all conditions, changes of FSO were lower than those of ∆FLG+PL. This indicates that muscle forces were transmitted not only between LG+PL and SO, but also between LG+PL and other surrounding structures. In addition, epimuscular myofascial force transmission between rat ankle plantar-flexors was enhanced by muscle activation. However, the magnitude of this interaction was limited.

  9. Radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies is associated with increased salivary platelet-activating factor content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavaty, T.E.; Fisher, R.; Robbins, M.E.C.; Wheeler, J.; Funk, G.; Hussey, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Oral mucositis, characterized by pronounced erythema, edema, atrophy, and ulceration, remains a common complication of radiotherapeutic treatment of head and neck malignancies. These radiation-induced morbidities can cause a temporary cessation or indeed reduction in the extent of radiotherapy dose employed, compromising the likelihood of tumor cure. The precise pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of radiation mucositis remain ill-defined. Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a pivotal mediator of acute inflammatory reactions, has been implicated in radiation-induced mucositis (McManus et al Lab Invest 68:118-124 1993). However, these data are limited in terms both of patient numbers, and time-course. The present study evaluated saliva PAF levels in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies in terms of levels prior to, during, and after the completion of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples (1-2 mL) were obtained from 14 patients with oral cancer, and from 14 control non-malignant individuals. Saliva samples from the oral cancer patients were collected prior to the initiation of treatment, after the administration of 30 Gy, and at the completion of the course of radiotherapy. PAF was extracted from the saliva samples using a chloroform methanol mixture (2:1). Further purification was accomplished by washing the extracts through silica minicolumns. Measurements of PAF content were performed using a scintillation proximity assay system (Amersham, UK). This combined the use of a high specific activity 3 H-PAF with an antibody specific for PAF. Results: The PAF content of saliva obtained from patients prior to the initiation of radiotherapy was 226 ± 55 ng/mL, (mean ± SE). This was significantly greater than the value of 25 ± 11 ng/mL (p value = 0.003; 2-tail t test) measured in the saliva from the control individuals. Irradiation was associated with a significant increase in the PAF content of saliva

  10. Community-identified strategies to increase physical activity during elementary school recess on an American Indian reservation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Grant

    2015-01-01

    Simple and low-cost strategies were effective at increasing recess physical activity in females. The findings also suggest that providing children games that are led by a facilitator is not necessary to increase physical activity as long as proper equipment is provided.

  11. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of increasingly hydrophobic cationic steroid lipofection reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruneich, Jeffrey A; Diamond, Scott L

    2007-05-01

    The use of cholesterol-based cationic lipids and the ability of glucocorticoids to reduce local inflammatory response to lipoplexes motivated an investigation of structure-activity relationships for cationic steroids. A one-step synthetic scheme using iminothiolane was developed to link spermine to the 21-OH position of steroids via an amidine linkage. Five steroids (cortisol, dexamethasone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and 11-deoxycorticosterone) with increasing hydrophobicity of the parent steroid (Log P(ster) from 1.51 to 3.01) were conjugated with spermine, formulated with dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) at DOPE : steroid mole ratios (R) of R = 0.5 to 2, and then complexed with 1 microg enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) plasmid DNA at charge ratios (CR) = 2 to 24 amines per phosphate (0.5 to 6 steroids per phosphate). The resulting 105 different formulations of the cationic steroid series were used to lipofect bovine aortic endothelial cells. Transgene expression data at either 24 or 48 h post-lipofection for all formulations was collapsed onto master curves when plotted against a single empirical dimensionless parameter, the lipofection index (LI) = CR (Log P(liposome))(Log P(ster)/|DeltaLog P|) [R/(R + 1)] where DeltaLog P = Log P(DOPE)- Log P(ster) and Log P(liposome) is a mole-weighted average of the DOPE/cationic steroid liposome hydrophobicity. For 7 lipofection increased linearly with LI (EGFP approximately 0 for LI 29, thus providing a predictive design rule based on Log P of the hydrophobic moiety of the cationic steroid lipid. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Age-associated increase of the active zone protein Bruchpilot within the honeybee mushroom body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin B Gehring

    Full Text Available In honeybees, age-associated structural modifications can be observed in the mushroom bodies. Prominent examples are the synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG in the mushroom body calyces, which were shown to alter their size and density with age. It is not known whether the amount of intracellular synaptic proteins in the MG is altered as well. The presynaptic protein Bruchpilot (BRP is localized at active zones and is involved in regulating the probability of neurotransmitter release in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we explored the localization of the honeybee BRP (Apis mellifera BRP, AmBRP in the bee brain and examined age-related changes in the AmBRP abundance in the central bee brain and in microglomeruli of the mushroom body calyces. We report predominant AmBRP localization near the membrane of presynaptic boutons within the mushroom body MG. The relative amount of AmBRP was increased in the central brain of two-week old bees whereas the amount of Synapsin, another presynaptic protein involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release, shows an increase during the first two weeks followed by a decrease. In addition, we demonstrate an age-associated modulation of AmBRP located near the membrane of presynaptic boutons within MG located in mushroom body calyces where sensory input is conveyed to mushroom body intrinsic neurons. We discuss that the observed age-associated AmBRP modulation might be related to maturation processes or to homeostatic mechanisms that might help to maintain synaptic functionality in old animals.

  13. Activity restriction increases deoxypyridinoline excretion in hospitalized high-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderspank, Dana; Bernier, Suzanne M; Sopper, Maggie M; Watson, Patricia; Mottola, Michelle F

    2014-01-01

    Activity restriction (AR), one of the most common interventions used in high-risk pregnancies, may exacerbate loss of bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine changes over time in bone resorption in hospitalized AR women during late pregnancy. This was a short-term prospective study conducted in two tertiary-care obstetric hospitals. We measured urinary deoxypyridinoline (Dpd) excretion, a marker of bone resorption, once per week in a convenience sample of 14 hospitalized AR women in the third trimester and compared values at 28-31 and 34-36 weeks' gestation to those of 11 ambulatory control women. Both groups completed a bone-loading questionnaire, 3-day food intake record, and pedometer step counts at the same gestational age. Urinary Dpd excretion increased from Days 1-7 (2.60 ± 0.32 nmol/mmol creatinine) to Days 22-28 (5.36 ± 0.83 nmol/mmol creatinine; p ≤ .05). Dpd excretion was higher in AR women (4.51 ± 0.31 nmol/mmol creatinine) than ambulatory women (2.72 ± 0.39 nmol/mmol creatinine) at 34-36 weeks' gestation (p ≤ .05). Energy intake between ambulatory and AR women was not different (p ≥ .05). All women met the daily requirements for calcium and vitamin D intake during pregnancy. Average daily pedometer steps for the AR women were significantly less compared to controls (1,329 ± 936 and 8,024 ± 1,890 steps/day, respectively; p ≤ .05). AR leads to increased bone resorption in hospitalized pregnant women, which may impact future risk of developing osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  14. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  15. Soman poisoning increases neural progenitor proliferation and induces long-term glial activation in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collombet, Jean-Marc; Four, Elise; Bernabe, Denis; Masqueliez, Catherine; Burckhart, Marie-France; Baille, Valerie; Baubichon, Dominique; Lallement, Guy

    2005-01-01

    To date, only short-term glial reaction has been extensively studied following soman or other warfare neurotoxicant poisoning. In a context of cell therapy by neural progenitor engraftment to repair brain damage, the long-term effect of soman on glial reaction and neural progenitor division was analyzed in the present study. The effect of soman poisoning was estimated in mouse brains at various times ranging from 1 to 90 days post-poisoning. Using immunochemistry and dye staining techniques (hemalun-eosin staining), the number of degenerating neurons, the number of dividing neural progenitors, and microglial, astroglial or oligodendroglial cell activation were studied. Soman poisoning led to rapid and massive (post-soman day 1) death of mature neurons as assessed by hemalun-eosin staining. Following this acute poisoning phase, a weak toxicity effect on mature neurons was still observed for a period of 1 month after poisoning. A massive short-termed microgliosis peaked on day 3 post-poisoning. Delayed astrogliosis was observed from 3 to 90 days after soman poisoning, contributing to glial scar formation. On the other hand, oligodendroglial cells or their precursors were practically unaffected by soman poisoning. Interestingly, neural progenitors located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SGZ) or in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain survived soman poisoning. Furthermore, soman poisoning significantly increased neural progenitor proliferation in both SGZ and SVZ brain areas on post-soman day 3 or day 8, respectively. This increased proliferation rate was detected up to 1 month after poisoning

  16. Increase of the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO by Carbon and Iron Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Tryba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of TiO2 by doping of a residue carbon and iron can give enhanced photoactivity of TiO2. Iron adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 can be an electron or hole scavenger and results in the improvement of the separation of free carriers. The presence of carbon can increase the concentration of organic pollutants on the surface of TiO2 facilitating the contact of the reactive species with the organic molecules. Carbon-doped TiO2 can extend the absorption of the light to the visible region and makes the photocatalysts active under visible-light irradiation. It was proved that TiO2 modified by carbon and iron can work in both photocatalysis and photo-Fenton processes, when H2O2 is used, enhancing markedly the rate of the organic compounds decomposition such as phenol, humic acids and dyes. The photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds on TiO2 modified by iron and carbon is going by the complex reactions of iron with the intermediates, what significantly accelerate the process of their decomposition. The presence of carbon in such photocatalyst retards the inconvenient reaction of OH radicals scavenging by H2O2, which occurs when Fe-TiO2 photocatalyst is used.

  17. Increase in the specific radioactivity of tritium-labeled compounds obtained by tritium thermal activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, G.A.; Chernysheva, M.G.; Ksenofontov, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A method of tritium introduction into different types of organic molecules that is based on the interaction of atomic tritium with solid organic target is described. Tritium atoms are formed on the hot W-wire, which is heated by the electric current. Such an approach is called 'tritium thermal activation method'. Here we summarize the results of labeling globular proteins (lysozyme, human and bovine serum albumins); derivatives of pantothenic acid and amino acids; ionic surfactants (sodium dodecylsulfate and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides) and nonionic high-molecular weight surfactants - pluronics. For the first time it is observed that if the target-compound is fixed and its radicals are stable the specific radioactivity of the labeled product can be drastically increased (up to 400 times) when the target temperature is ca. 295 K compared with the results obtained at 77 K. The influence of labeling parameters as tritium gas pressure, exposure time and W-wire temperature was tested for each target temperature that results in the optimum labeling conditions with high specific radioactivity and chemical yield of the resulting compound. (orig.)

  18. Increased BOLD activation to predator stressor in subiculum and midbrain of amphetamine-sensitized maternal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo, Marcelo; Pira, Ashley S

    2011-03-25

    Amphetamine, which is known to cause sensitization, potentiates the hormonal and neurobiological signatures of stress and may also increase sensitivity to stress-inducing stimuli in limbic areas. Trimethylthiazoline (5μL TMT) is a chemical constituent of fox feces that evokes innate fear and activates the neuronal and hormonal signatures of stress in rats. We used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI to test whether amphetamine sensitization (1mg/kg, i.p. ×3days) in female rats has a lasting effect on the neural response to a stress-evoking stimulus, the scent of a predator, during the postpartum period. The subiculum and dopamine-enriched midbrain VTA/SN of amphetamine-sensitized but not control mothers showed a greater BOLD signal response to predator odor than a control putrid scent. The greater responsiveness of these two brain regions following stimulant sensitization might impact neural processing in response to stressors in the maternal brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Combination of Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils increased antibacterial activity in leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda A; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Cruz-Valenzuela, M Reynaldo; Nazzaro, Filomena; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils (EOs) are rich in terpenes and sulfur compounds respectively, both with antibacterial activity and different cell targets, supporting the idea that their combination can increase their efficacy. Major constituents of C. citratus were geranial and neral, while A. cepa presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide. Cymbopogon citratus and A. cepa EOs inhibited the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2.21 and 5.13 g L -1 respectively), Salmonella Choleraesuis (3.04 and 1.28 g L -1 ), Listeria monocytogenes (1.33 and 2.56 g L -1 ) and Staphylococcus aureus (0.44 and 5.26 g L -1 ). Application of the EO combination to spinach caused a greater reduction in E. coli (2.34 log colony-forming units (CFU) g -1 ), S. Choleraesuis (2.94 log CFU g -1 ), L. monocytogenes (2.06 log CFU g -1 ) and S. aureus (1.37 log CFU g -1 ) compared with higher doses of individual EOs; a similar effect was observed for romaine lettuce. Individual and combined EOs caused a reduction in flavor acceptability level; however, no significant differences were found among odor acceptability of control vegetables and those treated with the EO combination and C. citratus EO. Leafy vegetables treated with the EO combination showed higher antibacterial protection and odor acceptability compared with individual EO treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. TDP-43 loss of function increases TFEB activity and blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qin; Wang, Hongfeng; Hao, Zongbing; Fu, Cheng; Hu, Qingsong; Gao, Feng; Ren, Haigang; Chen, Dong; Han, Junhai; Ying, Zheng; Wang, Guanghui

    2016-01-18

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by selective loss of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) was identified as a major component of disease pathogenesis in ALS, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and other neurodegenerative disease. Despite the fact that TDP-43 is a multi-functional protein involved in RNA processing and a large number of TDP-43 RNA targets have been discovered, the initial toxic effect and the pathogenic mechanism underlying TDP-43-linked neurodegeneration remain elusive. In this study, we found that loss of TDP-43 strongly induced a nuclear translocation of TFEB, the master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy, through targeting the mTORC1 key component raptor. This regulation in turn enhanced global gene expressions in the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) and increased autophagosomal and lysosomal biogenesis. However, loss of TDP-43 also impaired the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes through dynactin 1 downregulation, leading to accumulation of immature autophagic vesicles and overwhelmed ALP function. Importantly, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling by rapamycin treatment aggravated the neurodegenerative phenotype in a TDP-43-depleted Drosophila model, whereas activation of mTORC1 signaling by PA treatment ameliorated the neurodegenerative phenotype. Taken together, our data indicate that impaired mTORC1 signaling and influenced ALP may contribute to TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Increased antioxidant activity and polyphenol metabolites in methyl jasmonate treated mung bean (Vigna radiata sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    Full Text Available Abstract Mung bean sprouts are a popular health food both in China and worldwide. We determined the optimal concentration of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA for the promotion of the sprouting in mung beans (Vigna radiata. The 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging test showed that MeJA application resulted in significantly improved antioxidant capacity in the sprouts 72 h later. Measurement of total polyphenols in MeJA-treated beans from 0 to 168 h, using Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetry, showed that the polyphenols changing was significantly correlated with antioxidant activity. The main polyphenols isovitexin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, daidzein, genistein, isoquercitrin, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/QqQ MS and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. MeJA promoted the production of polyphenols, metabolites, and antioxidants in the sprouts; therefore, its use may allow sprouts to be prepared more quickly or increase their nutritional value.

  2. Increase in the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cytosol affects sugar partitioning and increases the lateral shoots in tobacco plants at elevated CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamoi, Masahiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshie; Nedachi, Shigeki; Otori, Kumi; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    We generated transgenic tobacco plants with high levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase expressing cyanobacterialfructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the cytosol. At ambient CO(2) levels (360 ppm), growth, photosynthetic activity, and fresh weight were unchanged but the sucrose/hexose/starch ratio was slightly altered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. At elevated CO(2) levels (1200 ppm), lateral shoot, leaf number, and fresh weight were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activity was also increased. Hexose accumulated in the upper leaves in the wild-type plants, while sucrose and starch accumulated in the lower leaves and lateral shoots in the transgenic plants. These findings suggest that cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase contributes to the efficient conversion of hexose into sucrose, and that the change in carbon partitioning affects photosynthetic capacity and morphogenesis at elevated CO(2) levels.

  3. Increased neck muscle activity and impaired balance among females with whiplash-related chronic neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Clausen, Brian; Ris Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls.......To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls....

  4. Why Does Sleep Slow-Wave Activity Increase After Extended Wake? Assessing the Effects of Increased Cortical Firing During Wake and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alexander V; Funk, Chadd M; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2016-12-07

    During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, cortical neurons alternate between ON periods of firing and OFF periods of silence. This bi-stability, which is largely synchronous across neurons, is reflected in the EEG as slow waves. Slow-wave activity (SWA) increases with wake duration and declines homeostatically during sleep, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One possibility is neuronal "fatigue": high, sustained firing in wake would force neurons to recover with more frequent and longer OFF periods during sleep. Another possibility is net synaptic potentiation during wake: stronger coupling among neurons would lead to greater synchrony and therefore higher SWA. Here, we obtained a comparable increase in sustained firing (6 h) in cortex by: (1) keeping mice awake by exposure to novel objects to promote plasticity and (2) optogenetically activating a local population of cortical neurons at wake-like levels during sleep. Sleep after extended wake led to increased SWA, higher synchrony, and more time spent OFF, with a positive correlation between SWA, synchrony, and OFF periods. Moreover, time spent OFF was correlated with cortical firing during prior wake. After local optogenetic stimulation, SWA and cortical synchrony decreased locally, time spent OFF did not change, and local SWA was not correlated with either measure. Moreover, laser-induced cortical firing was not correlated with time spent OFF afterward. Overall, these results suggest that high sustained firing per se may not be the primary determinant of SWA increases observed after extended wake. A long-standing hypothesis is that neurons fire less during slow-wave sleep to recover from the "fatigue" accrued during wake, when overall synaptic activity is higher than in sleep. This idea, however, has rarely been tested and other factors, namely increased cortical synchrony, could explain why sleep slow-wave activity (SWA) is higher after extended wake. We forced neurons in the mouse cortex to fire

  5. Aging Adults Learning New Avocations: Potential Increases in Activity among Educated Baby-Boomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Bungum, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The potential benefits, drawbacks, and preferences of activity (both physical and nonphysical) among Baby-Boomers were the foci of this study. This study included 56 survey participants and 5 interviewees. Descriptive statistics illustrated a preference towards low impact physical activity and cognitively enriching nonphysical activities. Time…

  6. Beyond the Gym: Increasing Outside of School Physical Activity through Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen; Bycura, Dierdra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of physical education is to guide youngsters to become and remain physically active for life. Research on correlates and determinants of physical activity has shown the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in students so that they will choose to be physically active in their leisure time. When the physical education curriculum…

  7. Increasing Lateralized Motor Activity in Younger and Older Adults using Real-time fMRI during Executed Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Neyedli, Heather F.; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Kirkman, Matthew A; Havard, David; Lührs, Michael; Ramsden, Katie; Flitney, David D; Clare, Stuart; Goebel, Rainer; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    Neurofeedback training involves presenting an individual with a representation of their brain activity and instructing them to alter the activity using the feedback. One potential application of neurofeedback is for patients to alter neural activity to improve function. For example, there is evidence that greater laterality of movement-related activity is associated with better motor outcomes after stroke; so using neurofeedback to increase laterality may provide a novel route for improving o...

  8. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Zhang

    Full Text Available It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS.Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP. All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment.For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg, lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7 and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9 in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1.Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  9. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Du, Juan; Chen, Rongchang

    2016-01-01

    It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS. Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB) and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP). All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV) and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment. For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml) and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg), lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml) and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml) in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7) and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9) in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1). Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  10. Increased Risk of Esophageal Eosinophilia and Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Patients With Active Celiac Disease on Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Elizabeth T; Eluri, Swathi; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Genta, Robert M; Dellon, Evan S

    2015-08-01

    The possible association between eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and celiac disease is controversial because prior results have been contradictory. We aimed to determine the relationship between EoE and celiac disease among patients with concomitant esophageal and duodenal biopsies. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a U.S. national pathology database by using data from January 2009 through June 2012. Our primary case definition was defined by the presence of esophageal eosinophilia with ≥15 eosinophils per high-power field. The crude and adjusted (for age and sex) odds of esophageal eosinophilia for patients with active celiac disease were compared with those without celiac disease. Sensitivity analyses were performed by using more stringent case definitions and by estimating the associations between celiac disease and reflux esophagitis and celiac disease and Barrett's esophagus. Of 292,621 patients in the source population, 88,517 with both esophageal and duodenal biopsies were studied. Four thousand one hundred one (4.6%) met criteria for EoE, and 1203 (1.4%) met criteria for celiac disease. Odds of EoE were 26% higher in patients with celiac disease than in patients without celiac disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-1.60). The magnitude of association varied according to EoE case definition, but all definitions showed a weak positive association between the 2 conditions. There was no association between celiac disease and reflux esophagitis (aOR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.85-1.07) or Barrett's esophagus (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.14) and celiac disease. There is a weak increase in EoE in patients with celiac disease. This association strengthened with increasingly stringent definitions of EoE and was not observed for other esophageal conditions. In patients with celiac disease, concomitant EoE should be considered in the correct clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Resource potential methods using for efficiency of activities in the region increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vasiliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers impact methods on the economic results, the effectiveness of the regional economic complex should be based on a high quality of the basic characteristics classification of the region state. Application composition techniques to ensure a comprehensive impact on the achievement of this goal should in synthesized form to union, adopt a target orientation of development of the region with the parameters objectively revealing his condition. Ensuring organizational, economic, financial and investment techniques to achieve the planned targets and requires specifying align resource potential of the region with the available capacity of the regional economic complex to promote economic growth, improve the efficiency of operations. The main characteristics of the potential resource opportunities in the region are the skill level of workers, the degree of depreciation of fixed assets and their renewability, increased innovation in the region, its branches and facilities, strengthening of competitive advantages, the annual average number of employees, the cost of fixed and current assets, financial stability. In the region the opportunity to potentially affect the ability of its structural components to achieve the financial and economic performance targets acts as efficiency ability to provide stable dynamics of regional production efficiency, enhance the level of benefits to achieve the planned efficiency used (consumed resource. Applying of certain methods or their entire structure, created to provide a comprehensive impact on the goal achievement, in the synthesized form of target orientation combines regional development with the parameters most objectively revealing his condition. Achieving the appropriate organizational, economic, financial, investment or other measures to achieve planned targets that are expressed by the level of efficiency of activity in the conditions of the most complete involvement and intensity of use in

  12. Turning the tide: national policy approaches to increasing physical activity in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Fiona; Milton, Karen; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Arlotti, Alberto; Juričan, Andrea Backović; Belander, Olov; Martin, Brian; Martin-Diener, Eva; Marques, Ana; Mota, Jorge; Vasankari, Tommi; Vlasveld, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the four leading behavioural risk factors for non-communicable disease (NCD). Like tobacco control, increasing levels of health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) will require a national policy framework providing direction and a clear set of actions. Despite frequent calls, there has been insufficient progress on policy development in the majority of countries around the world. This study sought and summarised national HEPA policy in seven European countries (Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Switzerland). Data collection used a policy audit tool (PAT), a 27-item instrument structured into four sections. All countries reported some legislation or policy across the sectors of education, sport and health. Only some countries reported supportive policy in the transport and environment sectors. Five countries reported a stand-alone HEPA policy and six countries reported national recommendations. HEPA prevalence targets varied in magnitude and specificity and the presence of other relevant goals from different sectors highlighted the opportunity for joint action. Evaluation and the use of scientific evidence were endorsed but described as weak in practice. Only two countries reported a national multisector coordinating committee and most countries reported challenges with partnerships on different levels of policy implementation. Bringing together the key components for success within a national HEPA policy framework is not simple. This in-depth policy audit and country comparison highlighted similarities and differences and revealed new opportunities for consideration by other countries. These examples can inform countries within and beyond Europe and guide the development of national HEPA policy within the NCD prevention agenda. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Anorectal stimulation causes increased colonic motor activity in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsten, Mark A; Singal, Ashwani K; Monga, Amit; Chaparala, Geeta; Khan, Amir M; Palmon, Ron; Mendoza, John Reagan D; Lirio, Juan P; Rosman, Alan S; Spungen, Ann; Bauman, William A

    2007-01-01

    Difficulty with evacuation (DWE) is a major problem after spinal cord injury (SCI). Stimulation of the anal canal and lower rectum, accomplished using a gloved finger (so-called digital rectal stimulation or DRS) is often used as an adjunct to laxatives and enemas to facilitate bowel evacuation. However, the basis for the efficacy of DRS is not known. This study assessed the effect of DRS on colonic motility. Six subjects with SCI were studied several hours after a bowel care session. Colonic motility was assessed using a manometric catheter (affixed endoscopically to the splenic flexure) at baseline, during DRS, and after DRS. In addition, evacuation of barium oatmeal paste (with the consistency of stool and introduced into the rectum and descending colon) was assessed simultaneously using fluoroscopic techniques. The mean number (+/- SEM) of peristaltic waves per minute increased from 0 at baseline to 1.9 (+/- 0.5/min) during DRS and 1.5 (+/- 0.3/min) during the period immediately after cessation of DRS (P < 0.05). The mean amplitude (+/- SEM) of the peristaltic contractions was 43.4 (+/- 2.2) mmHg. The frequency of contractions, as well as amplitude of contractions, during or immediately after DRS was not significantly different. These manometric changes in response to DRS were accompanied by expulsion of barium oatmeal paste in every subject by the fifth DRS. DRS causes left-sided colonic activity in subjects with SCI. At least in part, an anorectal colonic reflex that results in enhanced contractions of the descending colon and rectum may contribute to bowel evacuation in individuals with SCI.

  14. Diffusion layer characteristics for increasing the performance of activated carbon air cathodes in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; He, Weihua; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Wang, Qiuying; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of several different types of diffusion layers were systematically examined to improve the performance of activated carbon air cathodes used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A diffusion layer of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (CB + PTFE) that was pressed onto a stainless steel mesh current collector achieved the highest cathode performance. This cathode also had a high oxygen mass transfer coefficient and high water pressure tolerance (>2 m), and it had the highest current densities in abiotic chronoamperometry tests compared to cathodes with other diffusion layers. In MFC tests, this cathode also produced maximum power densities (1610 ± 90 mW m−2) that were greater than those of cathodes with other diffusion layers, by 19% compared to Gore-Tex (1350 ± 20 mW m−2), 22% for a cloth wipe with PDMS (1320 ± 70 mW m−2), 45% with plain PTFE (1110 ± 20 mW m−2), and 19% higher than those of cathodes made with a Pt catalyst and a PTFE diffusion layer (1350 ± 50 mW m−2). The highly porous diffusion layer structure of the CB + PTFE had a relatively high oxygen mass transfer coefficient (1.07 × 10−3 cm s−1) which enhanced oxygen transport to the catalyst. The addition of CB enhanced cathode performance by increasing the conductivity of the diffusion layer. Oxygen mass transfer coefficient, water pressure tolerance, and the addition of conductive particles were therefore critical features for achieving higher performance AC air cathodes.

  15. K-ras2 Activation and Genome Instability Increase Proliferation and Size of FAP Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rapallo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible role of K‐ras2 mutations and aneuploidy toward increase of proliferation and adenoma size in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP adenomas is not known. The present study addresses these issues by investigating 147 colorectal adenomas obtained from four FAP patients. The majority of adenomas had size lower than or equal to 10 mm (86%, low grade dysplasia (63%, and were preferentially located in the right colon (60%. Normal mucosa samples were obtained from 19 healthy donors. Three synchronous adenocarcinomas were also investigated. K‐ras2 mutation spectrum was analysed by PCR and Sequence Specific Oligonucleotide (SSO hybridization, while flow cytometry (FCM was used for evaluating degree of DNA ploidy and S‐phase fraction. Overall, incidences of K‐ras2 mutations, DNA aneuploidy and high S‐phase values (>7.2% were 6.6%, 5.4% and 10.5%, respectively. In particular, among the adenomas with size lower than 5 mm, K‐ras2 mutation and DNA aneuploidy frequencies were only slightly above 1%. Statistically significant correlations were found between K‐ras2 and size, DNA ploidy and size and K‐ras2 and S‐phase (p. In particular, among the wild type K‐ras2 adenomas, high S‐phase values were detected in 8% of the cases versus 57% among the K‐ras2 mutated adenomas (p=0.0005. The present series of FAP adenomas indicates that K‐ras2 activation and gross genomic changes play a role toward a proliferative gain and tumour growth in size.

  16. Plains zebra (Equus quagga) adrenocortical activity increases during times of large aggregations in the Serengeti ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, P A; Franz, M; Dehnhard, M; Ganswindt, A; Greenwood, A D; East, M L

    2018-04-20

    Adverse environmental stimuli (stressors) activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and contribute to allostatic load. This study investigates the contribution of environmental stressors and life history stage to allostatic load in a migratory population of plains zebras (Equus quagga) in the Serengeti ecosystem, in Tanzania, which experiences large local variations in aggregation. We expected higher fGCM response to the environmental stressors of feeding competition, predation pressure and unpredictable social relationships in larger than in smaller aggregations, and in animals at energetically costly life history stages. As the study was conducted during the 2016 El Niño, we did not expect food quality of forage or a lack of water to strongly affect fGCM responses in the dry season. We measured fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) targeting 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone and validated its reliability in captive plains zebras. Our results revealed significantly higher fGCM concentrations 1) in large aggregations than in smaller groupings, and 2) in band stallions than in bachelor males. Concentrations of fGCM were not significantly higher in females at the energetically costly life stage of late pregnancy/lactation. The higher allostatic load of stallions associated with females, than bachelor males is likely caused by social stressors. In conclusion, migratory zebras have elevated allost