WorldWideScience

Sample records for increased pro-angogenic activity

  1. Pemex increasing offshore activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, D.

    1985-05-01

    Although austere by boom-year standards, Mexico's National Energy Program for 1984-1988 calls for forty wildcats and 90 to 144 development wells off the coast, primarily in the prolific Campeche Bay area. Platform additions will include nine drilling platforms, each for twelve wells, and eight eight platforms to drill injection wells. Additionally, 7 production, 6 accomodation, 6 linkage and 8 compression platforms and 13 tetrapods will be installed. The main objectives of the plan are energy self-sufficiency through the turn of the century, and energy diversification, savings and productivity. The most controversial portion of Mexico's energy program is that calling for nuclear energy development. The energy program lists three basic goals in hydrocarbon production: continuing research on better techniques of secondary recovery; increasing capacity for refining primary and secondary crude products and improving production of heavy crudes; and increasing storage capacity and installing pipelines capable of carrying a greater volume of crude.

  2. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  3. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  4. Increase in composite binder activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Smoliakov, A.; Stoyushko, N.

    2016-11-01

    The binder of portland cement (51-59 wt.%), fly ash of thermal power stations (3644 wt.%), limestone crushing waste (4-9 wt.%) and dry hyper plasticizer (0.2 wt.%) has been created. It can be used in the building materials industry for production of high-strength concrete. The composite binder is obtained by co-milling of the components in vario-planetary mill to a specific surface area of 550-600 m2/kg. The technical result is the possibility of obtaining a composite binder with significant replacement of cement with industrial waste, cost-effective and superior to portland cement for construction and technical properties, increased activity. This allows producing concrete for walling with a compressive strength of 100 MPa, while using more than 50% of industrial waste.

  5. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  6. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  7. Using synthetic biology to increase nitrogenase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin-Xin; Liu, Qi; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Shi, Hao-Wen; Chen, San-feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Nitrogen fixation has been established in protokaryotic model Escherichia coli by transferring a minimal nif gene cluster composed of 9 genes (nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, hesA and nifV) from Paenibacillus sp. WLY78. However, the nitrogenase activity in the recombinant E. coli 78-7 is only 10 % of that observed in wild-type Paenibacillus. Thus, it is necessary to increase nitrogenase activity through synthetic biology. Results In order to increase nitrogenase activity ...

  8. Barriers to increasing market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    product development. Despite the increasing evidence of a positive relationship between above average business performance and a high level of market-oriented activity, normative recommendations on how to increase the level of market-oriented activity is sparse. The scientific contribution of the present...... research is to expand the understanding of what factors inhibit the increase of market-oriented activity and how these factors may interact. Identifying and describing the barriers is considered the first and necessary step in attempting to reach a higher level of market-oriented activity......Introduction: The Danish food processing industry faces a situation in which intensified competition in its primary markets and product categories forces several companies to rethink their relative focus in terms of marketing rather than production, or, in other words, in terms of value adding...

  9. Barriers to increased market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    1999-01-01

    -oriented activity. A framework of six generic domains is suggested: Organizational structure, human resource management, market-oriented activity competence, psychological climate, managers' personality characteristics, and individually held beliefs. A model is suggested inter-relating the domains....... and related activities still seem to attract relatively few resources is not answered by supplying another checklist or package of facilitators. Based on published conceptual writings and empirical studies this article makes an account of what the intra-organizational barriers may be to increased market...

  10. Barriers to increased market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Most research on market orientation has dealt with assessing how market orientation behaviour is related to business performance. This work has established an intense market-oriented activity as significantly and positively related to business performance under most circumstances. In a maturing...... and related activities still seem to attract relatively few resources is not answered by supplying another checklist or package of facilitators. Based on published conceptual writings and empirical studies this article makes an account of what the intra-organizational barriers may be to increased market...

  11. Clusters - Tourism Activity Increase Competitiveness Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen IORDACHE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism represents one of those areas with the greatest potential of global expansion. Tourism development strategy in terms of maximizing its positive effects on regional economic increase and implicitly on the national one starts from the premise that in global economy value is created in regions which are defined as particular geographical entities, separated by geographical reasons and not as political-administrative structures, and economic increase is centrally cumulated and valued according to the economic policy and the national legal system.Regional economic system approach based on “cluster” concept is explained by the fact that the regional activities portfolio is based on an inter and intra-industry networking grouped by cluster, in which is created the value that increases as the activity results are leading to the final consumers.This type of communication aims to highlight the tourism role as a factor in regional development, the clustering process significance in obtaining some competitiveness advantages, clusters development in tourism beginnings, and also the identification methodology used to select one touristic area to create the cluster.

  12. Workplace pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Cumpston, Miranda; Peeters, Anna; Clemes, Stacy A

    2013-04-30

    The World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum have recommended further research to strengthen current knowledge of workplace health programmes, particularly on effectiveness and using simple instruments. A pedometer is one such simple instrument that can be incorporated in workplace interventions. To assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (671 potential papers), MEDLINE (1001), Embase (965), CINAHL (1262), OSH UPDATE databases (75) and Web of Science (1154) from the earliest record to between 30th January and 6th February 2012 yielded 3248 unique records. Reference lists of articles yielded an additional 34 papers. Contact with individuals and organisations did not produce any further records. We included individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials of workplace health promotion interventions with a pedometer component in employed adults. The primary outcome was physical activity and was part of the eligibility criteria. We considered subsequent health outcomes, including adverse effects, as secondary outcomes. Two review authors undertook the screening of titles and abstracts and the full-text papers independently. Two review authors (RFP and MC) independently completed data extraction and risk of bias assessment. We contacted authors to obtain additional data and clarification. We found four relevant studies providing data for 1809 employees, 60% of whom were allocated to the intervention group. All studies assessed outcomes immediately after the intervention had finished and the intervention duration varied between three to six months. All studies had usual treatment control conditions; however one study's usual treatment was an alternative physical activity programme while the other three had minimally active controls. In general, there was high risk of bias mainly

  13. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2015-01-05

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components

  14. Overexpression of INCREASED CAMBIAL ACTIVITY, a putative methyltransferase, increases cambial activity and plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyunsook Kim; Mikiko Kojima; Daeseok Choi; Soyoung Park; Minami Matsui; Hitoshi Sakakibara; Ildoo Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Cambial activity is a prerequisite for secondary growth in plants; however, regulatory factors control ing the activity of the secondary meristem in radial growth remain elusive. Here, we identified INCREASED CAMBIAL ACTIVITY (ICA), a gene encoding a putative pectin methyltransferase, which could function as a modulator for the meristematic activity of fascicular and interfascicular cambium in Arabidopsis. An overexpressing transgenic line, 35S::ICA, showed accelerated stem elongation and radial thickening, resulting in increased accumulation of biomass, and increased levels of cytokinins (CKs) and gibberel ins (GAs). Expression of genes encoding pectin methylesterases involved in pectin modification together with pectin methyltransferases was highly induced in 35S::ICA, which might contribute to an increase of methanol emission as a byproduct in 35S::ICA. Methanol treatment induced the expression of GA-or CK-responsive genes and stimulated plant growth. Overal , we propose that ectopic expression of ICA increases cambial activity by regulating CK and GA homeostasis, and methanol emission, eventual y leading to stem elongation and radial growth in the inflorescence stem.

  15. Increasing Physical Activity through Recess. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…

  16. Causes and consequences of increased sympathetic activity in renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joles, JA; Koomans, HA

    2004-01-01

    Much evidence indicates increased sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) in renal disease. Renal ischemia is probably a primary event leading to increased SNA. Increased SNA often occurs in association with hypertension. However, the deleterious effect of increased SNA on the diseased kidney is not only

  17. Estradiol increases the anorexia associated with increased 5-HT2C receptor activation in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Heidi M.; Santollo, Jessica; Nikonova, Larissa V.; Eckel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Estradiol’s inhibitory effect on food intake is mediated, in part, by its ability to increase the activity of meal-related signals, including serotonin (5-HT), which hasten satiation. The important role that postsynaptic 5-HT2C receptors play in mediating 5-HT’s anorexigenic effect prompted us to investigate whether a regimen of acute estradiol treatment increases the anorexia associated with increased 5-HT2C receptor activation in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. We demonstrated that intraperitone...

  18. The Older Woman: Increased Psychosocial Benefits from Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakat, Diane; Odom, Sarah

    1982-01-01

    Older women who participate in physical activity programs find physical benefits in the improvement of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The psychosocial benefits which result from physical activity include an increase in self-esteem, increased social contacts, a counteraction to depression, and improved stress management. Suggestions…

  19. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  20. Technology to promote and increase physical activity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Nina C

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is firmly recommended as part of a multifaceted approach to heart failure (HF) self-management. Unfortunately, research indicates that most patients are less likely to engage in and adhere to such activities. The widespread use of information and communication technology tools and resources offers an innovative and potentially beneficial avenue for increasing physical activity levels in HF patients. This article presents specific ways in which advances in information and communication technologies, including Internet- and mobile-based communications, social media platforms, and self-monitoring health devices, can serve as a means to broadly promote increasing levels of physical activity to improve health outcomes in the HF population.

  1. Asbestos exposure increases human bronchial epithelial cell fibrinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Gruenert, D C; Peterson, M W

    1993-03-01

    Chronic exposure to asbestos fibers results in fibrotic lung disease. The distal pulmonary epithelium is an early target of asbestos-mediated injury. Local plasmin activity may be important in modulating endoluminal inflammatory responses in the lung. We studied the effects of asbestos exposure on cell-mediated plasma clot lysis as a marker of pericellular plasminogen activation. Exposing human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells to 100 micrograms/ml of asbestos fibers for 24 h resulted in increased plasma clot lysis. Fibrinolytic activity was augmented in a dose-dependent fashion, was not due to secreted protease, and occurred only when there was direct contact between the plasma clot and the epithelial monolayer. Further analysis showed that asbestos exposure increased HBE cell-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity in a time-dependent manner. The increased cell-associated PA activity could be removed by acid washing. The increase in PA activity following asbestos exposure required new protein synthesis because it was abrogated by treatment with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Therefore, asbestos exposure increases epithelial-mediated fibrinolysis by augmenting expression of uPA activity at the cell surface by mechanisms that require new RNA and protein synthesis. These observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby exposure of the distal epithelium to inhaled particulates may result in a chronic inflammatory response that culminates in the development of fibrotic lung disease.

  2. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed.

  3. Reactive glia show increased immunoproteasome activity in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orre, Marie; Kamphuis, Willem; Dooves, Stephanie; Kooijman, Lieneke; Chan, Elena T; Kirk, Christopher J; Dimayuga Smith, Vanessa; Koot, Sanne; Mamber, Carlyn; Jansen, Anne H; Ovaa, Huib; Hol, Elly M

    2013-05-01

    The proteasome is the major protein degradation system within the cell, comprised of different proteolytic subunits; amyloid-β is thought to impair its activity in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroinflammation is a prominent hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, which may implicate an activation of the immunoproteasome, a specific proteasome variant induced by immune signalling that holds slightly different proteolytic properties than the constitutive proteasome. Using a novel cell-permeable proteasome activity probe, we found that amyloid-β enhances proteasome activity in glial and neuronal cultures. Additionally, using a subunit-specific proteasome activity assay we showed that in the cortex of the APPswePS1dE9 plaque pathology mouse model, immunoproteasome activities were strongly increased together with increased messenger RNA and protein expression in reactive glia surrounding plaques. Importantly, this elevated activity was confirmed in human post-mortem tissue from donors with Alzheimer's disease. These findings are in contrast with earlier studies, which reported impairment of proteasome activity in human Alzheimer's disease tissue and mouse models. Targeting the increased immunoproteasome activity with a specific inhibitor resulted in a decreased expression of inflammatory markers in ex vivo microglia. This may serve as a potential novel approach to modulate sustained neuroinflammation and glial dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Increase in sphingolipid catabolic enzyme activity during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh J SACKET; Hae-young CHUNG; Fumikazu OKAJIMA; Dong-soon IM

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To understand the contribution of sphingolipid metabolism and its metabolites to development and aging.Methods: A systemic analysis on the changes in activity of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes in kidney, liver and brain tissues during development and aging was conducted. The study was conducted using tissues from 1-day-old to 720-day-old rats.Results: Catabolic enzyme activities as well as the level of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and ceramidase (CDase) were higher than that of anabolic enzyme activities, sphingomyelin synthase and ceramide synthase. This suggested an accumulation of ceramide and sphingosine during development and aging. The liver showed the highest neutral-SMase activity among the tested enzymes while the kidney and brain exhibited higher neutral-SMase and ceramidase activities, indicating a high production of ceramide in liver and ceramide/sphingosine in the kidney and brain. The activities of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes were significantly elevated in all tested tissues during development and aging, although the onset of significant increase in activity varied on the tissue and enzyme type. During aging, 18 out of 21 enzyme activities were further increased on day 720 compared to day 180.Conclusion: Differential increases in sphingolipid metabolic enzyme activities suggest that sphingolipids including ceramide and sphingosine might play important and dynamic roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during development and aging.

  5. Physical activity increases survival after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Kikkenborg berg, Selina;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased physical activity predicts survival and reduces risk of readmission in patients with coronary heart disease. However, few data show how physical activity is associated with survival and readmission after heart valve surgery. Objective were to assess the association between...... physical activity levels 6-12 months after heart valve surgery and (1) survival, (2) hospital readmission 18-24 months after surgery and (3) participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with registry data from The CopenHeart survey, The Danish National Patient...... of physical activity after heart valve surgery are positively associated with higher survival rates and participation in cardiac rehabilitation....

  6. Increasing terrestrial vegetation activity in China, 1982-1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jingyun; PIAO Shilong; HE Jinsheng; MA Wenhong

    2004-01-01

    Variations in vegetation activity during the past 18 years in China were investigated using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the 3rd generation time series dataset of NOAA-AVHRR from 1982 to 1999. In order to eliminate the effects of non-vegetation factors, we characterized areas with NDVI < 0.1 as "sparsely vegetated areas" and areas with NDVI ≥ 0.1 as "vegetated areas". The results showed that increasing NDVI trends were evident, to varying extents, in almost all regions in China in the 18 years, indicating that vegetation activity has been rising in recent years in these regions. Compared to the early 1980s, the vegetated area increased by 3.5% by the late 1990s, while the sparsely vegetated area declined by 18.1% in the same period. The national total mean annual NDVI increased by 7.4% during the study period. Extended growing seasons and increased plant growth rates accounted for the bulk of these increases, while increases in temperature and summer rainfall, and strengthening agricultural activity were also likely important factors. NDVI changes in China exhibited relatively large spatial heterogeneity; the eastern coastal regions experienced declining or indiscernibly rising trends, while agricultural regions and western China experienced marked increases. Such a pattern was due primarily to urbanization, agricultural activity, regional climate characteristics, and different vegetation responses to regional climate changes.

  7. The marine toxin, Yessotoxin, induces apoptosis and increases mitochondrial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fernandez-Araujo

    2014-06-01

    Discussion: Colorimetric MTT assay is widely used as a viability measurement method (McHale and L., 1988;Chiba et al., 1998. But after YTX treatment, MTT assay had shown problems to detect a cell viability decrease. In this sense, in primary cardiac cell cultures, a false increment of the proliferation rate opposite to Sulforhodamine B assay (SRB results was reported after YTX treatment (Dell'Ovo et al., 2008. Also the same effect was obtained in different cancer cell lines after assaying anticancer therapies (Ulukaya et al., 2004. In our study, an increase in cell viability using MTT was observed when the number of cells was high, while by using the LDH assay a significant viability decrease was measured. In these conditions, YTX is activating extrinsic apoptosis cell death by increasing caspase 8 activity and caspase 3 levels. The explanation for this increase was found when the mitochondrial activity was quantified cell by cell in a cytometer. In these conditions a significant increment of mitochondrial activity was detected. Since the cell population is too high, the increase in mitochondrial activity that detects the MTT test disguised the decrease of signal due to the cell death and point to a false proliferation increase. In this sense, a mitochondrial activity decrease was observed after 48 hours YTX treatment in BE(2-M17 neuroblastoma cell line (Leira et al., 2002. However, this study was done in a microplate reader with a small number of cells (Leira et al., 2002. Therefore, to measure the viability by MTT assay is very important to take into account the number of cells per condition when the experiment is designed. Alternative assays, such as LDH test, independently of the direct mitochondrial activity, can be used.

  8. Estradiol increases the anorexia associated with increased 5-HT(2C) receptor activation in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M; Santollo, Jessica; Nikonova, Larissa V; Eckel, Lisa A

    2012-01-18

    Estradiol's inhibitory effect on food intake is mediated, in part, by its ability to increase the activity of meal-related signals, including serotonin (5-HT), which hastens satiation. The important role that postsynaptic 5-HT(2C) receptors play in mediating 5-HT's anorexigenic effect prompted us to investigate whether a regimen of acute estradiol treatment increases the anorexia associated with increased 5-HT(2C) receptor activation in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. We demonstrated that intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of low doses of the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) decreased 1-h dark-phase food intake in estradiol-treated, but not oil-treated, OVX rats. During a longer feeding test, we demonstrated that i.c.v. administration of mCPP decreased 22-h food intake in oil-treated and, to a greater extent, estradiol-treated OVX rats. In a second study, we demonstrated that estradiol increased 5-HT(2C) receptor protein content in the caudal brainstem, but not hypothalamus, of OVX rats. We conclude that a physiologically-relevant regimen of acute estradiol treatment increases sensitivity to mCPP's anorexigenic effect. Our demonstration that this same regimen of estradiol treatment increases 5-HT(2C) receptor protein content in the caudal hindbrain of OVX rats provides a possible mechanism to explain our behavioral findings.

  9. Utilizing Wisconsin Afterschool Programs to Increase Physical Activity in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Bradley D.; Meinen, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 31.7% of children in the United States are overweight or obese. Interventions in the afterschool setting may help combat childhood obesity. Research exists on interventions in school settings, but a few data exist for interventions about afterschool programs. This study investigates increasing physical activity (PA) in…

  10. Using the Web to Increase Physical Activity in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Bridges-Arzaga, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a theoretically based and Web-delivered intervention using common course technology for increasing physical activity in a college student sample. Methods: One hundred four students randomly participated in either a Web-based intervention involving 7 theory-based learning lessons or a control group that…

  11. Games for increasing physical activity: Mechanisms for change

    Science.gov (United States)

    A small conference was held in Houston, TX, in May 2014, to address how to enhance exergames to increase physical activity. Several leading researchers were asked to address specific topics. Attendees came from across the globe. This Games for Health Journal Special Issue is devoted to sharing the a...

  12. Reduced Frontal Activation with Increasing 2nd Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Lehmann, Christoph; Wiest, Roland; Strik, Werner; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The factors influencing the degree of separation or overlap in the neuronal networks responsible for the processing of first and second language are still subject to investigation. This longitudinal study investigates how increasing second language proficiency influences activation differences during lexico-semantic processing of first and second…

  13. Increased NTPDase Activity in Lymphocytes during Experimental Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Mello Bertoncheli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated in rats induced to sepsis the activity of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase; CD39; E.C. 3.6.1.5, an enzyme involved in the modulation of immune responses. After 12 hours of surgery, lymphocytes were isolated from blood and NTPDase activity was determined. It was also performed the histology of kidney, liver, and lung. The results demonstrated an increase in the hydrolysis of adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP (P0.05. Histological analysis showed several morphological changes in the septic group, such as vascular congestion, necrosis, and infiltration of mononuclear cells. It is known that the intracellular milieu contains much more ATP nucleotides than the extracellular. In this context, the increased ATPasic activity was probably induced as a dynamic response to clean up the elevated ATP levels resulting from cellular death.

  14. Chromosome 1 replacement increases brain orexins and antidepressive measures without increasing locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pingfu; Hu, Yufen; Vurbic, Drina; Akladious, Afaf; Strohl, Kingman P

    2014-12-01

    Decreased orexin level has been well demonstrated in patients suffering from narcolepsy, depression accompanied with suicide attempt; obstructive sleep apnea and comorbidity were also demonstrated in these diseases. As C57BL/6J (B6) mice are more "depressed" and have lower brain orexins than A/J mice, B6 mice having chromosome 1 replacement (B6A1 mice) might have restored orexin levels and less depressive behavior. We studied the behavior of 4-6 month old B6, A/J and B6A1 mice with forced swim, tail suspension, and locomotor activity tests. The animals were then sacrificed and hypothalamus and medullas dissected from brain tissue. Orexins-A and -B were determined by radioimmunoassay. Compared with A/J mice, B6 mice displayed several signs of depression, including increased immobility, increased locomotors activity, and decreased orexin A and -B levels in both the hypothalamus and medulla. Compared to B6 mice, B6A1 mice exhibited significantly higher levels of orexins-A and -B in both brain regions. B6A1 mice also exhibited antidepressive features in most of measured variables, including decreased locomotor activity, decreased immobility and increased swim in tail suspension test; compared with B6 mice, however. B6A1 mice also reversed immobility in the early phase of the swim test. In summary, B6 mice exhibited depressive attributes compared with A/J mice, including increased locomotor activity, greater immobility, and decreased brain orexins, these were largely reversed in B6A1 mice. We conclude that orexin levels modulate these B6 behaviors, likely due to expression of A/J alleles on Chromosome 1.

  15. An apoA-I mimetic peptide increases LCAT activity in mice through increasing HDL concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Chen, Charlotte Burton, Xuelei Song, Lesley Mcnamara, Annunziata Langella, Simona Cianetti, Ching H. Chang, Jun Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT plays a key role in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT process by converting cholesterol to cholesteryl ester to form mature HDL particles, which in turn deliver cholesterol back to the liver for excretion and catabolism. HDL levels in human plasma are negatively correlated with cardiovascular risk and HDL functions are believed to be more important in atheroprotection. This study investigates whether and how D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I mimetic peptide, influences LCAT activity in the completion of the RCT process. We demonstrated that the apparent rate constant value of the LCAT enzyme reaction gives a measure of LCAT activity and determined the effects of free metals and a reducing agent on LCAT activity, showing an inhibition hierarchy of Zn2+>Mg2+>Ca2+ and no inhibition with β-mercaptoethanol up to 10 mM. We reconstituted nano-disc particles using apoA-I or D-4F with phospholipids. These particles elicited good activity in vitro in the stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophages through the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1. With these particles we studied the LCAT activity and demonstrated that D-4F did not activate LCAT in vitro. Furthermore, we have done in vivo experiments with apoE-null mice and demonstrated that D-4F (20 mg/kg body weight, once daily subcutaneously increased LCAT activity and HDL level as well as apoA-I concentration at 72 hours post initial dosing. Finally, we have established a correlation between HDL concentration and LCAT activity in the D-4F treated mice.

  16. Self-etching adhesives increase collagenolytic activity in radicular dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H; Loushine, Robert J; Weller, R Norman; Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Raquel

    2006-09-01

    Endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) release from crown dentin and their activation results in degradation of hybrid layers created by dentin adhesives. This study tested the hypothesis that instrumented intraradicular dentin possesses latent collagenolytic activity that is activated by mild self-etching adhesives. Root dentin shavings were produced from 50 cleaned and shaped, saline-irrigated root canals using Gates Glidden drills and rinsed with sodium azide to prevent bacterial growth. Dried dentin powder aliquots were treated with two clinically-relevant MMP inhibitors, 2% chlorhexidine for 10 minutes and 17% EDTA for 1 minute. Additional dentin powder was mixed with Clearfil Liner Bond 2V or Clearfil Tri-S Bond for 1 minute followed by extracting the adhesives with acetone. Dentin powder was also treated with 2% chlorhexidine for 10 minutes before or after adhesive application. Collagenolytic activities of the nine groups were assayed with a fluorometer in 96-well plates, by recording the changes in fluorescence before and after addition of fluorescein-labeled type I collagen. Epoxy resin-embedded powders were examined with TEM for the extent of demineralization. Instrumented, mineralized intraradicular dentin possessed low but detectable collagenolytic activity that was inhibited by chlorhexidine (p dentin powder and activated latent MMPs, with 14- to 15-fold increases in collagenolytic activities (p MMPs without denaturing these enzymes, and may adversely affect the longevity of bonded root canal fillings and posts.

  17. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).

  18. Desflurane increases heart rate independent of sympathetic activity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, O; Schwarte, L A; Schindler, A W; Scheeren, T W L

    2003-12-01

    Desflurane has been shown to increase sympathetic activity and heart rate (HR) in a concentration-dependent manner. Nevertheless, desflurane, like all other volatile anaesthetics, increased HR in parallel to vagal inhibition in a previous study. Therefore, our hypothesis is that desflurane elicits tachycardia by vagal inhibition rather than by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Six dogs were studied awake and during desflurane anaesthesia (1 and 2 MAC) alone, after pretreatment with propranolol (2 mg kg(-1) followed by 1 mg kg(-1) h(-1)), or after pre-treatment with atropine (0.1 mg kg(-1) followed by 0.05 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). The effects on HR and HR variability were compared by an analysis of variance (P MAC of desflurane from about 60 (awake) to 118 +/- 2 beats min(-1) (mean +/- SEM) in controls and to 106 +/- 3 beats min(-1) in dogs pre-treated with propranolol. In contrast, pretreatment with atropine increased HR from 64 +/- 2 to 147 +/- 5 beats min(-1) (awake) and HR decreased to 120 +/- 5 beats min(-1) after adding desflurane. High-frequency power correlated inversely with HR (r2 = 0.95/0.93) during desflurane alone and in the presence of beta-adrenoceptor blockade, with no significant difference between regression lines. There was no correlation between these variables during atropine/desflurane. The increase in HR elicited by desflurane mainly results from vagal inhibition and not from sympathetic activation.

  19. Increased antitumor activity of tumor-specific peptide modified thymopentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Xingzhen; Li, Bin; Liu, Meng; Chen, Jiao; Gao, Xiangdong; Zheng, Heng

    2014-12-01

    Thymopoietin pentapeptide (thymopentin, TP5), an immunomodulatory peptide, has been successfully used as an immune system enhancer for treating immune deficiency, cancer, and infectious diseases. However, poor penetration into tumors remains a key limitation to the efficacy and application of TP5. iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC) has been introduced to certain anticancer agents, and increased specific tumor penetrability of drugs and cell internalization have been observed. In the present study, we fused this iRGD fragment with the C-terminal of TP5 to yield a new product, TP5-iRGD. Cell attachment assay showed that TP5-iRGD exhibits more extensive attachment to the melanoma cell line B16F10 than wild-type TP5. Tumor cell viability assay showed that iRGD conjugation with the TP5 C-terminus increases the basal antiproliferative activity of the pentapeptide against the melanoma cell line B16F10, the human lung cancer cell line H460, and the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Subsequent injections of TP5-iRGD inhibited in vivo melanoma progression more efficiently than the native TP5. Murine spleen lymphocyte proliferation assay also showed that TP5-iRGD and the parent pentapeptide feature nearly identical spleen lymphocyte proliferation activities. We built an integrin αvβ3 and TP5-iRGD computational binding model to investigate the mechanism by which TP5-iRGD promotes increased activity further. Conjugation with iRGD promotes binding to integrin αvβ3, thereby increasing the tumor-homing efficiency of the resultant peptide. These experimental and computational observations of increased TP5-iRGD activity help broaden the usage of TP5 and reflect the great application potential of the peptide as an anticancer agent.

  20. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

  1. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  2. Betaine increases the butyrylcholinesterase activity in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šišková, K; Dubničková, M; Pašková, Ľ; Rajdl, D; Ďuračková, Z; Muchová, J; Pauliková, I; Racek, J

    2016-01-01

    The physiological function of butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8, BChE) is not clearly understood, but a role was suggested in the fat utilization process, resulting in positive correlation between plasma triglyceride (TG) levels and BChE activity. Consequently we tested the hypothesis that regular intake of betaine, a natural compound intervening in the liver TG metabolism could influence the BChE activity. The BChE activity was estimated spectrophotometrically in plasma of rats fed with betaine enriched standard (B) or high-fat diet (HFB). The results confirmed decreased TG plasma levels after betaine treatment independently on the type of diet (0.15+/-0.03 (B) vs. 0.27+/-0.08 (control) mmol/l; p=0.003 and 0.13+/-0.03 (HFB) vs. 0.27+/-0.08 (control) mmol/l; p=0.005). The BChE activity increased significantly with betaine administration, however the change was more distinct in the HFB group (0.84+/-0.34 (HFB) vs. 0.22+/-0.04 (control) O.D./min/mg; pbetaine intake led to elevated BChE activity in plasma and this effect was potentiated by the HF diet. Since betaine is in general used as a supplement in the treatment of liver diseases accompanied by TG overload, its impact on the BChE activity in the role of the liver function marker should be taken into account.

  3. Psychosocial factors associated with increased physical activity in insufficiently active adults with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, G M E E Geeske; Brown, Wendy J; Burton, Nicola W

    2015-09-01

    Although physical activity can potentially reduce symptoms of arthritis, 50% of people with arthritis are insufficiently active. The aim was to identify psychosocial factors associated with increased physical activity in mid-age adults with arthritis who did not meet recommended physical activity levels. Longitudinal cohort study. Data were from 692 insufficiently active men and women (mean age 55 ± 6.6 years) with arthritis, who answered mailed surveys in 2007 and 2009 in the HABITAT study. Increased physical activity was defined as a change of ≥ 200 MET min/week in walking, moderate and vigorous activities from 2007 to 2009. Scale scores were used to measure psychosocial factors including intention, experiences, attitudes, efficacy, barriers, motivation, social support, and health professional advice. Associations between (1) 2007 psychosocial factors and (2) 2007-2009 improvement (≥ +1 standard deviation) in psychosocial factors and increased physical activity were examined with logistic regression models. Results were adjusted for education, body mass index, and self-rated health. Between 2007 and 2009, 296 participants (42.8%) increased their physical activity. Engagement, mastery and physical activity intention in 2007 were associated with this increase in physical activity (engagement OR = 1.11, 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.17; mastery OR = 1.12, 99%CI = 1.02-1.22; physical activity intention OR = 1.29, 99%CI = 1.06-1.56). Improved scores for encouragement (OR = 2.07, CI = 1.07-4.01) and self-efficacy (OR =2 .27, CI = 1.30-3.97) were also significantly associated with increased physical activity. Positive physical activity experiences and intentions were predictors of increased physical activity among people with arthritis. Improved physical activity confidence and social support were associated with increased physical activity. It is important to consider these psychosocial factors when planning physical activity interventions for people with

  4. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning.

  5. Using Technology to Increase Physical Activity in Health Profession Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann Stark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health profession students may need help establishing and maintaining positive health behaviors when they are in college. This study explored the effectiveness of text messaging as an innovative method for promoting an increase in daily physical activity. A convenience sample (N = 134 was recruited from students at a college of Health and Human Services in Michigan. The participants were randomized into an intervention or control group (n = 67 each. The intervention group received daily affective text messages encouraging more physical activity by taking more steps. The control group received only messages reminding them to report their number of steps. All of the participants received a pedometer, completed a demographics and daily habits questionnaire, and completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS. There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in their number of daily steps. However, the most inactive participants had a significant increase in steps during the study period. Health profession students’ lifestyle behaviors have consequences, as they become caregivers in our dynamic, demanding health-care system. For those with the greatest need for physical activity, encouraging such activity via text messaging may improve their ability to care for themselves and their clients.

  6. Light physical activity increased body fat percentage in elderly Javanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmah Fatmah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in Indonesia is rapidly increasing, particularly in older people. Obesity is characterized by increased percentage of body fat in the form of visceral fat and non-visceral or subcutaneous fat. The aim of this study was to analyze body fat percentage (BFP and associated risk factors, i.e. type of residence (rural or urban, physical activity, gender, age, intakes of energy and fat, and socio-economic background (educational level and occupational status. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 812 older persons (517 females and 295 males from December 2007- February 2008 in the cities of Surabaya, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Wonogiri, Gunung Kidul, and Magetan subdistricts. BFP was assessed using an Omron Fat Analyzer. Nutritional intakes were collected through interviews using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. To obtain overall total energy expenditure for physical activity (PA, the energy expenditures for exercise (sports PA, daily activities, and leisure time PA were added together. The study results indicated that urban residence and light PA at age 55 years constituted risk factors for high BFP. Light PA at 55 years of age was the most influential risk factor, since it was 4.3 times greater than vigorous PA at the same age (OR=4.3; 95% Confidence interval 2.6-7.1 It is recommended to implement nutritional counseling about adequate intakes for increased PA in all age groups (adolescents, adults, older persons, particularly in urban areas with their greater risk of high BFP.

  7. Interactions Increase Forager Availability and Activity in Harvester Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Evlyn; Queirolo, Jovel; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Crow, Sam; Allen, Kelsey; Mathur, Maya B; Gordon, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Social insect colonies use interactions among workers to regulate collective behavior. Harvester ant foragers interact in a chamber just inside the nest entrance, here called the 'entrance chamber'. Previous studies of the activation of foragers in red harvester ants show that an outgoing forager inside the nest experiences an increase in brief antennal contacts before it leaves the nest to forage. Here we compare the interaction rate experienced by foragers that left the nest and ants that did not. We found that ants in the entrance chamber that leave the nest to forage experienced more interactions than ants that descend to the deeper nest without foraging. Additionally, we found that the availability of foragers in the entrance chamber is associated with the rate of forager return. An increase in the rate of forager return leads to an increase in the rate at which ants descend to the deeper nest, which then stimulates more ants to ascend into the entrance chamber. Thus a higher rate of forager return leads to more available foragers in the entrance chamber. The highest density of interactions occurs near the nest entrance and the entrances of the tunnels from the entrance chamber to the deeper nest. Local interactions with returning foragers regulate both the activation of waiting foragers and the number of foragers available to be activated.

  8. Interactions Increase Forager Availability and Activity in Harvester Ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evlyn Pless

    Full Text Available Social insect colonies use interactions among workers to regulate collective behavior. Harvester ant foragers interact in a chamber just inside the nest entrance, here called the 'entrance chamber'. Previous studies of the activation of foragers in red harvester ants show that an outgoing forager inside the nest experiences an increase in brief antennal contacts before it leaves the nest to forage. Here we compare the interaction rate experienced by foragers that left the nest and ants that did not. We found that ants in the entrance chamber that leave the nest to forage experienced more interactions than ants that descend to the deeper nest without foraging. Additionally, we found that the availability of foragers in the entrance chamber is associated with the rate of forager return. An increase in the rate of forager return leads to an increase in the rate at which ants descend to the deeper nest, which then stimulates more ants to ascend into the entrance chamber. Thus a higher rate of forager return leads to more available foragers in the entrance chamber. The highest density of interactions occurs near the nest entrance and the entrances of the tunnels from the entrance chamber to the deeper nest. Local interactions with returning foragers regulate both the activation of waiting foragers and the number of foragers available to be activated.

  9. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased.

  10. Projecting climate-driven increases in North American fire activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through controls on vegetation productivity (fuels), lightning ignitions, and conditions governing fire spread. In many regions of the world, human management also influences the timing, duration, and extent of fire activity. These coupled interactions between human and natural systems make fire a complex component of the Earth system. Satellite data provide valuable information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of recent fire activity, as active fires, burned area, and land cover information can be combined to separate wildfires from intentional burning for agriculture and forestry. Here, we combined satellite-derived burned area data with land cover and climate data to assess fire-climate relationships in North America between 2000-2012. We used the latest versions of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) burned area product and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate data to develop regional relationships between burned area and potential evaporation (PE), an integrated dryness metric. Logistic regression models were developed to link burned area with PE and individual climate variables during and preceding the fire season, and optimal models were selected based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Overall, our model explained 85% of the variance in burned area since 2000 across North America. Fire-climate relationships from the era of satellite observations provide a blueprint for potential changes in fire activity under scenarios of climate change. We used that blueprint to evaluate potential changes in fire activity over the next 50 years based on twenty models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). All models suggest an increase of PE under low and high emissions scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, respectively), with largest increases in projected burned area across the western US and central Canada. Overall, near

  11. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range.

  12. Nest predation increases with parental activity: separating nest site and parental activity effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators h...

  13. The increasing need for active dosemeters in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1995-12-31

    As a legal and administrative dose limits come down, there is an increasing need in the nuclear industry for greater accuracy in dose measurement, for lower detection limits, and for more rapid reporting of doses, Active (i.e. electronic) dosemeters offer the possibility of substantial improvements in these areas. The advantages of electronic dosemeters are reviewed, some impediments to their more rapid adoption considered, some needs for research and development suggested, and the implications of a change from passive to active dosemeters looked at. A review of the present status of electronic dosemeter testing, standard-setting and system implementation is given. The next major era in the history of radiation dosimetry appears to be well under way. (Author).

  14. Both novelty and expertise increase action observation network activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Lei eLiew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON, is modulated by one’s expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal on AON activation. fMRI was used to scan 16 healthy participants without prior experience with individuals with amputations (novices, 11 experienced occupational therapists (OTs who had varying amounts of experience with individuals with amputations, and one individual born with below-elbow residual limbs (participant CJ, as they viewed video clips of goal-matched actions performed by an individual with residual limbs and by an individual with hands. Participants were given increased visual exposure to actions performed by both effectors midway through the scanning procedure. Novices demonstrated a large AON response to the initial viewing of an individual with residual limbs compared to one with hands, but this signal was attenuated after they received visual exposure to both effectors. In contrast, OTs, who had moderate familiarity with residual limbs, demonstrated a lower AON response upon initial viewing—similar to novices after they received visual exposure. At the other extreme, CJ, who has extreme familiarity with residual limbs both visually and motorically, shows a largely increased left-lateralized AON response, exceeding that of novices and experienced OTs, when viewing the residual limb compared to hand actions. These results suggest that a nuanced model of AON engagement is needed to explain how cases of both extreme experience (CJ and extreme novelty (novices can result in the greatest AON activity.

  15. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  16. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR delta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased hepatobilia

  18. HYPNOBIRTHING INCREASE PAIN TOLERANCE AND ANXIETY IN ACTIVE PHASE LABOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main problem of inpartu mother was a labour pain and anxiety. The etiology of labour pain has been determained by dilatation and cervic’s tickness. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of hypnobirthing relaxation on the pain tolerance and anxiety responses in labor. Method: A pre experimental static group comparison purposive sampling design was used in this study. Population were all pregnant women in age of pregnancies between 38 until 39 weeks at RSUD Wangaya Denpasar. There were 12 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria divided into 6 respondents were given hypnobirthing relaxation intervention and 6 respondents as the control group. The independent variable was hypnobirthing relaxation and dependent variables were tolerance of pain and anxiety responses. Data were collected by using observation and questionnaire, then data were analyzed by using Mann Whitney U Test with significance level p=0.05. Result: The result showed that hypnobirthing relaxation had an effect on the pain tolerance and anxiety responses (p=0.015. Discussion: It can be concluded that the hypnobirthing relaxation has an effect to increase the pain tolerance and to decrease anxiety responses in active phase of labour. It is recommended to the hospital that have an ante natal care to hypnobirthing relaxation technique. Further studies should measure the effect of hynobirthing relaxation on increasing of β-endorfin in active phase labour.

  19. NOX Activity Is Increased in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunita; Parrino, Taryn E.; Knight, Alecia G.; Ebenezer, Philip J.; Weidner, Adam M.; LeVine, Harry; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Markesbery, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study was undertaken to investigate the profile of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, NOX activity and expression of the regulatory subunit p47phox and the catalytic subunit gp91phox was evaluated in affected (superior and middle temporal gyri) and unaffected (cerebellum) brain regions from a longitudinally followed group of patients. This group included both control and late-stage AD subjects, and also subjects with preclinical AD and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to evaluate the profile of NOX in the earliest stages of dementia. Data show significant elevations in NOX activity and expression in the temporal gyri of MCI patients as compared with controls, but not in preclinical or late-stage AD samples, and not in the cerebellum. Immunohistochemical evaluations of NOX expression indicate that whereas microglia express high levels of gp91phox, moderate levels of gp91phox also are expressed in neurons. Finally, in vitro experiments showed that NOX inhibition blunted the ability of oligomeric amyloid beta peptides to injure cultured neurons. Collectively, these data show that NOX expression and activity are upregulated specifically in a vulnerable brain region of MCI patients, and suggest that increases in NOX-associated redox pathways in neurons might participate in the early pathogenesis of AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1371–1382. PMID:19929442

  20. Use of active video games to increase physical activity in children: a (virtual) reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Maddison, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    There has been increased research interest in the use of active video games (in which players physically interact with images onscreen) as a means to promote physical activity in children. The aim of this review was to assess active video games as a means of increasing energy expenditure and physical activity behavior in children. Studies were obtained from computerized searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The last search was conducted in December 2008. Eleven studies focused on the quantification of the energy cost associated with playing active video games, and eight studies focused on the utility of active video games as an intervention to increase physical activity in children. Compared with traditional nonactive video games, active video games elicited greater energy expenditure, which was similar in intensity to mild to moderate intensity physical activity. The intervention studies indicate that active video games may have the potential to increase free-living physical activity and improve body composition in children; however, methodological limitations prevent definitive conclusions. Future research should focus on larger, methodologically sound intervention trials to provide definitive answers as to whether this technology is effective in promoting long-term physical activity in children.

  1. Municipal services as a means of increasing the citizens’ activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Yakhina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to propose ways of increasing the activity of Russian citizens through the institution of municipal services. Methods the methodological basis of the study was a systematic and integrated approach to the analysis of the institution of municipal services. The general philosophical method was used as well as general scientific methods of cognition dialectical systemic analysis and synthesis induction and deduction and specific scientific methods comparativelegal formallegal historicallegal sociological systemicfunctional theoreticalprognostic linguolegal methods. In particular the formallegal method was used to study the problem of the legal fixation of administrative regulations statuses the theoreticalprognostic method was used in preparing recommendations to increase the activity of citizens. Results the municipal services are regarded by the author as a way to meet the needs of the population of a particular territory and as a way of interaction between local public authorities and the citizens. The issue of the functioning of emunicipalities is studied as well as the shortcomings in the legal regulation in this field. The problem is discussed of insufficient use of the Internet in the local authoritiesrsquo interaction with citizens. The author suggests ways to improve the Federal Law quotOn the organization of state and municipal servicesquot N 210FZ of July 2 2010 regarding the use of the Internet as a means of feedback between the public authorities and the population of a territory. Special attention is paid to normative legal acts regulating the procedure of municipal services provision i.e. the administrative regulations of local authorities. The emerging challenges in the legal regulation of the specified institution are identified the solutions to the identified problems are proposed. Scientific novelty in 2010 the institution of municipal services has undergone significant modernization thus the necessity to its research

  2. Safety challenge increases with rapid drilling activity pace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2000-05-01

    Safety practices in use by drilling companies in an effort to keep accidents on drilling platforms to the absolute minimum at a time when drilling activity is at its peak as a consequence of high oil and natural gas prices, is discussed. The likelihood of an increased rate of accidents is exacerbated by the fact that thousands of people left the industry during the downturn, and the sudden resurgence in drilling activity increased the number of 'greenhands' working on the rigs. There are pre-employment training courses offered at the Petroleum Industry Training Service (PITS) in Nisku, but most roughnecks, especially in the current busy environment are learning on the job, consequently, they do not have the luxury of practicing some of the key tasks, gradually building up speed, hence the need for being especially careful. Many companies have daily safety meetings, safety alert bulletins, safety courses of various descriptions designed by PITS and others, to keep workers talking and thinking about processes and procedures, about how to do things more safely. Fall protection, fall rescue for rig work, blowout prevention, hydrogen sulphide hazard and detection ('H{sub 2}S alive'), product labelling, material safety, fire safety are just some of the areas in which PITS have developed courses. All of them are designed to increase awareness about the dangers of accidents and to impart knowledge to deal with them when they occur. Industry Recommended Practices (IRPs) constitute another from of safety education. These are developed by volunteers from industry associations, government regulators and technical experts. Also included in the groups of experts are government health and safety personnel to ensure that IRPs meet legislative requirements.

  3. SHP-1 phosphatase activity counteracts increased T cell receptor affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeisen, Michael; Baitsch, Lukas; Presotto, Danilo; Baumgaertner, Petra; Romero, Pedro; Michielin, Olivier; Speiser, Daniel E; Rufer, Nathalie

    2013-03-01

    Anti-self/tumor T cell function can be improved by increasing TCR-peptide MHC (pMHC) affinity within physiological limits, but paradoxically further increases (K(d) affinity for the tumor antigen HLA-A2/NY-ESO-1, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this high-affinity-associated loss of function. As compared with cells expressing TCR affinities generating optimal function (K(d) = 5 to 1 μM), those with supraphysiological affinity (K(d) = 1 μM to 15 nM) showed impaired gene expression, signaling, and surface expression of activatory/costimulatory receptors. Preferential expression of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) was limited to T cells with the highest TCR affinity, correlating with full functional recovery upon PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade. In contrast, upregulation of the Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1/PTPN6) was broad, with gradually enhanced expression in CD8(+) T cells with increasing TCR affinities. Consequently, pharmacological inhibition of SHP-1 with sodium stibogluconate augmented the function of all engineered T cells, and this correlated with the TCR affinity-dependent levels of SHP-1. These data highlight an unexpected and global role of SHP-1 in regulating CD8(+) T cell activation and responsiveness and support the development of therapies inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatases to enhance T cell-mediated immunity.

  4. Increasing Physical Activity Decreases Hepatic Fat and Metabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Tanya L; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I; Davis, Jaimie N

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed the changes in time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammation. Longitudinal data were generated from 66 Hispanic adolescents (15.6±1.1 yr; BMI percentile 97.1±3.0) who participated in a 16-wk nutrition or nutrition+exercise intervention. There were no effects of the intervention on PA, but there were inter-individual changes in PA. For purposes of this analysis, all intervention groups were combined to assess how changes in PA during 16 wk affected changes in adiposity, insulin action, and markers of inflammation. MVPA was assessed by 7-day accelerometry, total body fat via DXA, liver fat by MRI, and insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR via a fasting blood draw. A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of MVPA on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammatory markers. Sixty-two percent of participants increased MVPA (mean increase, 19.7±16.5 min/day) and 38% decreased MVPA (mean decrease, 10.7±10.1 min/day). Those who increased MVPA by as little as 20 min per day over 16 wk, compared to those who decreased MVPA, had significant reductions in liver fat (-13% vs. +3%; P=0.01), leptin levels (-18% vs. +4%; P=0.02), and fasting insulin (-23% vs. +5%; P=0.05). These findings indicate that a modest increase in MVPA can improve metabolic health in sedentary overweight Hispanic adolescents.

  5. L-tyrosine administration increases acetylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Vieira, Júlia S; Scaini, Giselli; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations on genes that codify enzymes responsible for tyrosine metabolism. Considering that tyrosinemics patients usually present symptoms associated with central nervous system alterations that ranges from slight decreases in intelligence to severe mental retardation, we decided to investigate whether acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine in rats would affect acetylcholinesterase mRNA expression and enzymatic activity during their development. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed one hour after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old) and rats were killed 12 h after last injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and acetylcholinesterase expression was carried out by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. We observed that acute (10 and 30 days old rats) and chronic L-tyrosine administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in serum and all tested brain areas (hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex) when compared to control group. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in mRNA levels of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus was observed after acute protocol (10 and 30 days old rats) and in striatum after chronic protocol. In case these alterations also occur in the brain of the patients, our results may explain, at least in part, the neurological sequelae associated with high plasma concentrations of tyrosine seen in patients affected by tyrosinemia type II.

  6. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS.

  7. Writer's cramp: increased dorsal premotor activity during intended writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnooz, Cathérine C S; Helmich, Rick C; Medendorp, W P; Van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Toni, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Simple writer's cramp (WC) is a task-specific form of dystonia, characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the hand during writing. It is extremely task-specific, since dystonic symptoms can occur when a patient uses a pencil for writing, but not when it is used for sharpening. Maladaptive plasticity, loss of inhibition, and abnormal sensory processing are important pathophysiological elements of WC. However, it remains unclear how those elements can account for its task-specificity. We used fMRI to isolate cerebral alterations associated with the task-specificity of simple WC. Subjects (13 simple WC patients, 20 matched controls) imagined grasping a pencil to either write with it or sharpen it. On each trial, we manipulated the pencil's position and the number of imagined movements, while monitoring variations in motor output with electromyography. We show that simple WC is characterized by abnormally increased activity in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) when imagined actions are specifically related to writing. This cerebral effect was independent from the known deficits in dystonia in generating focal motor output and in processing somatosensory feedback. This abnormal activity of the PMd suggests that the task-specific element of simple WC is primarily due to alterations at the planning level, in the computations that transform a desired action outcome into the motor commands leading to that action. These findings open the way for testing the therapeutic value of interventions that take into account the computational substrate of task-specificity in simple WC, e.g. modulations of PMd activity during the planning phase of writing.

  8. Acid-activated biochar increased sulfamethazine retention in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Zhang, Ming; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-02-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is an ionizable and highly mobile antibiotic which is frequently found in soil and water environments. We investigated the sorption of SMZ onto soils amended with biochars (BCs) at varying pH and contact time. Invasive plants were pyrolyzed at 700 °C and were further activated with 30 % sulfuric (SBBC) and oxalic (OBBC) acids. The sorption rate of SMZ onto SBBC and OBBC was pronouncedly pH dependent and was decreased significantly when the values of soil pH increased from 3 to 5. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (K D,eff) values indicated excellent sorption on SBBC-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils for 229 and 183 L/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the low sorption values were determined for OBBC- and BBC700-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that the pseudo second order model was the best followed by intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich model, indicating that multiple processes govern SMZ sorption. These findings were also supported by sorption edge experiments based on BC characteristics. Chemisorption onto protonated and ligand containing functional groups of the BC surface, and diffusion in macro-, meso-, and micro-pores of the acid-activated BCs are the proposed mechanisms of SMZ retention in soils. Calculated and experimental q e (amount adsorbed per kg of the adsorbent at equilibrium) values were well fitted to the pseudo second order model, and the predicted maximum equilibrium concentration of SBBC for loamy sand soils was 182 mg/kg. Overall, SBBC represents a suitable soil amendment because of its high sorption rate of SMZ in soils.

  9. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  10. Altered behavior in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Erin E.; Kapheim, Karen M.; Watts, Heather E.; Szykman, Micaela; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996–98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996–98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988–90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988–90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996–98 than in 1988–90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction.

  11. Increased activity of the mannan-binding lectin complement activation pathway in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Christensen, I J

    2004-01-01

    in the colon or rectum, and disease stages according to Dukes' classification. No statistical difference (P=0.20) in frequency of MBL deficiency was found between the patients (20%) and the donors (27%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the MBL complement activation pathway is significantly increased in patients......BACKGROUND: Postoperative bacterial infectious complications are frequent in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), with subsequent increased recurrence rates and poor prognosis. Deficiency of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) complement activation pathway may cause increased risk of infection......: Serum MBL concentrations and MBL/MASP activity were determined using immunofluorometric assays. The levels are presented as the median, inter-quartile range and range. RESULTS: Serum MBL levels were significantly (P

  12. Opportunities for Public Health to Increase Physical Activity Among Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Joan M.; Fulton, Janet E.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Lee, Sarah M.; McKinnon, Robin A.; Pate, Russell R.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Young, Deborah Rohm; Troiano, Richard P.; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of youths engaging in 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, physical inactivity remains a significant public health concern. The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG) provides recommendations on the amount of physical activity needed for overall health; the PAG Midcourse Report (2013) describes effective strategies to help youths meet these recommendations. Public health professionals can be dynamic change agents where youths live, learn, and play by changing environments and policies to empower youths to develop regular physical activity habits to maintain throughout life. We have summarized key findings from the PAG Midcourse Report and outlined actions that public health professionals can take to ensure that all youths regularly engage in health-enhancing physical activity. PMID:25602864

  13. Increased interleukin-23 is associated with increased disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ying-ying; WANG Nai-zhi; ZHAO Shuai; HOU Lin-xin; XU Yan-bing; ZHANG Ning

    2013-01-01

    Background Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is thought to be central to the development of autoimmune diseases.This study was conducted to determine whether or not the serum concentration of IL-23 is elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA),and to determine the relationship between the IL-23 level and disease activity in RA patients.Methods Serum samples were obtained from 59 patients with RA and 30 healthy controls.The clinical parameters of disease activity were determined,including the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28),C-reactive protein (CRP),rheumatoid factor (RF) levels,and the degree of bony erosions based on X-rays.The levels of IL-23 and IL-17 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The correlations between the serum levels of IL-23 and disease activity parameters of patients with RA were determined.Results The serum IL-23 level was significantly elevated in patients with RA compared to healthy controls.The serum IL-23 levels in the RA patients correlated with IL-17 and CRP levels,and the DAS28.The levels of IL-23 based on X-ray classification phase Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,and Ⅳ were gradually elevated in RA patients.Conclusions The levels of serum IL-23 in RA patients were higher than in healthy controls.Thus,elevated serum IL-23 levels may be useful markers to detect active RA.In addition,IL-23 is involved in disease progression and bony erosions in patients with RA.

  14. Increased parasellar activity on gallium SPECT is not specific for active cluster headache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sianard-Gainko, J.; Milet, J.; Ghuysen, V.; Schoenen, J. (Univ. Departments of Neurology and Nuclear Medicine, Liege (Belgium))

    1994-04-01

    The authors have performed gallium SPECT head scans in 30 successive cluster headache (CH) patients and in 7 migraineurs without aura. Parasellar hyperactivity was judged as present in 81% of chronic CH patients. 54% of episodic CH patients in an active period, 56% of episodic CH patients in remission and 71% of migraineurs. No significant correlations were found between the SPECT images and the duration of the disease, of cluster periods or of remissions. Increased parasellar activity on gallium SPECT is thus not specific for CH, nor for the active period of episodic CH. The method lacks reliability for investigation of putative cavernous sinus inflammation. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Diagnostic performance of increased prolidase activity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Mehmet; Bulut, Mahmut; Demir, Süleyman; İbiloğlu, Aslıhan Okan; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Atlı, Abdullah; Kaplan, İbrahim; Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Sir, Aytekin

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether prolidase activity has a diagnostic test value in schizophrenia and assessed the relation between prolidase activity and sociodemographic-clinical characteristics of patients with schizophrenia. Fifty patients with schizophrenia (diagnosed as schizophrenia according to DSM-V criteria) and 50 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Case and control groups had a similar distribution in age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status. Serum prolidase activity was measured in both groups and was determined to be significantly higher in the patient group (509.706±41.918) compared to the control group (335.4±13.6; t=6.231; p=0.0001). A cut-off point of 392.65U/L prolidase was determined for diagnostic measures from the plotted ROC curve. The area under the ROC curve was 1.000, which was significant (p0.05), and no correlation was found between mean prolidase activity and age of onset of the disease, family history, disease duration, number of hospitalizations, subtypes of schizophrenia, PANSS scores or sub-scores, CGI-S scores, S-A scale scores, and the antipsychotic treatment (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that serum prolidase activity may be a useful diagnostic test for schizophrenia; however, further studies are needed to verify this.

  16. Increased prevalence of late stage T cell activation antigen (VLA-1) in active juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Morling, Niels; Platz, P;

    1987-01-01

    +) was studied. Twenty patients and six controls were investigated for the capability to stimulate alloreactivated primed lymphocytes. The prevalence of VLA-1 positive, large cells was significantly increased to 5% (median value) in active JCA as compared with JCA in remission (2%, p less than 0.05) and controls...

  17. RESEARCH ON INCREASING ACTIVE LIFE OF CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin STĂNCIOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available At the exploitation of dies the defections that occur, due mainly to non operating rules of exploration, the improperly conditions of the machine (press in terms of cinematic precision and the wearing elements in relative motion (ram displacement, wearing guides, etc as the incorrect mounting of dies on the press. When installing dies must consider several aspects. Among the techniques used, especially for restoring the active elements in the work area are rectified frontal surfaces, hard chromating, hardening with electric sparks and charging welding. Were restored active profile and size of the work active elements so after reconditioning they corresponded in terms of dimensional precision and resistance to wear, like initial elements

  18. Latent and Active Tuberculosis Infection Increase Immune Activation in Individuals Co-Infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuri A. Sullivan

    2015-04-01

    Significance: Latent tuberculosis, which affects an estimated 1/3 of the world's population, has long been thought to be a relatively benign, quiescent state of M. tuberculosis infection. While HIV co-infection is known to exacerbate M. tuberculosis infection and increase the risk of developing active TB, little is known about the potential effect of latent TB infection on HIV disease. This study shows that HIV-infected individuals with both active and latent TB have elevated levels of inflammation and immune activation, biomarkers of HIV disease progression and elevated risk of mortality. These results suggest that, in the context of HIV, latent TB infection may be associated with increased risk of progression to AIDS and mortality.

  19. Dipeptides Increase Functional Activity of Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, V V; Durnova, A O; Polyakova, V O; Kvetnoi, I M

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed the effect of dipeptide Glu-Trp and isovaleroyl-Glu-Trp in concentrations of 0.2, 2 and 20 μg/ml and Actovegin preparation on functional activity of human skin fibroblasts. Dipeptides, especially Glu-Trp, produce a stimulating effect on human skin fibroblasts and their effect is equivalent to that of Actovegin. Dipeptides stimulate cell renewal processes by activating synthesis of Ki-67 and reducing expression of caspase-9 and enhance antioxidant function of the cells by stimulating the expression of Hsp-90 and inducible NO-synthase. These findings suggest that dipeptides are promising candidates for preparations stimulating reparative processes.

  20. Soil disturbance increases soil microbial enzymatic activity in arid ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functional diversity of the soil microbial community is commonly used in the assessment of soil health as it relates to the activity of soil microflora involved in carbon cycling. Soil microbes in different microenvironments will have varying responses to different substrates, thus catabolic fingerp...

  1. Compensation in resting metabolism for experimentally increased activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deerenberg, C; Overkamp, GJF; Visser, GH; Daan, S; Heldmaier, G.

    1998-01-01

    To study zebra finch allocation of energy to day and night at two different workloads, we assessed the daily energy turnover from: (1) metabolizable energy of the food, and (2) doubly-labeled water. In both experiments we imposed two levels of activity on captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata),

  2. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Lankveld, C.A.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in other

  3. Effectiveness of Corporate Social Media Activities to Increase Relational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risius, Marten; Beck, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This study applies social media analytics to investigate the impact of different corporate social media activities on user word of mouth and attitudinal loyalty. We conduct a multilevel analysis of approximately 5 million tweets regarding the main Twitter accounts of 28 large global companies. We...

  4. Counselling increases physical activity behaviour nine weeks after rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, H P; Streppel, K R M; van der Beek, A J; van der Woude, L H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M M R; van Harten, W H; van Mechelen, W

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For people with disabilities, a physically active lifestyle can reduce the risk of secondary health problems and improve overall functioning. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of the sport stimulation programme "rehabilitation and sports" (R&S) and R&S combined with the daily physical

  5. Somatosensory Anticipatory Alpha Activity Increases to Suppress Distracting Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegens, Saskia; Luther, Lisa; Jensen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Effective processing of sensory input in daily life requires attentional selection and amplification of relevant input and, just as importantly, attenuation of irrelevant information. It has been proposed that top-down modulation of oscillatory alpha band activity (8-14 Hz) serves to allocate resources to various regions, depending on task…

  6. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R. de; Lankveld, C.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in othe

  7. Increasing the alkaline protease activity of Bacillus cereus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... activities of B. polymyxa and B. cereus were measured at the death phase of the growth curve and at the start of the ... in glucose synthetic medium at 30°C with 100 rpm aeration speed for 144 h. .... surface, gray to light brown.

  8. Texting to increase physical activity in teens: Development & preliminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to present formative research and preliminary results for a self-determination-theory (SDT)-based text messages to promote physical activity (PA) among teens. Thirty 14- to 17-year olds, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White), were recruited to participate i...

  9. Motivational Interviewing to Increase Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Reinforce appropriate goals IF clients are having trouble coming up with goals, ASK: © Some women with breast cancer have benefited from these types of...clients are having trouble coming up with goals, ASK: © Some women with breast cancer have benefited from these types of activities. Present menu of...minutes (MINIMAL EFFORT, NO PERSPIRATION) Examples: easy walking, yoga , bowling, shuffleboard, horseshoes, golf, fishing from riverbank Fruits and

  10. Density increase due to active feedback in mirror machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Omri; Be'Ery, Ilan

    2014-10-01

    Mirror machines are one of the schemes for future fusion systems. Its main drawbacks are the flute instability and being open ended which results in plasma losses. A feedback system is used to stabilize the flute instability in a table top mirror machine with a continuous plasma source and RF heating. Under certain source density and temperature conditions, although the plasma was stabilized, plasma density increase was not measured. After decreasing the source density and increasing the temperature, Plasma density increase was achieved. It is theorized that these results are due to transition of the plasma main loss mechanism from collision dominated to instability dominated. In the former, the main density loss is through diffusion and In the latter, it is through flute instability which drives the plasma to the edge of the vacuum chamber. Future research directions are discussed for a planned machine which should achieve higher temperatures and better diagnostic capabilities. The research will focus on magnetic actuators and passive RF stabilization.

  11. Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Martin A.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Wuu, Joanne; Cuello, A. Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent cholinergic basal forebrain neurons degenerate during the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Elevated proNGF and reduced levels of the TrkA high-affinity NGF receptor occur in prodromal and advanced stages of AD. We recently described a protease cascade responsible for the conversion of proNGF to mature NGF (mNGF) in which matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) degrades mNGF in the extracellular space. To determine whether this proteolytic cascade is altered during the progression of AD, we examined human frontal and parietal cortex tissue from aged subjects with a clinical diagnosis of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or no cognitive impairment (NCI). The analysis demonstrated greater MMP-9 activity in both AD and MCI compared to NCI brain samples (p < 0.01), which supports the notion that a metabolic failure in the NGF-maturation/degradation pathway may be associated with an exacerbated degradation of mNGF in the cerebral cortex in early AD. Moreover, there were inverse correlations between Global Cognitive Score and Mini-Mental State Examination score and MMP-9 activity. These findings suggest that a reduction in mNGF as a consequence of MMP-9-mediated degradation may in part underlie the pathogenesis of cognitive deficits in MCI and AD. PMID:19915485

  12. Increased matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Martin A; Mufson, Elliott J; Wuu, Joanne; Cuello, A Claudio

    2009-12-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent cholinergic basal forebrain neurons degenerate during the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Elevated proNGF and reduced levels of the TrkA high-affinity NGF receptor occur in prodromal and advanced stages of AD. We recently described a protease cascade responsible for the conversion of proNGF to mature NGF (mNGF) in which matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) degrades mNGF in the extracellular space. To determine whether this proteolytic cascade is altered during the progression of AD, we examined human frontal and parietal cortex tissues from aged subjects with a clinical diagnosis of AD, mild cognitive impairment, or no cognitive impairment. The analysis demonstrated greater MMP-9 activity in both AD and mild cognitive impairment compared with no cognitive impairment brain samples (p < 0.01), which supports the notion that a metabolic failure in the NGF-maturation/degradation pathway may be associated with an exacerbated degradation of mNGF in the cerebral cortex in early AD. Moreover, there were inverse correlations between Global Cognitive Score and Mini-Mental State Examination score and MMP-9 activity. These findings suggest that a reduction in mNGF as a consequence of MMP-9-mediated degradation may in part underlie the pathogenesis of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment and AD.

  13. Increased activity of the mannan-binding lectin complement activation pathway in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H; Jensenius, J C; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative bacterial infectious complications are frequent in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), with subsequent increased recurrence rates and poor prognosis. Deficiency of the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) complement activation pathway may cause increased risk of infection...... with colorectal cancer compared with healthy persons. However, similar frequencies of MBL pathway deficiency are observed in patients and healthy persons....... in certain patient groups. It is hypothesized that a deficient MBL pathway might be more frequent among patients with CRC than in healthy individuals. The MBL pathway was therefore evaluated in serum obtained preoperatively from 193 patients with primary CRC and in serum from 150 healthy volunteers. METHODS...

  14. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in human endothelial cells increases plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶平; 胡晓晖; 刘永学; 赵亚力

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activators on plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and elucidate a possible mechanism.Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were obtained from normal fetus, and cultured conventionally. Then the HUVEC were exposed to fatty acids and prostaglandin J2 in varying concentrations with fresh media. RT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of PPAR and PAI-1 in HUVECs. Transient co-transfection of PAI-1 promoter and PPARα gene or PPARγ gene to ECV304 was performed.Results PPARα, PPARδ and PPARγ mRNA in HUVECs were detected by RT-PCR. Treatment of HUVECs with PPARα and PPARγ activators-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and prostaglandin J2, but not with stearic acid could augment PAI-I mRNA expression and protein secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Proportional induction of PAI-1 promoter activity was observed through increasing amounts of PPARα DNA in HUVECs through a transient gene transfection assay, although the mRNA expression of the 3 subtypes of PPAR with their activators were not changed compared with controls.Conclusions HUVECs express PPARs. PPARs activators may increase PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells (EC). Although PPARs expression was not enhanced after being stimulated by their activators in EC, the functionally active PPARα is probably involved in regulating PAI-1 expression in EC.

  15. Complexing Methylene Blue with Phosphorus Dendrimers to Increase Photodynamic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-02-23

    The efficiency of photodynamic therapy is limited mainly due to low selectivity, unfavorable biodistribution of photosensitizers, and long-lasting skin sensitivity to light. However, drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles may overcome the limitations mentioned above. Among others, dendrimers are particularly attractive as carriers, because of their globular architecture and high loading capacity. The goal of the study was to check whether an anionic phosphorus dendrimer is suitable as a carrier of a photosensitizer-methylene blue (MB). As a biological model, basal cell carcinoma cell lines were used. We checked the influence of the MB complexation on its singlet oxygen production ability using a commercial fluorescence probe. Next, cellular uptake, phototoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell death were investigated. The MB-anionic dendrimer complex (MB-1an) was found to generate less singlet oxygen; however, the complex showed higher cellular uptake and phototoxicity against basal cell carcinoma cell lines, which was accompanied with enhanced ROS production. Owing to the obtained results, we conclude that the photodynamic activity of MB complexed with an anionic dendrimer is higher than free MB against basal cell carcinoma cell lines.

  16. Complexing Methylene Blue with Phosphorus Dendrimers to Increase Photodynamic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dabrzalska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of photodynamic therapy is limited mainly due to low selectivity, unfavorable biodistribution of photosensitizers, and long-lasting skin sensitivity to light. However, drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles may overcome the limitations mentioned above. Among others, dendrimers are particularly attractive as carriers, because of their globular architecture and high loading capacity. The goal of the study was to check whether an anionic phosphorus dendrimer is suitable as a carrier of a photosensitizer—methylene blue (MB. As a biological model, basal cell carcinoma cell lines were used. We checked the influence of the MB complexation on its singlet oxygen production ability using a commercial fluorescence probe. Next, cellular uptake, phototoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and cell death were investigated. The MB-anionic dendrimer complex (MB-1an was found to generate less singlet oxygen; however, the complex showed higher cellular uptake and phototoxicity against basal cell carcinoma cell lines, which was accompanied with enhanced ROS production. Owing to the obtained results, we conclude that the photodynamic activity of MB complexed with an anionic dendrimer is higher than free MB against basal cell carcinoma cell lines.

  17. Application of Pilates principles increases paraspinal muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Letícia Souza; Mochizuki, Luís; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; da Silva, Renato André Sousa; Mota, Yomara Lima

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effect of Pilates principles on the EMG activity of abdominal and paraspinal muscles on stable and unstable surfaces. Surface EMG data about the rectus abdominis (RA), iliocostalis (IL) and lumbar multifidus (MU) of 19 participants were collected while performing three repetitions of a crunch exercise in the following conditions: 1) with no Pilates technique and stable surface (nP + S); 2) with no Pilates technique and unstable surface (nP + U); 3) with Pilates technique and stable surface (P + S); 4) with Pilates and unstable surface (P + U). The EMG Fanalysis was conducted using a custom-made Matlab(®) 10. There was no condition effect in the RA iEMG with stable and unstable surfaces (F(1,290) = 0 p = 0.98) and with and without principles (F(1,290) = 1.2 p = 0.27). IL iEMG was higher for the stable surface condition (F(1,290) = 32.3 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 21.9 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 84.9 p < 0.001). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of sport activities on increasing preschool children's creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shahbazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Torrance tests of creative thinking have been widely used to measure the impact of different items such as creativity on different groups of children. In this study, we perform an empirical study to measure the effects of endurance, power-based and flexibility on a group of children's creativity, originality and flexibility. The study chooses a sample of 341 from 2978 preschool children and distributes a questionnaire among them where 153 were female and 188 of them were male. Cronbach alpha for creativity, originality and fluency were calculated as 0.814, 0.822 and 0.788, respectively. The results of our study indicate that there are some positive and meaningful relationship among three components of creativity, originality and fluency before and after accomplishing test. The impact of test was measured for three types of sport activities including endurance, power-based and flexibility tests. After applying 32 sessions of sporting games, flexibility games represent a mean value of 32.40, which is higher than the other two tests and it maintains meaningful value compared with two other sporting tests of endurance and power base tests.

  19. State support as factor of increase of innovative activity of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Bondarenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted research of factors of increase of innovative activity of enterprise, the indexes of innovative activity of industrial enterprises are analysed in Ukraine, the necessity of creation of attractive terms is grounded for development of innovative activity and increase of innovative activity of management subjects at state level, the forms of state support as factor of increase of innovative activity of industrial enterprises are considered.

  20. Increased biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis by reduced overconsumption of amino acids and increased catalytic activities of enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarel Adamberg

    Full Text Available Steady state cultivation and multidimensional data analysis (metabolic fluxes, absolute proteome, and transcriptome are used to identify parameters that control the increase in biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis from 0.10 to 0.12 C-mol C-mol(-1 with an increase in specific growth rate by 5 times from 0.1 to 0.5 h(-1. Reorganization of amino acid consumption was expressed by the inactivation of the arginine deiminase pathway at a specific growth rate of 0.35 h(-1 followed by reduced over-consumption of pyruvate directed amino acids (asparagine, serine, threonine, alanine and cysteine until almost all consumed amino acids were used only for protein synthesis at maximal specific growth rate. This balanced growth was characterized by a high glycolytic flux carrying up to 87% of the carbon flow and only amino acids that relate to nucleotide synthesis (glutamine, serine and asparagine were consumed in higher amounts than required for cellular protein synthesis. Changes in the proteome were minor (mainly increase in the translation apparatus. Instead, the apparent catalytic activities of enzymes and ribosomes increased by 3.5 times (0.1 vs 0.5 h(-1. The apparent catalytic activities of glycolytic enzymes and ribosomal proteins were seen to follow this regulation pattern while those of enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism increased more than the specific growth rate (over 5.5 times. Nucleotide synthesis formed the most abundant biomonomer synthetic pathway in the cells with an expenditure of 6% from the total ATP required for biosynthesis. Due to the increase in apparent catalytic activity, ribosome translation was more efficient at higher growth rates as evidenced by a decrease of protein to mRNA ratios. All these effects resulted in a 30% decrease of calculated ATP spilling (0.1 vs 0.5 h(-1. Our results show that bioprocesses can be made more efficient (using a balanced metabolism by varying the growth conditions.

  1. Increased hepcidin in transferrin-treated thalassemic mice correlates with increased liver BMP2 expression and decreased hepatocyte ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiyong; Choesang, Tenzin; Li, Huihui; Sun, Shuming; Pham, Petra; Bao, Weili; Feola, Maria; Westerman, Mark; Li, Guiyuan; Follenzi, Antonia; Blanc, Lionel; Rivella, Stefano; Fleming, Robert E; Ginzburg, Yelena Z

    2016-03-01

    Iron overload results in significant morbidity and mortality in β-thalassemic patients. Insufficient hepcidin is implicated in parenchymal iron overload in β-thalassemia and approaches to increase hepcidin have therapeutic potential. We have previously shown that exogenous apo-transferrin markedly ameliorates ineffective erythropoiesis and increases hepcidin expression in Hbb(th1/th1) (thalassemic) mice. We utilize in vivo and in vitro systems to investigate effects of exogenous apo-transferrin on Smad and ERK1/2 signaling, pathways that participate in hepcidin regulation. Our results demonstrate that apo-transferrin increases hepcidin expression in vivo despite decreased circulating and parenchymal iron concentrations and unchanged liver Bmp6 mRNA expression in thalassemic mice. Hepatocytes from apo-transferrin-treated mice demonstrate decreased ERK1/2 pathway and increased serum BMP2 concentration and hepatocyte BMP2 expression. Furthermore, hepatocyte ERK1/2 phosphorylation is enhanced by neutralizing anti-BMP2/4 antibodies and suppressed in vitro in a dose-dependent manner by BMP2, resulting in converse effects on hepcidin expression, and hepatocytes treated with MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 in combination with BMP2 exhibit an additive increase in hepcidin expression. Lastly, bone marrow erythroferrone expression is normalized in apo-transferrin treated thalassemic mice but increased in apo-transferrin injected wild-type mice. These findings suggest that increased hepcidin expression after exogenous apo-transferrin is in part independent of erythroferrone and support a model in which apo-transferrin treatment in thalassemic mice increases BMP2 expression in the liver and other organs, decreases hepatocellular ERK1/2 activation, and increases nuclear Smad to increase hepcidin expression in hepatocytes.

  2. Src activity increases and Yes activity decreases during mitosis of human colon carcinoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J.; Cartwright, C A

    1995-01-01

    Src and Yes protein-tyrosine kinase activities are elevated in malignant and premalignant tumors of the colon. To determine whether Src activity is elevated throughout the human colon carcinoma cell cycle as it is in polyomavirus middle T antigen- or F527 Src-transformed cells, and whether Yes activity, which is lower than that of Src in the carcinoma cells, is regulated differently, we measured their activities in cycling cells. We observed that the activities of both kinases were higher thr...

  3. The effect of increasing autonomy through choice on young children’s physical activity behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing autonomy by manipulating the choice of available physical activity options in a laboratory setting can increase physical activity in older children and adults. However, the effect of manipulating the number of physically active choices has yet to be examined in young children in a gymnas...

  4. Promising School-Based Strategies and Intervention Guidelines to Increase Physical Activity of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Berta Murillo; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Lanaspa, Eduardo Generelo; Bush, Paula L.; Casterad, Javier Zaragoza; Clemente, Jose A. Julian; Gonzalez, Luis Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review describes the available scientific evidence regarding promising school-based strategies to increase physical activity of adolescents. We conducted a literature search for studies published up to 2011, regarding adolescent physical activity intervention studies that resulted in increased physical activity (regardless of…

  5. An Evaluation of Photographic Activity Schedules to Increase Independent Playground Skills in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jessica S.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Pollard, Joy S.; Pellegrino, Azure J.; Gerencser, Kristina R.

    2016-01-01

    We used photographic activity schedules to increase the number of play activities completed by children with autism during unstructured time on the playground. All 3 participants engaged in more playground activities during and after training, and they continued to complete activities when novel photographs were introduced.

  6. Activity of superior head of human lateral pterygoid increases with increases in contralateral and protrusive jaw displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutada, Manish K; Phanachet, Intira; Whittle, Terry; Peck, Chris C; Murray, Greg M

    2007-08-01

    The hypothesis was that the superior head of human lateral pterygoid muscle (SHLP) plays a similar role in jaw movement as the inferior head of human lateral pterygoid muscle (IHLP). The aims were to determine the functional properties of SHLP single motor units (SMUs) and root mean square activity (RMS) of the SHLP during contralateral and protrusive jaw movement tasks and to compare these features with those identified previously for the IHLP. In 22 human subjects, SMUs were recorded intramuscularly from computer tomography-verified sites within the SHLP during standardized contralateral and protrusive jaw movement tasks recorded by a jaw-tracking device. Of the 50 SMUs discriminated, 39 were active during contralateral and 29 during protrusive jaw movements. The firing rates and RMS of the SHLP motor units increased with an increase in jaw displacement. The RMS activity across the entire trial during contralateral jaw movement was significantly greater than that during protrusion. Similarly to conclusions previously identified for the IHLP, the data are consistent with an important role for the SHLP in the control of contralateral and protrusive jaw movements. The similarities in SHLP and IHLP functional properties support the proposal that both heads should be regarded as a system of fibers acting as one muscle.

  7. INCREASED TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY IN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AMONG PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat IŞIKAY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Celiac disease is an autoimmune systemic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals precipitated by gluten ingestion. Objective - In this study, we aimed to determine asymptomatic spike-and-wave findings on electroencephalography in children with celiac disease. Methods - A total of 175 children with the diagnosis of celiac disease (study group and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy children as controls (control group were included in the study. In order to determine the effects of gluten free diet on laboratory and electroencephalography findings, the celiac group is further subdivided into two as newly-diagnosed and formerly-diagnosed patients. Medical histories of all children and laboratory findings were all recorded and neurologic statuses were evaluated. All patients underwent a sleep and awake electroencephalography. Results - Among 175 celiac disease patients included in the study, 43 were newly diagnosed while 132 were formerly-diagnosed patients. In electroencephalography evaluation of patients the epileptiform activity was determined in 4 (9.3% of newly diagnosed and in 2 (1.5% of formerly diagnosed patients; on the other hand the epileptiform activity was present in only 1 (1.0% of control cases. There was a statistically significant difference between groups in regards to the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that epileptiform activity in both sleep and awake electroencephalography were positively correlated with tissue transglutaminase levels (P=0.014 and P=0.019, respectively. Conclusion - We have determined an increased epileptiform activity frequency among newly-diagnosed celiac disease patients compared with formerly-diagnosed celiac disease patients and control cases. Moreover the tissue transglutaminase levels were also correlated with the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Among newly diagnosed celiac disease patients

  8. Texting to Increase Physical Activity Among Teenagers (TXT Me!): Rationale, Design, and Methods Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Debbe; Cantu, Dora; Bhatt, Riddhi; Baranowski, Tom; Rodgers, Wendy; Jago, Russell; Anderson, Barbara; Liu, Yan; Mendoza, Jason A.; Tapia, Ramsey; Buday, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity decreases from childhood through adulthood. Among youth, teenagers (teens) achieve the lowest levels of physical activity, and high school age youth are particularly at risk of inactivity. Effective methods are needed to increase youth physical activity in a way that can be maintained through adulthood. Because teens text a great deal, text messages promoting walking, a low cost physical activity, may be an effective method for promoting sustainable physical activ...

  9. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  10. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  11. Low Dopamine D2 Receptor Increases Vulnerability to Obesity Via Reduced Physical Activity, Not Increased Appetitive Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Jeff A; Faust, Rudolf P; Turkson, Susie; Ye, Honggang; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2016-06-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) has received much attention in obesity studies. Data indicate that D2R is reduced in obesity and that the TaqA1 D2R variant may be more prevalent among obese persons. It is often suggested that reduced D2R generates a reward deficiency and altered appetitive motivation that induces compulsive eating and contributes to obesity. Although dopamine is known to regulate physical activity, it is often neglected in these studies, leaving open the question of whether reduced D2R contributes to obesity through alterations in energy expenditure and activity. We generated a D2R knockdown (KD) mouse line and assessed both energy expenditure and appetitive motivation under conditions of diet-induced obesity. The KD mice did not gain more weight or show increased appetitive motivation compared with wild-type mice in a standard environment; however, in an enriched environment with voluntary exercise opportunities, KD mice exhibited dramatically lower activity and became more obese than wild-type mice, obtaining no protective benefit from exercise opportunities. These data suggest the primary contribution of altered D2R signaling to obesity lies in altered energy expenditure rather than the induction of compulsive overeating. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increasing Activity Attendance and Engagement in Individuals with Dementia Using Descriptive Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenske, Shasta; Rudrud, Eric H.; Schulze, Kimberly A.; Rapp, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of providing descriptive prompts to increase activity attendance and engagement in 6 individuals with dementia were evaluated using a reversal design. The results showed that providing descriptive prompts increased activity attendance and engagement for all participants. The results support the use of antecedent interventions for…

  13. The most physically active Danish adolescents are at increased risk for developing spinal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Boyle, Eleanor; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    physical activity, the RR was 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) for reporting spinal pain at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In general, physical activity did not affect the risk of spinal pain during follow-up, but the 10% most active adolescents were at increased risk of developing spinal pain. Thus, vigorous physical...

  14. Use of a lag differential reinforcement contingency to increase varied selections of classroom activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammilleri, Anthony P; Hanley, Gregory P

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a lag differential reinforcement contingency on 2 students' activity selections using reversal designs. Results showed that the lag contingency was responsible for promoting increased novel selections, engagement in diverse activities, and greater progress with respect to programmed academic activities.

  15. Use Of A Lag Differential Reinforcement Contingency To Increase Varied Selections Of Classroom Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Cammilleri, Anthony P; Hanley, Gregory P

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a lag differential reinforcement contingency on 2 students' activity selections using reversal designs. Results showed that the lag contingency was responsible for promoting increased novel selections, engagement in diverse activities, and greater progress with respect to programmed academic activities.

  16. Use of a Lag Differential Reinforcement Contingency to Increase Varied Selections of Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammilleri, Anthony P.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a lag differential reinforcement contingency on 2 students' activity selections using reversal designs. Results showed that the lag contingency was responsible for promoting increased novel selections, engagement in diverse activities, and greater progress with respect to programmed academic activities.

  17. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activity reduces imatinib uptake and efficacy in chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jueqiong; Lu, Liu; Kok, Chung H; Saunders, Verity A; Goyne, Jarrad M; Dang, Phuong; Leclercq, Tamara M; Hughes, Timothy P; White, Deborah L

    2017-02-02

    Imatinib is actively transported by OCT-1 influx transporter, and low OCT-1 activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia blood mononuclear cells is significantly associated with poor molecular response to imatinib. Here we report that, in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells and BCR-ABL1+ cell lines, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (GW1929, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone) significantly decrease OCT-1 activity; conversely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists (GW9662, T0070907) increase OCT-1 activity. Importantly, these effects can lead to corresponding changes in sensitivity to Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition. Results were confirmed in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-transduced K562 cells. Furthermore, we identified a strong negative correlation between OCT-1 activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcriptional activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia patients (n=84; preceptor gamma activation has a negative impact on the intracellular uptake of imatinib and consequent Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition. The inter-patient variability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation likely accounts for the heterogeneity observed in patient OCT-1 activity at diagnosis. Recently, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone was reported to act synergistically with imatinib targeting the residual chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell pool. Our findings suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands have differential effects on circulating mononuclear cells compared to stem cells. Since the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation on imatinib uptake in mononuclear cells may counteract the clinical benefit of this activation in stem cells, caution should be applied when combining these therapies, especially in patients with high peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

  18. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  19. Vertebrate blood cell volume increases with temperature: implications for aerobic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Gillooly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply at higher temperatures, and thus greater aerobic activity, remain unclear. Here we show that the total volume of red blood cells in the body increases exponentially with temperature across vertebrates, after controlling for effects of body size and taxonomy. These changes are accompanied by increases in relative heart mass, an indicator of aerobic activity. The results point to one way vertebrates may increase oxygen supply to meet the demands of greater activity at higher temperatures.

  20. The Increasing Impact of Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Plant Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kyoko; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2016-03-01

    The active proteome dictates plant physiology. Yet, active proteins are difficult to predict based on transcript or protein levels, because protein activities are regulated post-translationally in their microenvironments. Over the past 10 years, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is increasingly used in plant science. ABPP monitors the activities of hundreds of plant proteins using tagged chemical probes that react with the active site of proteins in a mechanism-dependent manner. Since labeling is covalent and irreversible, labeled proteins can be detected and identified on protein gels and by mass spectrometry using tagged fluorophores and/or biotin. Here, we discuss general concepts, approaches and practical considerations of ABPP, before we summarize the discoveries made using 40 validated probes representing 14 chemotypes that can monitor the active state of >4,500 plant proteins. These discoveries and new opportunities indicate that this emerging functional proteomic technology is a powerful discovery tool that will have an increasing impact on plant science.

  1. Low Amount of Salinomycin Greatly Increases Akt Activation, but Reduces Activated p70S6K Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungpil Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal.

  2. Morphine treatment during juvenile isolation increases social activity and opioid peptides release in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berg, C L; Kitchen, I; Gerrits, M A; Spruijt, B M; Van Ree, J M

    1999-05-29

    The consequences of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment on general activity, social activity and endogenous opioid release during a social interaction test were investigated in the adult rat. Rats were either isolated or socially housed during weeks 4 and 5 of age and treated daily during this isolation period subcutaneously with either saline or morphine. Directly after a social interaction test at 10 weeks of age, rats were injected with [3H]-diprenorphine and subsequently prepared for in vivo autoradiography. The autoradiographic technique was used to visualise neuroanatomical changes in opioid receptor occupancy, probably reflecting changes in opioid peptide release, as a result of social activity. Juvenile isolation increased general activity during the social interaction test, an effect which was accompanied by a reduction of opioid receptor occupancy in many brain areas, suggesting an increased opioid peptide release as a consequence of socially-induced general activity. Morphine treatment in isolated rats caused an increase in adult social activity and enhanced opioid peptide release in some cortical regions and the ventral tegmental area as compared to saline treated rats. Both social activity and opioid receptor occupancy were unaffected by morphine treatment in non-isolated rats. The present study underscores the role of opioid systems in adult social behaviors as a consequence of juvenile isolation. The results suggest a relationship between social activity and opioid peptide release during social contact. Increased social activity seems to be accompanied by elevated opioid peptide release in distinct brain areas after morphine treatment during juvenile isolation.

  3. Hypercapnia-induced active expiration increases in sleep and enhances ventilation in unanaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leirão, Isabela P; Silva, Carlos A; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; da Silva, Glauber S F

    2017-08-03

    Expiratory muscles (abdominal and thoracic) can be recruited when respiratory drive increases under conditions of increased respiratory demand such as hypercapnia. Studying hypercapnia-induced active expiration in unanaesthetized rats importantly contributes to the understanding of how the control system is integrated in vivo in freely moving animals. In unanaesthetized rats, hypercapnia-induced active expiration was not always recruited either in wakefulness or in sleep, suggesting that additional factors influence the recruitment of active expiration. The pattern of abdominal muscle recruitment varied in a state-dependent manner with active expiration being more predominant in the sleep state than in quiet wakefulness. Pulmonary ventilation was enhanced in periods with active expiration compared to periods without it. Expiration is passive at rest but becomes active through recruitment of abdominal muscles under increased respiratory drive. Hypercapnia-induced active expiration has not been well explored in unanaesthetized rats. We hypothesized that (i) CO2 -evoked active expiration is recruited in a state-dependent manner, i.e. differently in sleep or wakefulness, and (ii) recruitment of active expiration enhances ventilation, hence having an important functional role in meeting metabolic demand. To test these hypotheses, Wistar rats (280-330 g) were implanted with electrodes for EEG and electromyography EMG of the neck, diaphragm (DIA) and abdominal (ABD) muscles. Active expiratory events were considered as rhythmic ABDEMG activity interposed to DIAEMG . Animals were exposed to room air followed by hypercapnia (7% CO2 ) with EEG, EMG and ventilation (V̇E) recorded throughout the experimental protocol. No active expiration was observed during room air exposure. During hypercapnia, CO2 -evoked active expiration was predominantly recruited during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Its increased occurrence during sleep was evidenced by the decreased DIA-to-ADB ratio

  4. Targeting Reductions in Sitting Time to Increase Physical Activity and Improve Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah K; Conroy, David E; Buman, Matthew P; Dunstan, David W; Matthews, Charles E

    2017-08-01

    : New evidence suggests that reductions in sedentary behavior may increase physical activity and improve health. These findings point to new behavioral targets for intervention and new ways to think about intervening to increase overall physical activity in the population. This report provides a knowledge update reflecting the rapid accumulation of new evidence related to sedentary behavior and health among adults. Recent observational studies suggest that leveraging the time-inverse relationship between sedentary and active behaviors by replacing sitting with standing, light- or moderate-intensity activity can have important health benefits, particularly among less active adults. Clinical studies are providing evidence of the probable physiologic mechanisms underlying these associations, as well as insights into the cardiometabolic impact of breaking up and reducing sedentary behavior. In contrast to the well-established behavioral theories that guide the development and dissemination of evidence-based interventions to increase moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, much less is known about how to reduce sedentary time to increase daily activities. It has become clear that the environmental, social, and individual level determinants for sedentary time are distinct from those linked to the adoption and maintenance of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. As a result, novel intervention strategies that focus on sitting and lower-intensity activities by leveraging the surrounding environment (e.g., workplace, school, and home) as well as individual-level cues and habits of sedentary behavior are being tested to increase the potency of interventions designed to increase overall physical activity. Herein we summarize the solutions-oriented research across the behavioral research framework, with a focus on highlighting areas of synergy across disciplines and identifying gaps for future research.

  5. Increase of productivity attacks of young basketbal players on the basis perfection their competitive activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozin V.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is increase of productivity attacks of basketball players 15-17 years on the basis perfection their competitive activity creation of situations of counteractions is carried out by connection of models in the directed programming system of game activity. The system has different character and allows to model individual and group counteractions. The gain of indicators of mental qualities is as a result established, increase of indicators of force and speed qualities, productivity of attacking actions is noted.

  6. Increased writing activity in neurological conditions: a review and clinical study.

    OpenAIRE

    van Vugt, P; Paquier, P.; Kees, L; Cras, P.

    1996-01-01

    Increased writing activity in a 70 year old, right handed man presenting with a history of alcohol misuse and maturity onset diabetes is reported. Brain CT disclosed corticosubcortical atrophy and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT disclosed severe bilateral frontal hypoperfusion more prominent on the right. The patient's neuropsychological symptomatology consisted of severe (verbal) aspontaneity, intermittent utilisation behaviour, and pronounced increased writing activity, which mainly consisted of a persev...

  7. p53 increases caspase-6 expression and activation in muscle tissue expressing mutant huntingtin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E; Skotte, Niels H; Ladha, Safia

    2014-01-01

    a role in the peripheral phenotypes, such as muscle wasting observed in HD. We assessed skeletal muscle tissue from HD patients and well-characterized mouse models of HD. Cleavage of the caspase-6 specific substrate lamin A is significantly increased in skeletal muscle obtained from HD patients as well...... as in muscle tissues from two different HD mouse models. p53, a transcriptional activator of caspase-6, is upregulated in neuronal cells and tissues expressing mutant huntingtin. Activation of p53 leads to a dramatic increase in levels of caspase-6 mRNA, caspase-6 activity and cleavage of lamin A. Using mouse......-6 expression and activation is exacerbated in cells and tissues of both neuronal and peripheral origin expressing mutant huntingtin (Htt). These findings suggest that the presence of the mutant Htt protein enhances p53 activity and lowers the apoptotic threshold, which activates caspase-6...

  8. Physical Activity After Stroke Is Associated With Increased Interhemispheric Connectivity of the Dorsal Attention Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldsman, Michele; Churilov, Leonid; Werden, Emilio; Li, Qi; Cumming, Toby; Brodtmann, Amy

    2017-02-01

    Attention is frequently impaired after stroke, and its impairment is associated with poor quality of life. Physical activity benefits attention in healthy populations and has also been associated with recovery after brain injury. We investigated the relationship between objectively measured daily physical activity, attention network connectivity, and attention task performance after stroke. We hypothesized that increased daily physical activity would be associated with improved attention network function. Stroke patients (n = 62; mean age = 67 years, SD = 12.6 years) and healthy controls (n = 27; mean age = 68 years, SD = 6 years) underwent cognitive testing and 7 minutes of functional magnetic resonance imaging in the resting-state. Patients were tested 3 months after ischemic stroke. Physical activity was monitored with an electronic armband worn for 7 days. Dorsal and ventral attention network function was examined using seed-based connectivity analyses. Greater daily physical activity was associated with increased interhemispheric connectivity of the superior parietal lobule in the dorsal attention network (DAN; P attention tasks, as revealed by robust linear regression. The relationship remained after adjusting for age, gray matter volume, and white matter hyperintensity load. Daily physical activity was associated with increased resting interhemispheric connectivity of the DAN. Increased connectivity was associated with faster attention performance, suggesting a cognitive correlate to increased network connectivity. Attentional modulation by physical activity represents a key focus for intervention studies.

  9. Newspaper Content Analysis in Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Project to Increase Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…

  10. Increased MMP-2 activity during intervertebral disc degeneration is correlated to MMP-14 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutges, J. P. H. J.; Kummer, J. A.; Oner, F. C.; Verbout, A. J.; Roestenburg, H. J. A.; Dhert, W. J. A.; Creemers, L. B.

    2008-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with the increased expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-2. However, little is known about the actual activity of MMP-2 in healthy and degenerated discs, or what mechanisms are involved in its activation. A majo

  11. Carnosine: effect on aging-induced increase in brain regional monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-03-01

    Aging is a natural biological process associated with several neurological disorders along with the biochemical changes in brain. Aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of carnosine (0.5-2.5μg/kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) on aging-induced changes in brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity with its kinetic parameters. The results of the present study are: (1) The brain regional mitochondrial MAO-A activity and their kinetic parameters (except in Km of pons-medulla) were significantly increased with the increase of age (4-24 months), (2) Aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity including its Vmax were attenuated with higher dosages of carnosine (1.0-2.5μg/kg/day) and restored toward the activity that observed in young, though its lower dosage (0.5μg/kg/day) were ineffective in these brain regional MAO-A activity, (3) Carnosine at higher dosage in young rats, unlike aged rats significantly inhibited all the brain regional MAO-A activity by reducing their only Vmax excepting cerebral cortex, where Km was also significantly enhanced. These results suggest that carnosine attenuated the aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity by attenuating its kinetic parameters and restored toward the results of MAO-A activity that observed in corresponding brain regions of young rats.

  12. Focused Campaign Increases Activity among Participants in "Nature's Notebook," a Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants' activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a…

  13. Increase the Performance of Companies in the Energy Sector by Implementing the Activity-Based Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Letitia-Maria Rof; Sorinel Capusneanu

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the increasing performances as result of implementation stages of the ActivityBased Costing in the companies operating in the energy sector in Romania. There are presented some aspects of the usefulness of applying the Activity-Based Costing in the energy sector and the advantages it offers compared to traditional costing. There are also outlined the steps for applying the Activity-Based Costing and its implementation in the largest hydropower producer in Romania. The ...

  14. Utilizing avidity to improve antifreeze protein activity: a type III antifreeze protein trimer exhibits increased thermal hysteresis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özge; Holland, Nolan B

    2013-12-03

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice growth inhibitors that allow the survival of several species living at temperatures colder than the freezing point of their bodily fluids. AFP activity is commonly defined in terms of thermal hysteresis, which is the difference observed for the solution freezing and melting temperatures. Increasing the thermal hysteresis activity of these proteins, particularly at low concentrations, is of great interest because of their wide range of potential applications. In this study, we have designed and expressed one-, two-, and three-domain antifreeze proteins to improve thermal hysteresis activity through increased binding avidity. The three-domain type III AFP yielded significantly greater activity than the one- and two-domain proteins, reaching a thermal hysteresis of >1.6 °C at a concentration of hysteresis activity.

  15. Activation of intestinal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α increases high-density lipoprotein production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Sophie; Briand, Olivier; Touche, Véronique; Wouters, Kristiaan; Baron, Morgane; Pattou, François; Hanf, Rémy; Tailleux, Anne; Chinetti, Giulia; Staels, Bart; Lestavel, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Aims Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) α is a transcription factor controlling lipid metabolism in liver, heart, muscle and macrophages. PPARα-activation increases plasma HDL-cholesterol and exerts hypotriglyceridemic actions via the liver. However, the intestine expresses PPARα, produces HDL and chylomicrons and is exposed to diet-derived PPARα ligands. Therefore, we examined the effects of PPARα-activation on intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Methods and Results The impact of PPARα-activation was evaluated in term of HDL-related gene expression in mice, ex-vivo in human jejunal biopsies and in Caco-2/TC7 cells. ApoAI/HDL secretion, cholesterol esterification and trafficking were also studied in-vitro. In parallel to improving plasma lipid profiles and increasing liver and intestinal expression of fatty-acid-oxidation genes, treatment with the dual PPARα/δ-ligand GFT505 resulted in a more pronounced increase of plasma HDL compared to fenofibrate in mice. GFT505, but not fenofibrate, increased the expression of HDL-production genes such as apolipoprotein-AI and ATP-Binding-Cassette-A1 transporter in murine intestines. A similar increase was observed upon PPARα-activation of human biopsies and Caco-2/TC7 cells. Additionally, HDL secretion by Caco-2/TC7 cells increased. Moreover, PPARα-activation decreased the cholesterol-esterification capacity of Caco-2/TC7 cells, modified cholesterol trafficking and reduced apolipoprotein-B secretion. Conclusions PPARα-activation reduces cholesterol esterification, suppresses chylomicron- and increases HDL-secretion by enterocytes. These results identify the intestine as a target organ of PPARα-ligands with entero-hepatic tropism to reduce atherogenic dyslipidemia. PMID:22843443

  16. Effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Kim, Bokun; Katayama, Yasutomi; Wakaba, Kyousuke; Wang, Zhennan; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increasing physical activity on foot structure and ankle muscle strength in adults with obesity and to verify whether the rate of change in foot structure is related to that in ankle muscle strength. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven adults with obesity completed a 12-week program in which the intensity of physical activity performed was gradually increased. Physical activity was monitored using a three-axis accelerometer. Foot structure was assessed using a three-dimensional foot scanner, while ankle muscle strength was measured using a dynamometry. [Results] With the increasing physical activity, the participants’ feet became thinner (the rearfoot width, instep height, and girth decreased) and the arch became higher (the arch height index increased) and stiffer (the arch stiffness index increased); the ankle muscle strength also increased after the intervention. Additionally, the changes in the arch height index and arch stiffness index were not associated with changes in ankle muscle strength. [Conclusion] Increasing physical activity may be one possible approach to improve foot structure and function in individuals with obesity. PMID:27630426

  17. Volitional muscle activity paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation increases corticospinal excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Edwardson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of activity-dependent stimulation in non-human primates suggest that pairing each instance of volitional muscle activity with immediate intracortical stimulation causes long-term-potentiation-like effects. This technique holds promise for clinical rehabilitation, yet few investigators have tested activity-dependent stimulation in human subjects. In addition, no one has studied activity-dependent stimulation on the cortical representation for two separate target muscles in human subjects. We hypothesized that 40 min of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS triggered from ballistic muscle activity at a mean repetition rate of 1 Hz would cause greater increases in corticospinal excitability than TMS-cued muscle activity, and that these changes would be specific to the muscle of study. Ten healthy human subjects participated in 4 separate sessions in this crossover study: (1 visually cued volitional activation of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB muscle triggering TMS (APB-Triggered TMS, (2 volitional activation of APB in response to TMS delivered from a recording of the prior APB-Triggered TMS session (TMS-Cued APB, (3 visually cued volitional activation of the extensor digitorum (ED triggering TMS (ED-Triggered TMS, and (4 volitional activation of ED in response to TMS delivered from a recording of the prior ED-Triggered TMS session (TMS-Cued ED. Contrary to our hypothesis, we discovered evidence of increased corticospinal excitability for all conditions as measured by change in area of the motor evoked potential. We conclude that single TMS pulses paired either before or after muscle activity may increase corticospinal excitability and that further studies are needed to clarify the optimal time window for inducing neural plasticity with activity-dependent stimulation. These findings will inform the design of future activity-dependent stimulation protocols for clinical rehabilitation.

  18. Sexual activity increases dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, J G; Damsma, G; Wenkstern, D; Fibiger, H C

    1995-09-25

    In vivo microdialysis was used to monitor extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA), and its metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of sexually active female rats during tests of locomotor activity, exposure to a novel chamber, exposure to sex odors, the presentation of a sexually active male rat, and copulation. DA increased slightly but significantly in the nucleus accumbens when a sexually active male was placed behind a wire-mesh screen, and further during copulation. DA also increased significantly in the dorsal striatum during copulation; however, the magnitude of this effect was significantly lower than that observed in the nucleus accumbens. The metabolites DOPAC and HVA generally followed DA with a delay, and increased significantly during copulation in both regions. In contrast, forced locomotion on a rotating drum, exposure to a novel testing chamber, and exposure to sex odors did not increase DA significantly in either region, although forced locomotion increased DOPAC significantly in both regions, and HVA significantly in the nucleus accumbens. The magnitude of DA release in the nucleus accumbens was significantly greater during copulation than running, whereas no significant difference was detected for striatal DA release between these two behavioral conditions. These results indicate that novelty or locomotor activity alone do not account for the increase in DA observed in the nucleus accumbens of female rats during copulation, and suggest that DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens is associated with anticipatory and consummatory aspects of sexual activity, as it is in male rats. In the dorsal striatum, however, DA release during copulation may reflect an increase in locomotor activity associated with active pacing of the male.

  19. Increased activities of mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Vinten, J; Ploug, T

    1991-01-01

    of 8-12 rats were swim trained for 10 wk or served as either sedentary, sham swim-trained, or cold-stressed controls. White adipose tissue was removed, and the activities of the respiratory chain enzyme cytochrome-c oxidase (CCO) and of the enzyme malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which participates...... 0.05). In female rats the CCO activity expressed per milligram protein was increased 4.5-fold in the trained compared with the sedentary control rats (P less than 0.01). Neither cold stress nor sham swim training increased CCO or MDH activities in white adipose tissue (P greater than 0...

  20. Enzyme-assisted processing increases antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of bilberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Nohynek, Liisa; Ammann, Sabine; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Buchert, Johanna

    2008-02-13

    The effects of nine cell wall-degrading enzymes on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bilberry were studied. Antimicrobial activity was measured using the human pathogens Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus as test strains. Enzyme treatments liberated phenolics from the cell wall matrix, which clearly increased the antimicrobial activity of berry juices, press cakes, and berry mashes on the basis of plate counts. Antibacterial effects were stronger against Salmonella than against Staphylococcus bacteria. In general, the increase in activity measured as colony-forming units per milliliter was 3-5 logarithmic units against Salmonella and 1-2 units against Staphylococcus bacteria. Increase in antimicrobial activity was observed only in acidic conditions, which is also the natural environment in various berry products, such as juices. The activity profile of the pectinase preparation affected the chemistry of the phenolics due to the presence of deglycosylating activities in some preparations. The difference in phenolic profiles was reflected in the antimicrobial effects. Bilberry mashes treated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Pectinex 3 XL, and Pectinex BE XXL were most efficient against Salmonella bacteria, whereas mashes treated with Pectinex Smash, Pectinex BE 3-L, and Biopectinase CCM showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria. Due to the liberation of phenolics from the cell wall matrix the antioxidant activity measured as radical scavenging activity was also increased on average about 30% by the enzymatic treatments. The highest increase in phenolic compounds was about 40%. Highest increases in anthocyanins and in antioxidant activity were observed in berry mash treated with Pectinex Smash XXL enzyme, and the lowest increase was observed after treatment with Pectinex BE 3-L. Enzyme-assisted processing is traditionally used to improve berry and fruit juice yields. However, enzymatic treatments also

  1. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Alonso-Azcarate, J. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Carlos III, s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Rodriguez, L., E-mail: Luis.Rromero@uclm.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: > Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. > Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. > Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.

  2. Increasing Physical Activity in Preschool: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Animal Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christine L.; Carter, Betty Jean; Kibbe, Debra L.; Dennison, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This report describes a pilot study to evaluate Animal Trackers (AT), a preschool program designed to (1) increase structured physical activity (PA) during the preschool day; (2) increase practice of gross motor skills; (3) provide teachers with an easy-to-use PA program regardless of teacher experience; and (4) implement a teacher…

  3. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol activates [Ca2+], increases partly sensitive to capacitative store refilling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipeanu, CM; deZeeuw, D; Nelemans, SA

    1997-01-01

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol induces [Ca2+](i) increases in DDT1MF-2 smooth muscle cells. Both Ca2+ entry and release from intracellular Ca2+ stores were concentration dependently activated. The Ca2+ entry component contributed most to the increases in [Ca2+](i). Stimulation with Delta(9)-tetrahydr

  4. Increase of histidine decarboxylase activity in mice hypothalamus after intracerebroventricular administration of lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, M; Mochizuki, T; Cacabelos, R; Yamatodani, A

    1993-10-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of lipopolysaccharide on histidine decarboxylase activity and histamine content in the hypothalamus were investigated in male mice of ddY strain in vivo. Two-fold increase in histidine decarboxylase activity (HDC) was observed 4 h after administration of 50 mcg lipopolysaccharide, and HDC activity returned to the basal level within 12 h after injection. Furthermore, histamine contents showed a slight decrease at 1 and 2 h and a mild increase at 12 h after administration. However, changes in histamine content were not statistically significant. These results suggest that the increase of HDC activity in the hypothalamus by lipopolysaccharide may be involved in the central neuroimmune responses.

  5. Activation of muscarinic receptors in porcine airway smooth muscle elicits a transient increase in phospholipase D activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoon, A M; Smith, J; Baker, R C; Farley, J M

    1999-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphodiesterase that catalyses hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to produce phosphatidic acid and choline. In the presence of ethanol, PLD also catalyses the formation of phosphatidylethanol, which is a unique characteristic of this enzyme. Muscarinic receptor-induced changes in the activity of PLD were investigated in porcine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring the formation of [3H]phosphatidic acid ([3H]PA) and [3H]phosphatidylethanol ([3H]PEth) after labeling the muscle strips with [3H]palmitic acid. The cholinergic receptor agonist acetylcholine (Ach) significantly but transiently increased formation of both [3H]PA and [3H]PEth in a concentration-dependent manner (>105-400% vs. controls in the presence of 10(-6) to 10(-4) M Ach) when pretreated with 100 mM ethanol. The Ach receptor-mediated increase in PLD activity was inhibited by atropine (10(-6) M), indicating that activation of PLD occurred via muscarinic receptors. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) increased PLD activity that was effectively blocked by the PKC inhibitors calphostin C (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) and GFX (10(-8) to 10(-6) M). Ach-induced increases in PLD activity were also significantly, but incompletely, inhibited by both GFX and calphostin C. From the present data, we conclude that in tracheal smooth muscle, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-induced PLD activation is transient in nature and coupled to these receptors via PKC. However, PKC activation is not solely responsible for Ach-induced activation of PLD in porcine tracheal smooth muscle.

  6. Arm movements can increase leg muscle activity during submaximal recumbent stepping in neurologically intact individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kam, Digna; Rijken, Hennie; Manintveld, Toos; Nienhuis, Bart; Dietz, Volker; Duysens, Jacques

    2013-07-01

    Facilitation of leg muscle activity by active arm movements during locomotor tasks could be beneficial during gait rehabilitation after spinal cord injury. The present study explored the effects of arm movements on leg muscle activity during submaximal recumbent stepping. Healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepping machine both with and without arm movements. Activity of five leg muscles was recorded and compared for stepping with and without arm movements. To determine which arm movements are optimal for leg muscle facilitation, subjects were instructed to step with 1) mechanically coupled vs. decoupled arm and leg movements, 2) synchronous vs. asynchronous arm movements, and 3) at 50 vs. 70 RPM. Leg muscle activity was increased by active arm movements in all muscles, except the vastus lateralis muscle. Activity of other extensors (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and biceps femoris) was primarily increased during the extension phase, whereas activity of flexors (tibialis anterior) was also increased during the flexion phase. Facilitation was more or less consistent for both frequencies and for synchronous and asynchronous movements. For coupled arm movements, facilitation tended to be diminished or absent. The observed facilitation in the present study is probably of neuromuscular rather than biomechanical origin, since the arms are probably hardly involved in postural control or weight-bearing during recumbent stepping. Further studies in patients should explore the possibility to integrate neuromuscular facilitation in rehabilitation programs.

  7. Potential to increase active commuting level in university area (Case study: Universitas Gadjah Mada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    In order to alleviate the negative impacts of motorized vehicle use as well as create sustainable environment within campus area, it is pivotal to encourage mode shifting among university students. Active transport modes such as walking, cycling, and using public transport can be considered as alternative modes. This paper tried to identify the potential to increase active commuting in UGM by understanding student’s travel behavior. ANOVA test was employed to identify the perceptions between students across residential zones toward motivators and barriers to actively commute. The findings were used to propose strategies for increasing active commuting level in UGM, which are: reducing barriers to actively commute, improving public transport services, improving walking and cycling facilities, and introducing programs to discourage motorized vehicle use.

  8. Peripheral Sensitization Increases Opioid Receptor Expression and Activation by Crotalphine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Fernandes, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Parada, Carlos Amilcar; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Cury, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation enhances the peripheral analgesic efficacy of opioid drugs, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Crotalphine (CRP), a peptide that was first isolated from South American rattlesnake C.d. terrificus venom, induces a potent and long-lasting anti-nociceptive effect that is mediated by the activation of peripheral opioid receptors. Because the high efficacy of CRP is only observed in the presence of inflammation, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the CRP anti-nociceptive effect induced by inflammation. Using real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and ELISA assays, we demonstrate that the intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases the mRNA and protein levels of the µ- and κ-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and paw tissue of rats within 3 h of the injection. Using conformation state-sensitive antibodies that recognize activated opioid receptors, we show that PGE2, alone does not increase the activation of these opioid receptors but that in the presence of PGE2, the activation of specific opioid receptors by CRP and selective µ- and κ-opioid receptor agonists (positive controls) increases. Furthermore, PGE2 down-regulated the expression and activation of the δ-opioid receptor. CRP increased the level of activated mitogen-activated protein kinases in cultured DRG neurons, and this increase was dependent on the activation of protein kinase Cζ. This CRP effect was much more prominent when the cells were pretreated with PGE2. These results indicate that the expression and activation of peripheral opioid receptors by opioid-like drugs can be up- or down-regulated in the presence of an acute injury and that acute tissue injury enhances the efficacy of peripheral opioids. PMID:24594607

  9. Adolescent Activity-Based Anorexia Increases Anxiety-Like Behavior in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Hargrave, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia is a paradigm that induces increased physical activity, reduced food intake, and heightened activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult rats. To investigate whether experience with activity-based anorexia produced enduring effects on brain and behavior, female adolescent rats experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence and were tested in adulthood for anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. Analysis of elevated plus maze and open field behavior in adulthood revealed that rats that experienced activity-based anorexia during adolescence, but not rats that were simply food restricted, displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Plasma corticosterone and expression levels of corticotropin- releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and in the central nucleus of the amygdala were significantly elevated in adult rats that had undergone activity-based anorexia in adolescence in response to the open field exposure, as compared to control rats. These data demonstrate enduring effects of adolescent activity-based anorexia on anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine factors critical in stress responsivity in adulthood. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activity-based anorexia during adolescence serves as a model whereby prolonged anxiety is induced, allowing for evaluation of the behavioral and neural correlates of mediating anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. PMID:20566408

  10. Vagus nerve stimulation increases energy expenditure: relation to brown adipose tissue activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy H E J Vijgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human brown adipose tissue (BAT activity is inversely related to obesity and positively related to energy expenditure. BAT is highly innervated and it is suggested the vagus nerve mediates peripheral signals to the central nervous system, there connecting to sympathetic nerves that innervate BAT. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS is used for refractory epilepsy, but is also reported to generate weight loss. We hypothesize VNS increases energy expenditure by activating BAT. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen patients with stable vns therapy (age: 45 ± 10 yrs; body mass index; 25.2 ± 3.5 kg/m(2 were included between January 2011 and June 2012. Ten subjects were measured twice, once with active and once with inactivated VNS. Five other subjects were measured twice, once with active VNS at room temperature and once with active VNS under cold exposure in order to determine maximal cold-induced BAT activity. BAT activity was assessed by 18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography-and-Computed-Tomography. Basal metabolic rate (BMR was significantly higher when VNS was turned on (mean change; +2.2%. Mean BAT activity was not significantly different between active VNS and inactive VNS (BAT SUV(Mean; 0.55 ± 0.25 versus 0.67 ± 0.46, P = 0.619. However, the change in energy expenditure upon VNS intervention (On-Off was significantly correlated to the change in BAT activity (r = 0.935, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: VNS significantly increases energy expenditure. The observed change in energy expenditure was significantly related to the change in BAT activity. This suggests a role for BAT in the VNS increase in energy expenditure. Chronic VNS may have a beneficial effect on the human energy balance that has potential application for weight management therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Register under the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01491282.

  11. Increased CSF-BACE1 activity associated with decreased hippocampus volume in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The enzyme beta-secretase (BACE1) is essentially involved in the production of cerebral amyloidogenic pathology in Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD). The measurement of BACE1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported, which may render CSF measurement of BACE1 a potential biomarker candidate of AD. In order to investigate whether BACE1 protein activity is correlated with regional brain atrophy in AD, we investigated the association between CSF levels of BACE1 and MRI-assessed hippocampus volume in patients with AD (n = 30). An increase in CSF-BACE1 activity was associated with decreased left and right hippocampus volume corrected for global head volume in the AD patients. Boot-strapped regression analysis showed that increased CSF levels of BACE1 activity were associated with increased CSF concentration of total tau but not amyloid-beta1-42 in AD. White matter hyperintensities did not influence the results. BACE1 activity and protein levels were significantly increased in AD compared to 19 elderly healthy controls. Thus, the CSF biomarker candidate of BACE1 activity was associated with hippocampus atrophy in AD in a robust manner and may reflect neurotoxic amyloid-beta-related processes.

  12. Exercise increases hexokinase II mRNA, but not activity in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusi, K J; Pratipanawatr, T; Koval, J; Printz, R; Ardehali, H; Granner, D K; Defronzo, R A; Mandarino, L J

    2001-05-01

    Glucose phosphorylation, catalyzed by hexokinase, is the first committed step in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Hexokinase II (HKII) is the isoform that is present in muscle and is regulated by insulin and muscle contraction. Glucose phosphorylation and HKII expression are both reduced in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. A single bout of exercise increases HKII mRNA and activity in muscle from healthy subjects. The present study was performed to determine if a moderate exercise increases HKII mRNA expression and activity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Muscle biopsies were performed before and 3 hours after a single bout of cycle ergometer exercise in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. HKII mRNA and activity and glycogen synthase activity were determined in the muscle biopsies. Exercise increased HKII mRNA in obese and diabetic subjects by 1.67 +/- 0.34 and 1.87 +/- 0.26-fold, respectively (P obese nondiabetic or diabetic subjects. Exercise increased glycogen synthase activity (GS(0.1) and GS(FV)) significantly in both obese nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic patients. The present results indicate that there is a posttranscriptional defect in the response of HKII expression to exercise in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. This defect may contribute to reduced HKII activity and glucose uptake in these patients.

  13. Large contribution of sea surface warming to recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Mark A; Lea, Adam S

    2008-01-31

    Atlantic hurricane activity has increased significantly since 1995 (refs 1-4), but the underlying causes of this increase remain uncertain. It is widely thought that rising Atlantic sea surface temperatures have had a role in this, but the magnitude of this contribution is not known. Here we quantify this contribution for storms that formed in the tropical North Atlantic, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico; these regions together account for most of the hurricanes that make landfall in the United States. We show that a statistical model based on two environmental variables--local sea surface temperature and an atmospheric wind field--can replicate a large proportion of the variance in tropical Atlantic hurricane frequency and activity between 1965 and 2005. We then remove the influence of the atmospheric wind field to assess the contribution of sea surface temperature. Our results indicate that the sensitivity of tropical Atlantic hurricane activity to August-September sea surface temperature over the period we consider is such that a 0.5 degrees C increase in sea surface temperature is associated with a approximately 40% increase in hurricane frequency and activity. The results also indicate that local sea surface warming was responsible for approximately 40% of the increase in hurricane activity relative to the 1950-2000 average between 1996 and 2005. Our analysis does not identify whether warming induced by greenhouse gases contributed to the increase in hurricane activity, but the ability of climate models to reproduce the observed relationship between hurricanes and sea surface temperature will serve as a useful means of assessing whether they are likely to provide reliable projections of future changes in Atlantic hurricane activity.

  14. Rapid increases in ventilation accompany the transition from passive to active movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Harold J; Duffin, James

    2006-06-01

    We used a novel movement transition technique to look for evidence of a rapid onset drive to breathe related to the active component of exercise in humans. Ten volunteers performed the following transitions in a specially designed tandem exercise chair apparatus: rest to passive movement, passive to active movement, and rest to active movement. The transition from rest to active exercise was accompanied by an immediate increase in ventilation, as was the transition from rest to passive leg movement (Delta = 6.06 +/- 1.09 l min(-1), p ventilation again increased immediately and significantly (Delta = 2.55 +/- 0.52 l min(-1), p = 0.032). Ventilation at the first point of active exercise was the same when started either from rest or from a background of passive leg movement (p = 1.00). We conclude that the use of a transition from passive to active leg movements in humans recruits a ventilatory drive related to the active component of exercise, and this can be discerned as a rapid increase in breathing.

  15. Reward prediction-related increases and decreases in tonic neuronal activity of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi eOkada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neuromodulators serotonin, acetylcholine, and dopamine have been proposed to play important roles in the execution of movement, control of several forms of attentional behavior, and reinforcement learning. While the response pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and its specific role in reinforcement learning have been revealed, the roles of the other neuromodulators remain elusive. Reportedly, neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, one major source of serotonin, continually track the state of expectation of future rewards by showing a correlated response to the start of a behavioral task, reward cue presentation, and reward delivery. Here, we show that neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN, one major source of acetylcholine, showed similar encoding of the expectation of future rewards by a systematic increase or decrease in tonic activity. We recorded and analyzed PPTN neuronal activity in monkeys during a reward conditioned visually guided saccade task. The firing patterns of many PPTN neurons were tonically increased or decreased throughout the task period. The tonic activity pattern of neurons was correlated with their encoding of the predicted reward value; neurons exhibiting an increase or decrease in tonic activity showed higher or lower activity in the large reward-predicted trials, respectively. Tonic activity and reward-related modulation ended around the time of reward delivery. Additionally, some tonic changes in activity started prior to the appearance of the initial stimulus, and were related to the anticipatory fixational behavior. A partially overlapping population of neurons showed both the initial anticipatory response and subsequent predicted reward value-dependent activity modulation by their systematic increase or decrease of tonic activity. These bi-directional reward- and anticipatory behavior-related modulation patterns are suitable for the presumed role of the PPTN in reward processing and

  16. The Influence of Neighborhood Crime on Increases in Physical Activity during a Pilot Physical Activity Intervention in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Stephanie T; Myers, Candice A; Drazba, Kathryn T; Marker, Arwen M; Church, Timothy S; Newton, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether neighborhood crime moderated the response (increases in steps) to a pilot intervention to increase physical activity in children. Twenty-seven insufficiently active children aged 6-10 years (mean age = 8.7 years; 56 % female; 59 % African American) were randomly assigned to an intensive intervention group (IIG) or minimal intervention group (MIG). Change in average daily number of steps from baseline was regressed against an index of neighborhood crime in a multilevel repeated-measures model that included a propensity score to reduce confounding. Safer neighborhoods were associated with higher increases in steps during the pilot intervention (interaction p = 0.008). Children in the IIG living in low-crime neighborhoods significantly increased their physical activity (5275 ± 1040 steps/day) while those living in high-crime neighborhoods did not (1118 ± 1007) (p for difference = 0.046). In the IIG, the increase in daily steps was highly correlated with neighborhood crime (r = 0.58, p = 0.04). These findings suggest the need for physical activity interventions to account for participants' environments in their design and/or delivery. To promote healthy behaviors in less-supportive environments, future studies should seek to understand how environments modify intervention response and to identify mediators of the relationship between environment and intervention.

  17. Estrogen increases Nrf2 activity through activation of the PI3K pathway in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juanjuan, E-mail: jwu32@emory.edu [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4211 WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Williams, Devin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 (United States); Walter, Grant A. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4211 WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Thompson, Winston E. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310 (United States); Sidell, Neil [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4211 WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The actions of the transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in breast cancer have been shown to include both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities which is influenced, at least in part, by the hormonal environment. However, direct regulation of Nrf2 by steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) has received only scant attention. Nrf2 is known to be regulated by its cytosolic binding protein, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), and by a Keap1-independent mechanism involving a series of phosphorylation steps mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β). Here, we report that estrogen (E2) increases Nrf2 activity in MCF7 breast cancer cells through activation of the PI3K/GSK3β pathway. Utilizing antioxidant response element (ARE)-containing luciferase reporter constructs as read-outs for Nrf2 activity, our data indicated that E2 increased ARE activity >14-fold and enhanced the action of the Nrf2 activators, tertiary butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) and sulforaphane (Sul) 4 to 9 fold compared with cells treated with tBHQ or Sul as single agents. This activity was shown to be an estrogen receptor-mediated phenomenon and was antagonized by progesterone. In addition to its action on the reporter constructs, mRNA and protein levels of heme oxygenase 1, an endogenous target gene of Nrf2, was markedly upregulated by E2 both alone and in combination with tBHQ. Importantly, E2-induced Nrf2 activation was completely suppressed by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and Wortmannin while the GSK3β inhibitor CT99021 upregulated Nrf2 activity. Confirmation that E2 was, at least partly, acting through the PI3K/GSK3β pathway was indicated by our finding that E2 increased the phosphorylation status of both GSK3β and Akt, a well-characterized downstream target of PI3K. Together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which E2 can regulate Nrf2 activity in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

  18. Increased β-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity improves cyanide tolerance and assimilation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Brendan; Preston, Gail M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2014-01-01

    Plants naturally produce cyanide (CN) which is maintained at low levels in their cells by a process of rapid assimilation. However, high concentrations of environmental CN associated with activities such as industrial pollution are toxic to plants. There is thus an interest in increasing the CN detoxification capacity of plants as a potential route to phytoremediation. Here, Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing the Pseudomonas fluorescens β-cyanoalanine nitrilase pinA were compared with wild-type and a β-cyanoalanine nitrilase knockout line (ΔAtnit4) for growth in the presence of exogenous CN. After incubation with CN, +PfpinA seedlings had increased root length, increased fresh weight, and decreased leaf bleaching compared with wild-type, indicating increased CN tolerance. The increased tolerance was achieved without an increase in β-cyanoalanine synthase activity, the other enzyme in the cyanide assimilation pathway, suggesting that nitrilase activity is the limiting factor for cyanide detoxification. Labeling experiments with [¹³C]KCN demonstrated that the altered CN tolerance could be explained by differences in flux from CN to Asn caused by altered β-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity. Metabolite profiling after CN treatment provided new insight into downstream metabolism, revealing onward metabolism of Asn by the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle and accumulation of aromatic amino acids.

  19. H-ras transformation sensitizes volume-activated anion channels and increases migratory activity of NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Linda; Klausen, Thomas K; Stock, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    The expression of the H-ras oncogene increases the migratory activity of many cell types and thereby contributes to the metastatic behavior of tumor cells. Other studies point to an involvement of volume-activated anion channels (VRAC) in (tumor) cell migration. In this paper, we tested whether...... VRACs are required for the stimulation of cell migration upon expression of the H-ras oncogene. We compared VRAC activation and migration of wild-type and H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts by means of patch-clamp techniques and time-lapse video microscopy. Both cell types achieve the same degree...... of VRAC activation upon maximal stimulation, induced by reducing extracellular osmolarity from 300 to 190 mOsm/l. However, upon physiologically relevant reductions in extracellular osmolarity (275 mOsm/l), the level of VRAC activation is almost three times higher in H-ras-transformed compared to wild...

  20. Increasing the amount of usual rehabilitation improves activity after stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Emma J; Lannin, Natasha A; Ada, Louise; Schmidt, Julia

    2016-10-01

    In people receiving rehabilitation aimed at reducing activity limitations of the lower and/or upper limb after stroke, does adding extra rehabilitation (of the same content as the usual rehabilitation) improve activity? What is the amount of extra rehabilitation that needs to be provided to achieve a beneficial effect? Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Adults aged 18 years or older that had a diagnosis of stroke. Extra rehabilitation with the same content as usual rehabilitation aimed at reducing activity limitations of the lower and/or upper limb. Activity measured as lower or upper limb ability. A total of 14 studies, comprising 15 comparisons, met the inclusion criteria. Pooling data from all the included studies showed that extra rehabilitation improved activity immediately after the intervention period (SMD=0.39, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.71, I(2)=66%). When only studies with a large increase in rehabilitation (> 100%) were included, the effect was greater (SMD 0.59, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.94, I(2)=44%). There was a trend towards a positive relationship (r=0.53, p=0.09) between extra rehabilitation and improved activity. The turning point on the ROC curve of false versus true benefit (AUC=0.88, p=0.04) indicated that at least an extra 240% of rehabilitation was needed for significant likelihood that extra rehabilitation would improve activity. Increasing the amount of usual rehabilitation aimed at reducing activity limitations improves activity in people after stroke. The amount of extra rehabilitation that needs to be provided to achieve a beneficial effect is large. PROSPERO CRD42012003221. [Schneider EJ, Lannin NA, Ada L, Schmidt J (2016) Increasing the amount of usual rehabilitation improves activity after stroke: a systematic review.Journal of Physiotherapy62: 182-187]. Copyright © 2016 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the left ventricle after infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C.W. Busatto

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE activity has been observed in the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. Since most studies have been conducted in chronically infarcted individuals exhibiting variable degrees of heart failure, the present study was designed to determine ACE activity in an earlier phase of MI, before heart failure development. MI was produced in 3-month old male Wistar rats by ligation of the anterior branches of the left coronary artery, control rats underwent sham surgery and the animals were studied 7 or 15 days later. Hemodynamic data obtained for the anesthetized animals showed normal values of arterial blood pressure and of end-diastolic pressure in the right and left ventricular cavities of MI rats. Right and left ventricular (RV, LV muscle and scar tissue homogenates were prepared to determine ACE activity in vitro by measuring the velocity of His-Leu release from the synthetic substrate Hyp-His-Leu. ACE activity was corrected to the tissue wet weight and is reported as nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1. No significant change in ACE activity in the RV homogenates was demonstrable. A small nonsignificant increase of ACE activity (11 ± 9%; P0.05 was observed 7 days after MI in the surviving left ventricular muscle. Two weeks after surgery, however, ACE activity was 46 ± 11% (P<0.05 higher in infarcted rats compared to sham-operated rats. The highest ACE activity was demonstrable in the scar tissue homogenate. In rats studied two weeks after surgery, ACE activity in the LV muscle increased from 105 ± 7 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 in control hearts to 153 ± 11 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 (P<0.05 in the remaining LV muscle of MI rats and to 1051 ± 208 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 (P<0.001 in the fibrous scar. These data indicate that ACE activity increased in the heart after infarction before heart failure was demonstrable by hemodynamic measurements. Since the blood vessels of the scar drain to the remaining LV myocardium, the

  2. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  3. Continuous reduction of plasma paraoxonase activity with increasing dialysis vintage in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Bernhard F; Holzhausen, Helge; Tepel, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Plasma paraoxonase (PON) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes organic phosphate and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Reduced activity is associated with early events of atherogenesis. The relevance of PON phenotypes is not well characterized in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study we measured PON activity in 377 hemodialysis patients photometrically using the substrates 4-nitrophenylacetate and phenylacetate. The PON ratio was calculated from 4-nitrophenylacetate-derived activity divided by phenylacetate-derived activity. Frequency distribution of the PON ratio showed three different PON phenotypes. 74% of hemodialysis patients showed PON phenotype 1, 21% PON phenotype 2, and 5% PON phenotype 3. Compared to hemodialysis patients with PON 1, patients with PON 2 or 3 showed higher conversion rates for 4-nitrophenylacetate. We observed a significant reduction of PON ratio with increasing dialysis vintage (Pvintage. In conclusion, plasma PON ratio significantly declines with increasing dialysis vintage.

  4. Integrative exercise and lifestyle intervention increases leisure-time activity in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, Soraya; Hojman, Pernille; Cubedo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been demonstrated to increase survival in breast cancer patients, but few breast cancer patients meet the general recommendations for physical activity. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if a supervised integrated counseling and group-based exercise...... program could increase leisure-time activity in women with breast cancer. METHODS: This pilot project, designed as a single-arm study with pre-post testing, consisted of 24 classes of combined aerobic and strength exercise training as well as classes on dietary and health behavior. A total of 48 women...... with breast cancer who were undergoing or had recently completed anticancer treatment completed the study. Leisure-time physical activity, grip strength, functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), and depression were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at the 12-week follow-up after intervention...

  5. Global increase in task-related fronto-parietal activity after focal frontal lobe lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Bor, Daniel; Duncan, John

    2013-09-01

    A critical question for neuropsychology is how complex brain networks react to damage. Here, we address this question for the well-known executive control or multiple-demand (MD) system, a fronto-parietal network showing increased activity with many different kinds of cognitive demand, including standard tests of fluid intelligence. Using fMRI, we ask how focal frontal lobe damage affects MD activity during a standard fluid intelligence task. Despite poor behavioral performance, frontal patients showed increased fronto-parietal activity relative to controls. The activation difference was not accounted for by difference in IQ. Moreover, rather than specific focus on perilesional or contralesional cortex, additional recruitment was distributed throughout the MD regions and surrounding cortex and included parietal MD regions distant from the injury. The data suggest that, following local frontal lobe damage, there is a global compensatory recruitment of an adaptive and integrated fronto-parietal network.

  6. INCREASING THE LEVEL OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES, OF THE SERVICE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Krolivetskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the chosen topic of the article is to increase the information level of innovation activity of economic entities of services and on this basis to provide the growth of their competitiveness, the effectiveness of the economic development management. Regulation of the information security level management system competitiveness of business entities and service industries increases the quality of the management decisions that promote sustainable economic development. The article gives a detailed analysis of the factors determining the possibilities and limitations that have a direct impact on the level of innovation activity of economic entities of services, such as: the level of skills, methods for collecting and recording information, the order of its systematization, etc. Contribution of the author in the development of the theme of the article is the definition of methodological campaigns creating organizational and economic conditions for information security management activities of economic entities of services, aimed at increasing competitiveness and quality of services.

  7. INCREASING EFL STUDENTS’ WRITING ABILITIES USING PEER RESPONSE ACTIVITIES VIA FACEBOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zaini Miftah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to increase EFL students’ abilities in writing argumentative essay via Facebook by developing peer response activities. The classroom action research was employed in cyclic activities. The subjects were 25 Indonesian fourth-year undergraduate EFL students who enrolled in Writing III course. The data were gained from writing task, observation, and field notes. The result shows that this strategy with the appropriate instructional procedures can increase the EFL students’ abilities in writing argumentative essay. It is indicated by the increases of the students’ writing achievement and involvement in writing class during peer response activities via Facebook. Hence, it gives insights to employ this way as an alternative teaching technique in writing classroom because of its effectiveness.

  8. Increased Myeloperoxidase Activity and Protein Nitration Are Indicators of Inflammation in Patients with Chagas' Disease▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Monisha; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo; Pando, Jasmine M.; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Spratt, Heidi; Vazquez-Corzo, Sara; Perez-Molina, Gladys; Gallegos-Sandoval, Rosa; Moreno, Roberto; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether inflammatory responses contribute to oxidative/nitrosative stress in patients with Chagas' disease. We used three tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-flow cytometry, and STAT-PAK immunochromatography) to screen human serum samples (n = 1,481) originating from Chiapas, Mexico, for Trypanosoma cruzi-specific antibodies. We identified 121 subjects who were seropositive for T. cruzi-specific antibodies, a finding indicative of an 8.5% seroprevalence in the rural population from Chiapas. Seropositive and seronegative subjects were examined for plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation, i.e., myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and xanthine oxidase (XOD), as well as for oxidative (advanced oxidation protein products [AOPPs]) and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine [3NT]) biomarkers. The seropositive subjects exhibited a significant increase in MPO activity and protein level, the indicator of neutrophil activation. Subsequently, a corresponding increase in AOPP contents, formed by MPO-dependent hypochlorous acid and chloramine formation, was noted in seropositive subjects. The plasma level of 3NT was significantly increased in seropositive subjects, yet we observed no change in XOD activity (O2− source) and nitrate/nitrite contents (denotes iNOS activation and NO production), which implied that direct peroxynitrite formation does not contribute to increased nitrosative damage in chagasic subjects. Instead, a positive correlation between increased MPO activity and protein 3NT formation was observed, which suggested to us that MPO-dependent formation of nitrylchloride that occurs in the presence of physiological NO and O2− concentrations contributes to protein nitration. Overall, our data demonstrate that T. cruzi-induced neutrophil activation is pathological and contributes to MPO-mediated collateral protein oxidative and nitrosative damage in human patients with Chagas' disease. Therapies

  9. Microglial activation in the hippocampus of hypercholesterolemic rabbits occurs independent of increased amyloid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streit Wolfgang J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbits maintained on high-cholesterol diets are known to show increased immunoreactivity for amyloid beta protein in cortex and hippocampus, an effect that is amplified by presence of copper in the drinking water. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits also develop sporadic neuroinflammatory changes. The purpose of this study was to survey microglial activation in rabbits fed cholesterol in the presence or absence of copper or other metal ions, such as zinc and aluminum. Methods Vibratome sections of the rabbit hippocampus and overlying cerebral cortex were examined for microglial activation using histochemistry with isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia. Animals were scored as showing either focal or diffuse microglial activation with or without presence of rod cells. Results Approximately one quarter of all rabbits fed high-cholesterol diets showed evidence of microglial activation, which was always present in the hippocampus and not in the cortex. Microglial activation was not correlated spatially with increased amyloid immunoreactivity or with neurodegenerative changes and was most pronounced in hypercholesterolemic animals whose drinking water had been supplemented with either copper or zinc. Controls maintained on normal chow were largely devoid of neuroinflammatory changes, but revealed minimal microglial activation in one case. Conclusion Because the increase in intraneuronal amyloid immunoreactivity that results from administration of cholesterol occurs in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus, we deduce that the microglial activation reported here, which is limited to the hippocampus, occurs independent of amyloid accumulation. Furthermore, since neuroinflammation occurred in the absence of detectable neurodegenerative changes, and was also not accompanied by increased astrogliosis, we conclude that microglial activation occurs because of metabolic or biochemical derangements that are influenced by dietary factors.

  10. How might we increase physical activity through dog walking?: A comprehensive review of dog walking correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, Carri; Christley, Robert M; Christian, Hayley E

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour are major threats to population health. A considerable proportion of people own dogs, and there is good evidence that dog ownership is associated with higher levels of physical activity. However not all owners walk their dogs regularly. This paper comprehensively reviews the evidence for correlates of dog walking so that effective interventions may be designed to increase the physical activity of dog owners. Methods Published findings fro...

  11. Increased 4-hydroxynonenal formation contributes to obesity-related lipolytic activation in adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Zhang

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in adipose tissue plays an etiological role in a variety of obesity-related metabolic disorders. We previously reported that increased adipose tissue 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE contents contributed to obesity-related plasma adiponectin decline in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracellular 4-HNE accumulation on lipolytic response in adipocytes/adipose tissues and underlying mechanisms. In both fully-differentiated 3T3-L1 and primary adipocytes, a 5-hour 4-HNE exposure elevated lipolytic reaction in a dose-dependent manner at both basal and isoproterenol-stimulated conditions, evidenced by significantly increased glycerol and fatty acids releases. This conclusion was corroborated by the comparable observations when the minced human visceral adipose tissues were used. Mechanistic investigations revealed that 4-HNE-stimulated lipolytic activation is multifactorial. 4-HNE exposure quickly increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP level, which was concomitant with increased phosphorylations of protein kinase A (PKA and its direct downstream target, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL. Pre-incubation with H89, a potent PKA inhibitor, prevented 4-HNE stimulated glycerol release, suggesting that enhanced lipolytic action in response to 4-HNE increase is mediated mainly by cAMP/PKA signal pathway in adipocytes. In addition to activating cAMP/PKA/HSL pathway, 4-HNE exposure also suppresses AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a suppressive pathway for lipolysis, measured by both Western blotting for phosphorylated form of AMPK and ELISA for enzyme activity. Furthermore, 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, a pharmacological AMPK activator, alleviated 4-HNE-induced lipolysis, suggesting that AMPK suppression also contributes to 4-HNE elicited lipolytic response. In conclusion, our findings indicate that increased intracellular 4-HNE accumulation in adipocytes/adipose tissues contributes to

  12. THE CAFETERIA DIET INCREASES FAT MASS AND CHRONICALLY ELEVATES LUMBAR SYMPATHETIC NERVE ACTIVITY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntzel, Martin S.; Al-Naimi, Omar Ali S.; Barclay, Alicia; Ajasin, David

    2012-01-01

    Obesity causes sympathetic activation that promotes atherosclerosis, end-organ damage, and hypertension. Because high-fat induced weight gain in rats elevates plasma leptin at 1–3 days following onset of calorie dense diets, we hypothesized that diet-induced overfeeding will increase sympathetic activity within one week following onset of the regimen. To test this, we continuously measured sympathetic activity and blood pressure before and during the onset of diet-induced obesity using a high calorie cafeteria-style diet. Female Wistar rats, in which radiotelemeters had been implanted for continuous monitoring of lumbar sympathetic activity, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, were randomly assigned to groups that received regular chow (control) or a cafeteria diet for a period of 15 days. This short-term cafeteria-feeding regimen caused modest but non-significant increases in body weight (P = 0.07) and a doubling of brown and white adipose tissue (P cafeteria rats compared with controls (P Cafeteria diet-induced weight gain caused increases in lumbar sympathetic nerve activity that became significant by the 12th day of the diet (p cafeteria-style diet stimulates sustained increases in lumbar sympathetic neural drive in rats. PMID:23090774

  13. Cafeteria diet increases fat mass and chronically elevates lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntzel, Martin S; Al-Naimi, Omar Ali S; Barclay, Alicia; Ajasin, David

    2012-12-01

    Obesity causes sympathetic activation that promotes atherosclerosis, end-organ damage, and hypertension. Because high-fat induced weight gain in rats elevates plasma leptin at 1 to 3 days after the onset of calorie-dense diets, we hypothesized that diet-induced overfeeding will increase sympathetic activity within 1 week after the onset of the regimen. To test this, we continuously measured sympathetic activity and blood pressure before and during the onset of diet-induced obesity using a high-calorie, cafeteria-style diet. Female Wistar rats, in which radiotelemeters had been implanted for continuous monitoring of lumbar sympathetic activity, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, were randomly assigned to groups that received regular chow (control) or a cafeteria diet for a period of 15 days. This short-term, cafeteria-feeding regimen caused modest but nonsignificant increases in body weight (P=0.07) and a doubling of brown and white adipose tissue (Pcafeteria rats compared with controls (PCafeteria diet-induced weight gain caused increases in lumbar sympathetic nerve activity that became significant by the 12th day of the diet (Pcafeteria-style diet stimulates sustained increases in lumbar sympathetic neural drive in rats.

  14. Homocysteine activates T cells by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria coupling and increasing mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juan; Lü, Silin; Ding, Yanhong; Zheng, Ming; Wang, Xian

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) accelerates atherosclerosis by increasing proliferation and stimulating cytokine secretion in T cells. However, whether homocysteine (Hcy)-mediated T cell activation is associated with metabolic reprogramming is unclear. Here, our in vivo and in vitro studies showed that Hcy-stimulated splenic T-cell activation in mice was accompanied by increased levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium, mitochondrial mass and respiration. Inhibiting mitochondrial ROS production and calcium signals or blocking mitochondrial respiration largely blunted Hcy-induced T-cell interferon γ (IFN-γ) secretion and proliferation. Hcy also enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in T cells, and inhibition of ER stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid blocked Hcy-induced T-cell activation. Mechanistically, Hcy increased ER-mitochondria coupling, and uncoupling ER-mitochondria by the microtubule inhibitor nocodazole attenuated Hcy-stimulated mitochondrial reprogramming, IFN-γ secretion and proliferation in T cells, suggesting that juxtaposition of ER and mitochondria is required for Hcy-promoted mitochondrial function and T-cell activation. In conclusion, Hcy promotes T-cell activation by increasing ER-mitochondria coupling and regulating metabolic reprogramming.

  15. Government Intervention to Encourage the Increase of Innovation Activities: The Case of Automotive Component Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Ricardo Nurzal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly globalizing and very tight competition in the world market nowadays requires companies to increase their competitiveness to maintain and strengthen their position. One of the efforts has to be taken into consideration by companies is innovating sustainably. Evidence shows that companies characterised by innovation have above-average productivity and become leader in the industry. Firms innovate either to produce technologically new products or services, or to produce technologically improved products or services. To produce technologically new and improved products or services, firms need to undertake some innovation activities. Innovation activities are all those scientific, technological, organizational, financial and commercial steps, including investment in new knowledge, which actually, or are intended to, lead to the implementation of technologically new or improved products or processes. Small and medium enterprises face some problems to innovate. Government. intervention is needed to manage the problems, and is expected to increase innovation in the industry.Innovation activities discussed in this paper are focused on those occurred in small and medium enterprises in the automotive component sector as one of the sectors will be developed by the government. In the first part is the introduction which presents problem background. Then, the explanation about methodology and followed by the purpose of the study. The next part is results and discussion. Finally, the paper provides recommendation on intervention necessarily to be taken by the government in order to increase innovation activities in the industry.Key words: Government Intervention, Innovation Activities, and Automotive Component Industry

  16. Government Intervention to Encourage the Increase of Innovation Activities: The Case of Automotive Component Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Ricardo Nurzal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly globalizing and very tight competition in the world market nowadays requires companies to increase their competitiveness to maintain and strengthen their position. One of the efforts has to be taken into consideration by companies is innovating sustainably. Evidence shows that companies characterised by innovation have above-average productivity and become leader in the industry. Firms innovate either to produce technologically new products or services, or to produce technologically improved products or services. To produce technologically new and improved products or services, firms need to undertake some innovation activities. Innovation activities are all those scientific, technological, organizational, financial and commercial steps, including investment in new knowledge, which actually, or are intended to, lead to the implementation of technologically new or improved products or processes. Small and medium enterprises face some problems to innovate. Government. intervention is needed to manage the problems, and is expected to increase innovation in the industry.Innovation activities discussed in this paper are focused on those occurred in small and medium enterprises in the automotive component sector as one of the sectors will be developed by the government. In the first part is the introduction which presents problem background. Then, the explanation about methodology and followed by the purpose of the study. The next part is results and discussion. Finally, the paper provides recommendation on intervention necessarily to be taken by the government in order to increase innovation activities in the industry.Key words: Government Intervention, Innovation Activities, and Automotive Component Industry

  17. Construction of Mutant Glucose Oxidases with Increased Dye-Mediated Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Sode

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutagenesis studies on glucose oxidases (GOxs were conducted to construct GOxs with reduced oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity. We focused on two representative GOxs, of which crystal structures have already been reported—Penicillium amagasakiense GOx (PDB ID; 1gpe and Aspergillus niger GOx (PDB ID; 1cf3. We constructed oxygen-interacting structural models for GOxs, and predicted the residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen on the basis of the crystal structure of cholesterol oxidase as well as on the fact that both enzymes are members of the glucose/methanol/choline (GMC oxidoreductase family. Rational amino acid substitution resulted in the construction of an engineered GOx with drastically decreased oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity, which was higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. As a result, the dehydrogenase/oxidase ratio of the engineered enzyme was more than 11-fold greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. These results indicate that alteration of the dehydrogenase/oxidase activity ratio of GOxs is possible by introducing a mutation into the putative functional residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen of these enzymes, resulting in a further increased dehydrogenase activity. This is the first study reporting the alteration of GOx electron acceptor preference from oxygen to an artificial electron acceptor.

  18. O-GlcNAcylation of ATG4B positively regulates autophagy by increasing its hydroxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yoon Kyung; Park, Na Yeon; Park, So Jung; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Shin, Ji Hyun; Jo, Doo Sin; Bae, Dong-Jun; Suh, Young-Ah; Chang, Jeong Ho; Lee, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sang-Yeob; Kim, Jin Cheon; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2016-08-30

    Autophagy is a catabolic degradation process and maintains cellular homeostasis. And autophagy is activated in response to various stress conditions. Although O-GlcNAcylation functions a sensor for nutrient and stress, the relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and autophagy is largely unknown. Here, we identified that ATG4B is novel target for O-GlcNAcylation under metabolic stress condition. Treatment with PugNAc, an O-GlcNAcase inhibitor increased activation of autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells. Both bimolecular fluorescence complementation and immunoprecipitation assay indicated that OGT directly interacts with ATG4B in SH-SY5Y cells. We also found that the O-GlcNAcylated ATG4B was increased in autophagy activation conditions, and down-regulation of OGT reduces O-GlcNAcylation of ATG4B under low glucose condition. Furthermore, the proteolytic activity of ATG4B for LC3 cleavage was enhanced in PugNAc-treated cells. Taken together, these results imply that O-GlcNAcylation of ATG4B regulates autophagy activation by increasing its proteolytic activity under metabolic stress condition.

  19. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature.

  20. Did Open Solar Magnetic Field Increase during the Last 100 Years: A Reanalysis of Geomagnetic Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Mursula, K; Karinen, A

    2004-01-01

    Long-term geomagnetic activity presented by the aa index has been used to show that the heliospheric magnetic field has more than doubled during the last 100 years. However, serious concern has been raised on the long-term consistency of the aa index and on the centennial rise of the solar magnetic field. Here we reanalyze geomagnetic activity during the last 100 years by calculating the recently suggested IHV (Inter-Hour Variability) index as a measure of local geomagnetic activity for seven stations. We find that local geomagnetic activity at all stations follows the same qualitative long-term pattern: an increase from early 1900s to 1960, a dramatic dropout in 1960s and a (mostly weaker) increase thereafter. Moreover, at all stations, the activity at the end of the 20th century has a higher average level than at the beginning of the century. This agrees with the result based on the aa index that global geomagnetic activity, and thereby, the open solar magnetic field has indeed increased during the last 100...

  1. Efficient Control of Active Transformers for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Degner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    on decreasing the voltage rise along LV feeders, and the potential of active medium voltage to low voltage (MV/LV) transformers for overvoltage prevention has not been thoroughly investigated. This paper presents the application of active MV/LV transformers for increasing the PV hosting capacity of LV grids...... increase the PV hosting capacity of the grid, while eliminating the need for a complex and centralized controller. The voltages of specific locations or the grid state estimations provide adequate data for adjustments of the droop parameters. The simulations and field test results associated...

  2. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp.

  3. Warming and earlier spring increase Western U.S. forest wildfire activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerling, A.L.; Hidalgo, H.G.; Cayan, D.R.; Swetnam, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Western United States forest wildfire activity is widely thought to have increased in recent decades, yet neither the extent of recent changes nor the degree to which climate may be driving regional changes in wildfire has been systematically documented. Much of the public and scientific discussion of changes in western United States wildfire has focused instead on the effects of 19th- and 20th-century land-use history. We compiled a comprehensive database of large wildfires in western United States forests since 1970 and compared it with hydroclimatic and land-surface data. Here, we show that large wildfire activity increased suddenly and markedly in the mid-1980s, with higher large-wildfire frequency, longer wildfire durations, and longer wildfire seasons. The greatest increases occurred in mid-elevation, Northern Rockies forests, where land-use histories have relatively little effect on fire risks and are strongly associated with increased spring and summer temperatures and an earlier spring snowmelt.

  4. Increase in natural killer cell activity during diethylcarbamazine treatment of patients with filariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Svenson, M

    1987-01-01

    Two patients, one with Bancroftian filariasis and the other with onchocerciasis, and two healthy controls were treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). The natural killer (NK) cell activity of the two patients increased during DEC treatment to 2.5 and 2.8 times, respectively, while...... that of the controls remained unchanged. We conclude that the augmentation of baseline NK cell activity, as well as interferon- and interleukin-2-enhanced NK cell activity seen in the patients, is not a direct effect of DEC, but is related to the reaction to DEC in lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis....

  5. Increase in natural killer cell activity during diethylcarbamazine treatment of patients with filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I C; Svenson, M

    1987-09-01

    Two patients, one with Bancroftian filariasis and the other with onchocerciasis, and two healthy controls were treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). The natural killer (NK) cell activity of the two patients increased during DEC treatment to 2.5 and 2.8 times, respectively, while that of the controls remained unchanged. We conclude that the augmentation of baseline NK cell activity, as well as interferon- and interleukin-2-enhanced NK cell activity seen in the patients, is not a direct effect of DEC, but is related to the reaction to DEC in lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of After-School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina B. Gesell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. Methods. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. Results. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7. Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P<.001. Cost analysis suggested that children attending traditional school-based ASPs—at an average cost of $17.67 per day—would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. Conclusions. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program.

  7. Comparative effectiveness of after-school programs to increase physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Sabina B; Sommer, Evan C; Lambert, E Warren; Vides de Andrade, Ana Regina; Whitaker, Lauren; Davis, Lauren; Beech, Bettina M; Mitchell, Stephanie J; Arinze, Nkiruka; Neloms, Stevon; Ryan, Colleen K; Barkin, Shari L

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a comparative effectiveness analysis to evaluate the difference in the amount of physical activity children engaged in when enrolled in a physical activity-enhanced after-school program based in a community recreation center versus a standard school-based after-school program. The study was a natural experiment with 54 elementary school children attending the community ASP and 37 attending the school-based ASP. Accelerometry was used to measure physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, with 91% retention. At baseline, 43% of the multiethnic sample was overweight/obese, and the mean age was 7.9 years (SD = 1.7). Linear latent growth models suggested that the average difference between the two groups of children at Week 12 was 14.7 percentage points in moderate-vigorous physical activity (P children attending traditional school-based ASPs-at an average cost of $17.67 per day-would need an additional daily investment of $1.59 per child for 12 weeks to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity by a model-implied 14.7 percentage points. A low-cost, alternative after-school program featuring adult-led physical activities in a community recreation center was associated with increased physical activity compared to standard-of-care school-based after-school program.

  8. Improvements in knee biomechanics during walking are associated with increased physical activity after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Olds, Timothy S; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2015-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in people with knee osteoarthritis increases knee-specific and general physical function, but it has not been established if there is a relationship between changes in these elements of functional ability. This study investigated changes and relationships between knee biomechanics during walking, physical activity, and use of time after TKA. Fifteen people awaiting TKA underwent 3D gait analysis before and six months after surgery. Physical activity and use of time were determined in free-living conditions from a high resolution 24-h activity recall. After surgery, participants displayed significant improvements in sagittal plane knee biomechanics and improved their physical activity profiles, standing for 105 more minutes (p=0.001) and performing 64 min more inside chores on average per day (p=0.008). Changes in sagittal plane knee range of motion (ROM) and peak knee flexion positively correlated with changes in total daily energy expenditure, time spent undertaking moderate to vigorous physical activity, inside chores and passive transport (r=0.52-0.66, p=0.005-0.047). Restoration of knee function occurs in parallel and is associated with improvements in physical activity and use of time after TKA. Increased functional knee ROM is required to support improvements in total and context specific physical activity. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. AM fungal exudates activate MAP kinases in plant cells in dependence from cytosolic Ca(2+) increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Doriana; Chiltz, Annick; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Pugin, Alain; Bonfante, Paola; Cardinale, Francesca

    2011-09-01

    The molecular dialogue occurring prior to direct contact between the fungal and plant partners of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses begins with the release of fungal elicitors, so far only partially identified chemically, which can activate specific signaling pathways in the host plant. We show here that the activation of MAPK is also induced by exudates of germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita in cultured cells of the non-leguminous species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), as well as in those of the model legume Lotus japonicus. MAPK activity peaked about 15 min after the exposure of the host cells to the fungal exudates (FE). FE were also responsible for a rapid and transient increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and tobacco cells, and pre-treatment with a Ca(2+)-channel blocker (La(3+)) showed that in these cells, MAPK activation was dependent on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. A partial dependence of MAPK activity on the common Sym pathway could be demonstrated for a cell line of L. japonicus defective for LjSym4 and hence unable to establish an AM symbiosis. Our results show that MAPK activation is triggered by an FE-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) transient, and that a Sym genetic determinant acts to modulate the intensity and duration of this activity.

  10. Activation of the SOS response increases the frequency of small colony variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    failed to do so. The higher proportion of SCVs in cultures exposed to fluoroquinolones and mitomycin C compared to un-exposed cultures correlate with an increased mutation rate monitored by rifampicin resistance and followed induction of the SOS DNA damage response. CONCLUSION: Our observations suggest...... that environmental stimuli, including antimicrobials that reduce replication fidelity, increase the formation of SCVs through activation of the SOS response and thereby potentially promote persistent infections that are difficult to treat....

  11. Classroom Activities Contributing to Increased Motivation for Learning : Three Psychological Needs to Be Taken Into Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    岩中, 貴裕; Takahiro, IWANAKA; 香川大学

    2011-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory posits 3 basic psychological needs which should be fulfilled for integrated and vital human functioning: the need for competence, relatedness and autonomy. It is assumed that classroom environment which allows satisfaction of the 3 basic needs increases learners' motivation for learning. Nineteen students took part in the course which consisted of activities intended to satisfy the 3 basic needs. After taking the course, they increased their motivation for learning E...

  12. Power training-induced increases in muscle activation during gait in old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M I; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; DeVita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-06-07

    Aging modifies neuromuscular activation of agonist and antagonist muscles during walking. Power training can evoke adaptations in neuromuscular activation that underlie gains in muscle strength and power but it is unknown if these adaptations transfer to dynamic tasks such as walking. We examined the effects of lower extremity power training on neuromuscular activation during level gait in old adults. Twelve community dwelling old adults (age ≥ 65 years) completed a 10-week lower extremity power-training program and thirteen old adults completed a 10-week control period. Before and after the interventions, we measured maximal isometric muscle strength and electromyographic (EMG) activation of the right knee flexor, knee extensor, and plantarflexor muscles on a dynamometer and we measured EMG amplitudes, activation onsets and offsets, and activation duration of the knee flexors, knee extensors, and plantarflexors during gait at habitual, fast, and standardized (1.25±0.6m/s) speeds. Power training-induced increases in EMG amplitude (~41%; 0.47≤d≤1.47; p≤0.05) explained 33% (p=0.049) of increases in isometric muscle strength (~43%; 0.34≤d≤0.80; p≤0.05). Power training-induced gains in plantarflexor activation during push-off (+11%; d=0.38; p=0.045) explained 57% (p=0.004) of the gains in fast gait velocity (+4%; d=0.31; p=0.059). Furthermore, power training increased knee extensor activation (~18%; 0.26≤d≤0.29; p≤0.05) and knee extensor coactivation during the main knee flexor burst (~24%, 0.26≤d≤0.44; p≤0.05) at habitual and fast speed but these adaptations did not correlate with changes in gait velocity Conclusion: Power training increased neuromuscular activation during isometric contractions and level gait in old adults. The power training-induced neuromuscular adaptations were associated with increases in isometric muscle strength and partly with increases in fast gait velocity.

  13. Cyclical electrical stimulation increases strength and improves activity after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R Nascimento

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does electrical stimulation increase strength after stroke and are any benefits maintained beyond the intervention period or carried over to activity? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised or controlled trials. Participants: Adults who have had a stroke. Intervention: Cyclical electrical stimulation applied in order to increase muscle strength. Outcome measures: Strength measures had to be representative of maximum voluntary contraction and were obtained as continuous measures of force or torque, or ordinal measures such as manual muscle tests. Activity was measured using direct measures of performance that produced continuous or ordinal data, or with scales that produced ordinal data. Results: Sixteen trials representing 17 relevant comparisons were included in this systematic review. Effect sizes were calculated as standardised mean differences because various muscles were studied and different outcome measures were used. Overall, electrical stimulation increased strength by a standardised mean difference (SMD of 0.47 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.68 and this effect was maintained beyond the intervention period (SMD 0.33, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.60. Electrical stimulation also improved activity (SMD 0.30, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.56 and this effect was also maintained beyond the intervention period (SMD 0.38, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.66. Conclusion: Cyclical electrical stimulation increases strength and improves activity after stroke. These benefits were maintained beyond the intervention period with a small-to-moderate effect size. The sustained effect on activity suggests that the benefits were incorporated into daily life. Review registration: PROSPERO (CRD42013003895. [Nascimento LR, Michaelsen SM, Ada L, Polese JC, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2014 Cyclical electrical stimulation increases strength and improves activity after stroke: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 22–30

  14. Reactive oxygen species mediate TNFR1 increase after TRPV1 activation in mouse DRG neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westlund Karin N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1 is activated by low pH/protons and is well known to be involved in hyperalgesia during inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine, is involved in nociceptive responses causing hyperalgesia through TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1 activation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production is also prominently increased in inflamed tissue. The present study investigated TNFR1 receptors in primary cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons after TRPV1 activation and the involvement of ROS. C57BL/6 mice, both TRPV1 knockout and wild type, were used for immunofluorescent and live cell imaging. The L4 and L5 DRGs were dissected bilaterally and cultured overnight. TRPV1 was stimulated with capsaicin or its potent analog, resiniferatoxin. ROS production was measured with live cell imaging and TNFR1 was detected with immunofluorescence in DRG primary cultures. The TRPV1 knockout mice, TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, and ROS scavenger, N-tert-Butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN, were employed to explore the functional relationship among TRPV1, ROS and TNFR1 in these studies. Results The results demonstrate that TRPV1 activation increases TNFR1 receptors and ROS generation in primary cultures of mouse DRG neurons. Activated increases in TNFR1 receptors and ROS production are absent in TRPV1 deficient mice. The PBN blocks increases in TNFR1 and ROS production induced by capsaicin/resiniferatoxin. Conclusion TRPV1 activation increases TNFR1 in cultured mouse DRG neurons through a ROS signaling pathway, a novel sensitization mechanism in DRG neurons.

  15. Nandrolone increases angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity in rats tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Marqueti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS has been associated with several biological processes of the human body, regulating, among others blood pressure and water and electrolytes balance. Moreover, RAS also regulates connective tissue growth. Recently, studies have shown that the use of nandrolone modifies the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE activity and increases collagen deposition in the heart. OBJECTIVE: The aim of study was to evaluate the Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE activity in the superficial flexor tendon (SFT and in serum after load exercise in combination with anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS administration after training session and six weeks of detraining. METHODS: Forty-eight Wistar rats were used into two groups (G1 and G2 subdivided into four subgroups: Sedentary (S; trained (T; AAS-treated (Deca-Durabolin(r, 5mg/kg, twice a week sedentary rats (AAS and AAS-treated and trained animals (AAST. Trained groups performed jumps in water: four series of 10 jumps each, followed by a 30 sec interval between the series, for seven weeks. RESULTS: Training increased ACE activity in the SFT compared to the control group (p <0.05. Both AAS and AAST groups presented higher ACE activity levels (p < 0.05. The AAST increased the ACE activity only compared to the trained animals. Only the AAST group presented significant higher levels of ACE in the serum. In the G2 group, all experimental groups presented decreased ACE activity in the serum and in the tendon, as compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that AAS administration and its combination with exercise increased ACE activity of tendons. AAS abuse could compromise tendon adaptation causing maladaptive remodeling.

  16. Alkalosis and Dialytic Clearance of Phosphate Increases Phosphatase Activity: A Hidden Consequence of Hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Villa-Bellosta

    Full Text Available Extracellular pyrophosphate is a potent endogenous inhibitor of vascular calcification, which is degraded by alkaline phosphatase (ALP and generated by hydrolysis of ATP via ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (eNPP1. ALP activity (as routinely measured in clinical practice represents the maximal activity (in ideal conditions, but not the real activity (in normal or physiological conditions. For the first time, the present study investigated extracellular pyrophosphate metabolism during hemodialysis sessions (including its synthesis via eNPP1 and its degradation via ALP in physiological conditions.45 patients in hemodialysis were studied. Physiological ALP activity represents only 4-6% of clinical activity. ALP activity increased post-hemodialysis by 2% under ideal conditions (87.4 ± 3.3 IU/L vs. 89.3 ± 3.6 IU/L and 48% under physiological conditions (3.5 ± 0.2 IU/L vs. 5.2 ± 0.2 IU/L. Pyrophosphate synthesis by ATP hydrolysis remained unaltered post-hemodialysis. Post-hemodialysis plasma pH (7.45 ± 0.02 significantly increased compared with the pre-dialysis pH (7.26 ± 0.02. The slight variation in pH (~0.2 units induced a significant increase in ALP activity (9%. Addition of phosphate in post-hemodialysis plasma significantly decreased ALP activity, although this effect was not observed with the addition of urea. Reduction in phosphate levels and increment in pH were significantly associated with an increase in physiological ALP activity post-hemodialysis. A decrease in plasma pyrophosphate levels (3.3 ± 0.3 μmol/L vs. 1.9 ± 0.1 μmol/L and pyrophosphate/ATP ratio (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.4 ± 0.1 post-hemodialysis was also observed.Extraction of uremic toxins, primarily phosphate and hydrogen ions, dramatically increases the ALP activity under physiological conditions. This hitherto unknown consequence of hemodialysis suggests a reinterpretation of the clinical value of this parameter.

  17. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  18. Exogenous methyl jasmonate treatment increases glucosinolate biosynthesis and quinone reductase activity in kale leaf tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties 'Dwarf Blue Curled Vates' and 'Red Winter' in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar 'Red Winter' in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r = 0.800, Pkale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined increases in phenolics (quercetin and kaempferol) and GS hydrolysis product concentrations rather than by individual products alone.

  19. Increased MMP-9 expression and activity by aortic smooth muscle cells after nitric oxide synthase inhibition is associated with increased nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipp, Brian S; Ailawadi, Gorav; Ford, John W; Peterson, David A; Eagleton, Matthew J; Roelofs, Karen J; Hannawa, Kevin K; Deogracias, Michael P; Ji, Baoan; Logsdon, Craig; Graziano, Kathleen D; Simeone, Diane M; Thompson, Robert W; Henke, Peter K; Stanley, James C; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2004-01-01

    To determine the mechanism underlying increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) by rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RA-SMC) after inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Treatment of interleukin-1beta-stimulated RA-SMC with aminoguanidine led to an increase of 96% in MMP-9 activity (P = 0.003) by gelatin zymography, a 40% increase in pro-MMP-9 protein (P = 0.018) by Western blot, and a 155% increase in MMP-9 mRNA (P = 0.06) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Aminoguanidine also caused a 26% decrease in cytosolic IkappaB levels (P = 0.014) by Western blot, as well as a 97% increase in nuclear factor-kappaB binding and a 216% increase in activator protein-1 binding as measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. No significant changes were noted in MMP-2 or TIMP-1 expression, protein levels, or activity after aminoguanidine administration. MMP-9 expression and activity is increased in cytokine stimulated RA-SMCs after iNOS inhibition, coincident with activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1 pathways. We speculate that local derangements in iNOS may favor MMP-9-dependent vessel wall damage in vivo via an inflammatory cascade mechanism.

  20. Activity-dependent increase of the AHP amplitude in T sensory neurons of the leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuri, Rossana; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo; Brunelli, Marcello

    2002-11-01

    We identified a new form of activity-dependent modulation of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in tactile (T) sensory neurons of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. Repetitive intracellular stimulation with 30 trains of depolarizing impulses at 15-s inter-stimulus interval (ISI) led to an increase of the AHP amplitude (~60% of the control). The enhancement of AHP lasted for >/=15 min. The AHP increase was also elicited when a T neuron was activated by repetitive stimulation of its receptive field. The ISI was a critical parameter for the induction and maintenance of AHP enhancement. ISI duration had to fit within a time window with the upper limit of 20 s to make the training effective to induce an enhancement of the AHP amplitude. After recovery from potentiation, AHP amplitude could be enhanced once again by delivering another training session. The increase of AHP amplitude persisted in high Mg(2+) saline, suggesting an intrinsic cellular mechanism for its induction. Previous investigations reported that AHP of leech T neurons was mainly due to the activity of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and to a Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current (I(K/Ca)). In addition, it has been demonstrated that serotonin (5HT) reduces AHP amplitude through the inhibition of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. By blocking the I(K/Ca) with pharmacological agents, such as cadmium and apamin, we still observed an increase of the AHP amplitude after repetitive stimulation, whereas 5HT application completely inhibited the AHP increment. These data indicate that the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is involved in the induction and maintenance of the AHP increase after repetitive stimulation. Moreover, the AHP increase was affected by the level of serotonin in the CNS. Finally, the increase of the AHP amplitude produced a lasting depression of the synaptic connection between two T neurons, suggesting that this activity-dependent phenomenon might be involved in short-term plasticity associated with learning processes.

  1. covR Mediated Antibiofilm Activity of 3-Furancarboxaldehyde Increases the Virulence of Group A Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Ashwinkumar Subramenium

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes, a multi-virulent, exclusive human pathogen responsible for various invasive and non-invasive diseases possesses biofilm forming phenomenon as one of its pathogenic armaments. Recently, antibiofilm agents have gained prime importance, since inhibiting the biofilm formation is expected to reduce development of antibiotic resistance and increase their susceptibility to the host immune cells.The current study demonstrates the antibiofilm activity of 3Furancarboxaldehyde (3FCA, a floral honey derived compound, against GAS biofilm, which was divulged using crystal violet assay, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The report is extended to study its effect on various aspects of GAS (morphology, virulence, aggregation at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (132μg/ml. 3FCA was found to alter the growth pattern of GAS in solid and liquid medium and increased the rate of auto-aggregation. Electron microscopy unveiled the increase in extra polymeric substances around cell. Gene expression studies showed down-regulation of covR gene, which is speculated to be the prime target for the antibiofilm activity. Increased hyaluronic acid production and down regulation of srtB gene is attributed to the enhanced rate of auto-aggregation. The virulence genes (srv, mga, luxS and hasA were also found to be over expressed, which was manifested with the increased susceptibility of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to 3FCA treated GAS. The toxicity of 3FCA was ruled out with no adverse effect on C. elegans.Though 3FCA possess antibiofilm activity against GAS, it was also found to increase the virulence of GAS. This study demonstrates that, covR mediated antibiofilm activity may increase the virulence of GAS. This also emphasizes the importance to analyse the acclimatization response and virulence of the pathogen in the presence of antibiofilm compounds prior to their clinical trials.

  2. Acute administration of fenproporex increased acetylcholinesterase activity in brain of young rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRENA P. TEODORAK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fenproporex is the second most commonly amphetamine-based anorectic consumed worldwide; this drug is rapidly converted into amphetamine, in vivo, and acts by increasing dopamine levels in the synaptic cleft. Considering that fenproporex effects on the central nervous system are still poorly known and that acetylcholinesterase is a regulatory enzyme which is involved in cholinergic synapses and may indirectly modulate the release of dopamine, the present study investigated the effects of acute administration of fenproporex on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain of young rats. Young male Wistar rats received a single injection of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5 or 25mg/kg i.p. or vehicle (2% Tween 80. Two hours after the injection, the rats were killed by decapitation and the brain was removed for evaluation of acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that fenproporex administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus and posterior cortex, whereas in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum the enzyme activity was not altered. In conclusion, in the present study we demonstrated that acute administration of fenproporex exerts an effect in the cholinergic system causing an increase in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner in the hippocampus and posterior cortex. Thus, we suggest that the imbalance in cholinergic homeostasis could be considered as an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying the brain damage observed in patients who use amphetamines such as fenproporex.

  3. rTMS Induced Tinnitus Relief Is Related to an Increase in Auditory Cortical Alpha Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Langguth, Berthold; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, the continuous perception of a phantom sound, is a highly prevalent audiological symptom. A promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as this directly affects tinnitus-related brain activity. Several studies indeed show tinnitus relief after rTMS, however effects are moderate and vary strongly across patients. This may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding how rTMS affects oscillatory activity in tinnitus sufferers and which modulations are associated with tinnitus relief. In the present study we examined the effects of five different stimulation protocols (including sham) by measuring tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related brain activity with Magnetoencephalography before and after rTMS. Changes in oscillatory activity were analysed for the stimulated auditory cortex as well as for the entire brain regarding certain frequency bands of interest (delta, theta, alpha, gamma). In line with the literature the effects of rTMS on tinnitus loudness varied strongly across patients. This variability was also reflected in the rTMS effects on oscillatory activity. Importantly, strong reductions in tinnitus loudness were associated with increases in alpha power in the stimulated auditory cortex, while an unspecific decrease in gamma and alpha power, particularly in left frontal regions, was linked to an increase in tinnitus loudness. The identification of alpha power increase as main correlate for tinnitus reduction sheds further light on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. This will hopefully stimulate the development of more effective therapy approaches. PMID:23390539

  4. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Hua [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Yao, Shen; Qiao, Rui-Fang; Levine, Alice C. [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Kirschenbaum, Alexander [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Qin, Weiping [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Bauman, William A. [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher P., E-mail: chris.cardozo@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peter VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Nerve transection increased Notch signaling in paralyzed muscle. {yields} Nandrolone prevented denervation-induced Notch signaling. {yields} Nandrolone induced the expression of an inhibitor of the Notch signaling, Numb. {yields} Reduction of denervation-induced Notch signaling by nandrolone is likely through upregulation of Numb. -- Abstract: Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy.

  5. Increased activity of the complement system in the liver of patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; French, Barbara A; Liu, Hui; Tillman, Brittany C; French, Samuel W

    2014-12-01

    Inflammation has been suggested as a mechanism underlying the development of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). The activation of the complement system plays an important role in inflammation. Although it has been shown that ethanol-induced activation of the complement system contributes to the pathophysiology of ethanol-induced liver injury in mice, whether ethanol consumption activates the complement system in the human liver has not been investigated. Using antibodies against C1q, C3, and C5, the immunoreactivity of the complement system in patients with AH was examined by immunohistochemistry and quantified by morphometric image analysis. The immunoreactivity intensity of C1q, C3, and C5 in patients with AH was significantly higher than that seen in normal controls. Further, the gene expression of C1q, C3, and C5 was examined using real-time PCR. There were increases in the levels of C1q and C5, but not C3 mRNA in AH. Moreover, the immunoreactivity of C5a receptor (C5aR) also increased in AH. To explore the functional implication of the activation of the complement system in AH, we examined the colocalization of C5aR in Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) forming balloon hepatocytes. C5aR was focally overexpressed in the MDB forming cells. Collectively, our study suggests that alcohol consumption increases the activity of the complement system in the liver cells, which contributes to the inflammation-associated pathogenesis of AH.

  6. Cocaine increases dopaminergic neuron and motor activity via midbrain α1 adrenergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Richard Brandon; Wanat, Matthew J; Gomez, Jorge A; Brown, Zeliene J; Phillips, Paul E M; Paladini, Carlos A

    2015-03-13

    Cocaine reinforcement is mediated by increased extracellular dopamine levels in the forebrain. This neurochemical effect was thought to require inhibition of dopamine reuptake, but cocaine is still reinforcing even in the absence of the dopamine transporter. Here, we demonstrate that the rapid elevation in dopamine levels and motor activity elicited by cocaine involves α1 receptor activation within the ventral midbrain. Activation of α1 receptors increases dopaminergic neuron burst firing by decreasing the calcium-activated potassium channel current (SK), as well as elevates dopaminergic neuron pacemaker firing through modulation of both SK and the hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih). Furthermore, we found that cocaine increases both the pacemaker and burst-firing frequency of rat ventral-midbrain dopaminergic neurons through an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent mechanism within the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta. These results demonstrate the mechanism underlying the critical role of α1 adrenergic receptors in the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission and behavior by cocaine.

  7. Increased procoagulant activity of red blood cells in the presence of cisplatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Cheng-fang; YU Hong-juan; HOU Jin-xiao; ZHOU Jin

    2008-01-01

    Background Cisplatin based chemotherapy is a well recognized risk factor for coagulation disordrs and thrombosis.The pathophysiological mechanisms by which cisplatin promote thrombosis are not well understood.Methods Red blood cells (RBCs) were separated from peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer (n=10) and healthy adults (n=6) and treated with cisplatin. Coagulation time of RBCs was assessed by one step recalcification time and the productions of thrombin, intrinsic and extrinsic factor Xa were measured in the presence or absence of various concentrations of lactadherin. Exposed phosphatidylserine was stained with lactadherin and observed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry.Results Neither fresh RBCs nor RBCs treated without cisplatin had potent procoagulant activity. Cisplatin treatment increased procoagulant activity of RBCs in a cell number- and concentration-dependent manner. Exposed phosphatidylserine was stained with lactadherin and after cisplatin treatment, strong fluorescence was revealed by confocal microscopy. Lactadherin bound RBCs from patients with breast cancer increased from (1.9±0.5)% on control RBCs to (68.0±3.5)% on RBCs treated with 10 pmol/L cisplatin for 24 hours.Conclusions Cisplatin treatment increases procoagulant activity of RBCs, which have a strong association with exposure of phosphatidylserine. The increased procoagulant activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of thrombophilia during cisplatin based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

  8. Single-site substitutions improve cold activity and increase thermostability of the dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Yan; Wu, Li-Ying; Liu, Gang; Feng, Hong

    2016-12-01

    To engineer dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP) variants to improve cold activity and increase thermostability so these variants are suitable for the leather processing industry. Based on previous studies with bacterial alkaline proteases, double-site mutations (W106K/V149I and W106K/M124L) were introduced into the DHAP from Bacillus pumilus. Compared with the wild-type DHAP hydrolytic activity, the double-site variant W106K/V149I showed an increase in specific hydrolytic activity at 15 °C by 2.3-fold toward casein in terms of hydrolytic rate and 2.7-fold toward the synthetic peptide AAPF-pN by means of kcat/Km value. The thermostability of the variant (W106K/V149I) was improved with the half-life at 60 and 70 °C increased by 2.7- and 5.0-fold, respectively, when compared with the thermostability of the wild-type DHAP. Conclusively, an increase in the cold activity and thermostability of a bacterial alkaline protease was achieved by protein engineering.

  9. A social conflict increases EEG slow-wave activity during subsequent sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; de Bruin, EA; Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    2001-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is widely viewed as an indicator of sleep debt and sleep intensity. In a previous study, we reported a strong increase in SWA during NREM sleep after a social conflict in rats. To test whether this

  10. Acute elevation of plasma PLTP activity strongly increases pre-existing atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Moerland (Matthijs); H.M.E. Samyn (Hannelore); T. van Gent (Teus); M.J. van Haperen (Rien); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); A. van Tol (Arie); M.P.G. de Crom (Rini)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective - A transgenic mouse model was generated that allows conditional expression of human PLTP, based on the tetracycline-responsive gene system, to study the effects of an acute increase in plasma PLTP activity as may occur in inflammation. Methods and Results - The effects of an a

  11. Low-water activity foods: increased concern as vehicles of foodborne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuchat, L.R.; Komitopoulou, E.; Beckers, H.; Betts, R.P.; Bourdichon, F.; Fanning, S.; Joosten, H.M.; ter Kuile, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Foods and food ingredients with low water activity (a(w)) have been implicated with increased frequency in recent years as vehicles for pathogens that have caused outbreaks of illnesses. Some of these foodborne pathogens can survive for several months, even years, in low-a(w) foods and in dry food p

  12. Hemorrhage activates myocardial NFkappaB and increases TNF-alpha in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, D R; Shenkar, R; Sheridan, B C; Cain, B S; Abraham, E; Harken, A H

    1997-10-01

    The heart is a tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) producing organ. Locally (v systemically)-produced TNFalpha likely contributes to myocardial dysfunction via direct suppression of myocardial contractile function, the induction of myocardial apoptosis, and the genesis of cardiac hypertrophy. Although recent studies have demonstrated increased myocardial TNFalpha following endotoxemia, it remains unknown whether shock, in the absence of sepsis, activates myocardial nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB, a TNFalpha transcription factor) and/or increases TNFalpha in the heart. To study this, rats were hemorrhaged and resuscitated, after which hearts were harvested and analysed for evidence of NFkappaB activation (electrophoretic mobility shift assay) and assayed for TNFalpha levels. Hemorrhage and resuscitation activated NFkappaB and resulted in a dramatic increase in myocardial TNFalpha. This study constitutes the initial demonstration that hemorrhagic shock activates the signaling mechanisms which culminate in increased myocardial TNFalpha. Indeed, this may have important clinical implications, since hemorrhage is a frequent complication of both iatrogenic and accidental trauma, as well as a potent instigator of multiple organ failure.

  13. Low-water activity foods: increased concern as vehicles of foodborne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuchat, L.R.; Komitopoulou, E.; Beckers, H.; Betts, R.P.; Bourdichon, F.; Fanning, S.; Joosten, H.M.L.J.; Kuile, ter B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Foods and food ingredients with low water activity (aw) have been implicated with increased frequency in recent years as vehicles for pathogens that have caused outbreaks of illnesses. Some of these foodborne pathogens can survive for several months, even years, in low-aw foods and in dry food proce

  14. Increased eosinophil activity in acute Plasmodium falciparum infection - association with cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Reimert, C M; Tette, E

    1998-01-01

    followed by eosinophilia 30 days after cure. Plasma levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) were measured as indicators of eosinophil activation. In spite of the low eosinophil counts, ECP levels were increased on day 0 and significantly higher in patients with CM...

  15. Diabetes promotes DMH-induced colorectal cancer by increasing the activity of glycolytic enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanglei; Xu, Gang; Zhou, Wenjing; Wang, Zhenzheng; Meng, Linlin; Zhou, Songnan; Xu, Xia; Yuan, Huiqing; Tian, Keli

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between diabetes mellitus and colorectal carcinogenesis as well as the possible mechanism involved in this interaction. Diabetes rat models were induced with a low dose of STZ followed by a low dose of DMH to induce colorectal cancer. The formation of ACF in the colon and the incidence, number and size of tumors were measured. The activity of glycolytic enzymes in colonic tissues was also measured. The results demonstrated that both the total number of ACF and the number of foci that contain a different number of crypts were increased in diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental treatment, the incidence, number and size of tumors were also increased in diabetic rats. Overall, these data indicated that diabetes increased the risk of colorectal cancer. The activity of HK and PK in colonic tissues was increased in diabetic rats, whereas the activity of PDH was decreased. In addition, the activities of these enzymes in intratumor were higher than that of in peritumor. These data indicated that the high rate of glycolysis may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in diabetic rats.

  16. Fibrinogen γ' increases the sensitivity to activated protein C in normal and factor V Leiden plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Farida; Uitte de Willige, Shirley; Simioni, Paolo; Ariëns, Robert A S; Bertina, Rogier M; Rosing, Jan; Castoldi, Elisabetta

    2014-08-28

    Activated protein C (APC) resistance, often associated with the factor V (FV) Leiden mutation, is the most common risk factor for venous thrombosis. We observed increased APC resistance in carriers of fibrinogen γ gene (FGG) haplotype 2, which is associated with reduced levels of the alternatively spliced fibrinogen γ' chain. This finding prompted us to study the effects of fibrinogen and its γ' chain on APC resistance. Fibrinogen, and particularly the γA/γ' isoform, improved the response of plasma to added APC in the thrombin generation-based assay. Similarly, a synthetic peptide mimicking the C-terminus of the fibrinogen γ' chain, which binds thrombin and inhibits its activities, greatly increased the APC sensitivity of normal and FV Leiden plasma, likely due to its ability to inhibit thrombin-mediated activation of FV and FVIII. Although the fibrinogen γ' peptide also inhibited protein C activation by the thrombin/thrombomodulin complex, it still increased the sensitivity of plasma to endogenously formed APC when thrombin generation was measured in the presence of soluble thrombomodulin. We conclude that fibrinogen, and particularly fibrinogen γ', increases plasma APC sensitivity. The fibrinogen γ' peptide might form the basis for pharmacologic interventions to counteract APC resistance. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain's Reward Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…

  18. Low-water activity foods: increased concern as vehicles of foodborne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuchat, L.R.; Komitopoulou, E.; Beckers, H.; Betts, R.P.; Bourdichon, F.; Fanning, S.; Joosten, H.M.L.J.; Kuile, ter B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Foods and food ingredients with low water activity (aw) have been implicated with increased frequency in recent years as vehicles for pathogens that have caused outbreaks of illnesses. Some of these foodborne pathogens can survive for several months, even years, in low-aw foods and in dry food proce

  19. Low-water activity foods: increased concern as vehicles of foodborne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuchat, L.R.; Komitopoulou, E.; Beckers, H.; Betts, R.P.; Bourdichon, F.; Fanning, S.; Joosten, H.M.; ter Kuile, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Foods and food ingredients with low water activity (a(w)) have been implicated with increased frequency in recent years as vehicles for pathogens that have caused outbreaks of illnesses. Some of these foodborne pathogens can survive for several months, even years, in low-a(w) foods and in dry food p

  20. The effect of increase in baggage weight on elderly women's lower extremity muscle activation during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Nam, Chan-Woo; Yong, Min-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of increased baggage weight on the muscle activation of elderly women's lower extremities during gait. A total of 24 elderly women who were residing in communities in Daegu, South Korea aged 79.6±6.2, 149.7±7.0cm in height, and 53.5±7.2kg in weight participated in this study. The muscle activation of each muscle was measured three times at 2kg, 3kg, and 4kg of baggage weight while the subjects were conducting treadmill walking wearing backpacks. Electrodes were placed on four muscles: the quadriceps muscle (rectus femoris), the hamstring muscle (semitendinosus), the tibialis anterior muscle, and the soleus muscle. The results show that the rates of increase in muscle activation in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles according to baggage weight increase were higher than those in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles (<0.05). These results indicate that the heavier weight loads increase the activation of muscles that control the ankle joints causing muscle fatigue. Moreover, a decrease in balance ability through muscle fatigue can be a risk factor for falls. Thus, elderly people should be instructed not to carry heavy objects.

  1. Astute Activities: Increasing Cognitive and Creative Development in the Language Arts Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Lois Marie Zinke

    Using Mark Twain's "Huckleberry Finn," John Knowles'"A Separate Peace," and Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings," a study examined the effects of Astute Activities--teaching techniques which increase students' cognitive ability and creativity--on student performance in two senior English classes in a small…

  2. Protein kinase C gamma mutations in spinocerebellar ataxia 14 increase kinase activity and alter membrane targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, D. S.; Knight, M. A.; Harmison, G. G.; Fischbeck, K. H.; Howell, B. W.

    2005-01-01

    The protein kinase C gamma (PKCgamma) gene is mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14). In this study, we investigated the effects of two SCA14 missense mutations, G118D and C150F, on PKCgamma function. We found that these mutations increase the intrinsic activity of PKCgamma. Direct visual

  3. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...

  4. Astute Activities: Increasing Cognitive and Creative Development in the Language Arts Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Lois Marie Zinke

    Using Mark Twain's "Huckleberry Finn," John Knowles'"A Separate Peace," and Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings," a study examined the effects of Astute Activities--teaching techniques which increase students' cognitive ability and creativity--on student performance in two senior English classes in a small…

  5. Increased Arf/p53 activity in stem cells, aging and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Moreno, Manuel; Moreno-Cugnon, Leire; Matheu, Ander

    2017-04-01

    Arf/p53 pathway protects the cells against DNA damage induced by acute stress. This characteristic is the responsible for its tumor suppressor activity. Moreover, it regulates the chronic type of stress associated with aging. This is the basis of its anti-aging activity. Indeed, increased gene dosage of Arf/p53 displays elongated longevity and delayed aging. At a cellular level, it has been recently shown that increased dosage of Arf/p53 delays age-associated stem cell exhaustion and the subsequent decline in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. However, p53 can also promote aging if constitutively activated. In this context, p53 reduces tissue regeneration, which correlates with premature exhaustion of stem cells. We discuss here the current evidence linking the Arf/p53 pathway to the processes of aging and cancer through stem cell regulation. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. aPKC phosphorylation of HDAC6 results in increased deacetylation activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Du

    Full Text Available The Class II histone deacetylase, HDAC6, has been shown to be involved in cell motility, aggresome formation and mitochondria transport. HDAC6 deacetylase activity regulates α-tubulin acetylation levels and thus plays a critical role in these processes. In turn, HDAC6 activity can be regulated by interaction with various proteins including multiple kinases. Kinase mediated phosphorylation of HDAC6 can lead to either increased or reduced activity. Our previous research has shown that sequestosome1/p62 (SQSTM1/p62 interacts with HDAC6 and regulates its activity. As SQSTM1/p62 is a scaffolding protein known to interact directly with the zeta isoform of Protein Kinase C (PKCζ, we sought to examine if HDAC6 could be a substrate for PKCζ phosphorylation and if so, how its activity might be regulated. Our data demonstrate that HDAC6 is not only present in a protein complex with PKCζ but can also be phosphorylated by PKCζ. We also show that specific phosphorylation of HDAC6 by PKCζ increases HDAC6 deacetylase activity resulting in reduced acetylated tubulin levels. Our findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism by which HDAC6, PKCζ and SQSTM1/p62 function together in protein aggregate clearance. These results also highlight a new research direction which may prove fruitful for understanding the underlying cause of several neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros A. Kavouras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in total antioxidant capacity (TAC. A random sample of 1514 men and 1528 women was selected from Attica region. Physical activity was assessed with a translated version of the validated “International Physical Activity Questionnaire” (iPAQ, and dietary intake through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore that incorporated the inherent characteristics of this diet. TAC was positively correlated with the degree of physical activity (P<.05. TAC was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (r=0.24, P<.001. Stratified analysis by diet status revealed that the most beneficial results were observed to highly active people as compared to inactive, who also followed the Mediterranean diet (288  ±  70 μmol/L, 230  ±  50 μmol/L, resp., after adjusting for various confounders. Increased physical activity and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with increased total antioxidant capacity.

  8. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs M Nater

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies.In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies.Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest.Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals.

  9. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M; La Marca, Roberto; Erni, Katja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies. In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies. Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest. Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals.

  10. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M.; La Marca, Roberto; Erni, Katja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aim Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies. Methods In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies. Results Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest. Conclusions Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals. PMID:26110636

  11. EGF increases expression and activity of PAs in preimplantation rat embryos and their implantation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har-Vardi Iris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryo implantation plays a major role in embryogenesis and the outcome of pregnancy. Plasminogen activators (PAs have been implicated in mammalian fertilization, early stages of development and embryo implantation. As in-vitro developing embryos resulted in lower implantation rate than those developed in-vivo we assume that a reduced PAs activity may be involved. In the present work we studied the effect of EGF on PAs activity, quantity and embryo implantation. Methods Zygotes were flushed from rat oviducts on day one of pregnancy and grown in-vitro in R1ECM supplemented with EGF (10 ng/ml and were grown up to the blastocyst stage. The control groups were grown in the same medium without EGF. The distribution and quantity of the PAs were examined using fluorescence immunohistochemistry followed by measurement of PAs activity using the chromogenic assay. Implantation rate was studied using the embryo donation model. Results PAs distribution in the embryos was the same in EGF treated and untreated embryos. Both PAs were localized in the blastocysts' trophectoderm, supporting the assumption that PAs play a role in the implantation process in rats. EGF increased the quantity of uPA at all stages studied but the 8-cell stage as compared with controls. The tissue type PA (tPA content was unaffected except the 8-cell stage, which was increased. The activity of uPA increased gradually towards the blastocyst stage and more so due to the presence of EGF. The activity of tPA did not vary with the advancing developmental stages although it was also increased by EGF. The presence of EGF during the preimplantation development doubled the rate of implantation of the treated group as compared with controls.

  12. Aspartic acid aminotransferase activity is increased in actively spiking compared with non-spiking human epileptic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, S J; Dixon, L M; Sherwin, A L

    1988-01-01

    Increased concentration of the excitatory neurotransmitter aspartic acid in actively spiking human epileptic cerebral cortex was recently described. In order to further characterise changes in the aspartergic system in epileptic brain, the behaviour of aspartic acid aminotransferase (AAT), a key enzyme involved in aspartic acid metabolism has now been examined. Electrocorticography performed during surgery was employed to identify cortical epileptic spike foci in 16 patients undergoing temporal lobectomy for intractable seizures. Patients with spontaneously spiking lateral temporal cortex (n = 8) were compared with a non-spiking control group (n = 8) of patients in whom the epileptic lesions were confined to the hippocampus sparing the temporal convexity. Mean activity of AAT in spiking cortex was significantly elevated by 16-18%, with aspartic acid concentration increased by 28%. Possible explanations for the enhanced AAT activity include increased proliferation of cortical AAT-containing astrocytes at the spiking focus and/or a generalised increase in neuronal or extraneuronal metabolism consequent to the ongoing epileptic discharge. It is suggested that the data provide additional support for a disturbance of central excitatory aspartic acid mechanisms in human epileptic brain. PMID:2898010

  13. Gastrointestinal Hormone Cholecystokinin Increases P-Glycoprotein Membrane Localization and Transport Activity in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kentaro; Shimizu, Saori; Tomono, Takumi; Ogihara, Takuo

    2017-09-01

    It was reported that stimulation of taste receptor type 2 member 38 by a bitter substance, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mRNA level and transport activity via release of the gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) at 9 h. Therefore, we hypothesized that CCK-8 and PTC might also regulate P-gp activity more rapidly via a different mechanism. As a result, we found that the pretreatment of human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells with 10-mM PTC significantly decreased the intracellular accumulation of P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123) compared with the control after 90-min incubation. Moreover, CCK-8 treatments significantly reduced the accumulation of Rho123 within 30 min, compared with the control. On the other hand, when Caco-2 cells were pretreated with PTC, the efflux ratio of Rho123 was significantly increased compared with control. The efflux ratio of Rho123 in CCK-8 treatment cells was also significantly increased compared with control. Furthermore, CCK-8 increased the phosphorylation of the scaffold proteins ezrin, radixin, and moesin, which regulate translocation of P-gp to the plasma membrane. Therefore, our results indicate that PTC induced release of CCK-8, which in turn induced the phosphorylation of ezrin, radixin, and moesin proteins, leading to upregulation of P-gp transport activity via increased membrane localization of P-gp. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dopamine D3 receptor deletion increases tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, A; D'Amico, A G; Scuderi, S; Leggio, G M; Drago, F; D'Agata, V

    2013-10-10

    Considerable evidence indicates that dopamine (DA) influences tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-mediated proteolytic processing of the precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) into mature BDNF (mBDNF). However, specific roles in this process for the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet to be fully characterized. In the present study, we hypothesized that D3R deletion could influence tPA activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Using D3R knockout (D3(-/-)) mice, we show that receptor inactivation is associated with increased tPA expression/activity both in the prefrontal cortex and, to a greater extent, in the hippocampus. Augmented tPA expression in D3(-/-) mice correlated with increased BDNF mRNA levels, plasmin/plasminogen protein ratio and the conversion of proBDNF into mBDNF, as well as enhanced tPA and mBDNF immunoreactivity, as determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. In addition, when compared to wild-type controls, D3(-/-) mice exhibited increased basal activation of the canonical cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)-driven Akt/cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling cascade, as determined by the increased Akt phosphorylation both at Thr304 and Ser473 residues, of DA and cAMP-regulated protein of 32kDa (DARPP-32) at Thr34 and a phosphorylation state-dependent inhibition of glycogen synthetase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at Ser9, a substrate of Akt whose constitutive function impairs normal CREB transcriptional activity through phosphorylation at its Ser129 residue. Accordingly, CREB phosphorylation at Ser133 was significantly increased in D3(-/-) mice, whereas the GSK-3β-dependent phosphorylation at Ser129 was diminished. Altogether, our finding reveals that mice lacking D3Rs show enhanced tPA proteolytic activity on BDNF which may involve, at least in part, a potentiated Akt/CREB signaling

  15. Theobromine increases NAD⁺/Sirt-1 activity and protects the kidney under diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Silva, Kamila C; Peixoto, Elisa B M I; Borges, Cynthia M; Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M; Lopes de Faria, José B

    2015-02-01

    Reduction in sirtuin 1 (Sirt-1) is associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in the diabetic kidney. Theobromine may reduce kidney ECM accumulation in diabetic rats. In the current study, we aimed to unravel, under diabetic conditions, the mechanism of kidney ECM accumulation induced by a reduction in Sirt-1 and the effect of theobromine in these events. In vitro, we used immortalized human mesangial cells (iHMCs) exposed to high glucose (HG; 30 mM), with or without small interfering RNA for NOX4 and Sirt-1. In vivo, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were rendered diabetic by means of streptozotocin and studied after 12 wk. The effects of treatment with theobromine were investigated under both conditions. HG leads to a decrease in Sirt-1 activity and NAD(+) levels in iHMCs. Sirt-1 activity could be reestablished by treatment with NAD(+), silencing NOX4, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) blockade, or with theobromine. HG also leads to a low AMP/ATP ratio, acetylation of SMAD3, and increased collagen IV, which is prevented by theobromine. Sirt-1 or AMPK blockade abolished these effects of theobromine. In diabetic SHR, theobromine prevented increases in albuminuria and kidney collagen IV, reduced AMPK, elevated NADPH oxidase activity and PARP-1, and reduced NAD(+) levels and Sirt-1 activity. These results suggest that in diabetes mellitus, Sirt-1 activity is reduced by PARP-1 activation and NAD(+) depletion due to low AMPK, which increases NOX4 expression, leading to ECM accumulation mediated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling. It is suggested that Sirt-1 activation by theobromine may have therapeutic potential for diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Increased γ-secretase activity in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients with β-amyloid pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Laiterä

    Full Text Available The potential similarity between the brain pathology of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH and Alzheimer disease (AD is intriguing and thus further studies focusing on the underlying molecular mechanisms may offer valuable information for differential diagnostics and the development of treatments for iNPH. Here, we investigated β- and γ-secretase activities in relation to amyloid-β (Aβ pathology in the brain tissue samples collected from iNPH and AD patients. β- and γ-secretase activities were measured from the frontal cortical biopsies of 26 patients with suspected iNPH as well as post-mortem tissue samples from the inferior temporal cortex of 74 AD patients and eight subjects without neurofibrillary pathology. In iNPH samples with detectable Aβ plaques, γ-secretase activity was significantly increased (∼ 1.6-fold when compared to iNPH samples without Aβ plaques (p = 0.009. In the AD samples, statistically significant differences in the γ-secretase activity were not observed with respect to disease severity (mild, moderate and severe AD according to neurofibrillary pathology. Conversely, β-secretase activity was unaltered in iNPH samples with or without Aβ plaques, while it was significantly increased in relation to disease severity in the AD patients. These results show for the first time increased γ-secretase but not β-secretase activity in the biopsy samples from the frontal cortex of iNPH patients with AD-like Aβ pathology. Conversely, the opposite was observed in these secretase activities in AD patients with respect to neurofibrillary pathology. Despite the resemblances in the Aβ pathology, iNPH and AD patients appear to have marked differences in the cellular mechanisms responsible for the production of Aβ.

  17. Increased amylosucrase activity and specificity, and identification of regions important for activity, specificity and stability through molecular evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Veen, Bart A; Skov, Lars K; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    Amylosucrase is a transglycosidase which belongs to family 13 of the glycoside hydrolases and transglycosidases, and catalyses the formation of amylose from sucrose. Its potential use as an industrial tool for the synthesis or modification of polysaccharides is hampered by its low catalytic...... variants of the enzyme. This resulted in isolation of the most active amylosucrase (Asn387Asp) characterized to date, with a 60% increase in activity and a highly efficient polymerase (Glu227Gly) that produces a longer polymer than the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, judged from the screening results...

  18. CYP24A1 exacerbated activity during diabetes contributes to kidney tubular apoptosis via caspase-3 increased expression and activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Tourigny

    Full Text Available Decreases in circulating 25,hydroxyl-vitamin D3 (25 OH D3 and 1,25,dihydroxyl-vitamin D3 (1,25 (OH2 D3 have been extensively documented in patients with type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, the molecular reasons behind this drop, and whether it is a cause or an effect of disease progression is still poorly understood. With the skin and the liver, the kidney is one of the most important sites for vitamin D metabolism. Previous studies have also shown that CYP24A1 (an enzyme implicated in vitamin D metabolism, might play an important role in furthering the progression of kidney lesions during diabetic nephropathy. In this study we show a link between CYP24A1 increase and senescence followed by apoptosis induction in the renal proximal tubules of diabetic kidneys. We show that CYP24A1 expression was increased during diabetic nephropathy progression. This increase derived from protein kinase C activation and increased H(2O(2 cellular production. CYP24A1 increase had a major impact on cellular phenotype, by pushing cells into senescence, and later into apoptosis. Our data suggest that control of CYP24A1 increase during diabetes has a beneficial effect on senescence induction and caspase-3 increased expression. We concluded that diabetes induces an increase in CYP24A1 expression, destabilizing vitamin D metabolism in the renal proximal tubules, leading to cellular instability and apoptosis, and thereby accelerating tubular injury progression during diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G; Yan, Hao

    2016-02-10

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology.

  20. Building a foundation for systems change: increasing access to physical activity programs for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmayr, Sue; Mackenzie, Geraldine

    2004-10-01

    Although 25% of U.S. adults are physically inactive, this percentage increases dramatically for older adults. Organizational change theory guided a state health department in identifying system gaps and developing strategies to expand programming for seniors. A survey of provider agencies in New Jersey assessed (a) capacity for physical activity programs for older adults, (b) accessibility of programs, and (c) barriers to providing programs. One hundred sixty agencies provided physical activity programs to almost 184,000 individuals annually. Fewer than one half of the agencies provided exercise programs for people with disabilities, and only 44% provided in-home programs. Eighty-two percent of program providers wanted to expand programming but cited lack of trained instructors and peer leaders, inadequate facility space, insufficient funding, and limited transportation resources as barriers. Sustaining older adult behavior change requires infrastructure that will ensure access to diverse physical activities. This article provides strategies to expand access to physical activity programs for older adults.

  1. Resveratrol Reactivates Latent HIV through Increasing Histone Acetylation and Activating Heat Shock Factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoyun; Pan, Xiaoyan; Xu, Xinfeng; Lin, Jian; Que, Fuchang; Tian, Yuanxin; Li, Lin; Liu, Shuwen

    2017-06-07

    The persistence of latent HIV reservoirs presents a significant challenge to viral eradication. Effective latency reversing agents (LRAs) based on "shock and kill" strategy are urgently needed. The natural phytoalexin resveratrol has been demonstrated to enhance HIV gene expression, although its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that resveratrol was able to reactivate latent HIV without global T cell activation in vitro. Mode of action studies showed resveratrol-mediated reactivation from latency did not involve the activation of silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1), which belonged to class-3 histone deacetylase (HDAC). However, latent HIV was reactivated by resveratrol mediated through increasing histone acetylation and activation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Additionally, synergistic activation of the latent HIV reservoirs was observed under cotreatment with resveratrol and conventional LRAs. Collectively, this research reveals that resveratrol is a natural LRA and shows promise for HIV therapy.

  2. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology. PMID:26861509

  3. Increased Activity of Rhizosphere and Hyphosphere Enzymes under Elevated CO2 in a Loblolly Pine Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, I.; Phillips, R.

    2012-12-01

    The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 under global climate change on forest productivity has been predicted to decrease over time as pools of available N in soil become depleted, but empirical support for such progressive N limitation has been lacking. Increased N acquisition from soil depleted in inorganic nitrogen requires stimulation of the microbial processing of organic N, possibly through increasing C supply to soil by plant roots or mycorrhizal hyphae. Increases in (mycorr)rhizosphere C fluxes could stimulate microbes to produce extra-cellular enzymes that release N from SOM, feeding back from soil microsites to ecosystem-scale processes. We investigated the influence of elevated CO2 on root exudation and soil enzyme activity at the Duke Forest FACE site, USA, where loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands have been exposed to elevated CO2 for 14 years and N fertilization for five years. In each plot, root boxes containing acetate windows were installed in 2008. Two years after installation, we collected soils adjacent to root tips (the rhizosphere), hyphal tips (the hyphosphere) and bulk soil. We measured in situ root exudation rates from intact pine roots. Study objectives were to analyze (i) the influence of atmospheric CO2 on root exudation and extra-cellular enzyme activities, (ii) the influence of soil N availability in regulating these activities, and (iii) the relationship between the activities of enzymes involved in N cycling in soils and gross N transformations at soil microsites. Elevated atmospheric CO2 significantly increased the activity of β-1-4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) in the rhizosphere by almost 2.5 times (39 to 95 nmol h-1 g-1), and 1.6fold in the hyphosphere relative to ambient plots. NAG is an enzyme involved in the degradation of chitin from the cell walls of soil organisms, releasing absorbable forms of nitrogen. The activity of peroxidase, which degrades aromatic C compounds of SOM, increased significantly in the

  4. PKA and Epac activation mediates cAMP-induced vasorelaxation by increasing endothelial NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Verónica; Cuíñas, Andrea; Elíes, Jacobo; Campos-Toimil, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Vascular relaxation induced by 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent, although the underlying signaling pathways are not fully understood. Aiming to uncover potential mechanisms, we performed contraction-relaxation experiments on endothelium-denuded and intact rat aorta rings and measured NO levels in isolated human endothelial cells using single cell fluorescence imaging. The vasorelaxant effect of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, was decreased after selective inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), a cAMP-activated kinase, or L-NAME, an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor, only in intact aortic rings. Both selective activation of PKA with 6-Bnz-cAMP and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) with 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP significantly relaxed phenylephrine-induced contractions. The vasorelaxant effect of the Epac activator, but not that of the PKA activator, was reduced by endothelium removal. Forskolin, dibutyryl cAMP (a cAMP analogue), 6-Bnz-cAMP and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP increased NO levels in endothelial cells and the forskolin effect was significantly inhibited by inactivation of both Epac and PKA, and eNOS inhibition. Our results indicate that the endothelium-dependent component of forskolin/cAMP-induced vasorelaxation is partially mediated by an increase in endothelial NO release due to an enhanced eNOS activity through PKA and Epac activation in endothelial cells.

  5. A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla FJ Nooijen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions: For people with subacute spinal cord injury, does rehabilitation that is reinforced with the addition of a behavioural intervention to promote physical activity lead to a more active lifestyle than rehabilitation alone? Design: Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and blinded assessors. Participants: Forty-five adults with subacute spinal cord injury who were undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and were dependent on a manual wheelchair. The spinal cord injuries were characterised as: tetraplegia 33%; motor complete 62%; mean time since injury 150 days (SD 74. Intervention: All participants received regular rehabilitation, including handcycle training. Only the experimental group received a behavioural intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge. This intervention involved 13 individual sessions delivered by a coach who was trained in motivational interviewing; it began 2 months before and ended 6 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was physical activity, which was objectively measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor 2 months before discharge, at discharge, and 6 and 12 months after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. The accelerometry data were analysed as total wheeled physical activity, sedentary time and motility. Self-reported physical activity was a secondary outcome. Results: The behavioural intervention significantly increased wheeled physical activity (overall between-group difference from generalised estimating equation 21 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 35. This difference was evident 6 months after discharge (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 8 to 48 and maintained at 12 months after discharge (25 minutes per day, 95% CI 1 to 50. No significant intervention effect was found for sedentary time or motility. Self-reported physical activity also significantly improved. Conclusion: The behavioural

  6. The C-Terminal Region of G72 Increases D-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Li-Yun Chang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The schizophrenia-related protein G72 plays a unique role in the regulation of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO in great apes. Several psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are linked to overexpression of DAO and G72. Whether G72 plays a positive or negative regulatory role in DAO activity, however, has been controversial. Exploring the molecular basis of the relationship between G72 and DAO is thus important to understand how G72 regulates DAO activity. We performed yeast two-hybrid experiments and determined enzymatic activity to identify potential sites in G72 involved in binding DAO. Our results demonstrate that residues 123–153 and 138–153 in the long isoform of G72 bind to DAO and enhance its activity by 22% and 32%, respectively. A docking exercise indicated that these G72 peptides can interact with loops in DAO that abut the entrance of the tunnel that substrate and cofactor must traverse to reach the active site. We propose that a unique gating mechanism underlies the ability of G72 to increase the activity of DAO. Because upregulation of DAO activity decreases d-serine levels, which may lead to psychiatric abnormalities, our results suggest a molecular mechanism involving interaction between DAO and the C-terminal region of G72 that can regulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  7. Increase of a Calcium Independent Transglutaminase Activity in the Erythrocyte during the Infection with Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasserman Moisés

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the activity of a calcium dependent transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13 during the growth of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum inside the infected human erythrocyte. There is only one detectable transglutaminase in the two-cell-system, and its origin is erythrocytic. No activity was detected in preparations of the parasite devoid of erythrocyte cytoplasm. The Michaelis Menten constants (Km of the enzyme for the substrates N'N'dimethylcaseine and putrescine were undistinguishable whether the cell extracts used in their determination were obtained from normal or from infected red cells. The total activity of transglutaminase in stringently synchronized cultures, measured at 0.5mM Ca2+, decreased with the maturation of the parasite. However, a fraction which became irreversibly activated and independent of calcium concentration was detected. The proportion of this fraction grew with maturation; it represented only 20% of the activity in 20 hr-old-trophozoites while in 48-hr-schizonts it was more than 85% of the total activity. The activation of this fraction of transglutaminase did not depend on an increase in the erythrocyte cytoplasmic calcium, since most of the calcium was shown to be located in the parasite.

  8. PKCθ-Mediated PDK1 Phosphorylation Enhances T Cell Activation by Increasing PDK1 Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ah; Choi, Hyunwoo; Yang, Taewoo; Cho, Steve K.; Park, Zee-Yong; Park, Sung-Gyoo

    2017-01-01

    PDK1 is essential for T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of NF-κB, and PDK1-induced phosphorylation of PKCθ is important for TCR-induced NF-κB activation. However, inverse regulation of PDK1 by PKCθ during T cell activation has not been investigated. In this study, we found that PKCθ is involved in human PDK1 phosphorylation and that its kinase activity is crucial for human PDK1 phosphorylation. Mass spectrometry analysis of wild-type PKCθ or of kinase-inactive form of PKCθ revealed that PKCθ induced phosphorylation of human PDK1 at Ser-64. This PKCθ-induced PDK1 phosphorylation positively regulated T cell activation and TCR-induced NF-κB activation. Moreover, phosphorylation of human PDK1 at Ser-64 increased the stability of human PDK1 protein. These results suggest that Ser-64 is an important phosphorylation site that is part of a positive feedback loop for human PDK1-PKCθ-mediated T cell activation. PMID:28152304

  9. Restraint stress increases hemichannel activity in hippocampal glial cells and neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andrés Orellana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses, which may contribute in the development of cognitive deficits associated with major depression. These effects have been linked to glial cell activation, glutamate release and changes in neuronal plasticity and survival including atrophy of hippocampal apical dendrites, loss of synapses and neuronal death. Under neuro-inflammatory conditions we recently unveiled a sequential activation of glial cells that release ATP and glutamate via hemichannels inducing neuronal death due to activation of neuronal NMDA/P2X7 receptors and pannexin1 hemichannels. In the present work, we studied if stress-induced glia activation is associated to changes in hemichannel activity. To this end, we compared hemichannel activity of brain cells after acute or chronic restraint stress in mice. Dye uptake experiments in hippocampal slices revealed that acute stress induces opening of both Cx43 and Panx1 hemichannels in astrocytes, which were further increased by chronic stress; whereas enhanced Panx1 hemichannel activity was detected in microglia and neurons after acute/chronic and chronic stress, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of NMDA/P2X7 receptors reduced the chronic stress-induced hemichannel opening, whereas blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 hemichannels fully reduced ATP and glutamate release in hippocampal slices from stressed mice. Thus, we propose that gliotransmitter release through hemichannels may participate in the pathogenesis of stress-associated psychiatric disorders and possibly depression.

  10. Increase in vagal activity during hypotensive lower-body negative pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander-Jensen, K; Mehlsen, J; Stadeager, C

    1988-01-01

    volunteers before and after atropine administration. LBNP of 55 mmHg initially resulted in an increase in HR from 55 +/- 4 to 90 +/- 5 beats/min and decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 94 +/- 4 to 81 +/- 5 mmHg, in central venous pressure from 7 +/- 1 to -3 +/- 1 mmHg, and in cardiac output from 6.......1 +/- 0.5 to 3.7 +/- 0.11/min. Concomitantly, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels increased. After 8.2 +/- 2.3 min of LBNP, the MAP had decreased to 41 +/- 7 mmHg and HR had decreased to 57 +/- 3 beats/min. Vasopressin increased from 1.2 +/- 0.3 to 137 +/- 45 pg/ml and renin activity increased from 1.......45 +/- 4.0 to 3.80 +/- 1.0 ng.ml-1.h-1 with no further changes in epinephrine, norepinephrine, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. A tardy rise in pancreatic polypeptide indicated increased vagal activity. After atropine. LBNP also caused an initial increase in HR, which, however, remained elevated...

  11. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahim Noor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide

  12. Increasing the amount of usual rehabilitation improves activity after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Schneider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Questions: In people receiving rehabilitation aimed at reducing activity limitations of the lower and/or upper limb after stroke, does adding extra rehabilitation (of the same content as the usual rehabilitation improve activity? What is the amount of extra rehabilitation that needs to be provided to achieve a beneficial effect? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: Adults aged 18 years or older that had a diagnosis of stroke. Intervention: Extra rehabilitation with the same content as usual rehabilitation aimed at reducing activity limitations of the lower and/or upper limb. Outcome measures: Activity measured as lower or upper limb ability. Results: A total of 14 studies, comprising 15 comparisons, met the inclusion criteria. Pooling data from all the included studies showed that extra rehabilitation improved activity immediately after the intervention period (SMD = 0.39, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.71, I2 = 66%. When only studies with a large increase in rehabilitation (> 100% were included, the effect was greater (SMD 0.59, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.94, I2 = 44%. There was a trend towards a positive relationship (r = 0.53, p = 0.09 between extra rehabilitation and improved activity. The turning point on the ROC curve of false versus true benefit (AUC = 0.88, p = 0.04 indicated that at least an extra 240% of rehabilitation was needed for significant likelihood that extra rehabilitation would improve activity. Conclusion: Increasing the amount of usual rehabilitation aimed at reducing activity limitations improves activity in people after stroke. The amount of extra rehabilitation that needs to be provided to achieve a beneficial effect is large. Trial registration: PROSPERO CRD42012003221. [Schneider EJ, Lannin NA, Ada L, Schmidt J (2016 Increasing the amount of usual rehabilitation improves activity after stroke: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 182–187

  13. Using pedometers to increase physical activity in overweight and obese women: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most public health guidelines recommend that adults participate in 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Establishing new ways to achieve these targets in sedentary populations need to be explored. This research evaluated whether the daily use of pedometers could increase physical activity and improve health outcomes in sedentary overweight and obese women. Methods Twenty six overweight and obese middle-aged women were randomized into two groups: The control group was not able to record their steps daily, whilst the pedometer group, were asked to record the number of steps on a daily basis for 12 weeks. Results Our data showed that the pedometer group significantly increased their steps/day, by 36%, at the end of the 12 weeks, whereas the control group's physical activity levels remained unchanged. There was no significant difference in weight or body fat composition in the pedometer group compared to the control group. However, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure in the pedometer group (112.8 ± 2.44 mm Hg compared to the control group (117.3 ± 2.03 mm Hg (p = 0.003. Conclusion In conclusion, this pilot study shows that the combination of having step goals and immediate feedback from using a pedometer was effective in increasing physical activity levels in sedentary overweight and obese women. Trial registration ACTRN12609000176268

  14. Prenatal Iron Deficiency in Guinea Pigs Increases Locomotor Activity but Does Not Influence Learning and Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Fiset

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to determine whether prenatal iron deficiency induced during gestation in guinea pigs affected locomotor activity and learning and memory processes in the progeny. Dams were fed either iron-deficient anemic or iron-sufficient diets throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were fed an iron-sufficient diet. On postnatal day 24 and 40, the pups' locomotor activity was observed within an open-field test, and from postnatal day 25 to 40, their learning and memory processes were assessed within a Morris Water Maze. The behavioural and cognitive tests revealed that the iron deficient pup group had increased locomotor activity, but solely on postnatal day 40, and that there were no group differences in the Morris Water Maze. In the general discussion, we propose that prenatal iron deficiency induces an increase in nervousness due to anxiety in the progeny, which, in the current study, resulted in an increase of locomotor activity.

  15. Intermittent long-wavelength red light increases the period of daily locomotor activity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Amanda M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We observed that a dim, red light-emitting diode (LED triggered by activity increased the circadian periods of lab mice compared to constant darkness. It is known that the circadian period of rats increases when vigorous wheel-running triggers full-spectrum lighting; however, spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors in mice suggests little or no response to red light. Thus, we decided to test the following hypotheses: dim red light illumination triggered by activity (LEDfb increases the circadian period of mice compared to constant dark (DD; covering the LED prevents the effect on period; and DBA2/J mice have a different response to LEDfb than C57BL6/J mice. Methods The irradiance spectra of the LEDs were determined by spectrophotometer. Locomotor activity of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice was monitored by passive-infrared sensors and circadian period was calculated from the last 10 days under each light condition. For constant dark (DD, LEDs were switched off. For LED feedback (LEDfb, the red LED came on when the mouse was active and switched off seconds after activity stopped. For taped LED the red LED was switched on but covered with black tape. Single and multifactorial ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests were done. Results The circadian period of mice was longer under LEDfb than under DD. Blocking the light eliminated the effect. There was no difference in period change in response to LEDfb between C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Conclusion An increase in mouse circadian period due to dim far-red light (1 lux at 652 nm exposure was unexpected. Since blocking the light stopped the response, sound from the sensor's electronics was not the impetus of the response. The results suggest that red light as background illumination should be avoided, and indicator diodes on passive infrared motion sensors should be switched off.

  16. A physiological increase in insulin suppresses gluconeogenic gene activation in fetal sheep with sustained hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Stephanie R; Sekar, Satya M; Lavezzi, Jinny R; O'Meara, Meghan C; Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W; Rozance, Paul J

    2012-10-15

    Reduced maternal glucose supply to the fetus and resulting fetal hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia activate fetal glucose production as a means to maintain cellular glucose uptake. However, this early activation of fetal glucose production may be accompanied by hepatic insulin resistance. We tested the capacity of a physiological increase in insulin to suppress fetal hepatic gluconeogenic gene activation following sustained hypoglycemia to determine whether hepatic insulin sensitivity is maintained. Control fetuses (CON), hypoglycemic fetuses induced by maternal insulin infusion for 8 wk (HG), and 8 wk HG fetuses that received an isoglycemic insulin infusion for the final 7 days (HG+INS) were studied. Glucose and insulin concentrations were 60% lower in HG compared with CON fetuses. Insulin was 50% higher in HG+INS compared with CON and four-fold higher compared with HG fetuses. Expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic genes, PCK1, G6PC, FBP1, GLUT2, and PGC1A was increased in the HG and reduced in the HG+INS liver. Expression of the insulin-regulated glycolytic and lipogenic genes, PFKL and FAS, was increased in the HG+INS liver. Total FOXO1 protein expression, a gluconeogenic activator, was 60% higher in the HG liver. Despite low glucose, insulin, and IGF1 concentrations, phosphorylation of AKT and ERK was higher in the HG liver. Thus, a physiological increase in fetal insulin is sufficient for suppression of gluconeogenic genes and activation of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in the HG fetal liver. These results demonstrate that fetuses exposed to sustained hypoglycemia have maintained hepatic insulin action in contrast to fetuses exposed to placental insufficiency.

  17. Aversive emotional interference impacts behavior and prefronto-striatal activity during increasing attentional control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos ePapazacharias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in inferior frontal gyrus and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. 22 healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time and greater right inferior frontal gyrus activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right inferior frontal gyrus activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load.

  18. Increased neural activity of a mushroom body neuron subtype in the brains of forager honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketoshi Kiya

    Full Text Available Honeybees organize a sophisticated society, and the workers transmit information about the location of food sources using a symbolic dance, known as 'dance communication'. Recent studies indicate that workers integrate sensory information during foraging flight for dance communication. The neural mechanisms that account for this remarkable ability are, however, unknown. In the present study, we established a novel method to visualize neural activity in the honeybee brain using a novel immediate early gene, kakusei, as a marker of neural activity. The kakusei transcript was localized in the nuclei of brain neurons and did not encode an open reading frame, suggesting that it functions as a non-coding nuclear RNA. Using this method, we show that neural activity of a mushroom body neuron subtype, the small-type Kenyon cells, is prominently increased in the brains of dancer and forager honeybees. In contrast, the neural activity of the two mushroom body neuron subtypes, the small-and large-type Kenyon cells, is increased in the brains of re-orienting workers, which memorize their hive location during re-orienting flights. These findings demonstrate that the small-type Kenyon cell-preferential activity is associated with foraging behavior, suggesting its involvement in information integration during foraging flight, which is an essential basis for dance communication.

  19. Increased Intrinsic Brain Activity in the Striatum Reflects Symptom Dimensions in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Christian; Manoliu, Andrei; Neufang, Susanne; Myers, Nicholas; Peters, Henning; Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Scherr, Martin; Mühlau, Mark; Zimmer, Claus; Drzezga, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Bäuml, Josef; Eichele, Tom; Wohlschläger, Afra M.; Riedl, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dysfunction is thought to be a fundamental element in schizophrenia. Striatal dopamine dysfunction impacts on reward processing and learning and is present even at rest. Here, we addressed the question whether and how spontaneous neuronal activity in the striatum is altered in schizophrenia. We therefore assessed intrinsic striatal activity and its relation with disorder states and symptom dimensions in patients with schizophrenia. We performed resting-state functional (rs-fMRI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging as well as psychometric assessment in 21 schizophrenic patients during psychosis. On average 9 months later, we acquired follow-up data during psychotic remission and with comparable levels of antipsychotic medication. Twenty-one age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Independent component analysis of fMRI data yielded spatial maps and time-courses of coherent ongoing blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal fluctuations, which were used for group comparisons and correlation analyses with scores of the positive and negative syndrome scale. During psychosis, coherent intrinsic activity of the striatum was increased in the dorsal part and correlated with positive symptoms such as delusion and hallucination. In psychotic remission of the same patients, activity of the ventral striatum was increased and correlated with negative symptoms such as emotional withdrawal and blunted affect. Results were controlled for volumetric and medication effects. These data provide first evidence that in schizophrenia intrinsic activity is changed in the striatum and corresponds to disorder states and symptom dimensions. PMID:22241165

  20. Increase in larval gut proteolytic activities and Bti resistance in the Dengue fever mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Stalinski, Renaud; David, Jean-Philippe; Després, Laurence

    2013-02-01

    The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used worldwide for mosquito control. Although no established resistance to Bti has been described in the field so far, a resistant Aedes aegypti strain (LiTOX strain) was selected in the laboratory using field-collected leaf litter containing Bti toxins. This selected strain exhibits a moderate resistance level to Bti, but a high resistance level to individual Cry toxins. As Bti contains four different toxins, generalist resistance mechanisms affecting mosquito tolerance to different toxins were expected in the resistant strain. In the present work, we show that the resistant strain exhibits an increase of various gut proteolytic activities including trypsins, leucine-aminopeptidases, and carboxypeptidase A activities. These elevated proteolytic activities resulted in a faster activation of Cry4Aa protoxins while Cry4Ba or Cry11Aa were not affected. These results suggest that changes in proteolytic activities may contribute to Bti resistance in mosquitoes together with other mechanisms. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prolactin increases hepatic Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity and messenger RNA post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, T C; Liu, Y; Hyde, J F; Hagenbuch, B; Meier, P J; Vore, M

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity is decreased in pregnancy, but rebounds post partum relative to non-pregnant controls, and that activity can be increased by treatment with ovine prolactin [Ganguly, Hyde and Vore (1993) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 267, 82-87]. To determine the basis for these effects, Na+/taurocholate co-transport was determined in purified basolateral liver plasma-membrane (bLPM) vesicles and compared with steady-state mRNA levels encoding the Na+/taurocholate-co-transporting polypeptide (Ntcp) in non-pregnant controls, pregnant rats (19-20 days pregnant), rats post partum (48 h post partum) and rats post partum treated with bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin secretion. Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity (nmol/5 s per mg of protein) in bLPM was decreased from 10.4 +/- 1.8 in non-pregnant controls to 7.9 +/- 0.6 in bLPM in pregnant rats, but rebounded to 17.5 +/- 1.3 post partum; treatment of rats post partum with bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin secretion decreased activity to 14.1 +/- 0.9. Northern and slot-blot analyses revealed similar changes in mRNA for Ntcp, so that a positive correlation was observed between Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity and Ntcp mRNA. Furthermore, treatment of ovariectomized rats with ovine prolactin increased Ntcp mRNA 10-fold compared with solvent-treated controls, consistent with the 2-fold increase in Vmax, for Na+/taurocholate co-transport in isolated hepatocytes. These data are the first to demonstrate endogenous physiological regulation by prolactin of Ntcp mRNA in parallel with Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity. Images Figure 2 PMID:7945260

  2. HIV-1 Tat protein increases microglial outward K(+ current and resultant neurotoxic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianuo Liu

    Full Text Available Microglia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Increasing evidence indicates the voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels are involved in the regulation of microglia function, prompting us to hypothesize Kv channels may also be involved in microglia-mediated neurotoxic activity in HIV-1-infected brain. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the involvement of Kv channels in the response of microglia to HIV-1 Tat protein. Treatment of rat microglia with HIV-1 Tat protein (200 ng/ml resulted in pro-inflammatory microglial activation, as indicated by increases in TNF-α, IL-1β, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide, which were accompanied by enhanced outward K(+ current and Kv1.3 channel expression. Suppression of microglial Kv1.3 channel activity, either with Kv1.3 channel blockers Margatoxin, 5-(4-Phenoxybutoxypsoralen, or broad-spectrum K(+ channel blocker 4-Aminopyridine, or by knockdown of Kv1.3 expression via transfection of microglia with Kv1.3 siRNA, was found to abrogate the neurotoxic activity of microglia resulting from HIV-1 Tat exposure. Furthermore, HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal apoptosis was attenuated with the application of supernatant collected from K(+ channel blocker-treated microglia. Lastly, the intracellular signaling pathways associated with Kv1.3 were investigated and enhancement of microglial Kv1.3 was found to correspond with an increase in Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. These data suggest targeting microglial Kv1.3 channels may be a potential new avenue of therapy for inflammation-mediated neurological disorders.

  3. Increased calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity by morphine-sensitization in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Mehdi; Farahmandfar, Maryam; Ranjbar, Faezeh Esmaeli; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-07-01

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, such as morphine, elicits a progressive enhancement of drug-induced behavioral responses, a phenomenon termed behavioral sensitization. These changes in behavior may reflect long-lasting changes in some of the important molecules involved in memory processing such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In the present study, we investigated the effect of morphine sensitization on mRNA expression of α and β isoforms and activity of CaMKII in the hippocampus of male rats. Animals were treated for 3 days with saline or morphine (20mg/kg) and following a washout period of 5 days, a challenge dose of morphine (5mg/kg) were administered. The results indicate that morphine administration in pre-treated animals produces behavioral sensitization, as determined by significant increase in locomotion and oral stereotypy behavior. In addition, repeated morphine treatment increased mRNA expression of both α and β isoforms of CaMKII in the hippocampus. The present study also showed that induction of morphine sensitization significantly increased both Ca2+/calmodulin-independent and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activities of CaMK II in the rat hippocampus. However, acute administration of morphine (5mg/kg) did not alter either α and β CaMKII mRNA expression or CaMKII activity in the hippocampus. The stimulation effects of morphine sensitization on mRNA expression and activity of CaMKII were completely abolished by administration of naloxone, 30min prior to s.c. injections of morphine (20mg/kg/day×3 days). Our data demonstrated that induction of morphine sensitization could effectively modulate the activity and the mRNA expression of CaMKII in the hippocampus and this effect of morphine was exerted by the activation of opioid receptors.

  4. INCREASE IN ACTIVATED PROTEIN C MEDIATES ACUTE TRAUMATIC COAGULOPATHY IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, Brian B.; Rahn, Pamela; Carles, Michel; Esmon, Charles T.; Xu, Jun; Brohi, Karim; Frith, Daniel; Pittet, Jean-François; Cohen, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    In severely injured and hypoperfused trauma patients, endogenous acute coagulopathy (EAC) is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Recent human data correlate this coagulopathy with activation of the protein C pathway. To examine the mechanistic role of protein C in the development of EAC, we used a mouse model of trauma and hemorrhagic shock, characterized by the combination of tissue injury and severe metabolic acidosis. Mice were subjected to one of four treatment groups: 1) C, control; 2) T, trauma (laparotomy); 3) H, hemorrhage (MAP, 35 mmHg × 60 min); 4) TH, trauma + hemorrhage. After 60 min, blood was drawn for analysis. Compared with C mice, the TH mice had a significantly elevated activated partial thromboplastin time (23.3 vs. 34.5 s) and significantly increased levels of activated protein C (aPC; 2.30 vs. 13.58 ng/mL). In contrast, T and H mice did not develop an elevated activated partial thromboplastin time or increased aPC. Selective inhibition of the anticoagulant property of aPC prevented the coagulopathy seen in response to trauma/hemorrhage (23.5 vs. 38.6 s [inhibitory vs. control monoclonal antibody]) with no impact on survival during the shock period. However, complete blockade of both the anticoagulant and cytoprotective functions of aPC caused 100% mortality within 45 min of shock, with histopathology evidence of pulmonary thrombosis and perivascular hemorrhage. These results indicate that our unique mouse model of T/H shock mimics our previous observations in trauma patients and demonstrates that EAC is mediated by the activation of the protein C pathway. In addition, the cytoprotective effect of protein C activation seems to be necessary for survival of the initial shock injury. PMID:19333141

  5. Increased Feeding Speed Is Associated with Higher Subsequent Sympathetic Activity in Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyo Ohtani

    Full Text Available Although the domestication process has altered the feeding behavior of dogs, some breeds still demonstrate a remarkable ability to gorge, and will eat exceptionally large quantities of food whenever it is available. Lesions in the ventromedial hypothalamus increase appetite and lead to obesity, suggesting that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in feeding. Focusing on the autonomic activities closely involved in food intake, we investigated sympathetic activities before and after feeding in dogs. The subjects were 56 healthy dogs of 21 different breeds (29 males and 27 females. Based on feeding habits, the 56 dogs were divided into three groups: Fast (n = 19, Slow (n = 24 and Leftover (n = 13. The feeding speed and the amount of food per mouthful of the Fast dogs were significantly greater than those of the Slow and the Leftover dogs. The plasma norepinephrine level in dogs of the Fast group was significantly increased after feeding, while those in the Slow and Leftover groups were significantly decreased after feeding, compared with the pre-feeding concentrations. The low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability is a good indicator of sympathetic activity and was also significantly higher in the Fast group than in the other groups. Delayed feeding using automatic feeding equipment decreased the plasma norepinephrine concentration and low frequency/high frequency ratio observed after feeding in dogs of the Fast group. In conclusion, dogs eating rapidly with less chewing, which indicates increased sympathetic activity during feeding, may benefit from delayed feeding. The slow eating may activate the parasympathetic nervous system after feeding, which could enhance the activity of the digestive system.

  6. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Skouby, Sven O; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... alloenzyme with reduced pro-fibrinolytic activity. Presently, we address whether OC use and OC formulation affect FSAP measures in human blood. Healthy women (n=588) were allocated to six cycles of OCs with estrogen contents of 20µg (n=158), 30µg (n=284), 35µg (n=79) or 50µg (n=67) combined with various...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P=0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  7. Platelets mediate increased endothelium permeability in dengue through NLRP3-inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottz, Eugenio D; Lopes, Juliana F; Freitas, Carla; Valls-de-Souza, Rogério; Oliveira, Marcus F; Bozza, Marcelo T; Da Poian, Andrea T; Weyrich, Andrew S; Zimmerman, Guy A; Bozza, Fernando A; Bozza, Patricia T

    2013-11-14

    Dengue is the most frequent hemorrhagic viral disease and re-emergent infection in the world. Although thrombocytopenia is characteristically observed in mild and severe forms of dengue, the role of platelet activation in dengue pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that platelets have major roles in inflammatory amplification and increased vascular permeability during severe forms of dengue. Here we investigate interleukin (IL)-1β synthesis, processing, and secretion in platelets during dengue virus (DV) infection and potential contribution of these events to endothelial permeability during infection. We observed increased expression of IL-1β in platelets and platelet-derived microparticles from patients with dengue or after platelet exposure to DV in vitro. We demonstrated that DV infection leads to assembly of nucleotide-binding domain leucine rich repeat containing protein (NLRP3) inflammasomes, activation of caspase-1, and caspase-1-dependent IL-1β secretion. Our findings also indicate that platelet-derived IL-1β is chiefly released in microparticles through mechanisms dependent on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-triggered NLRP3 inflammasomes. Inflammasome activation and platelet shedding of IL-1β-rich microparticles correlated with signs of increased vascular permeability. Moreover, microparticles from DV-stimulated platelets induced enhanced permeability in vitro in an IL-1-dependent manner. Our findings provide new evidence that platelets contribute to increased vascular permeability in DV infection by inflammasome-dependent release of IL-1β.

  8. High phosphorylase activity is correlated with increased potato minituber formation and starch content during extended clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, O. M.; Schnyukova, E. I.; Leach, J. E.

    2003-05-01

    The major purpose of these experiments were to investigate growth of potato storage organs and starch synthesis in minitubers at slow horizontal clinorotation (2 rpm), which partly mimics microgravity, and a secondary goal was to study the activity and localization of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) in storage parenchyma under these conditions. Miniplants of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) were grown in culture for 30 days for both the vertical control and the horizontal clinorotation. During long-term clinorotation, an acceleration of minituber formation, and an increase of amyloplast number and size in storage parenchyma cells, as well as increased starch content, was observed in the minitubers. The differences among cytochemical reaction intensity, activity of phosphorylase, and carbohydrate content in storage parenchyma cells of minitubers grown in a horizontal clinostat were established by electron-cytochemical and biochemical methods. It is shown that high phosphorylase activity is correlated with increased starch content during extended clinorotation. The results demonstrate the increase in carbohydrate metabolism and possible accelerated growth of storage organs under the influence of microgravity, as mimicked by clinorotation; therefore, clinorotation can be used as a basis for future studies on mechanisms of starch synthesis under microgravity.

  9. Early complement activation increases in the brain in some aged normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, David A; Camp, Dianne M; Schonberger, Michael B; Singer, Daniel J; LeWitt, Peter A

    2004-09-01

    Complement activation is increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to the development and progression of this disorder. To compare early complement activation between normal and AD brain specimens, C4d and iC3b concentrations were measured in hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, parietal cortex, and cerebellum from aged normal and AD subjects n=10-14 for both), and in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex from younger normal subjects (n=5-6). C4d and iC3b levels increased 2.3- to 4.6-fold in AD versus aged normal specimens (all P hippocampus or entorhinal cortex. However, the concentrations of these proteins were markedly increased in several aged normal specimens. Normal subject age was moderately associated with both C4d (r=0.49) and iC3b (r=0.53) concentrations in the hippocampus. Increased brain complement activation in some elderly individuals may promote the subsequent development of AD.

  10. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Sebastián, David; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Mir, Joan F.; García-Casarrubios, Ester; Obregón, María Jesús; Zorzano, Antonio; Valverde, Ángela M.; Serra, Dolors

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM), a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO), in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA) cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders. PMID:27438137

  11. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Calderon-Dominguez

    Full Text Available The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO, in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders.

  12. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Sebastián, David; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Mir, Joan F; García-Casarrubios, Ester; Obregón, María Jesús; Zorzano, Antonio; Valverde, Ángela M; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM), a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO), in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA) cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders.

  13. Antiretroviral treatment is associated with increased attentional load-dependent brain activation in HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L; Yakupov, R; Nakama, H; Stokes, B; Ernst, T

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine whether antiretroviral medications, especially the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, lead to altered brain activation due to their potential neurotoxic effects in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Forty-two right-handed men were enrolled in three groups: seronegative controls (SN, n = 18), HIV subjects treated with antiretroviral medications (HIV+ARV, n = 12), or not treated with antiretroviral medications (HIV+NARV, n = 12). Each subject performed a set of visual attention tasks with increasing difficulty or load (tracking two, three or four balls) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. HIV subjects, both groups combined, showed greater load-dependent increases in brain activation in the right frontal regions compared to SN (p-corrected = 0.006). HIV+ARV additionally showed greater load-dependent increases in activation compared to SN in bilateral superior frontal regions (p-corrected = 0.032) and a lower percent accuracy on the performance of the most difficult task (tracking four balls). Region of interest analyses further demonstrated that SN showed load-dependent decreases (with repeated trials despite increasing difficulty), while HIV subjects showed load-dependent increases in activation with the more difficult tasks, especially those on ARVs. These findings suggest that chronic ARV treatments may lead to greater requirement of the attentional network reserve and hence less efficient usage of the network and less practice effects in these HIV patients. As the brain has a limited reserve capacity, exhausting the reserve capacity in HIV+ARV would lead to declined performance with more difficult tasks that require more attention.

  14. Increasing in activity and plasma concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 30 March, 2009 ; Accepted 22 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Matrix metalloproteinase are a family of proteolytic enzymes that have specific functions in digestion of cells cohesive extra cellular matrix and also, increasing metastasis behavior of acute human tumors. It has been reported that MMPs in two forms, namely proenzyme and active enzyme in biological samples. It is distinguished that among this family, (MMP-9 Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 has function in both initiation and invasion steps of breast cancer. In our previous study, we reported a correlation between C/T polymorphism at promoter region of this gene and metastasis step of breast cancer.Considering few findings regarding the relationship between the active form of this enzyme and occurrence of cancer, and also the correlation between active form and allelic genotype of persons, in this study we decided to do a parallel study on measurement of active plasma MMP-9 and its relationship with allelic genotype of breast cancer patients.Materials and methods: After analysis of data, we found that concentration of active MMP-9 has a significant difference in breast cancer patients in comparison with control group, as the concentration of active form of this enzyme was less in control group than the breast cancer patients group (0.7 ng and 1.7 ng respectively. Thus, the level of active MMP-9 showed a significant increase in persons with CT and TT genotypes in comparison with CC genotype (1.5 folds.Results: The present data suggest the concentration of active MMP-9 in breast cancer patients has significantly increased in comparison with the control group and the increased in plasma level of this enzyme is related with the existence of T allele at this gene promoter and also in progression of breast cancer in these patients. We can use the active plasma level of this enzyme or the existence of T allele as a diagnostic tool for discriminating subgroups of breast cancer

  15. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Cally A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011. Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00. Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00. Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear.

  16. Mechanisms of Increased Particle and VOC Emissions during DPF Active Regeneration and Practical Emissions Considering Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2017-02-27

    Mechanisms involved in increased particle and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during active and parked active regenerations of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were investigated using heavy-duty trucks equipped with both a urea selective catalytic reduction system and a DPF (SCR + DPF) and a DPF-only. Particle emissions increased in the later part of the regeneration period but the mechanisms were different above and below 23 nm. Particles above 23 nm were emitted due to the lower filtering efficiency of the DPF because of the decreasing amount of soot trapped during regeneration. Small particles below 23 nm were thought to be mainly sulfuric acid particles produced from SO2 trapped by the catalyst, being released and oxidized during regeneration. Contrary to the particle emissions, VOCs increased in the earlier part of the regeneration period. The mean molecular weights of the VOCs increased gradually as the regeneration proceeded. To evaluate "practical emissions" in which increased emissions during the regeneration were considered, a Regeneration Correction Factor (RCF), which is the average emission during one cycle of regeneration/emission in normal operation, was adopted. The RCFs of PM and VOCs were 1.1-1.5, and those of PNs were as high as 3-140, although they were estimated from a limited number of observations.

  17. Increases in Physical Activity Result in Diminishing Increments in Daily Energy Expenditure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Timothy J; Friend, Danielle M; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-06

    Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use. We hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms accounted for the lack of increase in daily energy expenditure after the first week. Supporting this idea, we observed a decrease in off-wheel ambulation when mice were using the wheels, indicating behavioral compensation. Finally, we asked whether individual variation in wheel use within a group of mice would be associated with different levels of daily energy expenditure. Despite a large variation in wheel running, we did not observe a significant relationship between the amount of daily wheel running and total daily energy expenditure or energy intake across mice. Together, our experiments support a model in which the transition from sedentary to light activity is associated with an increase in daily energy expenditure, but further increases in physical activity produce diminishingly small increments in daily energy expenditure.

  18. Focused campaign increases activity among participants in Nature's Notebook, a citizen science project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants’ activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a national-scale citizen science program. The campaign that we implemented was designed to answer a compelling scientific question. We invited participants in the phenology-observing program, Nature’s Notebook, to track trees throughout the spring of 2012, to ascertain whether the season arrived as early as the anomalous spring of 2010. Consisting of a series of six electronic newsletters and costing our office slightly more than 1 week of staff resources, our effort was successful; compared with previous years, the number of observations collected in the region where the campaign was run increased by 184%, the number of participants submitting observations increased by 116%, and the number of trees registered increased by 110%. In comparison, these respective metrics grew by 25, 55, and 44%, over previous years, in the southeastern quadrant of the United States, where no such campaign was carried out. The campaign approach we describe here is a model that could be adapted by a wide variety of programs to increase engagement and thereby positively influence participant retention.

  19. The circadian Clock mutation increases exploratory activity and escape-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, A; Arbuzova, J; Turek, F W

    2003-02-01

    Disturbances of circadian rhythms are associated with many types of mood disorders; however, it is unknown whether a dysfunctional circadian pacemaker can be the primary cause of altered emotional behavior. To test this hypothesis, male and female mice carrying a mutation of the circadian gene, Clock, were compared to wild-type mice in an array of behavioral tests used to measure exploratory activity, anxiety, and behavioral despair. Female Clock mutant mice exhibited significantly greater activity and rearing in an open field and a greater number of total arm entries in the elevated plus maze. In addition, female Clock mutant mice spent significantly more time swimming in the forced swim test than wild-type mice on both days of a 2-day test. Male Clock mutant mice also exhibited increased exploration of the open field and increased swimming in the forced swim test; however, behavioral changes were less robust in Clock mutant males compared to Clock mutant females. These changes in behavior were not dependent on the expression of a lengthened free-running period but were more or less striking depending on the testing conditions. These data indicate that the Clock mutation leads to increased exploratory behavior and increased escape-seeking behavior, and, conversely, does not result in increased anxiety or depressive-like behavior. These results suggest that the Clock gene is involved in regulating behavioral arousal, and that Clock may interact with sex hormones to produce these behavioral changes.

  20. Does Spousal Support Can Increase the Women’s Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Hajar; Amidi Mazaheri, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Numerous benefits of physical activity are well-known for the prevention and treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancers. However, the status of physical activities among women remains noticeably less than the recommended level. Considering the importance of the spouses’ participation in the promotion of women’s health, this study examined the impact of spousal support on women’s physical activity. Methods: This semi--experimental study was done in February 2015 on 100 couples in reproductive age referred to health centers of Falavarjan city. The participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The information related to women’s physical activity in both groups was collected by aquestionnaire in two steps, before and three months after the intervention. The spouses of women in the intervention group were trained in the field of the importance of physical activity in women’s health in two sessions. The data were analyzed by the software SPSS21 and suitable statistical tests (Independent t, paired t, and Chi-square). Results: The mean and standard deviation of women’s age in the both groups were 28.76±5.51 and 30.38±5.31, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the women under the study was generally estimated 44%. Physical activities of women in the intervention group were significantly increased after the intervention (Peducational sessions for men to encourage women to exercise. PMID:28409173

  1. Increased metabolic activity of neutrophils in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Ashwin; Damodar, Komaladevi Sampath

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare the metabolic activity of peripheral neutrophils in patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with that of healthy, nonsmoking volunteers. Materials and Methods: Venous blood samples were taken from patients diagnosed with COPD as well as from healthy nonsmokers. Each sample was subjected to the nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) test in which neutrophils exhibiting elevated metabolic activity were detected by light microscopy. The test was repeated after stimulation with Escherichia coli (E. coli) endotoxin with fresh samples. Neutrophils showing dye uptake were then counted in each case. Results: We found that the mean numbers of activated neutrophils without and with the addition of endotoxin were 19% and 23%, respectively, in the control group and 56% and 62%, respectively, in the test group. Two-sample t-test statistic revealed that there was a significant (P < 0.01) increase in neutrophilic metabolic activity in patients with COPD as compared to that in healthy volunteers. This significance remained even after stimulation using E. coli endotoxin. Conclusion: The results hint at a potentially relevant pathogenic mechanism in COPD related to the metabolic activity of neutrophils. By exhibiting enhanced metabolic activity, neutrophils in the COPD patients are more likely to be involved in damaging lung tissues. PMID:26664165

  2. Increased muscle activation following motor imagery during the rehabilitation of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Florent; Guillot, Aymeric; Collet, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is the mental representation of an action without any concomitant movement. MI has been used frequently after peripheral injuries to decrease pain and facilitate rehabilitation. However, little is known about the effects of MI on muscle activation underlying the motor recovery. This study aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of MI on the activation of lower limb muscles, as well as on the time course of functional recovery and pain after surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Twelve patients with a torn ACL were randomly assigned to a MI or control group, who both received a series of physiotherapy. Electromyographic activity of the quadriceps, pain, anthropometrical data, and lower limb motor ability were measured throughout a 12-session therapy. The data provided evidence that MI elicited greater muscle activation, even though imagery practice did not result in pain decrease. Muscle activation increase might originate from a redistribution of the central neuronal activity, as there was no anthropometric change in lower limb muscles after imagery practice. This study confirmed the effectiveness of integrating MI in a rehabilitation process by facilitating muscular properties recovery following motor impairment. MI may thus be considered a reliable adjunct therapy to help injured patients to recover motor functions after reconstructive surgery of ACL.

  3. Carbonic anhydrase II increases the activity of the human electrogenic Na+/HCO3- cotransporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2007-05-04

    Several acid/base-coupled membrane transporters, such as the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1), have been shown to bind to different carbonic anhydrase isoforms to create a "transport metabolon." We have expressed NBCe1 derived from human kidney in oocytes of Xenopus leavis and determined its transport activity by recording the membrane current in voltage clamp, and the cytosolic H(+) and Na(+) concentrations using ion-selective microelectrodes. When carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII) had been injected into oocytes, the membrane current and the rate of cytosolic Na(+) rise, indicative for NBCe1 activity, increased significantly with the amount of injected CAII (2-200 ng). The CAII inhibitor ethoxyzolamide reversed the effects of CAII on the NBCe1 activity. Co-expressing wild-type CAII or NH(2)-terminal mutant CAII together with NBCe1 provided similar results, whereas co-expressing the catalytically inactive CAII mutant V143Y had no effect on NBCe1 activity. Mass spectrometric analysis and the rate of cytosolic H(+) change following addition of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) confirmed the catalytic activity of injected and expressed CAII in oocytes. Our results show that the transport capacity of NBCe1 is enhanced by the catalytic activity of CAII, in line with the notion that CAII forms a transport metabolon with NBCe1.

  4. Adrenal hormones and increase of liver tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan pyrrolase activity after immobilization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, S; Vigas, M

    1975-06-01

    In adrenomedullectomized rats the postimmobilization increase of liver tyrosine aminotransferase and tryptophan pyrrolase activity was similar as in intact animals, wherease in adrenalectomized rats this response was completely absent. In intact animals a positive correlation between the magnitude of the response of both enzymes and the duration of immobilization and/or the extent of plasma corticosterone increase was observedmit is concluded that the postimmobilization hyperactivity of both enzymes arises exclusively as a consequence of hypercorticosteronaemia, catecholamines and other hormones being without any influence on this response.

  5. Endolymphatic Sac Tumor Showing Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-10-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare tumors arising from the epithelium of the endolymphatic sac and duct that can be either sporadic or associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. We report a case of a VHL patient with histologically proven residual ELST who underwent Ga DOTATATE PET/CT showing increased activity (SUVmax, 6.29) by the ELST. The presented case of a VHL-associated ELST with increased Ga DOTATATE uptake indicates cell-surface expression of somatostatin receptors by this tumor, suggesting the potential application of somatostatin receptor imaging using Ga DOTA-conjugated peptides in the workup and management of these patients.

  6. Local increase of anticyclonic wave activity over northern Eurasia under amplified Arctic warming: WAVE ACTIVITY RESPONSE TO ARCTIC MELTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Daokai [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Lu, Jian [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Sun, Lantao [CIRES, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; PSD, ESRL, NOAA, Boulder Colorado USA; Chen, Gang [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles California USA; Zhang, Yaocun [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China

    2017-04-10

    In an attempt to resolve the controversy as to whether Arctic sea ice loss leads to more mid-latitude extremes, a metric of finite-amplitude wave activity is adopted to quantify the midlatitude wave activity and its change during the observed period of the drastic Arctic sea ice decline in both ERA Interim reanalysis data and a set of AMIP-type of atmospheric model experiments. Neither the experiment with the trend in the SST or that with the declining trend of Arctic sea ice can simulate the sizable midlatitude-wide reduction in the total wave activity (Ae) observed in the reanalysis, leaving its explanation to the atmospheric internal variability. On the other hand, both the diagnostics of the flux of the local wave activity and the model experiments lend evidence to a possible linkage between the sea ice loss near the Barents and Kara seas and the increasing trend of anticyclonic local wave activity over the northern part of the central Eurasia and the associated impacts on the frequency of temperature extremes.

  7. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor {gamma} activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Jinkyoung; Yoon, Doyoung; Kim, Yangmee [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eunrhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPAR{gamma} and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPAR{gamma} expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPAR{gamma} in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPAR{gamma} activation.

  8. Severe impingement of lumbar disc replacements increases the functional biological activity of polyethylene wear debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Ryan M; Macdonald, Daniel W; Kurtz, Steven M; Steinbeck, Marla J

    2013-06-05

    Wear, oxidation, and particularly rim impingement damage of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene total disc replacement components have been observed following surgical revision. However, neither in vitro testing nor retrieval-based evidence has shown the effect(s) of impingement on the characteristics of polyethylene wear debris. Thus, we sought to determine (1) differences in polyethylene particle size, shape, number, or biological activity that correspond to mild or severe rim impingement and (2) in an analysis of all total disc replacements, regardless of impingement classification, whether there are correlations between the extent of regional damage and the characteristics of polyethylene wear debris. The extent of dome and rim damage was characterized for eleven retrieved polyethylene cores obtained at revision surgery after an average duration of implantation of 9.7 years (range, 4.6 to 16.1 years). Polyethylene wear debris was isolated from periprosthetic tissues with use of nitric acid and was imaged with use of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, particle size, shape, number, biological activity, and chronic inflammation scores were determined. Grouping of particles by size ranges that represented high biological relevance (<0.1 to 1-μm particles), intermediate biological relevance (1 to 10-μm particles), and low biological relevance (>10-μm particles) revealed an increased volume fraction of particles in the <0.1 to 1-μm and 1 to 10-μm size ranges in the mild-impingement cohort as compared with the severe-impingement cohort. The increased volume fractions resulted in a higher specific biological activity per unit particle volume in the mild-impingement cohort than in the severe-impingement cohort. However, functional biological activity, which is normalized by particle volume (mm3/g of tissue), was significantly higher in the severe-impingement cohort. This increase was due to a larger volume of particles in all three size

  9. Severe Impingement of Lumbar Disc Replacements Increases the Functional Biological Activity of Polyethylene Wear Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Ryan M.; MacDonald, Daniel W.; Kurtz, Steven M.; Steinbeck, Marla J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wear, oxidation, and particularly rim impingement damage of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene total disc replacement components have been observed following surgical revision. However, neither in vitro testing nor retrieval-based evidence has shown the effect(s) of impingement on the characteristics of polyethylene wear debris. Thus, we sought to determine (1) differences in polyethylene particle size, shape, number, or biological activity that correspond to mild or severe rim impingement and (2) in an analysis of all total disc replacements, regardless of impingement classification, whether there are correlations between the extent of regional damage and the characteristics of polyethylene wear debris. Methods: The extent of dome and rim damage was characterized for eleven retrieved polyethylene cores obtained at revision surgery after an average duration of implantation of 9.7 years (range, 4.6 to 16.1 years). Polyethylene wear debris was isolated from periprosthetic tissues with use of nitric acid and was imaged with use of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, particle size, shape, number, biological activity, and chronic inflammation scores were determined. Results: Grouping of particles by size ranges that represented high biological relevance (10-μm particles) revealed an increased volume fraction of particles in the <0.1 to 1-μm and 1 to 10-μm size ranges in the mild-impingement cohort as compared with the severe-impingement cohort. The increased volume fractions resulted in a higher specific biological activity per unit particle volume in the mild-impingement cohort than in the severe-impingement cohort. However, functional biological activity, which is normalized by particle volume (mm3/g of tissue), was significantly higher in the severe-impingement cohort. This increase was due to a larger volume of particles in all three size ranges. In both cohorts, the functional biological activity correlated with the

  10. Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Iben; Hagstrøm, Søren; Siggaard, Charlotte

    Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study......Transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder increases rectal motor activity in children: a randomized controlled study...

  11. Increased Brain Activation for Dual Tasking with 70-Days Head-Down Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Koppelmans, Vincent; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; De Dios, Yiri E.; Gadd, Nichole E.; Wood, Scott J.; Riascos, Roy; Kofman, Igor S.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2016-01-01

    Head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) has been used as a spaceflight analog to simulate the effects of microgravity exposure on human physiology, sensorimotor function, and cognition on Earth. Previous studies have reported that concurrent performance of motor and cognitive tasks can be impaired during space missions. Understanding the consequences of HDBR for neural control of dual tasking may possibly provide insight into neural efficiency during spaceflight. In the current study, we evaluated how dual task performance and the underlying brain activation changed as a function of HDBR. Eighteen healthy men participated in this study. They remained continuously in the 6° head-down tilt position for 70 days. Functional MRI for bimanual finger tapping was acquired during both single task and dual task conditions, and repeated at 7 time points pre-, during- and post-HDBR. Another 12 healthy males participated as controls who did not undergo HDBR. A widely distributed network involving the frontal, parietal, cingulate, temporal, and occipital cortices exhibited increased activation for dual tasking and increased activation differences between dual and single task conditions during HDBR relative to pre- or post-HDBR. This HDBR-related brain activation increase for dual tasking implies that more neurocognitive control is needed for dual task execution during HDBR compared to pre- and post-HDBR. We observed a positive correlation between pre-to-post HDBR changes in dual-task cost of reaction time and pre-to-post HDBR change in dual-task cost of brain activation in several cerebral and cerebellar regions. These findings could be predictive of changes in dual task processing during spaceflight. PMID:27601982

  12. Methylphenidate treatment increases Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Emilene B S; Matté, Cristiane; Ferreira, Andréa G K; Gomes, Karin M; Comim, Clarissa M; Mattos, Cristiane; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L; Wyse, Angela T S

    2009-12-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that methylphenidate effects on central nervous system metabolism are poorly known and that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is essential to normal brain function, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats. For acute administration, a single injection of methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline was given to rats on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, in the young and adult groups, respectively. For chronic administration, methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline injections were given to young rats starting at postnatal day 25 once daily for 28 days. In adult rats, the same regimen was performed starting at postnatal day 60. Our results showed that acute methylphenidate administration increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young and adult rats. In young rats, chronic administration of methylphenidate also enhanced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum. When tested in adult rats, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was increased in all cerebral structures studied. The present findings suggest that increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity may be associated with neuronal excitability caused by methylphenidate.

  13. Increased Low- and High-Frequency Oscillatory Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex of Fibromyalgia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Manyoel; Kim, June Sic; Kim, Dajung J.; Chung, Chun Kee

    2016-01-01

    Recent human neuroimaging studies have suggested that fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic widespread pain disorder, exhibits altered thalamic structure and function. Since the thalamus has extensive reciprocal connection with the cortex, structural and functional thalamic alterations in FM might be linked to aberrant thalamocortical oscillation. This study investigated the presence of abnormal brain rhythmicity in low- and high-frequency bands during resting state in patients with FM and their relationship to clinical pain symptom. Spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) activity was recorded in 18 females with FM and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. The most remarkable finding was that FM patients had general increases in theta, beta and gamma power along with a slowing of the dominant alpha peak. Increased spectral powers in the theta-band were primarily localized to the left dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Beta and gamma over-activation were localized to insular, primary motor and primary and secondary somatosensory (S2) cortices, as well as the DLPFC and OFC. Furthermore, enhanced high-frequency oscillatory activities in the DLPFC and OFC were associated with higher affective pain scores in patients with FM. Our results demonstrate that FM patients feature enhanced low- and high-frequency oscillatory activity in the brain areas related to cognitive and emotional modulation of pain. Increased low- and high-frequency activity of the prefrontal cortex may contribute to persistent perception of pain in FM. Therapeutic intervention based on manipulating neural oscillation to restore normal thalamocortical rhythmicity may be beneficial to pain relief in FM. PMID:27014041

  14. The effect of increased physical activity on pulmonary diffusing capacity in unfit women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Joseph M; Smoliga, James M; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether short-term high-intensity aerobic interval training improves resting pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO). Twenty-eight sedentary women [mean (SD) age 32 (11) years, body mass index 24.3 (5.7) kg m(-2)] were randomly assigned to either a self-directed moderate-intensity physical activity (n = 14) group or a supervised high-intensity aerobic interval training group (n = 14). The moderate physical activity group and the aerobic interval training group increased weekly physical activity energy expenditure by 800 and 1600 kcal week(-1), respectively. After 6 weeks, aerobic capacity increased to a similar exent in both groups (mean improvement 8%, effect size 0.39). The DLNO, but not DLCO, increased to a similar extent in both groups, by 4% or 3.0 (5.7) [95% confidence interval 0.8, 5.2] ml min(-1) mmHg(-1) m(-2) from pre- to post-training (effect size 0.27). There was no correlation between the change in aerobic capacity and the change in DLNO (P > 0.05) or between the change in aerobic capacity and the change in total weekly physical activity energy expenditure (P > 0.05). Interval training does not provide additional improvements in DLNO or aerobic capacity compared with self-directed moderate-intensity physical activity (4-6 metabolic equivalent tasks, 800 kcal week(-1), for 6 weeks) in unfit women. Despite the slight improvement in both DLNO and aerobic capacity, true meaningful physiological changes in these parameters remain questionable.

  15. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004. 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321. Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006 over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions.

  16. Beta-receptor activation increases sodium current in guinea pig heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-wei WANG; Zhi-fang YANG; Yin ZHANG; Jian-min YANG; Yuan-mou LIU; Ci-zhen LI

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To study the influence of β-receptor activation on sodium channel current and the physiological significance of increased sodium current with regard to the increased cardiac output caused by sympathetic excitation.Methods: Multiple experimental approaches, including ECG, action potential recording with conventional microelectrodes, whole-cell current measurements, single-channel recordings, and pumping-force measurements, were applied to guinea pig hearts and isolated ventricular myocytes.Results: Isoprenaline was found to dose-dependently shorten QRS waves, increase the amplitude and the Vmaxof action potentials, aug-ment the fast sodium current, and increase the occurrence frequencies and open time constants of the long-open and burst modes of the sodium channel. Increased levels of membrane-permeable cAMP have similar effects. In the presence of a calcium channel blocker, TTX reversed the increased pumping force produced by isoprenaline.Conclusion: Beta-adrenergic modulation increases the inward sodium current and accelerates the conduction velocity within the ventri-cles by changing the sodium channel modes, which might both be conducive to the synchronous contraction of the heart and enhance its pumping function.

  17. Activation of calcium-sensing receptor increases TRPC3 expression in rat cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shan-Li [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Sun, Ming-Rui [Department of Pharmacology, Qiqihaer Medical College, Qiqihaer 160001 (China); Li, Ting-Ting; Yin, Xin [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Xu, Chang-Qing [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Sun, Yi-Hua, E-mail: syh200415@126.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) activation stimulates TRP channels. {yields} CaR promoted transient receptor potential C3 (TRPC3) expression. {yields} Adult rat ventricular myocytes display capacitative calcium entry (CCE), which was operated by TRPCs. {yields} TRPC channels activation induced by CaR activator sustained the increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} to evoke cardiomyocytes apoptosis. -- Abstract: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes, which gate a type of influx of extracellular calcium, the capacitative calcium entry. TRP channels play a role in mediating Ca{sup 2+} overload in the heart. Calcium-sensing receptors (CaR) are also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and promote the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by Ca{sup 2+} overload. However, data about the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart are few. In this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine the expression of the TRP canonical proteins TRPC1 and TRPC3 in adult and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Laser scan confocal microscopy was used to detect intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} levels in isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes. The results showed that, in adult rat cardiomyocytes, the depletion of Ca{sup 2+} stores in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) by thapsigargin induced a transient increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and the subsequent restoration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} sustained the increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} for a few minutes, whereas, the persisting elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was reduced in the presence of the TRPC inhibitor SKF96365. The stimulation of CaR by its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) or spermine also resulted in the same effect and the duration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase was also shortened in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}. In adult and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, GdCl{sub 3

  18. Increased cloud activation potential of secondary organic aerosol for atmospheric mass loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. King

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic particle mass loading from 1 to ≥100 μg m−3 on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN properties of mixed organic-sulfate particles was investigated in the Harvard Environmental Chamber. Mixed particles were produced by the condensation of organic molecules onto ammonium sulfate particles during the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene. A continuous-flow mode of the chamber provided stable conditions over long time periods, allowing for signal integration and hence increased measurement precision at low organic mass loadings representative of atmospheric conditions. CCN activity was measured at eight mass loadings for 80- and 100-nm particles grown on 50-nm sulfate seeds. A two-component (organic/sulfate Köhler model, which included the particle heterogeneity arising from DMA size selection and from organic volume fraction for the selected 80- and 100-nm particles, was used to predict CCN activity. For organic mass loadings of 2.9 μg m−3 and greater, the observed activation curves were well predicted using a single set of physicochemical parameters for the organic component. For mass loadings of 1.74 μg m−3 and less, the observed CCN activity increased beyond predicted values using the same parameters, implying changed physicochemical properties of the organic component. A sensitivity analysis suggests that a drop in surface tension must be invoked to explain quantitatively the CCN observations at low SOA particle mass loadings. Other factors, such as decreased molecular weight, increased density, or increased van't Hoff factor, can contribute to the explanation but are quantitatively insufficient as the full explanation.

  19. Increasing Physical Activity among Adults with Disabilities: Doctors Can Play a Key Role

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-22

    In this podcast, Dr. Dianna Carroll, a senior health scientist with CDC’s Division of Human Development and Disability, talks about the role of doctors and other health professionals in increasing physical activity among adults with disabilities.  Created: 4/22/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  20. Can traditional games be an option in increasing the physical activity of women following mastectomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronikowska Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: the purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential of traditional games as a method of increasing the physical activity (PA of women following mastectomy. A cross-sectional survey during the 20th ONCO Games was conducted and the sample included data from women divided into two groups: up to 50 years old (n = 26 and over 50 years old (n = 86.

  1. Growth and β-galactosidase activity in cultures of Kluyveromyces marxianus under increased air pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effect of total air pressure raise on cell growth and intracellular β-galactosidase activity in batch cultures of Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 7894. Methods and Results: A pressurized bioreactor was used for K. marxianus batch cultivation under increased air pressure from 1.2 to 6 bar. Under these conditions no inhibition of cell growth was observed. Moreover, the improvement of the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) from the gas to the culture medium by pressuriza...

  2. Interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luz María Sánchez-Romero; Holub, Christina K.; Simón Barquera; Arredondo, Elva M.; Eisenberg, Christina M.; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Elder, John P

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review of obesity interventions that focused on increasing physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico. Materi- als and methods. Data was taken from a larger literature review focused on obesity interventions for Latinos in Latin America and the United States. Study design suitability, quality of execution, and effect size were assessed for a subset of these articl...

  3. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    María Calderon-Dominguez; David Sebastián; Raquel Fucho; Minéia Weber; Mir, Joan F.; Ester García-Casarrubios; María Jesús Obregón; Antonio Zorzano; Valverde, Ángela M.; Dolors Serra; Laura Herrero

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmit...

  4. Rapid knee-extensions to increase quadriceps muscle activity in patients with total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase...... agonist muscle activity, especially if the exercise is conducted using rapid muscle contractions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine if patients with total knee arthroplasty could perform rapid knee-extensions using a 10 RM load four to eight weeks after surgery, and the degree to which...... rapid knee-extensions were associated with greater voluntary quadriceps muscle activity during an experimental strength training session, compared to that elicited using slow knee-extensions. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized cross-over study. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (age 66.5) 4-8 weeks post total knee...

  5. Activation of D2 dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens increases motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Barbara; David-Pereira, Ana; Borges, Sonia; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Patricio; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana J

    2016-06-23

    Striatal dopamine receptor D1-expressing neurons have been classically associated with positive reinforcement and reward, whereas D2 neurons are associated with negative reinforcement and aversion. Here we demonstrate that the pattern of activation of D1 and D2 neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predicts motivational drive, and that optogenetic activation of either neuronal population enhances motivation in mice. Using a different approach in rats, we further show that activating NAc D2 neurons increases cue-induced motivational drive in control animals and in a model that presents anhedonia and motivational deficits; conversely, optogenetic inhibition of D2 neurons decreases motivation. Our results suggest that the classic view of D1-D2 functional antagonism does not hold true for all dimensions of reward-related behaviours, and that D2 neurons may play a more prominent pro-motivation role than originally anticipated.

  6. Increased activity of rat liver nucleolar protein kinase following triiodothyronine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugassa, E; Gallo, G; Pertica, M; Voci, A; Orunesu, M

    1977-12-08

    Triiodothyronine (T3) administration to thyroidectomized rats induces a significant increase in the nucleolus-associated protein kinase (ATP:protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37) activity. The general properties of the protein kinase solubilized from liver nucleoli have been investigated. Mg2+ (20 mM) is essential for the reaction and an appropriate concentration of NaCl (100 mM) is required to achieve maximal phosphorylation rates. The optimal pH for casein phosphorylation is 7.6. The kinase phosphorylates casein more efficiently than phosvitin and displays an almost undetectable activity towards histones and protamine. No significant stimulation of the kinase activity by cyclic AMP has been detected. The apparent Km values for casein and ATP are 1.5 mg/ml and 1.5-10(-5) M, respectively, and are not affected by the hormone administration.

  7. Nephropathy in type 1 diabetes is associated with increased circulating activated platelets and platelet hyperreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Michelson, Alan D.; Barnard, Marc R.;

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased platelet activation compared to non-diabetic controls. Platelet hyperreactivity has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in Type 2 DM, and with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the relationship between platelet activation...... and nephropathy in Type 1 DM. Patients with Type 1 DM and diabetic nephropathy (n = 35), age- and sex-matched Type 1 DM patients with persistent normoalbuminuria (n = 51), and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 30) were studied. Platelet surface P-selectin, platelet surface activated GPIIb/IIIa, monocyte...... to 0.5 or 20 microM ADP) was higher in nephropathy patients compared with normoalbuminuric patients (P = 0.027), and non-diabetic controls (P = 0.0057). NPAs were higher in nephropathy patients compared to normoalbuminuric patients (P = 0.0088). MPAs were higher in nephropathy patients compared to non-diabetic...

  8. Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid promotes osteogenic differentiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells by increasing autophagic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Yuan; Cao, Zhen; Dou, Ce; Bai, Yun; Liu, Chuan; Dong, Shiwu; Fei, Jun

    2017-02-16

    This study sought to explore the effect of staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on autophagy in mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and then influence osteogenesis through the change of autophagy. C3H10T1/2 cells were induced by osteogenic medium with the treatment of LTA at different concentrations (1, 5, 10 μg/mL); 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were used as the autophagy inhibitor, and rapamycin (rapamycin, Rap) were used to activate autophagy; the effects on osteogenesis were detected by alkaline phosphatase staining, alizarin red staining, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blotting; autophagic activity was investigated by the expression of LC3-Ⅱand p62 proteins. Compared with control group, the expression of osteogenesis markers was significantly up-regulated with the LTA treatment on the mRNA and protein level; the positive rate of alkaline phosphatase was enhanced in the LTA groups; and the formation of calcium nodules was increased simultaneously. The expression of LC3-Ⅱ protein was increased in LTA groups, while the expression of p62 protein was decreased. Inhibition of autophagy significantly reduced the effect of LTA on osteogenesis of MSCs; the promotion of LTA on osteogenic differentiation was further enhanced when adding rapamycin to activate autophagic activity. It provides new insight of prevention and treatment for bone infection.

  9. Coffee modulates transcription factor Nrf2 and highly increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Silvio J V; Ishimoto, Emília Y; Torres, Elizabeth A F S

    2014-01-08

    This study investigated the effect of a 28 day administration of coffee brew on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rats. After this period of 2.0 mL/day dosages of this beverage, the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase increased 74.8, 59.4, and 135.2%, respectively, whereas the cytosolic level of Nrf2 increased 131.3%. At the same time, the total antioxidant capacity of the hepatic tissue increased 25.1%, improving the defensive status against oxidative stress. At the end of the experiment, the levels of biomarkers alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase remained equal to the control group, and no changes were observed in the hepatic histoarchiteture of the animals, suggesting that the liver tissue was not impaired by the exposure to coffee. The changes in enzyme activities and antioxidant capacity were statistically significant (p < 0.05), indicating that coffee could be considered an important alternative against oxidative stress and its correlated degenerative diseases.

  10. Improvement of aromatic thiol release through the selection of yeasts with increased β-lyase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Ignacio; Ruiz, Javier; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio

    2016-05-16

    The development of a selective medium for the rapid differentiation of yeast species with increased aromatic thiol release activity has been achieved. The selective medium was based on the addition of S-methyl-l-cysteine (SMC) as β-lyase substrate. In this study, a panel of 245 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains was tested for their ability to grow on YCB-SMC medium. Yeast strains with an increased β-lyase activity grew rapidly because of their ability to release ammonium from SMC in comparison to others, and allowed for the easy isolation and differentiation of yeasts with promising properties in oenology, or another field, for aromatic thiol release. The selective medium was also helpful for the discrimination between those S. cerevisiae strains, which present a common 38-bp deletion in the IRC7 sequence (present in around 88% of the wild strains tested and are likely to be less functional for 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP) production), and those S. cerevisiae strains homozygous for the full-length IRC7 allele. The medium was also helpful for the selection of non-Saccharomyces yeasts with increased β-lyase activity. Based on the same medium, a highly sensitive, reproducible and non-expensive GC-MS method for the evaluation of the potential volatile thiol release by different yeast isolates was developed.

  11. Increased radon-222 in soil gas because of cumulative seismicity at active faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Katsuaki; Yoshinaga, Tohru; Ueyama, Takayoshi; Asaue, Hisafumi

    2014-12-01

    This study demonstrates how the radon-222 (222Rn) concentration of soil gas at an active fault is sensitive to cumulative recent seismicity by examining seven active faults in western Japan. The 222Rn concentration was found to correlate well with the total earthquake energy within a 100-km radius of each fault. This phenomenon can probably be ascribed to the increase of pore pressure around the source depth of 222Rn in shallow soil caused by frequently induced strain. This increase in pore pressure can enhance the ascent velocity of 222Rn carrier gas as governed by Darcy's law. Anomalous 222Rn concentrations are likely to originate from high gas velocities, rather than increased accumulations of parent nuclides. The high velocities also can yield unusual young gas under the radioactive nonequilibrium condition of short elapsed time since 222Rn generation. The results suggest that ongoing seismicity in the vicinity of an active fault can cause accumulation of strain in shallow fault soils. Therefore, the 222Rn concentration is a possible gauge for the degree of strain accumulation.

  12. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments.

  13. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of active tuberculosis: a systematic review of 13 observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Y Jeon

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB. The rising prevalence of DM in TB-endemic areas may adversely affect TB control. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational studies assessing the association of DM and TB in order to summarize the existing evidence and to assess methodological quality of the studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify observational studies that had reported an age-adjusted quantitative estimate of the association between DM and active TB disease. The search yielded 13 observational studies (n = 1,786,212 participants with 17,698 TB cases. Random effects meta-analysis of cohort studies showed that DM was associated with an increased risk of TB (relative risk = 3.11, 95% CI 2.27-4.26. Case-control studies were heterogeneous and odds ratios ranged from 1.16 to 7.83. Subgroup analyses showed that effect estimates were higher in non-North American studies. CONCLUSION: DM was associated with an increased risk of TB regardless of study design and population. People with DM may be important targets for interventions such as active case finding and treatment of latent TB and efforts to diagnose, detect, and treat DM may have a beneficial impact on TB control.

  14. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma by rosiglitazone increases sirt6 expression and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sirt6 has been implicated in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism and the development of hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to address the potential role of Sirt6 in the protective effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ on hepatic steatosis. METHODS: To investigate the effect of RGZ on hepatic steatosis, rats were treated with RGZ (4 mg·kg⁻¹·day⁻¹ by stomach gavage for 6 weeks. The involvement of Sirt6 in the RGZ's regulation was evaluated by Sirt6 knockdown in AML12 mouse hepatocytes. RESULTS: RGZ treatment ameliorated hepatic lipid accumulation and increased expression of Sirt6, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivtor-1-α (Ppargc1a/PGC1-α and Forkhead box O1 (Foxo1 in rat livers. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation was also increased by RGZ, accompanied by alterations in phosphorylation of LKB1. Interestingly, in free fatty acid-treated cells, Sirt6 knockdown increased hepatocyte lipid accumulation measured as increased triglyceride contents (p = 0.035, suggesting that Sirt6 may be beneficial in reducing hepatic fat accumulation. In addition, Sirt6 knockdown abolished the effects of RGZ on hepatocyte fat accumulation, mRNA and protein expression of Ppargc1a/PGC1-α and Foxo1, and phosphorylation levels of LKB1 and AMPK, suggesting that Sirt6 is involved in RGZ-mediated metabolic effects. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that RGZ significantly decreased hepatic lipid accumulation, and that this process appeared to be mediated by the activation of the Sirt6-AMPK pathway. We propose Sirt6 as a possible therapeutic target for hepatic steatosis.

  15. Skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity increases during either hypertrophy or running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, M.; Waxham, M. N.; Hamilton, M. T.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Spikes in free Ca(2+) initiate contractions in skeletal muscle cells, but whether and how they might signal to transcription factors in skeletal muscles of living animals is unknown. Since previous studies in non-muscle cells have shown that serum response factor (SRF) protein, a transcription factor, is phosphorylated rapidly by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase after rises in intracellular Ca(2+), we measured enzymatic activity that phosphorylates SRF (designated SRF kinase activity). Homogenates from 7-day-hypertrophied anterior latissimus dorsi muscles of roosters had more Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase activity than their respective control muscles. However, no differences were noted in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity between control and trained muscles. To determine whether the Ca(2+)-independent and Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent forms of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) might contribute to some of the SRF kinase activity, autocamtide-3, a synthetic substrate that is specific for CaMKII, was employed. While the Ca(2+)-independent form of CaMKII was increased, like the Ca(2+)-independent form of SRF kinase, no alteration in CaMKII occurred at 7 days of stretch overload. These observations suggest that some of SRF phosphorylation by skeletal muscle extracts could be due to CaMKII. To determine whether this adaptation was specific to the exercise type (i.e., hypertrophy), similar measurements were made in the white vastus lateralis muscle of rats that had completed 2 wk of voluntary running. Although Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase was increased, no alteration occurred in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity. Thus any role of Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase signaling has downstream modulators specific to the exercise phenotype.

  16. LLLT actives MMP-2 and increases muscle mechanical resistance after nerve sciatic rat regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraus, Rodrigo Antonio Carvalho; Maia, Luciana Prado; de Souza Lino, Anderson Diogo; Fernandes, Karen Barron Parron; de Matos Gomes, Marcos Vinícius; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on metalloproteinase expression and the mechanical strength of skeletal muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. Rats were subjected to crush injury of the right sciatic nerve, followed by LLLT (830 nm, 35, 70, 140, and 280 J/cm(2)) for 21 consecutive days. Functional gait analysis was performed at weekly intervals and the animals were sacrificed after the last evaluation at day 21 for collection of the gastrocnemius muscles, which were submitted to analysis of resistance, and the tibialis anterior, for evaluation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The results were statistically analyzed at a significance level of 5%. The irradiated groups showed a significant decrease in the sciatic functional index and a significant increase in the mechanical strength when compared to the injured group with no treatment (p < 0.05), with no significant difference among the energy densities used. While no difference among groups was observed for the activity of MMP-2 in pro-active band, at the intermediate band, the activity was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for the groups irradiated with 35, 70, and 140 J/cm(2), and at the active band, the activity was significantly more intense in the group irradiated with 280 J/cm(2). The present study demonstrated that injury of the sciatic nerve, with consequent muscle denervation, are benefited by the laser therapy, which restores neuromuscular function, active MMP-2 and increases the maximum breaking strength.

  17. Neuropeptide S overcomes short term memory deficit induced by sleep restriction by increasing prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, Julien; Canini, Frédéric; Poly-Thomasson, Betty; Trousselard, Marion; Granon, Sylvie; Chauveau, Frédéric

    2017-09-20

    Sleep restriction (SR) impairs short term memory (STM) that might be related to different processes. Neuropeptide S (NPS), an endogenous neuropeptide that improves short term memory, activates arousal and decreases anxiety is likely to counteract the SR-induced impairment of STM. The objective of the present study was to find common cerebral pathways in sleep restriction and NPS action in order to ultimately antagonize SR effect on memory. The STM was assessed using a spontaneous spatial alternation task in a T-maze. C57-Bl/6J male mice were distributed in 4 groups according to treatment (0.1nmol of NPS or vehicle intracerebroventricular injection) and to 20h-SR. Immediately after behavioural testing, regional c-fos immunohistochemistry was performed and used as a neural activation marker for spatial short term memory (prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus) and emotional reactivity (basolateral amygdala and ventral hippocampus). Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using elevated-plus maze task. Results showed that SR impaired short term memory performance and decreased neuronal activation in cingular cortex.NPS injection overcame SR-induced STM deficits and increased neuronal activation in infralimbic cortex. SR spared anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze. Neural activation in basolateral nucleus of amygdala and ventral hippocampus were not changed after SR.In conclusion, the present study shows that NPS overcomes SR-induced STM deficits by increasing prefrontal cortex activation independently of anxiety-like behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial translocation is associated with increased monocyte activation and dementia in AIDS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Ancuta

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD. To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4(+ T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection, compared to control groups. These results suggest a role for elevated LPS levels in driving monocyte activation in AIDS, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HAD, and provide evidence that cofactors linked to substance abuse and HCV co-infection influence these processes.

  19. Skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity increases during either hypertrophy or running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, M.; Waxham, M. N.; Hamilton, M. T.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Spikes in free Ca(2+) initiate contractions in skeletal muscle cells, but whether and how they might signal to transcription factors in skeletal muscles of living animals is unknown. Since previous studies in non-muscle cells have shown that serum response factor (SRF) protein, a transcription factor, is phosphorylated rapidly by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase after rises in intracellular Ca(2+), we measured enzymatic activity that phosphorylates SRF (designated SRF kinase activity). Homogenates from 7-day-hypertrophied anterior latissimus dorsi muscles of roosters had more Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase activity than their respective control muscles. However, no differences were noted in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity between control and trained muscles. To determine whether the Ca(2+)-independent and Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent forms of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) might contribute to some of the SRF kinase activity, autocamtide-3, a synthetic substrate that is specific for CaMKII, was employed. While the Ca(2+)-independent form of CaMKII was increased, like the Ca(2+)-independent form of SRF kinase, no alteration in CaMKII occurred at 7 days of stretch overload. These observations suggest that some of SRF phosphorylation by skeletal muscle extracts could be due to CaMKII. To determine whether this adaptation was specific to the exercise type (i.e., hypertrophy), similar measurements were made in the white vastus lateralis muscle of rats that had completed 2 wk of voluntary running. Although Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase was increased, no alteration occurred in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity. Thus any role of Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase signaling has downstream modulators specific to the exercise phenotype.

  20. Mixed lactate and caffeine compound increases satellite cell activity and anabolic signals for muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yoshimi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Yokokawa, Takumi; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Shimazu, Mariko; Uchida, Kenji; Tomi, Hironori; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a mixed lactate and caffeine compound (LC) could effectively elicit proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells or activate anabolic signals in skeletal muscles. We cultured C2C12 cells with either lactate or LC for 6 h. We found that lactate significantly increased myogenin and follistatin protein levels and phosphorylation of P70S6K while decreasing the levels of myostatin relative to the control. LC significantly increased protein levels of Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 in addition to myogenin, relative to control. LC also significantly increased follistatin expression relative to control and stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K. In an in vivo study, male F344/DuCrlCrlj rats were assigned to control (Sed, n = 10), exercise (Ex, n = 12), and LC supplementation (LCEx, n = 13) groups. LC was orally administered daily. The LCEx and Ex groups were exercised on a treadmill, running for 30 min at low intensity every other day for 4 wk. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in the mass of the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) relative to both the Sed and Ex groups. Furthermore, the LCEx group showed a significant increase in the total DNA content of TA compared with the Sed group. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in myogenin and follistatin expression of GA relative to the Ex group. These results suggest that administration of LC can effectively increase muscle mass concomitant with elevated numbers of myonuclei, even with low-intensity exercise training, via activated satellite cells and anabolic signals. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Systemic and cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor levels increase in murine cerebral malaria along with increased Calpain and caspase activity and can be reduced by erythropoietin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna;

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, we noticed increased caspase-3 and calpain activity in terminally ill mice, as measured by protease-specific cleavage of α-spectrin and p35. In conclusion, we detected increased cerebral and systemic VEGF as well as HIF-1α, which in the brain were reduced to normal in EPO-treated mice. Also...... caspase and calpain activity was reduced markedly in EPO-treated mice....

  2. Increasing extracellular matrix collagen level and MMP activity induces cyst development in polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD kidneys exhibit increased extracellular matrix (ECM collagen expression and metalloproteinases (MMPs activity. We investigated the role of these increases on cystic disease progression in PKD kidneys. Methods We examined the role of type I collagen (collagen I and membrane bound type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP on cyst development using both in vitro 3 dimensional (3D collagen gel culture and in vivo PCK rat model of PKD. Results We found that collagen concentration is critical in controlling the morphogenesis of MDCK cells cultured in 3D gels. MDCK cells did not form 3D structures at collagen I concentrations lower than 1 mg/ml but began forming tubules when the concentration reaches 1 mg/ml. Significantly, these cells began to form cyst when collagen I concentration reached to 1.2 mg/ml, and the ratios of cyst to tubule structures increased as the collagen I concentration increased. These cells exclusively formed cyst structures at a collagen I concentration of 1.8 mg/ml or higher. Overexpression of MT1-MMP in MDCK cells significantly induced cyst growth in 3D collagen gel culture. Conversely, inhibition of MMPs activity with doxycycline, a FDA approved pan-MMPs inhibitor, dramatically slowed cyst growth. More importantly, the treatment of PCK rats with doxycycline significantly decreased renal tubule cell proliferation and markedly inhibited the cystic disease progression. Conclusions Our data suggest that increased collagen expression and MMP activity in PKD kidneys may induce cyst formation and expansion. Our findings also suggest that MMPs may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human PKD.

  3. Swimming training increases cardiac vagal activity and induces cardiac hypertrophy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Medeiros

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of swimming training (ST on vagal and sympathetic cardiac effects was investigated in sedentary (S, N = 12 and trained (T, N = 12 male Wistar rats (200-220 g. ST consisted of 60-min swimming sessions 5 days/week for 8 weeks, with a 5% body weight load attached to the tail. The effect of the autonomic nervous system in generating training-induced resting bradycardia (RB was examined indirectly after cardiac muscarinic and adrenergic receptor blockade. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by cardiac weight and myocyte morphometry. Plasma catecholamine concentrations and citrate synthase activity in soleus muscle were also determined in both groups. Resting heart rate was significantly reduced in T rats (355 ± 16 vs 330 ± 20 bpm. RB was associated with a significantly increased cardiac vagal effect in T rats (103 ± 25 vs 158 ± 40 bpm, since the sympathetic cardiac effect and intrinsic heart rate were similar for the two groups. Likewise, no significant difference was observed for plasma catecholamine concentrations between S and T rats. In T rats, left ventricle weight (13% and myocyte dimension (21% were significantly increased, suggesting cardiac hypertrophy. Skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity was significantly increased by 52% in T rats, indicating endurance conditioning. These data suggest that RB induced by ST is mainly mediated parasympathetically and differs from other training modes, like running, that seems to mainly decrease intrinsic heart rate in rats. The increased cardiac vagal activity associated with ST is of clinical relevance, since both are related to increased life expectancy and prevention of cardiac events.

  4. Melatonin receptor activation increases glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the rat medial lateral habenula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evely, Katherine M; Hudson, Randall L; Dubocovich, Margarita L; Haj-Dahmane, Samir

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin (MLT) is secreted from the pineal gland and mediates its physiological effects through activation of two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2 . These receptors are expressed in several brain areas, including the habenular complex, a pair of nuclei that relay information from forebrain to midbrain and modulate a plethora of behaviors, including sleep, mood, and pain. However, so far, the precise mechanisms by which MLT control the function of habenula neurons remain unknown. Using whole cell recordings from male rat brain slices, we examined the effects of MLT on the excitability of medial lateral habenula (MLHb) neurons. We found that MLT had no significant effects on the intrinsic excitability of MLHb neurons, but profoundly increased the amplitude of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSC). The increase in strength of glutamate synapses onto MLHb neurons was mediated by an increase in glutamate release. The MLT-induced increase in glutamatergic synaptic transmission was blocked by the competitive MT1 /MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole (LUZ). These results unravel a potential cellular mechanism by which MLT receptor activation enhances the excitability of MLHb neurons. The MLT-mediated control of glutamatergic inputs to the MLHb may play a key role in the modulation of various behaviors controlled by the habenular complex.

  5. Increasing physical activity and exercise in lung cancer: reviewing safety, benefits, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Brett C; Thomas, D David; Scott, JoAnn B; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a difficult disease frequently diagnosed in late stages with a high mortality and symptom burden. In part because of frequent lung comorbidity, even lung cancer survivors often remain symptomatic and functionally limited. Though targeted therapy continues to increase treatment options for advanced-stage disease, symptom burden remains high with few therapeutic options. In the last several decades, exercise and physical activity have arisen as therapeutic options for obstructive lung disease and lung cancer. To date, exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms, increase exercise tolerance, improve quality of life, and potentially reduce length of stay and postoperative complications. Multiple small trials have been performed in perioperative non-small-cell lung cancer patients, although fewer studies are available for patients with advanced-stage disease. Despite the increased interest in this subject over the last few years, a validated exercise regimen has not been established for perioperative or advanced-stage disease. Clinicians underutilize exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation as a therapy, in part because of the lack of evidence-based consensus as to how and when to implement increasing physical activity. This review summarizes the existing evidence on exercise in lung cancer patients.

  6. Improvement of Processing Speed in Executive Function Immediately following an Increase in Cardiovascular Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoladie D. Tam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the acute effects of physical exercise on specific cognitive functions immediately following an increase in cardiovascular activity. Stair-climbing exercise is used to increase the cardiovascular output of human subjects. The color-naming Stroop Test was used to identify the cognitive improvements in executive function with respect to processing speed and error rate. The study compared the Stroop results before and immediately after exercise and before and after nonexercise, as a control. The results show that there is a significant increase in processing speed and a reduction in errors immediately after less than 30 min of aerobic exercise. The improvements are greater for the incongruent than for the congruent color tests. This suggests that physical exercise induces a better performance in a task that requires resolving conflict (or interference than a task that does not. There is no significant improvement for the nonexercise control trials. This demonstrates that an increase in cardiovascular activity has significant acute effects on improving the executive function that requires conflict resolution (for the incongruent color tests immediately following aerobic exercise more than similar executive functions that do not require conflict resolution or involve the attention-inhibition process (for the congruent color tests.

  7. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumyeast extract then for those growing on glucose, i.e. the effect of elevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. This indicates the increased activity of microorganisms, which leads to accelerated C turnover in soil under elevated CO2. Our results clearly showed that the functional characteristics of the soil microbial community (i.e. specific growth rates and enzymes activity) rather than total microbial biomass

  8. Chemical stress induced by heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum L.) allelochemicals and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghader, Kalantar; Nojavan, Majid; Naghshbandi, Nabat

    2008-03-15

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the allelopathic potential of heliotrope on some biochemical processes of dodder. The preliminary experiments revealed that the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of heliotrope is higher than its seeds and roots. So, the aqueous extract of leaves was used in remaining experiments. Leaf extracts of 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O inhibited the germination of dodder seeds up to 95% and that of radish up to 100%. While, the aqueous extract of vine leaves which is a non-allelopathic plant did not have any inhibitory effect on these seeds. Vine leaf was used as a control to show that the inhibitory effect of heliotrope is due to an inhibitory compound but not due to the concentration. The leaf extract of heliotrope at 0.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O reduced the radish seedling growth from 14 cm to about 0.5 cm and that of dodder from 7.5 cm to about 0.25 cm. The effects of heliotrope allelochemicals on some physiological and biochemical processes of radish was also Investigated. The activity of auxin oxidase increased in leaves and roots of radish. Suggesting that the reduced radish growth is due to the decreased active auxin levels in its leaves and roots. The activity of alpha-amylase was reduced, so reduction of starch degradation and lack of respiratory energy is the prime reason of germination inhibition in dodder and radish seeds. The level of soluble sugars increased. This is an indication of reduction of the activity of some respiratory enzymes and reduced consumption of these sugars. Proline levels were also increased, indicating that, the chemical stress is induced by leaf extract. Finally, the activities of GPX and CAT which are antioxidant enzymes were increased, along with increased extract concentration. These finding shows that the chemical stress induced by leaf extract produces super oxide (O2*) and H2O2, which is neutralized to H2O and O2 by these enzymes.

  9. Thyrotropin increases hepatic triglyceride content through upregulation of SREBP-1c activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Wang, Qi; Lu, Ming; Chen, Wenbin; Song, Yongfeng; Jing, Fei; Guan, Youfei; Wang, Laicheng; Lin, Yanliang; Bo, Tao; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Tingting; Xin, Wei; Yu, Chunxiao; Guan, Qingbo; Zhou, Xinli; Gao, Ling; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jiajun

    2014-12-01

    Hallmarks of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increased triglyceride accumulation within hepatocytes. The prevalence of NAFLD increases steadily with increasing thyrotropin (TSH) levels. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we focused on exploring the effect and mechanism of TSH on the hepatic triglyceride content. As the function of TSH is mediated through the TSH receptor (TSHR), Tshr(-/-) mice (supplemented with thyroxine) were used. Liver steatosis and triglyceride content were analysed in Tshr(-/-) and Tshr(+/+) mice fed a high-fat or normal chow diet, as well as in Srebp-1c(-/-) and Tshr(-/-)Srebp-1c(-/-) mice. The expression levels of proteins and genes involved in liver triglyceride metabolism was measured. Compared with control littermates, the high-fat diet induced a relatively low degree of liver steatosis in Tshr(-/-) mice. Even under chow diet, hepatic triglyceride content was decreased in Tshr(-/-) mice. TSH caused concentration- and time-dependent effects on intracellular triglyceride contents in hepatocytes in vitro. The activity of SREBP-1c, a key regulator involved in triglyceride metabolism and in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, was significantly lower in Tshr(-/-) mice. In Tshr(-/-)Srebp-1c(-/-) mice, the liver triglyceride content showed no significant difference compared with Tshr(+/+)Srebp-1c(-/-) mice. When mice were injected with forskolin (cAMP activator), H89 (inhibitor of PKA) or AICAR (AMPK activator), or HeG2 cells received MK886 (PPARα inhibitor), triglyceride contents presented in a manner dependent on SREBP-1c activity. The mechanism, underlying TSH-induced liver triglyceride accumulation, involved that TSH, through its receptor TSHR, triggered hepatic SREBP-1c activity via the cAMP/PKA/PPARα pathway associated with decreased AMPK, which further increased the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis. TSH increased the hepatic triglyceride content, indicating an essential role for TSH in the

  10. User-driven control increases cortical activity during treadmill walking: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulea, Thomas C; Jonghyun Kim; Damiano, Diane L; Stanley, Christopher J; Hyung-Soon Park

    2014-01-01

    Treadmills provide a safe and efficient method for gait rehabilitation but treadmill based training paradigms have not been shown to create superior results when compared with traditional physical therapy methods such as overground training. One explanation for this may be that walking at a constant, fixed speed requires little mental engagement from the user, which has been postulated as a key factor in the success of motor learning. To increase mental engagement, we developed a user-driven treadmill control scheme. In this paper we use electroencephalography (EEG) to compare cortical activity during user-driven (active) walking with activity on a normal (passive) treadmill in nine healthy subjects. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to isolate brain activity from artifactual components. We fit equivalent dipole sources to each brain component and clustered these across subjects. Our analysis revealed that relative to the passive treadmill, active walking resulted in statistically significant decreases in spectral power, i.e. desynchronization, in the anterior cingulate, sensorimotor cortices, and posterior parietal lobe of the cortex. These results indicate that user-driven treadmills more fully engage the motor cortex and therefore could facilitate better training outcomes than a traditional treadmill.

  11. Increased activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enhance cassava resistance to Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Chen, Qing; Lu, Hui; Wu, Chunling; Lu, Fuping; Tang, Jihong

    2017-03-01

    In order to study the function of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in cassava resistance to spider mites, we tested the changes of transcription levels and activities of these two protective enzymes in both cassava and Tetranychus urticae (=T. cinnabarinus) during the interaction. The results showed that after damage of the mite-susceptible cassava cultivar BRA900 by T. urticae for 1 and 8 days, the transcription levels of MePOD and MePPO and the activities of POD and PPO showed no significant difference compared with those in undamaged leaves. However, the corresponding transcription levels and activities in 1- and 8-day-damaged leaves of mite-resistant cassava cultivar C1115 increased to a significant level of approximately twofold. When T. urticae fed on BRA900 for 1 and 8 days, the transcription levels of TcPPO and TcPOD and the activities of PPO and POD showed no significant difference compared with those before feeding. However, the corresponding transcription levels and activities of these two protective enzymes in T. urticae feeding on C1115 significantly decreased by about half. This study preliminarily validates the function of POD and PPO in cassava resistance to T. urticae, and provides candidate gene resource for molecular breeding of spider mite-resistant cassava.

  12. Motor imagery evokes increased somatosensory activity in Parkinson's disease patients with tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Rick C; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is surprisingly heterogeneous: some patients have a prominent resting tremor, while others never develop this symptom. Here we investigate whether the functional organization of the voluntary motor system differs between PD patients with and without resting tremor, and whether these differences relate to the cerebral circuit producing tremor. We compared 18 PD patients with marked tremor, 20 PD patients without tremor, and 19 healthy controls. Subjects performed a controlled motor imagery task during fMRI scanning. We quantified imagery-related cerebral activity by contrasting imagery of biomechanically difficult and easy movements. Tremor-related activity was identified by relating cerebral activity to fluctuations in tremor amplitude, using electromyography during scanning. PD patients with tremor had better behavioral performance than PD patients without tremor. Furthermore, tremulous PD patients showed increased imagery-related activity in somatosensory area 3a, as compared with both healthy controls and to nontremor PD patients. This effect was independent from tremor-related activity, which was localized to the motor cortex, cerebellum, and thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM). The VIM, with known projections to area 3a, was unique in showing both tremor- and imagery-related responses. We conclude that parkinsonian tremor influences motor imagery by modulating central somatosensory processing through the VIM. This mechanism may explain clinical differences between PD patients with and without tremor.

  13. Grape Polyphenols Increase the Activity of HDL Enzymes in Old and Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy L. Zagayko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HDL particles are protein-rich particles that act as a vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent changes in the functional activity of HDL and the effect of high-energy diet on this index, as well as to correct it under the influence of grape polyphenols from “Enoant” obtained from Vitis vinifera grapes. We observed the age-dependent composition changes in HDL particle. It was shown that total lipids and triacylglycerol (TG levels were higher in 24-month-old animals. In obese rats, HDL total lipids and TG levels were higher in 24-month-old than in the 3-month-old and 12-month-old groups but did not differ from 24-month-old group. The plasma HDL paraoxonase (PON and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity levels were decreased in old-aged rats, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP activity was higher in old rats. Keeping 12-month-old animals on high-fructose diet completely leveled the age differences in the data that have been measured between 12-month-old and 24-month-old rats. After “Enoant” administration, an increase of HDL PON and LCAT activity levels and a reduction of CETP activity were found in 24-month-old and obese rats.

  14. Actively using clopidogrel correlates with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study is to assess whether there is an association between clopidogrel use and risk of acute pancreatitis in Taiwan. We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program from 2000 to 2011. There were 5644 subjects aged 20-84 years with a first-time attack of acute pancreatitis as the case group and 22,576 randomly selected sex-matched and age-matched subjects without acute pancreatitis as the control group. We defined clopidogrel use as "actively using" if the final clopidogrel prescription was filled between 0 and 7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis, or "not actively using" if the final clopidogrel prescription was filled ≧ 8 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Subjects who never used clopidogrel were defined as never used. The multivariable logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of acute pancreatitis associated with clopidogrel use. Comparing the subjects actively using clopidogrel to those who never used clopidogrel, the adjusted OR of acute pancreatitis was 8.46 (95%CI 5.25, 13.7). The adjusted OR decreased to 1.16 among subjects not actively using clopidogrel (95%CI 0.95, 1.43). Persons actively using clopidogrel are at an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Further studies are necessary to prove the causal relationship.

  15. Increased activity of ionised calcium in gall bladder bile in gall stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicki, M; Jørgensen, T; Thode, J

    1992-10-01

    The actual activity of ionised calcium (Ca2+) in gall bladder bile determined with an ion-selective electrode was significantly higher in patients with gall stone disease (n = 15) than in patients without gall stones (n = 10) (0.43 mmol/kg v 0.31 mmol/kg; p titration with HCl/NaOH, however, the Ca2+ activity fell with increasing pH in a biphasic manner, with the breaking point occurring at a significantly lower median pH in patients with gall stones than in patients without (pH 7.1 v 8.2; p < 0.0001). The combination of a higher activity of calcium in bile and precipitation of bile salts taking place at a lower pH in patients with gall stone disease than in patients without gall stones suggests a major role for calcium and pH in the pathogenesis of gall stones. Strict anaerobic sampling is not necessary for the measurements of Ca2+ in gall bladder bile, because the Ca2+ was not significantly affected by the changes in pCO2. The metabolic studies suggest, however, that simultaneous measurements of the activity of Ca2+ and pH is important in order to interpret data for the calcium activity in gall bladder bile.

  16. An increase in pectin methyl esterase activity accompanies dormancy breakage and germination of yellow cedar seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, C; Kermode, A R

    2000-09-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) (EC 3.1.1.11) catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylester groups of cell wall pectins. We investigated the role of this enzyme in dormancy termination and germination of yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis [D. Don] Spach) seeds. PME activity was not detected in dormant seeds of yellow cedar but was induced and gradually increased during moist chilling; high activity coincided with dormancy breakage and germination. PME activity was positively correlated to the degree of dormancy breakage of yellow cedar seeds. The enzyme produced in different seed parts and in seeds at different times during moist chilling, germination, and early post-germinative growth consisted of two isoforms, both basic with isoelectric points of 8.7 and 8.9 and the same molecular mass of 62 kD. The pH optimum for the enzyme was between 7.4 and 8.4. In intact yellow cedar seeds, activities of the two basic isoforms of PME that were induced in embryos and in megagametophytes following dormancy breakage were significantly suppressed by abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid had a stimulatory effect on the activities of these isoforms in embryos and megagametophytes of intact seeds at the germinative stage. We hypothesize that PME plays a role in weakening of the megagametophyte, allowing radicle emergence and the completion of germination.

  17. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    a deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether......, glucose and osmolality). Herring in hypoxia increased their swimming speed by 11-39% but only when  was cortisol also exhibited an increase with  plasma osmolality was subject to a transient rise at 8.5 k...

  18. Increasing Hydrogen Ion Activity of Water in Two Reservoirs Supplying the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, J. G.

    1981-10-01

    The hydrogen ion activity (H+) of water in two Sierra Nevada reservoirs (Pardee and Hetch Hetchy) that supply the San Francisco Bay area has been increasing with time over the period 1954-1979. This conclusion is based on weekly measurements ofpH at the two reservoirs and is supported by measurements of alkalinity which decreased at Pardee over the period 1944-1979. Based on linear models, the rate of the increasing (H+) was the same at both reservoirs, and (H+) varied concomitantly from year to year, suggesting a common, general cause. Mean monthly variation in (H+) corresponded to mean monthly variation in atmospheric pollution from a nine-county area around San Francisco Bay. The most likely cause of the increasing (H+) of reservoir waters is NOx from automobile exhausts primarily from the San Francisco Bay area.

  19. A Study on the Active Induction Control of Upstream Wind Turbines for total power increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungyu; Kim, Kwansoo; Paek, Insu; Bottasso, Carlo L.; Campagnolo, Filippo

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effect of active induction control of upstream wind turbines is investigated. Two scaled wind turbines having a rotor diameter of 1 m with a spacing of four times of the rotor diameter were used to experimentally validate the concept. Also, an in-house c code was used to simulate the same two wind turbines and see if the experimental observations can be obtained. From the experiment, approximately 0.81% increase of total power could be observed. Although the simulation results were not exactly the same as the experimental results but the shape was similar and the maximum power increase of 0.27% was predicted. Also from further simulation using NREL 5MW wind turbines instead of scaled wind turbines with realistic ambient turbulence intensity, it was found that the power increase could become more than 1%.

  20. Mating for variety increases foraging activity in the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernasz, Diane C; Hines, Jessica; Parker, Dara G; Cole, Blaine J

    2008-02-01

    Multiple mating by females characterizes most insect species, but is relatively uncommon in social insects. Females may mate with multiple mates because they experience the direct benefits of increased survival or fecundity, to acquire high quality mates, or to lower the risk of reduced fecundity by mating with incompatible males. We used the extensive natural variation in mating frequency in the western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis, to test the hypothesis that increased mating by the queen leads to an increase in colony performance. Colonies with greater genetic diversity began to forage earlier in the day and foraged for longer time periods. The workers which initiated foraging were a nonrandom subset of the genotypes present in the colony. We used a statistical approach to correctly predict the direction and magnitude of the correlation between genetic diversity and colony foraging activity.

  1. Self-efficacy enhancing intervention increases light physical activity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson JL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Janet L Larson,1,2 Margaret K Covey,2 Mary C Kapella,2 Charles G Alex,3,4 Edward McAuley,5 1Division of Acute, Critical and Long-Term Care Programs, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Edward Hines Jr VA Hospital, Hines, IL, 4Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oaklawn, IL, 5Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champagne, Urbana, IL, USA Background: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lead sedentary lives and could benefit from increasing their physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if an exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention could increase physical activity and functional performance when delivered in the context of 4 months of upper body resistance training with a 12-month follow-up. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, subjects were assigned to: exercise-specific self-efficacy enhancing intervention with upper body resistance training (SE-UBR, health education with upper body resistance training (ED-UBR, or health education with gentle chair exercises (ED-Chair. Physical activity was measured with an accelerometer and functional performance was measured with the Functional Performance Inventory. Forty-nine people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease completed 4 months of training and provided valid accelerometry data, and 34 also provided accelerometry data at 12 months of follow-up. The self-efficacy enhancing intervention emphasized meeting physical activity guidelines and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results: Differences were observed in light physical activity (LPA after 4 months of training, time by group interaction effect (P=0.045. The SE-UBR group increased time spent in

  2. Does Spousal Support Can Increase the Women’s Physical Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Rezaee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous benefits of physical activity are well-known for the prevention and treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and cancers. However, the status of physical activities among women remains noticeably less than the recommended level. Considering the importance of the spouses’ participation in the promotion of women’s health, this study examined the impact of spousal support on women’s physical activity. Methods: This semi--experimental study was done in February 2015 on 100 couples in reproductive age referred to health centers of Falavarjan city. The participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The information related to women’s physical activity in both groups was collected by aquestionnaire in two steps, before and three months after the intervention. The spouses of women in the intervention group were trained in the field of the importance of physical activity in women’s health in two sessions. The data were analyzed by the software SPSS21 and suitable statistical tests (Independent t, paired t, and Chi-square. Results: The mean and standard deviation of women’s age in the both groups were 28.76±5.51 and 30.38±5.31, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the women under the study was generally estimated 44%. Physical activities of women in the intervention group were significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.0001. Also, the Body Mass Index in the intervention group was significantly decreased compared to before the intervention and control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Spouses could encourage women to perform physical activities. It is recommended that the health care system should implement educational sessions for men to encourage women to exercise.

  3. The QTL GNP1 Encodes GA20ox1, Which Increases Grain Number and Yield by Increasing Cytokinin Activity in Rice Panicle Meristems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xue-Fei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Xu, Jian-Long

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem. However, little is known about the crosstalk among cytokinin and GA regulators together with KNOX proteins and how KNOX-mediated dynamic balancing of hormonal activity functions. Through map-based cloning of QTLs, we cloned a GA biosynthesis gene, Grain Number per Panicle1 (GNP1), which encodes rice GA20ox1. The grain number and yield of NIL-GNP1TQ were significantly higher than those of isogenic control (Lemont). Sequence variations in its promoter region increased the levels of GNP1 transcripts, which were enriched in the apical regions of inflorescence meristems in NIL-GNP1TQ. We propose that cytokinin activity increased due to a KNOX-mediated transcriptional feedback loop resulting from the higher GNP1 transcript levels, in turn leading to increased expression of the GA catabolism genes GA2oxs and reduced GA1 and GA3 accumulation. This rebalancing process increased cytokinin activity, thereby increasing grain number and grain yield in rice. These findings uncover important, novel roles of GAs in rice florescence meristem development and provide new insights into the crosstalk between cytokinin and GA underlying development process. PMID:27764111

  4. The QTL GNP1 Encodes GA20ox1, Which Increases Grain Number and Yield by Increasing Cytokinin Activity in Rice Panicle Meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Yun; Mi, Xue-Fei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Li, Xin-Min; Xu, Jian-Long; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-10-01

    Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem. However, little is known about the crosstalk among cytokinin and GA regulators together with KNOX proteins and how KNOX-mediated dynamic balancing of hormonal activity functions. Through map-based cloning of QTLs, we cloned a GA biosynthesis gene, Grain Number per Panicle1 (GNP1), which encodes rice GA20ox1. The grain number and yield of NIL-GNP1TQ were significantly higher than those of isogenic control (Lemont). Sequence variations in its promoter region increased the levels of GNP1 transcripts, which were enriched in the apical regions of inflorescence meristems in NIL-GNP1TQ. We propose that cytokinin activity increased due to a KNOX-mediated transcriptional feedback loop resulting from the higher GNP1 transcript levels, in turn leading to increased expression of the GA catabolism genes GA2oxs and reduced GA1 and GA3 accumulation. This rebalancing process increased cytokinin activity, thereby increasing grain number and grain yield in rice. These findings uncover important, novel roles of GAs in rice florescence meristem development and provide new insights into the crosstalk between cytokinin and GA underlying development process.

  5. Increases in Plasma Lutein through Supplementation Are Correlated with Increases in Physical Activity and Reductions in Sedentary Time in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Thomson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250 mL of full-cream milk per day for 4 weeks and encouraged to increase physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by self-report, pedometry and accelerometry (daily activity counts and sedentary time. Exercise self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-nine participants competed the study (Lutein = 19, Placebo = 20. Lutein increased plasma lutein concentrations compared with placebo (p < 0.001. Absolute and percentage changes in plasma lutein were inversely associated with absolute (r = −0.36, p = 0.03 and percentage changes (r = −0.39, p = 0.02 in sedentary time. Percentage change in plasma lutein was positively associated with the percentage change in average daily activity counts (r = 0.36, p = 0.03. Exercise self-efficacy did not change (p = 0.16. Lutein increased plasma lutein, which was associated with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary time in older adults. Larger trials should evaluate whether Lutein can provide health benefits over the longer term.

  6. Cholesterol regulates HERG K+ channel activation by increasing phospholipase C β1 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yoon Sun; Oh, Hyun Geun; Park, Myoung Kyu; Cho, Hana; Chung, Sungkwon

    2013-01-01

    Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) K+ channel underlies the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ conductance (IKr) during normal cardiac repolarization. Also, it may regulate excitability in many neuronal cells. Recently, we showed that enrichment of cell membrane with cholesterol inhibits HERG channels by reducing the levels of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] due to the activation of phospholipase C (PLC). In this study, we further explored the effect of cholesterol enrichment on HERG channel kinetics. When membrane cholesterol level was mildly increased in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing HERG channel, the inactivation and deactivation kinetics of HERG current were not affected, but the activation rate was significantly decelerated at all voltages tested. The application of PtdIns(4,5)P2 or inhibitor for PLC prevented the effect of cholesterol enrichment, while the presence of antibody against PtdIns(4,5)P2 in pipette solution mimicked the effect of cholesterol enrichment. These results indicate that the effect of cholesterol enrichment on HERG channel is due to the depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P2. We also found that cholesterol enrichment significantly increases the expression of β1 and β3 isoforms of PLC (PLCβ1, PLCβ3) in the membrane. Since the effects of cholesterol enrichment on HERG channel were prevented by inhibiting transcription or by inhibiting PLCβ1 expression, we conclude that increased PLCβ1 expression leads to the deceleration of HERG channel activation rate via downregulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2. These results confirm a crosstalk between two plasma membrane-enriched lipids, cholesterol and PtdIns(4,5)P2, in the regulation of HERG channels. PMID:23793622

  7. Increased tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen release is not accompanied by increased systemic fibrinolytic activity in severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, F; Oetomo, SB; Schieving, J; Groothuis, E; Okken, A; van Oeveren, W

    1999-01-01

    Intravascular and intraalveolar fibrin depositions in preterm infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) have been attributed to activation of clotting. We questioned whether in the face of activated clotting, Fibrinolysis is sufficient in these infants. We found, in infants with severe

  8. A nonintrinsic regional basis for increased infrarenal aortic MMP-9 expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Knipp, Brian S; Lu, Guanyi; Roelofs, Karen J; Ford, John W; Hannawa, Kevin K; Bishop, Keith; Thanaporn, Porama; Henke, Peter K; Stanley, James C; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2003-05-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine whether intrinsic or regional factors at different anatomic sites of the aorta affect expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Aortas from Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 22) were divided into arch, descending thoracic, and infrarenal abdominal segments. Specimens were stimulated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) (2 ng/mL) for 72 hours. In separate experiments, syngeneic aortic segments were transplanted from the thoracic or abdominal aortas of donor rats into the infrarenal aortic position of recipient rats (n = 12 each). At 4 weeks, aortas from rats who had received transplants were harvested, sectioned into arch, thoracic, and transplanted thoracic or transplanted abdominal segments, and stimulated with IL-1beta. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, zymography, and reverse zymography were performed to assess MMP-9, MMP-2, and TIMP-1 in all aortic segments. Differences were assessed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey test. In control rats, abdominal segments had significantly higher MMP-9 expression compared with arch and thoracic segments (P <.002). Total MMP-9 activity was also higher in abdominal segments (P <.02). In rats who received transplants, transplanted thoracic (P <.004) and transplanted abdominal (P <.05) segments demonstrated upregulation of MMP-9 expression, compared with control arch and thoracic segments. Zymography documented increased total MMP-9 activity in transplanted thoracic (P <.03) and transplanted abdominal (P <.04) segments versus arch and thoracic segments. No significant difference in MMP-9 expression was found between control abdominal, transplanted thoracic, or transplanted abdominal segments. No significant differences in MMP-2 or TIMP-1 expression or activity were demonstrated in either control or transplanted segments. These data demonstrate that variations in aortic MMP-9 expression and

  9. Elimination of Rubisco alters the regulation of nitrogenase activity and increases hydrogen production in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Di; Zhang, Yaoping [State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Welch, Emily; Roberts, Gary P. [Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Li, Jilun [State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Nitrogenase not only reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, but also reduces protons to hydrogen (H{sub 2}). The nitrogenase system is the primary means of H{sub 2} production under photosynthetic and nitrogen-limiting conditions in many photosynthetic bacteria, including Rhodospirillum rubrum. The efficiency of this biological H{sub 2} production largely depends on the nitrogenase enzyme and the availability of ATP and electrons in the cell. Previous studies showed that blockage of the CO{sub 2} fixation pathway in R. rubrum induced nitrogenase activity even in the presence of ammonium, presumably to remove excess reductant in the cell. We report here the re-characterization of cbbM mutants in R. rubrum to study the effect of Rubisco on H{sub 2} production. Our newly constructed cbbM mutants grew poorly in malate medium under anaerobic conditions. However, the introduction of constitutively active NifA (NifA*), the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) genes, allows cbbM mutants to dissipate the excess reductant through the nitrogenase system and improves their growth. Interestingly, we found that the deletion of cbbM alters the posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity, resulting in partially active nitrogenase in the presence of ammonium. The combination of mutations in nifA, draT and cbbM greatly increased H{sub 2} production of R. rubrum, especially in the presence of excess of ammonium. Furthermore, these mutants are able to produce H{sub 2} over a much longer time frame than the wild type, increasing the potential of these recombinant strains for the biological production of H{sub 2}. (author)

  10. Elimination of Rubisco alters the regulation of nitrogenase activity and increases hydrogen production in Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Zhang, Yaoping; Welch, Emily; Li, Jilun; Roberts, Gary P

    2010-07-01

    Nitrogenase not only reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, but also reduces protons to hydrogen (H(2)). The nitrogenase system is the primary means of H(2) production under photosynthetic and nitrogen-limiting conditions in many photosynthetic bacteria, including Rhodospirillum rubrum. The efficiency of this biological H(2) production largely depends on the nitrogenase enzyme and the availability of ATP and electrons in the cell. Previous studies showed that blockage of the CO(2) fixation pathway in R. rubrum induced nitrogenase activity even in the presence of ammonium, presumably to remove excess reductant in the cell. We report here the re-characterization of cbbM mutants in R. rubrum to study the effect of Rubisco on H(2) production. Our newly constructed cbbM mutants grew poorly in malate medium under anaerobic conditions. However, the introduction of constitutively active NifA (NifA*), the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) genes, allows cbbM mutants to dissipate the excess reductant through the nitrogenase system and improves their growth. Interestingly, we found that the deletion of cbbM alters the posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity, resulting in partially active nitrogenase in the presence of ammonium. The combination of mutations in nifA, draT and cbbM greatly increased H(2) production of R. rubrum, especially in the presence of excess of ammonium. Furthermore, these mutants are able to produce H(2) over a much longer time frame than the wild type, increasing the potential of these recombinant strains for the biological production of H(2).

  11. Increased brain cortical activity during parabolic flights has no influence on a motor tracking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Brümmer, Vera; Mierau, Andreas; Carnahan, Heather; Dubrowski, Adam; Strüder, Heiko K

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies showed that changing forces of gravity as they typically occur during parabolic flights might be responsible for adaptional processes of the CNS. However, until now it has not been differentiated between primary influences of weightlessness and secondary influences due to psycho-physiological factors (e.g., physical or mental strain). With the aim of detecting parabolic flight related changes in central cortical activity, a resting EEG was deduced in 16 subjects before, during and after parabolic flights. After subdividing EEG into alpha-, beta-,delta- and theta-wave bands, an increase in beta-power was noticeable inflight, whereas alpha(1)-power was increased postflight. No changes could be observed for the control group. To control possible effects of cortical activation, a manual tracking task with mirror inversion was performed during either the phase of weightlessness or during the normal gravity phase of a parabolic flight. No differences in performance nor in adaptation could be observed between both groups. A third group, performing under normal and stress-free conditions in a lab showed similar tracking values. We assume that the specific increase in brain activity is a sign of an increase in arousal inflight. This does support previous assumptions of non-specific stressors during parabolic flights and has to be considered as a relevant factor for experiments on central nerve adaptation. Although no influences of stress and/or weightlessness on motor performance and adaptation could be observed, we suggest that an "inflight" control group seems to be more adequate than a laboratory control group to investigate gravity-dependent changes in motor control.

  12. A self-regulation-based intervention to increase physical activity in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Nadine; Sieverding, Monika; Weidner, Gerdi; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether a behavior-change intervention focusing on self-regulatory strategies and emphasizing role model support increases physical activity (PA) among insufficiently active (not meeting PA guidelines of 150 min/week) cancer patients. Ambulatory cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION-study, a 4-week intervention (1-hr counseling, followed by weekly phone calls), with pretest (T1), posttest (T2) and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise or to a stress management intervention (active control). The exercise intervention emphasized self-regulatory strategies (e.g. action- and coping planning and self-monitoring); patients were also encouraged to contact a physically active same-sex role model as a potential exercise partner. The active control condition consisted of coping and relaxation techniques. Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA and a measure of perceived stress. PA was validated by Actigraph accelerometry. At T2, 46% of the patients in the exercise group and 19% of stress management patients increased their activity levels to meet PA guidelines (>150 min/week; χ(2)(1) = 5.51, p = .019). At T3, participants in the exercise intervention maintained their exercise level (46%), but also 31% of the stress management patients met the guidelines. All patients reported reductions in perceived stress. Additional analyses comparing patients in the exercise group by role model contact (63% realized contact) revealed that those who had contact with their role model were significantly more likely to adhere to the recommended guidelines (T2:50%; T3:64%) compared to those who did not have contact with a role model (T2:39%; T3:15%), suggesting the potential of mobilizing role model support to facilitate PA. In sum, cancer patients may not only benefit from an exercise

  13. Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Branislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible ways to provide heating to the building is to use thermally activated building systems. This type of heating, besides providing significant increase in building energy efficiency, allows using low-temperature heating sources. In this paper, special attention is given to opaque part of the building façade with integrated thermally activated building systems. Due to fact that this type of system strongly depends on temperature of this construction-thermal element and type and thickness of other materials of the façade, influence of these parameters on energy efficiency was analyzed in this paper. Since the simplest and most promising way of using geothermal energy is to use it directly, for our analysis this source of energy was selected. Building energy needs for heating were obtained for real residential multi-family building in Serbia by using EnergyPlus software. The building with all necessary input for simulation was modeled in Google SketchUp with aid of Open Studio Plug-in. Obtained results were compared with measured heating energy consumption. The results show that thermally activated building systems represent good way to increase building energy efficiency and that applying certain temperatures within this element, low-energy house standard can be achieved.

  14. Increased Enterococcus faecalis infection is associated with clinically active Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Youlian; Chen, Huiting; He, Hanchang; Du, Yanlei; Hu, Jiaqi; Li, Yingfei; Li, Yuyuan; Zhou, Yongjian; Wang, Hong; Chen, Ye; Nie, Yuqiang

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the abundance of pathogenic gut microbes in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and disease severity.We collected clinical data and fecal samples from 47 therapy-naive Chinese patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 67 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 48 healthy volunteers. Bacteria levels of Fusobacterium species (spp), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (B fragilis), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E coli), and Enterococcus faecalis (E faecalis) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to test associations between bacterial content and clinical parameters.Compared to healthy controls, the levels of both Fusobacterium spp and E faecalis were significantly increased in the feces of patients with IBD (P disease activity (P = 0.015), Crohn disease activity index (CDAI; R = 0.3118, P = 0.0108), and fecal calprotectin (P = 0.016).E faecalis and Fusobacterium spp are significantly enriched in patients with IBD, and increased E faecalis infection is associated with clinically active CD.

  15. Increased oxidative stress in pemphigus vulgaris is related to disease activity and HLA-association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amit Aakash; Dey-Rao, Rama; Seiffert-Sinha, Kristina; Sinha, Animesh A

    2016-06-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare blistering skin disorder characterized by the disadhesion of keratinocytes due to autoantibody attack against epidermal targets including desmoglein (Dsg) 3, Dsg 1 and possibly other adhesion and non-adhesion molecules. The mechanisms leading to immune-mediated pathology in PV are multifactorial and not fully understood. Recently, oxidative stress (antioxidant/oxidant disequilibrium) has been proposed as a contributory mechanism of autoimmune skin diseases, including PV. In this study, we directly assessed oxidative stress via measurement of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) using ELISA in 47 PV patients, 25 healthy controls and 18 bullous pemphigoid (BP) patients. We also performed microarray gene expression analysis on a separate set of 21 PV patients and 10 healthy controls to evaluate transcriptional dysregulation in oxidative stress-related pathways. Our data indicate that there is a significant reduction in TAC levels in PV patients compared with healthy controls, as well as BP patients. Furthermore, PV patients with active disease have significantly lower TAC levels than PV patients in remission. We also find that HLA allele status has a significant influence on oxidative stress. These findings are corroborated by microarray analysis showing differentially expressed genes involved in oxidative stress between the aforementioned groups. Collectively, our findings provide support for a role of oxidative stress in PV. Whether increased oxidative stress leads to disease manifestation and/or activity, or if disease activity leads to increased oxidative stress remains unknown. Future longitudinal studies may help to further elucidate the relationship between PV and oxidative stress.

  16. Tremorgenic mycotoxins increase gastric smooth muscle activity of sheep reticulum and rumen in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Cross, A L; Allen, K L; Smith, B L; McLeay, L M

    2003-02-01

    Reticulum and rumen strips (consisting of both muscle layers and the myenteric plexus) were superfused with Tyrode Ringer and their contractions recorded isometrically. The strips were subjected to exogenous acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation (EFS) resulting in contractions that could be blocked by atropine. Responses to the tremorgenic mycotoxin penitrem A and others thought to be involved in ryegrass staggers, paxilline and lolitrem B (10(-10)-10(-6)M), were compared with those of control vehicle (0.1% DMSO). The tremorgens were without effect on quiescent preparations. Penitrem A and paxilline enhanced spontaneously active preparations and the amplitude of contractions in response to EFS. Responses to paxilline had a shorter latency than to penitrem A. Responses of spontaneously active preparations were resistant to atropine. Penitrem A, but not paxilline, increased responses to exogenous acetylcholine. Lolitrem B (10(-6)M) increased responses to EFS, but many responses were equivocal, possibly due to the lower solubility of lolitrem B in aqueous solutions compared to the other tremorgens. The results show that these mycotoxins have peripheral excitatory effects on the reticulorumen and it is suggested that such activity in vivo may reflexly affect centrally derived cyclical contractions.

  17. PGE2 reduces MMP-14 and increases plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in cardiac fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Kamal M; Clevenger, Margarette H; Szandzik, David L; Peterson, Edward; Harding, Pamela

    2014-10-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is elevated during cardiac injury and we have previously shown that mice lacking the PGE2 EP4 receptor display dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with increased expression of the membrane type matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-14. We thus hypothesized that PGE2 regulates expression of MMP-14 and also affects fibroblast migration. Primary cultures of neonatal rat ventricular fibroblasts (NVFs) were used to test the effects of PGE2. Gene and protein expression was assessed by real time RT-PCR and Western blot, MMP activity was determined by zymography and migration of NVF was assessed by motility in a transwell system. PGE2 reduced expression of MMP-14 and these effects were antagonized by an EP4 antagonist. An EP4 agonist mimicked the effect of PGE2. PGE2 also increased mRNA and protein levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor of MMP activation. However, PGE2-stimulation of PAI-1 was mediated by the EP1/EP3 receptor and not EP4. Migration of NVF was assessed by motility in a transwell system. Treatment of NVFs with PGE2 reduced the number of cells migrating toward 10% FCS. Treatment with the EP2 agonist also reduced migration but did not affect MMP-14 expression or PAI-1. Our results suggest that PGE2 utilizes different receptors and mechanisms to ultimately decrease MMP expression and NVF migration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inflammatory Eicosanoids Increase Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression via Activation of Multiple Neuronal Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst-Robinson, Katie J; Liu, Li; James, Michael; Yao, Yuemang; Xie, Sharon X; Brunden, Kurt R

    2015-12-17

    Senile plaques comprised of Aβ peptides are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, as are activated glia that release inflammatory molecules, including eicosanoids. Previous studies have demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ levels can be increased through activation of thromboxane A2-prostanoid (TP) receptors on neurons. We demonstrate that TP receptor regulation of APP expression depends on Gαq-signaling and conventional protein kinase C isoforms. Importantly, we discovered that Gαq-linked prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene D4 receptors also regulate APP expression. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2, as well as total APP levels, were found to be elevated in the brains of aged 5XFAD transgenic mice harboring Aβ plaques and activated glia, suggesting that increased APP expression resulted from eicosanoid binding to Gαq-linked neuronal receptors. Notably, inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis significantly lowered brain APP protein levels in aged 5XFAD mice. These results provide new insights into potential AD therapeutic strategies.

  19. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings.

  20. Intracellular modulation, extracellular disposal and serum increase of MiR-150 mark lymphocyte activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola de Candia

    Full Text Available Activated lymphocytes release nano-sized vesicles (exosomes containing microRNAs that can be monitored in the bloodstream. We asked whether elicitation of immune responses is followed by release of lymphocyte-specific microRNAs. We found that, upon activation in vitro, human and mouse lymphocytes down-modulate intracellular miR-150 and accumulate it in exosomes. In vivo, miR-150 levels increased significantly in serum of humans immunized with flu vaccines and in mice immunized with ovalbumin, and this increase correlated with elevation of antibody titers. Immunization of immune-deficient mice, lacking MHCII, resulted neither in antibody production nor in elevation of circulating miR-150. This study provides proof of concept that serum microRNAs can be detected, with minimally invasive procedure, as biomarkers of vaccination and more in general of adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, the prompt reduction of intracellular level of miR-150, a key regulator of mRNAs critical for lymphocyte differentiation and functions, linked to its release in the external milieu suggests that the selective extracellular disposal of microRNAs can be a rapid way to regulate gene expression during lymphocyte activation.

  1. Increased anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus activation in Complex PTSD during encoding of negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Kathleen; Dorrepaal, Ethy; Draijer, Nel; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Elzinga, Bernet M; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; van Balkom, Anton J; Smit, Johannes H; Veltman, Dick J

    2013-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with impaired memory performance coupled with functional changes in brain areas involved in declarative memory and emotion regulation. It is not yet clear how symptom severity and comorbidity affect neurocognitive functioning in PTSD. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with an emotional declarative memory task in 28 Complex PTSD patients with comorbid depressive and personality disorders, and 21 healthy non-trauma-exposed controls. In Complex PTSD patients--compared to controls--encoding of later remembered negative words vs baseline was associated with increased blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in the left ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal ACC extending to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) together with a trend for increased left hippocampus activation. Patients tended to commit more False Alarms to negative words compared to controls, which was associated with enhanced left ventrolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex (vlPFC/OFC) responses. Severity of child abuse was positively correlated with left ventral ACC activity and severity of depression with (para) hippocampal and ventral ACC activity. Presented results demonstrate functional abnormalities in Complex PTSD in the frontolimbic brain circuit also implicated in fear conditioning models, but generally in the opposite direction, which may be explained by severity of the trauma and severity of comorbid depression in Complex PTSD.

  2. Higher Plasma Pyridoxal Phosphate Is Associated with Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Critically Ill Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsiang Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patients experience severe stress, inflammation and clinical conditions which may increase the utilization and metabolic turnover of vitamin B-6 and may further increase their oxidative stress and compromise their antioxidant capacity. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between vitamin B-6 status (plasma and erythrocyte PLP oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities in critically ill surgical patients. Thirty-seven patients in surgical intensive care unit of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, were enrolled. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte PLP, serum malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined on the 1st and 7th days of admission. Plasma PLP was positively associated with the mean SOD activity level on day 1 (r=0.42, P<0.05, day 7 (r=0.37, P<0.05, and on changes (Δ (day 7 − day 1 (r=0.56, P<0.01 after adjusting for age, gender, and plasma C-reactive protein concentration. Higher plasma PLP could be an important contributing factor in the elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in critically ill surgical patients.

  3. Increased sleep spindle activity in patients with Costello syndrome (HRAS gene mutation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Leoni, Chiara; Dittoni, Serena; Battaglia, Domenica; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Colicchio, Salvatore; Gnoni, Valentina; Gambardella, Maria L; Mariotti, Paolo; Alfieri, Paolo; Tartaglia, Marco; Zampino, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Costello syndrome is a congenital disorder because of HRAS gene mutation, frequently associated with neurologic impairment and sleep disorders. The aims of the study were to evaluate the sleep EEG, and particularly the sleep spindles, in a population of patients with Costello syndrome and to compare them with those characterizing unaffected subjects. Eleven subjects (5 men and 6 women) with Costello syndrome were included in the study; age ranged between 18 months and 31 years (mean, 9.6 ± 9.4 years). The diagnosis was posed on the basis of established clinical criteria and confirmed molecularly. Sleep EEG was studied by means of full-night, laboratory-based video-polysomnography, performed overnight, during hospitalization. Sleep activity was quantified by means of power spectral analysis. Patients heterozygous for an HRAS mutation exhibited increased EEG power in 12- to 15-Hz activity band compared with age-matched control subjects. In conclusion, the authors observed a consistent increase in the amplitude of cortical sleep spindles in all our subjects with an HRAS mutation. These "giant" spindles were not associated with any evidence of structural damage of the cortex or the thalami and should be considered as phenotypic feature of sleep EEG activity in Costello syndrome because of HRAS mutation.

  4. St Petersburg Business Information Centres and Their Role in Increasing the Efficiency of International Business Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yu.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation acknowledges the significant contribution of regions to the development of the state’s foreign policy. An increase in innovative production, a commitment to achieve complete import substitution, and the development of measures to promote non-raw material export are the principal objectives established by the state for its regions. The current trends in world economy and the geopolitical situation formulate new goals and objectives for regions and suggest the creation of innovative and universal mechanisms to increase the efficiency of international economic activities, promotion of a positive image of Saint Petersburg and other regions of the Russian Northwest. The article analyses the activities of Saint Petersburg business information centres abroad, similar experience of other Russian regions, and prerequisites for reforming the institution of regional offices abroad. In the course of the study, new theoretical and methodological questions as to improving the regulatory framework for development and functioning of Russian regional offices abroad, the use of public-private partnership mechanism in foreign economic activities and information technologies of positive image promotion were formulated.

  5. Increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the cerebellum of the x-irradiated dystonic rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopico, A.M.; Rios, H.; Mayo, J.; Zieher, L.M. (Departamentos de Biologia Celular e Histologia y de Farmacologia y Toxicologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, (Argentina))

    1990-08-01

    The exposure of the cephalic end of rats to repeated doses of x-irradiation (150 rad) immediately after birth induces a long-term increase in the noradrenaline (NA) content of cerebellum (CE) (+ 37.8%), and a decrease in cerebellar weight (65.2% of controls), which results in an increased NA concentration (+ 109%). This increase in the neurotransmitter level is accompanied by a dystonic syndrome and histological abnormalities: Purkinje cells (the target cells for NA afferents to CE) fail to arrange in a characteristic monolayer, and their primary dendritic tree appears randomly oriented. The injection of reserpine 0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg ip to adult rats for 18 h depletes cerebellar NA content in both controls (15.7 {plus minus} 4 ng/CE and 2.8 {plus minus} 1.5 ng/CE, respectively) and x-irradiated rats (17.1 {plus minus} 1 ng/CE and 8.3 {plus minus} 2 ng/CE, respectively). The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in CE of adult rats, measured by an in vitro assay, is significantly increased in neonatally x-irradiated animals when compared to age-matched controls (16.4 {plus minus} 1.4 vs 6.32 {plus minus} 0.6 nmol CO2/h/mg prot., p less than 0.01). As observed for NA levels, a net increase in TH activity induced by the ionizing radiation is also measured: 308.9 {plus minus} 23.8 vs 408.2 {plus minus} 21.5 nmol CO2/h/CE, p less than 0.01 (controls and x-treated, respectively). These results suggest that x-irradiation at birth may induce an abnormal sprouting of noradrenergic afferents to CE. The possibility that these changes represent a response of the NA system to the dystonic syndrome is discussed.

  6. Pharmacologic activation of estrogen receptor β increases mitochondrial function, energy expenditure, and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Suriyan; Tran, Quynh T; Harvey, Innocence; Smallwood, Heather S; Thiyagarajan, Thirumagal; Banerjee, Souvik; Johnson, Daniel L; Dalton, James T; Sullivan, Ryan D; Miller, Duane D; Bridges, Dave; Narayanan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Most satiety-inducing obesity therapeutics, despite modest efficacy, have safety concerns that underscore the need for effective peripherally acting drugs. An attractive therapeutic approach for obesity is to optimize/maximize energy expenditure by increasing energy-utilizing thermogenic brown adipose tissue. We used in vivo and in vitro models to determine the role of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) and its ligands on adipose biology. RNA sequencing and metabolomics were used to determine the mechanism of action of ER-β and its ligands. Estrogen receptor β (ER-β) and its selective ligand reprogrammed preadipocytes and precursor stem cells into brown adipose tissue and increased mitochondrial respiration. An ER-β-selective ligand increased markers of tricarboxylic acid-dependent and -independent energy biogenesis and oxygen consumption in mice without a concomitant increase in physical activity or food consumption, all culminating in significantly reduced weight gain and adiposity. The antiobesity effects of ER-β ligand were not observed in ER-β-knockout mice. Serum metabolite profiles of adult lean and juvenile mice were comparable, while that of adult obese mice was distinct, indicating a possible impact of obesity on age-dependent metabolism. This phenotype was partially reversed by ER-β-selective ligand. These data highlight a new role for ER-β in adipose biology and its potential to be a safer alternative peripheral therapeutic target for obesity.-Ponnusamy, S., Tran, Q. T., Harvey, I., Smallwood, H. S., Thiyagarajan, T., Banerjee, S., Johnson, D. L., Dalton, J. T., Sullivan, R. D., Miller, D. D., Bridges, D., Narayanan, R. Pharmacologic activation of estrogen receptor β increases mitochondrial function, energy expenditure, and brown adipose tissue. © FASEB.

  7. Piloting a mobile health intervention to increase physical activity for adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin; Moreno, Megan; Wilner, Molly; Whitlock, Kathryn B; Mendoza, Jason A

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) reduces symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); interventions to increase PA may improve functioning and health for adolescents with ADHD. Mobile health (mHealth) technology and social media constitute promising interactive modalities for engaging adolescents-who are at highest risk for ADHD treatment drop-out-in interventions to increase PA. The current pilot study evaluated feasibility and acceptability of an innovative intervention incorporating an mHealth-linked wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Flex) and a Facebook group to increase PA among adolescents with ADHD. 11 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (age 14-18, m = 15.5; 54% female) participated in a 4-week trial utilizing the Fitbit Flex in conjunction with (1) weekly personalized step count goals (2) social support through a Facebook group and (3) daily text messages about PA. The study took place in the greater Seattle, Washington area in the fall of 2015. Adolescents completed online surveys twice per week to rate their ADHD symptoms and positive and negative mood states, and parents rated adolescent ADHD symptoms weekly. Participants were adherent to the study protocol and acceptability of the intervention was high. Linear mixed models indicated that participants significantly increased their average weekly steps over the course of the study and demonstrated improvements in both adolescent and parent-reported ADHD Inattentive symptoms. Results indicate that this mHealth intervention is engaging and promising for increasing PA among adolescents with ADHD, and warrant further study. Implications for improving ADHD symptoms and overall functioning for this undertreated population are discussed.

  8. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol mediated increases in extracellular peroxidase activity in three species of Lemnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Dilip K; Scannell, Gillian; Akhmetov, Nurlan; Fitzpatrick, Dara; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2010-11-01

    Chlorinated phenols, or chlorophenols, are persistent priority pollutants that are widespread in the environment. Class III peroxidases are well-characterised plant enzymes that can catalyse the oxidative dechlorination of chlorophenols. Expression of these enzymes by plants is commonly associated with plant stress, therefore limiting scope for phytoremediation. In this study, we have quantitatively compared peroxidase activity and phytotoxicity as a function of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) concentration in three species of Lemnaceae; Lemna minor, Lemna gibba and Landoltia punctata. Effects of TCP on the growth rates of the three species differed considerably with L. punctata being the most tolerant species. TCP also affected photosynthetic parameters, causing a decrease in open photosystem II reaction centres (qP) and, in L. punctata only, a decrease in non-photochemical quenching (qN). In parallel, TCP exposure resulted in increased peroxidase activity in all three species. Peroxidase activity in L. minor and L. gibba displayed an inverse relationship with biomass accumulation, i.e. the more growth reduction the more peroxidase activity. In contrast, induction of peroxidase activity in L. punctata was bi-phasic, with a TCP-induced activity peak at concentrations that had no major effect on growth, and further induction under phytotoxic concentrations. The mechanism by which L. punctata recognises and responds to low concentrations of an anthropogenic compound, in the absence of wide-ranging stress, remains enigmatic. However, we conclude that this "window" of peroxidase production in the absence of major growth inhibition offers potential for the development of sustainable, peroxidise-mediated phytoremediation systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of a smartphone app in increasing physical activity amongst male adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Tim; Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Rettie, Ruth; Stride, Chris; Walton, Simon; van Woerden, Hugo C

    2016-09-02

    Smartphones are ideal for promoting physical activity in those with little intrinsic motivation for exercise. This study tested three hypotheses: H1 - receipt of social feedback generates higher step-counts than receipt of no feedback; H2 - receipt of social feedback generates higher step-counts than only receiving feedback on one's own walking; H3 - receipt of feedback on one's own walking generates higher step-counts than no feedback (H3). A parallel group randomised controlled trial measured the impact of feedback on steps-counts. Healthy male participants (n = 165) aged 18-40 were given phones pre-installed with an app that recorded steps continuously, without the need for user activation. Participants carried these with them as their main phones for a two-week run-in and six-week trial. Randomisation was to three groups: no feedback (control); personal feedback on step-counts; group feedback comparing step-counts against those taken by others in their group. The primary outcome measure, steps per day, was assessed using longitudinal multilevel regression analysis. Control variables included attitude to physical activity and perceived barriers to physical activity. Fifty-five participants were allocated to each group; 152 completed the study and were included in the analysis: n = 49, no feedback; n = 53, individual feedback; n = 50, individual and social feedback. The study provided support for H1 and H3 but not H2. Receipt of either form of feedback explained 7.7 % of between-subject variability in step-count (F = 6.626, p smartphone apps that provide step-counts can increase physical activity in young to early-middle-aged men but the provision of social feedback has no apparent incremental impact. This approach may be particularly suitable for inactive people with low levels of physical activity; it should now be tested with this population.

  10. Leptin signaling in the nucleus tractus solitarii increases sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Allyn L; Agassandian, Khristofor; Morgan, Donald A; Liu, Xuebo; Cassell, Martin D; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was initially regarded as the principal site of leptin action, but there is increasing evidence for functional leptin receptors in extrahypothalamic sites, including the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). We demonstrated previously that arcuate injection of leptin increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to brown adipose tissue and kidney. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that leptin signaling in the NTS affects sympathetic neural outflow. Using a stereotaxic device in anesthetized rats, we microinjected leptin (0.25 to 1.00 microg) or saline into the NTS while recording SNA to kidney and brown adipose tissue. Microinjection of leptin into the commissural and medial subnuclei of the caudal NTS at the level of the area postrema in Sprague-Dawley rats produced a dose-related increase in renal SNA (+112+/-15% with leptin 1 microg; n=7; Pleptin receptors, because it was not observed in Zucker obese rats that have a missense mutation in the leptin receptor. Rostral NTS injection of leptin failed to increase SNA, indicating that leptin signaling in the NTS is probably confined to the caudal NTS at the level of the area postrema. In summary, this study demonstrates that leptin signaling in the caudal NTS increases SNA to the kidney but not to the brown adipose tissue. The study strengthens the concept of a distributed brain network of leptin action and demonstrates that these distributed brain sites can mediate contrasting sympathetic responses to leptin.

  11. TMS-induced cortical potentiation during wakefulness locally increases slow wave activity during sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Huber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep slow wave activity (SWA is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic changes triggered by learning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis directly, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in conjunction with high-density EEG in humans. We show that 5-Hz TMS applied to motor cortex induces a localized potentiation of TMS-evoked cortical EEG responses. We then show that, in the sleep episode following 5-Hz TMS, SWA increases markedly (+39.1+/-17.4%, p<0.01, n = 10. Electrode coregistration with magnetic resonance images localized the increase in SWA to the same premotor site as the maximum TMS-induced potentiation during wakefulness. Moreover, the magnitude of potentiation during wakefulness predicts the local increase in SWA during sleep. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide direct evidence for a link between plastic changes and the local regulation of sleep need.

  12. Increasing Recreational Physical Activity in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Pragmatic Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Noa; Chodick, Gabriel; Mirovsky, Yigal; Pincus, Tamar; Shapiro, Yair

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Prospective, pragmatic, nonrandomized controlled clinical trial. Background Clinical guidelines recommend physical activity for the treatment of chronic low back pain. But engaging patients in physical activity has proven difficult. Known obstacles to physical activity include low self-efficacy and fear avoidance. Objectives This study tested the effectiveness of an enhanced transtheoretical model intervention (ETMI) aimed at increasing recreational physical activity in patients with chronic low back pain, in comparison to usual physical therapy. Methods Patients (n = 220) referred to physical therapy for chronic low back pain were allocated to ETMI or to a control group. The ETMI was delivered by physical therapists and based on behavior-change principles, combined with increased reassurance, therapeutic alliance, and exposure to reduce fear avoidance. The primary outcome was back pain-related disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes included pain intensity, mental and physical health, and levels of physical activity. Results Intention-to-treat analysis in 189 patients at 12 months indicated that patients in the ETMI group had significantly lower disability compared to usual physical therapy. The difference in mean change from baseline between the interventions was 2.7 points (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 4.5) on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. At 12 months, worst pain, physical activity, and physical health were all significantly better in patients receiving ETMI. The average number of sessions was 3.5 for the ETMI group and 5.1 for controls. Conclusion Targeting obstacles to physical activity with an intervention that includes components to address self-efficacy and fear avoidance appears to be more effective than usual physical therapy care in reducing long-term disability. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms that impact outcomes in this intervention package. Level of Evidence Therapy

  13. Hyperthermia and increased physical activity in the fasting American mink Mustela Vison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykönen, Teija; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the thermoregulatory adaptations to fasting in a medium-sized mustelid with a high metabolic rate and energetic requirements. Sixteen farm-bred female American minks, Mustela vison, were divided into a fed control group and an experimental group fasted for 5 days. The deep body temperature (T(b)) of the minks was registered at 10 min intervals with intraabdominal thermosensitive loggers and the locomotor activity was videotaped continuously for 5 days during the fasting procedure. The T(b) of the fasted animals increased during the first day of fasting and decreased during the second day. After 3-4 days of fasting, the levels of physical activity and T(b) of the fasted minks increased above the levels of the fed animals. Significant increases in these parameters were observed at the beginning of the working day on the farm, during the feeding of the fed animals and around midnight. It is concluded that the mink differs from previously studied homeotherms in thermoregulatory and behavioral responses to fasting probably due to its high energy requirements and predatory success. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Acclimation of microalgae to wastewater environments involves increased oxidative stress tolerance activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osundeko, Olumayowa; Dean, Andrew P; Davies, Helena; Pittman, Jon K

    2014-10-01

    A wastewater environment can be particularly toxic to eukaryotic microalgae. Microalgae can adapt to these conditions but the specific mechanisms that allow strains to tolerate wastewater environments are unclear. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the ability to acclimate microalgae to tolerate wastewater is an innate or species-specific characteristic. Six different species of microalgae (Chlamydomonas debaryana, Chlorella luteoviridis, Chlorella vulgaris, Desmodesmus intermedius, Hindakia tetrachotoma and Parachlorella kessleri) that had never previously been exposed to wastewater conditions were acclimated over an 8-week period in secondary-treated municipal wastewater. With the exception of C. debaryana, acclimation to wastewater resulted in significantly higher growth rate and biomass productivity. With the exception of C. vulgaris, total chlorophyll content was significantly increased in all acclimated strains, while all acclimated strains showed significantly increased photosynthetic activity. The ability of strains to acclimate was species-specific, with two species, C. luteoviridis and P. kessleri, able to acclimate more efficiently to the stress than C. debaryana and D. intermedius. Metabolic fingerprinting of the acclimated and non-acclimated microalgae using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was able to differentiate strains on the basis of metabolic responses to the stress. In particular, strains exhibiting greater stress response and altered accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates could be distinguished. The acclimation to wastewater tolerance was correlated with higher accumulation of carotenoid pigments and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity.

  15. Increase of plasma renin activity in male and female rabbits subjected to dysbaric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssanthou, C.; Kircikoglu, H.; Strugar, J.

    1985-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may be implicated in hemodynamic alterations occurring in dysbaric disorders. This report concerns changes in plasma renin activity (PRA) induced by exposure of rabbits to a compression-decompression schedule that does not normally produce clinical manifestations of decompression sickness. The results revealed a significant increase in PRA in 19 of 23 animals following dysbaric exposure. Mean PRA rose from 1.18 ng ang I/ml hr (preexposure) to 2.40 ng ang I/ml hr (postexposure). The increase was particularly pronounced in female animals (217 percent). Asymptomatic intravascular gas bubbles (silent bubbles) were detected by gross or microscopic examination in the majority of the animals. Renin elaboration and secretion in asymptomatic dysbaric exposures may be mediated by bradykinin and/or prostaglandins released or activated in a chain reaction triggered by silent gas bubbles. This hypothesis is also applicable to increased PRA in altitude decompression. Alternatively elevation of PRA may result from decreased renal perfusion when dysbaric disorders are complicated by significant hypovolemia.

  16. Serotonin activates catecholamine neurons in the solitary tract nucleus by increasing spontaneous glutamate inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ran Ji; Roberts, Brandon L; Zhao, Huan; Zhu, Mingyan; Appleyard, Suzanne M

    2012-11-14

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical neurotransmitter in the control of autonomic functions. 5-HT(3) receptors participate in vagal afferent feedback to decrease food intake and regulate cardiovascular reflexes; however, the phenotype of the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) neurons involved is not known. A(2)/C(2) catecholamine (CA) neurons in the NTS are directly activated by visceral afferents and are important for the control of food intake and cardiovascular function, making them good candidates to respond to and mediate the effects of serotonin at the level of the NTS. This study examines serotonin's effects on NTS-CA neurons using patch-clamp techniques and transgenic mice expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter (TH-EGFP) to identify catecholamine neurons. Serotonin increased the frequency of spontaneous glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in >90% of NTS-TH-EGFP neurons, an effect blocked by the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ondansetron and mimicked by the 5-HT(3) receptor agonists SR5227 and mCPBG. In contrast, 5-HT(3) receptor agonists increased sEPSCs on a minority (serotonin activates NTS-TH neurons and suggest a pathway by which it can increase catecholamine release in target regions to modulate food intake, motivation, stress, and cardiovascular function.

  17. Neurodegenerative actions of interleukin-1 in the rat brain are mediated through increases in seizure activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H C; Ross, F M; Heenan, L E; Davies, R E; Rothwell, N J; Allan, S M

    2006-02-15

    The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is an established and important mediator of diverse forms of neuronal injury in experimental animals. However, its mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. We have reported previously that IL-1 markedly enhances excitotoxic injury induced in the rat by striatal administration of the excitotoxin alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA), leading to widespread neuronal loss throughout the ipsilateral cortex. Here we tested the hypothesis that IL-1 causes this injury through induction and/or enhancement of seizure activity in the rat. Consistently with this hypothesis, intrastriatal injection of AMPA or AMPA with IL-1 in the rat brain increased c-Fos expression in regions similar to those in which c-Fos has been reported previously in response to seizures. A significant increase in cortical neuronal activity (number of c-Fos positive cells) was observed in response to AMPA with IL-1 compared with AMPA (8 hr after injection). Increased seizure duration [3,522 +/- 660 sec (SEM) vs. 1,415 +/- 301 sec; P neuronal injury, including cerebral ischemia.

  18. Activation of Akt is increased in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in Barrett's oesophagus and contributes to increased proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis: a histopathological and functional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Amin Khalid

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing rapidly in the developed world. The serine-threonine protein kinase and proto-oncogene Akt has been reported to regulate proliferation and apoptosis in several tissues but there are no data on the involvement of Akt in oesophageal carcinogenesis. Therefore we have examined the activation of Akt in Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma and the functional effects of Akt activation in vitro. Methods Expression of total and active (phosphorylated Akt were determined in endoscopic biopsies and surgical resection specimens using immunohistochemistry. The functional effects of Akt were examined using Barrett's adenocarcinoma cells in culture. Results In normal squamous oesophagus, erosive oesophagitis and non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus, phospho-Akt was limited to the basal 1/3 of the mucosa. Image analysis confirmed that Akt activation was significantly increased in non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus compared to squamous epithelium and further significantly increased in high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. In all cases of high grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma Akt was activated in the luminal 1/3 of the epithelium. Transient acid exposure and the obesity hormone leptin activated Akt, stimulated proliferation and inhibited apoptosis: the combination of acid and leptin was synergistic. Inhibition of Akt phosphorylation with LY294002 increased apoptosis and blocked the effects of acid and leptin both alone and in combination. Activation of Akt was associated with downstream phosphorylation and deactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad and phosphorylation of the Forkhead family transcription factor FOXO1. Conclusion Akt is abnormally activated in Barrett's oesophagus, high grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Akt activation promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in Barrett's adenocarcinoma cells and both transient acid exposure and leptin

  19. Progressive Increase in Telomerase Activity From Benign Melanocytic Conditions to Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben D. Ramirez

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression of telomerase activity and the in situ localization of the human telomerase RNA component (hTR in melanocytic skin lesions was evaluated in specimens from sixty-three patients. Specimens of melanocytic nevi, primary melanomas and subcutaneous metastases of melanoma were obtained from fifty-eight patients, whereas metastasized lymph nodes were obtained from five patients. Telomerase activity was determined in these specimens by using a Polymerase Chain Reaction—based assay (TRAP. High relative mean telomerase activity levels were detected in metastatic melanoma (subcutaneous metastasess = 54.5, lymph node metastasess = 56.5. Much lower levels were detected in primary melanomas, which increased with advancing levels of tumor cell penetration (Clark II = 0.02, Clark III = 1.1, and Clark IV = 1.9. Twenty-six formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions were sectioned and analyzed for telomerase RNA with a radioactive in situ hybridization assay. In situ hybridization studies with a probe to the template RNA component of telomerase confirmed that expression was almost exclusively confined to tumor cells and not infiltrating lymphocytes. These results indicate that levels of telomerase activity and telomerase RNA in melanocytic lesions correlate well with clinical stage and could potentially assist in the diagnosis of borderline lesions.

  20. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20......% or 50% of energy). The 2 diets were served on 2 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at 8.00 h, 16.30 h and 19.30 h, and analysed for triglycerides, FVII coagulant activity using human (FVII:C) or bovine thromboplastin (FVII:Bt), and FVII amidolytic activity (FVII:Am). The ratio FVII......:Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet...

  1. Carvedilol increases copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastratović, Dragana A; Vasiljević, Zorana M; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Perunicić, Jovan P; Matić, Mihajlo; Blagojević, Dusko P; Mijalković, Dejan N; Antonijević, Nebojsa M; Marković, Srdjan Z; Gojković-Bukarica, Ljiljana; Stojiljkovic, Milos P; Lasica, Ratko M; Jones, David R; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra L

    2007-08-01

    Balanced and coordinated antioxidant defence enzyme activities are of utmost importance for correct physiological function and for shielding against unwelcome pathological conditions. We determined the activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in erythrocytes isolated from patients receiving different therapy (streptokinase alone or in combination with metoprolol or with carvedilol) for up to 168 hr after starting treatment for acute myocardial infarction. We observed increased CuZnSOD activity in erythrocytes isolated from patients treated with streptokinase-carvedilol (after 6, 24 and 168 hr) and in erythrocytes isolated from patients treated with streptokinase-metoprolol (after 24 hr). In addition, positive correlation between CuZnSOD and catalase activities was found in erythrocytes isolated from patients that received streptokinase-carvedilol after 168 hr. As metoprolol does not react directly with hydrogen peroxide, it would appear that combined streptokinase-metoprolol therapy exerted its effects primarily via by beta-blockade whereas combined streptokinase-carvedilol therapy appeared to function via both beta-blockade and direct antioxidant mechanisms.

  2. Increased activity of digoxin-like substance in low-renin hypertension in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynski, P.; Slowinska-Srzednicka, J.; Zgliczynski, S. (Medical Center for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw (Poland))

    1990-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is common in acromegaly, but the pathogenesis of this complication remains unknown. To determine the role of an endogenous Na,K pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance (DLS) in the pathogenesis of hypertension in acromegaly 76 subjects: 28 with acromegaly, 20 with essential hypertension and 28 healthy controls were studied. Serum DLS was measured with the use of radioimmunoassay and bioassay by the inhibition of digoxin-sensitive erythrocyte 86-Rb uptake. In acromegaly, the activity of DLS was significantly increased and plasma renin activity decreased in the hypertensive group, as compared with that of the normotensive group and controls. Moreover, DLS was elevated in the low-renin group of essential hypertension, as compared with that of the normal/high-renin group or controls. The activity of DLS correlated positively with mean arterial pressure and negatively with plasma renin activity, but not with growth hormone levels. In conclusion, an endogenous sodium pump inhibitor/digoxin-like substance may play a role in the pathogenesis of low-renin hypertension in acromegaly.

  3. Increased activity of chondroitin sulfate-synthesizing enzymes during proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, J.; Thiel, J.; Schmidt, A.; Buddecke, E.

    1986-12-01

    Cultured arterial smooth muscle cells incorporate (/sup 35/S)sulfate into the extracellular chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate containing proteoglycans at a higher rate in the phase of logarithmic growth than do non-dividing cells. The cell growth-dependent decrease in /sup 35/S incorporation with increasing cell density is accompanied by a decrease in the activity of chondroitin sulfate-synthesizing enzymes. The specific activity of xylosyl transferase, N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase I and chondroitin sulfotransferase declines as the cells proceed from low to high densities. The corresponding correlation coefficients are 0.86, 0.91 and 0.89. The ratio of C-60H/C-40H sulfation of chondroitin shows a cell proliferation-dependent decrease indicating an inverse correlation of chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase and chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase activity. The observed changes in the expression of enzyme activities are thought to have some implications in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis, the initial stages of which are characterized by proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells.

  4. EMT cells increase breast cancer metastasis via paracrine GLI activation in neighbouring tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Deepika; Zhou, Hengbo; Oliphant, Michael U J; Zhang, Xiaomei; Simon, Lukas M; Henke, David M; Shaw, Chad A; Wu, Meng-Fen; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; White, Lisa D; Lewis, Michael T; Ford, Heide L

    2017-06-12

    Recent fate-mapping studies concluded that EMT is not required for metastasis of carcinomas. Here we challenge this conclusion by showing that these studies failed to account for possible crosstalk between EMT and non-EMT cells that promotes dissemination of non-EMT cells. In breast cancer models, EMT cells induce increased metastasis of weakly metastatic, non-EMT tumour cells in a paracrine manner, in part by non-cell autonomous activation of the GLI transcription factor. Treatment with GANT61, a GLI1/2 inhibitor, but not with IPI 926, a Smoothened inhibitor, blocks this effect and inhibits growth in PDX models. In human breast tumours, the EMT-transcription factors strongly correlate with activated Hedgehog/GLI signalling but not with the Hh ligands. Our findings indicate that EMT contributes to metastasis via non-cell autonomous effects that activate the Hh pathway. Although all Hh inhibitors may act against tumours with canonical Hh/GLI signalling, only GLI inhibitors would act against non-canonical EMT-induced GLI activation.

  5. Interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Christina M; Sánchez-Romero, Luz María; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A; Holub, Christina K; Arredondo, Elva M; Elder, John P; Barquera, Simón

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review of obesity interventions that focused on increasing physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico. Data was taken from a larger literature review focused on obesity interventions for Latinos in Latin America and the United States. Study design suitability, quality of execution, and effect size were assessed for a subset of these articles. There were six intervention studies included in the present review. Five studies showed reductions in obesity-related outcomes, while one study reported gains in body mass index (BMI). Physical activity and healthy eating remain constant components in obesity treatment interventions, which highlights the importance of understanding evidence-based strategies to guide future research to reduce childhood obesity in Mexico.

  6. Frontal lobe activation mediates the relation between sensation seeking and cortisol increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hani D; Beer, Jennifer S

    2010-10-01

    Low sensation seekers are theorized to avoid risk more often because risk is emotionally more costly for them (in comparison to high sensation seekers). Therefore, individual differences in sensation seeking should predict differences in risk task-induced cortisol changes. Furthermore, the neural mediation that accounts for the relation between sensation seeking and cortisol changes has not been studied. The current study tested whether individual differences in sensation seeking predicted cortisol changes in relation to a risk task and whether this relation was mediated by frontal lobe activation. Participants (N=17) who varied in sensation seeking completed an fMRI study in which they rated the likelihood they would take various risks. Cortisol was measured from saliva samples collected prior to and after the fMRI procedure. The findings show that low sensation seekers showed the greatest rise in cortisol after the risk procedure, and this relation was partially mediated by increased orbitofrontal cortex activity.

  7. Phosphatidylcholine reverses ethanol-induced increase in transepithelial endotoxin permeability and abolishes transepithelial leukocyte activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitscherling, K.; Volynets, V.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol abuse increases both intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Intestinal permeability of endotoxin, a component of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a crucial role in the development of alcohol-induced liver...... disease (ALD). As impaired bile flow leads to endotoxemia and the bile component phosphatidylcholine (PC) is therapeutically active in ALD, we tested the hypothesis that conjugated primary bile salts (CPBS) and PC inhibit ethanol-enhanced transepithelial permeability of endotoxin and the subsequent...... transepithelial activation of human leukocytes. METHODS: For this purpose, we used a model in which intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were basolaterally cocultivated with mononuclear leukocytes. Cells were challenged apically with endotoxin from Escherichia coli K12 and were incubated with or without...

  8. Phosphatidylcholine Reverses Ethanol-Induced Increase in Transepithelial Endotoxin Permeability and Abolishes Transepithelial Leukocyte Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzscherling, Katja; Volynets, Valentina; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse increases both intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Intestinal permeability of endotoxin, a component of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a crucial role in the development of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD......). As impaired bile flow leads to endotoxemia and the bile component phosphatidylcholine (PC) is therapeutically active in ALD, we tested the hypothesis that conjugated primary bile salts (CPBS) and PC inhibit ethanol-enhanced transepithelial permeability of endotoxin and the subsequent transepithelial...... activation of human leukocytes. For this purpose, we used a model in which intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were basolaterally cocultivated with mononuclear leukocytes. Cells were challenged apically with endotoxin from Escherichia coli K12 and were incubated with or without the addition of CPBS (1.5 m...

  9. Pore mutations in ammonium transporter AMT1 with increased electrogenic ammonium transport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loqué, Dominique; Mora, Silvia I; Andrade, Susana L A; Pantoja, Omar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2009-09-11

    AMT/Mep ammonium transporters mediate high affinity ammonium/ammonia uptake in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The Arabidopsis AMT1 proteins mediate uptake of the ionic form of ammonium. AMT transport activity is controlled allosterically via a highly conserved cytosolic C terminus that interacts with neighboring subunits in a trimer. The C terminus is thus capable of modulating the conductivity of the pore. To gain insight into the underlying mechanism, pore mutants suppressing the inhibitory effect of mutations in the C-terminal trans-activation domain were characterized. AMT1;1 carrying the mutation Q57H in transmembrane helix I (TMH I) showed increased ammonium uptake but reduced capacity to take up methylammonium. To explore whether the transport mechanism was altered, the AMT1;1-Q57H mutant was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and analyzed electrophysiologically. AMT1;1-Q57H was characterized by increased ammonium-induced and reduced methylammonium-induced currents. AMT1;1-Q57H possesses a 100x lower affinity for ammonium (K(m)) and a 10-fold higher V(max) as compared with the wild type form. To test whether the trans-regulatory mechanism is conserved in archaeal homologs, AfAmt-2 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was expressed in yeast. The transport function of AfAmt-2 also depends on trans-activation by the C terminus, and mutations in pore-residues corresponding to Q57H of AMT1;1 suppress nonfunctional AfAmt-2 mutants lacking the activating C terminus. Altogether, our data suggest that bacterial and plant AMTs use a conserved allosteric mechanism to control ammonium flux, potentially using a gating mechanism that limits flux to protect against ammonium toxicity.

  10. Rifampicin reduces advanced glycation end products and activates DAF-16 to increase lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golegaonkar, Sandeep; Tabrez, Syed S; Pandit, Awadhesh; Sethurathinam, Shalini; Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G; Bansode, Sneha; Sampathkumar, Srinivasa-Gopalan; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Mukhopadhyay, Arnab

    2015-06-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed when glucose reacts nonenzymatically with proteins; these modifications are implicated in aging and pathogenesis of many age-related diseases including type II diabetes, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, pharmaceutical interventions that can reduce AGEs may delay age-onset diseases and extend lifespan. Using LC-MS(E), we show that rifampicin (RIF) reduces glycation of important cellular proteins in vivo and consequently increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans by up to 60%. RIF analog rifamycin SV (RSV) possesses similar properties, while rifaximin (RMN) lacks antiglycation activity and therefore fails to affect lifespan positively. The efficacy of RIF and RSV as potent antiglycating agents may be attributed to the presence of a p-dihydroxyl moiety that can potentially undergo spontaneous oxidation to yield highly reactive p-quinone structures, a feature absent in RMN. We also show that supplementing rifampicin late in adulthood is sufficient to increase lifespan. For its effect on longevity, rifampicin requires DAF-18 (nematode PTEN) as well as JNK-1 and activates DAF-16, the FOXO homolog. Interestingly, the drug treatment modulates transcription of a different subset of DAF-16 target genes, those not controlled by the conserved Insulin-IGF-1-like signaling pathway. RIF failed to increase the lifespan of daf-16 null mutant despite reducing glycation, showing thereby that DAF-16 may not directly affect AGE formation. Together, our data suggest that the dual ability to reduce glycation in vivo and activate prolongevity processes through DAF-16 makes RIF and RSV effective lifespan-extending interventions.

  11. Sustained increase of PKA activity in the postcommissural putamen of dyskinetic monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkona, Garikoitz; Marcilla, Irene; López de Maturana, Rakel; Sousa, Amaya; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Luquin, Maria-Rosario; Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario

    2014-12-01

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) are a frequent complication of Parkinson's disease pharmacotherapy that causes significant disability and narrows the therapeutic window. Pharmacological management of LID is challenging partly because the precise molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, our aim was to determine molecular changes that could unveil targetable mechanisms underlying this drug complication. We examined the expression and downstream activity of dopamine receptors (DR) in the striatum of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropiridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys with and without L-DOPA treatment. Four monkeys were made dyskinetic and other four received a shorter course of L-DOPA and did not develop LID. Our results show that L-DOPA treatment induces an increase in DRD2 and DRD3 expression in the postcommissural putamen, but only DRD3 is correlated with the severity of LID. Dyskinetic monkeys show a hyperactivation of the canonical DRD1-signaling pathway, measured by an increased phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and its substrates, particularly DARPP32. In contrast, activation of the DRD2-signaling pathway, visible in the levels of Akt phosphorylated on Thr308 and GSK3β on Ser9, is associated with L-DOPA treatment, independently of the presence of dyskinesias. Our data clearly demonstrate that dyskinetic monkeys present a dysregulation of the DRD3 receptor and the DRD1 pathway with a sustained increase of PKA activity in the postcommissural putamen. Importantly, we found that all signaling changes related to long-term L-DOPA administration are exquisitely restricted to the postcommissural putamen, which may be related to the recurrent failure of pharmacological approaches.

  12. The Interleukin-17 Induced Activation and Increased Survival of Equine Neutrophils Is Insensitive to Glucocorticoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Yoana Murcia

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs are the most effective drugs for the treatment of human asthma. However, a subgroup of asthmatic patients with neutrophilic airway inflammation is insensitive to GCs. Interleukin-17 (IL-17, a cytokine upregulated in the airways of a subset of human asthmatic patients, contributes to the recruitment of neutrophils and induces a glucocorticoid resistance in human airway epithelial cells. We hypothesized that IL-17 similarly activates neutrophils and contributes to their persistence in the asthmatic airways in spite of glucocorticoid therapy.To determine whether IL-17 directly activates neutrophils and whether this response is attenuated by GCs.Neutrophils were isolated from the blood of horses and incubated in the presence of recombinant equine IL-17, LPS and dexamethasone. mRNA and protein expression of IL-17 receptors (IL-17RA/IL-17RC were assessed by qPCR and immunoblot, respectively. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, cell viability and apoptosis were determined by qPCR, Trypan Blue exclusion test, and flow cytometry, respectively.Equine neutrophils express both IL-17RA and IL-17RC at the mRNA and protein levels. Neutrophil stimulation with IL-17 increases the mRNA expression of IL-8, which is not attenuated by dexamethasone (p = 0.409. Also, neutrophil viability is significantly increased (p<0.0001 by IL-17 in the presence of LPS when compared to LPS alone. Flow cytometry and light microscopy revealed that LPS-induced apoptosis is decreased by IL-17 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.006 respectively.These results indicate that IL-17 directly activates equine neutrophils at 24 hours, and that the expression of IL-8 thus induced is not attenuated by GCs. Additionally, IL-17 increases neutrophil viability and decreases apoptosis. These findings suggest an important role of IL-17 in pulmonary persistence of neutrophils in the asthmatic airways.

  13. The RCN1-encoded A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A increases phosphatase activity in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruere, J.; Jackson, K.; Garbers, C.; Soll, D.; Delong, A.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a heterotrimeric serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase, comprises a catalytic C subunit and two distinct regulatory subunits, A and B. The RCN1 gene encodes one of three A regulatory subunits in Arabidopsis thaliana. A T-DNA insertion mutation at this locus impairs root curling, seedling organ elongation and apical hypocotyl hook formation. We have used in vivo and in vitro assays to gauge the impact of the rcn1 mutation on PP2A activity in seedlings. PP2A activity is decreased in extracts from rcn1 mutant seedlings, and this decrease is not due to a reduction in catalytic subunit expression. Roots of mutant seedlings exhibit increased sensitivity to the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and cantharidin in organ elongation assays. Shoots of dark-grown, but not light-grown seedlings also show increased inhibitor sensitivity. Furthermore, cantharidin treatment of wild-type seedlings mimics the rcn1 defect in root curling, root waving and hypocotyl hook formation assays. In roots of wild-type seedlings, RCN1 mRNA is expressed at high levels in root tips, and accumulates to lower levels in the pericycle and lateral root primordia. In shoots, RCN1 is expressed in the apical hook and the basal, rapidly elongating cells in etiolated hypocotyls, and in the shoot meristem and leaf primordia of light-grown seedlings. Our results show that the wild-type RCN1-encoded A subunit functions as a positive regulator of the PP2A holoenzyme, increasing activity towards substrates involved in organ elongation and differential cell elongation responses such as root curling.

  14. Oleanolic acid activates daf-16 to increase lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaolong; Lu, Lulu; Zhou, Lijun, E-mail: lijunzhou@tju.edu.cn

    2015-12-25

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is an active ingredient in natural plants. It has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities, but very little is known about its effects of anti-aging. We investigate here whether OA has an impact on longevity in vivo, and more specifically, we have examined effects of OA on the lifespan and stress tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that OA could extend the lifespan, increase its stress resistance and reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wild-type worms. Moreover, we have found that OA-induced longevity may not be associated with the calorie restriction (CR) mechanism. Our mechanistic studies using daf-16 loss-of-function mutant strains (GR1307) indicated that the extension of lifespan by OA requires daf-16. In addition, OA treatment could also modulate the nuclear localization, and the quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that up-regulation of daf-16 target genes such as sod-3, hsp-16.2 and ctl-1 could prolong lifespan and increase stress response in C. elegans. This study overall uncovers the longevity effect of OA and its underpinning mechanisms. - Graphical abstract: Oleanolic acid modulates the activity of DAF-16 to promote longevity and increase stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. - Highlights: • OA extends the lifespan of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans. • OA improves the stress resistance and reduces the intracellular ROS level in C. elegans. • OA induces lifespan extension may not proceed through the CR mechanism. • OA extends the lifespan in C. elegans is modulated by daf-16.

  15. Evidence of more efficient whistler-mode transmission during periods of increased magnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Thomson

    Full Text Available In a previous study it was reported that whistler- mode signals received at Faraday, Antarctica (65°S,64°W and Dunedin, New Zealand (46°S,171°E with entry regions in Pacific longitudes (typically from the VLF transmitter NLK, Seattle, USA showed an increase in transmission of wave energy as magnetic activity increased. However, signals with entry regions in Atlantic longitudes (typically from the NSS transmitter, Annapolis, USA did not appear to show such a relationship. This paper reports the results of a study of the same two longitude ranges but with the opposite transmitter providing additional whistler-mode signal information, with L-values in the range 1.8–2.6. Transmissions from NLK once again indicate a relationship between the transmission of wave energy and magnetic activity even though the signals were propagating in Atlantic longitudes, not Pacific. Any trend in NSS events observed at Dunedin was obscured by a limited range of magnetic activity, and duct exit regions so close to the receiver that small-scale excitation effects appeared to be occurring. However, by combining data from both longitudes, i.e Pacific and Atlantic, and using only ducts with exit regions that were >500km from the receiver, NSS events were found to show the same trend as NLK events. No significant longitude-dependent or transmitter-dependent variations in duct efficiency could be detected. Duct efficiency increases by a factor of about 30 with Kp=2–8 and this result is discussed in terms of changes in wave-particle interactions and duct size.

  16. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Skouby, Sven O.; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... alloenzyme with reduced pro-fibrinolytic activity. Presently, we address whether OC use and OC formulation affect FSAP measures in human blood. Healthy women (n=588) were allocated to six cycles of OCs with estrogen contents of 20μg (n=158), 30μg (n=284), 35μg (n=79) or 50μg (n=67) combined with various...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P≤0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  17. Acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity impairs memory and inhibits synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors that contain the δ subunit (δGABAA receptors) are expressed in several brain regions including the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus. Drugs that increase δGABAA receptor activity have been proposed as treatments for a variety of disorders including insomnia, epilepsy and chronic pain. Also, long-term pretreatment with the δGABAA receptor–preferring agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) enh...

  18. Increasing late winter-early spring fire activity in Northern Spain: climate change or human footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo Martín, Virginia; García Codron, Juan Carlos; Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo

    2016-04-01

    Most of the fire activity across Spain concentrates during the summer months, but a secondary peak appears also during late winter and early spring (February and March). This peak represents a tiny fraction of the burned surface but in northern Spain becomes the main fire season, representing up to 60 % of the total burned surface. Moreover, the impact of this "unseasonal" fire regime is becoming more relevant; an analysis of the temporal evolution of the burned surface since 2005 shows that the suppression efforts of summer forest fires have apparently succeeded, while the opposite has occurred with late winter-early spring forest fires. For example, during March 2012 more than 22,000 ha were burned in the Spanish provinces of Asturias and Cantabria, while about 14,000 suffers the effects of fires in Northern Portugal. Anthropogenic factor (mostly linked to an extensive cattle farming in the mountains) are the main cause of such fire activity, but atmospheric factors also play a relevant role in the spread of this fires. Consequently, the main aim of this poster is to explore if the recent evolution of forest fires in the study area are consequence of an aggravation of the atmospheric conditions driving to more fire risk conditions, or other factor could also explain the increase in fire activity. Burned surface data obtained from official statistics since 1971 were compared with atmospheric data at two temporal scales: daily fire risk values calculated from synoptic records and long term drought indices (SPI and SPEI). The results show a long term increase in both daily fire risk and drought conditions, but this trend can be related to the background warming of the area, rather to an increase in the frequency and magnitude of the extreme fire weather events. Thus, we consider that the regional atmospheric evolution cannot explain by itself the recent increase in late winter-early spring fire activity. Additional anthropogenic factors, such as recent changes in

  19. Increasing the reliability and quality of important cast products made of chemically active metals and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeev, M. S.; Moiseev, V. S.; Shcherbakova, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    A technology is developed to produce highly thermoresistant ceramic monoxide corundum molds using investment casting and an aluminum-organic binder. This technology is a promising trend in creating ceramic molds for precision complex-shape casting of important ingots made of high-alloy steels, high-temperature and titanium alloys, and refractory metals. The use of the casting molds that have a high thermal and chemical resistance to chemically active metals and alloys under high-temperature casting minimizes the physicochemical interaction and substantially decreases the depth of the hard-to-remove metal oxide layer on important products, which increases their service properties.

  20. Choline Acetyltransferase Activity in Striatum of Neonatal Rats Increased by Nerve Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, William C.; Rutkowski, J. Lynn; Tennekoon, Gihan I.; Buchanan, Karen; Johnston, Michael V.

    1985-07-01

    Some neurodegenerative disorders may be caused by abnormal synthesis or utilization of trophic molecules required to support neuronal survival. A test of this hypothesis requires that trophic agents specific for the affected neurons be identified. Cholinergic neurons in the corpus striatum of neonatal rats were found to respond to intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor with prominent, dose-dependent, selective increases in choline acetyltransferase activity. Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain also respond to nerve growth factor in this way. These actions of nerve growth factor may indicate its involvement in the normal function of forebrain cholinergic neurons as well as in neurodegenerative disorders involving such cells.

  1. Evaluation of Atmospheric Electric Field as Increasing Seismic Activity Indicator on the example of Caucasus Region

    CERN Document Server

    Kachakhidze, M K; Kachakhidze, N K

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with reliability of a gradient of atmospheric electric field potential as an indicator of seismic activity increase. With this in view, records of atmospheric electric field potential gradients of Caucasus region for 1953-1992 with respect to periods before average and large earthquakes, which took place in the same time interval, were considered. It is worth to pay attention to the fact that the avalanche-like unstable model of fault formation based on theoretical model of self-generated seismo-electromagnetic oscillations of LAI system explains convincingly spectral succession of electromagnetic emission frequency of the periods preceding earthquakes.

  2. Continuous reduction of plasma paraoxonase activity with increasing dialysis vintage in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Bernhard F; Holzhausen, Helge; Tepel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Plasma paraoxonase (PON) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes organic phosphate and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Reduced activity is associated with early events of atherogenesis. The relevance of PON phenotypes is not well characterized in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study we measured...... phenotypes. 74% of hemodialysis patients showed PON phenotype 1, 21% PON phenotype 2, and 5% PON phenotype 3. Compared to hemodialysis patients with PON 1, patients with PON 2 or 3 showed higher conversion rates for 4-nitrophenylacetate. We observed a significant reduction of PON ratio with increasing...

  3. Breast Fibroadenoma With Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2017-02-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in women of reproductive age, carrying little to no risk of breast cancer development. We report on a case of a woman with history of neuroendocrine tumor who on follow-up imaging tests underwent whole-body PET/CT study using Ga DOTATATE. The scan showed increased focal activity in the right breast, which was biopsied revealing a fibroadenoma. The presented data suggests cell surface overexpression of somatostatin receptors by this benign breast tumor. Moreover, this finding emphasizes the need for cautious interpretation of Ga DOTATATE-avid breast lesions that could mimic malignancy in neuroendocrine tumor patients.

  4. Avascular Necrosis of the Hips With Increased Activity on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2017-03-01

    Prolonged exposure to cortisol is one of the major causes of avascular bone necrosis (AVN). We report on a case of a woman with Cushing syndrome attributed to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting tumor who was evaluated with whole-body PET/CT study using Ga-DOTATATE. The scan showed increased activity by both femoral heads, corresponding to the margins of bilateral AVN seen on MRI. The presented data suggests AVN-induced reactive inflammatory alterations adjacent to the necrotic segment of the bone, which can be effectively targeted using radiolabeled somatostatin (SST) analogs.

  5. DNA transposon activity is associated with increased mutation rates in genes of rice and other grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Thomas; Yu, Yeisoo; Haberer, Georg; Mayer, Klaus F X; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Rounsley, Steve; Chen, Mingsheng; Zuccolo, Andrea; Panaud, Olivier; Wing, Rod A; Roffler, Stefan

    2016-09-07

    DNA (class 2) transposons are mobile genetic elements which move within their 'host' genome through excising and re-inserting elsewhere. Although the rice genome contains tens of thousands of such elements, their actual role in evolution is still unclear. Analysing over 650 transposon polymorphisms in the rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, we find that DNA repair following transposon excisions is associated with an increased number of mutations in the sequences neighbouring the transposon. Indeed, the 3,000 bp flanking the excised transposons can contain over 10 times more mutations than the genome-wide average. Since DNA transposons preferably insert near genes, this is correlated with increases in mutation rates in coding sequences and regulatory regions. Most importantly, we find this phenomenon also in maize, wheat and barley. Thus, these findings suggest that DNA transposon activity is a major evolutionary force in grasses which provide the basis of most food consumed by humankind.

  6. Arsenic treatment increase Aurora-A overexpression through E2F1 activation in bladder cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Ting; Wu, Chin-Han; Wu, Shan-Ying; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Tseng, Ya-Shih

    2017-04-18

    Arsenic is a widely distributed metalloid compound that has biphasic effects on cultured cells. In large doses, arsenic can be toxic enough to trigger cell death. In smaller amounts, non-toxic doses may promote cell proliferation and induces carcinogenesis. Aberration of chromosome is frequently detected in epithelial cells and lymphocytes of individuals from arsenic contaminated areas. Overexpression of Aurora-A, a mitotic kinase, results in chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We have reported that low concentration (≦1 μM) of arsenic treatment increases Aurora-A expression in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells. However, how arsenic induces carcinogenesis through Aurora-A activation remaining unclear. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) staining, MTT assay, and flow cytometry assay were conducted to determine cell proliferation. Messenger RNA and protein expression levels of Aurora-A were detected by reverse transcriptional-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Centrosome of cells was observed by immunofluorescent staining. The transcription factor of Aurora-A was investigated by promoter activity, chromosome immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and small interfering RNA (shRNA) assays. Mouse model was utilized to confirm the relationship between arsenic and Aurora-A. We reveal that low dosage of arsenic treatment increased cell proliferation is associated with accumulated cell population at S phase. We also detected increased Aurora-A expression at mRNA and protein levels in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells exposed to low doses of arsenic. Arsenic-treated cells displayed increased multiple centrosome which is resulted from overexpressed Aurora-A. Furthermore, the transcription factor, E2F1, is responsible for Aurora-A overexpression after arsenic treatment. We further disclosed that Aurora-A expression and cell proliferation were increased in bladder and uterus tissues of the BALB/c mice after long-term arsenic (1 mg/L) exposure for 2 months. We

  7. Asthmatic bronchial epithelium activated by the proteolytic allergen Der p 1 increases selective dendritic cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichavant, Muriel; Charbonnier, Anne-Sophie; Taront, Solenne; Brichet, Anne; Wallaert, Benoît; Pestel, Joel; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Gosset, Philippe

    2005-04-01

    Airway dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for allergen-induced sensitization and inflammation in allergic asthma. After allergen challenge, an increased number of DCs is observed in airway epithelium from patients with allergy. Because Der p 1, a cysteine protease allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , induces chemokine production by bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the capacity of BEC exposed to Der p 1 to recruit DCs. Chemotactic activity of BEAS-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line, and BECs from nonatopic controls and patients with allergic asthma was evaluated on the migration of precursors, immature and mature monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs), and CD34 + -derived Langerhans cells (LCs). C-C chemokine ligand (CCL)-2, CCL5, and C-X-C chemokine ligand 10 production by BEAS-2B and BEC was increased after Der p 1 exposure, whereas the proenzyme proDer p 1 devoid of enzymatic activity had no effect. Der p 1 stimulation of BEAS-2B and BEC from both groups increased significantly the recruitment of MDDC precursors, depending on CCL2, CCL5, and C-X-C chemokine ligand 10 production. In a reconstituted polarized epithelium, apical application of Der p 1 enhanced MDDC precursor migration into the epithelial layer. Moreover, Der p 1 stimulation of BEC from patients with asthma but not from controls increased the migration of LC precursors, mainly dependent on CCL20 secretion. No migration of immature and mature DCs was observed. These data confirmed that BECs participate in the homeostasis of the DC network present within the bronchial epithelium through the secretion of chemokines. In allergic asthma, upregulation of CCL20 production induced LC recruitment, the role of which remains to be determined.

  8. Forest response to increasing typhoon activity on the Korean peninsula: evidence from oak tree-rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Jan; Doležal, Jiří; Cerný, Tomáš; Song, Jong-Suk

    2013-02-01

    The globally observed trend of changing intensity of tropical cyclones over the past few decades emphasizes the need for a better understanding of the effects of such disturbance events in natural and inhabited areas. On the Korean Peninsula, typhoon intensity has increased over the past 100 years as evidenced by instrumental data recorded from 1904 until present. We examined how the increase in three weather characteristics (maximum hourly and daily precipitation, and maximum wind speed) during the typhoon activity affected old-growth oak forests. Quercus mongolica is a dominant species in the Korean mountains and the growth releases from 220 individuals from three sites along a latitudinal gradient (33-38°N) of decreasing typhoon activity were studied. Growth releases indicate tree-stand disturbance and improved light conditions for surviving trees. The trends in release events corresponded to spatiotemporal gradients in maximum wind speed and precipitation. A high positive correlation was found between the maximum values of typhoon characteristics and the proportion of trees showing release. A higher proportion of disturbed trees was found in the middle and southern parts of the Korean peninsula where typhoons are most intense. This shows that the releases are associated with typhoons and also indicates the differential impact of typhoons on the forests. Finally, we present a record of the changing proportion of trees showing release based on tree-rings for the period 1770-1979. The reconstruction revealed no trend during the period 1770-1879, while the rate of forest disturbances increased rapidly from 1880 to 1979. Our results suggest that if typhoon intensity rises, as is projected by some climatic models, the number of forest disturbance events will increase thus altering the disturbance regime and ecosystem processes.

  9. A CB2-Selective Cannabinoid Suppresses T-Cell Activities and Increases Tregs and IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rebecca H; Meissler, Joseph J; Fan, Xiaoxuan; Yu, Daohai; Adler, Martin W; Eisenstein, Toby K

    2015-06-01

    We have previously shown that agonists selective for the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), including O-1966, inhibit the Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction (MLR), an in vitro correlate of organ graft rejection, predominantly through effects on T-cells. Current studies explored the mechanism of this immunosuppression by O-1966 using mouse spleen cells. Treatment with O-1966 dose-relatedly decreased levels of the active nuclear forms of the transcription factors NF-κB and NFAT in wild-type T-cells, but not T-cells from CB2 knockout (CB2R k/o) mice. Additionally, a gene expression profile of purified T-cells from MLR cultures generated using a PCR T-cell activation array showed that O-1966 decreased mRNA expression of CD40 ligand and CyclinD3, and increased mRNA expression of Src-like-adaptor 2 (SLA2), Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 5 (SOCS5), and IL-10. The increase in IL-10 was confirmed by measuring IL-10 protein levels in MLR culture supernatants. Further, an increase in the percentage of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) was observed in MLR cultures. Pretreatment with anti-IL-10 resulted in a partial reversal of the inhibition of proliferation and blocked the increase of Tregs. Additionally, O-1966 treatment caused a dose-related decrease in the expression of CD4 in MLR cultures from wild-type, but not CB2R k/o, mice. These data support the potential of CB2-selective agonists as useful therapeutic agents to prolong graft survival in transplant patients, and strengthens their potential as a new class of immunosuppressive agents with broader applicability.

  10. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls – The Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hergenroeder Albert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of regular physical activity and consequent sub-optimal bone mass acquisition in youth has been implicated as a primary cause of adult-onset osteoporosis. IMPACT was a behavioral theory-based 1 1/2 year randomized controlled field study aimed at increasing bone accretion in middle school girls. The objective of this study was to determine the intervention effects of the IMPACT program upon key physical and sedentary activity endpoints among schools that participated in the IMPACT study. Endpoints examined included weight bearing physical activity (WBPA; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; vigorous physical activity (VPA; MET (metabolic equivalent – weighted WBPA and MVPA; sedentary activity; before/after-school physical activity; and weekend physical activity. Methods Primary data analysis using a pretest-posttest control group design was conducted utilizing mixed model analysis of covariance. Data gathered from the IMPACT cohort from 2000–2002 were analyzed to determine baseline versus follow-up differences in activity endpoints. Confounders investigated included ethnicity, body mass index, menarcheal status, participation in 7th grade PE/athletics, friend/familial support and neighborhood safety. Results Follow-up means were higher for participating intervention schools relative to control schools for all physical activity variables but were statistically significant only for the following variables: daily minutes of vigorous physical activity (mean difference between Intervention (I and Control (C = 6.00↑ minutes, 95% CI = 5.82–6.18, p = 0.05, daily after school activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 8.95↑ minutes, 95% CI = 8.69–9.21, p = 0.04, and daily weekend activity minutes (mean difference between I and C = 19.00↑ minutes, 95% CI = 18.40–19.60, p = 0.05. The intervention significantly reduced duration of student daily TV/Video watching (mean difference between I and C = 12

  11. Highly efficient recombinant production and purification of streptococcal cysteine protease streptopain with increased enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michael D; Seelig, Burckhard

    2016-05-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes produces the cysteine protease streptopain (SpeB) as a critical virulence factor for pathogenesis. Despite having first been described seventy years ago, this protease still holds mysteries which are being investigated today. Streptopain can cleave a wide range of human proteins, including immunoglobulins, the complement activation system, chemokines, and structural proteins. Due to the broad activity of streptopain, it has been challenging to elucidate the functional results of its action and precise mechanisms for its contribution to S. pyogenes pathogenesis. To better study streptopain, several expression and purification schemes have been developed. These methods originally involved isolation from S. pyogenes culture but were more recently expanded to include recombinant Escherichia coli expression systems. While substantially easier to implement, the latter recombinant approach can prove challenging to reproduce, often resulting in mostly insoluble protein and poor purification yields. After extensive optimization of a wide range of expression and purification conditions, we applied the autoinduction method of protein expression and developed a two-step column purification scheme that reliably produces large amounts of purified soluble and highly active streptopain. This method reproducibly yielded 3 mg of streptopain from 50 mL of expression culture at >95% purity, with an activity of 5306 ± 315 U/mg, and no remaining affinity tags or artifacts from recombinant expression. This improved method therefore enables the facile production of the important virulence factor streptopain at higher yields, with no purification scars that might bias functional studies, and with an 8.1-fold increased enzymatic activity compared to previously described procedures.

  12. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alyssa M; Casey, Scott D; Felix, Christian M; Phuan, Puay W; Verkman, A S; Levin, Marc H

    2016-05-01

    Dry eye disorders, including Sjögren's syndrome, constitute a common problem in the aging population, with limited effective therapeutic options available. The cAMP-activated Cl(-) channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a major prosecretory channel at the ocular surface. We investigated whether compounds that target CFTR can correct the abnormal tear film in dry eye. Small-molecule activators of human wild-type CFTR identified by high-throughput screening were evaluated in cell culture and in vivo assays, to select compounds that stimulate Cl(-)-driven fluid secretion across the ocular surface in mice. An aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine, CFTRact-K089, fully activated CFTR in cell cultures with EC50 ∼250 nM and produced an ∼8.5 mV hyperpolarization in ocular surface potential difference. When delivered topically, CFTRact-K089 doubled basal tear volume for 4 h and had no effect in CF mice. CFTRact-K089 showed sustained tear film bioavailability without detectable systemic absorption. In a mouse model of aqueous-deficient dry eye produced by lacrimal ablation, topical administration of 0.1 nmol CFTRact-K089 3 times daily restored tear volume to basal levels, preventing corneal epithelial disruption when initiated at the time of surgery and reversing it when started after development of dry eye. Our results support the potential utility of CFTR-targeted activators as a novel prosecretory treatment for dry eye.-Flores, A. M., Casey, S. D., Felix, C. M., Phuan, P. W., Verkman, A. S., Levin, M. H. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease.

  13. Soybean fermentation with Bacillus licheniformis increases insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Moon, Na Rang; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Hee Joo; Jung, Do Yeon; Park, Sunmin

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally fermented soybeans (chungkookjang; TFC) may have potent anti-diabetic activity, depending on the ambient microorganisms and conditions. We hypothesized that one of the major Bacillus species in TFC contributes to the anti-diabetic activity and could be used to standardize a highly functional TFC. We tested the hypothesis by using cell-based studies to evaluate insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic action of chungkookjangs fermented with various Bacillus spp. and fermentation periods. The 70% methanol and water extracts of chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BL) for 48 h contained similar profiles of isoflavonoids and peptides to methanol and water extracts of TFC with potent anti-diabetic activity. Water extracts (mainly containing peptides) of TFC and BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h had a better insulin sensitizing action via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and increased the expression of PPAR-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes better than unfermented cooked soybeans (CSB). The 70% methanol extracts (predominantly isoflavone aglycones) of BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protected β-cell viability better than CSB in insulinoma cells, and the improvement by BL was similar to TFC. In conclusion, the BL water extract fermented for 48 h exhibited equal insulin sensitization as TFC and BL methanol extract exerted similar insulinotropic actions to those of TFC. B. licheniformis may be one of the major microorganisms responsible for anti-diabetic actions of chungkookjang. It is important to make chungkookjang that retains the anti-diabetic properties of the most efficacious traditional chungkookjang using a standardized method.

  14. Increased microbial activity in a warmer and wetter climate enhances the risk of coastal hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydahl, Anna; Panigrahi, Satya; Wikner, Johan

    2013-08-01

    The coastal zone is the most productive area of the marine environment and the area that is most exposed to environmental drivers associated with human pressures in a watershed. In dark bottle incubation experiments, we investigated the short-term interactive effects of changes in salinity, temperature and riverine dissolved organic matter (rDOM) on microbial respiration, growth and abundance in an estuarine community. An interaction effect was found for bacterial growth, where the assimilation of rDOM increased at higher salinities. A 3 °C rise in the temperature had a positive effect on microbial respiration. A higher concentration of DOM consistently enhanced respiration and bacterial abundance, while an increase in temperature reduced bacterial abundance. The latter result was most likely caused by a positive interaction effect of temperature, salinity and rDOM on the abundance of bacterivorous flagellates. Elevated temperature and precipitation, causing increased discharges of rDOM and an associated lowered salinity, will therefore primarily promote bacterial respiration, growth and bacterivore abundance. Our results suggest a positive net outcome for microbial activity under the projected climate change, driven by different, partially interacting environmental factors. Thus, hypoxia in coastal zones may increase due to enhanced respiration caused by higher temperatures and rDOM discharge acting synergistically.

  15. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases energy consumption through activation of BAT in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Susumu; Kim, Minji; Awa, Riyo; Kuwahara, Hiroshige; Kano, Yuriko; Kawada, Teruo

    2014-11-01

    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is a member of the ginger family and is known in Thailand as Thai ginseng, Krachai Dam or Black Ginger. TheK. parviflora extract (KPE) was previously reported to have a number of physiological effects; however, the antiobesity effects of KPE and its mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted KPE feeding experiments (low dose: 0.5% KPE, high dose: 1.0% KPE) in mice to examine the antiobesity effects. For both 0.5% KPE and 1.0% KPE, 7 weeks' feeding of KPE contained in a high-fat diet (HFD) significantly decreased body weight gain, intraabdominal fat accumulation, and plasma triglyceride and leptin levels. Concurrently, KPE administration increased oxygen consumption in mice fed on a HFD. We also found that 1.0% KPE feeding significantly increased the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Moreover, KPE administration increased urinary noradrenaline secretion levels. These results demonstrate that KPE promotes energy metabolism by activation of BAT, at both doses and up-regulation of UCP1 protein at a high dose. Although numerous challenges remain, the present study demonstrated that KPE suppresses HFD-induced obesity through increased energy metabolism.

  16. Increased Expression and Cellular Localization of Spermine Oxidase in Ulcerative Colitis and Relationship to Disease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Kuang S.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Blanca Piazuelo, M.; Coburn, Lori A.; Williams, Christopher S.; Delgado, Alberto G.; Casero, Robert A.; Schwartz, David A.; Wilson, Keith T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Polyamines are important in cell growth and wound repair, but have also been implicated in inflammation-induced carcinogenesis. Polyamine metabolism includes back-conversion of spermine to spermidine by the enzyme spermine oxidase (SMO), which produces hydrogen peroxide that causes oxidative stress. In ulcerative colitis (UC), levels of spermine are decreased compared to spermidine. Therefore, we sought to determine if SMO is involved in UC. Methods Colon biopsies and clinical information from subjects undergoing colonoscopy for evaluation of UC or colorectal cancer screening were utilized from 16 normal controls and 53 UC cases. Histopathologic disease severity was graded and the Mayo Disease Activity Index (DAI) and endoscopy subscore assessed. SMO mRNA expression was measured in frozen biopsies by Taq-Man-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Formalin-fixed tissues were used for SMO immunohistochemistry. Results There was a 3.1-fold upregulation of SMO mRNA levels in UC patients compared to controls (P = 0.044), and a 3.7-fold increase in involved left colon versus paired uninvolved right colon (P < 0.001). With worsening histologic injury in UC there was a progressive increase in SMO staining of mononuclear inflammatory cells. There was a similar increase in SMO staining with worsening endoscopic disease severity and strong correlation with the DAI (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Inflammatory cell SMO staining was increased in involved left colon versus uninvolved right colon. Conclusions SMO expression is upregulated in UC tissues, deriving from increased levels in mononuclear inflammatory cells. Dysregulated polyamine homeostasis may contribute to chronic UC by altering immune responses and increasing oxidative stress. PMID:20127992

  17. Platelet-activating factor increases reactive oxygen species-mediated microbicidal activity of human macrophages infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Arissa Felipe; Morato, Camila Imai; Gomes, Rodrigo Saar; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; de Oliveira, Milton Adriano Pelli; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

    2017-09-29

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by macrophages during inflammation and infections. We evaluated whether PAF is able to modulate the infection of human macrophages by Leishmania braziliensis, the main Leishmania sp. in Brazil. Monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with promastigote forms in absence or presence of exogenous PAF. We observed that the treatment of macrophages with low concentrations of PAF prior to infection increased the phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. More importantly, exogenous PAF reduced the parasitism when it was added before, during or after infection. In addition, treatment with a PAF antagonist (PCA 4248) resulted in a significant increase of macrophage infection in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that endogenous PAF is important to control L. braziliensis infection. Mechanistically, while exogenous PAF increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) treatment with PCA 4248 reduced oxidative burst during L. braziliensis infection. The microbicidal effects of exogenous PAF were abolished when macrophages were treated with apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. The data show that PAF promotes the production of ROS induced by L. braziliensis, suggesting that this lipid mediator may be relevant to control L. braziliensis infection in human macrophages. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Control plasma renin activity and changes in sympathetic tone as determinants of minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, K; Velasco, M; Wells, J; McNay, J L

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible mechanism(s) underlying minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity (PRA). 10 patients with essential hypertension were treated with minoxidil and subsequently with a combination of minoxidil plus propranolol. Minoxidil lowered mean arterial pressure 31.6 plus or minus 3.3 mm Hg, mean plus or minus SEM. There was an associated increase in both PRA, 6.26 plus or minus 2.43 NG/ML/H, and heart rate, 21.4 plus or minus 2.7 beats/min. The changes in PRA and heart rate were positively correlated, r, 0.79. Addition of propranolol reduced mean arterial pressure by a further 10.1 plus or minus 1.5 mm Hg and returned heart rate to control levels. Propranolol reduced PRA significantly but not to control levels. Control PRA positively correlated with PRA on minoxidil, r, 0.97, and with PRA on minoxidil plus propranolol, r, 0.98. We conclude that control PRA is a major determinant of change in PRA with minoxidil. Minoxidil increased PRA by at least two mechanisms: (a) an adrenergic mechanism closely related to change in heart rate and blocked by propranolol, and (b) a mechanism(s) not sensitive to propranolol and possibly related to decrease in renal perfusion pressure. PMID:1127099

  19. Increased frontal and paralimbic activation following ayahuasca, the pan-Amazonian inebriant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Romero, Sergio; Grasa, Eva; Mena, Esther; Carrió, Ignasi; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2006-05-01

    Ayahuasca is a South American psychoactive plant tea which contains the serotonergic psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors that render DMT orally active. Previous investigations with ayahuasca have highlighted a psychotropic effect profile characterized by enhanced introspective attention, with individuals reporting altered somatic perceptions and intense emotional modifications, frequently accompanied by visual imagery. Despite recent advances in the study of ayahuasca pharmacology, the neural correlates of acute ayahuasca intoxication remain largely unknown. To investigate the effects of ayahuasca administration on regional cerebral blood flow. Fifteen male volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received a single oral dose of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca equivalent to 1.0 mg DMT/kg body weight and a placebo in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured 100-110 min after drug administration by means of single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Ayahuasca administration led to significant activation of frontal and paralimbic brain regions. Increased blood perfusion was observed bilaterally in the anterior insula, with greater intensity in the right hemisphere, and in the anterior cingulate/frontomedial cortex of the right hemisphere, areas previously implicated in somatic awareness, subjective feeling states, and emotional arousal. Additional increases were observed in the left amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus, a structure also involved in emotional arousal. The present results suggest that ayahuasca interacts with neural systems that are central to interoception and emotional processing and point to a modulatory role of serotonergic neurotransmission in these processes.

  20. Salamanders increase their feeding activity when infected with the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Alexandra; McAllister, Caroline; DeMarchi, Joseph; Zidek, Makenzie; Murone, Julie; Venesky, Matthew D

    2015-10-27

    Immune function is a costly line of defense against parasitism. When infected with a parasite, hosts frequently lose mass due to these costs. However, some infected hosts (e.g. highly resistant individuals) can clear infections with seemingly little fitness losses, but few studies have tested how resistant hosts mitigate these costly immune defenses. We explored this topic using eastern red-backed salamanders Plethodon cinereus and the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Bd is generally lethal for amphibians, and stereotypical symptoms of infection include loss in mass and deficits in feeding. However, individuals of P. cinereus can clear their Bd infections with seemingly few fitness costs. We conducted an experiment in which we repeatedly observed the feeding activity of Bd-infected and non-infected salamanders. We found that Bd-infected salamanders generally increased their feeding activity compared to non-infected salamanders. The fact that we did not observe any differences in mass change between the treatments suggests that increased feeding might help Bd-infected salamanders minimize the costs of an effective immune response.

  1. Statins Increase Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Gene Transcription through a Pregnane X Receptor Regulated Element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick M Stanley

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 is a multifunctional protein that has important roles in inflammation and wound healing. Its aberrant regulation may contribute to many disease processes such as heart disease. The PAI-1 promoter is responsive to multiple inputs including cytokines, growth factors, steroids and oxidative stress. The statin drugs, atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin, increased basal and stimulated expression of the PAI-1 promoter 3-fold. A statin-responsive, nuclear hormone response element was previously identified in the PAI-1 promoter, but it was incompletely characterized. We characterized this direct repeat (DR of AGGTCA with a 3-nucleotide spacer at -269/-255 using deletion and directed mutagenesis. Deletion or mutation of this element increased basal transcription from the promoter suggesting that it repressed PAI-1 transcription in the unliganded state. The half-site spacing and the ligand specificity suggested that this might be a pregnane X receptor (PXR responsive element. Computational molecular docking showed that atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin were structurally compatible with the PXR ligand-binding pocket in its agonist conformation. Experiments with Gal4 DNA binding domain fusion proteins showed that Gal4-PXR was activated by statins while other DR + 3 binding nuclear receptor fusions were not. Overexpression of PXR further enhanced PAI-1 transcription in response to statins. Finally, ChIP experiments using Halo-tagged PXR and RXR demonstrated that both components of the PXR-RXR heterodimer bound to this region of the PAI-1 promoter.

  2. Increasing the Lifetime of Mobile WSNs via Dynamic Optimization of Sensor Node Communication Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Adionel Guimarães

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple and flexible method for increasing the lifetime of fixed or mobile wireless sensor networks is proposed. Based on past residual energy information reported by the sensor nodes, the sink node or another central node dynamically optimizes the communication activity levels of the sensor nodes to save energy without sacrificing the data throughput. The activity levels are defined to represent portions of time or time-frequency slots in a frame, during which the sensor nodes are scheduled to communicate with the sink node to report sensory measurements. Besides node mobility, it is considered that sensors’ batteries may be recharged via a wireless power transmission or equivalent energy harvesting scheme, bringing to the optimization problem an even more dynamic character. We report large increased lifetimes over the non-optimized network and comparable or even larger lifetime improvements with respect to an idealized greedy algorithm that uses both the real-time channel state and the residual energy information.

  3. Methyl Salicylate Level Increase in Flax after Fusarium oxysporum Infection Is Associated with Phenylpropanoid Pathway Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boba, Aleksandra; Kostyn, Kamil; Kostyn, Anna; Wojtasik, Wioleta; Dziadas, Mariusz; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a crop plant valued for its oil and fiber. Unfortunately, large losses in cultivation of this plant are caused by fungal infections, with Fusarium oxysporum being one of its most dangerous pathogens. Among the plant's defense strategies, changes in the expression of genes of the shikimate/phenylpropanoid/benzoate pathway and thus in phenolic contents occur. Among the benzoates, salicylic acid, and its methylated form methyl salicylate play an important role in regulating plants' response to stress conditions. Upon treatment of flax plants with the fungus we found that methyl salicylate content increased (4.8-fold of the control) and the expression profiles of the analyzed genes suggest that it is produced most likely from cinnamic acid, through the β-oxidative route. At the same time activation of some genes involved in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis was observed. We suggest that increased methyl salicylate biosynthesis during flax response to F. oxysporum infection may be associated with phenylpropanoid pathway activation. PMID:28163709

  4. Higher Physical Activity Is Associated with Increased Attentional Network Connectivity in the Healthy Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon Ha; Im, Kiho; Kwon, Hunki; Seo, Sang Won; Ye, Byoung Seok; Cho, Hanna; Noh, Young; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Sang Eon; Kim, Hojeong; Hwang, Jung Won; Kang, Sue J.; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Na, Duk L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential alterations in structural network properties related to physical activity (PA) in healthy elderly. We recruited 76 elderly individuals with normal cognition from Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. All participants underwent the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and 3.0T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants were subdivided into quartiles according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores, which represents the amount of PA. Through graph theory based analyses, we compared global and local network topologies according to PA quartile. The higher PA group demonstrated better performance in speed processing compared to the lower PA group. Regional nodal strength also significantly increased in the higher PA group, which involved the bilateral middle frontal, bilateral inferior parietal, right medial orbitofrontal, right superior, and middle temporal gyri. These results were further replicated when the highest and the lowest quartile groups were compared in terms of regional nodal strengths and local efficiency. Our findings that the regional nodal strengths associated with the attentional network were increased in the higher PA group suggest the preventive effects of PA on age-related cognitive decline, especially in attention. PMID:27597826

  5. Introduction of a catalytic triad increases the glutathione peroxidase-like activity of diaryl diselenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Debasish; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2015-09-14

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated diseased states are of major concern in modern day life. Under oxidative stress conditions, the cellular antioxidants deplete, leading to several biological disorders. Small molecule mimics of different antioxidant enzymes are found to be useful in supplementing the biological systems to detoxify ROS. In this study, we have synthesized a series of amine or amide-based diselenides containing an additional amino group as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mimetics. These diselenides act as a catalytic triad model of the native GPx featuring two basic amino groups near the selenium centre. A comparison of the catalytic activities reveals that the additional amino group increases the activity significantly in the presence of aromatic thiols. Deprotonation of thiol by an additional amine either stabilizes the selenolate intermediate or facilitates the nucleophilic attack of thiol in other intermediates. The (77)Se NMR experiments and DFT calculations show that the amino group does not have any significant effect on the catalytic intermediates. Although the amino moiety increases the nucleophilicity of the thiol, it does not prevent the thiol exchange reactions that take place in the selenenyl sulfide intermediates.

  6. Cationic Amphiphiles Increase Activity of Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Tobramycin in the Presence of Airway Polyelectrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy Drew, Kirstin R.; Sanders, Lori K.; Culumber, Zachary W.; Zribi, Olena; Wong, Gerard C.L.; (UIUC)

    2009-06-17

    It is empirically known that anionic polyelectrolytes present in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways due to bacterial infection significantly decrease the activity of cationic antimicrobials via electrostatic binding. In this work, we use synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering to investigate the interaction between tobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly administered to CF patients via inhalation, with DNA, which is found in high concentrations in the CF airway. We find that interactions between DNA and tobramycin are significantly modified by the presence of mixtures of amphiphilic molecules. We measure a hierarchy of self-assembled structures formed between tobramycin, DNA, and the amphiphile mixtures and show how interactions between these components can be controlled. Results indicate that mixtures of cationic and negative curvature amphiphiles optimized for DNA binding via charge matching and curvature matching can competitively displace bound tobramycin from DNA and thereby drastically suppress tobramycin-DNA binding and resultant antimicrobial inactivation. Growth inhibition assays confirm the increased activity of tobramycin in the presence of DNA with the addition of the amphiphiles. These results suggest that optimized cationic amphiphile solutions have the potential to enhance antimicrobial function in highly infected environments that contain increased concentrations of anionic inflammatory polymers.

  7. Cationic Amphiphiles Increase Activity of Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Tobramycin in the Presence of Airway Polyelectrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drew, K.R.Purdy; Sanders, L.K.; Culumber, Z.W.; Zribi, O.; Wong, G.C.L.

    2009-05-21

    It is empirically known that anionic polyelectrolytes present in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways due to bacterial infection significantly decrease the activity of cationic antimicrobials via electrostatic binding. In this work, we use synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering to investigate the interaction between tobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly administered to CF patients via inhalation, with DNA, which is found in high concentrations in the CF airway. We find that interactions between DNA and tobramycin are significantly modified by the presence of mixtures of amphiphilic molecules. We measure a hierarchy of self-assembled structures formed between tobramycin, DNA, and the amphiphile mixtures and show how interactions between these components can be controlled. Results indicate that mixtures of cationic and negative curvature amphiphiles optimized for DNA binding via charge matching and curvature matching can competitively displace bound tobramycin from DNA and thereby drastically suppress tobramycin-DNA binding and resultant antimicrobial inactivation. Growth inhibition assays confirm the increased activity of tobramycin in the presence of DNA with the addition of the amphiphiles. These results suggest that optimized cationic amphiphile solutions have the potential to enhance antimicrobial function in highly infected environments that contain increased concentrations of anionic inflammatory polymers.

  8. Characterization of increased drug metabolism activity in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-treated Huh7 hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S; Sainz, B; Corcoran, P; Uprichard, S; Jeong, H

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Huh7 cells' baseline capacity to metabolize drugs and to investigate whether the drug metabolism was enhanced upon treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of major Phase I and Phase II enzymes were determined by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and activities of major drug-metabolizing enzymes were examined using probe drugs by analysing relevant metabolite production rates. The expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes in control Huh7 cells were generally very low, but DMSO treatment dramatically increased the mRNA levels of most drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as other liver-specific proteins. Importantly, functionality assays confirmed concomitant increases in drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. Additionally, treatment of the Huh7 cells with 3-methylcholanthrene induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 expression. The results indicate that DMSO treatment of Huh7 cells profoundly enhances their differentiation state, thus improving the usefulness of this common cell line as an in vitro hepatocyte model.

  9. Allantoin Increases Cadmium Tolerance in Arabidopsis via Activation of Antioxidant Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourimand, Maryam; Todd, Christopher D

    2016-12-01

    Plants apply various molecular, physiological and morphological strategies in response to undesirable environmental conditions. One of the possible responses which may contribute to surviving stressful conditions is the accumulation of ureides. Ureides are recognized as important nitrogen-rich compounds involved in recycling nitrogen in plants to support growth and reproduction. Amongst them, allantoin not only serves as a transportable nitrogen-rich compound, but has also been suggested to protect plants from abiotic stresses via minimizing oxidative damage. This work focuses on the effect of cadmium (Cd) on ureide metabolism in Arabidopsis, in order to clarify the potential role of allantoin in plant tolerance to heavy metals. In response to Cd treatment, allantoin levels increase in Arabidopsis thaliana, ecotype Col-0, due to reduced allantoinase (ALN) gene expression and enzyme activity. This coincides with increases in uricase (UO) transcripts. UO and ALN encode the enzymes for the production and degradation of allantoin, respectively. ALN-negative aln-3 Arabidopsis mutants with elevated allantoin levels demonstrate resistance to soil-applied CdCl2, up to 1,500 μM. Although aln-3 mutants take up and store more Cd within their leaf tissue, they contain less damaging superoxide radicals. The protective mechanism of aln-3 mutants appears to involve enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Oleanolic acid activates daf-16 to increase lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaolong; Lu, Lulu; Zhou, Lijun

    2015-12-25

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is an active ingredient in natural plants. It has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities, but very little is known about its effects of anti-aging. We investigate here whether OA has an impact on longevity in vivo, and more specifically, we have examined effects of OA on the lifespan and stress tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that OA could extend the lifespan, increase its stress resistance and reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wild-type worms. Moreover, we have found that OA-induced longevity may not be associated with the calorie restriction (CR) mechanism. Our mechanistic studies using daf-16 loss-of-function mutant strains (GR1307) indicated that the extension of lifespan by OA requires daf-16. In addition, OA treatment could also modulate the nuclear localization, and the quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that up-regulation of daf-16 target genes such as sod-3, hsp-16.2 and ctl-1 could prolong lifespan and increase stress response in C. elegans. This study overall uncovers the longevity effect of OA and its underpinning mechanisms.

  11. Oleacein enhances anti-inflammatory activity of human macrophages by increasing CD163 receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, Agnieszka; Czerwińska, Monika E; Kiss, Anna K; Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2015-12-15

    Oleacein (dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol; 3,4-DHPEA-EDA) have been proven to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we examined whether oleacein could increase CD163 and IL-10 receptor expression as well as HO-1 intracellular secretion in human macrophages. Effect of oleacein (10 and 20 μmol/l) or oleacein together with complexes of haemoglobin (Hb) and haptoglobin 1-1 (Hp11) or haptoglobin 2-2 (Hp22) on expression of IL-10 and CD163 receptor was determined by Flow Cytometry. Expression of CD163mRNA was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) intracellular secretion in macrophages was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Oleacein (OC) together with complexes HbHp11 or HbHp22 stimulated the expression of CD163 (30-100-fold), IL-10 (170-300-fold) and HO-1 secretion (60-130-fold) after 5 days of coincubation. The 2-fold (24 h), 4-fold (48 h) increase of CD163 mRNA level and its final (72 h) decrease was also observed. Our results suggested that oleacein enhances anti-inflammatory activity of complexes haemoglobin with haptoglobin 1-1 and 2-2 and could play a potential role in the prevention of inflammatory disease related to atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Uncaria tomentosa increases growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis-Aguinaga, Jefferson; Claudiano, Gustavo S; Marcusso, Paulo F; Manrique, Wilson Gómez; de Moraes, Julieta R Engrácia; de Moraes, Flávio R; Fernandes, João B K

    2015-11-01

    Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is an Amazon herb using in native cultures in Peru. In mammals, it has been described several effects of this herb. However, this is the first report of its use on the diet of fish. The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of this plant on the growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus. Nile tilapia (81.3 ± 4.5 g) were distributed into 5 groups and supplemented with 0 (non-supplement fish), 75, 150, 300, and 450 mg of U. tomentosa.kg(-1) of diet for a period of 28 days. Fish were inoculated in the swim bladder with inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae and samples were taken at 6, 24, and 48 h post inoculation (HPI). Dose dependent increases were noted in some of the evaluated times of thrombocytes and white blood cells counts (WBC) in blood and exudate, burst respiratory activity, lysozyme activity, melanomacrophage centers count (MMCs), villi length, IgM by immunohistochemistry in splenic tissue, and unexpectedly on growth parameters. However, dietary supplementation of this herb did not affect red blood cells count (RBC), hemoglobin, and there were no observed histological lesions in gills, intestine, spleen, and liver. The current results demonstrate for the first time that U. tomentosa can stimulate fish immunity and improve growth performance in Nile tilapia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipophilicity is a key factor to increase the antiviral activity of HIV neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Marcelo T; Hollmann, Axel; Troise, Fulvia; Veiga, Ana S; Pessi, Antonello; Santos, Nuno C

    2017-04-01

    The HIV broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5 targets the transiently exposed epitope in the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41, by a two-step mechanism involving the viral membrane and this viral glycoprotein. It was recently shown that 2F5 conjugation with a cholesterol moiety outside of the antibody paratope substantially increases its antiviral activity. Additionally, the antiviral activity of D5, a human antibody that binds to the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of gp41 and lacks membrane binding, was boosted by the same cholesterol conjugation. In this work, we evaluated the membrane affinity of both antibodies towards membranes of different compositions, using surface plasmon resonance. A correlation was found between membrane affinity and antiviral activity against HIV-1. We propose that the conjugation of cholesterol to 2F5 or D5 allows a higher degree of antibody pre-concentration at the viral membrane. This way, the antibodies become more available to bind efficiently to the gp41 epitope, blocking viral fusion faster than the unconjugated antibody. These results set up a relevant strategy to improve the rational design of therapeutic antibodies against HIV.

  14. Mutant Presenilin 1 Increases the Expression and Activity of BACE1*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giliberto, Luca; Borghi, Roberta; Piccini, Alessandra; Mangerini, Rosa; Sorbi, Sandro; Cirmena, Gabriella; Garuti, Anna; Ghetti, Bernardino; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Mattson, Mark P.; Zhu, Xiongwei; Wang, Xinglong; Guglielmotto, Michela; Tamagno, Elena; Tabaton, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Mutations of the presenilin 1 (PS1) gene are the most common cause of early onset familial Alzheimer disease (FAD). PS1 mutations alter the activity of the γ-secretase on the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), leading to selective overproduction of β-amyloid (Aβ) 42 peptides, the species that forms oligomers that may exert toxic effects on neurons. Here we show that PS1 mutations, expressed both transiently and stably, in non-neuronal and neuronal cell lines increase the expression and the activity of the β-secretase (BACE1), the rate-limiting step of Aβ production. Also, BACE1 expression and activity are elevated in brains of PS1 mutant knock-in mice compared with wild type littermates as well as in cerebral cortex of FAD cases bearing various PS1 mutations compared with in sporadic AD cases and controls. The up-regulation of BACE1 by PS1 mutations requires the γ-secretase cleavage of APP and is proportional to the amount of secreted Aβ42. Aβ42, and not AICD (APP intracellular domain), is indeed the APP derivative that mediates the overexpression of BACE1. The effect of PS1 mutations on BACE1 may contribute to determine the wide clinical and pathological phenotype of early onset FAD. PMID:19196715

  15. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  16. Improvements in Students' Understanding from Increased Implementation of Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Gehrke, Melissa N.; Prather, E. E.; Rudolph, A. L.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors are hesitant to implement active learning strategies in their introductory astronomy classrooms because they are not sure which techniques they should use, how to implement those techniques, and question whether the investment in changing their course will really bring the advertised learning gains. We present an example illustrating how thoughtful and systematic implementation of active learning strategies into a traditionally taught Astro 101 class can translate into significant increases in students' understanding. We detail the journey of one instructor, over several years, as she changes the instruction and design of her course from one that focuses almost exclusively on lecture to a course that provides an integrated use of several active learning techniques such as Lecture-Tutorials and Think-Pair-Share questions. The students in the initial lecture-only course achieved a low normalized gain score of only 0.2 on the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), while the students in the re-designed learner-centered course achieved a significantly better normalized gain of 0.43. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS), and Grant No. 0847170, a PAARE Grant for the Calfornia-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  17. Increased Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activities in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Yuzi; Cui, Lan; Jiang, Haiying; Li, Xiang; Jin, Chunzi; Jin, Dehao; Zhao, Guangxian; Jin, Jiyong; Sun, Rui; Piao, Limei; Xu, Wenhu; Fang, Chenghu; Lei, Yanna; Yuan, Kuichang; Xuan, Chunhua; Ding, Dazi

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is one of the most potent mammalian serine proteases participated in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis. Here we investigated whether the plasma soluble form of DPP4 is associated with the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was conducted of 496 aged 26–81 years with (n = 362) and without (n = 134) CAD. Plasma DPP4 activity, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein levels were measured. The coronary atherosclerotic plaques were evaluated by coronary angiography. The CAD patients with (n = 84) and without (n = 278) DM had significantly higher DPP4 levels (11.8 ± 3.1 vs. 6.9 ± 3.5 ng/mL, Psyntax scores. A multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that plasma DPP4 activity was independent predictor of CAD (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.19–1.73; P<0.01). Our study shows that increased DPP4 activity levels are associated with the presence of CAD and that the plasma DPP4 level serves as a novel biomarker for CAD even without DM. PMID:27654253

  18. mTORC1-Activated Monocytes Increase Tregs and Inhibit the Immune Response to Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huaijun; Guo, Wei; Wang, Shixuan; Xue, Ting; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yazhi; Wan, Qian; Shi, Zhexin; Zhan, Xulong

    2016-01-01

    The TSC1/2 heterodimer, a key upstream regulator of the mTOR, can inhibit the activation of mTOR, which plays a critical role in immune responses after bacterial infections. Monocytes are an innate immune cell type that have been shown to be involved in bacteremia. However, how the mTOR pathway is involved in the regulation of monocytes is largely unknown. In our study, TSC1 KO mice and WT mice were infected with E. coli. When compared to WT mice, we found higher mortality, greater numbers of bacteria, decreased expression of coactivators in monocytes, increased numbers of Tregs, and decreased numbers of effector T cells in TSC1 KO mice. Monocytes obtained from TSC1 KO mice produced more ROS, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β and less IL-1, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibited immune functioning in TSC1 KO mice is influenced by mTORC1 activation in monocytes. The reduced expression of coactivators resulted in inhibited effector T cell proliferation. mTORC1-activated monocytes are harmful during bacterial infections. Therefore, inhibiting mTORC1 signaling through rapamycin administration could rescue the harmful aspects of an overactive immune response, and this knowledge provides a new direction for clinical therapy.

  19. The Polyherbal Wattana Formula Displays Anti-Amyloidogenic Properties by Increasing α-Secretase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htoo, Htut Htut; Limsuvan, Suveerawan; Thamsermsang, Onusa; Hernandez, Jean-François; Checler, Frédéric; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Pakaprot, Narawut; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Vincent, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the deposition of insoluble amyloid-β peptides produced from the β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP). Because α-secretase cleavage by ADAM10 and ADAM17 takes place in the middle of Aβ, its activation is considered as a promising anti-AD therapeutic track. Here we establish that the polyherbal Wattana formula (WNF) stimulates sAPPα production in cells of neuronal and non-neuronal origins through an increase of both ADAM10 and ADAM17 catalytic activities with no modification of BACE1 activity and expression. This effect is blocked by specific inhibition or genetic depletion of these disintegrins and we show that WNF up-regulates ADAM10 transcription and ADAM17 maturation. In addition, WNF reduces Aβ40 and Aβ42 generation in human cell lines. Altogether, WNF presents all the characteristics of a potent preventive anti-Alzheimer formula. Importantly, this natural recipe, currently prescribed to patients for the treatment of other symptoms without any secondary effect, can be tested immediately for further clinical studies. PMID:28107420

  20. Is Increasing Coal Seam Gas Well Development Activity Associated with Increasing Hospitalisation Rates in Queensland, Australia? An Exploratory Analysis 1995–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K.; Cameron, Cate M.; Watt, Kerrianne; Vink, Sue; Jagals, Paul; Page, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The majority of Australia’s coal seam gas (CSG) reserves are in Queensland, where the industry has expanded rapidly in recent years. Despite concerns, health data have not been examined alongside CSG development. This study examined hospitalisation rates as a function of CSG development activity in Queensland, during the period 1995–2011. Admissions data were examined with CSG well numbers, which served as a proxy for CSG development activity. Time series models were used to assess changes in hospitalisation rates for periods of “low”, “medium”, “high”, and “intense” activity compared to a period of “very low” activity, adjusting for covariates. “All-cause” hospitalisation rates increased monotonically with increasing gas well development activity in females (324.0 to 390.3 per 1000 persons) and males (294.2 to 335.4 per 1000 persons). Hospitalisation rates for “Blood/immune” conditions generally increased for both sexes. Female and male hospitalisation rates for “Circulatory” conditions decreased with increasing CSG activity. Hospitalisation rates were generally low for reproductive and birth outcomes; no clear associations were observed. This study showed some outcomes were associated with increasing CSG development activity. However, as a condition of data access, the population and outcomes were aggregated to a broad geographic study area rather than using higher geographic resolution data. Higher resolution data, as well as other data sources, should be explored. Further research should be conducted with an expanded time period to determine if these trends continue as the industry grows. PMID:28524113

  1. Prohormone convertase 2 activity is increased in the hippocampus of Wfs1 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eTein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMutations in WFS1 gene cause Wolfram syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy and deafness (DIDMOAD. The WFS1 gene product wolframin is located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mice lacking this gene exhibit disturbances in the processing and secretion of peptides, such as vasopressin and insulin. In the brain, high levels of the wolframin protein have been observed in the hippocampus, amygdala and limbic structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Wfs1 knockout on peptide processing in mouse hippocampus. A peptidomic approach was used to characterize individual peptides in the hippocampus of wild-type and Wfs1 knockout mice. ResultsWe identified 126 peptides in hippocampal extracts and the levels of 10 peptides differed between Wfs1 KO and wild-type mice at P<0.05. The peptide with the largest alteration was little-LEN, which level was 25 times higher in the hippocampus of Wfs1 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Processing (cleavage of little-LEN from the Pcsk1n gene product proSAAS involves prohormone convertase 2 (PC2. Thus, PC2 activity was measured in extracts prepared from the hippocampus of Wfs1 knockout mice. The activity of PC2 in Wfs1 mutant mice was significantly higher (149.9±2.3%, p<0.0001, n=8 than in wild-type mice (100.0±7.0%, n=8. However, Western blot analysis showed that protein levels of 7B2, proPC2 and PC2 were same in both groups, and so were gene expression levels.ConclusionsProcessing of proSAAS is altered in the hippocampus of Wfs1-KO mice, which is caused by increased activity of PC2. Increased activity of PC2 in Wfs1 knockout mice is not caused by alteration in the levels of PC2 protein. Our results suggest a functional link between Wfs1 and PC2. Thus, the detailed molecular mechanism of the role of Wfs1 in the regulation of PC2 activity needs further investigation.

  2. Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975-March 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David; Meier, Mark Frederick; Swanson, Donald A.; with contributions by Babcock, James W.; Fretwell, Marvin O.; Malone, Stephen D.; Rosenfeld, Charles L.; Shreve, Ronald L.; Wilcox, Ray E.

    1977-01-01

    In March 1975 Mount Baker showed a large increase in thermal emission, which has persisted for more than 1 year. Fumarole ejecta accompanied the thermal activity from March to September, but the ejecta had no constituents that suggest a magmatic source. Estimates of that part of the total heat flux that would account for the observed snow and ice loss show that the heat-flow increase was roughly one order of magnitude, from about 2 megawatts at 10 watts per square meter, averaged over Sherman Crater before 1975, to about 30 megawatts at 180 watts per square meter, during 1975. Almost half of the glacier that occupied the basin of Sherman Crater was melted in 1975. The new activity generated great concern among the public and the government agencies responsible for geological evaluation of potential hazards and for protection of life and property. The past geologic history, current topography, rock alteration, and location of major fumarolic activity indicate that large rock avalanches and mudflows on the east slope in Boulder Creek valley are the potential hazards of most significance related to present conditions. The most probable types of large mass movements would be mudflows, having speeds of as much as 50 kilometers per hour, that would originate from mixtures of snow, ice, and melt water and avalanches of structurally weak clay-rich rocks that make up the rim of Sherman Crater. Similar mudflows from the volcano have traveled at least 12 kilometers 8 times during the past 10,000 years. A possible worst case event, however, might be a larger, air-cushioned avalanche of as much as 20 to 30 million cubic meters that could hit Baker Lake at speeds of more than 300 kilometers per hour and generate a wave of water large enough to overtop Upper Baker Dam. At least 30 million cubic meters of potentially unstable material occurs as hydrothermally altered remnants of the rim of Sherman Crater and could provide the required volume for the estimated worst case event or

  3. Increased expression of protease-activated receptor 4 and Trefoil factor 2 in human colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Yu

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4, a member of G-protein coupled receptors family, was recently reported to exhibit decreased expression in gastric cancer and esophageal squamous cancer, yet increased expression during the progression of prostate cancer. Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2, a small peptide constitutively expressed in the gastric mucosa, plays a protective role in restitution of gastric mucosa. Altered TFF2 expression was also related to the development of gastrointestinal cancer. TFF2 has been verified to promote cell migration via PAR4, but the roles of PAR4 and TFF2 in the progress of colorectal cancer are still unknown. In this study, the expression level of PAR4 and TFF2 in colorectal cancer tissues was measured using real-time PCR (n = 38, western blotting (n=38 and tissue microarrays (n = 66. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PAR4 and TFF2 were remarkably increased in colorectal cancer compared with matched noncancerous tissues, especially in positive lymph node and poorly differentiated cancers. The colorectal carcinoma cell LoVo showed an increased response to TFF2 as assessed by cell invasion upon PAR4 expression. However, after intervention of PAR4 expression, PAR4 positive colorectal carcinoma cell HT-29 was less responsive to TFF2 in cell invasion. Genomic bisulfite sequencing showed the hypomethylation of PAR4 promoter in colorectal cancer tissues and the hypermethylation in the normal mucosa that suggested the low methylation of promoter was correlated to the increased PAR4 expression. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of PAR4 and TFF2 frequently occurs in colorectal cancer tissues, and that overexpression of PAR4 may be resulted from promoter hypomethylation. While TFF2 promotes invasion activity of LoVo cells overexpressing PAR4, and this effect was significantly decreased when PAR4 was knockdowned in HT-29 cells. Our findings will be helpful in further investigations into the

  4. Alteration of soil carbon and nitrogen pools and enzyme activities as affected by increased soil coarseness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruzhen; Lü, Linyou; Creamer, Courtney A.; Dijkstra, Feike A.; Liu, Heyong; Feng, Xue; Yu, Guoqing; Han, Xingguo; Jiang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Soil coarseness decreases ecosystem productivity, ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks, and soil nutrient contents in sandy grasslands subjected to desertification. To gain insight into changes in soil C and N pools, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities in response to soil coarseness, a field experiment was conducted by mixing native soil with river sand in different mass proportions: 0, 10, 30, 50, and 70 % sand addition. Four years after establishing plots and 2 years after transplanting, soil organic C and total N concentrations decreased with increased soil coarseness down to 32.2 and 53.7 % of concentrations in control plots, respectively. Soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) declined with soil coarseness down to 44.1 and 51.9 %, respectively, while microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) increased by as much as 73.9 %. Soil coarseness significantly decreased the enzyme activities of β-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, and acid phosphomonoesterase by 20.2-57.5 %, 24.5-53.0 %, and 22.2-88.7 %, used for C, N and P cycling, respectively. However, observed values of soil organic C, dissolved organic C, total dissolved N, available P, MBC, MBN, and MBP were often significantly higher than would be predicted from dilution effects caused by the sand addition. Soil coarseness enhanced microbial C and N limitation relative to P, as indicated by the ratios of β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase to acid phosphomonoesterase (and MBC : MBP and MBN : MBP ratios). Enhanced microbial recycling of P might alleviate plant P limitation in nutrient-poor grassland ecosystems that are affected by soil coarseness. Soil coarseness is a critical parameter affecting soil C and N storage and increases in soil coarseness can enhance microbial C and N limitation relative to P, potentially posing a threat to plant productivity in sandy grasslands suffering from desertification.

  5. Overcrowding stress decreases macrophage activity and increases Salmonella Enteritidis invasion in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A V S; Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Baskeville, E; Akamine, A T; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2014-01-01

    Overcrowding stress is a reality in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations present a reduction of welfare and immunosuppression. We designed this experiment to analyse the effects from overcrowding stress of 16 birds/m(2) on performance parameters, serum corticosterone levels, the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius, plasma IgA and IgG levels, intestinal integrity, macrophage activity and experimental Salmonella Enteritidis invasion. The results of this study indicate that overcrowding stress decreased performance parameters, induced enteritis and decreased macrophage activity and the relative bursa weight in broiler chickens. When the chickens were similarly stressed and infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, there was an increase in feed conversion and a decrease in plasma IgG levels in the stressed and Salmonella-infected birds. We observed moderate enteritis throughout the duodenum of chickens stressed and infected with Salmonella. The overcrowding stress decreased the macrophage phagocytosis intensity and increased Salmonella Enteritidis counts in the livers of birds challenged with the pathogenic bacterium. Overcrowding stress via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is associated with an increase in corticosterone and enteritis might influence the quality of the intestinal immune barrier and the integrity of the small intestine. This effect allowed pathogenic bacteria to migrate through the intestinal mucosa, resulting in inflammatory infiltration and decreased nutrient absorption. The data strengthen the hypothesis that control of the welfare of chickens and avoidance of stress from overcrowding in poultry production are relevant factors for the maintenance of intestinal integrity, performance and decreased susceptibility to Salmonella infection.

  6. ANALYSIS OF MARKETING TOOLS AND ACTIVITIES WITHIN EDUCATIONAL SERVICES ORGANIZATIONS, IN ORDER TO INCREASE THEIR EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbu Andreea Mihaela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian education, which is an important pillar for human resource forming process and the basis for economic development, suffered a lot of changes in the last decades. The main factors that have influenced the undergraduate and university training programs are the political and social-cultural ones. Educational services organizations are facing various challenges as: creating and maintaining a good institutional image, managing all types of resources efficiently, motivating the academic personnel, satisfying the community needs and supporting the public policy. The marketing tools and activities help these entities to improve the educational programs and adapt them to the individual needs of the clients, to keep under control the production costs, which are limited by the small public budget and to perform and promote these services efficiently, leading to an increased organizational performance. The paper begins by presenting the current situation of higher education in Romania, underlining the fierce competition among the universities, the increased market potential and the financing sources. It continues by mentioning the advantages of strategic marketing planning for universities, as superior results and effectiveness, improved decision making and multiple benefits for the people involved. The paper reveals also the characteristics of segmenting and positioning on higher education market and the specific of marketing mix. Thereby, educational product is more easily adapted to customer needs when it is designed in collaboration with existing and future students, their parents, with other universities in the field or even with graduates. Students themselves can contribute to the increase the quality of their education. Price may be a factor of choice when future student chooses to pursue a university course, especially in those situations where the price does not include only the payment of annual fees for education. Distribution takes into

  7. Increased activation of blood coagulation in pregnant women with the Factor V Leiden mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, Ulla; van Rooijen, Marianne; Bremme, Katarina; Hellgren, Margareta

    2014-10-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism is enhanced in pregnant carriers of the Factor V Leiden mutation. The primary aim of the study was to compare prothrombin fragments 1+2, soluble fibrin and D-dimer levels in pregnant Factor V Leiden mutation carriers with those in non-carriers. Secondary aims were to evaluate whether these biomarkers could predict placenta-mediated complications or venous thromboembolism, and to study blood coagulation after caesarean section with thromboprophylaxis and after vaginal delivery without thromboprophylaxis. Prothrombin fragments 1+2, soluble fibrin and D-dimer levels were studied longitudinally in 476 carriers with singleton pregnancies from gestational weeks 23-25 until 8-10 weeks postpartum. Prothrombin fragments 1+2 and D-dimer levels gradually increased during pregnancy. D-dimer levels were higher in carriers, both during pregnancy and puerperium, compared to non-carriers. D-dimer levels above 0.5mg/l were found in about 30% and 20% of the heterozygous carriers at 4-5 and 8-10 weeks postpartum, respectively. Soluble fibrin levels were mainly unchanged during pregnancy, with no difference between carriers and non-carriers. Biomarker levels were similar in carriers with uncomplicated and complicated pregnancies. Higher D-dimer levels indicate increased blood coagulation and fibrinolysis activity in carriers. The high proportion of carriers with D-dimer levels exceeding 0.5mg/l postpartum must be considered when assessing the probability of venous thromboembolism. Large overlaps in biomarker levels in normal and complicated pregnancies suggest that these biomarkers cannot be used as predictors. Thromboprophylaxis following caesarean section may prevent increased activation of blood coagulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Coriandrum sativum Suppresses Aβ42-Induced ROS Increases, Glial Cell Proliferation, and ERK Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan Feng; Jeong, Haemin; Lee, Jang Ho; Hong, Yoon Ki; Oh, Youngje; Kim, Young-Mi; Suh, Yoon Seok; Bang, Semin; Yun, Hye Sup; Lee, Kyungho; Cho, Sung Man; Lee, Sung Bae; Jeon, Songhee; Chin, Young-Won; Koo, Byung-Soo; Cho, Kyoung Sang

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease, has a complex and widespread pathology that is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid [Formula: see text]-peptide (A[Formula: see text]) in the brain and various cellular abnormalities, including increased oxidative damage, an amplified inflammatory response, and altered mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Based on the complex etiology of AD, traditional medicinal plants with multiple effective components are alternative treatments for patients with AD. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of an ethanol extract of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) leaves on A[Formula: see text] cytotoxicity and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects. Although recent studies have shown the benefits of the inhalation of C. sativum oil in an animal model of AD, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which C. sativum exerts its neuroprotective effects are unclear. Here, we found that treatment with C. sativum extract increased the survival of both A[Formula: see text]-treated mammalian cells and [Formula: see text]42-expressing flies. Moreover, C. sativum extract intake suppressed [Formula: see text]-induced cell death in the larval imaginal disc and brain without affecting A[Formula: see text]42 expression and accumulation. Interestingly, the increases in reactive oxygen species levels and glial cell number in AD model flies were reduced by C. sativum extract intake. Additionally, C. sativum extract inhibited the epidermal growth factor receptor- and A[Formula: see text]-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The constitutively active form of ERK abolished the protective function of C. sativum extract against the [Formula: see text]-induced eye defect phenotype in Drosophila. Taken together, these results suggest that C. sativum leaves have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and ERK signaling inhibitory properties that

  9. Bari-Active: A randomized controlled trial of a preoperative intervention to increase physical activity in bariatric surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Dale S.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Thomas, J. Graham; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Unick, Jessica L.; Jakicic, John M.; Pohl, Dieter; Ryder, Beth A.; Roye, G. Dean; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Habitual physical activity (PA) may help to optimize bariatric surgery outcomes; however objective PA measures show that most patients have low PA preoperatively and make only modest PA changes postoperatively. Patients require additional support to adopt habitual PA. Objectives: Test the efficacy of a preoperative PA intervention (PAI) versus standard pre-surgical care (SC) for increasing daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in bariatric surgery patients. Setting: University Hospital, United States. Methods: Outcomes analysis included 75 participants (86.7% women; 46.0±8.9 years; Body Mass Index [BMI]=45.0±6.5 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned preoperatively to 6 weeks of PAI (n=40) or SC (n=35). PAI received weekly individual face-to-face sessions with tailored instruction in behavioral strategies (e.g., self-monitoring, goal-setting) to increase home-based walking exercise. The primary outcome, pre- to post-intervention change in daily bout-related (≥10-min bouts) and total (≥1-minute bouts) MVPA minutes, was assessed objectively via a multi-sensor monitor worn for 7 days at baseline- and post-intervention. Results: Retention was 84% at the post-intervention primary end point. In intent-to-treat analyses with baseline value carried forward for missing data and adjusted for baseline MVPA, PAI achieved a mean increase of 16.6±20.6 minutes/day in bout-related MVPA (baseline: 4.4±5.5 to post-intervention: 21.0±21.4 minutes/day) compared to no change (−0.3±12.7 minutes/day; baseline: 7.9±16.6 to post-intervention: 7.6±11.5 minutes/day) for SC (p=0.001). Similarly, PAI achieved a mean increase of 21.0±26.9 minutes/day in total MVPA (baseline: 30.9±21.2 to post-intervention: 51.9±30.0 minutes/day), whereas SC demonstrated no change (− 0.1±16.3 minutes/day; baseline: 33.7±33.2 to post-intervention: 33.6±28.5 minutes/day) (p=0.001). Conclusions: With behavioral intervention, patients can significantly increase MVPA before bariatric

  10. Activity of the anterior cingulate cortex and ventral hippocampus underlie increases in contextual fear generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Patrick K; Gilman, T Lee; Winiecki, Patrick; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Memories for context become less specific with time resulting in animals generalizing fear from training contexts to novel contexts. Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of a context fear memory, very little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the increase in fear generalization that occurs as the memory ages. Here, we examine the neural pattern of activation underlying the expression of a generalized context fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Animals were context fear conditioned and tested for fear in either the training context or a novel context at recent and remote time points. Animals were sacrificed and fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed to assay neural activation. Our results demonstrate activity of the prelimbic, infralimbic, and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices as well as the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) underlie expression of a generalized fear memory. To verify the involvement of the ACC and vHPC in the expression of a generalized fear memory, animals were context fear conditioned and infused with 4% lidocaine into the ACC, dHPC, or vHPC prior to retrieval to temporarily inactivate these structures. The results demonstrate that activity of the ACC and vHPC is required for the expression of a generalized fear memory, as inactivation of these regions returned the memory to a contextually precise form. Current theories of time-dependent generalization of contextual memories do not predict involvement of the vHPC. Our data suggest a novel role of this region in generalized memory, which should be incorporated into current theories of time-dependent memory generalization. We also show that the dorsal hippocampus plays a prolonged role in contextually precise memories. Our findings suggest a possible interaction between the ACC and vHPC controls the expression of fear generalization.

  11. Does PKC activation increase the homologous desensitization of μ opioid receptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arttamangkul, Seksiri; Birdsong, William; Williams, John T

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of agents known to activate PKC on morphine-induced desensitization of μ-opioid receptors (MOP receptors) in brain slices containing locus coeruleus neurons. Intracellular recordings were obtained from rat locus coeruleus neurons. Two measurements were used to characterize desensitization, the decline in hyperpolarization induced by application of a saturating concentration of agonist (acute desensitization) and the decrease in hyperpolarization induced by a subsaturating concentration of [Met](5) enkephalin (ME) following washout of the saturating concentration (sustained desensitization). Internalization of MOP receptors was studied in brain slices prepared from transgenic mice expressing Flag-MOP receptors. The subcellular distribution of activated PKC was examined using a novel fluorescent sensor of PKC in HEK293 cells. The phorbol esters (PMA and PDBu) and muscarine increased acute desensitization induced by a saturating concentration of morphine and ME. These effects were not sensitive to staurosporine. Staurosporine did not block the decline in hyperpolarization induced by muscarine. PDBu and muscarine did not affect sustained desensitization induced by ME nor did phorbol esters or muscarine change the trafficking of MOP receptors induced by morphine or ME. The distribution of activated PKC measured in HEK293 cells differed depending on which phorbol ester was applied. This study demonstrates a distinct difference in two measurements that are often used to evaluate desensitization. The measure of decline correlated well with the reduction in peak amplitudes caused by PKC activators implicating the modification of other factors rather than MOP receptors. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. [Consequences of increasing and ageing population of Basse-Normandie on gynecology and obstetrics activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandon, M; Macé, J-M; Dreyfus, M; Berger, L

    2015-11-01

    In Basse-Normandie, the population over 65 years old will expend more rapidly between 2007 and 2042 (+11.6%) than the rest of the French population (+9.2%). The same population of Basse-Normandie will get old in the 15 years to come. The impact of these demographic changes over the activity in the gynecology-obstetrics field is not clearly identified. Although we cannot predict the technical and scientific developments in the next 15 years, we are presenting a model allowing to hypothesize about changes of gynecology and obstetrics according to population's aging. We have established a projection model for the realizable surgical acts in obstetrics and gynecology in accordance with the aging of the population in Basse-Normandie. The study was realized based on the acts concerning the cesarean sections (C-section), tubal sterilization, hysteroscopy and hysterectomy as well as ovarectomy and breast surgery. For each activity branch, the codes of the Classification commune des actes médicaux (CCAM) were selected and then removed from the Programme médicalisé des systèmes d'information (PMSI) database. We have used and adapted the Omphale model of the National Statistics and Economical Studies Institute and we have applied it for the period of 2009-2025. Our projection model has permeated to show a 5.5% regression of the C-section acts, a 2% incretion of the hysterectomies and hysteroscopies, 7.7% of ovarectomies as well as a 9.8% augmentation of the breast surgeries. However, we predict a 11.8% diminution of the sterilizations by tubal implants. Globally, the activity in obstetrics and gynecology will remain constant with an insignificant augmentation of 46 acts (0.01%). In Basse-Normandie, the surgical activity in gynecology-obstetrics will moderately increase in the next 15 years. This constant activity signifies that there is no need to form more residents than the number of practitioner to retire. The interest of this model is that it is applicable at a

  13. Republic of Kazakhstan: Capacity Building through the Increasing of Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, G.

    Currently, a new space policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is being formulated. Basic directions are: Adherence to principal agreements of the International Space Law. Optimal utilization and modernization of the Baikonur spaceport launch infrastructure. Creation of the national satellite communication system In accordance with the above listed goals and objectives, the following priority actions should be taken in national level: Increasing of the National activities in COPUOS Developing of the National space activities Program and Space activities Act; Funding of a new and upgraded facilities at the Baikonur spaceport; Creating of the educational and training system for national space industry In 2004 Kazakhstan-Russia cooperation in space activities has entered to a new perspectives. Both countries proceeded to develop joint projects in the field of space activities connected to modernization of existing space infrastructure of the Baikonur spaceport for launchers that meet requirements of ecological security. Three relevant bilateral agreements were signed. All signed documents ensure more wide participation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in realization of space programs and projects implemented at the Baikonur spaceport through shared financing and realization jointly with Russia of projects on building of the space missile complex ``Baiterek'' and launching of geostationary communication satellite. It opens great opportunities for Kazakhstan in terms of capacity building. Implementation of the mentioned two projects will allow to use the available scientific, technical and intellectual potential of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of space activities, and to utilize effectively the infrastructure of Baikonur complex, to get affordable access to space technologies, to create conditions for development, test and operation of space facilities, new science --capacity technologies that will lead to close integration with Russian space industry and with

  14. Dextromethorphan Efficiently Increases Bactericidal Activity, Attenuates Inflammatory Responses, and Prevents Group A Streptococcal Sepsis▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Han; Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Lu, Shiou-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2011-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from mild throat and skin infections to severe invasive diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Dextromethorphan (DM), a dextrorotatory morphinan and a widely used antitussive drug, has recently been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of DM in GAS infection using an air pouch infection mouse model. Our results showed that DM treatment increased the survival rate of GAS-infected mice. Bacterial numbers in the air pouch were lower in mice treated with DM than in those infected with GAS alone. The bacterial elimination efficacy was associated with increased cell viability and bactericidal activity of air-pouch-infiltrating cells. Moreover, DM treatment prevented bacterial dissemination in the blood and reduced serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-1β and the chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), and RANTES. In addition, GAS-induced mouse liver injury was reduced by DM treatment. Taken together, DM can increase bacterial killing and reduce inflammatory responses to prevent sepsis in GAS infection. The consideration of DM as an adjunct treatment in combination with antibiotics against bacterial infection warrants further study. PMID:21199930

  15. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  16. Activation of 5-HT7 receptors increases neuronal platelet-derived growth factor β receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasefi, Maryam S; Kruk, Jeff S; Liu, Hui; Heikkila, John J; Beazely, Michael A

    2012-03-09

    Several antipsychotics have a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors yet despite intense interest in the 5-HT7 receptor as a potential drug target to treat psychosis, the function and signaling properties of 5-HT7 receptors in neurons remain largely uncharacterized. In primary mouse hippocampal and cortical neurons, as well as in the SH-SY5Y cell line, incubation with 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), or 5-HT7 receptor-selective agonists increases the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)β receptors. The increased PDGFβ receptor expression is cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-dependent, suggesting that 5-HT7 receptors couple to Gα(s) in primary neurons. Interestingly, up-regulated PDGFβ receptors display an increased basal phosphorylation state at the phospholipase Cγ-activating tyrosine 1021. This novel linkage between the 5-HT7 receptor and the PDGF system may be an important GPCR-neurotrophic factor signaling pathway in neurons.

  17. An upstream activator of transcription coordinately increases the level and epigenetic stability of gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, Wendy; Fiering, Steven; Groudine, Mark; Martin, David I. K.

    1996-01-01

    The mouse metallothionein-I (mMT-I) promoter is activated by the metal response element-binding transcription factor (MTF), which binds metal response elements (MREs) when stimulated with heavy metals. We analyzed eight K562 erythroleukemia cell clones, each carrying a single integrated copy of an mMT-I/β-geo construct, using a system that can independently assess the level of β-geo expression and the rate at which it is silenced. In these clones, basal expression and rate of silencing vary widely and independently with integration site. This implies that the rates of transcription and of silencing are separate properties determined by interaction of the regulatory elements of the transgene with the site of integration. Induction of the mMT-I promoter with zinc both increases expression level and strongly retards silencing of β-geo expression. At a given integration site, expression level and silencing are affected coordinately by induction. Taken together with earlier studies of distant metal-responsive elements, these results suggest that distance from the promoter may determine whether a factor can increase transcription rate. Stimulation of an MRE can both increase transcription and overcome repressive effects of chromatin; we suggest that these functions are linked. PMID:8943035

  18. Increasing Student Physical Fitness through Increased Choice of Fitness Activities and Student Designed Fitness Activities for Ninth through Twelfth Graders in Physical Education Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Margo A.

    2011-01-01

    This action research project report began when the teacher researcher determined that students exhibited physical fitness levels below that of the state and national norms, and also displayed negative attitudes about physical education. The purpose of this action research project was to increase physical fitness and fitness attitudes through…

  19. Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    1999-12-01

    Amino acids modulate the secretion of both insulin and glucagon; the composition of dietary protein therefore has the potential to influence the balance of glucagon and insulin activity. Soy protein, as well as many other vegan proteins, are higher in non-essential amino acids than most animal-derived food proteins, and as a result should preferentially favor glucagon production. Acting on hepatocytes, glucagon promotes (and insulin inhibits) cAMP-dependent mechanisms that down-regulate lipogenic enzymes and cholesterol synthesis, while up-regulating hepatic LDL receptors and production of the IGF-I antagonist IGFBP-1. The insulin-sensitizing properties of many vegan diets--high in fiber, low in saturated fat--should amplify these effects by down-regulating insulin secretion. Additionally, the relatively low essential amino acid content of some vegan diets may decrease hepatic IGF-I synthesis. Thus, diets featuring vegan proteins can be expected to lower elevated serum lipid levels, promote weight loss, and decrease circulating IGF-I activity. The latter effect should impede cancer induction (as is seen in animal studies with soy protein), lessen neutrophil-mediated inflammatory damage, and slow growth and maturation in children. In fact, vegans tend to have low serum lipids, lean physiques, shorter stature, later puberty, and decreased risk for certain prominent 'Western' cancers; a vegan diet has documented clinical efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis. Low-fat vegan diets may be especially protective in regard to cancers linked to insulin resistance--namely, breast and colon cancer--as well as prostate cancer; conversely, the high IGF-I activity associated with heavy ingestion of animal products may be largely responsible for the epidemic of 'Western' cancers in wealthy societies. Increased phytochemical intake is also likely to contribute to the reduction of cancer risk in vegans. Regression of coronary stenoses has been documented during low-fat vegan diets

  20. Activity-based simulation using DEVS:increasing performance by an activity model in parallel DEVS simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin CHEN; Lao-bing ZHANG; Xiao-cheng LIU; Hans VANGHELUWE

    2014-01-01

    Improving simulation performance using activity tracking has attracted attention in the modeling field in recent years. The reference to activity has been successfully used to predict and promote the simulation performance. Tracking activity, how-ever, uses only the inherent performance information contained in the models. To extend activity prediction in modeling, we propose the activity enhanced modeling with an activity meta-model at the meta-level. The meta-model provides a set of interfaces to model activity in a specific domain. The activity model transformation in subsequence is devised to deal with the simulation difference due to the heterogeneous activity model. Finally, the resource-aware simulation framework is implemented to integrate the activity models in activity-based simulation. The case study shows the improvement brought on by activity-based simulation using discrete event system specification (DEVS).

  1. Insulin acts in the arcuate nucleus to increase lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and baroreflex function in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassaglia, Priscila A; Hermes, Sam M; Aicher, Sue A; Brooks, Virginia L

    2011-01-01

    Non‐technical summary  Though the pancreatic hormone insulin is known to act in the brain to increase sympathetic nerve activity and baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity, its specific site of action had yet to be identified...

  2. Orexin activation precedes increased NPY expression, hyperphagia, and metabolic changes in response to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Paulo José Forcina; Marques, Marina Soares; Tufik, Sergio; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2010-03-01

    Several pieces of evidence support that sleep duration plays a role in body weight control. Nevertheless, it has been assumed that, after the identification of orexins (hypocretins), the molecular basis of the interaction between sleep and energy homeostasis has been provided. However, no study has verified the relationship between neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin changes during hyperphagia induced by sleep deprivation. In the current study we aimed to establish the time course of changes in metabolite, endocrine, and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression of Wistar rats sleep deprived by the platform method for a distinct period (from 24 to 96 h) or sleep restricted for 21 days (SR-21d). Despite changes in the stress hormones, we found no changes in food intake and body weight in the SR-21d group. However, sleep-deprived rats had a 25-35% increase in their food intake from 72 h accompanied by slight weight loss. Such changes were associated with increased hypothalamus mRNA levels of prepro-orexin (PPO) at 24 h followed by N