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Sample records for increased postoperative responsiveness

  1. No evidence for generalized increased postoperative responsiveness to pain: a combined behavioral and serial functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C G; Christensen, Rune

    2009-01-01

    area and to the lower forearm, a site remote from the surgical area. A group of eight age- and sex-matched control subjects underwent the same two-test procedure except that they were not submitted to an orthopedic surgical intervention. RESULTS: Subjective pain and brain responses to innocuous...... and noxious stimulation were not increased postoperatively. Actually, responses in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex for stimulation of the operated leg were significantly smaller after surgery. Brain responses in the control group did not differ significantly across the two sessions. CONCLUSION......BACKGROUND: Although it is generally accepted that increased pain responsiveness and central sensitization develop after major tissue injury, this claim has not been tested using brain imaging methods in a clinical pain setting. We tested this hypothesis using a postoperative pain model...

  2. Ranitidine improves postoperative suppression of antibody response to preoperative vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the histamine-2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 mg intravenously every 12 hours for 72 hours) on postoperative serum antibody responses to preoperative immunization with six limit of flocculation tetanus toxoid and six limit of flocculation diphtheria toxoid was assessed...... in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study in 26 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The preoperative antitetanus antibody level was less than 0.1 IU/ml in all patients, and they were inoculated with both antigens 48 hours before surgery. Serum samples for analysis of antitetanus toxoid...... and antidiphtheria toxoid were drawn before skin incision and on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. Ranitidine significantly increased the postoperative antibody response to tetanus toxoid, (p less than 0.01) and insignificantly increased that to diphtheria toxoid vaccination (p less than 0...

  3. Orthostatic intolerance and the cardiovascular response to early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Jørgensen, T B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A key element in enhanced postoperative recovery is early mobilization which, however, may be hindered by orthostatic intolerance, that is, an inability to sit or stand because of symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion as intolerable dizziness, nausea and vomiting, feeling of heat...... of orthostatic intolerance. In contrast, 8 (50%) and 2 (12%) patients were orthostatic intolerant at 6 and approximately 22 h after surgery, respectively. Before surgery, SAP, DAP, and TPR increased (P0.05) and Scv(O2) decreased (P... the preoperative evaluation (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The early postoperative postural cardiovascular response is impaired after radical prostatectomy with a risk of orthostatic intolerance, limiting early postoperative mobilization. The pathogenic mechanisms include both impaired TPR and CO responses....

  4. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in relation to postural change. METHODS: A standardized mobilization protocol before, 6 and 24 h after surgery was performed in 23 patients scheduled for elective THA. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure was measured by photoplethysmography and HRV was derived from pulse wave interbeat intervals and analysed......BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating...... and postural responses in arterial pressures decreased compared to preoperative conditions. During standing HF variation increased by 16.7 (95 % CI 8.0-25.0) normalized units (nu) at 6 h and 10.7 (2.0-19.4) nu at 24 h compared to the preoperative evaluation. At 24 h the LF/HF ratio decreased from 1.8 (1...

  5. Preoperative anemia increases postoperative morbidity in elective cranial neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydon, Mohamad; Abt, Nicholas B.; Macki, Mohamed; Brem, Henry; Huang, Judy; Bydon, Ali; Tamargo, Rafael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative anemia may affect postoperative mortality and morbidity following elective cranial operations. Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to identify elective cranial neurosurgical cases (2006-2012). Morbidity was defined as wound infection, systemic infection, cardiac, respiratory, renal, neurologic, and thromboembolic events, and unplanned returns to the operating room. For 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 8015 patients who underwent elective cranial neurosurgery, 1710 patients (21.4%) were anemic. Anemic patients had an increased 30-day mortality of 4.1% versus 1.3% in non-anemic patients (P neurosurgery was independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity when compared to non-anemic patients. A hematocrit level below 33% (Hgb 11 g/dl) was associated with a significant increase in postoperative morbidity. PMID:25422784

  6. Post-operative delirium is associated with increased 5-year mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Eliza E; Overbey, Douglas M; Jones, Teresa S; Jones, Edward L; Arcomano, Todd R; Moore, John T; Robinson, Thomas N

    2017-12-01

    Post-operative delirium is associated with increased short term morbidity and mortality. Limited data exists on long term outcomes for older adults with postoperative delirium. We hypothesize that postoperative delirium is associated with increased 5-year mortality. Patients ≥50 years undergoing elective operations with planned intensive care unit (ICU) admissions were prospectively enrolled. The Confusion Assessment Method ICU (CAM-ICU) was used to diagnose delirium. The primary outcome variable was 5-year mortality. 172 patients were enrolled with an average age of 64 years. The overall incidence of delirium was 44% (75/172). At 5-years post-operatively, mortality was higher (59%, 41/70) in patients with delirium compared to patients without delirium (13%, 12/94, p delirium were 7.35 fold greater (95% CI: 1.49-36.18). Postoperative delirium is associated with increased long term mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Ankylosing Spondylitis Increases Perioperative and Postoperative Complications After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, Daniel J; Penrose, Colin T; Sheets, Charles Z; Seyler, Thorsten M; Bolognesi, Michael P; Brown, Christopher R

    2017-08-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic autoimmune spondyloarthropathy that primarily affects the axial spine and hips. Progressive disease leads to pronounced spinal kyphosis, positive sagittal balance, and altered biomechanics. The purpose of this study is to determine the complication profile of patients with AS undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). The Medicare sample was searched from 2005 to 2012 yielding 1006 patients with AS who subsequently underwent THA. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for 90-day, 2-year, and the final postoperative follow-up for complications including hip dislocation, periprosthetic fracture, wound complication, revision THA, and postoperative infection. Compared to controls, AS patients had an RR of 2.50 (CI, 1.04-5.99) of THA component breakage at 90-days post-operatively and 1.99 (CI, 1.10-3.59) at 2-years. The RR of periprosthetic hip dislocation was elevated at 90 days (1.44; CI, 0.93-2.22) and significantly increased at 2-years (1.67; CI, 1.25-2.23) and overall follow-up (1.49; CI, 1.14-1.93). Similarly, the RR for THA revision was elevated at 90-days (1.46; CI, 0.97-2.18) and significantly increased at 2-years (1.69; CI, 1.33-2.14) and overall follow-up (1.51; CI, 1.23-1.85). Patients with AS are at increased risk for complications after THA. Altered biomechanics from a rigid, kyphotic spine place increased demand on the hip joints. The elevated perioperative and postoperative risks should be discussed preoperatively, and these patients may require increased preoperative medical optimization as well as possible changes in component selection and position to compensate for altered spinopelvic biomechanics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prior inpatient admission increases the risk of post-operative infection in hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zachary M; Chidi, Alexis P; Goswami, Julie; Han, Katrina; Simmons, Richard L; Rosengart, Matthew R; Tsung, Allan

    2015-12-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HPB) operations have a high incidence of post-operative nosocomial infections. The aim of the present study was to determine whether hospitalization up to 1 year before HPB surgery is associated with an increased risk of post-operative infection, surgical-site infection (SSI) and infection resistant to surgical chemoprophylaxis. A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing HPB surgeries between January 2008 and June 2013 was conducted. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for controlling for potential confounders to determine the association between pre-operative admission and post-operative infection. Of the 1384 patients who met eligibility criteria, 127 (9.18%) experienced a post-operative infection. Pre-operative hospitalization was independently associated with an increased risk of a post-operative infection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.46] and SSI (aOR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-2.97). Pre-operative hospitalization was also associated with an increased risk of post-operative infections resistant to standard pre-operative antibiotics (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.06-6.59) and an increased risk of resistant SSIs (OR: 3.99, 95% CI: 1.25-12.73). Pre-operative hospitalization is associated with an increased incidence of post-operative infections, often with organisms that are resistant to surgical chemoprophylaxis. Patients hospitalized up to 1 year before HPB surgery may benefit from extended spectrum chemoprophylaxis. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  9. Alcohol Consumption Increases Post-Operative Infection but Not Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption causes multiple comorbidities with potentially negative outcome after operations. The aims are to study the association between alcohol consumption and post-operative non-surgical site infections and mortality and to determine the impact of peri-operative...... alcohol consumption and mortality was found. Meta-analyses of RCTs showed that interventions reduce infections but not mortality in patients with alcohol abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of more than two units of alcohol per day increases post-operative non-surgical site infections. Alcohol...... for observational studies and RCTs. RESULTS: Thirteen observational studies and five RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed more infections in those consuming more than two units of alcohol per day compared with drinking less in both unadjusted and adjusted data. No association between...

  10. Low-Dose Epinephrine Plus Tranexamic Acid Reduces Early Postoperative Blood Loss and Inflammatory Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Nan; Liu, Jun-Li; Wang, Fu-You; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Liu

    2018-02-21

    The reductions of perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response are important in total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid reduced blood loss and the inflammatory response in several studies. However, the effect of epinephrine administration plus tranexamic acid has not been intensively investigated, to our knowledge. In this study, we evaluated whether the combined administration of low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid reduced perioperative blood loss or inflammatory response further compared with tranexamic acid alone. This randomized placebo-controlled trial consisted of 179 consecutive patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomized into 3 interventions: Group IV received intravenous low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, Group TP received topical diluted epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, and Group CT received tranexamic acid alone. The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes included perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 3, coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters (measured by thromboelastography), inflammatory cytokine levels, transfusion values (rate and volume), thromboembolic complications, length of hospital stay, wound score, range of motion, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score. The mean calculated total blood loss (and standard deviation) in Group IV was 348.1 ± 158.2 mL on postoperative day 1 and 458.0 ± 183.4 mL on postoperative day 3, which were significantly reduced (p 0.05). The combined administration of low-dose epinephrine and tranexamic acid demonstrated an increased effect in reducing perioperative blood loss and the inflammatory response compared with tranexamic acid alone, with no apparent increased incidence of thromboembolic and other complications. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Dahl, J B

    1993-01-01

    also modify various aspects of the surgical stress response, and nociceptive blockade by regional anesthetic techniques has been demonstrated to improve various parameters of postoperative outcome. It is therefore stressed that effective control of postoperative pain, combined with a high degree......Treatment of postoperative pain has not received sufficient attention by the surgical profession. Recent developments concerned with acute pain physiology and improved techniques for postoperative pain relief should result in more satisfactory treatment of postoperative pain. Such pain relief may...

  12. Prediction of postoperative pain by preoperative pain response to heat stimulation in total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels H; Gaarn-Larsen, Lissi; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that up to 54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience may be predicted with preoperative pain responses to experimental stimuli, with suprathreshold heat pain as the most consistent test modality. We aimed to explore if 2 heat test paradigms could predict postopera......It has been estimated that up to 54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience may be predicted with preoperative pain responses to experimental stimuli, with suprathreshold heat pain as the most consistent test modality. We aimed to explore if 2 heat test paradigms could predict...... and logistic regressions analyses were carried out including 8 potential preoperative explanatory variables (among these anxiety, depression, preoperative pain and pain catastrophizing) to assess pain response to preoperative heat pain stimulation as independent predictor for postoperative pain. 100 patients...... by the linear and logistic regression analyses, where only anxiety, preoperative pain and pain catastrophizing were significant explanatory variables (but with low R-Squares;0.05-0.08). Pain responses to 2 types of preoperative heat stimuli were not independent clinical relevant predictors for postoperative...

  13. Shoulder Arthroplasty for Humeral Head Avascular Necrosis Is Associated With Increased Postoperative Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, M Tyrrell; Cancienne, Jourdan M; Boatright, Jeffrey D; Yang, Scott; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Werner, Brian C

    2018-02-01

    Humeral head avascular necrosis (AVN) of differing etiologies may lead to shoulder arthroplasty due to subchondral bone collapse and deformity of the articular surface. There have been no large studies evaluating the complications for these patients after they undergo total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). The first objective of this study is to evaluate the complication rate after TSA in patients with humeral head AVN. The secondary objective is to compare the complication rates among the different etiologies of the AVN. Patients who underwent TSA were identified in the PearlDiver database using ICD-9 codes. Patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty for humeral head AVN were identified using ICD-9 codes and were subclassified according to AVN etiology (posttraumatic, alcohol use, chronic steroid use, and idiopathic). Complications evaluated included postoperative infection within 6 months, dislocation within 1 year, revision shoulder arthroplasty up to 8 years postoperatively, shoulder stiffness within 1 year, and periprosthetic fracture within 1 year and systemic complications within 3 months. Postoperative complication rates were compared to controls. The study cohorts included 4129 TSA patients with AVN with 141,778 control TSA patients. Patients with posttraumatic AVN were significantly more likely to have a postoperative infection (OR 2.47, P  AVN was associated with a significantly increased risk for a postoperative infection (OR 1.72, P  = 0.004), revision surgery (OR 1.33, P  = 0.040), fracture (OR 2.76, P  = 0.002), and systemic complication (OR 1.59, P  AVN were not significantly associated with any of the postoperative evaluated complications. TSA in patients with humeral head AVN is associated with significantly increased rates of numerous postoperative complications compared to patients without a diagnosis of AVN, including infection, dislocation, revision arthroplasty, stiffness, periprosthetic fracture, and medical complications

  14. Immediate post-operative responses to transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Nielsen, Susanne; Lisby, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Conventional treatment for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis is surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), but transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a reliable alternative in high-risk patients.Aims:The aim of our study was to describe the post......-operative patient response to TAVI on the evening of the procedure and the following day before discharge from the coronary care unit. A secondary aim was to compare responses of patients younger and older than 80 years of age.Methods:A prospective, comparative observational study triangulating nurse assessment...

  15. Thermo-responsive in-situ forming hydrogels as barriers to prevent post-operative peritendinous adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Pang-Yun; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chen, Shih-Hsien; Fong, Yi Teng; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess whether thermo-responsive in-situ forming hydrogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) could prevent post-operative peritendinous adhesion. The clinical advantages of the thermo-responsive hydrogels are acting as barrier material to block penetration of fibroblasts, providing mobility and flexibility during application and enabling injection through a small opening to fill spaces of any shape after surgery. The thermo-responsiveness of hydrogels was determined to ensure their clinic uses. By grafting hydrophilic biopolymers chitosan (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) to PNIPAM, the copolymer hydrogels show enhanced water retention and lubrication, while reduced volume shrinkage during phase transition. In cell culture experiments, the thermo-responsive hydrogel has good biocompatibility and reduces fibroblast penetration. In animal experiments, the effectiveness of preventing post-operative peritendinous adhesion was studied in a rabbit deep flexor tendon model. From gross examination, histology, bending angles of joints, tendon gliding excursion and pull-out force, HA-CS-PNIPAM (HACPN) was confirmed to be the best barrier material to prevent post-operative peritendinous adhesion compared to PNIPAM and CS-PNIPAM (CPN) hydrogels and a commercial barrier film Seprafilm®. There was no significant difference in the breaking strength of HACPN-treated tendons and spontaneously healed ones, indicating HACPN hydrogel application did not interfere with normal tendon healing. We conclude that HACPN hydrogel can provide the best functional outcomes to significantly prevent post-operative tendon adhesion in vivo. We prepared thermo-responsive in-situ forming hydrogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) to prevent post-operative peritendinous adhesion. The injectable barrier hydrogel could have better anti-adhesive properties than current commercial products by acting as barrier material to block penetration of fibroblasts

  16. is there an increased risk of post-operative surgical site infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... requiring implant orthopaedic surgery are at an increased risk for post-operative surgical ... further studies should determine the effect of reduced CD4 counts, viral load .... Language not Enlish, French, Ducth or German (n=2).

  17. The effect of dietary fatty acids on post-operative inflammatory response in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    ), sunflower oil (SO, n 28), or animal fat (AF, n 28) was evaluated with respect to post-operative responses in inflammatory markers in a porcine model on aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection. In the early post-operative period (0 necrosis factor...

  18. Postoperative care: From a legal point of view, whose responsibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ear, nose and throat surgeon recently asked if anyone else would be responsible postoperatively for removing a patient's throat pack that had been negligently left in place by the anaesthetist. Generally, members of the operating or treatment team such as anaesthetists, surgeons and circulating nurses are not legally ...

  19. Prediction of postoperative pain by preoperative pain response to heat stimulation in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Troels H; Gaarn-Larsen, Lissi; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-09-01

    It has been estimated that up to 54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience may be predicted with preoperative pain responses to experimental stimuli, with suprathreshold heat pain as the most consistent test modality. This study aimed to explore whether 2 heat test paradigms could predict postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients scheduled for elective, unilateral, primary TKA under spinal anesthesia were consecutively included in this prospective, observational study. Perioperative analgesia was standardized for all patients. Outcomes were postoperative pain during walk: from 6 to 24 hours (primary), from postoperative day (POD) 1 to 7 (secondary), and from POD 14 to 30 (tertiary). Two preoperative tonic heat stimuli with 47°C were used; short (5 seconds) and long (7 minutes) stimulation upon which patients rated their pain response on an electronic visual analog scale. Multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regressions analyses were carried out, including 8 potential preoperative explanatory variables (among these anxiety, depression, preoperative pain, and pain catastrophizing) to assess pain response to preoperative heat pain stimulation as an independent predictor for postoperative pain. A total of 100 patients were included, and 3 were later excluded. A weak correlation [rho (95% confidence interval); P value] was observed between pain from POD 1 to 7 and pain response to short [rho=0.25(0.04 to 0.44); P=.02] and to long [rho=0.27 (0.07 to 0.46); P=.01] heat pain stimulation. However, these positive correlations were not supported by the linear and logistic regression analyses, in which only anxiety, preoperative pain, and pain catastrophizing were significant explanatory variables (but with low R-squares; 0.05 to 0.08). Pain responses to 2 types of preoperative heat stimuli were not independent clinically relevant predictors for postoperative pain after TKA. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of

  20. Impact of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome on the postoperative immune, inflammatory, and endocrine response following surgery for esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S L; Mongan, A M; Donohoe, C L; Pidgeon, G P; Sherlock, M; Reynolds, J V; Lysaght, J

    2017-06-01

    Visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) represent a constellation of inflammation, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia and are established risk factors for gastrointestinal cancer. However, their impact on the immune and inflammatory response after major upper gastrointestinal oncologic surgery is unknown. In 125 consecutive patients who underwent esophagectomy, C-reactive protein (CRP) and CRP:albumin levels were recorded preoperatively and on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 postoperatively. In a subset of 30 patients, circulating levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β, and cortisol were measured. Incidences of postoperative complications were prospectively recorded. In the study cohort, 51% of patients were viscerally obese, 40.7% had MetSyn, and 33.6% were hyperglycemic. Viscerally obese and MetSyn-positive patients demonstrated greater postoperative CRP levels and CRP:albumin levels on day 7 and day 14 compared with nonobese and MetSyn-negative patients (P levels of cortisol were observed in the viscerally obese and hyperglycemic patients compared to nonobese and normoglycemic patients. No association was observed between visceral obesity, MetSyn or hyperglycemia, and postoperative cytokine profile. Viscerally obese patients had an increased overall incidence of postoperative complications compared to nonobese patients (67.2% vs. 47.5%, P = 0.031) on univariate but not multivariate analysis (P = 0.078) and visceral obesity was not associated with an increased incidence of specific complications. Visceral obesity, MetSyn, and hyperglycemia are prevalent in patients undergoing major upper gastrointestinal resection and are associated with an exaggerated acute-phase inflammatory response postoperatively. Further research is warranted to determine whether this association is directly causal. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For

  1. Prediction of postoperative pain after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative pain remains a significant problem and the individual variance in postoperative pain is not fully understood. In recent years, there has been focus on identifying risk factors predicting patients with high postoperative pain intensity or consumption of analgesics, which may facilitate...... thresholds were measured using electrical (single and 5 repeated) and pressure pain stimulation over the flank bilaterally (stone-side = operation side and control-side = non-operation side). Postoperative pain scores were recorded on a numerical rating scale and analgesic consumption was registered....... The responses to repeated electrical stimuli (temporal summation) were preoperatively increased on the stone-side compared to the control-side (P = 0.016). Preoperative electrical pain thresholds from the control-side correlated inversely with postoperative opioid consumption (single stimuli: ρ = -0.43, P

  2. Preoperative dehydration increases risk of postoperative acute renal failure in colon and rectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Phelan, Michael J; Carmichael, Joseph C; Mills, Steven D; Pigazzi, Alessio; Nguyen, Ninh T; Stamos, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    There is limited data regarding the effects of preoperative dehydration on postoperative renal function. We sought to identify associations between hydration status before operation and postoperative acute renal failure (ARF) in patients undergoing colorectal resection. The NSQIP database was used to examine the data of patients undergoing colorectal resection from 2005 to 2011. We used preoperative blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine ratio >20 as a marker of relative dehydration. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression was performed to quantify the association of BUN/Cr ratio with ARF. We sampled 27,860 patients who underwent colorectal resection. Patients with dehydration had higher risk of ARF compared to patients with BUN/Cr Dehydration was associated with an increase in mortality of the affected patients (AOR, 2.19; P dehydrated patients. Open colorectal procedures (AOR, 2.67; P = 0.01) and total colectomy procedure (AOR, 1.62; P Dehydration before operation is a common condition in colorectal surgery (incidence of 27.7 %). Preoperative dehydration is associated with increased rates of postoperative ARF, MI, and cardiac arrest. Hydrotherapy of patients with dehydration may decrease postoperative complications in colorectal surgery.

  3. Postoperative ileus involves interleukin-1 receptor signaling in enteric glia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, Burkhard; Hupa, Kristof Johannes; Snoek, Susanne A.; van Bree, Sjoerd; Stein, Kathy; Schwandt, Timo; Vilz, Tim O.; Lysson, Mariola; Veer, Cornelis Van't; Kummer, Markus P.; Hornung, Veit; Kalff, Joerg C.; de Jonge, Wouter J.; Wehner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common consequence of abdominal surgery that increases the risk of postoperative complications and morbidity. We investigated the cellular mechanisms and immune responses involved in the pathogenesis of POI. We studied a mouse model of POI in which intestinal

  4. Tourniquet use during ankle surgery leads to increased postoperative opioid use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Heidi; Christensen, Kristian P; Møller, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Ankle surgery is often done using a tourniquet. Ischemia/reperfusion injury caused by the tourniquet may increase postoperative pain. The study objective was to investigate the amount of opioids given to patients after ankle surgery with and without tourniquet. DESIGN: We did...... a cohort study based on data from patient's records between January 2008 and December 2011. SETTING: Information is gathered from operating room, postanesthetic care unit, and surgical ward in a university hospital. PATIENTS: We identified patients undergoing reconstructive ankle fracture surgery from...... outcome. MAIN RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-eight patients underwent surgery with tourniquet. There was a correlation between tourniquet time and postoperative opioid use (P value = .001) after controlling for confounders. The slope of the correlation was 0.04 mg/min (95% confidence interval, 0...

  5. Multimodal approach to control postoperative pathophysiology and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1997-01-01

    Major surgery is still associated with undesirable sequelae such as pain, cardiopulmonary, infective and thromboembolic complications, cerebral dysfunction, nausea and gastrointestinal paralysis, fatigue and prolonged convalescence. The key pathogenic factor in postoperative morbidity, excluding...... failures of surgical and anaesthetic technique, is the surgical stress response with subsequent increased demands on organ function. These changes in organ function are thought to be mediated by trauma-induced endocrine metabolic changes and activation of several biological cascade systems (cytokines......, complement, arachidonic acid metabolites, nitric oxide, free oxygen radicals, etc). To understand postoperative morbidity it is therefore necessary to understand the pathophysiological role of the various components of the surgical stress response and to determine if modification of such responses may...

  6. Postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the elderly - what are the differences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L; Rasmussen, L S

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive impairment is an increasingly common problem as more elderly patients undergo major surgery. Cognitive deficits in the postoperative period cause severe problems and are associated with a marked increase in morbidity and mortality. There are two main entities of postoperat......Postoperative cognitive impairment is an increasingly common problem as more elderly patients undergo major surgery. Cognitive deficits in the postoperative period cause severe problems and are associated with a marked increase in morbidity and mortality. There are two main entities...... of postoperative cognitive decline, delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction, which are often reported as being part of the same continuum. Although there are similarities in the predisposing factors, it seems unlikely that they share the same pathophysiology. Both have multifactorial pathogenesis...... but differ in numerous other ways, with delirium being well-defined and acute in onset and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) being subtler and with longer duration. This review aims to provide an overview of the differences in the diagnosis of the two entities and to illustrate the methodological...

  7. Better consenting for thyroidectomy: who has an increased risk of postoperative hypocalcaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew S; Prades, Eduardo; Tkachuk, Olena; Zeitoun, Hisham

    2016-12-01

    Hypocalcaemia is the most common complication following thyroidectomy. This study aimed to establish the factors associated with increased risk of hypocalcaemia on day 1 following thyroidectomy. All patients who underwent thyroidectomy under a single consultant during a 5-year period were included. A multivariate analysis was undertaken to ascertain which variables had the most effect on the risk of hypocalcaemia. A prognosis table was constructed to allow risk to be predicted for individual patients based on these factors. Included in the analysis were 210 procedures and 194 patients. Eighty-two percent of patients had no calcium derangement postoperatively. Fourteen point nine percent were categorised as early hypocalcaemia, 1 % had protracted hypocalcaemia and 2.1 % had permanent hypocalcaemia. For hemi-thyroidectomies 2.8 % had postoperative hypocalcaemia and 0.9 % had permanent hypocalcaemia. The multivariate analysis revealed total thyroidectomy (risk ratio 26.5, p < 0.0001), diabetes (risk ratio 4.8, p = 0.07) and thyrotoxicosis (risk ratio 3.1, p = 0.04) as statistically significant variables for early postoperative hypocalcaemia. Gender as an isolated factor did not reach significance but was included in the model. The p value for the model was p < 1 × 10 -12 . Total thyroidectomy increases risk of early hypocalcaemia when compared to hemithyroidectomy. Gender, diabetes and thyrotoxicosis were also been found to influence the risk. All of these factors are available pre-operatively and can therefore be used to predict a more specific risk for individual patients. It is hoped that this can lead to better informed consent, prevention and better resource allocation.

  8. Does stoma site specimen extraction increase postoperative ileostomy complication rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanglin; Benlice, Cigdem; Stocchi, Luca; Kessler, Hermann; Gorgun, Emre; Costedio, Meagan

    2017-09-01

    Minimizing incisions has the potential to decrease hernia formation and wound complications following laparoscopic surgery. It is currently unknown if using the stoma site for specimen extraction affects outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the impact of stoma site extraction on postoperative complication rates in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. After IRB approval, a retrospective comparative review of 738 consecutive patients (405 M) who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery with ileostomy between January 2008 and December 2014 was performed. Patients who had a minimally invasive surgery that required an ileostomy were included. Patients were classified into two groups: stoma site extraction (SSE) or non-stoma site extraction (NSSE) and compared by body mass index (BMI), age, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, length of stay, estimated blood loss, parastomal complications, and hernia rate. The parastomal hernia rate was 10.1% for the SSE group (n = 14) and 4.2% for the NSSE group (n = 25) (p = 0.007). The need for additional surgeries was 7/139 (5.0%) for the SSE group and 27/599 (4.5%) for the NSSE group (p = 0.79). There was no difference in the hernia rate after stoma closure in either group. There was no difference in single incision laparoscopic surgery versus conventional laparoscopy or robotic-assisted laparoscopy on stoma site complications in patients with SSE. SSE, transfusion, and BMI >30 were found to be independent factors associated with increased stoma site complications. SSE does increase stoma site complications. SSE should be used with caution, or in conjunction with other techniques to reduce hernias in patients requiring a permanent stoma or with an elevated BMI. The increase in stoma site complications does not translate into additional surgeries or postoperative sequelae following stoma reversal and is a reasonable option in patients requiring a temporary stoma.

  9. Comparison of intraoperative conditions and postoperative inflammatory response and immune response between patients with common bile duct stones undergoing ESBD and EST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the differences in intraoperative conditions and postoperative inflammatory response and immune response levels in patients with common bile duct stones undergoing ESBD and EST treatment. Methods: A total of 565 patients with common bile duct stones who underwent ERCP treatment in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2015 were included in the study, patients’ treatment and testing results were analyzed retrospectively, and then patients were divided into the observation group 300 cases that received ESBD treatment and control group 265 cases that received EST treatment. Differences in intraoperative stress levels as well as postoperative inflammation, nutrition-related index and immune response levels were compared between two groups. Results: Intraoperative N, Cor, C-P and NK cell levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, and FT3 level was higher than that of control group; postoperative inflammation-related factors such as IL-6, CRP, PCT, CA19-9 and CEA levels were lower than those of control group, protein nutrition indexes such as TP, Alb, PA, TRF and RBP values were higher than those of control group, and immune indexes such as CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, IgA, IgM and IgG levels were higher than those of control group while CD8+ level was lower than that of control group. Conclusion: ESBD for the treatment of patients with common bile duct stones is better than EST treatment in reducing surgical stress, optimizing postoperative physical status and other aspects.

  10. Transient postoperative atrial fibrillation after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair increases mortality risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anai N.; Halandras, Pegge M.; Drescher, Max; Blackwell, Robert H.; Graunke, Dawn M.; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Kuo, Paul C.; Cho, Jae S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether new-onset transient postoperative atrial fibrillation (TPAF) affects mortality rates after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and to identify predictors for the development of TPAF. Methods Patients who underwent open aortic repair or endovascular aortic repair for a principal diagnosis AAA were retrospectively identified using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-State Inpatient Database (Florida) for 2007 to 2011 and monitored longitudinally for 1 year. Inpatient and 1-year mortality rates were compared between those with and without TPAF. TPAF was defined as new-onset atrial fibrillation that developed in the postoperative period and subsequently resolved in patients without a history of atrial fibrillation. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, gender, comorbidities, rupture status, and repair method, were used to assess 1-year survival. Predictive models were built with preoperative patient factors using Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector decision trees and externally validated on patients from California. Results A 3.7% incidence of TPAF was identified among 15,148 patients who underwent AAA repair. The overall mortality rate was 4.3%. The inpatient mortality rate was 12.3% in patients with TPAF vs 4.0% in those without TPAF. In the ruptured setting, the difference in mortality was similar between groups (33.7% vs 39.9%, P = .3). After controlling for age, gender, comorbid disease severity, urgency (ruptured vs nonruptured), and repair method, TPAF was associated with increased 1-year postoperative mortality (hazard ratio, 1.48; P predict an individual's probability of developing TPAF at the point of care. Conclusions The development of TPAF is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients undergoing repair of nonruptured AAA. Predictive modeling can be used to identify those patients at highest risk for developing TPAF and guide interventions to improve

  11. High-dose preoperative chemoradiotherapy in esophageal cancer patients does not increase postoperative pulmonary complications: Correlation with dose-volume histogram parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurmuzlu, Meysan; Ovrebo, Kjell; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Viste, Asgaut; Smaaland, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of high-dose preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of lungs with incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications and to identify predictive clinical factors of pulmonary complications. Methods: Data of 65 patients were collected retrospectively. Thirty-five patients underwent transthoracic esophagectomy (TTE) alone and 30 received cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, concomitant with radiotherapy, median dose 66 Gy, and followed by TTE. From the DVH for each lung alone and for both lungs together as one organ we generated total lung volume, mean radiotherapy dose, relative and absolute volumes receiving more than a threshold dose, and relative and absolute volumes receiving less than a threshold dose. Postoperative pulmonary complications were defined as pneumonia or respiratory failure. Results: Sixty percent of the patients in the TTE alone group had postoperative pulmonary complications versus 63% in the CRT + TTE group. Postoperative mortality was 8.6% and 16.7% in the respective patient groups (p = NS). None of the DVH parameters was associated with postoperative pulmonary complications. Squamous cell carcinoma was an adverse factor related to increased postoperative pulmonary complications. Conclusion: High-dose preoperative CRT was not associated with increased postoperative pulmonary complications in this cohort of esophageal cancer patients.

  12. No effect of continuous i.p. infusion of bupivacaine on postoperative analgesia, pulmonary function and the stress response to surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, N B; Mogensen, T; Greulich, A

    1988-01-01

    In a double-blind prospective study, 20 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were allocated randomly to receive a continuous 8-h i.p. infusion of either physiological saline or 0.25% bupivacaine 20 ml h-1 (in saline) following a loading dose of saline 1 ml kg-1 or 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml kg-1...... was without effect in the management of pain, postoperative pulmonary dysfunction and the stress response in this group of patients....... analogue scale). Postoperative pain, impairment in pulmonary function and increase in serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were not influenced by the i.p. infusion of bupivacaine when compared with saline. This study shows that the i.p. instillation of therapeutically safe doses of bupivacaine...

  13. REMIFENTANIL VS FENTANYL DURING DAY CASE DENTAL SURGERY IN PEOPLE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS: A COMPARATIVE, PILOT STUDY OF THEIR EFFECT ON STRESS RESPONSE AND POSTOPERATIVE PAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklika, Eirini; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Perrea, Despina; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Matsota, Paraskevi

    2016-06-01

    People with special needs undergoing dental surgery frequently require general anesthesia. We investigated the effect of remifentanil vs fentanyl on stress response and postoperative pain in people with special needs undergoing day-case dental surgery. Forty-six adult patients with cognitive impairment undergoing day-case dental surgery under general anesthesia were allocated to receive intraoperatively either fentanyl 50 μg iv bolus (group F, n = 23) or continuous infusion of remifentanil 0.5-1 μg/kg/min (group R, n = 23). Iintraoperative hemodynamic parameters were recorded and serum inflammatory mediators [tumor necrosis factor-α, substance-P], stress hormons (melatonin, cortisol) and β-endorphin were measured. Postoperative pain was assessed during the first postoperative 12 hours with the Wong-Baker faces pain-rating scale. Demographics were similar in two groups. The two groups did not differ regarding their effects on inflammatory mediators, stress hormons and postoperative pain scores. However, the use of remifentanil prevented intraoperative increases of arterial blood pressure and heart rate. Remifentanil and fentanyl did not affect differently stress and inflammatory hormones during day-case dental surgery, although remifentanil may render intraoperative management of hemodynamic responses easier. Both opioids are equally efficient for postoperative pain management following dental surgery in people with special needs.

  14. Minor Postoperative Increases of Creatinine Are Associated with Higher Mortality and Longer Hospital Length of Stay in Surgical Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kork, Felix; Balzer, Felix; Spies, Claudia D.; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Ginde, Adit A.; Jankowski, Joachim; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical patients frequently experience postoperative increases in creatinine levels. The authors hypothesized that even small increases in postoperative creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Methods The authors examined the association of postoperative changes from preoperative baseline creatinine with all-cause in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay (HLOS) in a retrospective analysis of surgical patients at a single tertiary care center between January 2006 and June 2012. Results The data of 39,369 surgical patients (noncardiac surgery n = 37,345; cardiac surgery n = 2,024) were analyzed. Acute kidney injury (AKI)—by definition of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome group—was associated with a five-fold higher mortality (odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% CI, 4.1 to 5.7; P creatinine, exposure to radiocontrast agent, type of surgery, and surgical AKI risk factors. Importantly, even minor creatinine increases (Δcreatinine 25 to 49% above baseline but creatinine increases had a five-fold risk of death (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 20.3; P creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. These results emphasize the importance to find effective therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat even mild forms of postoperative kidney dysfunction to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:26492475

  15. Attitudes of surgeons to the use of postoperative markers of the systemic inflammatory response following elective surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. Dolan

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Although there was a limited response the majority of surgeons surveyed measure the systemic inflammatory response following elective surgery and use CRP measurements together with clinical findings to guide postoperative care. The present results provide a baseline against which future surveys can be compared.

  16. Age and other perioperative risk factors for postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J. M.; Peelen, L. M.; Coulson, T. G.; Tran, L.; Reid, C. M.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Myles, P. S.; Pilcher, C.D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The inflammatory response to surgery varies considerably between individual patients. Age might be a substantial factor in this variability. Our objective was to examine the association of patient age and other potential risk factors with the occurrence of a postoperative systemic

  17. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF ACUTE POST-OPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT & ITS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.R Murthy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.

  18. Clinical aspects of acute post-operative pain management & its assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.

  19. Music and the reduction of post-operative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly

    The prevention and treatment of post-operative pain, and the promotion of comfort are the challenges facing practitioners working in the recovery room setting. Surgical pain produces autonomic, psychological, immunological and behavioural responses that can delay or inhibit normal healing. Nurses spend more time with patients experiencing pain than any other healthcare professional. Therefore, they are in an ideal position to consider other pain-relieving strategies to complement the analgesics currently used. The studies reviewed cannot prove that music is effective in reducing post-operative pain, because the research methodology in the majority is poor. Patients, experience of listening to music post-operatively was positive, aiding distraction and increasing comfort. This shows the difference between inconsistent results for the objective measures of pain and what the patient is reporting.

  20. Fundamentals of management of acute postoperative pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary B; Laussen, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    In the last several years, there have been numerous advancements in the field of pulmonary hypertension as a whole, but there have been few changes in the management of children with pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery. Patients at particular risk for postoperative pulmonary hypertension can be identified preoperatively based on their cardiac disease and can be grouped into four broad categories based on the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary hypertension: 1) increased pulmonary vascular resistance; 2) increased pulmonary blood flow with normal pulmonary vascular resistance; 3) a combination of increased pulmonary vascular resistance and increased blood flow; and 4) increased pulmonary venous pressure. In this review of the immediate postoperative management of pulmonary hypertension, various strategies are discussed including medical therapies, monitoring, ventilatory strategies, and weaning from these supports. With early recognition of patients at particular risk for severe pulmonary hypertension, management strategies can be directed at preventing or minimizing hemodynamic instability and thereby prevent the development of ventricular dysfunction and a low output state.

  1. Enhanced presurgical pain temporal summation response predicts post-thoracotomy pain intensity during the acute postoperative phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Granovsky, Yelena; Crispel, Yonathan; Ben-Nun, Alon; Best, Lael Anson; Yarnitsky, David; Granot, Michal

    2009-06-01

    Recent evidence points to an association between experimental pain measures obtained preoperatively and acute postoperative pain (POP). We hypothesized that pain temporal summation (TS) might be an additional predictor for POP insofar as it represents the neuroplastic changes that occur in the central nervous system following surgery. Therefore, a wide range of psychophysical tests (TS to heat and mechanical repetitive stimuli, pain threshold, and suprathreshold pain estimation) and personality tests (pain catastrophizing and anxiety levels) were administered prior to thoracotomy in 84 patients. POP ratings were evaluated on the 2nd and 5th days after surgery at rest (spontaneous pain) and in response to activity (provoked pain). Linear regression models revealed that among all assessed variables, enhanced TS and higher pain scores for mechanical stimulation were significantly associated with greater provoked POP intensity (overall r2 = 0.225, P = .008). Patients who did not demonstrate TS to both modalities reported lower scores of provoked POP as compared with patients who demonstrated TS in response to at least 1 modality (F = 4.59 P = .013). Despite the moderate association between pain catastrophizing and rest POP, none of the variables predicted the spontaneous POP intensity. These findings suggest that individual susceptibility toward a greater summation response may characterize patients who are potentially vulnerable to augmented POP. This study proposed the role of pain temporal summation assessed preoperatively as a significant psychophysical predictor for acute postoperative pain intensity. The individual profile of enhanced pain summation is associated with the greater likelihood of higher postoperative pain scores.

  2. The association between caudal anesthesia and increased risk of postoperative surgical complications in boys undergoing hypospadias repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taicher, Brad M; Routh, Jonathan C; Eck, John B; Ross, Sherry S; Wiener, John S; Ross, Allison K

    2017-07-01

    Recent reports have suggested that caudal anesthesia may be associated with an increased risk of postoperative surgical complications. We examined our experience with caudal anesthesia in hypospadias repair to evaluate for increased risk of urethrocutaneous fistula or glanular dehiscence. All hypospadias repairs performed by a single surgeon in 2001-2014 were reviewed. Staged or revision surgeries were excluded. Patient age, weight, hypospadias severity, surgery duration, month and year of surgery, caudal anesthesia use, and postoperative complications were recorded. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. We identified 395 single-stage primary hypospadias repairs. Mean age was 15.6 months; 326 patients had distal (83%) and 69 had proximal (17%) hypospadias. Caudal anesthetics were used in 230 (58%) cases; 165 patients (42%) underwent local penile block at the discretion of the surgeon and/or anesthesiologist. Complications of urethrocutaneous fistula or glanular deshiscence occurred in 22 patients (5.6%) and were associated with caudal anesthetic use (OR 16.5, 95% CI 2.2-123.8, P = 0.007), proximal hypospadias (OR 8.2, 95% CI 3.3-20.0, P anesthesia was associated with an over 13-fold increase in the odds of developing postoperative surgical complications in boys undergoing hypospadias repair even after adjusting for urethral meatus location. Until further investigation occurs, clinicians should carefully consider the use of caudal anesthesia for children undergoing hypospadias repair. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Postoperative Ileus in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Peng Tu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative ileus is among the most common complications after surgery. Aging is associated with an increased colonic transit time, and anesthetic disturbance to colonic motility is often aggravated in the elderly. Postoperative ileus increases morbidity, prolongs the length of hospital stay, and constitutes a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. Multimodal enhanced recovery protocols, or fast-track surgeries, have been developed to improve postoperative recovery. Patient education, avoidance of perioperative fluid overload, selective use of nasogastric decompression, early ambulation, adopting a minimally invasive approach, early initiation of clear fluids, and gum chewing are all possible measures to reduce postoperative ileus. Thoracic epidural anesthesia is a well-established technique to hasten recovery, whereas insufficient data are available to ascertain the safety and efficacy of opioid-sparing analgesia in the elderly. The evidence is clear that traditional prokinetic medications are not helpful in the treatment or prevention of postoperative ileus. Early results suggest that alvimopan is a promising agent to reverse opioid-induced ileus. Since postoperative ileus is a multifactorial condition, a concerted effort is therefore necessary to prevent or decrease the duration of postoperative ileus using multimodal strategies.

  4. Intra-operative colloid administration increases the clearance of a post-operative fluid load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Tine; Hahn, Robert; Holte, K

    2009-01-01

    using volume kinetics based on the plasma dilution alone. The pre-operative plasma clearance was compared with the post-operative plasma clearance and patients served as their own control. RESULTS: The urinary excretion averaged 350 ml for the pre-operative infusion and 612 ml post-operatively, which...

  5. Effects of preoperative and postoperative enteral nutrition on postoperative nutritional status and immune function of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dayong; Feng, Ye; Song, Bin; Gao, Shuohui; Zhao, Jisheng

    2015-03-01

    Effects of preoperative one week enteral nutrition (EN) support on the postoperative nutritional status, immune function and inflammatory response of gastric cancer patients were investigated. 106 cases of gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into preoperative one week EN group (trial group) and early postoperative EN group (control group), which were continuously treated with EN support until the postoperative 9th day according to different treatment protocols. All the patients were checked for their body weight, skinfold thickness, upper arm circumference, white blood cell count (WBC), albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), C-reactive protein (CRP), humoral immunity (IgA, IgG), T cell subsets (CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), etc. on the preoperative and the postoperative 1st and 10th day, respectively. PA and IgG levels of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group on the postoperative 10th day, whereas IL-6 level of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group. EN support for preoperative gastric cancer patients will improve the postoperative nutritional status and immune function, alleviate inflammatory response, and facilitate the recovery of patients.

  6. Music benefits on postoperative distress and pain in pediatric day care surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Ostuni, Selene; Bonomelli, Irene; Mencherini, Simonetta; Brunero, Marco; Zambaiti, Elisa; Mannarino, Savina; Larizza, Daniela; Albertini, Riccardo; Tinelli, Carmine; Pelizzo, Gloria

    2014-08-12

    Postoperative effect of music listening has not been established in pediatric age. Response on postoperative distress and pain in pediatric day care surgery has been evaluated. Forty-two children were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to the music-group (music intervention during awakening period) or the non-music group (standard postoperative care). Slow and fast classical music and pauses were recorded and played via ambient speakers. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, glucose and cortisol levels, faces pain scale and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) Pain Scale were considered as indicators of response to stress and pain experience. Music during awakening induced lower increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The non-music group showed progressive increasing values of glycemia; in music-group the curve of glycemia presented a plateau pattern (PMusic improves cardiovascular parameters, stress-induced hyperglycemia. Amelioration on pain perception is more evident in older children. Positive effects seems to be achieved by the alternation of fast, slow rhythms and pauses even in pediatric age.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome is Associated with Increased Postoperative Morbidity and Hospital Resource Utilization in Patients Undergoing Elective Pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, May C; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Nagorney, David M; Kendrick, Michael L; Sarr, Michael G; Truty, Mark J; Que, Florencia G; Reid-Lombardo, Kmarie; Smoot, Rory L; Farnell, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    In patients undergoing elective partial pancreatectomy, our aim was to evaluate the effect of metabolic syndrome (MS) on postoperative mortality, morbidity, and utilization of hospital resources. Our hypothesis was that MS is associated with worse surgical outcomes after pancreatectomy. Fifteen thousand eight hundred thirty-one patients undergoing elective pancreatectomy from 2005 to 2012 were identified in the Participant User File of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed examining the association of MS (defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2), hypertension requiring medications, and diabetes requiring medications and/or insulin) and risk of 30-day mortality, morbidity, and utilization of hospital resources (risk of blood transfusion in the first 72 h after pancreatectomy and prolonged hospital stay, defined as ≥13 days, which was the 75th percentile of this cohort). Multivariable logistic regression models controlled for age, sex, race, pancreatectomy type (distal versus proximal), smoking status, alcohol consumption, functional status, dyspnea, cardiovascular disease, hematocrit, INR, serum albumin, bilirubin, and creatinine. Stratified analyses were conducted by type of pancreatectomy and indication for pancreatectomy (benign versus malignant). On univariate analysis, 1070 (6.8%) patients had MS. MS was associated with increased postoperative morbidity, major morbidity, surgical site infection, septic shock, cardiac event, respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism, blood transfusion, and prolonged duration of hospital stay (P pancreatectomy (P = 0.465). When stratified by distal versus proximal pancreatectomy and benign versus malignant disease, the effect of MS on outcomes appears to be modified by type of pancreatectomy and indication with poorer outcomes observed for distal pancreatectomies and benign indications for resection. MS is an under

  8. Postoperative spine infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenico Parchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of post-operative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication.

  9. Increased risk of post-operative complications in patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α agents - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Theede, Klaus; Olaison, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents are increasi......INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents...... are increasingly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Taking into consideration the biologics' mechanism of action, fears have been expressed that they might increase the rate of post-operative complications. Results from 18 retrospective studies were conflicting, and meta-analyses based...... an increased risk of overall post-operative complications and an increased rate of infectious or anastomosis-related complications in patients receiving anti-TNF-α. CONCLUSION: The use of anti-TNF-α agents in Crohn's disease patients is associated with an increased risk of post-operative complications after...

  10. Influence of Modest Endotoxemia on Postoperative Antithrombin Deficiency and Circulating Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Tetsuji; Imai, Takashi; Anazawa, Sadao

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of modest endotoxemia on postoperative antithrombin deficiency and cholestasis. Summary Background Data: It has not been determined whether endotoxin translocation in small amounts is a physiological phenomenon or whether it is a potential health hazard. Methods: Blood endotoxin, antithrombin III (ATIII), secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), which was selected as a marker of cholestasis, C-reactive protein (CRP), and α-1-antitrypsin (AAT) concentrations were measured from the 20 patients undergoing curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer preoperatively and postoperatively. Portal and systemic blood samples were taken for the analysis of endotoxin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations during surgery in these patients. Results: Although plasma endotoxin levels showed a significant increase during surgery, we did not find a correlation with ATIII, sIgA, CRP, and IL-6 levels. Systemic blood endotoxin levels during surgery correlated with a postoperative rise of serum AAT levels. Plasma ATIII levels transiently decreased on the first and third postoperative day, and sIgA levels were shown to increase on the seventh postoperative day. There was a weak relationship between the extent of postoperative endotoxemia and a reduction in ATIII concentrations. Conclusions: The influence of modest endotoxemia on postoperative antithrombin deficiency and cholestasis was limited, and increased translocational endotoxemia during abdominal surgery may be a physiological phenomenon to trigger off an acute-phase protein response. PMID:12894020

  11. Administration of perioperative penicillin reduces postoperative serum amyloid A response in horses being castrated standing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter; Jacobsen, Stine; Martinussen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To compare postoperative inflammatory responses in horses administered perioperative procaine penicillin and those not administered penicillin using acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) as a marker of inflammation. Study Design: Randomized clinical trial. Animals: Stallions (n = 50......) castrated under field conditions. Methods: SAA concentrations were determined on days 0, 3, and 8. Six horses were subsequently excluded because of elevated SAA concentrations on day 0. Of the remaining 50 horses, 26 were administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy and 24 were...... administered NSAID and 25,000 U/kg procaine penicillin on day 0, 1, and 2. Results: SAA concentrations increased significantly from preoperative levels in both groups, and on day 8 concentrations were significantly (P o .02) higher in horses administered only NSAID than in those administered procaine penicillin...

  12. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... to postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration...

  13. Postoperative ileus: a preventable event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus has traditionally been accepted as a normal response to tissue injury. No data support any beneficial effect of ileus and indeed it may contribute to delayed recovery and prolonged hospital stay. Efforts should, therefore, be made to reduce such ileus. METHODS......: Material was identified from a Medline search of the literature, previous review articles and references cited in original papers. This paper updates knowledge on the pathophysiology and treatment of postoperative ileus. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Pathogenesis mainly involves inhibitory neural reflexes...... only cisapride is proven beneficial; the effect of early enteral feeding remains unclear. However, postoperative ileus may be greatly reduced when all of the above are combined in a multimodal rehabilitation strategy....

  14. Music benefits on postoperative distress and pain in pediatric day care surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Calcaterra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative effect of music listening has not been established in pediatric age. Response on postoperative distress and pain in pediatric day care surgery has been evaluated. Forty-two children were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to the music-group (music intervention during awakening period or the non-music group (standard postoperative care. Slow and fast classical music and pauses were recorded and played via ambient speakers. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, glucose and cortisol levels, faces pain scale and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC Pain Scale were considered as indicators of response to stress and pain experience. Music during awakening induced lower increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The non-music group showed progressive increasing values of glycemia; in music-group the curve of glycemia presented a plateau pattern (P<0.001. Positive impact on reactions to pain was noted using the FLACC scale. Music improves cardiovascular parameters, stress-induced hyperglycemia. Amelioration on pain perception is more evident in older children. Positive effects seems to be achieved by the alternation of fast, slow rhythms and pauses even in pediatric age.

  15. Increased risk of post-operative complications in patients with Crohn’s disease treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α agents - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Theede, Klaus; Olaison, Per Olov Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents are increasi......INTRODUCTION: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) plays a role in the immune defence, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Inhibition of these pathways may increase the risk of infections and impair wound healing in patients after surgery. Biologic treatments including anti-TNF-α agents...... are increasingly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Taking into consideration the biologics' mechanism of action, fears have been expressed that they might increase the rate of post-operative complications. Results from 18 retrospective studies were conflicting, and meta-analyses based...... an increased risk of overall post-operative complications and an increased rate of infectious or anastomosis-related complications in patients receiving anti-TNF-α. CONCLUSION: The use of anti-TNF-α agents in Crohn's disease patients is associated with an increased risk of post-operative complications after...

  16. Postoperative Pulmonary Dysfunction and Mechanical Ventilation in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Badenes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction (PPD is a frequent and significant complication after cardiac surgery. It contributes to morbidity and mortality and increases hospitalization stay and its associated costs. Its pathogenesis is not clear but it seems to be related to the development of a systemic inflammatory response with a subsequent pulmonary inflammation. Many factors have been described to contribute to this inflammatory response, including surgical procedure with sternotomy incision, effects of general anesthesia, topical cooling, and extracorporeal circulation (ECC and mechanical ventilation (VM. Protective ventilation strategies can reduce the incidence of atelectasis (which still remains one of the principal causes of PDD and pulmonary infections in surgical patients. In this way, the open lung approach (OLA, a protective ventilation strategy, has demonstrated attenuating the inflammatory response and improving gas exchange parameters and postoperative pulmonary functions with a better residual functional capacity (FRC when compared with a conventional ventilatory strategy. Additionally, maintaining low frequency ventilation during ECC was shown to decrease the incidence of PDD after cardiac surgery, preserving lung function.

  17. Validity, Sensitivity, and Responsiveness of the 11-Face Faces Pain Scale to Postoperative Pain in Adult Orthopedic Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Giang, Nguyen; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Thai, Duong Hong; Kuo, Shu-Yu; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2015-10-01

    Pain is common in patients after orthopedic surgery. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale has not been validated for use in adult patients with postoperative pain. To assess the validity of the 11-face Faces Pain Scale and its ability to detect responses to pain medications, and to determine whether the sensitivity of the 11-face Faces Pain Scale for detecting changes in pain intensity over time is associated with gender differences in adult postorthopedic surgery patients. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale was translated into Vietnamese using forward and back translation. Postoperative pain was assessed using an 11-point numerical rating scale and the 11-face Faces Pain Scale on the day of surgery, and before (Time 1) and every 30 minutes after (Times 2-5) the patients had taken pain medications on the first postoperative day. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale highly correlated with the numerical rating scale (r = 0.78, p Scale is appropriate for measuring acute postoperative pain in adults. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  19. Psychological stress as a risk factor for postoperative keloid recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Hochman, Bernardo; Farber, Paulo Luiz; Muller, Marisa Campio; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2012-04-01

    To investigate psychological stress on the prognosis of the postoperative recurrence of keloids. Patients with keloids (n=25), candidates for surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy, had their psychological stress evaluated on the day before the surgical procedure. The parameters evaluated were pain and itching (Visual Numerical Scale), quality of life (Questionnaire QualiFibro/Cirurgia Plástica-UNIFESP), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale), salivary cortisol and minimum and maximum galvanic skin responses (GSR) at rest and under stress (i.e., while the questionnaires were being filled out). Patients were evaluated during the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th months of postoperative care. During each return visit, two experts classified the lesions as non-recurrent and recurrent. The recurrence group presented the greatest values in GSR during a stressful situation. The chance of recurrence increased by 34% at each increase of 1000 arbitrary units in maximum GSR during stress. Psychological stress influenced the recurrence of keloids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A short-term increase of the postoperative naturally circulating dendritic cells subsets in flurbiprofen-treated patients with esophageal carcinoma undergoing thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Yang, Xin-lu; Chai, Xiao-qing; Shu, Shu-hua; Zhang, Xiao-lin; Xie, Yan-hu; Wei, Xin; Wu, Yu-jing; Wei, Wei

    2016-04-05

    The present study evaluated whether flurbiprofen increased the naturally circulating dendritic cells (DCs) subsets in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) undergoing esophageal resection. Compared to healthy donors (n=20), the significantly depressed percentages of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), CD1c+ myeloid DCs (mDCs), and CD141+ mDCs among ESCC patients (n=60) were confirmed. Flurbiprofen was administered before skin incision and at the end of operation in group F (n=30), as well as placebo in group C (n=30). The postoperative suppressed percentages of pDCs, CD1c+ mDCs, and CD141+ mDCs increased significantly following the perioperative treatment with flurbiprofen. Flurbiprofen also significantly stimulated the postoperative IFN-f and IL-17 production, but inhibited the immunosuppressive IL-10 and TGF-β levels. Furthermore, flurbiprofen exerted a similar analgesic effect and brought a significantly less sufentanil consumption compared to group C. Taken together, flurbiprofen provided a short-term increase of postoperative naturally circulating DCs in ESCC patients.

  1. Nursing approaches in the postoperative pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilay Yüceer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients frequently experience moderate to severe pain inthe postoperative period. Although the pain managementis an integral and important part of the nursing care, studiessuggest that, nursing management of postoperativepain remains inadequate.Postoperative care nurses are responsible to assess thepatient’s pain, teach the patient strategies to deal with thepain, apply the analgesic treatment plan, monitor the resultsof treatment, educate the patient and the family onpain management and document the pain managementoutcomes. The nurses’ holistic approach to pain managementminimizes the patients’ discomfort caused by pain inthe postoperative period after the surgery. In this article,nurses’ approaches to postoperative pain managementare discussed. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 474-478

  2. The failed postoperative shoulder: Role of double contrast CT arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singson, R.D.; Feldman, F.; Bigliani, L.

    1986-01-01

    Various types of reparative and corrective operations on the shoulder joint are being increasingly undertaken. Defining residual, new, or acutely acquired pathology in the postoperative period is exceedingly difficult because of extensive surgical alterations. Since patients may be symptomatic or recurrently symptomatic postoperatively, judgments must be made regarding the failure of the initial repair, or new superimposed insults. CT double-contrast arthrography, performed in a series of symptomatic patients after shoulder arthroplasty for instability, successfully demonstrated responsible residual or recurrent pathologic processes, including persistent Bankart lesions, glenoid rim fractures, improper hardware placement, and migration of metallic hardware. These and other examples of pathology are illustrated and discussed

  3. Postoperative pain management in children: A survey of practices of pediatric surgeons in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed A Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pain has a negative effect on the process of recovery. There is paucity of literature on the postoperative pain management practice in children in developing countries. We sought to determine the current practice of postoperative pain management in children among pediatric surgeons in Nigeria. Methods: A cohort of 43 pediatric surgeons/trainees attending two annual meetings of Association of Paediatric Surgeons of Nigeria (2011 and 2013 were surveyed with a questionnaire enquiring about the practice of postoperative pain management in children and their perceptions. Results: Thirty-seven respondents had completed the survey (86% response rate. Of these respondents, 27 (73.0% were consultants and 10 (27.0% were trainees. Only 2 (5.4% respondents used any guidelines, and 8 (21.6% respondents had an established institutional protocol for the pediatric postoperative pain management. Almost half of the respondents (18, 48.6% used clinical judgments for assessing postoperative pain, followed by crying, requires oxygen to maintain saturation > 95%, increased vital signs, expressions, and sleeplessness scale (13, 35.1%; alertness, calmness, respiratory response/crying, physical movement, muscle tone, and facial tension behavioral scale (11, 29.7%; and verbal rating (10, 27.0%. In neonates, 89% of the respondents used paracetamol and 32% used pentazocine for routine postoperative analgesia. None of the respondents used morphine for neonatal postoperative analgesia. In older children, commonly used analgesics include paracetamol (35, 94.6%, pentazocine (30, 81.1%, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (28, 75.7%. More than half of the respondents (20, 54.1% were not satisfied with their current practice of postoperative pain management. Conclusion: Pain was infrequently assessed, and analgesic therapy though multimodal was largely not protocol based and therefore subject to inadequate pain relief. Postoperative pain should be

  4. Ureteral stents increase risk of postoperative acute kidney injury following colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinger, Taryn E; Mehaffey, J Hunter; Mullen, Matthew G; Michaels, Alex D; Elwood, Nathan R; Levi, Shoshana T; Hedrick, Traci L; Friel, Charles M

    2018-07-01

    Ureteral stents are commonly placed before colorectal resection to assist in identification of ureters and prevent injury. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common cause of morbidity and increased cost following colorectal surgery. Although previously associated with reflex anuria, prophylactic stents have not been found to increase AKI. We sought to determine the impact of ureteral stents on the incidence of AKI following colorectal surgery. All patients undergoing colon or rectal resection at a single institution between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed using American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset. AKI was defined as a rise in serum creatinine to ≥ 1.5 times the preoperative value. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of AKI. 2910 patients underwent colorectal resection. Prophylactic ureteral stents were placed in 129 patients (4.6%). Postoperative AKI occurred in 335 (11.5%) patients during their hospitalization. The stent group demonstrated increased AKI incidence (32.6% vs. 10.5%; p colorectal surgery including age, procedure duration, and ureteral stent placement. Prophylactic ureteral stents independently increased AKI risk when placed prior to colorectal surgery. These data demonstrate increased morbidity and hospital costs related to usage of stents in colorectal surgery, indicating that placement should be limited to patients with highest potential benefit.

  5. Apolipoprotein E e4 allele does not increase the risk of early postoperative delirium after major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelha, Fernando José; Fernandes, Vera; Botelho, Miguela; Santos, Patricia; Santos, Alice; Machado, J C; Barros, Henrique

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A relationship between patients with a genetic predisposition to and those who develop postoperative delirium has not been yet determined. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele (APOE4) and delirium after major surgery. METHODS: Of 230 intensive care patients admitted to the post anesthesia care unit (PACU) over a period of 3 months, 173 were enrolled in the study. Patients' demographics and intra- and postoperative data were collected. Patients were followed for the development of delirium using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist, and DNA was obtained at PACU admission to determine apolipoprotein E genotype. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of patients developed delirium after surgery. Twenty-four patients had one copy of APOE4. The presence of APOE4 was not associated with an increased risk of early postoperative delirium (4% vs. 17%; P = 0.088). The presence of APOE4 was not associated with differences in any studied variables. Multivariate analysis identified age [odds ratio (OR) 9.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-43.0, P = 0.004 for age ≥65 years), congestive heart disease (OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.0-19.3, P = 0.002), and emergency surgery (OR 59.7, 95% CI 6.7-530.5, P < 0.001) as independent predictors for development of delirium. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) and The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) were significantly higher in patients with delirium (P < 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). Hospital mortality rates of these patients was higher and they had a longer median PACU stay. CONCLUSIONS: Apolipoprotein e4 carrier status was not associated with an increased risk for early postoperative delirium. Age, congestive heart failure, and emergency surgery were independent risk factors for the development of delirium after major surgery.

  6. Impact of Major Pulmonary Resections on Right Ventricular Function: Early Postoperative Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrakhawy, Hany M; Alassal, Mohamed A; Shaalan, Ayman M; Awad, Ahmed A; Sayed, Sameh; Saffan, Mohammad M

    2018-01-15

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction after pulmonary resection in the early postoperative period is documented by reduced RV ejection fraction and increased RV end-diastolic volume index. Supraventricular arrhythmia, particularly atrial fibrillation, is common after pulmonary resection. RV assessment can be done by non-invasive methods and/or invasive approaches such as right cardiac catheterization. Incorporation of a rapid response thermistor to pulmonary artery catheter permits continuous measurements of cardiac output, right ventricular ejection fraction, and right ventricular end-diastolic volume. It can also be used for right atrial and right ventricular pacing, and for measuring right-sided pressures, including pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. This study included 178 patients who underwent major pulmonary resections, 36 who underwent pneumonectomy assigned as group (I) and 142 who underwent lobectomy assigned as group (II). The study was conducted at the cardiothoracic surgery department of Benha University hospital in Egypt; patients enrolled were operated on from February 2012 to February 2016. A rapid response thermistor pulmonary artery catheter was inserted via the right internal jugular vein. Preoperatively the following was recorded: central venous pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac output, right ventricular ejection fraction and volumes. The same parameters were collected in fixed time intervals after 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours postoperatively. For group (I): There were no statistically significant changes between the preoperative and postoperative records in the central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure; there were no statistically significant changes in the preoperative and 12, 24, and 48 hour postoperative records for cardiac index; 3 and 6 hours postoperative showed significant changes. There were statistically significant changes between the preoperative and

  7. Nursing approaches in the postoperative pain management

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilay Yüceer

    2011-01-01

    Patients frequently experience moderate to severe pain inthe postoperative period. Although the pain managementis an integral and important part of the nursing care, studiessuggest that, nursing management of postoperativepain remains inadequate.Postoperative care nurses are responsible to assess thepatient’s pain, teach the patient strategies to deal with thepain, apply the analgesic treatment plan, monitor the resultsof treatment, educate the patient and the family onpain management and doc...

  8. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF POSTOPERATIVE STRESS REACTION AND MODERN APPROACHES TO NUTRITIVE SUPPORT FOR CHILDREN IN POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteral nutrition is a method best adjusted to human physiology for correcting disorders of homeostasis in the postoperative period. Untimely and inadequate correction of these disorders may fatally affect a child’s health and rates of the child’s further development. Understanding the laws of stress response generation is important in selecting an optimal nutritive support in the postoperative period. It is necessary to take account of neuro-endocrine-immune response, changing metabolism and an impaired function of the gastrointestinal tract. Modern methods of diagnostics and treatment make it possible to resolve most of the arising issues, but it requires physicians to take a comprehensive approach and have knowledge in many areas of theoretical and practical medicine. Key words: stress, metabolism, children, enteral nutrition. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:36-45

  9. Alcohol Consumption Increases Post-Operative Infection but Not Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption causes multiple comorbidities with potentially negative outcome after operations. The aims are to study the association between alcohol consumption and post-operative non-surgical site infections and mortality and to determine the impact of peri-operative interventions. MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched systematically. Observational studies reporting patients with a defined amount of alcohol consumption and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed at reducing outcomes were included. Meta-analyses were performed separately for observational studies and RCTs. Thirteen observational studies and five RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed more infections in those consuming more than two units of alcohol per day compared with drinking less in both unadjusted and adjusted data. No association between alcohol consumption and mortality was found. Meta-analyses of RCTs showed that interventions reduce infections but not mortality in patients with alcohol abuse. Consumption of more than two units of alcohol per day increases post-operative non-surgical site infections. Alcohol-refraining interventions in patients with high daily alcohol consumption appear to reduce infections. The impact in patients with lesser intake is unknown. Further studies are needed.

  10. Splenectomy Increases Postoperative Complications Following Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagbert, Francois; Thievenaz, Remy; Decullier, Evelyne; Bakrin, Naoual; Cotte, Eddy; Rousset, Pascal; Vaudoyer, Delphine; Passot, Guillaume; Glehen, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Complete cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS + HIPEC) is increasingly performed on patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of various origins. Splenectomy often is required in these patients to achieve complete tumor removal. Although splenectomy has been associated with increased morbidity in many major abdominal surgeries, its effect in patients undergoing CRS + HIPEC is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of splenectomy during CRS + HIPEC on postoperative outcomes. We retrospectively identified 39 patients who underwent CRS + HIPEC with splenectomy during a 3-year study period from a prospective database. We compared them to case controls (CRS + HIPEC without splenectomy) that were matched for the complexity of the procedure. We evaluated the complication rate and outcomes of patients in each group. During the study period, splenectomy was performed in 32 % of patients undergoing CRS + HIPEC procedure. Patients in the splenectomy group experienced more grade 3-4 complications than patients in the control group (59 vs. 35.9 %, p = 0.041) as well as more pulmonary complications (41 vs. 7.7 %, p = 0.0006). Multivariate analysis identified splenectomy as the only predictor of overall major complications (odds ratio = 2.57, 95 % confidence interval = 1.03-6.40). Mortality was similar in both groups. Splenectomy increases major complication rate in patients undergoing CRS + HIPEC and efforts should be made to preserve the spleen during the surgery.

  11. Postoperative respiratory muscle dysfunction: pathophysiology and preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Meyer, Matthew J; Eikermann, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are responsible for significant increases in hospital cost as well as patient morbidity and mortality; respiratory muscle dysfunction represents a contributing factor. Upper airway dilator muscles functionally resist the upper airway collapsing forces created by the respiratory pump muscles. Standard perioperative medications (anesthetics, sedatives, opioids, and neuromuscular blocking agents), interventions (patient positioning, mechanical ventilation, and surgical trauma), and diseases (lung hyperinflation, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea) have differential effects on the respiratory muscle subgroups. These effects on the upper airway dilators and respiratory pump muscles impair their coordination and function and can result in respiratory failure. Perioperative management strategies can help decrease the incidence of postoperative respiratory muscle dysfunction. Such strategies include minimally invasive procedures rather than open surgery, early and optimal mobilizing of respiratory muscles while on mechanical ventilation, judicious use of respiratory depressant anesthetics and neuromuscular blocking agents, and noninvasive ventilation when possible.

  12. Postoperative ileus: a preventable event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus has traditionally been accepted as a normal response to tissue injury. No data support any beneficial effect of ileus and indeed it may contribute to delayed recovery and prolonged hospital stay. Efforts should, therefore, be made to reduce such ileus. METHODS...

  13. Does transfusion of residual cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood increase postoperative bleeding? A prospective randomized study in patients undergoing on pump cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duara, Rajnish; Misra, Manoranjan; Bhuyan, Ritwick Raj; Sarma, P. Sankara; Jayakumar, Karunakaran

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Homologous blood transfusion after open heart surgery puts a tremendous load on the blood banks. This prospective randomized study evaluates the efficacy of infusing back residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit i.e., pump blood as a means to reduce homologous transfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and whether its use increases postoperative drainage. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients who underwent elective CABGs under CPB were randomized into 2 groups: (1) cases where residual pump blood was used and (2) controls where residual pump blood was not used. Patients were monitored for hourly drainage on the day of surgery and the 1st postoperative day and the requirements of homologous blood and its products. Data were matched regarding change in Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume and coagulation parameters till 1st postoperative day. All cases were followed up for three years. Results: There was a marginal reduction in bleeding pattern in the early postoperative period in the cases compared to controls. The requirement of homologous blood and its products were also reduced in the cases. Conclusions: The use of CPB circuit blood is safe in the immediate postoperative period. The requirement of homologous blood transfusion can come down if strict transfusion criteria are maintained. PMID:20041077

  14. Does transfusion of residual cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood increase postoperative bleeding? A prospective randomized study in patients undergoing on pump cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duara Rajnish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Homologous blood transfusion after open heart surgery puts a tremendous load on the blood banks. This prospective randomized study evaluates the efficacy of infusing back residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB circuit i.e., pump blood as a means to reduce homologous transfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG and whether its use increases postoperative drainage. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients who underwent elective CABGs under CPB were randomized into 2 groups: (1 cases where residual pump blood was used and (2 controls where residual pump blood was not used. Patients were monitored for hourly drainage on the day of surgery and the 1 st postoperative day and the requirements of homologous blood and its products. Data were matched regarding change in Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume and coagulation parameters till 1st postoperative day. All cases were followed up for three years. Results: There was a marginal reduction in bleeding pattern in the early postoperative period in the cases compared to controls. The requirement of homologous blood and its products were also reduced in the cases. Conclusions: The use of CPB circuit blood is safe in the immediate postoperative period. The requirement of homologous blood transfusion can come down if strict transfusion criteria are maintained.

  15. Postoperative spinal column; Postoperative Wirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaefer, W. [Westpfalzklinikum GmbH, Standort II, Abteilung fuer Wirbelsaeulenchirurgie, Kusel (Germany); Heumueller, I. [Westpfalzklinikum GmbH, Standort II, Institut fuer Radiologie II, Kusel (Germany); Harsch, N.; Kraus, C.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    As a rule, postoperative imaging is carried out after spinal interventions to document the exact position of the implant material. Imaging is absolutely necessary when new clinical symptoms occur postoperatively. In this case a rebleeding or an incorrect implant position abutting a root or the spinal cord must be proven. In addition to these immediately occurring postoperative clinical symptoms, there are a number of complications that can occur several days, weeks or even months later. These include the failed back surgery syndrome, implant loosening or breakage of the material and relapse of a disc herniation and spondylodiscitis. In addition to knowledge of the original clinical symptoms, it is also important to know the operation details, such as the access route and the material used. In almost all postoperative cases, imaging with contrast medium administration and corresponding correction of artefacts by the implant material, such as the dual energy technique, correction algorithms and the use of special magnetic resonance (MR) sequences are necessary. In order to correctly assess the postoperative imaging, knowledge of the surgical procedure and the previous clinical symptoms are mandatory besides special computed tomography (CT) techniques and MR sequences. (orig.) [German] In der Regel erfolgt bei spinalen Eingriffen eine postoperative Bildgebung, um die exakte Lage des Implantatmaterials zu dokumentieren. Unbedingt notwendig ist die Bildgebung, wenn postoperativ neue klinische Symptome aufgetreten sind. Hier muessen eine Nachblutung bzw. inkorrekte, eine Wurzel oder das Myelon tangierende Implantatlage nachgewiesen werden. Neben diesen direkt postoperativ auftretenden klinischen Symptomen gibt es eine Reihe von Komplikationen, die erst nach mehreren Tagen, Wochen oder sogar nach Monaten auftreten koennen. Hierzu zaehlen das Failed-back-surgery-Syndrom, die Implantatlockerung oder -bruch, aber auch ein Rezidivvorfall und die Spondylodiszitis. Neben der

  16. MR imaging of the postoperative spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.S.; Modic, M.T.; Masaryk, T.T.; Bohlman, H.

    1986-01-01

    Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and delayed (2-6 months) postoperative MR studies were obtained in 20 patients who had undergone a variety of spinal surgical procedures. In addition, 50 postoperative patients without preoperative studies were also reviewed. MR studies included sagittal T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and axial T1-weighted and multiecho T2-weighted images. The evolution of signal intensity changes with time is demonstrated. Diskectomy produced no significant vertebral body changes and reduced but did not completely remove the extradural mass of herniation. Anterior fusion resulted in decreased signal on T1-weighted and increased signal on T2-weighted images in adjacent vertebral bodies, which were changes that were similar to those seen around bone grafts but distinct from the graft itself. Scar formation was better defined 2-3 months postoperatively

  17. Preoperative Alcohol Consumption and Postoperative Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Grønkjær, Marie; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To systematically review and summarize the evidence of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type. BACKGROUND:: Conclusions in studies on preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications have...... been inconsistent. METHODS:: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO citations. Included were original studies of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications occurring within 30 days of the operation.......30-2.49), prolonged stay at the hospital (RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.18-1.31), and admission to intensive care unit (RR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03-1.61). Clearly defined high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of postoperative mortality (RR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.50-4.78). Low to moderate preoperative alcohol...

  18. Early postoperative fluoroquinolone use is associated with an increased revision rate after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Rodeo, Scott A; Young, Chris; Werner, Brian C

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use following arthroscopic primary rotator cuff repair with failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. An insurance database was queried for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair from 2007 to 2015. These patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months postoperatively (divided into 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 months), (2) a matched negative control cohort of patients not prescribed fluoroquinolones, and (3) a matched positive control cohort of patients prescribed fluoroquinolones between 6 and 18 months following rotator cuff repair. Rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair were compared within 2 years. A total of 1292 patients were prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months after rotator cuff repair, including 442 within 2 months, 433 within 2 to 4 months, and 417 within 4 to 6 months, and were compared to 5225 matched negative controls and 1597 matched positive controls. The rate of revision rotator cuff repair was significantly higher in patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 2 months (6.1 %) compared to matched negative (2.2 %, P = 0.0009) and positive controls (2.4 %, P = 0.0026). There were no significant differences in the rate of revision rotator cuff repair when fluoroquinolones were prescribed >2 months after rotator cuff repair. Early use of fluoroquinolones following rotator cuff repair was independently associated with significantly increased rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. This is the first clinical study examining the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use with failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. III.

  19. Epidemiology, practice of ventilation and outcome for patients at increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications: LAS VEGAS - an observational study in 29 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroell, Wolfgang; Metzler, Helfried; Struber, Gerd; Wegscheider, Thomas; Gombotz, Hans; Hiesmayr, Michael; Schmid, Werner; Urbanek, Bernhard; Leva, Brigitte; Damster, Sandrine; Plichon, Benoit; Kahn, David; Momeni, Mona; Pospiech, Audrey; Lois, Fernande; Forget, Patrice; Grosu, Irina; Poelaert, Jan; van Mossevelde, Veerle; van Malderen, Marie-Claire; Dylst, Dimitri; van Melkebeek, Jeroen; Beran, Maud; de Hert, Stefan; de Baerdemaeker, Luc; Heyse, Bjorn; van Limmen, Jurgen; Wyffels, Piet; Jacobs, Tom; Roels, Nathalie; de Bruyne, Ann; van de Velde, Stijn; Juros-Zovko, Marina; Djonoviċ-Omanoviċ, Dejana; Serpa Neto, Ary; Pernar, Selma; Zunic, Josip; Miskovic, Petar; Zilic, Antonio; Kvolik, Slavica; Ivic, Dubravka; Azenic-Venzera, Darija; Skiljic, Sonja; Vinkovic, Hrvoje; Oputric, Ivana; Juricic, Kazimir; Frkovic, Vedran; Kopic, Jasminka; Mirkovic, Ivan; Karanovic, Nenad; Carev, Mladen; Dropulic, Natasa; Pavičić-Šarić, Jadranka; Erceg, Gorjana; Bogdanović Dvorščak, Matea; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Pavicic, Anna Marija; Goranovic, Tanja; Maldini, Branka; Radocaj, Tomislav; Gavranovic, Zeljka; Mladic-Batinica, Inga; Sehovic, Mirna; Stourac, Petr; Harazim, Hana; Smekalova, Olga; Kosinova, Martina; Kolacek, Tomas; Hudacek, Kamil; Drab, Michal; Brujevic, Jan; Vitkova, Katerina; Jirmanova, Katerina; Volfova, Ivana; Dzurnakova, Paula; Liskova, Katarina; Dudas, Radovan; Filipsky, Radek; El Kafrawy, Samir; Hosny Abdelwahab, Hisham; Metwally, Tarek; Abdel-Razek, Ahmed; El-Shaarawy, Ahmed Mostafa; Fathy Hasan, Wael; Gouda Ahmed, Ahmed; Yassin, Hany; Magdy, Mohamed; Abdelhady, Mahdy; Mahran, Mohamed; Herodes, Eiko; Kivik, Peeter; Oganjan, Juri; Aun, Annika; Sormus, Alar; Sarapuu, Kaili; Mall, Merilin; Karjagin, Juri; Futier, Emmanuel; Petit, Antoine; Gerard, Adeline; Marret, Emmanuel; Solier, Marc; Jaber, Samir; Prades, Albert; Putensen, Christian; Krassler, Jens; Merzky, Simone; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Uhlig, Christopher; Kiss, Thomas; Bundy, Anette; Bluth, Thomas; Güldner, Andreas; Spieth, Peter; Scharffenberg, Martin; Tran Thiem, Denny; Koch, Thea; Treschan, Tanja; Schaefer, Maximilian; Bastin, Bea; Geib, Johann; Weiss, Martin; Kienbaum, Peter; Pannen, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Andre; Konrad, Mirja; Westerheide, Diana; Schwertfeger, Ben; Wrigge, Hermann; Simon, Philipp; Reske, Andreas; Nestler, Christian; Valsamidis, Dimitrios; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Anthopoulos, Georgios; Andreaou, Antonis; Karapanos, Dimitris; Theodoraki, Kassiani; Gkiokas, Georgios; Ttasoulis, Marios-Konstantinos; Sidiropoulou, Tatiana; Zafeiropoulou, Foteini; Florou, Panagiota; Pandazi, Aggeliki; Tsaousi, Georgia; Nouris, Christos; Pourzitaki, Chryssa; Bystritski, Dmitri; Pizov, Reuven; Eden, Arieh; Pesce, Caterina Valeria; Campanile, Annamaria; Marrella, Antonella; Grasso, Salvatore; de Michele, Michele; Bona, Francesco; Giacoletto, Gianmarco; Sardo, Elena; Giancarlo, Luigi; Sottosanti, Vicari; Solca, Maurizio; Volta, Carlo Alberto; Spadaro, Savino; Verri, Marco; Ragazzi, Riccardo; Zoppellari, Roberto; Cinnella, Gilda; Raimondo, Pasquale; La Bella, Daniela; Mirabella, Lucia; D'Antini, Davide; Pelosi, Paolo; Molin, Alexandre; Brunetti, Iole; Gratarola, Angelo; Pellerano, Giulia; Sileo, Rosanna; Pezzato, Stefano; Montagnani, Luca; Pasin, Laura; Landoni, Giovanni; Zangrillo, Alberto; Beretta, Luigi; Di Parma, Ambra Licia; Tarzia, Valentina; Dossi, Roberto; Sassone, Marta Eugenia; Sances, Daniele; Tredici, Stefano; Spano, Gianluca; Castellani, Gianluca; Delunas, Luigi; Peradze, Sopio; Venturino, Marco; Arpino, Ines; Sher, Sara; Tommasino, Concezione; Rapido, Francesca; Morelli, Paola; Vargas, Maria; Servillo, Giuseppe; Cortegiani, Andrea; Raineri, Santi Maurizio; Montalto, Francesca; Russotto, Vincenzo; Giarratano, Antonino; Baciarello, Marco; Generali, Michela; Cerati, Giorgia; Leykin, Yigal; Bressan, Filippo; Bartolini, Vittoria; Zamidei, Lucia; Brazzi, Luca; Liperi, Corrado; Sales, Gabriele; Pistidda, Laura; Severgnini, Paolo; Brugnoni, Elisa; Musella, Giuseppe; Bacuzzi, Alessandro; Muhardri, Dalip; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Sada, Fatos; Bytyqi, Adem; Karbonskiene, Aurika; Aukstakalniene, Ruta; Teberaite, Zivile; Salciute, Erika; Tikuisis, Renatas; Miliauskas, Povilas; Jurate, Sipylaite; Kontrimaviciute, Egle; Tomkute, Gabija; Xuereb, John; Bezzina, Maureen; Borg, Francis Joseph; Hemmes, Sabrine; Schultz, Marcus; Hollmann, Markus; Wiersma, Irene; Binnekade, Jan; Bos, Lieuwe; Boer, Christa; Duvekot, Anne; In 't Veld, Bas; Werger, Alice; Dennesen, Paul; Severijns, Charlotte; de Jong, Jasper; Hering, Jens; van Beek, Rienk; Ivars, Stefan; Jammer, Ib; Breidablik, Alena; Skirstad Hodt, Katharina; Fjellanger, Frode; VicoAvalos, Manuel; Mellin-Olsen, Jannicke; Andersson, Elisabeth; Shafi-Kabiri, Amir; Molina, Ruby; Wutai, Stanley; Morais, Erick; Tareco, Glo Ria; Ferreira, Daniel; Amaral, Joana; Gonçalves Castro, Maria de Lurdes; Cadilha, Susana; Appleton, Sofia; Parente, Suzana; Correia, Mariana; Martins, Diogo; Monteirosa, Angela; Ricardo, Ana; Rodrigues, Sara; Horhota, Lucian; Grintescu, Ioana Marina; Mirea, Liliana; Grintescu, Ioana Cristina; Corneci, Dan; Negoita, Silvius; Dutu, Madalina; Popescu Garotescu, Ioana; Filipescu, Daniela; Prodan, Alexandru Bogdan; Droc, Gabriela; Fota, Ruxandra; Popescu, Mihai; Tomescu, Dana; Petcu, Ana Maria; Tudoroiu, Marian Irinel; Moise, Alida; Guran, Catalin-Traian; Gherghina, Iorel; Costea, Dan; Cindea, Iulia; Copotoiu, Sanda-Maria; Copotoiu, Ruxandra; Barsan, Victoria; Tolcser, Zsolt; Riciu, Magda; Septimiu, Gheorghe Moldovan; Veres, Mihaly; Gritsan, Alexey; Kapkan, Tatyana; Gritsan, Galina; Korolkov, Oleg; Kulikov, Alexander; Lubnin, Andrey; Ovezov, Alexey; Prokoshev, Pavel; Lugovoy, Alexander; Anipchenko, Natalia; Babayants, Andrey; Komissarova, Irina; Zalina, Karginova; Likhvantsev, Valery; Fedorov, Sergei; Lazukic, Aleksandra; Pejakovic, Jasmina; Mihajlovic, Dunja; Kusnierikova, Zuzana; Zelinkova, Maria; Bruncakova, Katarina; Polakovicova, Lenka; Sobona, Villiam; Novak-Supe, Barbka; Pekle-Golez, Ana; Jovanov, Miroljub; Strazisar, Branka; Markovic-Bozic, Jasmina; Novak-Jankovic, Vesna; Voje, Minca; Grynyuk, Andriy; Kostadinov, Ivan; Spindler-Vesel, Alenka; Moral, Victoria; Unzueta, Carmen; Puigbo, Carlos; Fava, Josep; Canet, Jaume; Moret, Enrique; Rodriguez Nunez, Mo Nica; Sendra, Mar; Brunelli, Andrea; Rodenas, Frederic; Monedero, Pablo; Hidalgo Martinez, Francisco; Yepes Temino, Maria Jose; Marti Nez Simon, Antonio; de Abajo Larriba, Ana; Lisi, Alberto; Perez, Gisela; Martinez, Raquel; Granell, Manuel; Tatay Vivo, Jose; Saiz Ruiz, Cristina; de Andre S Iban Ez, Jose Antonio; Pastor, Ernesto; Soro, Marina; Ferrando, Carlos; Defez, Mario; Aldecoa Alvares-Santullano, Cesar; Pere, Rocio; Rico, Jesus; Jawad, Monir; Saeed, Yousif; Gillberg, Lars; Hedenstierna, Göran; Kazak Bengisun, Zuleyha; Kansu Kazbek, Baturay; Coskunfirat, Nesil; Boztug, Neval; Sanli, Suat; Yilmaz, Murat; Hadimioglu, Necmiye; Senturk, Nuzhet Mert; Camci, Emre; Kucukgoncu, Semra; Sungur, Zerrin; Sivrikoz, Nukhet; Ustalar Ozgen, Serpil; Toraman, Fevzi; Selvi, Onur; Senturk, Ozgur; Yildiz, Mine; Kuvaki, Bahar; Gunenc, Ferim; Kucukguclu, Semih; Ozbilgin, S. Ule; Maral, Jale; Canli, Seyda; Arun, Oguzhan; Saltali, Ali; Aydogan, Eyup; Akgün, Fatma Nur; Sanlikarip, Ceren; Mine Karaman, Fatma; Mazur, Andriy; Vorotyntsev, Sergiy; Rousseau, Guy; Barrett, Colin; Stancombe, Lucia; Shelley, Ben; Scholes, Helen; Limb, James; Rafi, Amir; Wayman, Lisa; Deane, Jill; Rogerson, David; Williams, John; Yates, Susan; Rogers, Elaine; Pulletz, Mark; Moreton, Sarah; Jones, Stephanie; Venkatesh, Suresh; Burton, Maudrian; Brown, Lucy; Goodall, Cait; Rucklidge, Matthew; Fuller, Debbie; Nadolski, Maria; Kusre, Sandeep; Lundberg, Michael; Everett, Lynn; Nutt, Helen; Zuleika, Maka; Carvalho, Peter; Clements, Deborah; Creagh-Brown, Ben; Watt, Philip; Raymode, Parizade; Pearse, Rupert; Mohr, Otto; Raj, Ashok; Creary, Thais; Chishti, Ahmed; Bell, Andrea; Higham, Charley; Cain, Alistair; Gibb, Sarah; Mowat, Stephen; Franklin, Danielle; West, Claire; Minto, Gary; Boyd, Nicholas; Mills, Gary; Calton, Emily; Walker, Rachel; Mackenzie, Felicity; Ellison, Branwen; Roberts, Helen; Chikungwa, Moses; Jackson, Clare; Donovan, Andrew; Foot, Jayne; Homan, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Jane; Portch, David; Mercer, Pauline; Palme, Janet; Paddle, Jonathan; Fouracres, Anna; Datson, Amanda; Andrew, Alyson; Welch, Leanne; Rose, Alastair; Varma, Sandeep; Simeson, Karen; Rambhatla, Mrutyunjaya; Susarla, Jaysimha; Marri, Sudhakar; Kodaganallur, Krishnan; Das, Ashok; Algarsamy, Shivarajan; Colley, Julie; Davies, Simon; Szewczyk, Margaret; Smith, Thomas; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Luzier, Elizabeth; Almagro, Angela; Vidal Melo, Marcos; Fernando, Luiz; Sulemanji, Demet; Sprung, Juraj; Weingarten, Toby; Kor, Daryl; Scavonetto, Federica; Tze, Yeo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUNDLimited information exists about the epidemiology and outcome of surgical patients at increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), and how intraoperative ventilation was managed in these patients.OBJECTIVESTo determine the incidence of surgical patients at increased risk

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Risk of Postoperative Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Attix, Deborah K; Weldon, B Craig; Monk, Terri G

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of postoperative delirium. However, to our knowledge no previous studies have examined whether different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium. One thousand twenty patients were screened for postoperative delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method and through retrospective chart review. Patients underwent cognitive, psychosocial, and medical assessments preoperatively. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form. Thirty-eight patients developed delirium (3.7%). Using a factor structure previously validated among geriatric medical patients, the authors examined three components of depression as predictors of postoperative delirium: negative affect, cognitive distress, and behavioral inactivity. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, education, comorbidities, and cognitive function, the authors found that greater behavioral inactivity was associated with increased risk of delirium (OR: 1.95 [1.11, 3.42]), whereas negative affect (OR: 0.65 [0.31, 1.36]) and cognitive distress (OR: 0.95 [0.63, 1.43]) were not. Different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early postoperative cognitive dysfunction and postoperative delirium after anaesthesia with various hypnotics: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial - The PINOCCHIO trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli Allison

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postoperative delirium can result in increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, major demand for postoperative care and higher hospital costs. Hypnotics serve to induce and maintain anaesthesia and to abolish patients' consciousness. Their persisting clinical action can delay postoperative cognitive recovery and favour postoperative delirium. Some evidence suggests that these unwanted effects vary according to each hypnotic's specific pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and its interaction with the individual patient. We designed this study to evaluate postoperative delirium rate after general anaesthesia with various hypnotics in patients undergoing surgical procedures other than cardiac or brain surgery. We also aimed to test whether delayed postoperative cognitive recovery increases the risk of postoperative delirium. Methods/Design After local ethics committee approval, enrolled patients will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. In all patients anaesthesia will be induced with propofol and fentanyl, and maintained with the anaesthetics desflurane, or sevoflurane, or propofol and the analgesic opioid fentanyl. The onset of postoperative delirium will be monitored with the Nursing Delirium Scale every three hours up to 72 hours post anaesthesia. Cognitive function will be evaluated with two cognitive test batteries (the Short Memory Orientation Memory Concentration Test and the Rancho Los Amigos Scale preoperatively, at baseline, and postoperatively at 20, 40 and 60 min after extubation. Statistical analysis will investigate differences in the hypnotics used to maintain anaesthesia and the odds ratios for postoperative delirium, the relation of early postoperative cognitive recovery and postoperative delirium rate. A subgroup analysis will be used to categorize patients according to demographic variables relevant to the risk of postoperative delirium (age, sex, body weight and to the

  2. Postoperative B-Type Natriuretic Peptide as Predictor for Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Implanted With Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Gardner; Bhat, Geetha; Pappas, Patroklos; Tatooles, Antone

    2018-04-18

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac neurohormone known to correlate with left ventricular (LV) dilation, decreased contractility, and increased stiffness. Consequently, BNP has been used as a prognostic tool to assess the degree of LV unloading for patients supported by continuous-flow LV assist devices (LVADs). We assessed the prognostic value of changes in BNP in the 2 weeks after LVAD implantation. This retrospective study analyzed laboratory findings and outcomes of 189 LVAD patients. Patients were separated into two groups based on whether serum BNP levels had improved from preoperative levels by postoperative day 14. Group 1 had improvement in BNP levels, whereas group 2 had no improvement or worsening in BNP. There were no significant differences between the groups in age, gender, race, body mass index, or comorbidities. Group 1 had preoperative BNP 1,125 ± 1,078.3 pg/dl and postoperative BNP 440.2 ± 267.7 pg/dl (ΔBNP = -693.09 ± 942.4 pg/dl), whereas group 2 had preoperative BNP 346.0 ± 309.1 pg/dl and postoperative BNP 631.57 ± 483.4 pg/dl (ΔBNP = 289.32 ± 329.7 pg/dl). Postoperative survival in group 2 was significantly worse than in group 1. Rates of right ventricular failure (RVF) were significantly higher in group 2 (group 1: 39%, group 2: 52.7%; p = 0.01). In most patients implanted with a LVAD, BNP improves significantly in the postoperative period as the LV is unloaded. Our results indicate that lack of improvement in postoperative BNP is associated with longer length of stay, increased rates of RVF, and is an independent risk factor for reduced postoperative survival.

  3. Increased Plasma Levels of Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns Are Associated With Immune Suppression and Postoperative Infections in Patients Undergoing Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus P. Leijte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDanger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs can elicit immune responses and may subsequently induce an immune-suppressed state. Previous work showed that increased plasma levels of DAMPs are associated with immune suppression and increased susceptibility toward infections in trauma patients. Like trauma, major surgical procedures, such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC, are also thought to cause profound DAMP release. Furthermore, the incidence of postoperative infections in these patients, ranging from 10 to 36%, is very high compared to that observed in patients undergoing other major surgical procedures. We hypothesized that the double hit of surgical trauma (CRS in combination with HIPEC causes excessive DAMP release, which in turn contributes to the development of immune suppression. To investigate this, we assessed DAMP release in patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC, and investigated its relationship with immune suppression and postoperative infections.MethodsIn 20 patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC, blood was obtained at five time points: just before surgery (baseline, after CRS, after HIPEC, at ICU admission, and 1 day after surgery. Circulating levels of DAMPs [heat shock protein (HSP70, high mobility group box (HMGB1, S100A12, S100A8/S100A9, nuclear (nDNA, mitochondrial (mtDNA, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, a marker of unscheduled cell death], and cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MCP-1] were measured. The extent of immune suppression was determined by measuring HLA-DR gene expression and ex vivo leukocytic cytokine production capacity.ResultsPlasma levels of DAMPs (maximum fold increases of HSP70: 2.1 [1.5–2.8], HMGB1: 5.9 [3.2–9.8], S100A8/S100A9: 3.6 [1.8–5.6], S100A12: 2.6 [1.8–4.3], nDNA 3.9 [1.0–10.8], LDH 1.7 [1.2–2.5], and all measured cytokines increased profoundly following

  4. Postoperative ileus - an update on preventive techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews techniques currently used to prevent or reduce the duration of postoperative ileus (POI), which is considered an undesirable stress response to major abdominal surgery that leads to discomfort, morbidity and prolonged hospital stay. In several randomized studies, a number...... institution of oral feeding and laparoscopic surgery might also be effective, but there is less clear evidence available to support their use. When some of these techniques are combined as part of the concept of multimodal postoperative rehabilitation (fast-track surgery), the duration of POI after open...

  5. Effects of tramadol or morphine in dogs undergoing castration on intra-operative electroencephalogram responses and post-operative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongara, K; Chambers, J P; Johnson, C B; Dukkipati, V S R

    2013-11-01

    To compare the effects of pre-operatively administered tramadol with those of morphine on electroencephalographic responses to surgery and post-operative pain in dogs undergoing castration. Dogs undergoing castration were treated with either pre-operative morphine (0.5 mg/kg S/C, n = 8) or tramadol (3 mg/kg S/C, n = 8). All dogs also received 0.05 mg/kg acepromazine and 0.04 mg/kg atropine S/C in addition to the test analgesic. Anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone administered I/V to effect and maintained with halothane in oxygen. Respiratory rate, heart rate, end-tidal halothane tension (EtHal) and end-tidal CO2 tension (EtCO2) were monitored throughout surgery. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded continuously using a three electrode montage. Median frequency (F50), total power (Ptot) and 95% spectral edge frequency (F95) derived from EEG power spectra recorded before skin incision (baseline) were compared with those recorded during ligation of the spermatic cords of both testicles. Post-operatively, pain was assessed after 1, 3, 6 and 9 h using the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF). Dogs premedicated with tramadol had higher mean F50 (12.2 (SD 0.2) Hz) and lower Ptot (130.39 (SD 12.1) µv(2)) compared with those premedicated with morphine (11.5 (SD 0.2) Hz and 161.8 (SD 15.1) µv(2), respectively; p0.05). The F95 of the EEG did not differ between the two groups during the ligation of either testicle (p > 0.05). Post-operatively, no significant differences in the CMPS-SF score were found between animals premedicated with tramadol and morphine at any time during the post-operative period. No dog required rescue analgesia. Tramadol and morphine administered pre-operatively provided a similar degree of post-operative analgesia in male dogs at the doses tested.

  6. Hepatobiliary transporter expression and post-operative jaundice in patients undergoing partial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Gerwin A; Zollner, Gernot; Cerwenka, Herwig; Kornprat, Peter; Fickert, Peter; Bacher, Heinz; Werkgartner, Georg; Müller, Gabriele; Zatloukal, Kurt; Mischinger, Hans-Jörg; Trauner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Post-operative hyperbilirubinaemia in patients undergoing liver resections is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Apart from different known factors responsible for the development of post-operative jaundice, little is known about the role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the pathogenesis of post-operative jaundice in humans after liver resection. Two liver tissue samples were taken from 14 patients undergoing liver resection before and after Pringle manoeuvre. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups according to post-operative bilirubin serum levels. The two groups were analysed comparing the results of hepatobiliary transporter [Na-taurocholate cotransporter (NTCP); multidrug resistance gene/phospholipid export pump(MDR3); bile salt export pump (BSEP); canalicular bile salt export pump (MRP2)], heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression as well as the results of routinely taken post-operative liver chemistry tests. Patients with low post-operative bilirubin had lower levels of NTCP, MDR3 and BSEP mRNA compared to those with high bilirubin after Pringle manoeuvre. HSP70 levels were significantly higher after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in both groups resulting in 4.5-fold median increase. Baseline median mRNA expression of all four transporters prior to Pringle manoeuvre tended to be lower in the low bilirubin group whereas expression of HSP70 was higher in the low bilirubin group compared to the high bilirubin group. Higher mRNA levels of HSP70 in the low bilirubin group could indicate a possible protective effect of high HSP70 levels against IR injury. Although the exact role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the development of post-operative hyper bilirubinemia is not yet completely understood, this study provides new insights into the molecular aspects of post-operative jaundice after liver surgery. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Pre- and postoperative MR imaging of craniopharyngiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, J.K. [Rijkshospitalet, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Radiology; Eldevik, O.P. [Rijkshospitalet, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Quint, D.J. [Rijkshospitalet, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Chandler, W.F. [Univ. of Michigan Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kollevold, T. [Univ. of Michigan Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    1996-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the pre- and postoperative MR appearance of craniopharyngiomas with respect to lesion size, tumour morphology and identification of surrounding normal structures. Material and Methods: MR images obtained prior to and following craniopharyngioma resection were evaluated retrospectively in 10 patients. Tumour signal charcteristics, size and extension with particular reference to the optic chiasm, the pituitary gland, the pituitary stalk and the third ventricle were evaluated. Results: Following surgery, tumour volume was reduced in all patients. In 6 patients there was further tumour volume reduction between the first and second postoperative images. Two of these patients received radiation therapy between the 2 postoperative studies, while 4 had no adjuvant treatment to the surgical intervention. There was improved visualization of the optic chiasm, in 3, the pituitary stalk in one, and the third ventricle in 9 of the 10 patients. The pituitary gland was identified preoperatively only in one patient, postoperatively only in another, pre- and postoperatively in 5, and neither pre- nor postoperatively in 3 patients. In 3 patients MR imaging 0-7 days postoperatively identified tumour remnants not seen at the end of the surgical procedure. The signal intensities of solid and cystic tumour components were stable from pre- to the first postoperative MR images. Optic tract increased signal prior to surgery was gone 28 days postoperatively in one patient, but persisted on the left side for 197 days after surgery in another. Conclusion: Postoperative MR imaging of craniopharyngiomas demonstrated tumour volume reduction and tumour remnants not seen at surgery. Early postoperative MR imaging of craniopharyngiomas may overestimate the size of residual tumour. Improved visualization of peritumoral structures may be achieved. (orig.).

  8. Effects of a thermal ceiling on postoperative hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Eklund, A; Joachimsson, P O

    1985-01-01

    Moderate per- and postoperative hypothermia initiates an increased metabolism in the postoperative period. The subsequent demands on oxygen transport may be critical in poor risk patients. Nineteen healthy young women with moderate hypothermia after abdominal surgery were studied for 2 h...

  9. Two-Way Social Media Messaging in Postoperative Cataract Surgical Patients: Prospective Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguansak, Thuss; Morley, Katharine E; Morley, Michael G; Thinkhamrop, Kavin; Thuanman, Jaruwan; Agarwal, Isha

    2017-12-19

    Social media offers a new way to provide education, reminders, and support for patients with a variety of health conditions. Most of these interventions use one-way, provider-patient communication. Incorporating social media tools to improve postoperative (postop) education and follow-up care has only been used in limited situations. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of two-way social media messaging to deliver reminders and educational information about postop care to cataract patients. A total of 98 patients undergoing their first eye cataract surgery were divided into two groups: a no message group receiving usual pre- and postop care and a message group receiving usual care plus messages in a mobile social media format with standardized content and timing. Each patient in the message group received nine messages about hand and face hygiene, medication and postop visit adherence, and links to patient education videos about postop care. Patients could respond to messages as desired. Main outcome measures included medication adherence, postop visit adherence, clinical outcomes, and patients' subjective assessments of two-way messaging. The number, types, content, and timing of responses by patients to messages were recorded. Medication adherence was better in the message group at postop day 7, with high adherence in 47 patients (96%, 47/49) versus 36 patients (73%, 36/49) in the no message group (P=.004), but no statistically significant differences in medication adherence between the groups were noted at preop and postop day 30. Visit adherence was higher at postop day 30 in the message group (100%, 49/49) versus the no message group (88%, 43/49; P=.03) but was 100% (49/49) in both groups at postop day 1 and 7. Final visual outcomes were similar between groups. A total of 441 standardized messages were sent to the message group. Out of 270 responses generated, 188 (70%) were simple acknowledgments or "thank you," and 82 (30

  10. Co-administration of morphine and gabapentin leads to dose dependent synergistic effects in a rat model of postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    dose combinations and investigate whether co-administration leads to synergistic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The pharmacodynamic effects of morphine (1, 3 and 7 mg/kg), gabapentin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or their combination (9 combinations in total) were evaluated in the rat...... plantar incision model using an electronic von Frey device. The percentage of maximum possible effect (%MPE) and the area under the response curve (AUC) were used for evaluation of the antihyperalgesic effects of the drugs. Identification of synergistic interactions was based on Loewe additivity response...... surface analyses. The combination of morphine and gabapentin resulted in synergistic antihyperalgesic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The synergistic interactions were found to be dose dependent and the increase in observed response compared to the theoretical additive response...

  11. Multimodality postoperative imaging of liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, Giulia A.; Pedrosa, Ivan; Kruskal, Jonathan B.; Raptopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the only effective and definitive treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. The shortage of cadaveric livers has lead to the increasing use of split-liver transplantation and living-donor liver transplantation, but the expansion of the donor pool has increased the risk for postoperative vascular and biliary complications. Early recognition of the imaging appearances of the various postoperative complications of liver transplantation is crucial for both graft and patient survival. This review describes the imaging findings of normal and abnormal transplanted liver parenchyma and of vascular and biliary post-transplantation complications. (orig.)

  12. Prediction of post-operative pain after a laparoscopic tubal ligation procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudin, A.; Wolner-Hanssen, P.; Hellbom, M.

    2008-01-01

    ligation procedure. METHODS: Assessments of anxiety, mood, psychological vulnerability and pre-operative pain were made before surgery using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), a psychological vulnerability test and the Short-Form McGill Pain......BACKGROUND: Pre-operative identification of reliable predictors of post-operative pain may lead to improved pain management strategies. We investigated the correlation between pre-operative pain, psychometric variables, response to heat stimuli and post-operative pain following a laparoscopic tubal...... Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), respectively. Pre-operative assessments of thermal thresholds and pain response to randomized series of heat stimuli (1 s, 44-48 degrees C) were made with quantitative sensory testing technique. Post-operative pain intensity was evaluated daily by a visual analogue scale during rest...

  13. Structured triglycerides were well tolerated and induced increased whole body fat oxidation compared with long-chain triglycerides in postoperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, R; Hyltander, A; Körner, U; Lundholm, K

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed, on the basis of animal experiments, that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may exert more favorable effects on whole body metabolism of injured animals than long-chain triglycerides (LCT). Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate whether structured triglycerides are associated with increased whole body fat oxidation without promotion of ketogenesis in postoperative patients. A structured lipid emulsion (73403 Pharmacia, Sweden) containing medium- and long-chain fatty acids, esterified randomly to glycerol in a triglyceride structure, was used. Whole body fat oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry in the postoperative period. Patients were randomized to receive structured lipids 1 day followed by LCT (Intralipid, Pharmacia) the next day or vice versa during 6 postoperative days. In part 1 of the study patients received fat at 1.0 g/kg per day in the presence of 80% of the basal requirement of nonprotein calories. In part 2 patients received fat at 1.5 g/kg per day in the presence of 120% of the nonprotein caloric requirement. Amino acids were always provided at 0.15 g N/kg per day. Structured lipids were not associated with any side effects, were rapidly cleared from the plasma compartment, and were rapidly oxidized without any significant hyperlipidemia or ketosis. Provision of structured lipids in the presence of excess of nonprotein calories (part 2) caused a significantly higher whole body fat oxidation (2.4 +/- 0.05 g/kg per day) compared with LCT provision (1.9 +/- 0.06 g/kg per day) (p structured triglycerides were associated with increased whole body fat oxidation in stressed postoperative patients, which is in line with the original metabolic and biochemical concept for structured triglycerides. The study provided evidence to support that structured lipids may represent a next generation of IV fat emulsions that may be clinically advantageous compared with conventional LCT emulsions in certain clinical conditions.

  14. Effect of immune nutritional support on immune function and inflammatory factor in postoperative patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Jia Dai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of immune nutritional support on immune function and inflammatory factor in postoperative patients with gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 100 patients with gastric cancer were selected and randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 50 cases in each group. The control group received routine perioperative enteral and parenteral nutrition, on the basis of conventional nutritional support, and the observation group was given enteral nutrition emulsion immune support. Then, the immune function and the inflammatory factor of postoperative day 1 and day 7 were compared between the two groups. Results: (1 With the preoperative data as the basis, the levels of serum IgG, IgA, C3 and C4 decreased at the postoperative day 1 and then increased at the postoperative day 7, while the level of IgM showed an increasing trend and then a decreasing trend in the two groups, and the corresponding figures for the postoperative day 1 and day 7 were statistically different between the two groups. In the observation group, the levels of IgG, IgA, C3 and C4 were higher, while the level of IgM was lower at the postoperative day 1 and day 7 than that in the control group, and the differences were statistically significant; (2 With the preoperative data as the basis, the levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP significantly increased at the postoperative day 1 and then decreased at the postoperative day 7 in the two groups, and the corresponding figures for the postoperative day 1 and day 7 in the observation group were lower than those in the control group, and the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Immune nutritional support can help to reduce the damage of immune function and the inflammatory response induced by surgery in patients with gastric cancer, which is worthy of clinical application.

  15. Prediction of postoperative pain by preoperative nociceptive responses to heat stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Duun, Preben; Kehlet, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    , secondary hyperalgesia area, thermal and mechanical pain perception, and pain thresholds. Postoperative analgesia consisted of ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Pain ratings (visual analog scale) at rest and during limb movement were followed for 10 days after surgery. RESULTS: The burn injury was associated......BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in the understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms of pain, the wide variation in acute pain experience has not been well explained. Therefore, the authors investigated the potential of a preoperatively induced heat injury to predict subsequent postoperative...... pain ratings in patients undergoing knee surgery. METHODS: Twenty patients were studied. The burn injury was induced 6 days before surgery with a contact thermode (12.5 cm2, 47 degrees C for 7 min). The sensory testing, before and 1 h after the injury, included pain score during induction of the burn...

  16. Intraoperative Corticosteroid Injection at the Time of Knee Arthroscopy Is Associated With Increased Postoperative Infection Rates in a Large Medicare Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Gwathmey, F Winston; Werner, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    To employ a national database of Medicare patients to evaluate the association of ipsilateral intra-articular knee corticosteroid injections at the time of knee arthroscopy with the incidence of postoperative infection. A national Medicare insurance database was queried for patients who underwent ipsilateral intra-articular corticosteroid injection of the knee at the time of knee arthroscopy from 2005 to 2012. Patients who underwent arthroscopically assisted open procedures, those who underwent more complex arthroscopic procedures, and those for whom laterality were not coded were excluded. This study group was compared to a control cohort of patients without intraoperative steroid injections that was matched to the study group for age, gender, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and smoking status. Infection rates within 3 and 6 months postoperatively were assessed using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes. The incidence of postoperative infection rates after knee arthroscopy was significantly higher at 3 months (0.66%; odds ratio [OR], 2.6; P arthroscopy (n = 2,866) compared with matched controls without intraoperative injections (n = 170,350) at 3 months (0.25%) and 6 months (0.54%). The present study demonstrates a significant increase in postoperative infection in Medicare patients who underwent ipsilateral intra-articular knee corticosteroid injections at the time of knee arthroscopy compared with a matched control group without intraoperative injection. Therapeutic Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding postoperative fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E A; King, T C

    1978-07-01

    Performance characteristics of the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems in man postoperatively have received little investigative attention, despite the well known syndrome of postoperative fatigue. The impairmen in perception and psychomotor skills that has been shown to result from caloric restriction, bedrest, sedation and sleep deprivation suggests that a similar deficit may occur after surgical procedures. After a simple elective surgical procedure, maximal oxygen uptake decreases and the adaptability of heart rate to submaximal workloads is impaired. Similar deleterious effects on cardiorespiratory performance have been documented with starvation and bedrest; an understanding of cardiorespiratory performance postoperatively awaits further investigation. Maximal muscular force of contraction is also impaired by caloric restriction and bedrest, suggesting that similar effects may be seen in the postoperative state, although this has not been studied. A better understanding of the syndrome of postoperative fatigue could be achieved by a descriptive analysis of physiologic performance postoperatively. Such descriptive data could form the basis for objective evaluation of therapeutic measures intended to improve performance, such as nutritional supplementation and pharmacologic intervention. The observation that exercise with the patient in the supine position may decrease the impairment in maximal aerobic power otherwise expected in immobilized patients suggests that controlled exercise therapy may be of value in reducing physiologic impairment postoperatively.

  18. Circadian variation in unexpected postoperative death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H; Ramsing, T

    1992-01-01

    Unexpected deaths still occur following major surgical procedures. The cause is often unknown but may be cardiac or thromboembolic in nature. Postoperative ischaemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death may be triggered by episodic or constant arterial hypoxaemia, which increases during the night...... deaths occurred at night-time. These results suggest a need for further studies of sleep- and respiration-related effects on postoperative nocturnal cardiac function. The efficacy of monitoring during this apparent high-risk period should be evaluated....

  19. Peripherally applied opioids for postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B N; Henneberg, S W; Schmiegelow, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids applied peripherally at the site of surgery may produce postoperative analgesia with few side effects. We performed this systematic review to evaluate the analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids for acute postoperative pain. METHODS: We searched PubMed (1966 to June...... 2013), Embase (1980 to June 2013), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 6). Randomized controlled trials investigating the postoperative analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids vs. systemic opioids or placebo, measured by pain intensity...... difference -5 mm, 95% CI: -7 to -3) for peripherally applied opioids vs. placebo and statistically significant increased time to first analgesic (mean difference 153 min, 95% CI: 41-265). When preoperative inflammation was reported (five studies), peripherally applied opioids significantly improved...

  20. Postoperative MRI of the ankle; Postoperative Magnetresonanztomographie des Sprunggelenks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharabianlou Korth, M.; Fritz, L.B. [Rheinlandaerzte, Willich (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Postoperative imaging of the ankle can be challenging, even for the experienced radiologist. Pathological and postoperative changes to the primarily complex anatomy of the ankle with its great variety of bone structures, tendons, ligaments, and soft tissue in a very limited space may cause great difficulty in differentiating underlying pathology from expected postoperative changes and artifacts, especially in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Selecting the appropriate radiological modality is key to making the correct diagnosis. Therefore, knowledge of the initial and current symptoms is just as important as familiarity with the most frequently performed operations in the ankle. This article aims to give its reader a summary of the most important and frequently performed operation techniques of the ankle and discusses the expected appearance and possible complications in postoperative imaging. (orig.) [German] Die postoperative radiologische Bildgebung des Sprunggelenks kann auch fuer den erfahrenen Radiologen eine besondere Herausforderung darstellen. Die komplex aufgebaute Anatomie des Sprunggelenks, mit seinen multiplen Gelenkflaechen, Sehnen, Baendern und neurovaskulaeren Strukturen auf engstem Raum, kann durch Operationen signifikant veraendert und insbesondere in der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) verfaelscht dargestellt werden. Fuer eine fundierte Befundung und Beurteilung der Operationsergebnisse ist die Kenntnis der praeoperativen Diagnose, Zeitpunkt und Technik der durchgefuehrten Operation(en) sowie der aktuellen klinischen Symptomatik von grosser Bedeutung. Dieser Artikel konzentriert sich auf zu erwartende radiologische Veraenderungen und gibt Tipps zur Befundung der postoperativen MRT des Sprunggelenks bei einer Auswahl relevanter operativer Eingriffe. Zudem wird auf moegliche postoperative Komplikationen und ihre radiologische Darstellung hingewiesen. (orig.)

  1. Post-operative sleep disturbance: causes, factors and effects on outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Kehlet, H

    1995-01-01

    Post-operative sleep disturbance, with suppression of rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep followed by a subsequent rebound, seems to be related to the magnitude of trauma and thereby to the surgical stress response. In this context, cortisol, autonomic stimulation, and certain cytokines...... may lead to abnormal sleep. Furthermore, the environment, pain and the administration of analgesics seem to be important factors in the precipitation of sleep abnormalities. Post-operative sleep disturbance may contribute to the development of episodic hypoxaemia, haemodynamic instability and altered...... mental status, all of which have an influence on post-operative morbidity and mortality. Prevention or reduction of the post-operative sleep disturbance may be achieved by minimizing surgical trauma, changing the conventional nursing procedures, avoiding opioids and treating pain with non...

  2. Increasing patient knowledge on the proper usage of a PCA machine with the use of a post-operative instructional card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovel, Louisa; Max, Bryan; Correll, Darin J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if an instructional card, attached to the PCA machine following total hip arthroplasty describing proper use of the device, would positively affect subjects' understanding of device usage, pain scores, pain medication consumption and satisfaction. Eighty adults undergoing total hip replacements who had been prescribed PCA were randomized into two study groups. Forty participants received the standard post-operative instruction on PCA device usage at our institution. The other 40 participants received the standard of care in addition to being given a typed instructional card immediately post-operatively, describing proper PCA device use. This card was attached to the PCA device during their recovery period. On post-operative day one, each patient completed a questionnaire on PCA usage, pain scores and satisfaction scores. The pain scores in the Instructional Card group were significantly lower than the Control group (p = 0.024). Subjects' understanding of PCA usage was also improved in the Instructional Card group for six of the seven questions asked. The findings from this study strongly support that postoperative patient information on proper PCA use by means of an instructional card improves pain control and hence the overall recovery for patients undergoing surgery. In addition, through improved understanding it adds an important safety feature in that patients and potentially their family members and/or friends may refrain from PCA-by-proxy. This article demonstrates that the simple intervention of adding an instructional card to a PCA machine is an effective method to improve patients' knowledge as well as pain control and potentially increase the safety of the device use.

  3. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  4. Atrial Na,K-ATPase increase and potassium dysregulation accentuate the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Cao Thach; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Christensen, John Brochorst

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation is a common complication to cardiac surgery. Na,K-ATPase is of major importance for the resting membrane potential and action potential. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the importance of Na,K-ATPase concentrations in human atrial...... biopsies and plasma potassium concentrations for the development of atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Atrial myocardial biopsies were obtained from 67 patients undergoing open chest cardiac surgery. Na,K-ATPase was quantified using vanadate-facilitated 3H-ouabain binding. Plasma potassium concentration....../g wet weight (n = 33), p = 0.03]. Also with multivariable analysis, 3H-ouabain-binding site concentration was significantly associated with the development of atrial fibrillation. High increase in plasma potassium concentration during the perioperative period and surgery was associated...

  5. Endocrine, metabolic and cardiovascular responses to adrenaline after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte; Birch, K

    1990-01-01

    Adrenaline-induced changes in heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline, cortisol, glucagon, insulin, cAMP, glucose lactate, glycerol and beta-hydroxybutyrate were studied preoperatively and 4 and 24 h after skin incision in 8 patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. Late...... postoperative responses of blood glucose, plasma cAMP, lactate and glycerol to adrenaline infusion were reduced, whereas other responses were unaffected. Blood glucose appearance and disappearance rate as assessed by [3H]3-glucose infusion was unchanged pre- and postoperatively. The increase in glucose...... appearance rate following adrenaline was similar pre- and postoperatively. These findings suggest that several beta-receptor-mediated responses to adrenaline are reduced after abdominal surgery....

  6. The surgical stress response: should it be prevented?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1991-01-01

    clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in various aspects of postoperative morbidity by such a nociceptive blockade. Although a causal relationship has still to be demonstrated, these findings strongly argue the concept of "stress-free anesthesia and surgery" as an important instrument in improving......Postoperative complications such as myocardial infarction, pulmonary infection, thromboembolism and fatigue are probably related to increased demands, hypermetabolism, catabolism and other physiologic changes included in the global "surgical stress response." Strategies have been developed...... to suppress the detrimental components of the stress response so as to improve postoperative outcome. Of the various techniques to reduce the surgical stress response, afferent neural blockade with regional anesthesia to relieve pain is the most effective, although not optimal. Data from numerous controlled...

  7. Postoperative hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Catherine E; Shiue, Zita; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Umbricht, Christopher B; Tufano, Ralph P; Dackiw, Alan P B; Kowalski, Jeanne; Zeiger, Martha A

    2010-11-01

    It is believed that patients who undergo thyroidectomy for Graves' disease are more likely to experience postoperative hypocalcemia than patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for other indications. However, no study has directly compared these two groups of patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was an increased incidence or severity of postoperative hypocalcemia in patients who underwent thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. An institutional review board-approved database was created of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy from 1998 to 2009 at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were a total of 68 patients with Graves' disease who underwent surgery. Fifty-five patients who underwent total thyroidectomy were randomly selected and served as control subjects. An analysis was conducted that examined potential covariates for postoperative hypocalcemia, including age, gender, ethnicity, preoperative alkaline phosphatase level, size of goiter, whether parathyroid tissue or glands were present in the specimen, and the reason the patient underwent surgery. Specific outcomes examined were calcium levels on postoperative day 1, whether or not patients experienced symptoms of hypocalcemia, whether or not Rocaltrol was required, the number of calcium tablets prescribed upon discharge, whether or not postoperative tetany occurred, and calcium levels 1 month after discharge. Each outcome was analyzed using a logistic regression. Graves' disease patients had a significantly (p-value Graves' disease and no patient in the control group were readmitted with tetany (p = 0.033). There was a trend, though not significant, toward patients with Graves' disease having a higher prevalence of hypocalcemia the day after thyroidectomy and 1 month later. Patients with Graves' disease are more likely to require increased dosages of calcium as well as experience tetany postoperatively than patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for other indications. This suggests that

  8. Variable lung protective mechanical ventilation decreases incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction during open abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruichun; Chen, Junping; Wu, Guorong

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of cognitive abilities and can manifest on different neuropsychological features in the early postoperative period. It has been proved that the use of mechanical ventilation (MV) increased the development of delirium and POCD. However, the impact of variable and conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation on the incidence of POCD still remains unknown, which was the aim of this study. 162 patients scheduled to undergo elective gastrointestinal tumor resection via laparotomy in Ningbo No. 2 hospital with expected duration >2 h from June, 2013 to June, 2015 were enrolled in this study. Patients included were divided into two groups according to the scheme of lung protective MV, variable ventilation group (VV group, n=79) and conventional ventilation group (CV group, n=83) by randomization performed by random block randomization. The plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines, characteristics of the surgical procedure, incidence of delirium and POCD were collected and compared. Postoperative delirium was detected in 36 of 162 patients (22.2%) and 12 patients of these (16.5%) belonged to the VV group while 24 patients (28.9%) were in the CV group (P=0.036). POCD on the seventh postoperative day in CV group (26/83, 31.3%) was increased in comparison with the VV group (14/79, 17.7%) with significant statistical difference (P=0.045). The levels of inflammatory cytokines were all significantly higher in CV group than those in VV group on the 1st postoperative day (Pprotective MV decreased the incidence of postoperative delirium and POCD by reducing the systemic proinflammatory response.

  9. The postoperative stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, Courtney A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Levine, Marc S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: marc.levine@uphs.upenn.edu

    2005-03-01

    Gastric surgery may be performed for the treatment of a variety of benign and malignant diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. Radiographic studies with water-soluble contrast agents often are obtained to rule out leaks, obstruction, or other acute complications during the early postoperative period. Barium studies may also be obtained to evaluate for anastomotic strictures or ulcers, bile reflux gastritis, recurrent tumor, or other chronic complications during the late postoperative period. Cross-sectional imaging studies such as CT are also helpful for detecting abscesses or other postoperative collections, recurrent or metastatic tumor, or less common complications such as afferent loop syndrome or gastrojejunal intussusception. It is important for radiologists to be familiar not only with the radiographic findings associated with these various abnormalities but also with the normal appearances of the postoperative stomach on radiographic examinations, so that such appearances are not mistaken for pseudoleaks or other postoperative complications. The purpose of this article is to describe the normal postsurgical anatomy after the most commonly performed operations (including partial gastrectomy, esophagogastrectomy and gastric pull-through, and total gastrectomy and esophagojejunostomy) and to review the acute and chronic complications, normal postoperative findings, and major abnormalities detected on radiographic examinations in these patients.

  10. The postoperative stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfield, Courtney A.; Levine, Marc S.

    2005-01-01

    Gastric surgery may be performed for the treatment of a variety of benign and malignant diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. Radiographic studies with water-soluble contrast agents often are obtained to rule out leaks, obstruction, or other acute complications during the early postoperative period. Barium studies may also be obtained to evaluate for anastomotic strictures or ulcers, bile reflux gastritis, recurrent tumor, or other chronic complications during the late postoperative period. Cross-sectional imaging studies such as CT are also helpful for detecting abscesses or other postoperative collections, recurrent or metastatic tumor, or less common complications such as afferent loop syndrome or gastrojejunal intussusception. It is important for radiologists to be familiar not only with the radiographic findings associated with these various abnormalities but also with the normal appearances of the postoperative stomach on radiographic examinations, so that such appearances are not mistaken for pseudoleaks or other postoperative complications. The purpose of this article is to describe the normal postsurgical anatomy after the most commonly performed operations (including partial gastrectomy, esophagogastrectomy and gastric pull-through, and total gastrectomy and esophagojejunostomy) and to review the acute and chronic complications, normal postoperative findings, and major abnormalities detected on radiographic examinations in these patients

  11. Cryotherapy on postoperative rehabilitation of joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Sheng-Hui; Jiang, Wen-Tong; Guo, Lei; Jin, Yu-Heng; Jiang, Tian-Long; Zhao, Yuyan; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of cryotherapy on joint arthroplasty recovery remains controversial. This systematic review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of cryotherapy in patients after joint arthroplasty. Comprehensive literature searches of several databases including Cochrane Library (2013), MEDLINE (1950-2013), and Embase (1980-2013) were performed. We sought randomised controlled trials that compared the experimental group received any form of cryotherapy with any control group after joint arthroplasty. The main outcomes were postoperative blood loss, adverse events, and pain. Analyses were performed with Revman 5.0. Results were shown as mean differences (MD) and standard deviations or as risk difference and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Ten trials comprised 660 total knee arthroplastys and three trials comprised 122 total hip arthroplastys (THAs) met the inclusion criteria. Blood loss was significantly decreased by cryotherapy (MD = -109.68; 95 % CI -210.92 to -8.44; P = 0.03). Cryotherapy did not increase the risk of adverse effect (n.s.). Cryotherapy decreased pain at the second day of postoperative (MD = -1.32; 95 % CI -2.37 to -0.27; P = 0.0003), but did not decreased pain at the first and third day of postoperative (n.s.). Cryotherapy appears effective in these selected patients after joint arthroplasty. The benefits of cryotherapy on blood loss after joint arthroplasty were obvious. However, the subgroup analysis indicated that cryotherapy did not decreased blood loss after THA. Cryotherapy did not increase the risk of adverse effect. Cryotherapy decreased pain at the second day of postoperative, but did not decreased pain at the first and third day of postoperative. II.

  12. Post-operative analgesic effect of epidural bupivacaine alone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine with tramadol to relieve postoperative pain and ..... Patient running, playing, eating, jumping and bouncy, sitting ..... effects of preoperative extradural bupivacaine and morphine on the stress response in ...

  13. Choice reaction time in patients with post-operative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is detected by administration of a neuropsychological test battery. Reaction time testing is at present not included as a standard test. Choice reaction time (CRT) data from the first International Study of Post-operative Cognitive Dysfunction...... in nine countries. CRT was measured 52 times using the four boxes test. Patients performed the test before surgery (n=1083), at 1 week (n=926) and at 3 months (n=852) post-operatively. CRT for the individual patient was determined as the median time of correct responses. The usefulness of the CRT...... had a significantly longer CRT. ROC curves revealed that a reaction time of 813 ms was the most appropriate cut-off at 1 week and 762 ms at 3 months but the positive predictive value for POCD was low: 34.4% and 14.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated...

  14. The use of alvimopan for postoperative ileus in small and large bowel resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Justin T; Dosokey, Eslam M G; Crawshaw, Benjamin P; Steele, Scott R; Delaney, Conor P

    2015-01-01

    Transient ileus is a normal physiologic process after surgery. When prolonged, it is an important contributor to postoperative complications, increased length of stay and increased healthcare costs. Efforts have been made to prevent and manage postoperative ileus; alvimopan is an oral, peripheral μ-opioid receptor antagonist, and the only currently US FDA-approved medication to accelerate the return of gastrointestinal function postoperatively.

  15. Management of Postoperative Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Michael S; Berfield, Kathleen S; Abbaszadeh, Ryan V

    2015-11-01

    Despite best efforts, postoperative complications such as postoperative respiratory failure may occur and prompt recognition of the process and management is required. Postoperative respiratory failure, such as postoperative pneumonia, postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress-like syndromes, and pulmonary embolism, are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causes of these complications are multifactorial and depend on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, some of which are modifiable. The article identifies some of the risk factors, causes, and treatment strategies for successful management of the patient with postoperative respiratory failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of pediatric postoperative chylothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, S J; Guzzetta, P C; Snyder, M L; Randolph, J G

    1993-09-01

    Questions persist about the management of postoperative chylothorax in infants and children. Our experience with postoperative chylothorax over the most recent decade (1980 to 1990) has been reviewed. The type and amount of drainage, data from cardiac catheterization and echocardiography, operative decisions and details, and eventual outcomes have been cataloged. All patients were initially treated with total gut rest, with operation reserved for unabated drainage. Chylothorax developed postoperatively in 15 infants and 11 children (18 with a cardiac procedure and 8 with a noncardiac procedure). The average age was 3.1 years. Spontaneous cessation and cure occurred in 19 (73.1%) of these 26 patients, with an average drainage duration of 11.9 days (range, 4 to 30 days). Those for whom operation was chosen drained preoperatively for an average of 29.2 days (range, 25 to 40 days). There were no deaths in either group. Complications were lymphopenia (2 patients) and fungal sepsis (1 patient). The amount of drainage per day was not significantly different between patients treated operatively and those treated nonoperatively. Failure of nonoperative management was associated with venous hypertension from increased right-sided cardiac pressures or central venous thrombosis (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Presumably this increased pressure is transmitted to the lymphatic system. These patients should be identified early and considered for thoracic duct suture or pleuroperitoneal shunting.

  17. Postoperative management of dogs with gastric dilatation and volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Yaron; Kelmer, Efrat

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to review the veterinary literature for evidence-based and common clinical practice supporting the postoperative management of dogs with gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV). GDV involves rapid accumulation of gas in the stomach, gastric volvulus, increased intragastric pressure, and decreased venous return. GDV is characterized by relative hypovolemic-distributive and cardiogenic shock, during which the whole body may be subjected to inadequate tissue perfusion and ischemia. Intensive postoperative management of the patients with GDV is essential for survival. Therapy in the postoperative period is focused on maintaining tissue perfusion along with intensive monitoring for prevention and early identification of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and consequent potential complications such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, acute kidney injury (AKI), gastric ulceration, electrolyte imbalances, and pain. In addition, early identification of patients in need for re-exploration owing to gastric necrosis, abdominal sepsis, or splenic thrombosis is crucial. Therapy with intravenous lidocaine may play a central role in combating IRI and cardiac arrhythmias. The most serious complications of GDV are associated with IRI and consequent systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Other reported complications include hypotension, AKI, disseminated intravascular coagulation, gastric ulceration, and cardiac arrhythmias. Despite appropriate medical and surgical treatment, the reported mortality rate in dogs with GDV is high (10%-28%). Dogs with GDV that are affected with gastric necrosis or develop AKI have higher mortality rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. New insights into the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    using a fast-track methodology. It is concluded that the pathogenesis of POCD is multifactorial and future studies should focus on evaluating the role of postoperative sleep disturbances, inflammatory stress responses, pain and environmental factors. Potential prophylactic intervention may include...... minimal invasive surgery, multi-modal non-opioid pain management and pharmacological manipulation of the inflammatory response and sleep architecture....

  19. Influence of postoperative enteral nutrition on cellular immunity. A random double-blinded placebo controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier-Holgersen, R; Brandstrup, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover if the cellular immunological response is different in patients receiving early postoperative enteral nutrition compared to patients who only receive "water".......The aim of this study was to discover if the cellular immunological response is different in patients receiving early postoperative enteral nutrition compared to patients who only receive "water"....

  20. The effects of secondhand smoke on postoperative pain and fentanyl consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Mustafa Said; Ozturk, Erdogan; Erdogan, Mehmet Ali; Yucel, Aytac; Durmus, Mahmut; Ersoy, Mehmet Ozcan; Colak, Cemil

    2013-08-01

    Although the need for increased postoperative analgesia in smokers has been described, the effect of secondhand smoke on postoperative analgesia requirements has not been studied. We examined the effects of secondhand smoke on fentanyl consumption and postoperative pain. In this study, 101 patients (American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I and II) who underwent abdominal hysterectomy were divided into 3 groups according to history of exposure to cigarette smoke as per medical records which was retrospectively confirmed by measurement of serum cotinine: smokers (n = 28), nonsmokers (n = 31), and secondhand smokers (n = 32). All patients received propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anesthesia and used fentanyl patient controlled analgesia for postoperative pain. The fentanyl consumption visual analogue scale-pain intensity (VAS-PI) score and side effects were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after surgery. Fentanyl consumption at all the evaluation time points was significantly higher in secondhand smokers than in nonsmokers (P secondhand smokers was lower than that in smokers in the PACU and at 24 h (P secondhand smokers than in nonsmokers (P effects such as nausea, vomiting, and dizziness (P > 0.05). Secondhand smoking was associated with increased postoperative fentanyl consumption, and increased VAS-PI scores. These findings may be beneficial for managing postoperative pain in secondhand smokers.

  1. Assessment of 99Tcm-ethylenedicysteine diuretic renography in pre-and post-operative pediatric congenital hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhiyi; Wang Hui; Li Jianing; Fu Hongliang; Wu Jingchuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of 99 Tc m -ethylenedicysteine (EC) diuretic renography (DR) in pre-and post-operative pediatric congenital hydronephrosis. Methods: The DR with injection of Furosemide at 15 min of forty children with hydronephrosis was retrospectively studied. The preoperative renal blood perfusion rate (BPR), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), grade of hydronephrosis,renogram and renal dynamic imaging of pre- and post-operative kidneys were compared. The t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used for data analysis. Results: (1) Of 40 pathological kidneys, the BPR increased 5.99% (t=-5.13, P<0.01) from pre-operative to post-operative: (34.05 ± 11.07)% to (40.04 ± 8.56)%. The ERPF increased 12.48 ml/min (t=-4.35, P<0.01) from pre-operative to post-operative: (57.81 ± 34.32) ml/min to (70.29 ± 5.37) ml/min. (2) The grade of hydronephrosis of 40 pathological kidneys improved significantly(Z=-2.64, P<0.01) with the mean sum of ranks of 47.21 pre-operatively to 33.79 post-operatively.(3) As the hydronephrosis worsened, the collecting system became bigger, the renal parenchyma became thinner, the extent of intrarenal parenchymal photopenia became larger and the response to diuretic challenge in pathological kidneys decreased or became totally irresponsive. (4)Thirty-seven cases of obstruction at ureteropelvic junction (UPJO) and 3 cases at ureterovesical junction (UVJO) were diagnosed by DR, which were all confirmed by surgery. Conclusions: DR is a reliable method to evaluate pediatric congenital hydronephrosis.It can accurately reflect the grade and (or) severity of the disease, guide therapy and assess the therapeutic success of operation. (authors)

  2. Post-operative Adult Onset Tic Disorder: A Rare Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Suneet Kumar; Raval, Chintan M; Sharma, Devendra Kumar; Vijayvergiya, Devendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Tics are rapid and repetitive muscle contractions resulting in stereotype movements and vocalizations that are experienced as involuntary. Onset before 18-year is a diagnostic criterion for tic disorders. Children and adolescents may exhibit tic behaviors after a stimulus or in response to an internal urge. Tic behaviors increase during physical or an emotional stress. Adult onset tic disorders are reported by infections, drugs, cocaine, toxins, chromosomal disorders, head injury, stroke, neurocutaneous syndromes, neurodegenerative disorders and peripheral injuries. Only few cases have yet been reported having onset after surgery though surgery brings both physical and emotional stress to the patient. We report a case of a 55-year-old lady who developed tic disorder as post-operative event of cataract surgery. Our patient had a dramatic response to haloperidol which is in contrast to all earlier reports.

  3. AUDIT-C Alcohol Screening Results and Postoperative Inpatient Health Care Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili; Blough, David K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol screening scores ≥5 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) up to a year before surgery have been associated with postoperative complications, but the association with postoperative health care use is unknown. This study evaluated whether AUDIT...... surgery, but not increased hospital readmission within 30 days postdischarge, relative to the low-risk group. CONCLUSIONS: AUDIT-C screening results could be used to identify patients at risk for increased postoperative health care use who might benefit from preoperative alcohol interventions....... September 2006) and were hospitalized for nonemergent noncardiac major operations in the following year. Postoperative health care use was evaluated across 4 AUDIT-C risk groups (scores 0, 1 to 4, 5 to 8, and 9 to 12) using linear or logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographics, smoking status...

  4. An Initiative to Standardize the Identification of and Acute Response to Postoperative Lower-Extremity Neurological Deficits: Effects on Provider Knowledge, Confidence, and Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Peter B; Iyer, Sravisht; Garner, Matthew; Orr, Steven; Felix, Karla J; Goldberg, Allison; Ologhobo, Titilayo; Wu, Minlun; Robbins, Laura; Cornell, Charles

    2016-12-07

    Although relatively uncommon, neurological deficits following hip and knee arthroplasty can have permanent and debilitating consequences. This study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of an educational curriculum aimed at standardizing the identification of and acute response to postoperative neurological deficits in the inpatient setting, specifically with respect to improvements in clinician knowledge, confidence levels, and communication skills. A multidisciplinary committee at a single, high-volume academic institution created an algorithm delineating the appropriate clinical actions and escalation procedures in the setting of a postoperative neurological deficit for each clinical practitioner involved in care for patients who undergo arthroplasty. An educational curriculum composed of online learning modules and an in-person "boot camp" featuring simulations with standardized patients was developed, along with assessments of clinician knowledge, confidence levels, and communication skills. Nurses, physical therapists, physician assistants, residents, fellows, and attending surgeons were encouraged to participate. The intervention spanned a 5-month period in 2015 with a mean time of 18.4 weeks between baseline assessments and the time of the latest follow-up. Online modules were completed by 322 individuals, boot camp was completed by 70 individuals, and latest assessments were completed by 38 individuals. The percentage correct on the knowledge assessment increased from 74.5% before the learning modules to 89.5% immediately after (p communication skills assessment showed a significant mean increase (p = 0.02) over the course of the intervention from 30.32 to 32.50, and the mean self-assessed confidence survey scores increased by 16.7%, from 7.2 to 8.4 (p confidence and communication skills appear to be more long-lasting.

  5. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief is in general use, and has proved to be very efficient in adults. The epidural technique and the use of epidural morphine are much less frequent in children. For 2 years we have prospectively followed 76 children who had epidural morphine...... for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal surgery. The age distribution was from newborn to 13 years, with a median age of 12 months. It was estimated that 94% of the patients had good analgesia for the first 24 postoperative hours and no other opioids were given. The side effects were few, but one case...... the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  6. Automated reminders increase adherence to guidelines for administration of prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Fabian O.; Klok, Toni; Hollmann, Markus W.; Kal, Jasper E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective Correct identification of patients at high risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), prescription of PONV prophylaxis and correct administration of medication are all important for effective PONV prophylaxis. This has been acknowledged by development of guidelines

  7. CNS tumors: postoperative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayanir, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Imaging assessment of brain tumors following surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including the location of the tumor, the surgical procedure and the disease process for which it was performed. Depending upon these factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities may be required to demonstrate any clinically relevant situation, to assist the surgeon in deciding if repeat surgery is necessary. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show the shape, size, signal intensity, and enhancement of a brain tumor. It has been widely used to diagnose and differentiate brain tumors and to assess the surgery outcomes. Longitudinal MRI scans have also been applied for the assessment of treatment and response to surgery. The newly developed MRI techniques, including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), have the potential to provide the molecular, functional and metabolic information of preoperative and postoperative brain tumors. Postoperative diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging are especially useful in predicting early functional recovery from new deficits after brain tumor surgery.This lecture will stress the principles, applications, and pitfalls of conventional as well as newly developing functional imaging techniques following operation of brain tumors

  8. Metastatic spine tumor surgery: does perioperative blood transfusion influence postoperative complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Aye Sandar; Kantharajanna, Shashidhar B; Maharajan, Karthikeyan; Tan, Barry; Saparamadu, Amarasinghe A; Kumar, Naresh

    2017-11-01

    The question of independent association between allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) and postoperative complications in cancer surgeries has been controversial and remains so. In metastatic spine tumor surgery (MSTS), previous studies investigated the influence of ABT on survival, but not on postoperative complications. We aimed to evaluate the influence of perioperative ABT on postoperative complications and infections in patients undergoing MSTS. This retrospective study included 247 patients who underwent MSTS at a single tertiary institution between 2005 and 2014. The outcome measures were postoperative complications and infections within 30 days after MSTS. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess influence of blood transfusion on the outcomes after adjusting for potential confounders. Of 247 patients, 133 (54%) received ABT with overall median (range) of 2 (0-10) units. The adjusted odds of developing any postoperative complication was 2.27 times higher in patients with transfusion (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-4.38; p = 0.01) and 1.24 times higher odds per every unit increase in blood transfusion (95% CI, 1.05-1.46; p blood transfusion also increased the odds of having overall postoperative infections (odds ratio, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.15-11.11; p = 0.02) and there were 1.24 times higher odds per every unit increase in transfusion (95% CI, 1.01-1.54; p = 0.04). This study adds evidence to the literature implicating ABT to be influential on postoperative complications and infections in patients undergoing MSTS. Appropriate blood management measures should, therefore, be given a crucial place in the care of these patients so as to reduce any putative effect of blood transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  9. A Comparative Clinical Evaluation of the Effect of Preoperative and Postoperative Antimicrobial Therapy on Postoperative Sequelae after Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olurotimi Akanbi Olojede

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effect of preoperative and postoperative antibiotics therapy on postoperative sequelae after impacted mandibular third molar extractions. Material and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted at Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Lagos University Teaching Hospitalon consecutive patients with impacted third molar extractions for a 12 month period. Group I (n = 31 had administration of 1 gram of oral metronidazole and 1 gram of amoxicillin capsules 30 minutes preoperative and Group II (n = 31 had 500 milligrams of amoxicillin capsule 8 hourly and 400 milligrams of metronidazole tablets administered post operatively for 5 days. Pain, facial swelling and mouth opening assessment were done postoperatively and on days 1, 3 and 7. Results: The general pattern of postoperative pain, regardless of antimicrobial use revealed that pain increased from day 1 to day 3 postoperatively and began to decrease in intensity subsequently up to the seventh day. There was however a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0001 between the two groups on the 7th postoperative day with the subjects in Group I showing lower pain intensity. The mean difference of the facial width on days 1 and 3 was significant (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0001 respectively with subjects in Group II having a reduced facial width compared to those in Group I. Conclusions: This study suggested that the administration of preoperative or postoperative antibiotics showed no marked differences in the degree of postoperative sequaele that occur after impacted mandibular third molar extractions.

  10. Post-operative diabetes insipidus after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckinger, Matthew; Walker, Blake; Knepper, Jordan; Hornyak, Mark; Hong, David; Kim, Jung-Min; Folbe, Adam; Guthikonda, Murali; Mittal, Sandeep; Szerlip, Nicholas J

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) can lead to increased morbidity, longer hospital stays, and increased medication requirements. Predicting which patients are at high risk for developing DI can help direct services to ensure adequate care and follow-up. The objective of this study was to review our institution's experience with ETSS and determine which clinical/laboratory variables are associated with DI in this patient population. The authors wanted to see if there was an easily determined single value that would help predict which patients develop DI. This represents the largest North American series of this type. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who had undergone ETSS for resection of sellar and parasellar pathology between 2006 and 2011. We examined patient and tumor characteristics and their relationship to postoperative DI. Out of 172 endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries, there were 15 cases of transient DI (8.7%) and 14 cases of permanent DI (8.1%). Statistically significant predictors of postoperative DI (p 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin. An increase in serum sodium of ≥2.5 mmol/L is a positive marker of development of DI with 80% specificity, and a postoperative serum sodium of ≥145 mmol/L is a positive indicator with 98% specificity. Identifying perioperative risk factors and objective indicators of DI after ETSS will help physicians care for patients postoperatively. In this large series, we demonstrated that there were multiple perioperative risk factors for the development of DI. These findings, which are consistent with other reports from microscopic surgical series, will help identify patients at risk for diabetes insipidus, aid in planning treatment algorithms, and increase vigilance in high risk patients.

  11. Effects of Intraoperative Fluid Management on Postoperative Outcomes : A Hospital Registry Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Christina H; Long, Dustin R; McLean, Duncan; Grabitz, Stephanie D; Ladha, Karim; Timm, Fanny P; Thevathasan, Tharusan; Pieretti, Alberto; Ferrone, Cristina; Hoeft, Andreas; Scheeren, Thomas W L; Thompson, Boyd Taylor; Kurth, Tobias; Eikermann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the dose-response relationship between intraoperative fluid administration and postoperative outcomes in a large cohort of surgical patients. BACKGROUND: Healthy humans may live in a state of fluid responsiveness without the need for fluid supplementation. Goal-directed protocols

  12. Relation between serum creatinine and postoperative results of open-heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeldin, Tamer H

    2013-10-01

    To determine the impact of preoperative serum creatinine level in non-dialyzable patients on postoperative morbidity and mortality. This is a prospective study, where serum creatinine was used to give primary assessment on renal function status preoperatively. This study includes 1,033 patients, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, or valve(s) operations. The study took place at Al-Hada Military Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi between May 2008 and January 2012. Data were statistically analyzed using Chi square (x2) test and multivariable logistic regression, to evaluate the postoperative morbidity and mortality risks associated with low serum creatinine levels. Postoperative mortality increased with high serum creatinine level >1.8 mg/dL (pcreatinine level of more than 1.8 mg/dL was associated with increased risk of re-operation for bleeding, postoperative renal failure, prolonged ventilatory support, ICU stay, and total hospital stay. Perioperative serum creatinine is strongly related to post operative morbidity and mortality in open heart surgery. High serum creatinine in non-dialyzable patients can predict the increased morbidity and mortality after cardiac operations.

  13. Postoperative care in geriatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Ulenberg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the elderly is becoming increasingly common problem and is of interest, because in the future this phenomenon will affect most of us. For many years, he observed in different countries increasingly rapid aging of the population, including in Poland. The operation in such a patient poses a high risk of complications and life-threatening conditions. Their age makes in the postoperative period there are many medical problems. Many factors can affect the scope of a different self-care nursing with such a patient.

  14. Is there an increased risk of post-operative surgical site infection after orthopaedic surgery in HIV patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigera, James W M; Straetemans, Masja; Vuhaka, Simplice K; Nagel, Ingeborg M; Naddumba, Edward K; Boer, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    There is dilemma as to whether patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) requiring implant orthopaedic surgery are at an increased risk for post-operative surgical site infection (SSI). We conducted a systematic review to determine the effect of HIV on the risk of post-operative SSI and sought to determine if this risk is altered by antibiotic use beyond 24 hours. We searched electronic databases, manually searched citations from relevant articles, and reviewed conference proceedings. The risk of postoperative SSI was pooled using Mantel-Haenszel method. We identified 18 cohort studies with 16 mainly small studies, addressing the subject. The pooled risk ratio of infection in the HIV patients when compared to non-HIV patients was 1.8 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.3-2.4), in studies in Africa this was 2.3 (95% CI 1.5-3.5). In a sensitivity analysis the risk ratio was reduced to 1.4 (95% CI 0.5-3.8). The risk ratio of infection in patients receiving prolonged antibiotics compared to patients receiving antibiotics for up to 24 hours was 0.7 (95% CI 0.1-4.2). The results may indicate an increased risk in HIV infected patients but these results are not robust and inconclusive after conducting the sensitivity analysis removing poor quality studies. There is need for larger good quality studies to provide conclusive evidence. To better develop surgical protocols, further studies should determine the effect of reduced CD4 counts, viral load suppression and prolonged antibiotics on the risk for infection.

  15. Predictive variables for postoperative pain after 520 consecutive dental extraction surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Manfro, Aline Rosler Grings; Nodari, Rudy Jose; Presta, Andreia Antoniuk

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate postoperative pain in patients who had a single tooth or multiple erupted teeth extracted. This research evaluated 520 consecutive dental extraction surgeries in which 680 teeth were removed. Data collection was obtained through a questionnaire of patients and of the undergraduate students who performed all procedures. Pain was evaluated through qualitative self-reported scores at seven days postsurgery. An increased pain level was statistically associated with ostectomy, postoperative complications, and tobacco consumption. Pain that persisted for more than two days was statistically associated with the amount of anesthetic solution used, with a notable increase in surgical time and development of postoperative complications. Periods of pain lasting more than two days could be expected for traumatic surgeries lasting more than 30 minutes. Both severe and prolonged pain were signs of development of postoperative complications, such as alveolar osteitis and alveolar infection.

  16. Vaginal estrogen: a dual-edged sword in postoperative healing of the vaginal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripperda, Christopher M; Maldonado, Pedro Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F; Keller, Patrick W; Akgul, Yucel; Shelton, John M; Word, Ruth Ann

    2017-07-01

    Reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse is plagued with high failure rates possibly due to impaired healing or regeneration of the vaginal wall. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postoperative administration of local estrogen, direct injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or both lead to improved wound healing of the injured vagina in a menopausal rat model. Ovariectomized rats underwent surgical injury to the posterior vaginal wall and were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 41), estrogen cream (n = 47), direct injection of MSCs (n = 39), or both (n = 43). MSCs did not survive after injection and had no appreciable effects on healing of the vaginal wall. Acute postoperative administration of vaginal estrogen altered the response of the vaginal wall to injury with decreased stiffness, decreased collagen content, and decreased expression of transcripts for matrix components in the stromal compartment. Conversely, vaginal estrogen resulted in marked proliferation of the epithelial layer and increased expression of genes related to epithelial barrier function and protease inhibition. Transcripts for genes involved in chronic inflammation and adaptive immunity were also down-regulated in the estrogenized epithelium. Collectively, these data indicate that, in contrast to the reported positive effects of preoperative estrogen on the uninjured vagina, acute administration of postoperative vaginal estrogen has adverse effects on the early phase of healing of the stromal layer. In contrast, postoperative estrogen plays a positive role in healing of the vaginal epithelium after injury.

  17. A rare disease mimics postoperative bile leakage: Invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Fatih Mehmet; Urfalıoğlu, Aykut; Boran, Ömer Faruk; Sayar, Hamide; Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Emre, Arif; Cengiz, Emrah; Bülbüloğlu, Ertan

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus fungi can cause serious infections, including intra-abdominal infection, particularly in patients with compromised immune system. Described in the present report is case of 46-year-old female patient who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) at another healthcare facility. In early postoperative period, she had increasing complaints of swelling, nausea, and vomiting. On postoperative 19th day, she was referred to our clinic with diagnosis of acute abdomen. Surgery was performed with suspected possibility of bile leakage. However, pathological examination of soft, yellow-green mass found in subhepatic space determined it was fungus ball caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Patient was diagnosed postoperative intra-abdominal aspergillosis (IAA).

  18. A prospective randomized clinical trial to evaluate methods of postoperative care of hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLorie, G; Joyner, B; Herz, D; McCallum, J; Bagli, D; Merguerian, P; Khoury, A

    2001-05-01

    Hypospadias repair is a common operation performed by pediatric urologists. Perhaps the greatest variable and source of controversy of postoperative care is the surgical dressing. We hypothesized that using no dressing would achieve surgically comparable results to those traditionally achieved by a postoperative dressing and it would also simplify postoperative parent delivered home care. Accordingly we designed a prospective randomized clinical trial to compare surgical outcome and postoperative care after hypospadias repair in boys with no dressing and those who received 1 of the 2 most common types of dressing. In a 12-month period 120 boys with an average age of 2.2 years underwent primary 1-stage hypospadias repair at a single center with 4 participating surgeons. Repair was performed in 60 boys with proximal and 60 with distal hypospadias on an outpatient basis. Ethics and Internal Review Board approval, and informed consent were obtained. Boys were then prospectively randomized to receive no dressing, an adhesive biomembrane dressing or a compressive wrap dressing. Comprehensive instructions on postoperative care were distributed to all families and a questionnaire was distributed to the parents at the initial followup. Surgical outcome was evaluated and questionnaire responses were analyzed. Fisher's exact test was done to test the significance of differences in surgical outcomes and questionnaire responses. A total of 117 boys completed the prospective randomized trial. Surgical staff withdrew 3 cases from randomized selection to place a dressing for postoperative hemostasis. We obtained 101 questionnaires for response analysis. The type or absence of the dressing did not correlate with the need for repeat procedures, urethrocutaneous fistula, or meatal stenosis or regression. Analysis revealed less narcotic use in the no dressing group and fewer telephone calls to the urology nurse, or on-call resident and/or fellow. These findings were statistically

  19. [Postoperative cognitive deficits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalezić, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Ivan; Leposavić, Ljubica; Kocica, Mladen; Bumbasirević, Vesna; Vucetić, Cedomir; Paunović, Ivan; Slavković, Nemanja; Filimonović, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunctions are relatively common in postoperative and critically ill patients. This complication not only compromises recovery after surgery, but, if persistent, it minimizes and compromises surgery itself. Risk factors of postoperative cognitive disorders can be divided into age and comorbidity dependent, and those related to anesthesia and surgery. Cardiovascular, orthopedic and urologic surgery carries high risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. It can also occur in other types of surgical treatment, especially in elderly. Among risk factors of cognitive disorders, associated with comorbidity, underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders, substance abuse and conditions with elevation of intracranial pressure are in the first place in postoperative patients. Preoperative and perioperative predisposing conditions for cognitive dysfunction and their incidence were described in our paper. These are: geriatric patients, patients with substance abuse, preexisting psychiatric or cognitive disorders, neurologic disease with high intracranial pressure, cerebrovascular insufficiency, epilepsia, preeclampsia, acute intermittent porphyria, operation type, brain hypoxia, changes in blood glucose level, electrolyte imbalance, anesthetic agents, adjuvant medication and intraoperative awareness. For each of these factors, evaluation, prevention and treatment strategies were suggested, with special regard on anesthetic technique.

  20. Biomarkers of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna eAndrosova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly surgical patients frequently experience postoperative delirium (POD and the subsequent development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD. Clinical features include deterioration in cognition, disturbance in attention and reduced awareness of the environment and result in higher morbidity, mortality and greater utilization of social financial assistance. The aging Western societies can expect an increase in the incidence of POD and POCD. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been studied on the molecular level albeit with unsatisfying small research efforts given their societal burden. Here, we review the known physiological and immunological changes and genetic risk factors, identify candidates for further studies and integrate the information into a draft network for exploration on a systems level. The pathogenesis of these postoperative cognitive impairments is multifactorial; application of integrated systems biology has the potential to reconstruct the underlying network of molecular mechanisms and help in the identification of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers.

  1. Radical cystectomy: Analysis of postoperative course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Dimitrije

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Radical cystectomy is a method of choice in the therapy of infiltrative bladder cancer. The aim of this research was to analyze postoperative course after radical cystectomy (length of hospitalization, most frequent complications and utilization of antibiotics and transfusions. Methods. We analyzed the records of 82 patients operated on in the Department of Urology, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, in a three-year period. In order to aquire data World Health Organization (WHO has developed Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD methodology. Defined daily dose (DDD is the assumed average maintenance dose per day for a drug use for its main indication. Results. Continent urinary derivation was preformed in 23.15% cases. Postoperative complications occurred in 18.29% of patients. Average blood utilization was 2.19 units. Blood utilization for continent derivations (n = 48 was 4.6 units, and incontinent ones 3.36 units. Totally 159.33 DDD/100 bed days were used. Conclusion. When preforming continent derivation there is a significant increase in blood utilization. Frequency of postoperative complications correlates to those reported in the literature.

  2. Three dimensional conformal postoperative radiotherapy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Postoperative radiotherapy of the parotid gland could be achieved with various radiotherapy techniques. However they irradiate differently the surrounding organs at risk (OARs) in particular the cochlea, oral cavity & contralateral parotid causing significant increase in the risk of oral mucositis, xerostomia, and ...

  3. Approach to postoperative fever in pediatric cardiac patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ajay K; Singh, Vishal K; Varma, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Fever in the postoperative period in children undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease is fairly common and tends to cause anxiety to both the surgeon and the patient. Such fever is associated with the metabolic response to trauma, systemic response to the cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia, presence of drainage tubes, drugs, blood transfusion as well as infections. Establishing the diagnosis requires proper assessment of the patient with focused history, targeted physical examination and judicious use of investigations with the knowledge of the common causes

  4. Low degree of satisfactory individual pain relief in post-operative pain trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, A; Dahl, J B; Karlsen, A P H; Persson, E; Mathiesen, O

    2017-01-01

    The majority of clinical trials regarding post-operative pain treatment focuses on the average analgesic efficacy, rather than on efficacy in individual patients. It has been argued, that in acute pain trials, the underlying distributions are often skewed, which makes the average unfit as the only way to measure efficacy. Consequently, dichotomised, individual responder analyses using a predefined 'favourable' response, e.g. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scores ≤ 30, have recently been suggested as a more clinical relevant outcome. We re-analysed data from 16 randomised controlled trials of post-operative pain treatment and from meta-analyses of a systematic review regarding hip arthroplasty. The predefined success criterion was that at least 80% of patients in active treatment groups should obtain VAS < 30 at 6 and 24 h post-operatively. In the analysis of data from the randomised controlled trials, we found that at 6 h post-operatively, 50% (95% CI: 31-69) of patients allocated to active treatment reached the success criterion for pain at rest and 14% (95% CI: 5-34) for pain during mobilisation. At 24 h post-operatively, 60% (95% CI: 38-78) of patients allocated to active treatment reached the success criterion for pain at rest, and 15% (95% CI: 5-36) for pain during mobilisation. Similar results were found for trials from the meta-analyses. Our results indicate that for conventional, explanatory trials of post-operative pain, individual patient's achievement of a favourable response to analgesic treatment is rather low. Future pragmatic clinical trials should focus on both average pain levels and individual responder analyses in order to promote effective pain treatment at the individually patient level. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Risk Factors for Postoperative Fibrinogen Deficiency after Surgical Removal of Intracranial Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Wei

    Full Text Available Higher levels of fibrinogen, a critical element in hemostasis, are associated with increased postoperative survival rates, especially for patients with massive operative blood loss. Fibrinogen deficiency after surgical management of intracranial tumors may result in postoperative intracranial bleeding and severely worsen patient outcomes. However, no previous studies have systematically identified factors associated with postoperative fibrinogen deficiency. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed data from patients who underwent surgical removal of intracranial tumors in Beijing Tiantan Hospital date from 1/1/2013to12/31/2013. The present study found that patients with postoperative fibrinogen deficiency experienced more operative blood loss and a higher rate of postoperative intracranial hematoma, and they were given more blood transfusions, more plasma transfusions, and were administered larger doses of hemocoagulase compared with patients without postoperative fibrinogen deficiency. Likewise, patients with postoperative fibrinogen deficiency had poorer extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSe, longer hospital stays, and greater hospital expenses than patients without postoperative fibrinogen deficiency. Further, we assessed a comprehensive set of risk factors associated with postoperative fibrinogen deficiency via multiple linear regression. We found that body mass index (BMI, the occurrence of postoperative intracranial hematoma, and administration of hemocoagulasewere positively associated with preoperative-to-postoperative plasma fibrinogen consumption; presenting with a malignant tumor was negatively associated with fibrinogen consumption. Contrary to what might be expected, intraoperative blood loss, the need for blood transfusion, and the need for plasma transfusion were not associated with plasma fibrinogen consumption. Considering our findings together, we concluded that postoperative fibrinogen deficiency is closely associated with

  6. Effect of Aspirin in Postoperative Management of Adult Ischemic Moyamoya Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yahui; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Yuanli

    2017-09-01

    Aspirin has been implicated in the postoperative management of moyamoya disease (MMD) in order to avoid bypass failure and decrease the incidence of subsequent stroke. However, its effect has not been completely determined yet. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed data of 184 adult patients (197 hemispheres) presented with ischemic-onset MMD who had undergone direct or combined revascularization in our hospital, to clarify the effect of postoperative aspirin therapy in the management of moyamoya disease. Fifty-nine hemispheres that had been administered with aspirin (100 mg/day) after bypass surgery were defined as the "aspirin group," whereas 138 that hadn't been given aspirin postoperatively were defined as the "control group". Among 197 hemispheres, the mortality rate was 0. The incidence of postoperative newly developed infarction, transient ischemic attack, and hemorrhage were not significantly different between the aspirin and control groups. The patency rate of bypass graft was not significantly different between the groups, either. Notably, more patients experienced major stroke in the control group (9/138) than the aspirin group (1/59), but no statistical difference was found (P > 0.05). In the aspirin group, more patients had improved outcome than the control group (P = 0.04). Our findings showed that aspirin might not decrease the incidence of postoperative ischemic stroke or increase patency rate of bypass graft, but it does not increase the risk of hemorrhages, either. Also, postoperative aspirin therapy might improve outcome. More studies are needed to provide evidence for postoperative antiplatelet therapy in MMD management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Postoperative radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhenne, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the importance of postoperative radiology. Most surgical procedures on the alimentary tract are successful, but postoperative complications remain a common occurrence. The radiologist must be familiar with a large variety of possible surgical complications, because it is this specialty that is most commonly called on to render a definitive diagnosis. The decision for reoperation, for instance, is usually based on results from radiologic imaging techniques. These now include ultrasonography, CT scanning, needle biopsy, and interventional techniques in addition to contrast studies and nuclear medicine investigation

  8. Urinary tract infections and post-operative fever in percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jorge; Smith, Arthur; Geavlete, Petrisor; Shah, Hemendra; Kural, Ali Riza; de Sio, Marco; Amón Sesmero, José H; Hoznek, András; de la Rosette, Jean

    2013-10-01

    To review the incidence of UTIs, post-operative fever, and risk factors for post-operative fever in PCNL patients. Between 2007 and 2009, consecutive PCNL patients were enrolled from 96 centers participating in the PCNL Global Study. Only data from patients with pre-operative urine samples and who received antibiotic prophylaxis were included. Pre-operative bladder urine culture and post-operative fever (>38.5°C) were assessed. Relationship between various patient and operative factors and occurrence of post-operative fever was assessed using logistic regression analyses. Eight hundred and sixty-five (16.2%) patients had a positive urine culture; Escherichia coli was the most common micro-organism found in urine of the 350 patients (6.5%). Of the patients with negative pre-operative urine cultures, 8.8% developed a fever post-PCNL, in contrast to 18.2% of patients with positive urine cultures. Fever developed more often among the patients whose urine cultures consisted of Gram-negative micro-organisms (19.4-23.8%) versus those with Gram-positive micro-organisms (9.7-14.5%). Multivariate analysis indicated that a positive urine culture (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, CI [1.69-2.65]), staghorn calculus (OR = 1.59, CI [1.28-1.96]), pre-operative nephrostomy (OR = 1.61, CI [1.19-2.17]), lower patient age (OR for each year of 0.99, CI [0.99-1.00]), and diabetes (OR = 1.38, CI [1.05-1.81]) all increased the risk of post-operative fever. Limitations include the use of fever as a predictor of systemic infection. Approximately 10% of PCNL-treated patients developed fever in the post-operative period despite receiving antibiotic prophylaxis. Risk of post-operative fever increased in the presence of a positive urine bacterial culture, diabetes, staghorn calculi, and a pre-operative nephrostomy.

  9. POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING | Yusufu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiemetics, acupuncture and other drugs are used to prevent and treat postoperative nausea and vomiting. Those that manage patients in the postoperative period should endeavour to make postoperative nausea and vomiting as unacceptable as postoperative pain. Key words: Postoperative, Nausea, Vomiting, Narcotics, ...

  10. Difference between early versus delayed postoperative physical rehabilitation protocol following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar M Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Significant improvement in pain, ROM, and function after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was seen at 1 year postoperatively, regardless of early or delayed postoperative rehabilitation protocols. However, early motion increases pain scores and may increase the possibility of rotator cuff retear but with early regain of ROM. A delayed rehabilitation protocol with immobilization for 6 weeks would be better for tendon healing without risk for retear or joint stiffness and easily convalescence with less postoperative pain.

  11. Short-term pre- and post-operative stress prolongs incision-induced pain hypersensitivity without changing basal pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Wang, Po-Kai; Tiwari, Vinod; Liang, Lingli; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Zang, Wei-Dong; Kaufman, Andrew G; Bekker, Alex; Gao, Xiao-Qun; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-12-02

    Chronic stress has been reported to increase basal pain sensitivity and/or exacerbate existing persistent pain. However, most surgical patients have normal physiological and psychological health status such as normal pain perception before surgery although they do experience short-term stress during pre- and post-operative periods. Whether or not this short-term stress affects persistent postsurgical pain is unclear. In this study, we showed that pre- or post-surgical exposure to immobilization 6 h daily for three consecutive days did not change basal responses to mechanical, thermal, or cold stimuli or peak levels of incision-induced hypersensitivity to these stimuli; however, immobilization did prolong the duration of incision-induced hypersensitivity in both male and female rats. These phenomena were also observed in post-surgical exposure to forced swimming 25 min daily for 3 consecutive days. Short-term stress induced by immobilization was demonstrated by an elevation in the level of serum corticosterone, an increase in swim immobility, and a decrease in sucrose consumption. Blocking this short-term stress via intrathecal administration of a selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU38486, or bilateral adrenalectomy significantly attenuated the prolongation of incision-induced hypersensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and cold stimuli. Our results indicate that short-term stress during the pre- or post-operative period delays postoperative pain recovery although it does not affect basal pain perception. Prevention of short-term stress may facilitate patients' recovery from postoperative pain.

  12. Frequency of colonization and isolated bacteria from the tip of epidural catheter implanted for postoperative analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabille, Débora Miranda Diogo; Diogo Filho, Augusto; Mandim, Beatriz Lemos da Silva; de Araújo, Lúcio Borges; Mesquita, Priscila Miranda Diogo; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of epidural analgesia with catheter leads to the need to demonstrate the safety of this method and know the incidence of catheter colonization, inserted postoperatively for epidural analgesia, and the bacteria responsible for this colonization. From November 2011 to April 2012, patients electively operated and maintained under epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia were evaluated. The catheter tip was collected for semiquantitative and qualitative microbiological analysis. Of 68 cultured catheters, six tips (8.8%) had positive cultures. No patient had superficial or deep infection. The mean duration of catheter use was 43.45 h (18-118) (p=0.0894). The type of surgery (contaminated or uncontaminated), physical status of patients, and surgical time showed no relation with the colonization of catheters. Microorganisms isolated from the catheter tip were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Postoperative epidural catheter analgesia, under these study conditions, was found to be low risk for bacterial colonization in patients at surgical wards. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Activated Α7nachr Improves Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction and Intestinal Injury Induced by Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Rats: Inhibition of the Proinflammatory Response Through the Th17 Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgrund/Aims: To investigate the effects of activated α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD and intestinal injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and its relationship with the Th17 response in order to provide a theoretical basis for organ protection and targeted drug therapy during the perioperative period. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rat models of CPB were established. Rat intestinal and brain injuries were observed after CPB using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Cell apoptosis was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Inflammatory factors and markers of brain injury in rat serum were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, ZO-1, occludin, AQP4, RORγT, and α7nAchR were examined using western blotting. Transcription factor RORγT expression was determined using real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Th17 cells in the peripheral blood and spleen were determined using flow cytometry. α7nAchR knockout rats were established. The Th17 response in the peripheral blood and spleen of α7nAchR knockout rats was further verified using flow cytometry. Results: CPB can induce POCD and intestinal injury in rats. α7nAchR activation markedly reduced intestinal injury, POCD, neuronal apoptosis, proinflammatory factor expression, and number of CD4+IL-17+ cells. α7nAchR knockout significantly increased serum D-lactic acid, FABP2, S-100β, NSE, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17 secretion. The number of CD4+IL-17+ cells was also significantly increased. Conclusion: α7nAchR activation markedly ameliorates the intestinal injury and POCD induced by CPB. Inhibition of the Th17 immune response can reduce the proinflammatory response, which could provide a new method for clinical perioperative organ protection and targeted drug therapy.

  14. Pain locations in the postoperative period after cardiac surgery: Chronology of pain and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Valero, R; Gomar, C

    Postoperative pain after cardiac surgery (CS) can be generated at several foci besides the sternotomy. Prospective descriptive longitudinal study on the chronological evolution of pain in 11 sites after CS including consecutive patients submitted to elective CS through sternotomy. The primary endpoints were to establish the main origins of pain, and to describe its chronological evolution during the first postoperative week. Secondary endpoints were to describe pain characteristics in the sternotomy area and to correlate pain intensity with other variables. Numerical Pain Rating Scale from 0 to 10 at rest and at movement on postoperative days 1, 2, 4 and 6. Numerical Pain Rating Scale>3 was considered moderate pain. Statistical analysis consisted in Mann-Whitney U-test, a Chi-squared, a Fisher exact text and Pearson's correlations. Forty-seven patients were enrolled. In 4 of 11 locations pain was reported as Numerical Pain Rating Scale>3 (sternotomy, oropharynx, saphenectomy and musculoskeletal pain in the back and shoulders). Maximum intensity of pain on postoperative days 1 and 2 was reported in the sternotomy area, while on postoperative days 4 and 6 it was reported at the saphenectomy. Pain at rest and at movement differed considerably in the sternotomy, saphenectomy and oropharynx. Pain at back and shoulders and at central venous catheter entry were not influenced by movement. Pain in the sternotomy was mainly described as oppressive. Patients with arthrosis and younger patients presented higher intensity of pain (P=.004; P=.049, respectively). Four locations were identified as the main sources of pain after CS: sternotomy, oropharynx, saphenectomy, and back and shoulders. Pain in different focuses presented differences in chronologic evolution and was differently influenced by movement. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Postoperative Pain in Children After Dentistry Under General Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle; Copp, Peter E; Haas, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, and duration of postoperative pain in children undergoing general anesthesia for dentistry. This prospective cross-sectional study included 33 American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) Class I and II children 4-6 years old requiring multiple dental procedures, including at least 1 extraction, and/or pulpectomy, and/or pulpotomy of the primary dentition. Exclusion criteria were children who were developmentally delayed, cognitively impaired, born prematurely, taking psychotropic medications, or recorded baseline pain or analgesic use. The primary outcome of pain was measured by parents using the validated Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) and Parents' Postoperative Pain Measure (PPPM) during the first 72 hours at home. The results showed that moderate-to-severe postoperative pain, defined as FPS-R ≥ 6, was reported in 48.5% of children. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe pain was 29.0% by FPS-R and 40.0% by PPPM at 2 hours after discharge. Pain subsided over 3 days. Postoperative pain scores increased significantly from baseline (P children do experience moderate-to-severe pain postoperatively. Although parents successfully used pain scales, they infrequently administered analgesics.

  16. Postoperative nausea and vomiting following orthognathic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C.; Brookes, C. D.; Rich, J.; Arbon, J.; Turvey, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with postoperative nausea (PON) and vomiting (POV) after orthognathic surgery. A review of the clinical records of consecutively enrolled subjects (2008–2012) at a single academic institution was conducted between 9/2013 and 3/2014. Data on the occurrence of PON and POV and potential patient-related, intraoperative, and postoperative explanatory factors were extracted from the medical records. Logistic models were used for the presence/absence of postoperative nausea and vomiting separately. Data from 204 subjects were analyzed: 63% were female, 72% Caucasian, and the median age was 19 years. Thirty-three percent had a mandibular osteotomy alone, 27% a maxillary osteotomy alone, and 40% had bimaxillary osteotomies. Sixty-seven percent experienced PON and 27% experienced POV. The most important risk factors for PON in this series were female gender, increased intravenous fluids, and the use of nitrous oxide, and for POV were race, additional procedures, and morphine administration. The incidence of PON and POV following orthognathic surgery in the current cohort of patients, after the introduction of the updated 2007 consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting, has not decreased substantially from that reported in 2003–2004. PMID:25655765

  17. Risk of post-operative complications associated with anti-TNF therapy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tauseef Ali; Laura Yun; David T Rubin

    2012-01-01

    There have been increasing concerns regarding the safety of perioperative antitumour necrosis factor (antiTNF) α agents. We performed a literature review to evaluate the postoperative complications associated with perioperative antiTNF use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. A comprehensive review was performed with a literature search utilizing Pub Med, Cochrane, OVID and EMBASE databases according to published guidelines. To date, there are only data for infliximab. There are three published studies which have assessed postoperative complications with perioperative infliximab use in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), four studies in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and one study on both CD and UC patients. Two out of the three studies in CD patients showed no increased postoperative complications associated with perioperative infliximab. Two out of four studies in UC patients also did not show an increase in postoperative complications, and the combined study with CD and UC patients did not show an increased risk as well. Study differences in study designs, patient population and definition of their endpoints. There appears to be a risk of postoperative complications associated with TNF therapy in some patients. Based on these data, careful patient selection and prospective data collection should be performed.

  18. Elevated Postoperative Endogenous GLP-1 Levels Mediate Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Neural Responsivity to Food Cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Kulve, Jennifer S; Veltman, Dick J; Gerdes, Victor E A

    2017-01-01

    of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 (Ex9-39) and placebo were assessed in 10 women before and after RYGB. We used functional MRI to investigate CNS activation in response to visual food cues (pictures) and gustatory food cues (consumption of chocolate milk), comparing results with Ex9-39 versus...... in response to visual and gustatory food cues may be mediated by central effects of GLP-1. Our findings provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the weight-lowering effects of RYGB.......OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that weight reduction and improvements in satiety after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are partly mediated via postoperative neuroendocrine changes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone secreted after food ingestion and is associated with appetite...

  19. [Preventive efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting in high risk patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiang; Zhu, Bo; Ye, Tie-hu

    2011-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in high-risk patients. Totally 200 patients with three key risk factors for PONV (female, non-smoking and postoperative opioid use) were equally randomized into ondansetron group and granisetron group. Ondansetron (4 mg) or granisetron (3 mg) was intravenously administered upon the completion of surgery. The episodes of nausea and vomiting were observed for 24 hours after surgery. A significantly greater proportion of patients in granisetron group achieved a complete response (i.e., no PONV or rescue medication) during the first 24 hours postoperatively versus those in ondansetron group (62.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in terms of postoperative nausea incidences (42.9% vs. 34.3%, respectively), postoperative vomiting incidences (25.5% vs. 20.2%, respectively) and postoperative rescue anti-emetics incidences (19.4% vs. 15.2%, respectively) (P>0.05). Granisetron is more effective than ondansetron in preventing PONV in high-risk patients during the first 24 hours postoperatively.

  20. Postoperative mental confusion--association with postoperative hypoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H

    1993-01-01

    under general anesthesia, were monitored for oxygen saturation (SpO2) with a pulse oximeter on a preoperative night and on the second night after operation (11:00 PM to 7:00 AM). All patients were tested with a mental test questionnaire (the Hodkinson modification of the original Roth-Hopkins test...... major surgery had decreased mental function on the third day (p operation, whereas minor surgery did not impair mental function. There was a significant correlation between mental function on the third day after operation and mean SpO2 on the second postoperative.......04). During stepwise multiple regression analysis in patients undergoing major surgery, a significant relationship was found between postoperative mental test score and SpO2 (p mental function and other perioperative variables (age, premedication dose, duration of operation...

  1. [Postoperative Chylotholax;Intraoperative Prevention and Postoperative Management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tomohito; Kariya, Shuji; Murakawa, Tomohiro

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative chylothorax is a relatively rare but potentially fatal complication caused by iatrogenic injury to thoracic duct system, with an incidence ranging from 2 to 4% after major lung surgery or esophagectomy. The pathophysiologic features of chylothorax include dehydration, loss of nutrients and immunological components. Intraopreative prevention is the first step for the management, and treatment options include conservative therapy, percutaneous intervention, and redo-operation. Although the treatment algorithm has not been standardized, chylothorax which is refractory to conservative treatment, or that with high output greater than 1,000 ml/day should be treated aggressively with thoracic duct embolization or redo-operation in a timely fashion. We herein review the anatomy and physiology of thoracic duct system and describe the overview of prevention and each theapeutic options of postoperative chylothorax.

  2. Association between elevated pre-operative glycosylated hemoglobin and post-operative infections after non-emergent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankush, Joseph M; Leitman, I Michael; Soleiman, Aron; Tran, Trung

    2016-09-01

    A chronic state of impaired glucose metabolism affects multiple components of the immune system, possibly leading to an increased incidence of post-operative infections. Such infections increase morbidity, length of stay, and overall cost. This study evaluates the correlation between elevated pre-operative glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and post-operative infections. Adult patients undergoing non-emergent procedures across all surgical subspecialties from January 2010 to July 2014 had a preoperative HbA1c measured as part of their routine pre-surgical assessment. 2200 patient charts (1100 operative infection (superficial surgical site infection, deep wound/surgical space abscess, pneumonia, and/or urinary tract infection as defined by Centers for Disease Control criteria) within 30 days of surgery. Patients with HbA1c infection rate (3.8% in the HbA1c infection. Elevated HbA1c was, however, predictive of significantly increased risk of post-operative infection when associated with increased age (≥81 years of age) or dirty wounds. The risk factors of post-operative infection are multiple and likely synergistic. While pre-operative HbA1c level is not independently associated with risk of post-operative infection, there are scenarios and patient subgroups where pre-operative HbA1c is useful in predicting an increased risk of infectious complications in the post-operative period.

  3. Concomitant Mediastinoscopy Increases the Risk of Postoperative Pneumonia After Pulmonary Lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendamuri, Sai; Battoo, Athar; Attwood, Kris; Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Dy, Grace K; Hennon, Mark; Picone, Anthony; Nwogu, Chukwumere; Demmy, Todd; Dexter, Elisabeth

    2018-05-01

    Mediastinoscopy is considered the gold standard for preresectional staging of lung cancer. We sought to examine the effect of concomitant mediastinoscopy on postoperative pneumonia (POP) in patients undergoing lobectomy. All patients in our institutional database (2008-2015) undergoing lobectomy who did not receive neoadjuvant therapy were included in our study. The relationship between mediastinoscopy and POP was examined using univariate (Chi square) and multivariate analyses (binary logistic regression). In order to validate our institutional findings, lobectomy data in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) from 2005 to 2014 were analyzed for these associations. Of 810 patients who underwent a lobectomy at our institution, 741 (91.5%) surgeries were performed by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and 487 (60.1%) patients underwent concomitant mediastinoscopy. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between mediastinoscopy and POP in patients undergoing VATS [odds ratio (OR) 1.80; p = 0.003], but not open lobectomy. Multivariate analysis retained mediastinoscopy as a variable, although the relationship showed only a trend (OR 1.64; p = 0.1). In the NSQIP cohort (N = 12,562), concomitant mediastinoscopy was performed in 9.0% of patients, with 44.5% of all the lobectomies performed by VATS. Mediastinoscopy was associated with POP in patients having both open (OR1.69; p < 0.001) and VATS lobectomy (OR 1.72; p = 0.002). This effect remained in multivariate analysis in both the open and VATS lobectomy groups (OR 1.46, p = 0.003; and 1.53, p = 0.02, respectively). Mediastinoscopy may be associated with an increased risk of POP after pulmonary lobectomy. This observation should be examined in other datasets as it potentially impacts preresectional staging algorithms for patients with lung cancer.

  4. The postoperative complication for adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the postoperative complications for patients with adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction. Methods: Two hundred and eighty subjects with adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction who received operation were retrospectively analyzed from June 2006 to December 2010 in the Department of Oncology of First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, China. The postoperative complication such as ventricular premature beat, atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, heart failure, pulmonary infection, pulmonary atelectasis, respiratory failure, bronchospasm, anastomotic leakage, gastroplegia, pleural infection, and cerebral accident were reviewed and recorded by to doctors. Moreover, the correlation between clinical characteristics and postoperative complication was analyzed by statistical methods. Results: A total of 70 complications were found for the included 280 cases of adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction with general incidence of 25%. For the relationship between clinical characteristics and postoperative complication analysis, no significant association of gender, age, operation time, operative approach, tumor differentiation, and clinical states was found with the postoperative complications (P > 0.05; but the complication rate in patients with basic disease of heart and lung was significant than the patients without this kind of disease (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The positive operative complications for patients with adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction were relative high. Moreover, basic heart and lung diseases can increase the risk of developing positive operative complications.

  5. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS AFTER RADICAL CYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Mager

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy (RCE is associated with a considerable number of early postoperative complications as before. Based on 10 years’ experience, this paper demonstrates the frequency (33.9 % and types of early complications following RCE, as well as postoperative mortality (5.5 % and its resulting causes. Although postoperative mortality is relatively low today, the frequency of early postoperative complications remains high as before.

  6. Modern radiological postoperative diagnostics of the hip joint in children and adults; Moderne radiologische postoperative Diagnostik des Hueftgelenks im Kindes- und Erwachsenenalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.A.; Thierjung, H.; Kloth, J.K. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Egermann, M. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Center for Orthopedics

    2015-07-15

    The assessment of bone healing and loosening of endoprosthesis material was long the primary indication for postoperative projection radiography and CT imaging of the hip joint following trauma and endoprosthesis implantation. With the increasing number of joint-preserving surgery, e. g. of surgical hip luxation and hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), high-resolution imaging of intra-articular pathologies before and after surgery has become increasingly important. In this review article, diagnostic imaging of the hip joint is presented following common trauma surgery and orthopedic surgery interventions. The imaging modalities of projection radiography, CT and MRI including direct MR-arthrography are discussed with regard to their diagnostic capability in the postoperative assessment of the hip joint. Among others topics, imaging is discussed following hip arthroplasty, following surgical hip luxation and arthroscopic interventions for the treatment of FAI, as well as following core decompression for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Moreover, orthopedic interventions of the hip joint in children and adolescents are presented and the dedicated reporting of postoperative imaging is outlined.

  7. Prolonged nerve block by microencapsulated bupivacaine prevents acute postoperative pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, Rachit; Blaskovich, Phillip; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Pham, Lan; Nichols, Gary; Hildebrand, William; Costa, Daniel; Scarborough, Nelson; Herman, Clifford; Strichartz, Gary

    2012-01-01

    To minimize acute postoperative pain, a new formulation of slowly released bupivacaine was developed. Bupivacaine was microencapsulated at 60% (wt/wt) in poly-lactide-co-glycolide polymers and characterized for physicochemical properties and bupivacaine release kinetics. This formulation was injected around the rat sciatic nerve to produce an antinociceptive effect to toe pinch. Mechanical hyperalgesia following lateral plantar paw incision in rats was assessed for 7 to 14 days when the bupivacaine slow-release formulation was placed at the ipsilateral sciatic nerve and compared with the hyperalgesia that developed with various controls. Bupivacaine was released in vitro at a relatively constant rate over a period of ≈ 72 to 96 hours. Complete antinociception, shown as no response to toe pinch, lasted for 23 ± 7 hours, with a half-recovery time of 42 ± 8 hours after sciatic nerve injection of 0.4 mL of the microspheres delivering 34 mg of bupivacaine. Solutions of 0.5% (wt/vol) bupivacaine-HCl (0.1 mL) produced complete antinociception for less than 2 hours and recovery half-times of 2 hours. Postincisional mechanical hyperalgesia, shown by increased withdrawal responses to von Frey filaments, was absent for 24 hours and was lower than control for 96 hours, when the sciatic nerve was blocked by bupivacaine microspheres, whereas the 0.5% bupivacaine solution reduced postincisional pain for only 4 hours. Corresponding to its far greater functional blocking time, the microsphere-bupivacaine formulation was able to significantly reduce postoperative pain below control levels for up to 4 days. These findings of several days of postoperative pain relief, for an injectable formulation containing a single active agent, present an improved and potentially promising therapy to prevent acute pain after surgery.

  8. Postoperative Urinary Retention and Urinary Tract Infections Predict Midurethral Sling Mesh Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjani, Nahid; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Welk, Blayne

    2017-01-01

    To determine if postoperative urinary retention and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were predictors of future mesh complications requiring surgical intervention after midurethral sling (MUS). Administrative data in Ontario, Canada, between 2002 and 2013 were used to identify all women who underwent a mesh-based MUS. The primary outcome was revision of the transvaginal mesh sling (including mesh removal/erosion/fistula, or urethrolysis). Two potential risk factors were analyzed: postoperative retention (within 30 days of procedure) and number of postoperative emergency room visits or hospital admissions for UTI symptoms. A total of 59,556 women had a MUS, of which 1598 (2.7%) required revision surgery. Of the 2025 women who presented to the emergency room or were admitted to hospital for postoperative retention, 212 (10.5%) required operative mesh revision. Of the 11,747 patients who had at least one postoperative UTI, 366 (3.1%) patients required operative mesh revision. In adjusted analysis, postoperative retention was significantly predictive of future reoperation (hazard ratio [HR] 3.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.97-4.02), and this difference persisted when urethrolysis was excluded as a reason for sling revision (HR 3.08, 95% CI 2.62-3.63). Similarly, in adjusted analysis, each additional postoperative hospital visit for UTI symptoms increased the risk for surgical intervention for mesh complications (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.61-1.87). Postoperative urinary retention and hospital presentation for UTI symptoms are associated with an increased risk of reoperation for MUS complications. These patients should be followed and investigated for mesh complications when appropriate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Voxel Based Analysis of Surgical Revascularization for Moyamoya Disease: Pre- and Postoperative SPECT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Fushimi

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease (MMD is a chronic, progressive, cerebrovascular occlusive disease that causes abnormal enlargement of collateral pathways (moyamoya vessels in the region of the basal ganglia and thalamus. Cerebral revascularization procedures remain the preferred treatment for patients with MMD, improving the compromised cerebral blood flow (CBF. However, voxel based analysis (VBA of revascularization surgery for MMD based on data from pre- and postoperative data has not been established. The latest algorithm called as Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL has been introduced for VBA as the function of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8, and improved registration has been achieved by SPM8 with DARTEL. In this study, VBA was conducted to evaluate pre- and postoperative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images for MMD by SPM8 with DARTEL algorithm, and the results were compared with those from SPM8 without DARTEL (a conventional method. Thirty-two patients with MMD who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA bypass surgery as the first surgery were included and all patients underwent pre- and postoperative 3D T1-weighted imaging and SPECT. Pre- and postoperative SPECT images were registered to 3D T1-weighted images, then VBA was conducted. Postoperative SPECT showed more statistically increased CBF areas in the bypassed side cerebral hemisphere by using SPM8 with DARTEL (58,989 voxels; P<0.001, and increased ratio of CBF after operation was less than 15%. Meanwhile, postoperative SPECT showed less CBF increased areas by SPM8 without DARTEL. In conclusion, VBA was conducted for patients with MMD, and SPM8 with DARTEL revealed that postoperative SPECT showed statistically significant CBF increases over a relatively large area and with at most 15% increase ratio.

  10. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction in middle-aged patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, T.; Monk, T.; Rasmussen, L.S.; Abildstrom, H.; Houx, P.J.; Korttila, K.; Kuipers, H.M.; Hanning, C.D.; Siersma, V.D.; Kristensen, D.; Canet, J.; Ibanaz, M.T.; Moller, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after noncardiac surgery is strongly associated with increasing age in elderly patients; middle-aged patients (aged 40-60 yr) may be expected to have a lower incidence, although subjective complaints are frequent. Methods: The authors compared

  11. Evaluation of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis after liver resection: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Hayashi, Michihiro; Miyamoto, Yoshiharu; Asakuma, Mitsuhiro; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Komeda, Koji; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa; Nishimura, Yasuichiro

    2013-07-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is frequently administered after liver resection to prevent postoperative infections. However, very few studies have examined the usefulness of antibiotic prophylaxis after liver resection. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients after liver resection. A total of 241 patients scheduled to undergo liver resection were randomly assigned to the non-postoperative antibiotic group (n = 95) or the antibiotic group (n = 95). The antibiotic group was given flomoxef sodium every 12 hours for 3 days after the operation. The end point was signs of infection, surgical site infection, or infectious complications. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in signs of infection (21.3% vs 25.5%, P = .606), the incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (11.7% vs 17.0%, P = .406), infectious complications (7.5% vs 17.0%, P = .073), surgical site infection (10.6% vs 13.8%, P = .657), and remote site infection (2.1% vs 8.5%, P = .100). Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis cannot prevent postoperative infections after liver resection, and it is thought that antibiotic prophylaxis is unnecessary and costly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Characteristics of postoperative peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, J F; Eckmann, C; Germer, C-T

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative peritonitis is still a life-threatening complication after abdominal surgery and approximately 10,000 patients annually develop postoperative peritonitis in Germany. Early recognition and diagnosis before the onset of sepsis has remained a clinical challenge as no single specific screening test is available. The aim of therapy is a rapid and effective control of the source of infection and antimicrobial therapy. After diagnosis of diffuse postoperative peritonitis surgical revision is usually inevitable after intestinal interventions. Peritonitis after liver, biliary or pancreatic surgery is managed as a rule by means of differentiated therapy approaches depending on the severity.

  13. [Frequency of colonization and isolated bacteria from the tip of the epidural catheter implanted for postoperative analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabille, Débora Miranda Diogo; Filho, Augusto Diogo; Mandim, Beatriz Lemos da Silva; Araújo, Lúcio Borges de; Mesquita, Priscila Miranda Diogo; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of epidural analgesia with catheter leads to the need to demonstrate the safety of this method and know the incidence of catheter colonization, inserted postoperatively for epidural analgesia, and the bacteria responsible for this colonization. From November 2011 to April 2012, patients electively operated and maintained under epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia were evaluated. The catheter tip was collected for semiquantitative and qualitative microbiological analysis. Of 68 cultured catheters, six tips (8.8%) had positive cultures. No patient had superficial or deep infection. The mean duration of catheter use was 43.45hours (18-118) (p=0.0894). The type of surgery (contaminated or uncontaminated), physical status of patients, and surgical time showed no relation with the colonization of catheters. Microorganisms isolated from the catheter tip were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Postoperative epidural catheter analgesia, under this study conditions, was found to be low risk for bacterial colonization in patients at surgical wards. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterizing postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Iris Bertha

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, yearly more than 400.000 elderly patients undergo surgery. An estimated ten percent of these patients develops long-lasting postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), associated with a reduced quality of life, increased dependency and worse prognosis. Currently, there is no

  15. Is Early Enteral Nutrition Better for Postoperative Course in Esophageal Cancer Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Wakai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01, lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01, less use of TPN (p < 0.01, and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01. However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation.

  16. Is Early Enteral Nutrition Better for Postoperative Course in Esophageal Cancer Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01), lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01), less use of TPN (p < 0.01), and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation. PMID:24067386

  17. Milrinone Use is Associated With Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation Following Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Gregory A.; Murray, Katherine T.; Yu, Chang; Byrne, John G.; Greelish, James P.; Petracek, Michael R.; Hoff, Steven J.; Ball, Stephen K.; Brown, Nancy J.; Pretorius, Mias

    2009-01-01

    Background Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF), a frequent complication following cardiac surgery, causes morbidity and prolongs hospitalization. Inotropic drugs are commonly used perioperatively to support ventricular function. This study tested the hypothesis that the use of inotropic drugs is associated with postoperative AF. Methods and Results We evaluated perioperative risk factors in 232 patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery. All patients were in sinus rhythm at surgery. Sixty-seven (28.9%) patients developed AF a mean of 2.9±2.1 days after surgery. Patients who developed AF stayed in the hospital longer (PMilrinone use was associated with an increased risk of postoperative AF (58.2% versus 26.1% in non-users, Pmilrinone use (odds ratio 4.86, 95% CI 2.31-10.25, Pmilrinone use (odds ratio 4.45, 95% CI 2.01-9.84, Pmilrinone use with postoperative AF. Conclusion Milrinone use is an independent risk factor for postoperative AF following elective cardiac surgery. PMID:18824641

  18. Analysis of Unplanned Intensive Care Unit Admissions in Postoperative Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Elizabeth K; Gabriel, Rodney A; Beutler, Sascha; Dutton, Richard P; Urman, Richard D

    2017-03-01

    Currently, there are only a few retrospective, single-institution studies that have addressed the prevalence and risk factors associated with unplanned admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) after surgery. Based on the limited amount of studies, it appears that airway and respiratory complications put a child at increased risk for unplanned ICU admission. A more extensive and diverse analysis of unplanned postoperative admissions to the ICU is needed to address risk factors that have yet to be revealed by the current literature. To establish a rate of unplanned postoperative ICU admissions in pediatric patients using a large, multi-institution data set and to further characterize the associated risk factors. Data from the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry were analyzed. We recorded the overall risk of unplanned postoperative ICU admission in patients younger than 18 years and performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the associated patient, surgical, and anesthetic-related characteristics. Of the 324 818 cases analyzed, 211 reported an unexpected ICU admission. There was an increased likelihood of unplanned postoperative ICU in infants (age anesthesia were also associated with unplanned ICU admissions. This study establishes a rate of unplanned ICU admission following surgery in the heterogeneous pediatric population. This is the first study to utilize such a large data set encompassing a wide range of practice environments to identify risk factors leading to unplanned postoperative ICU admissions. Our study revealed that patient, surgical, and anesthetic complexity each contributed to an increased number of unplanned ICU admissions in the pediatric population.

  19. An expert opinion on postoperative pain management, with special reference to new developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Mathiesen, Ole; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been directed towards the effect of opioid-sparing strategies on postoperative morbidity and hospitalization, and on different nociceptive mechanisms involved in various postoperative pain states and surgical procedures. This has resulted in an increased interest...

  20. Postoperative diagnosis of the temporomandibular joint; Postoperative Kiefergelenkdiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Osteologie; Undt, G. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-09-01

    Postoperative management of patients suffering from symptoms of the temporomandibular joint does not differ considerably from the one of preoperative examination protocols. Knowledge of previous surgery helps to plan patient work-up and to interpret normal postoperative findings (eminectomy, discectomy, susceptibility artefacts from metallic residues..) and typical complications (intraarticular loose bodies, dislocations, avascular necrosis, foreign body granulomatous reactions) appropriately. (orig.) [German] Wie auch in anderen Koerperregionen differiert das Diagnoseprotokoll von prae- und postoperativen Patienten mit Beschwerden des Kiefergelenks nicht wesentlich voneinander. Die Kenntnis des vorangegangenen Eingriffs hilft allerdings, die Untersuchung entsprechend zu planen und den Befund im Kontext richtig zu bewerten, um moegliche Komplikationen (intraartikulaere Fragmente, Dislokationen, avaskulaere Nekrose, Fremdkoerperreaktionen) und zu erwartende Befunde (Eminektomie, Diskektomie, Metallartefakte usw.) richtig zu interpretieren. (orig.)

  1. Characterization of persistent postoperative pain by quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation...... research tool in studies investigating the correlation between responses to preoperatively applied experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain. Second, the use of QST as a valuable prognostic, sequential assessment tool in surgical procedure specific research is presented. Third......, the implications of these findings for use of QST in future research are discussed. More rational design of predictive studies in PPP, based on surgical procedure specific approaches, is needed in order to improve our understanding of prevention and management of this debilitating postsurgical condition....

  2. Characterization of persistent postoperative pain by quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    , the implications of these findings for use of QST in future research are discussed. More rational design of predictive studies in PPP, based on surgical procedure specific approaches, is needed in order to improve our understanding of prevention and management of this debilitating postsurgical condition.......Postoperative pain remains inadequately treated, and it has been estimated that 5-10% undergoing surgery will develop moderate to severe persistent pain leading to chronic physical disability and psychosocial distress. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is a graded, standardized activation...... research tool in studies investigating the correlation between responses to preoperatively applied experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain. Second, the use of QST as a valuable prognostic, sequential assessment tool in surgical procedure specific research is presented. Third...

  3. Pylorus-preserving Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy: Postoperative evaluation of a new surgical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trerotola, S.O.; Jones, B.; Crist, D.J.; Cameron, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The pylorus-preserving Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to the standard Whipple operation in the surgical treatment of diseases of the periampullary region. Contrast radiography plays an important role in the postoperative evaluation of patients undergoing this operation. Although most radiologists are familiar with the postoperative anatomy and complications associated with the standard Whipple operation, the newer technique involves different postoperative anatomy and different complications and requires a different approach to examination. The procedure presents several new diagnostic pitfalls. These variables are presented from a described series of 50 patients undergoing this procedure for periampullary neoplasm or chronic pancreatitis

  4. Predisposing factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting in gynecologic tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Daiane Spitz; Costa, Amine Farias; Chaves, Gabriela Villaça

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the predictors of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in women with gynecologic tumor. The analysis was based on prospectively collected data of 82 adult patients with gynecologic tumor, who were submitted to open surgical treatment and undergoing general anesthesia. The predictors included were age ≥50 years, non-smoker, use of postoperative opioids, mechanical bowel preparation, intraoperative intravenous hydration (IH) ≥10 mL/kg/h, and IH in the immediate postoperative, first and second postoperative days (PO1 and PO2) ≥30 mL/kg. A score with predictor variables was built. A multiple logistic regression was fitted. To estimate the discriminating power of the chosen model, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated. Statistical significance was set at p value 30 mL/kg of IH in the PO2. The results of the adjusted model showed an increased risk of PONV for each 1-point increase in the score punctuation. The relative risk was higher than 2.0 for vomiting in all period and in the PO1. The ROC curve showed great discrimination of postoperative nausea and vomiting from the proposed score (AUC >0.75). The study population was at high risk of PONV. Therefore, institutional guidelines abolishing modificable variables following temporal evaluation of the effectiveness should be undertaken.

  5. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    effect on postoperative pulmonary function in the sitting or standing position compared with the supine. Thus, avoidance of the supine position may improve postoperative pulmonary function. Three of six studies showed a positive effect on postoperative pulmonary function of the lateral side compared......BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...... with the supine. Thus, the lateral position has limited effects on pulmonary function. CONCLUSION: Changes of postoperative position from supine to sitting or standing are of major importance in the interpretation of postoperative pulmonary outcome studies and in future strategies to improve pulmonary outcome....

  6. National audit of post-operative management in spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicken Ben

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some evidence from a Cochrane review that rehabilitation following spinal surgery may be beneficial. Methods We conducted a survey of current post-operative practice amongst spinal surgeons in the United Kingdom in 2002 to determine whether such interventions are being included routinely in the post-operative management of spinal patients. The survey included all surgeons who were members of either the British Association of Spinal Surgeons (BASS or the Society for Back Pain Research. Data on the characteristics of each surgeon and his or her current pattern of practice and post-operative care were collected via a reply-paid postal questionnaire. Results Usable responses were provided by 57% of the 89 surgeons included in the survey. Most surgeons (79% had a routine post-operative management regime, but only 35% had a written set of instructions that they gave to their patients concerning this. Over half (55% of surgeons do not send their patients for any physiotherapy after discharge, with an average of less than two sessions of treatment organised by those that refer for physiotherapy at all. Restrictions on lifting, sitting and driving showed considerable inconsistency both between surgeons and also within the recommendations given by individual surgeons. Conclusion Demonstrable inconsistencies within and between spinal surgeons in their approaches to post-operative management can be interpreted as evidence of continuing and significant uncertainty across the sub-speciality as to what does constitute best care in these areas of practice. Conducting further large, rigorous, randomised controlled trials would be the best method for obtaining definitive answers to these questions.

  7. [Risk factors of postoperative meningitis in patients with chiasm-sellar tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popugaev, K A; Savin, I A; Ershova, O N; Kurdyumova, N V; Tabasaransky, T F; Oshorov, A V; Kadashev, B A; Kalinin, P L; Kutin, M A

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative intracranial infectious complications are one of the most topical problems of neurosurgical intensive care due to theirs significant capability to impair outcomes of the main disease. To define the risk factors of postoperative meningitis in patients with chiasm-sellar tumors. 1. to define the effect of somatic and intracranial risk factors on occurrence of postoperative meningitis in patients after transsphenoidal and transcranial approaches to the tumor. 2. To define the effect of postoperative meningitis on outcomes of treatment in patients after transsphenoidal and transcranial approaches to the tumor. Somatic and intracranial risk factors of occurrence of postoperative meningitis (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis, intra-abdominal hypertension, the presence of external ventricular and lumbar drainage, monitoring of intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid, and reoperation) were fixed every day. The study was conducted in the ICU of the Burdenko from October, 2010 to July, 2012. The 34 patients (19 males, 15 females) were included in the study (average age 47.5 years). The patients were divided into two groups; 17 patients each group. The group-1 included patients after transcranial approach to the tumor and the group-2 included patients after transsphenoidal approach. In the group-1 a meningitis occurred in 3 patients (17.6% +/- 9.2%, DI [-0.4 - 35.6]). In the group-2 a meningitis occurred in 7 patients (41.2% +/- 11.9) DI 95% [17.8 - 64.4]. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid under the skin flap authentically increased a risk of a meningitis occurrence in patients after transcranial approach to the tumor (p = 0.031). There was no defined statistical significance of other risk factors. But there was defined a trend of the increasing of meningitis occurrence in patients after transsphenoidal approach in case of lumbar drainage or reoperation. Duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay in patients with meningitis was authentically

  8. Hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy for cancer: impact on postoperative inflammatory and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, M; Cavallin, F; Saadeh, L M; Pinto, E; Alfieri, R; Cagol, M; Da Roit, A; Pizzolato, E; Noaro, G; Pozza, G; Castoro, C

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to evaluate the impact of hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy for cancer on surgical stress response and nutritional status. All 34 consecutive patients undergoing hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy for cancer at our surgical unit between 2008 and 2013 were retrospectively compared with 34 patients undergoing esophagectomy with open gastric tubulization (open), matched for neoadjuvant therapy, pathological stage, gender and age. Demographic data, tumor features and postoperative course (including quality of life and systemic inflammatory and nutritional status) were compared. Postoperative course was similar in terms of complication rate. Length of stay in intensive care unit was shorter in patients undergoing hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (P = 0.002). In the first postoperative day, patients undergoing hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy had lower C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.001) and white cell blood count (P = 0.05), and higher albumin serum level (P = 0.001). In this group, albumin remained higher also at third (P = 0.06) and seventh (P = 0.008) postoperative day, and C-reactive protein resulted lower at third post day (P = 0.04). Hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy significantly improved the systemic inflammatory and catabolic response to surgical trauma, contributing to a shorter length of stay in intensive care unit. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  9. Prediction of postoperative pain: a systematic review of predictive experimental pain studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads Utke; Mjöbo, Helena N; Nielsen, Per R

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative testing of a patient's basal pain perception before surgery has the potential to be of clinical value if it can accurately predict the magnitude of pain and requirement of analgesics after surgery. This review includes 14 studies that have investigated the correlation between...... preoperative responses to experimental pain stimuli and clinical postoperative pain and demonstrates that the preoperative pain tests may predict 4-54% of the variance in postoperative pain experience depending on the stimulation methods and the test paradigm used. The predictive strength is much higher than...

  10. HAPTIC LOCATION IN PSEUDOPHAKIC EYES AND NONINFECTIOUS POSTOPERATIVE INFLAMMATION- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Baranwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Postoperative noninfectious inflammation after cataract surgery, which can be persistent, remains an undesirable consequence despite many advances in surgical techniques. This ocular inflammation after cataract surgery presents ophthalmologists with a treatment dilemma. The aim of the study was to evaluate and correlate the IOL haptic location and the presence of noninfectious postoperative inflammation in pseudophakic eyes using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this prospective study, 80 eyes of 80 cataract patients underwent SICS with 6 mm optic non-foldable PCIOL implantation. Post surgery, an examination protocol was followed wherein the patients were assessed by slit-lamp examination on day 1, 2, 7, 14 and 30 for flare and cells. A UBM examination was performed on day 30 for locating the IOL haptic position. Finally, the postoperative inflammation was correlated with IOL haptic position. RESULTS The results showed that IOL haptic position outside the capsular bag significantly increased the amount and duration of postoperative inflammation. CONCLUSION Haptic position outside the bag increases the incidence and duration of postoperative inflammation significantly. In patients undergoing SICS, the aim should be a large continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis within the bag implantation of IOL. UBM examination on day 30 after surgery to know position of IOL haptics outside the bag will be helpful in decreasing apprehension of operating surgeon and suggesting prolonged need of steroids in cases having more than expected postoperative inflammation.

  11. Systemic inflammatory response in erderly patients following hernioplastical operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldi Maria

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of old and oldest old patients undergoing surgery of varying severity is increasing. Ageing is a process that changes the performances of most physiological systems and increases susceptibility to diseases and death; accordingly, host responses to surgical stress are altered with ageing and the occurrence of age-related increase in susceptibility to post-operative complications has been claimed. Twenty-four male patients undergoing Lichtenstein (LH hernioplasty for unilateral inguinal hernia were included in this study and divided in two groups (Young and Old respectively, according to their age. As expression of the acute phase response, we measured changes in concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines Tumor necrosis factor-α and Interleukin-1β, leukocytes, acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and α 1-antitrypsin. Elderly humans showed prolonged and strong inflammatory activity compared to younger subjects in response to surgical stress, indicating that the acute-phase response to surgical stress of elderly humans varies from that of the young, showing initial hyperactivity and a delayed termination of the response. Thus, the acute phase response to surgical stress is higher in old subjects, but the clinical significance of this remains unclear. It is not known whether a causal relationship exists between this stronger acute phase response and the increases in susceptibility to post-operative complications observed in aged patients.

  12. Effects of Education and Health Literacy on Postoperative Hospital Visits in Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Stephen T; Tawfik-Sexton, Dahlia; Strassle, Paula D; Farrell, Timothy M; Duke, Meredith C

    2018-04-02

    Hospital readmissions following bariatric surgery are high and it is necessary to identify modifiable risk factors to minimize this postoperative cost. We hypothesize that lower levels of education and health literacy are associated with increased risks of nonadherence, thus leading to increased emergency department (ED) visits and preventable readmissions postoperatively. Bariatric surgery patients presenting between October 2015 and December 2016 were administered a preoperative questionnaire that measured education level and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Short Form (REALM-SF) health literacy test. The rates of postoperative ED visits and readmissions were across education levels (≤12th grade versus >12th grade) and health literacy scores (≤8th grade versus high school level). A composite "hospital visit" outcome was also assessed. Ninety-five patients were enrolled; 23 had ≤12th grade level education and 7 scored ≤8th grade on the REALM-SF. Patients with ≤12th grade education were significantly more likely to have a hospital visit after surgery, compared with patients with >12th grade education (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.06, P = .008). No significant difference in ED visits, readmission, or hospital visits was seen when stratified by REALM-SF health literacy score. Lower level of education was associated with more than threefold increased risk of postoperative ED visits and readmission in our center's bariatric surgery patients. A patient's education level is a low-cost means to identify patients who are at risk for postoperative hospital visits, and who may benefit from enhanced educational efforts or more intensive postoperative follow-up.

  13. Parents' experiences managing their child's complicated postoperative recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Mary; Longard, Julie; Chorney, Jill; Hong, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Tonsillectomy is commonly performed as same-day surgery and parents are heavily relied upon for management of children's postoperative recovery. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of the experiences parents face when managing their child's complicated postoperative recoveries at home. An exploratory qualitative study at an academic pediatric hospital in Eastern Canada was performed. Participants included 12 parents of children aged 3-6 years who underwent adeno/tonsillectomy and experienced unexpected outcomes or complications during the postoperative recovery period. Parents participated in semi-structured interviews within 6 months of their child's surgery. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was used to identify themes in the parents' experiences. Parents described struggling to make the decision to come back to hospital, that adequate information does not prevent emotional difficulties, and feeling somewhat responsible for the unexpected outcome or complicated course of recovery. Communication with healthcare providers was considered very important in helping with the recovery process. This research helps to inform healthcare professionals about how they might better support families during complicated recovery processes. Areas of action may include clear communication, setting expectations, and psychosocial support. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Postoperative MRI of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabianlou Korth, M.; Fritz, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative imaging of the ankle can be challenging, even for the experienced radiologist. Pathological and postoperative changes to the primarily complex anatomy of the ankle with its great variety of bone structures, tendons, ligaments, and soft tissue in a very limited space may cause great difficulty in differentiating underlying pathology from expected postoperative changes and artifacts, especially in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Selecting the appropriate radiological modality is key to making the correct diagnosis. Therefore, knowledge of the initial and current symptoms is just as important as familiarity with the most frequently performed operations in the ankle. This article aims to give its reader a summary of the most important and frequently performed operation techniques of the ankle and discusses the expected appearance and possible complications in postoperative imaging. (orig.) [de

  15. Association between elevated pre-operative glycosylated hemoglobin and post-operative infections after non-emergent surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Blankush

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The risk factors of post-operative infection are multiple and likely synergistic. While pre-operative HbA1c level is not independently associated with risk of post-operative infection, there are scenarios and patient subgroups where pre-operative HbA1c is useful in predicting an increased risk of infectious complications in the post-operative period.

  16. Postoperative delirium after partial laryngectomy in a middle-aged patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huiqian; Shen, Xia

    2018-02-01

    Postoperative delirium is a common occurrence in older patients. However, reports of postoperative delirium in middle-aged patients are limited, and the underlying mechanism of delirium in this patient population is not clear. A 45-year-old man who developed postoperative delirium on the second day after partial laryngectomy. Interviews of the surgical team, patient, and patient's spouse revealed that the patient was psychologically stressed, but had not been diagnosed or treated. The patient also suffered impairment in physiological functioning and sleep disturbance after surgery. Postoperative delirium. The postoperative delirium was treated with an antipsychotic drug. The patient recovered well. Preoperative psychological stress, which is often undiagnosed and untreated, can increase the risk of postoperative delirium in middle-aged patients undergoing laryngectomy. Therefore, screening for psychological stress and implementing strategies to prevent delirium should be considered for patients who undergo laryngectomy, even if they are not in high-risk older age groups.

  17. BANGERTER FOILS IN THE POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF ESOTROPIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina G. Dimitrova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the application of Bangerter foils in the postoperative management of esotropia Methods: A retrospective study of 200 patients who underwent bimedial recessions for various forms of alternating/alternated esotropia in the period of 2000-2013. In the cases of residual postoperative angle, tendency of recurrence of strabismus and preferred fixation, Bangerter foil was fixed on the corrective glass of the dominant eye- either on the next day of surgery, or on the 10-th postoperative day and was in use for at least 6 months. Results: Bangerter foils were applied in 67(35,1% under corrected patients with a mean residual angle for near 7,01±3,51Δ. Mean residual angle in patients without foils was 3,47±4,06Δ (p<0,001. Statistically significant factors in patients with filters were amblyopia treatment before surgery (p<0,001, anisometropia (p=0,003 and type of esotropia (accommodative vs. non accommodative (p<0,001. Within the group without filters there was a significant increase of the residual angle for near on the third (p<0,001 and sixth month (p=0,036, while within the group with foils angle was not significantly changed (p=0,325; p=0,058 with time. In the group with foils no cases with relapse of strabismus and amblyopia were recorded and even a decrease of the postoperative angle was clinically observed in some patients. Conclusion: To our experience Bangerter foils are a reliable tool in the postoperative management of undercorrected esotropia.

  18. Role of 3T multiparametric-MRI with BOLD hypoxia imaging for diagnosis and post therapy response evaluation of postoperative recurrent cervical cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Abhishek; Engineer, Reena; Chopra, Supriya; Mahanshetty, Umesh; Juvekar, S.L.; Shrivastava, S.K.; Desekar, Naresh; Thakur, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    vaginal vault/local recurrence following primary surgery for cervical cancer. With institutional review board approval and written informed consent 30 women (median age: 45 years) from October 2009 to March 2010 with previous operated carcinoma cervix and suspected clinical vaginal vault/local recurrence were examined with 3.0T-MRI. MRI imaging included conventional and MPMRI sequences [dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE), diffusion weighted (DW), 1H-MR spectroscopy (1HMRS), blood oxygen level dependent hypoxia imaging (BOLD)]. Two radiologists, blinded to pathologic findings, independently assessed the pretherapy MRI findings and then correlated it with histopathology findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and their confidence intervals were calculated. The pre and post therapy conventional and MPMRI parameters were analyzed and correlated with response to therapy. Of the 30 patients, there were 24 recurrent tumors and 6 benign lesions. The accuracy of diagnosing recurrent vault lesions was highest at combined MPMRI and conventional MRI (100%) than at conventional-MRI (70%) or MPMRI (96.7%) alone. Significant correlation was seen between percentage tumor regression and pre-treatment parameters such as negative enhancement integral (NEI) (p = 0.02), the maximum slope (p = 0.04), mADC value (p = 0.001) and amount of hypoxic fraction on the pretherapy MRI (p = 0.01). Conventional-MR with MPMRI significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy for suspected vaginal vault/local recurrence. Post therapy serial MPMRI with hypoxia imaging follow-up objectively documents the response. MPMRI and BOLD hypoxia imaging provide information regarding tumor biology at the molecular, subcellular, cellular and tissue levels and this information may be used as an appropriate and reliable biologic target for radiation dose painting to optimize therapy in future

  19. Postoperative Conversion Disorder in Elderly Oral Cancer Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushiji, Takashi; Hayashi, Kamichika; Morikawa, Takamichi; Migita, Masashi; Ogane, Satoru; Muramatsu, Kyotaro; Kamio, Takashi; Shibahara, Takahiko; Takano, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a condition in which psychological stress in response to difficult situations manifests as physical symptoms. Here, we report a case of postoperative coma due to conversion disorder in an elderly oral cancer patient. An 82-year-old woman was referred to Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital with a mass lesion on the tongue. A biopsy revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Surgical treatment was performed for the tongue carcinoma and tracheotomy for management of the airway. On postoperative day 5, the patient exhibited loss of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale: E1, VT, M1; Japan Coma Scale: III-300). The patient's vital signs were all normal, as were the results of a full blood count, brain-CT, MRI, and MRA. Only the arm dropping test was positive. Therefore, the cause of the coma was diagnosed as conversion disorder. Seven hours later, the patient showed a complete recovery.

  20. [Valvular heart disease: preoperative assessment and postoperative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nägele, Reto; Kaufmann, Beat A

    2013-10-30

    Patients with valvular heart disease or with a prosthetic heart valve replacement are seen with increasing frequency in clinical practice. The medical care and evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease before valve surgery, but also the post-operative treatment is complex and managed by general practitioners, cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. In this mini-review we will first discuss the preoperative assessment of the two most common valvulopathies, aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation. Then we will discuss the post-operative care, which includes the management of anticoagulation, serial follow up and as well as the diagnostic assessment of complications such as thromboembolism, hemolysis, endocarditis and valve dysfunction.

  1. Postoperative electrolyte management: Current practice patterns of surgeons and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Fernando A; Dueck, Andrew D; Azouz, Solomon M

    2015-07-01

    Managing postoperative electrolyte imbalances often is driven by dogma. To identify areas of improvement, we assessed the practice pattern of postoperative electrolyte management among surgeons and residents. An online survey was distributed among attending surgeons and surgical residents at the University of Toronto. The survey was designed according to a systematic approach for formulating self-administered questionnaires. Questions addressed workload, decision making in hypothetical clinical scenarios, and improvement strategies. Of 232 surveys distributed, 156 were completed (response rate: 67%). The majority stated that junior residents were responsible for managing electrolytes at 13 University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals. Supervision was carried out predominately by senior residents (75%). Thirteen percent reported management went unsupervised. Approximately 59% of residents were unaware how often attending surgeons assessed patients' electrolytes. Despite the majority of residents (53.7%) reporting they were never given tools or trained in electrolyte replacement, they considered themselves moderately or extremely confident. The management of hypothetical clinical scenarios differed between residents and attending surgeons. The majority (50.5%) of respondents considered that an electrolyte replacement protocol is the most appropriate improvement strategy. Electrolyte replacement represents an important component of surgeons' workload. Despite reporting that formal training in electrolyte management is limited, residents consider themselves competent; however, their practice is highly variable and often differs from pharmacologic-directed recommendations. Optimizing how postoperative electrolytes are managed in surgical wards requires building a framework that improves knowledge, training, and limits unnecessary interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Addition of clonidine to bupivacaine in transversus abdominis plane block prolongs postoperative analgesia after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Singh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Addition of clonidine 1 μg/kg to 20 ml bupivacaine 0.25% in TAP block bilaterally for cesarean section significantly increases the duration of postoperative analgesia, decreases postoperative analgesic requirement, and increases maternal comfort compared to 20 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% alone.

  3. Patient Satisfaction With an Early Smartphone-Based Cosmetic Surgery Postoperative Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozza, Edoardo Dalla; D'Souza, Gehaan F; DeLeonibus, Anthony; Fabiani, Brianna; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Zins, James E

    2017-12-13

    While prevalent in everyday life, smartphones are also finding increasing use as a medical care adjunct. The use of smartphone technology as a postoperative cosmetic surgery adjunct for care has received little attention in the literature. The purpose of this effort was to assess the potential efficacy of a smartphone-based cosmetic surgery early postoperative follow-up program. Specifically, could smartphone photography provided by the patient to the plastic surgeon in the first few days after surgery allay patient's concerns, improve the postoperative experience and, possibly, detect early complications? From August 2015 to March 2016 a smartphone-based postoperative protocol was established for patients undergoing cosmetic procedures. At the time of discharge, the plastic surgeon sent a text to the patient with instructions for the patient to forward a postoperative photograph of the operated area within 48 to 72 hours. The plastic surgeon then made a return call/text that same day to review the patient's progress. A postoperative questionnaire evaluated the patients' postoperative experience and satisfaction with the program. A total of 57 patients were included in the study. Fifty-two patients responded to the survey. A total of 50 (96.2%) patients reported that the process improved the quality of their postoperative experience. The protocol allowed to detect early complications in 3 cases. The physician was able to address and treat the complications the following day prior to the scheduled clinic follow up. The smartphone can be effectively utilized by the surgeon to both enhance the patient's postoperative experience and alert the surgeon to early postoperative problems. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Incidence of Postoperative Acid-Base Disturbances in Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi Gilani M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory and blood pressure changes as well as fluid administration alter the acid-base balance during the perioperative period which may cause consciousness disturbance and additional hemodynamic disorders. The aim of this study was to identify frequent postoperative acid-base disturbances in order to control postoperative complications. Materials and Methods:This prospective, observational study design was used on patients who underwent abdominal surgery during a six-month period. Gasometry was performed immediately after the patients’ admittion to ICU and six and 12 hours postoperatively. SPSS v13 software was used, and PResults: 213 patients (123 male and 90 female aged 14-85 years (51.7± 22.4 were evaluated. During admission, PH and PaCO2 were (7.29±0.13 and (38.3±11.9, respectively; however, although PH increased gradually (P=0.001, PaCO2 was reduced (P=0.03. Bicarbonate and base excess had opposite effects; bicarbonate initially decreased but increased after 12 hours (P=0.001, whereas base excess initially increased (-6.3±11.6 and then decreased gradually (P=0.003. The arterial oxygen pressure was reduced for 22.5% of the patients throughout the admission period, and this did not significantly change (P=0.57. Conclusion: According to the results, in admission, 65.7% had metabolic acidosis, but metabolic alkalosis was the least. Gradually, metabolic acidosis was modified, but metabolic alkalosis increased. Intraoperative hypotension and fluid infusion may be the main factors of early metabolic acidosis and control of hypotension, or correction of acidosis may increase metabolic alkalosis.

  5. The Clinical Effects of Dai-kenchu-to on Postoperative Intestinal Movement and Inflammatory Reaction in Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Gakuji; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Yokomizo, Hajime; Otani, Taisuke; Matsumoto, Atsuo; Nakayama, Mao; Ogawa, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    We analyzed the effects of the Kampo medicine "Dai-kenchu-to" (DKT) on clinical aspects in colorectal surgery. Total 122 patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery were divided into a DKT group (n = 53) and a non-DKT group (n = 69). The differences of postoperative course and anti-inflammatory responses between those two groups were analyzed. The 53 out of 59 patients could completely take DKT. In the postoperative course, significant difference was observed in the first flatus day. In the anti-inflammatory effects, differences were observed in the heart rate (HR) of the 3rd POD. In the change between 1st POD and 3rd POD, HR in the DKT group was well controlled compared to the non-DKT group. In the patients who had over 37.5°C of body temperature in 1st POD (n = 53), inflammatory response of the DKT group was reduced compared to the non-DKT group. The DKT might have the favorable influences on postoperative bowel movement and systemic inflammatory reaction, and induce the better postoperative course.

  6. Influence of esmolol on requirement of inhalational agent using entropy and assessment of its effect on immediate postoperative pain score

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    Bhawna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Context: Beta - blockers have been used for attenuation of stress response, decreasing anaesthetic requirement and augmentation of the effect of opioids during general anaesthesia. Aims and Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the influence of esmolol on the requirement of an inhalational agent while monitoring the depth of anaesthesia by entropy and also its effect on immediate postoperative pain score. Methods: Fifty American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA I and II patients, between 25 and 65 years of age who underwent lower abdominal surgeries were randomly allocated to two groups: Group E and Group S of 25 patients each. Group E received esmolol infusion while Group S received the same volume of saline infusion. Demographic data, haemodynamics, amount of isoflurane used, end-tidal isoflurane concentration, postoperative pain score and total dose of morphine consumed in immediate postoperative period of 30 min were analyzed by using appropriate statistical tests. Value of P<0.05 was considered significant and P<0.001 as highly significant. Results: The two groups were comparable with respect to age, weight, ASA physical status, duration of surgery and amount of isoflurane used during anaesthesia. Assessment of postoperative pain was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS which showed significant difference at 30 min. The total dose of morphine consumption was significantly less (P<0.05 in Group E for relief of postoperative pain. Conclusions: We conclude that in light of depth of anaesthesia monitor esmolol has no effect on requirement of isoflurane, but it decreases the postoperative pain as well as postoperative requirement of morphine without increasing the risk of awareness.

  7. [Postoperative unilateral acute glaucoma after abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo Grau, L A; Opisso Juliá, L L; Roqué Meseguer, A; Yuste Graupera, M; Suñol Sala, X

    2012-11-01

    An early and correct diagnosis substantially improves the post-operative prognosis of acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG). A 90 year-old woman was operated on for a right colon tumour by laparotomy, under combined anaesthesia without any adverse events. Twelve hours after the operation, the patient described recurrent periorbital pain in her right eye, with ocular hyperaemia, blurred vision, and unresponsive mydriasis. A diagnosis of AACG was made, but although conservative treatment was started YAG laser iridotomies were required to reduce the intraocular pressure. In the AACG postoperative period, as well as with an eye with several predisposed local factors including genetic predisposition, female gender, hypermetropia, increased lens thickness and small corneal diameter, can be added a pupillary block induced by adrenergic and anticholinergic drugs used in anaesthetic procedures. An acute and intensive periorbital or ocular pain, with or without visual disturbance, must aware the doctor. A differential diagnosis with other postoperative ocular diseases and cranial pain causes must be done. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnosis, Prevention and Management of Postoperative Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, SJ Singh; Kulshrestha, A

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative pulmonary edema is a well-known postoperative complication caused as a result of numerous etiological factors which can be easily detected by a careful surveillance during postoperative period. However, there are no preoperative and intraoperative criteria which can successfully establish the possibilities for development of postoperative pulmonary edema. The aims were to review the possible etiologic and diagnostic challenges in timely detection of postoperative pulmonary edema...

  9. Association of postoperative nausea/vomiting and pain with breastfeeding success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Abola

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful breastfeeding is a goal set forth by the World Health Organization to improve neonatal care. Increasingly, patients express the desire to breastfeed, and clinicians should facilitate successful breastfeeding. The primary aim of this study is to determine if postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV or postoperative pain are associated with decreased breastfeeding success after cesarean delivery. Methods This is a historical cohort study using the Stony Brook Elective Cesarean Delivery Database. Self-reported breastfeeding success at 4 weeks postoperative was analyzed for associations with postoperative antiemetic use and postoperative pain scores. Breastfeeding success was also analyzed for associations with patient factors and anesthetic medications. Results Overall, 86% of patients (n = 81 who intended on breastfeeding reported breastfeeding success. Breastfeeding success was not associated with postoperative nausea or vomiting as measured by post anesthesia care unit antiemetic use (15% use in successful vs. 18% use in unsuccessful, p = 0.67 or 48-h antiemetic use (28% use in successful group vs 36% use in unsuccessful group, p = 0.732. Pain visual analog scale scores at 6, 12 and 24 h postoperatively were not significantly different between patients with or without breastfeeding success. Breastfeeding success was associated with having had at least 1 previous child (86% vs 36%, p < 0.001. Patients with asthma were less likely to have breastfeeding success (45% vs 4%, p = 0.002. Conclusions Efforts to improve PONV and pain after cesarean delivery may not be effective in improving breastfeeding success. To possibly improve breastfeeding rates, resources should be directed toward patients with no previous children and patients with asthma.

  10. Delirium is associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, J.L.; Marcantonio, E.R.; Culley, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to determine if postoperative delirium was associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (at 7 days) and long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction (at 3 months). The International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction recruited 1218 subjects...

  11. Conservative treatment of rectal cancer with local excision and postoperative radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    The conventional surgical treatment for patients with potentially curable transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer is a low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of local excision and postoperative radiation therapy as primary therapy for selected rectal cancers. The limited data suggest that the approach of local excision and postoperative radiation therapy should be limited to patients with either T 1 tumours with adverse pathological factors or T 2 tumours. Transmural tumours, which have a 24% local failure rate, are treated more effectively with standard surgery and pre- or postoperative therapy. The results of local excision and postoperative radiation therapy are encouraging, but more experience is needed to determine if this approach ultimately has similar local control and survival rates as standard surgery. (author)

  12. Long-term effect of postoperative irradiation on the immune functions in patients with mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivanen, A.; Nordman, E.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of postoperative irradiation on the immune functions of 13 patients with breast carcinoma is reported, using as parameters the peipheral blood lymphocyte count, percentages of E and EAC rosette forming cells, and lymphocyte proliferative responses to PHA, Con A and PPD. After irradiation the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes was reduced during 8 months. The percentages of E and EAC rosette forming cells were not altered during the observation time of 7 to 36 months. In the proliferative responses of lymphocytes to PHA, Con A and PPD, the postoperative irradiation caused a decrease which, regarding PHA and Con A, lasted up to 8 months and then recovered. The decrease in the proliferative responses to PPD was stronger and lasted during the whole observation time. In the mitogenic responses of patients with recurrent or disseminating disease no difference could be demonstrated as compared with the patients living recurrence-free. (Auth.)

  13. Use of an Automated Mobile Phone Messaging Robot in Postoperative Patient Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Chris A; Lawler, Ericka A; Ward, Christina M; Lin, Ines C; Shah, Apurva S

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone messaging software robots allow clinicians and healthcare systems to communicate with patients without the need for human intervention. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe a method for communicating with patients postoperatively outside of the traditional healthcare setting by utilizing an automated software and mobile phone messaging platform and to (2) evaluate the first week of postoperative pain and opioid use after common ambulatory hand surgery procedures. The investigation was a prospective, multicenter investigation of patient-reported pain and opioid usage after ambulatory hand surgery. Inclusion criteria included any adult with a mobile phone capable of text messaging, who was undergoing a common ambulatory hand surgical procedure at one of three tertiary care institutions. Participants received daily, automated text messages inquiring about their pain level and how many tablets of prescription pain medication they had taken in the past 24 h. Initial 1-week response rate was assessed and compared between different patient demographics. Patient-reported pain and opioid use were also quantified for the first postoperative week. Statistical significance was set as p tablets of prescription opioid pain medication. We find that a mobile phone messaging software robot allows for effective data collection of postoperative pain and pain medication use. Patients undergoing common ambulatory hand procedures utilized an average of 16 tablets of opioid medication in the first postoperative week.

  14. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping

    2004-03-01

    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  15. [Validation of the Spanish version of Parent's Postoperative Pain Management pain scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullan, A M; Perelló, M; Jerez, C; Gómez, E; Planas, M J; Serrallonga, N

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of postoperative pain is a fundamental aspect of post-surgical care. When surgery is performed as an outpatient, the parents are mainly responsible for the assessment of pain, but they may not always correctly evaluate their children's pain. This makes it necessary to have tools that help them to assess postoperative pain reliably. The Parent's Postoperative Pain Measurement (PPPM) is a behavioral measurement tool of post-operative pain developed to help parents to assess their children's post-operative pain. The purpose of this work was to translate this scale into Spanish, and validate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the scale. Participants were 111 children aged 2 to 12 years, who had undergone surgery, and one of their parents. After the operation, the children's level of pain was assessed, and the parents completed the PPPM scale in Spanish. The PPPM items in Spanish showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha between 0.784 and 0.900) and the scale scores were closely related to the global pain assessment (Spearman's rho correlation between 0.626 and 0.431). The score on the scale decreased between the day of the operation and the next day, and discriminated well between children undergoing surgery qualified as low/moderate pain and high pain. We conclude that the Spanish version of the PPPM scale evaluated in this study, has good psychometric properties to assess postoperative pain by parents at home. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. POSTOPERATIVE INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH URINARY DISEASE

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    A. Ch. Usupbaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The large proportion of postoperative infectious complications in urological hospitals makes extremely urgent the problem of its control. The high level of these complications in the postoperative period in patients with urolithiasis is caused by various endo- and exogenous factors.Purpose. To determine the frequency, structure, and features of postoperative infectious complications in patients with urolithiasis in urological hospitals.Materials and methods. As an object of research we used a medical card 232 of the operated patients with urolithiasis, which were copied out in individual registration card. Of 232 patients with urolithiasis 48.3% were men, their average age was 44.5 ± 9.4 years. Female patients were slightly larger (51.7%, respectively, the average age was 44.9 ± 8.1 years.Results. The most common postoperative infectious complications in urolithiasis was infection in the area of surgical intervention (36,2%, acute urethritis (20,7%, acute pyelonephritis (14.7 per cent, paranephritis (9,5%, acute orhoepididimit (7,8%, acute cystitis (6%, pionephrosis (3,4%, urosepsis (1.7 percent. In the etiological structure of infectious agents associated with medical care with the highest frequency, microorganisms of genera Escherichia coli (43%, Proteus (9.5%, Staphilococcus spp were isolated. (8.3% and Staphilococcus aureus (8.3%, and in 11.9% of cases, the Association of microorganisms. Analysis of the etiological structure of genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae resistant to β-lactam antibiotics showed that 63.2% of the amount to the genus strain of E. coli, 21% Proteus and 15.8% Klebsiella.Conclusion. The data obtained indicate the need for research on the prevalence of resistant strains of microorganisms, the introduction of more specifi c, sensitive methods and monitoring. This will increase the effectiveness of treatment, reduce the risk of the spread of resistant strains and increase nosocomial infections.

  17. Postoperative CT findings of aortic aneurysm and dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Su Ok; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Mi Young; Moon, Hi Eun; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Hong Sup; Kim, Ho Kyun; Han, Chang Yul

    1995-01-01

    To assess the postoperative CT findings of aortic aneurysms or dissections treared by resection-and graft replacement or continuous-suture graft-inclusion technique. We reviewed postoperative follow-up CT findings of 14 patients, 19 cases. There were 8 patients (10 cases) of aortic aneurysm and 6 patients (9 cases) of aortic dissection which involved the thoracic aorta in 9 patients (13 cases) and abdominal aorta in 5 patients (6 cases). The interval of follow-up after operation was from 9 days to 2 year 9 months. On CT scans, we analyzed the appearance of graft materials, differences of CT findings between two surgical techniques, and normal or abnormal postoperative CT findings. Most of grafts appeared as hyperdense ring on precontrast scan, and all of them were not separated from aortic lumen on postcontrast scan. On CT findings of patients who were operated by continuous-suture graft-inclusion technique, perigraft thrombus was concentrically located with sharp demarcation by native aortic wall and its density was homogeneous, but in cases of those operated by resection-and graft replacement, perigraft hematoma was eccentrically located with indistinct margin and its density was heterogeneous and native aortic wall could not be delineated. In patients without complication, perigraft thrombus or hematoma (15 cases), perigraft calcification (11 cases), residual intimal flap (6 cases), graft deformity (4 cases), perigraft air (2 cases) and reconstructed vessels (1 cases) were noted. And in one patient with complication, perigraft flow was noted with more increased perigraft hematoma. Precise knowledge of the differences of CT findings between two surgical techniques and normal postoperative CT findings is crucial to evaluated the postoperative CT findings in aortic aneurysm and dissection

  18. [Effect of postoperative precision nutrition therapy on postoperative recovery for advanced gastric cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q; Li, Y; Yu, B; Yang, P G; Fan, L Q; Tan, B B; Tian, Y; Yang, A B

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To investigate the effect of postoperative precision nutrition therapy on postoperative recovery (PR) of patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC). Methods: 71 subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups. The 34 patients of research group were treated with postoperative precision nutrition treatment according to the indirect energy measurement method. The 31 patients of control group were treated with traditional postoperative nutrition treatment. All participants were measured for body mass index (BMI), NRS2002, PG-SGA and relevant laboratory test within the 1st day before surgery and 7th day after surgery. Moreover, the difference between two groups in short-term effects were evaluated. Results: The daily energy supply of control group was 30.1%-43.74% higher than that of the experimental group ( P nutritional risk became lower in the research group ( P recovery of patients in the research group was comparable to that of the control group ( P >0.05). Moreover, the complication rate and hospitalization costs of in research group were significantly lower than that of in control group ( P nutritional risks before surgery, the nutritional index and inflammatory index in the research group were better than those in the control group. Conclusion: Postoperative precision nutrition therapy may improve the postoperative nutritional status and short-term effects of patients with AGC after NC.

  19. The Incidence of Postoperative Pneumonia in Various Surgical Subspecialties: A Dual Database Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Morad; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Khlopas, Anton; Newman, Jared M; Curtis, Gannon L; Torres, Pedro A; Khan, Rafay; Mont, Michael A

    2017-07-25

    underwent general surgery, neurosurgery, spine surgery, orthopaedic surgery, and ENT surgery had a postoperative pneumonia incidence of 1.1%, 0.6%, 0.5%, 0.5%, and 0.4%, respectively. Overall trend analysis demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in postoperative pneumonia incidence (p surgeries that occurred between 2009 and 2013 was 1.3%. The incidences of postoperative pneumonia were highest among patients who underwent cardiothoracic surgery (5.3%), general surgery (1.4%), and neurosurgery (1.4%). The incidences of postoperative pneumonia in patients who underwent ENT surgery, orthopedic surgery, and urologic surgery were 0.7%, respectively. Overall trend analysis demonstrated a statistically significant increase in postoperative pneumonia incidence for patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery (p surgery had the highest incidence in both databases. Furthermore, cardiothoracic surgery appeared to have an increasing trend in incidence. Standardizing and implementing accurate coding methodologies for this complication are needed for a more accurate assessment of this burdensome complication. Future studies should assess interventions, such as oral cleansing and suctioning, incentive spirometry, as well as designated institution-based pneumonia prevention programs and protocols to help prevent and mitigate the occurrence of this complication.

  20. One-day postoperative intraocular pressure spikes after phacoemulsification cataract surgery in patients taking tamsulosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Levi N; SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Seibold, Leonard K; Lynch, Anne M; Wagner, Brandie D; Davidson, Richard S; Taravella, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between 1-day postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) after phacoemulsification cataract surgery and tamsulosin use. University of Colorado Health Eye Center, Aurora, Colorado, USA. Retrospective cohort study. Registry data from men who had cataract surgery were used. Patients taking tamsulosin at the time of surgery were included as cases, while patients with no history of tamsulosin use were used as controls. The primary outcome was a 1-day postoperative IOP spike defined as an IOP increase greater than 10 mm Hg compared with baseline or a 1-day postoperative IOP of 30 mm Hg or higher. General estimating equations were used for analysis. The study comprised 584 men (864 eyes). An IOP increase greater than 10 mm Hg or IOP 30 mm Hg or higher after cataract surgery occurred in 12.4% and 9.3%, respectively, of eyes in the tamsulosin group versus 4.4% and 2.1%, respectively, in the control group (all P = .001). After adjusting for significant covariates, patients on tamsulosin were 2.6 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-5.7; P = .01] and 3.8 (95% CI, 1.3-10.9; P = .01) more likely to have a 1-day postoperative IOP increase greater than 10 mm Hg or a 1-day postoperative IOP of 30 mm Hg or higher. Patients on tamsulosin had an increased risk of a 1-day postoperative IOP spike after cataract surgery, showing the importance of identifying patients on tamsulosin preoperatively to better manage and potentially mitigate IOP spikes. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pre- and post-operative values of serum CRP in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syeda, T.; Rizvi, H.A.; Hashim, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the concentration of C-reactive protein in pre- and post-operative serum samples of brain tumour patients in order to detect the potential risks of post-operative infections. Methods: Serum C-reactive protein was measured on pre- and post-operative Day 1, Day 2 and Day 7 in 18 patients who underwent surgery for brain tumours. The study was performed at the Neurosurgical Ward, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2007 to April 2008. Mean pre-operative patients and control values were compared using Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon tests for comparing between pre- and post-operative values. P-value was considered significant at 5.0mg/L but no statistically significant difference was found when compared with healthy controls, with mean 4.4+-6.6 and 0.9+-0.7, respectively. Significantly raised serum concentrations were observed in all post-operative samples when compared with pre-operative samples. Serum CRP concentrations significantly increased post-operatively on Day 1, with mean value of 102.9+-82.0mg/L (p<0.0005), and further increased on Day 2 with mean value of 166.9+-128.1mg/L (p<0.0005), but declined on Day 7, with mean value of 42.7+-63.6mg/L (p<0.005). Conclusion: Pre-operative serum C-reactive protein concentrations of 28% of the patients were elevated, suggesting an association with brain tumours. Post-operative serum concentrations were significantly higher than those noted before the surgery. Absence of a fall of concentration from peak value on post-operative Day 2 or a secondary rise from post-operative Day 7 could be alarming for inter-current infection. (author)

  2. Multimodality imaging of the postoperative shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Multimodality imaging of the postoperative shoulder includes radiography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography, computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, and ultrasound. Target-oriented evaluation of the postoperative shoulder necessitates familiarity with surgical techniques, their typical complications and sources of failure, knowledge of normal and abnormal postoperative findings, awareness of the advantages and weaknesses with the different radiologic techniques, and clinical information on current symptoms and function. This article reviews the most commonly used surgical procedures for treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability, lesions of the labral-bicipital complex, subacromial impingement, and rotator cuff lesions and highlights the significance of imaging findings with a view to detection of recurrent lesions and postoperative complications in a multimodality approach. (orig.)

  3. The incidence of postoperative venous thrombosis among patients with ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, O J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) have inherent prothrombotic tendencies. It is unknown whether this necessitates the use of additional perioperative anti-thrombotic prophylaxis when such patients require major surgery. METHODS: The postoperative courses of 79 patients with UC undergoing 180 major abdominal and pelvic operations were examined for clinical and radiological evidence of venous thrombosis. Eighteen patients with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) having surgery (35 operations) of similar magnitude were also studied. Standard anti-thrombosis prophylaxis was utilised in all patients. RESULTS: Nine patients with UC were clinically suspected of developing postoperative venous thrombosis, but only three (3.8%) had their diagnosis confirmed radiologically (all had a pulmonary embolus). Therefore, the overall postoperative thrombosis rate, on an intention to treat basis, was 1.7% (3\\/180). No patient with FAP developed significant venous thrombosis. CONCLUSION: Standard perioperative antithrombotic modalities are sufficient to maintain any potential increase in postoperative thrombotic risk at an acceptable level in patients with UC undergoing operative intervention.

  4. Risk Evaluation of Postoperative Delirium Using Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in Elderly Patients with Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Yamasaki, Makoto; Sugimoto, Ken; Maekawa, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Takiguchi, Shuji; Rakugi, Hiromi; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2016-11-01

    The number of geriatric patients with esophageal cancer is increasing in step with the aging of the population. Geriatric patients have a higher risk of postoperative complications, including delirium that can cause a fall or impact survival. Therefore, it is very important that we evaluate risks of postoperative complications before surgery. The aim of this study was to predict postoperative delirium in elderly patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 91 patients aged 75 years and over who underwent esophagectomy between January 2006 and December 2014. We investigated the association between postoperative delirium and clinicopathological factors, including comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). Postoperative delirium developed in 24 (26 %) patients. Postoperative delirium was significantly associated with low mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and high Geriatric Depression Scale 15 (GDS15), which are components of CGA, and psychiatric disorder (P patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Intervention by a multidisciplinary team using CGA might help prevent postoperative delirium.

  5. Postoperative adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Oncology Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Postoperative chemotherapy; Postoperative radiotherapy; Postoperative hormone therapy; Postoperative immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy; Postoperative multimodal therapy; Prognostic factors in postoperative adjuvant therapy

  6. Accelerated postoperative recovery programme after colonic resection improves physical performance, pulmonary function and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, L; Raskov, H H; Hjort Jakobsen, D

    2002-01-01

    receiving conventional care (group 1) and 14 patients who had multimodal rehabilitation (group 2) were studied before and 8 days after colonic resection. Outcome measures included postoperative mobilization, body composition by whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry, cardiovascular response to treadmill...... exercise, pulmonary function and nocturnal oxygen saturation. RESULTS: Defaecation occurred earlier (median day 1 versus day 4) and hospital stay was shorter (median 2 versus 12 days) in patients who had multimodal treatment. Lean body and fat mass decreased in group 1 but not in group 2. Exercise......-supply (HR/oxygen saturation ratio) increased in group 1 but not in group 2. CONCLUSION: Multimodal rehabilitation prevents reduction in lean body mass, pulmonary function, oxygenation and cardiovascular response to exercise after colonic surgery....

  7. Comparison of the effects of extradural clonidine with those of morphine on postoperative pain, stress responses, cardiopulmonary function and motor and sensory block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus; Qvitzau, S; Greulich, A

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the effects of extradural clonidine 150 micrograms or morphine 4 mg on postoperative pain, stress responses, cardiopulmonary function and motor and sensory block in a double-blind, randomized study in 20 patients undergoing hysterectomy with general anaesthesia. Observations were...... made for 6 h after each patient's first request for analgesia. Clonidine provided greater pain relief than morphine only for the first 2 h of observation (P less than 0.001). Plasma cortisol concentrations decreased to a greater extent (P less than 0.05) with morphine, while plasma glucose...

  8. Low-dose add-back therapy during postoperative GnRH agonist treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wen Tsai

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: Low dose add-back therapy could effectively ameliorate hypoestrogenic side effects and simultaneously maintain the therapeutic response of GnRH agonist treatment. The treatment dropout was lower compared with a regular dose. Therefore, low dose add-back therapy can be considered a treatment choice during postoperative GnRH agonist treatment.

  9. Oxidative stress response after laparoscopic versus conventional sigmoid resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Kücükakin, Bülent; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is accompanied by a surgical stress response, which results in increased morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress is a part of the surgical stress response. Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery may result in reduced oxidative stress compared with open surgery. Nineteen patients...... scheduled for sigmoid resection were randomly allocated to open or laparoscopic sigmoid resection in a double-blind, prospective clinical trial. Three biochemical markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, and dehydroascorbic acid) were measured at 6 different time points (preoperatively......, 1 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h postoperatively). There were no statistical significant differences between laparoscopic and open surgery for any of the 3 oxidative stress parameters. Malondialdehyde was reduced 1 hour postoperatively (P...

  10. Postoperative imaging of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woertler, K.; Rummeny, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Correct interpretation of imaging findings in the postoperative shoulder is impaired by surgical distortion of normal anatomy and possible artifacts. Advanced postoperative imaging of the shoulder in addition to the selection of the best suited modality necessitates familiarity with the surgical procedure that has been performed and its consecutive morphological changes. This article reviews the most common arthroscopic and open techniques used for treatment of shoulder instability, lesions of the superior labral-bicipital complex, primery impingement, and rotator cuff tears, their typical postoperative imaging findings, as well as the diagnostic performance of cross sectional imaging techniques in the detection of recurrent lesions and complications. (orig.) [de

  11. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  12. Mitral valve repair and bioprosthetic replacement without postoperative anticoagulation does not increase the risk of stroke or mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwann, Thomas A; Engoren, Milo; Bonnell, Mark; Clancy, Christopher; Khouri, Samer; Kabour, Ameer; Jamil, Tahir; Habib, Robert H

    2013-07-01

    The study aimed to determine if mitral valve repair (MVRR) or bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement (BMVR) without postoperative anticoagulation is associated with a similar risk of thromboembolism and death as anticoagulation. We retrospectively reviewed our 2004-09 experience in 249 MVRR and bioprosthetic replacement patients (53% female; 63 year mean age). Concurrent procedures principally included antiarrhythmic surgery, aortic valve replacement, tricuspid valve repair and coronary bypass grafting. Warfarin therapy was instituted at the discretion of the surgeon. Thirty-day, a period known to have the highest risk of valve-related thromboembolism, outcomes were compared relying on the incidence of stroke and death as surrogates of thromboembolic complications. Intermediate-term survival was compared between the groups using Cox proportional hazard models. The mean follow-up was 2.9 years. Given the non-randomized warfarin use, a propensity score using patient comorbidities and concurrent procedures was created and added to the Cox models. One hundred and ninety-two (77%) patients were discharged on warfarin and 57 (23%) were discharged without warfarin. Thirty-day mortality in patients discharged from the index hospitalization was 1.2% and was similar for the two groups (P = 0.99). Four ischaemic perioperative strokes were detected; 3 in the warfarin group and 1 in the no warfarin group (P = 0.99). Overall survival was 84%, with 84% survival in the warfarin group and 86% in the no warfarin group (P = 0.79). Bleeding complications were comparable between the two groups (P = 0.72). In a multivariate analysis, warfarin was not related to mortality. Despite current guidelines recommending postoperative anticoagulation following MVRR or bioprosthetic replacement, the avoidance of warfarin does not increase perioperative complications and has no impact on intermediate survival. Accordingly, a prospective randomized study to adjudicate the role of extended warfarin

  13. Inhibition by local bupivacaine-releasing microspheres of acute postoperative pain from hairy skin incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, Rachit; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Blaskovich, Phillip D; Pham, Lan N; Costa, Daniel S; Nichols, Gary A; Hildebrand, William P; Scarborough, Nelson L; Herman, Clifford J; Strichartz, Gary R

    2013-09-01

    Acute postoperative pain causes physiological deficits and slows recovery. Reduction of such pain by local anesthetics that are delivered for several days postoperatively is a desirable clinical objective, which is approached by a new formulation and applied in animal studies reported here. We subcutaneously injected a new formulation of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid polymer microspheres, which provides steady drug release for 96+ hours into rats at the dorsal region 2 hours before surgery. A single 1.2-cm-long skin incision was followed by blunt dissection of skin away from the underlying fascia, and closed by 2 sutures, followed by 14 days of testing. Microspheres containing 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg bupivacaine were injected locally 2 hours before surgery; bupivacaine-free microspheres were the vehicle control, and bupivacaine HCl solution (0.5%), the positive control. Mechanical sensitivity was determined by the frequency of local muscle contractions to repeated pokes with nylon monofilaments (von Frey hairs) exerting 4 and 15 g forces, testing, respectively, allodynia and hyperalgesia, and by pinprick. Injection of bupivacaine microspheres (40 mg drug) into intact skin reduced responses to 15 g von Frey hairs for 6 hours and to pinprick for 36 hours. Respective reductions from bupivacaine HCl lasted for 3 and 2 hours. Skin incision and dissection alone caused mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia for 14 days. Microspheres containing 20 or 40 mg bupivacaine suppressed postoperative hypersensitivity for up to 3 days, reduced integrated allodynia (area under curve of response versus time) over postoperative days 1 to 5 by 51% ± 20% (mean ± SE) and 78% ± 12%, and reduced integrated hyperalgesia by 55% ± 13% and 64% ± 11%, for the respective doses. Five and ten milligrams bupivacaine in microspheres and the 0.5% bupivacaine solution were ineffective in reducing postoperative hypersensitivity, as were 40 mg bupivacaine microspheres injected contralateral to the

  14. Postoperative X-ray morphology: Thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    1987-01-01

    The publication focuses on the X-ray morphology of lungs. While one chapter is dedicated to the diagnoses obtained during the postoperative case of patients operated for the lungs a second chapter deals with the X-ray diagnosis of patients during the first days after lung surgery. Chapter 3 discusses the postoperative medical care of patients in medical intensive case units after operations other than lung surgery. The parallels between the critical care of patients after heart surgery and the critical care after operations other than heart surgery explain their simultaneous discussion in one chapter. Some diagnoses refer to patients subjected to long-term oxygen breathing and patients after abdomen and bone joint surgery. These are parallels between the volume 'Postoperative X-ray morphology: Blood vessels' and the chapter 'Heart' dealing with the coronary vessels; postoperative changes due to cogenital vitiae belong to pediatric radiology. The oesophagus dealt with in 'mediastinum und mediastinal organs' is also discussed in the volume on 'Postoperative X-ray morphology: Abdomen.' In order to avoid repetitions both chapters represent but a selection of facts. The publication focuses on the medical care of adult heat patients after cardiac valve surgery and coronary bypass surgery on the basis of native diagnostics. Methods of a more radical nature (for example those preceding re-operations) are only mentioned briefly. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Diagnostic imaging in liver transplantation. Preoperative evaluation and postoperative complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, T.; Ruehm, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    Complimentary to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is increasingly considered a therapeutic option in the therapy of end-stage liver disease. Accurate pre- and postoperative imaging is crucial for the transplantation success and represents an established part of the current evaluation algorithms. This article summarizes the most important requirements and the current imaging standards. Preoperative imaging is important for exclusion of transplantation contraindications in the recipient and for reliable assessment of anatomical variants in the donor. The main purpose of postoperative imaging is the early detection and characterization of complications. In both instances, multislice CT currently represents the most versatile and reliable imaging modality, still superior to MRI. For postoperative follow-up, the imaging modality of first choice is still bedside ultrasound; however, unclear findings usually need to be further assessed by CT. (orig.) [de

  16. The Safety and Efficacy of the Continuous Peripheral Nerve Block in Postoperative Analgesia of Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Simić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative analgesia is imperative in the youngest patients. Pain, especially if experienced during childhood, has numerous adverse effects—from psychological, through complications of the underlying disease (prolonged treatment, hospital stay, and increased costs of the treatment to an increase in the incidence of death due to the onset of the systemic inflammatory response. Peripheral blocks provide analgesia for 12–16 h, and are safer due to rare side effects that are easier to treat. The continuous peripheral block (CPNB has been increasingly used in recent years for complete and prolonged analgesia of pediatric patients, as well as a part of multidisciplinary treatment of complex regional pain syndrome. It has been shown that outpatient CPNB reduces the need for parenteral administration of opioid analgetics. It has also been proved that this technique can be used in pediatric patients in home conditions. Safety of CPNB is based on the increasing use of ultrasound as well as on the introduction of single enantiomers local anesthetics (ropivacaine and levobupivacaine in lower concentrations. It is possible to discharge patient home with catheter, but it is necessary to provide adequate education for staff, patients, and parents, as well as to have dedicated anesthesiology team. Postoperative period without major pain raises the morale of the child, parents. and medical staff.

  17. [Localization Establishment of an Interdisciplinary Intervention Model to Prevent Post-Operative Delirium in Older Patients Based on 'Hospital Elder Life Program'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Liao, Yu-Lin; Gao, Lang-Li; Hu, Xiu-Ying; Yue, Ji-Rong

    2017-06-01

    Postoperative delirium is a significant complication in elderly patients. The occurrence of delirium may increase the related physical and psychological risks, delay the length of hospital stays, and even lead to death. According to the current evidence-based model, the application of interdisciplinary intervention may effectively prevent delirium, shorten the length of hospital stays, and save costs. To establish a culturally appropriate interdisciplinary intervention model for preventing postoperative delirium in older Chinese patients. The authors adapted the original version of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP©) from the Hebrew Senior Life Institute for Aging Research of Harvard University by localizing the content using additional medical resources and translating the modified instrument into Chinese. Furthermore, the final version of this interdisciplinary intervention model for postoperative delirium was developed in accordance with the "guideline of delirium: diagnosis, prevention and management produced by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in 2010" and the "clinical practice guideline for postoperative delirium in older adults" produced by American geriatrics society in 2014. Finally, the translated instrument was revised and improved using discussions, consultations, and pilot study. The abovementioned procedure generated an interdisciplinary intervention model for preventing postoperative delirium that is applicable to the Chinese medical environment. The content addresses personnel structure and assignment of responsibility; details of interdisciplinary intervention protocols and implementation procedures; and required personnel training. The revised model is expected to decrease the occurrence of post-operative delirium and other complications in elderly patients, to help them maintain and improve their function, to shorten the length of their hospital stays, and to facilitate recovery.

  18. Postoperative adverse outcomes in intellectually disabled surgical patients: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-An Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intellectually disabled patients have various comorbidities, but their risks of adverse surgical outcomes have not been examined. This study assesses pre-existing comorbidities, adjusted risks of postoperative major morbidities and mortality in intellectually disabled surgical patients. METHODS: A nationwide population-based study was conducted in patients who underwent inpatient major surgery in Taiwan between 2004 and 2007. Four controls for each patient were randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Preoperative major comorbidities, postoperative major complications and 30-day in-hospital mortality were compared between patients with and without intellectual disability. Use of medical services also was analyzed. Adjusted odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analyses with 95% confidence intervals were applied to verify intellectual disability's impact. RESULTS: Controls were compared with 3983 surgical patients with intellectual disability. Risks for postoperative major complications were increased in patients with intellectual disability, including acute renal failure (odds ratio 3.81, 95% confidence interval 2.28 to 6.37, pneumonia (odds ratio 2.01, 1.61 to 2.49, postoperative bleeding (odds ratio 1.35, 1.09 to 1.68 and septicemia (odds ratio 2.43, 1.85 to 3.21 without significant differences in overall mortality. Disability severity was positively correlated with postoperative septicemia risk. Medical service use was also significantly higher in surgical patients with intellectual disability. CONCLUSION: Intellectual disability significantly increases the risk of overall major complications after major surgery. Our findings show a need for integrated and revised protocols for postoperative management to improve care for intellectually disabled surgical patients.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NALBUPHINE VS. PENTAZOCINE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Ganpatrao Tirpude

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To provide postoperative pain relief is a prime duty of health care providers. Failure to relieve pain is morally and ethically unacceptable. Post-operative pain may results in adverse effects such as: a Physiological Changes: Reduced pulmonary functions, e.g. vital capacity, tidal volume, functional residual capacity; sympathetic stimulation; reduced the physical activity of patients; thereby increasing the risk of venous thrombosis. b Psychological disturbances: Anger, Resentment, Depression, Adversarial Relationship with Doctors, Insomnia. Aim of this study was 1. To investigate whether “Postoperative analgesia with Nalbuphine is longer than Pentazocine”. 2. To investigate whether “Side effects/complications are less with Nalbuphine as compared to Pentazocine”. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a prospective randomized double blind observational study. Eighty patients of hydrocoele & inguinal hernia were operated under spinal anaesthesia of age group 20-70 years, ASA grade I & II & patients with controlled co-morbid conditions. In postoperative period, Group N- Inj. Nalbuphine (0.3 mg/kg IM or Group P- Inj. Pentazocine (0.5 mg/kg IM was administered to provide postoperative pain relief & to know the duration of pain relief & its side effects. RESULTS On statistical analysis, demographic data i.e. age, sex had no influence on outcome of study. Mean VAS score in group N was highly significant (p-value in Inj. Pentazocine group. 2. Side Effects - Incidence of sedation was more in Nalbuphine group as compared to Pentazocine group. Nausea & Vomiting were more so in Pentazocine group as compared to Nalbuphine group. Limitation of the present study was that sample size was very small.

  20. Prediction of Length of Postoperative Ventilation in CDH Survivors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol. 6, No 3, July 2010, PP 131-135. Original Article. Prediction of Length of Postoperative Ventilation in CDH Survivors; ... reduced with no increase in the mean airway pressure. (MAWP) ... included X-ray assessment of contra-lateral lung size.

  1. Multimodal approach to postoperative recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide updated information on recent developments within individual components of multimodal interventions to improve postoperative outcome (fast-track methodology). RECENT FINDINGS: The value of the fast-track methodology to improve recovery and decrease hospital stay...... and morbidity has been firmly consolidated, especially in colorectal procedures. An increasing amount of data from other procedures supports the value of the fast-track concept across procedures. Fast-track programs should be based on the analysis of procedure-specific factors that may influence outcome...

  2. Clinical Factors and Postoperative Impact of Bile Leak After Liver Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison N; Narayanan, Sowmya; Turrentine, Florence E; Bauer, Todd W; Adams, Reid B; Stukenborg, George J; Zaydfudim, Victor M

    2018-04-01

    Despite technical advances, bile leak remains a significant complication after hepatectomy. The current study uses a targeted multi-institutional dataset to characterize perioperative factors that are associated with bile leakage after hepatectomy to better understand the impact of bile leak on morbidity and mortality. Adult patients in the 2014-2015 ACS NSQIP targeted hepatectomy dataset were linked to the ACS NSQIP PUF dataset. Bivariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the associations between clinical factors and post-hepatectomy bile leak. Of 6859 patients, 530 (7.7%) had a postoperative bile leak. Proportion of bile leaks was significantly greater in patients after major compared to minor hepatectomy (12.6 vs. 5.1%, p leak was significantly greater in patients after major hepatectomy who had concomitant enterohepatic reconstruction (31.8 vs. 10.1%, p leaks (6.0 vs. 1.7%, p leak was independently associated with increased risk of postoperative morbidity (OR = 4.55; 95% CI 3.72-5.56; p leak was not independently associated with increased risk of postoperative mortality (p = 0.262). Major hepatectomy and enterohepatic biliary reconstruction are associated with significantly greater rates of bile leak after liver resection. Bile leak is independently associated with significant postoperative morbidity. Mitigation of bile leak is critical in reducing morbidity and mortality after liver resection.

  3. Effect of thoracoscopic esophagus cancer surgery on postoperative incision pain as well as non-specific and specific immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Long Wu1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of thoracoscopic esophagus cancer surgery on postoperative incision pain as well as non-specific and specific immune response. Methods: 56 patients with esophageal cancer who accepted surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2011 and February 2016 were collected, the operation methods and related laboratory tests were reviewed, and then they were divided into the thoracoscope group (n=27 who accepted thoracoscopic surgery and the open surgery group (n=29 who accepted traditional thoracotomy. Before operation and 1 d after operation, immune scatter turbidimetry was used to detect serum levels of pain mediators, and flow cytometer was used to detect the levels of nonspecific immune indexes and specific immune indexes. Results: Before operation, the differences in serum pain mediators as well as nonspecific immune response and specific immune response indexes were not statistically significant between two groups of patients (P>0.05. 1 d after operation, serum pain mediators 5-HT, K+ and NE levels of thoracoscope group were lower than those of open surgery group (P<0.05; nonspecific immune response indexes NK cell as well as C3 and C4 levels in peripheral blood of thoracoscope group were significantly higher than those of open surgery group (P<0.05; specific immune response indexes CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, IgA and IgG levels in peripheral blood of thoracoscope group were significantly higher than those of open surgery group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic esophagus cancer surgery causes less damage, has lighter inhibition on the immune response system, and is an ideal operation method for patients with early middle esophagus cancer.

  4. Postoperative localization of porta hepatis and abdominal vasculature in pancreatic malignancies: Implications for postoperative radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresl, John J.; Bonner, James A.; Bender, Claire E.; Grill, Joseph P.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate changes in preoperative and postoperative positions of structures used to define target volumes (i.e., pancreatic bed, porta hepatis, local-regional lymph nodes) for postoperative irradiation of pancreatic malignancies as defined by abdominal computed tomographs. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients who had Whipple resection and postoperative irradiation for pancreatic cancer were evaluated. Preoperative and postoperative computed tomographs of each patient were evaluated for the position of the portal vein bifurcation and the origin of the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery. The length along the x (medial-lateral position) and y (anterior-posterior position) axes was determined with calipers to the closest millimeter. Length along the z axis (cephalad-caudad position) was determined with the computed tomographic sectional interval between images. Statistical significance of the change in the structure's position along the x, y, or z axis between preoperative and postoperative computed tomographs was assessed with the paired t-test. Results: Evaluation of the preoperative and postoperative positions of the portal vein, celiac axis, and superior mesenteric artery along the x, y, and z axes revealed a statistically significant change in the location of the portal vein and celiac axis postoperatively. The median change of the celiac axis in the anterior-posterior position was significant (p = 0.0047), but the mean change was only 2 mm and not considered clinically significant. The median change for the portal vein was 0.97 cm and 1.07 cm along the y and x axes, respectively, and was significant (p = 0.008 and p = 0.0001). The range in position change for the portal vein was 0.0 to 2.0 cm along the y axis and 0.4 to 1.9 along the x axis. The remaining mean changes in position along all axes for all the structures were less than 3 mm (not statistically significant). Conclusions: The mean position of the portal vein

  5. Four Cases of Postoperative Pneumothorax Among 2814 Consecutive Laparoscopic Gynecologic Surgeries: A Possible Correlation Between Postoperative Pneumothorax and Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Nakazawa, Akari; Fukuda, Shinya; Hirota, Yasushi; Izumi, Gentaro; Takamura, Masashi; Harada, Miyuki; Koga, Kaori; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of pneumothorax after laparoscopic surgery and to identify possible correlations to endometriosis. Retrospective review. Tokyo University Hospital between 2006 and 2013. Four patients among a total of 2814 patients with a postoperative pneumothorax. Laparoscopic surgery for gynecologic benign disease. The main outcome was the clinical frequency and characteristics of the patients with postoperative pneumothorax. We observed 4 (0.14%) cases of postoperative pneumothorax after laparoscopic surgery, all of whom were diagnosed with endometriomas and developed a right-sided pneumothorax. The incidence of postoperative pneumothorax in 1097 patients with endometriomas was 0.36%, which was significantly higher than those without endometriomas. The presence of endometrioma should be considered a risk factor for postoperative pneumothorax in gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of nalbuphine preemptive analgesia combined with ropivacaine local infiltration on postoperative incision pain, stress response and immune function in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of nalbuphine preemptive analgesia combined with ropivacaine local infiltration on postoperative incision pain, stress response and immune function in children. Methods: Children who received selective laparotomy in Mianyang Central Hospital between August 2015 and August 2017 were selected and randomly divided into control group, nalbuphine group (N group, ropivacaine group (R group and nalbuphine + ropivacaine group (N+R group. The levels of pain and stress-related mediators in serum and the levels of immune cells in peripheral blood were detected before operation and 24 h after operation. Results: 24 h after operation, serum Cor, NE, MDA, SP, PGE2, BK, NPY, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels of four groups of children were significantly higher than those before operation while serum SOD and CAT levels as well as peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+T cell levels were significantly lower than those before operation; serum Cor, NE, MDA, SP, PGE2, BK, NPY, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels of N group, R group and N+R group were significantly lower than those of control group while serum SOD and CAT levels as well as peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+T cell levels were significantly higher than those of control group; serum Cor, NE, MDA, SP, PGE2, BK, NPY, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels of N+R group were significantly lower than those of N group and R group while serum SOD and CAT levels as well as peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+T cell levels were significantly higher than those of N group and R group. Conclusion: Nalbuphine preemptive analgesia combined with ropivacaine local infiltration can reduce the postoperative incision pain and stress response and improve the immune function in children.

  7. Does perioperative tactile evaluation of the train-of-four response influence the frequency of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T; Viby-Mogensen, J; Bang, U

    1990-01-01

    pancuronium), the anesthetists assessed the degree of neuromuscular blockade during operation and during recovery from neuromuscular blockade by manual evaluation of the response to TOF nerve stimulation. In the other two groups, one of which received vecuronium and the other pancuronium, the anesthetists...... evaluated the degree of neuromuscular blockade solely by clinical criteria. The use of a nerve stimulator was found to have no effect on the dose of relaxant given during anesthesia, on the need for supplementary doses of anticholinesterase in the recovery room, on the time from end of surgery to end...... of anesthesia, or on the incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade evaluated clinically. The median (and range of) TOF ratios recorded in the recovery room were 0.75 (0.33-0.96) and 0.79 (0.10-0.97) in the vecuronium groups monitored with and without a nerve stimulator, respectively...

  8. MRI Markers of Neurodegenerative and Neurovascular Changes in Relation to Postoperative Delirium and Postoperative Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ilse M J; de Bresser, Jeroen; van Montfort, Simone J T; Slooter, Arjen J C; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) are common in elderly patients. The aim of the present review was to explore the association of neurodegenerative and neurovascular changes with the occurrence of POD and POCD. Fifteen MRI studies were identified by combining multiple search terms for POD, POCD, and brain imaging. These studies described a total of 1,422 patients and were all observational in design. Neurodegenerative changes (global and regional brain volumes) did not show a consistent association with the occurrence of POD (four studies) or POCD (two studies). In contrast, neurovascular changes (white matter hyperintensities and cerebral infarcts) were more consistently associated with the occurrence of POD (seven studies) and POCD (five studies). In conclusion, neurovascular changes appear to be consistently associated with the occurrence of POD and POCD, and may identify patients at increased risk of these conditions. Larger prospective studies are needed to study the consistency of these findings and to unravel the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene signatures of postoperative atrial fibrillation in atrial tissue after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in patients receiving β-blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertai, Miklos D; Qi, Wenjing; Li, Yi-Ju; Lombard, Frederick W; Liu, Yutao; Smith, Michael P; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Newman, Mark F; Milano, Carmelo A; Mathew, Joseph P; Podgoreanu, Mihai V

    2016-03-01

    Atrial tissue gene expression profiling may help to determine how differentially expressed genes in the human atrium before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are related to subsequent biologic pathway activation patterns, and whether specific expression profiles are associated with an increased risk for postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) or altered response to β-blocker (BB) therapy after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Right atrial appendage (RAA) samples were collected from 45 patients who were receiving perioperative BB treatment, and underwent CABG surgery. The isolated RNA samples were used for microarray gene expression analysis, to identify probes that were expressed differently in patients with and without postoperative AF. Gene expression analysis was performed to identify probes that were expressed differently in patients with and without postoperative AF. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to determine how sets of genes might be systematically altered in patients with postoperative AF. Of the 45 patients studied, genomic DNA from 42 patients was used for target sequencing of 66 candidate genes potentially associated with AF, and 2,144 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. We then performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis to determine the correlation between SNPs identified in the genotyped patients, and RAA expression. Probes that met a false discovery rate<0.25 were selected for eQTL analysis. Of the 17,678 gene expression probes analyzed, 2 probes met our prespecified significance threshold of false discovery rate<0.25. The most significant probe corresponded to vesicular overexpressed in cancer - prosurvival protein 1 gene (VOPP1; 1.83 fold change; P=3.47×10(-7)), and was up-regulated in patients with postoperative AF, whereas the second most significant probe, which corresponded to the LOC389286 gene (0.49 fold change; P=1.54×10(-5)), was down-regulated in patients with

  10. Significance of postoperative crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy: SPECT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Suga, Yasunori; Chida, Kohei; Saito, Hideo; Komoribayashi, Nobukazu; Otawara, Yasunari; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) results in cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome and cognitive impairment. The goal of the present study was to clarify the clinical significance of postoperative crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion (CCH) in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion after CEA by assessing brain perfusion with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Brain perfusion was quantitatively measured using SPECT and the [{sup 123}I]N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine-autoradiography method before and immediately after CEA and on the third postoperative day in 80 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis ({>=}70%). Postoperative CCH was determined by differences between asymmetry of perfusion in bilateral cerebellar hemispheres before and after CEA. Neuropsychological testing was also performed preoperatively and at the first postoperative month. Eleven patients developed cerebral hyperperfusion (cerebral blood flow increase of {>=}100% compared with preoperative values) on SPECT imaging performed immediately after CEA. In seven of these patients, CCH was observed on the third postoperative day. All three patients with hyperperfusion syndrome exhibited cerebral hyperperfusion and CCH on the third postoperative day and developed postoperative cognitive impairment. Of the eight patients with asymptomatic hyperperfusion, four exhibited CCH despite resolution of cerebral hyperperfusion on the third postoperative day, and three of these patients experienced postoperative cognitive impairment. In contrast, four patients without postoperative CCH did not experience postoperative cognitive impairment. The presence of postoperative CCH with concomitant cerebral hyperperfusion reflects the development of hyperperfusion syndrome. Further, the presence of postoperative CCH in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion following CEA suggests development of postoperative cognitive impairment, even when asymptomatic. (orig.)

  11. Significance of postoperative crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy: SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Suga, Yasunori; Chida, Kohei; Saito, Hideo; Komoribayashi, Nobukazu; Otawara, Yasunari; Ogawa, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) results in cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome and cognitive impairment. The goal of the present study was to clarify the clinical significance of postoperative crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion (CCH) in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion after CEA by assessing brain perfusion with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Brain perfusion was quantitatively measured using SPECT and the [ 123 I]N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine-autoradiography method before and immediately after CEA and on the third postoperative day in 80 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥70%). Postoperative CCH was determined by differences between asymmetry of perfusion in bilateral cerebellar hemispheres before and after CEA. Neuropsychological testing was also performed preoperatively and at the first postoperative month. Eleven patients developed cerebral hyperperfusion (cerebral blood flow increase of ≥100% compared with preoperative values) on SPECT imaging performed immediately after CEA. In seven of these patients, CCH was observed on the third postoperative day. All three patients with hyperperfusion syndrome exhibited cerebral hyperperfusion and CCH on the third postoperative day and developed postoperative cognitive impairment. Of the eight patients with asymptomatic hyperperfusion, four exhibited CCH despite resolution of cerebral hyperperfusion on the third postoperative day, and three of these patients experienced postoperative cognitive impairment. In contrast, four patients without postoperative CCH did not experience postoperative cognitive impairment. The presence of postoperative CCH with concomitant cerebral hyperperfusion reflects the development of hyperperfusion syndrome. Further, the presence of postoperative CCH in patients with cerebral hyperperfusion following CEA suggests development of postoperative cognitive impairment, even when asymptomatic. (orig.)

  12. Postoperative ileus: progress towards effective management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The pathogenesis of postoperative ileus (PI) is multifactorial, and includes activation of inhibitory reflexes, inflammatory mediators and opioids (endogenous and exogenous). Accordingly, various strategies have been employed to prevent PI. As single-modality treatment, continuous postoperative e...

  13. Relationship between the physical and psychosocial conditions of postoperative gastrointestinal cancer patients and their responses to an informational material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiyo Mizuno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Postoperative patients with gastrointestinal (GI cancer have multiple adaptation tasks and care needs to improve their quality of life (QOL. Whether their supportive care needs differ according to their physical and psychosocial conditions is unclear. This study investigated patients' (1 physical and psychosocial conditions (QOL, fatigue, anxiety, cognitive plight, and resilience and (2 responses to an informational booklet describing cancer patients' problems and adaptation tasks, and examined the association between the two factors. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted to postoperative patients with GI cancer. Results: The mean age of the 69 respondents was 63 years; 59.4% of the respondents were men. Nine patients who did not read the booklet showed high fatigue and cognitive plight and low QOL. The patients (36.2% who chose “I vaguely understood the content” showed low scores for resilience and cognitive plight while those (8.5% who chose “I will deal with my tasks as described in the scenarios” showed high scores for both of these variables. Conclusions: The condition of some patients continued to be highly affected by their cancer. In terms of understanding the contents of the booklet, resilience was significant, and cognitive plight did not necessarily have a negative impact. The provision of information by means of a booklet might not be suitable for patients who are highly affected by their cancer. Patients may need additional support to be able to make good use of the information provided in such a booklet.

  14. Association between elevated pre-operative glycosylated hemoglobin and post-operative infections after non-emergent surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Blankush, Joseph M.; Leitman, I. Michael; Soleiman, Aron; Tran, Trung

    2016-01-01

    Background: A chronic state of impaired glucose metabolism affects multiple components of the immune system, possibly leading to an increased incidence of post-operative infections. Such infections increase morbidity, length of stay, and overall cost. This study evaluates the correlation between elevated pre-operative glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and post-operative infections. Study design: Adult patients undergoing non-emergent procedures across all surgical subspecialties from January...

  15. Computational tool for postoperative evaluation of cochlear implant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, Guilherme; Pavan, Ana Luiza M.; Pina, Diana R. de; Altemani, Joao M.C.; Castilho, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a tool to calculate the insertion depth angle of cochlear implants, from computed tomography exams. The tool uses different image processing techniques, such as thresholding and active contour. Then, we compared the average insertion depth angle of three different implant manufacturers. The developed tool can be used, in the future, to compare the insertion depth angle of the cochlear implant with postoperative response of patient's hearing. (author)

  16. Patients' experiences of postoperative intermediate care and standard surgical ward care after emergency abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Vester-Andersen, Morten; Nielsen, Martin Vedel

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To elicit knowledge of patient experiences of postoperative intermediate care in an intensive care unit and standard postoperative care in a surgical ward after emergency abdominal surgery. BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery is common, but little is known about how patie......, intermediate care patients felt hindered in doing so by continuous monitoring of vital signs. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Intermediate care may increase patient perceptions of quality and safety of care.......AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To elicit knowledge of patient experiences of postoperative intermediate care in an intensive care unit and standard postoperative care in a surgical ward after emergency abdominal surgery. BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery is common, but little is known about how...... patients experience postoperative care. The patient population is generally older with multiple comorbidities, and the short-term postoperative mortality rate is 15-20%. Thus, vigilant surgeon and nursing attention is essential. The present study is a qualitative sub-study of a randomised trial evaluating...

  17. Elevated body mass index and risk of postoperative CSF leak following transsphenoidal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhy, Brian J.; Madhavan, Karthik; Clinger, John D.; Reddy, Ambur; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; O’Brien, Erin K.; Chang, Eugene; Graham, Scott M.; Greenlee, Jeremy D. W.

    2012-01-01

    Object Postoperative CSF leakage can be a serious complication after a transsphenoidal surgical approach. An elevated body mass index (BMI) is a significant risk factor for spontaneous CSF leaks. However, there is no evidence correlating BMI with postoperative CSF leak after transsphenoidal surgery. The authors hypothesized that patients with elevated BMI would have a higher incidence of CSF leakage complications following transsphenoidal surgery. Methods The authors conducted a retrospective review of 121 patients who, between August 2005 and March 2010, underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgeries for resection of primarily sellar masses. Patients requiring extended transsphenoidal approaches were excluded. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed to investigate the association of BMI and other risk factors with postoperative CSF leakage. Results In 92 patients, 96 endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries were performed that met inclusion criteria. Thirteen postoperative leaks occurred and required subsequent treatment, including lumbar drainage and/or reoperation. The average BMI of patients with a postoperative CSF leak was significantly greater than that in patients with no postoperative CSF leak (39.2 vs 32.9 kg/m2, p = 0.006). Multivariate analyses indicate that for every 5-kg/m2 increase in BMI, patients undergoing a transsphenoidal approach for a primarily sellar mass have 1.61 times the odds (95% CI 1.10–2.29, p = 0.016, by multivariate logistic regression) of having a postoperative CSF leak. Conclusions Elevated BMI is an independent predictor of postoperative CSF leak after an endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. The authors recommend that patients with BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 have meticulous sellar reconstruction at surgery and close monitoring postoperatively. PMID:22443502

  18. Predicting postoperative pain by preoperative pressure pain assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Wei; Somma, Jacques; Hung, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Yang, Chen-Hsien; Chen, Chien-Chuan

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate whether preoperative pressure pain sensitivity testing is predictive of postoperative surgical pain. Female subjects undergoing lower abdominal gynecologic surgery were studied. A pressure algometer was used preoperatively to determine the pressure pain threshold and tolerance. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess postoperative pain. A State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess patients' anxiety. Subjects received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative pain control. The preoperative pain threshold and tolerance were compared with the postoperative VAS pain score and morphine consumption. Forty women were enrolled. Their preoperative pressure pain threshold and tolerance were 141 +/- 65 kPa and 223 +/- 62 kPa, respectively. The VAS pain score in the postanesthesia care unit and at 24 h postoperatively were 81 +/- 24 and 31 +/- 10, respectively. Highly anxious patients had higher VAS pain scores in the postanesthesia care unit (P pain tolerance was significantly correlated with the VAS at 24 h postoperatively (P pain tolerance after fentanyl administration (mean, 272 +/- 68 kPa) correlated significantly with morphine consumption in the first 24 h postoperatively (P pain tolerance is significantly correlated with the level of postoperative pain. Pain tolerance assessment after fentanyl was administered and fentanyl sensitivity predicted the dose of analgesics used in the first 24 h after surgery. The algometer is thus a simple, useful tool for predicting postoperative pain and analgesic consumption.

  19. Patients' preoperative expectations and postoperative satisfaction of dysgnathic patients operated on with resorbable osteosyntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballon, Alexander; Laudemann, Katharina; Sader, Robert; Landes, Constantin A

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated whether personal expectations and satisfaction throughout orthognathic surgery were fulfilled. In addition, patients were interrogated about their experience of resorbable osteosynthesis. A total of 50 patients were interviewed 3 times each throughout the study by a mixed questionnaire of standard psychologic tests and a tailored itemized questionnaire regarding their expectations regarding resorbable osteofixation and their postoperative satisfaction. A postoperative increase in self-esteem and approach to life were evident. An examination of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life showed constant quality of life; an examination of Oral Health Impact Profile-Germany) showed no postoperative difficulties in dental hygiene and nutrition. No statistically significant change in any of the tests could be expressly determined. Avoidance of secondary surgery motivated 94% to choose resorbable osteofixations, although a mere 66% had heard of them before; 90% of patients were satisfied with the operation result. Orthognathic surgery cannot change preexistent depression or a problematic social background. Mastication and oral health improved, and postoperative happiness and confidence increased. When given the choice between resorbable fixation and titanium osteofixation, patients generally preferred resorbable fixations.

  20. A study of survival rate of the patients with esophageal carcinoma treated by pre- and/or post-operative irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eida, Koichiro

    1986-01-01

    So far there is still considerable disagreement as to the evaluation of the pre- and postoperative irradiation effects on the survival rate of the patients with esophageal carcinoma. From April 1973 to December 1983, 138 cases of thoracic esophageal carcinoma were surgically operated upon at our Department; 68 cases were irradiated and 70 cases were not irradiated prior to the surgical operation. Followup study was done and its result has been reported in this communication. A few cases treated by pre-operative irradiation survived longer than the expected longevity in spite of their low curative operation rates. Prognosis was better in the cases with well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, when marked or good responses to pre-operative irradiation with the calculated total dose of 30 Gy were recorded. There were differences in responsibility in the various histological types of esophageal carcinomas; good response in the group of well differentiated squamous carcinoma, less marked response in the groups of moderately and poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas, minor response in the types of undifferentiated and unclassifed carcinomas. From our observation it seems reasonable to say that prognosis of the patients with pre- and postoperative irradiation was better than that of those who received postoperative irradiation only. (author)

  1. No Postoperative Adrenal Insufficiency in a Patient with Unilateral Cortisol-Secreting Adenomas Treated with Mifepristone before Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Saroka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Glucocorticoid replacement is commonly required to treat secondary adrenal insufficiency after surgical resection of unilateral cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Here, we describe a patient with unilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas in which the preoperative use of mifepristone therapy was associated with recovery of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis, eliminating the need for postoperative glucocorticoid replacement. Case Presentation A 66-year-old Caucasian man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity was hospitalized for Fournier's gangrene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed three left adrenal adenomas measuring 1.4, 2.1, and 1.2 cm and an atrophic right adrenal gland. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol level was elevated (237 µg/24 hours, reference range 0–50 µg/24 hours. Hormonal evaluation after resolution of the infection showed an abnormal 8 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (cortisol postdexamethasone 14.5 µg/dL, suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; <5 pg/mL, reference range 7.2–63.3 pg/mL, and low-normal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (50.5 µg/dL, male reference range 30.9–295.6 µg/dL. Because of his poor medical condition and uncontrolled diabetes, his Cushing's syndrome was treated with medical therapy before surgery. Mifepristone therapy was started and, within five months, his diabetes was controlled and insulin discontinued. The previously suppressed ACTH increased to above normal range accompanied by an increase in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels, indicating recovery of the HPA axis and atrophic contralateral adrenal gland. The patient received one precautionary intraoperative dose of hydrocortisone and none thereafter. Two days postoperatively, ACTH (843 pg/mL and cortisol levels (44.8 µg/dL were significantly elevated, reflecting an appropriate HPA axis

  2. No Postoperative Adrenal Insufficiency in a Patient with Unilateral Cortisol-Secreting Adenomas Treated with Mifepristone Before Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroka, Rachel M.; Kane, Michael P.; Robinson, Lawrence; Busch, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Glucocorticoid replacement is commonly required to treat secondary adrenal insufficiency after surgical resection of unilateral cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Here, we describe a patient with unilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas in which the preoperative use of mifepristone therapy was associated with recovery of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, eliminating the need for postoperative glucocorticoid replacement. CASE PRESENTATION A 66-year-old Caucasian man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity was hospitalized for Fournier’s gangrene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed three left adrenal adenomas measuring 1.4, 2.1, and 1.2 cm and an atrophic right adrenal gland. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol level was elevated (237 µg/24 hours, reference range 0–50 µg/24 hours). Hormonal evaluation after resolution of the infection showed an abnormal 8 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (cortisol postdexamethasone 14.5 µg/dL), suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; <5 pg/mL, reference range 7.2–63.3 pg/mL), and low-normal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (50.5 µg/dL, male reference range 30.9–295.6 µg/dL). Because of his poor medical condition and uncontrolled diabetes, his Cushing’s syndrome was treated with medical therapy before surgery. Mifepristone therapy was started and, within five months, his diabetes was controlled and insulin discontinued. The previously suppressed ACTH increased to above normal range accompanied by an increase in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels, indicating recovery of the HPA axis and atrophic contralateral adrenal gland. The patient received one precautionary intraoperative dose of hydrocortisone and none thereafter. Two days postoperatively, ACTH (843 pg/mL) and cortisol levels (44.8 µg/dL) were significantly elevated, reflecting an appropriate HPA axis response to

  3. Association between the perspective of adult inpatients with digestive cancer regarding the nursing service and their quality of recovery on postoperative day 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kumiko; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2018-02-01

    Although qualitative research that focuses on inpatients' experience immediately after surgery has continued to elucidate the efficacy of the nursing service for postoperative recovery, there has been little quantitative research. Our aim was to quantitatively clarify the association between inpatients' perception of the nursing service and the quality of postoperative recovery. Seventy-one digestive cancer patients who underwent surgery were recruited. Participants completed two self-administered questionnaires, including the Japanese version of the 40-item postoperative Quality of Recovery scale (QoR-40J) and the Nursing Service Quality Scale for Japan (NURSERV-J) which has 22 items and five dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy) on postoperative day 3. There were significant positive associations between the global scores of the NURSERV-J and the QoR-40J. The global score of the QoR-40J was compared between patients who gave full marks for each dimension of the NURSERV-J (the entirely satisfied group) and those who did not (the not entirely satisfied group). The entirely satisfied groups regarding tangibles, reliability and responsiveness had a significantly higher global score for the QoR-40J than the respective not entirely satisfied groups. Adjusted for age, gender, operative procedure, and duration of surgery, the entirely satisfied groups regarding tangibles and responsiveness had a significant higher global score for the QoR-40J than the respective not entirely satisfied groups. Patients who perceived that they had received a nursing service of high quality were likely to attain a high quality of postoperative recovery. Nursing services related to tangibles, reliability, and responsiveness especially contributed to postoperative recovery.

  4. [Postoperative pain management. Aims and organization of a strategy for postoperative acute pain therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolli, M; Nicosia, F

    2000-09-01

    The Health Services, not only the Italian one, is under pressure because of request for improving treatment quality and the financial need for reorganization and cost-saving. It's required a rationalization of intervention, together with a careful choice of the best and cheapest techniques and the demonstration of their efficacy. The anaesthesia service activity, in a period of cost rationalization and funds restriction should be aimed to appropriate outcome measures corrected by both patient's risk factors and surgical-anaesthesiological case-mix. The development of a complete strategy for surgical pain management might run into two phases. The first phase, internal and mono-specialistic, should develop like the creation of an Acute Pain Team. The main processes are: focusing the problem (charge of the care), training, information, teaching methodology (timing, methods, drugs, techniques, etc.) and the audit (before and after changes). The main aims are the evaluation of the level of analgesia and pain relief or patient's satisfaction which are partial endpoints useful to demonstrate the improvement and the efficacy of the new pain management strategies. The second phase, multidisciplinary, is directed toward the creation of a Postoperative Evaluation Team. The main objective is to set up a collaborative clinical group able to identify the criteria for quality, efficacy and safety. The major purpose is the evaluation of major outcome measures: surgical outcome, morbidity, mortality and length of hospitalization. The improvement in the quality of postoperative pain treatment goes through a better organization and a progressive increase of the already available therapy. The achievement of the result and the quality projects depend on the interaction among staff members with different behaviours and settings. Internal teaching and training, continuous education for doctors and nurses, and external information, marketing and improvement of attractive capability of

  5. The association of plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration with postoperative delirium in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitaka, Shiho; Egi, Moritoki; Kanazawa, Tomoyuki; Toda, Yuichiro; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Delirium is a common complication in postoperative, critically ill patients. The mechanism of postoperative delirium is not well understood but many studies have shown significant associations between benzodiazepine use, alcohol withdrawal and cirrhosis, and an increased risk of delirium. We aimed to investigate a possible link with alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity. A prospective observational investigation of 40 patients > 20 years old who had undergone elective surgery with general anaesthesia and were expected to need postoperative intensive care for more than 48 hours. We assessed postoperative delirium using the confusion assessment method in the intensive care unit at 1 hour after the operation and on postoperative Day (POD) 1 and POD 2. We collected blood samples for measurement of plasma GABA concentrations before the operation and on POD 1 and 2. Postoperative delirium and perioperative plasma GABA concentrations in patients with and without delirium. Postoperative delirium occurred in 13 of the patients. Patients with delirium had significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores than patients without delirium. The mean plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was significantly lower in patients with delirium than in those without delirium. After adjustment of relevant variables, plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was independently associated with postoperative delirium. Plasma GABA level on POD 2 has a significant independent association with postoperative delirium.

  6. Treatment of two postoperative endophthalmitis cases due to Aspergillus flavus and Scopulariopsis spp. with local and systemic antifungal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyar Guliz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophthalmitis is the inflammatory response to invasion of the eye with bacteria or fungi. The incidence of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery varies between 0.072–0.13 percent. Treatment of endophthalmitis with fungal etiology is difficult. Case Presentation Case 1: A 71-year old male diabetic patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The patient was treated with topical amphotericin B ophthalmic solution, intravenous (IV liposomal amphotericin-B and caspofungin following vitrectomy. Case 2: A 72-year old male cachectic patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis due to Scopulariopsis spp. The patient was treated with topical and IV voriconazole and caspofungin. Conclusion Aspergillus spp. are responsible of postoperative fungal endophthalmitis. Endophthalmitis caused by Scopulariopsis spp. is a very rare condition. The two cases were successfully treated with local and systemic antifungal therapy.

  7. Preoperative Smoking Status and Postoperative Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Grønkjær; Eliasen, Marie; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and summarize the evidence of an association between preoperative smoking status and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type.......To systematically review and summarize the evidence of an association between preoperative smoking status and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type....

  8. BREATHING EXERCISE RELAXATION INCREASE PHSYCOLOGICAL RESPONSE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being hospitalize will be made the children become stress. Hospitalization response of the child particularly is afraid sense regard to painfull procedure and increase to attack the invasive procedure. The aimed of this study was to describe the influence of breathing exercise relaxation technique regarded to phsycological receiving responses in the preeliminary school chidren while they were receiving invasive procedure. Method: A quasy experimental purposive sampling design was used in this study. There were 20 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the breathing exercise relaxation technique and the dependent variable was phsycological receiving responses. Data for phsylogical response were collected by using observation form then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result :  The result showed that breathing exercise relaxation technique had significance influence to phsycological response (p=0.000. Discussion: It,s can be concluded that breathing exercise relaxation technique has an effect to increase pshycological response in preeliminary school children who received invasive procedure.

  9. NICE guidance on sepsis is of limited value in postoperative colorectal patients: the scores that cry 'wolf!'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrod, Pjj; Cox, M; Keevil, H; Smith, Kje; Lund, J N

    2018-04-01

    Background and aims Late recognition of sepsis and consequent death remains a problem. To address this, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has published updated guidance recommending the use of the Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (Q-SOFA) score when assessing patients at risk of sepsis following the publication of the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock. The trauma from major surgery produces a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) postoperatively as part of its natural history, which may falsely trigger scoring systems. We aimed to assess the accuracy of Q-SOFA and SIRS criteria as recommended scores for early detection of sepsis and septic complications in the first 48hrs after colorectal cancer surgery. Methods We reviewed all elective major colorectal operations in a single centre during a 12-month period from prospectively maintained electronic records. Results One hundred and thirty nine patients were included in this study. In all, 29 patients developed postoperative infective complications in hospital. Nineteen patients triggered on SIRS without developing infective complications, while 42 patients triggered on Q-SOFA with no infective complications. The area under the ROC curve was 0.52 for Q-SOFA and 0.67 for SIRS. Discussion Q-SOFA appears to perform little better than a coin toss at identifying postoperative sepsis after colorectal cancer resection and is inferior to the SIRS criteria. More work is required to assess whether a combination of scoring criteria, biochemical markers and automated tools could increase accurate detection of postoperative infection and trigger early intervention.

  10. Postoperative IPTH compared with IPTH gradient as predictors of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khadem, Mai G; Rettig, Eleni M; Dhillon, Vaninder K; Russell, Jonathon O; Tufano, Ralph P

    2018-03-01

    Predicting patients' risk for hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy may allow for same-day discharge. This study was designed to compare postoperative intact parathyroid hormone (IPTH) alone with percentage change in IPTH (IPTH gradient) in predicting post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Retrospective cohort study. Patients undergoing total thyroidectomy by the senior author from May 2015 to May 2016 were included. Serum IPTH was measured preoperatively and 1 hour postoperatively, and IPTH gradient was calculated. Postoperative hypocalcemia was mild (≥8.0, gradient were compared with hypocalcemia using logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of IPTH measures as predictors of hypocalcemia was performed, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Overall, 119 patients were included. Forty-seven percent of the patients developed postoperative hypocalcemia, including 26 (22%) with mild and 30 (25%) with severe hypocalcemia. Thirteen patients had hypocalcemic symptoms. Median IPTH gradient and postoperative IPTH each differed significantly by category of hypocalcemia (P gradient was significantly associated with odds of severe and symptomatic hypocalcemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.39 and aOR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05-1.71 per 10% increase), whereas lower postoperative IPTH was not (aOR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.95-1.68 and aOR: 1.44, 95% CI: 0.90-2.31 per 10 pg/mL decrease). The AUC for predicting severe hypocalcemia was nonsignificantly higher for IPTH gradient than postoperative IPTH (AUC = 0.77 vs. 0.69, P = .10). The AUC for predicting symptomatic hypocalcemia was significantly higher for IPTH gradient (AUC = 0.75 vs. 0.72, P = .03). Our results suggest that the IPTH gradient may be more useful than postoperative IPTH alone in predicting risk of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:769-774, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Substantial variability in postoperative treatment, and convalescence recommendations following vaginal repair. A nationwide questionnaire study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Marianne; Møller, Charlotte; Kehlet, H

    2001-01-01

    -employed gynecologists, and gynecologists in private practice, to patients undergoing vaginal repair. METHOD: In 1999 all Danish gynecologists (n=433) received a tested questionnaire about postoperative treatment and convalescence recommendations following vaginal repair. Non-responders received one reminder. OUTCOME...... MEASURES: Pre and postoperative treatment, and expected hospital stay. Furthermore, lifting restrictions, sick leave, and convalescence before resumption of defined activities. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 82%. The expected postoperative hospital stay was median 3 days (range, 1-7) following...... anterior repair, and 2 days (range, 1-7) following posterior repair. The recommended sick leave was median 6 weeks (range, 2-12) for patients with work with heavy lifts. There were substantial differences in recommendations. Recommended lifting restrictions were median 3 kg (range, 0-20) for median 4 weeks...

  12. Postoperative infections in craniofacial reconstructive procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; Holy, C; Forrest, C R; Phillips, J H; Antonyshyn, O M

    2001-07-01

    The rate of, and possible risk factors for, postoperative craniofacial infection is unclear. To investigate this problem, we reviewed 349 cases of craniofacial skeletal procedures performed from 1996 to 1999 at our institution. Infection rate was determined and correlated with the use of implants, operative site, and cause of deformity. The inclusion criteria consisted of all procedures requiring autologous or prosthetic implantation in craniofacial skeletal sites, as well as all procedures involving bone or cartilage resection, osteotomies, debridement, reduction and/or fixation. Procedures that did not involve bone or cartilage surgery were excluded. The criteria for diagnosis of infection included clinical confirmation and one or more of 1) intravenous or oral antibiotic treatment outside of the prophylactic surgical regimen; 2) surgical intervention for drainage, irrigation, and or debridement; and 3) microbiological confirmation. Among the 280 surgical cases that fit the inclusion criteria and had complete records, there were 23 cases of postoperative infection (8.2%). The most common site for postoperative infection was the mandible (infection rate = 16.7%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed gunshot wound to be the most significant predictor of postoperative infection. Additionally, porous polyethylene implantation through a transoral route was correlated with a significant risk of postoperative infection.

  13. Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Intraoperative Haemodynamics and Postoperative Analgesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yojan Trikhatri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Dexmedetomidine is an α2 agonist with sympatholytic, anxiolytic, sedative and analgesic effect used as adjunct during surgeries for its haemodynamic stabilizing effect and analgesic effect. Primary aims of the study were to evaluate the haemodynamic effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine and the duration and quality of analgesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Secondary aims were sedation levels and occurrence of side effects.Materials and methods:Eighty four patients, American society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II, aged 18-60 years of either gender undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into two equal groups. Group C patient received Normal Saline and Group S patient received dexmedetomidine loading dose infusion of 1µg/kg over 10 minutes before induction and maintained with 0.4µg/kg/hr till the removal of gall bladder. Induction with propofol and fentanyl was done. Standard monitoring including Heart Rate, Mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation were monitored perioperatively. Postoperative analgesia requirement and sedation score were assessed.Results: In Group S, the haemodynamic responses were significantly attenuated. During postoperative period, 24 hours analgesic requirement of diclofenac sodium was 141.43mg in group S as compared to 217.50mg in group C(p<0.001. Side effects were treatable. Sedation was better in Group S.Conclusion:Dexmedetomidine effectively attenuates haemodynamic stress response during laparoscopic surgery with reduction in postoperative analgesic requirements.

  14. Editorial Commentary: Big Data Suggest That Because of a Significant Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection, Steroid Injection Is Not Recommended After Ankle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-02-01

    A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Time Trends and Predictors of Abnormal Postoperative Body Temperature in Infants Transported to the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Schroeck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite increasing adoption of active warming methods over the recent years, little is known about the effectiveness of these interventions on the occurrence of abnormal postoperative temperatures in sick infants. Methods. Preoperative and postoperative temperature readings, patient characteristics, and procedural factors of critically ill infants at a single institution were retrieved retrospectively from June 2006 until May 2014. The primary endpoints were the incidence and trend of postoperative hypothermia and hyperthermia on arrival at the intensive care units. Univariate and adjusted analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with abnormal postoperative temperatures. Results. 2,350 cases were included. 82% were normothermic postoperatively, while hypothermia and hyperthermia each occurred in 9% of cases. During the study period, hypothermia decreased from 24% to 2% (p<0.0001 while hyperthermia remained unchanged (13% in 2006, 8% in 2014, p=0.357. Factors independently associated with hypothermia were higher ASA status (p=0.02, lack of intraoperative convective warming (p<0.001 and procedure date before 2010 (p<0.001. Independent associations for postoperative hyperthermia included lower body weight (p=0.01 and procedure date before 2010 (p<0.001. Conclusions. We report an increase in postoperative normothermia rates in critically ill infants from 2006 until 2014. Careful monitoring to avoid overcorrection and hyperthermia is recommended.

  16. Prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation: novel and safe strategy based on the modulation of the antioxidant system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón eRodrigo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia following cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The pathogenesis of postoperative AF is multifactorial. Oxidative stress, caused by the unavoidable ischemia-reperfusion event occurring in this setting, is a major contributory factor. ROS-derived effects could result in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation or DNA oxidation of cardiac tissue, thus leading to functional and structural myocardial remodeling. The vulnerability of myocardial tissue to the oxidative challenge is also dependent on the activity of the antioxidant system. High ROS levels, overwhelming this system, should result in deleterious cellular effects, such as the induction of necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy. Nevertheless, tissue exposure to low to moderate ROS levels could trigger a survival response with a trend to reinforce the antioxidant defense system. Administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, known to involve a moderate ROS production, is consistent with a diminished vulnerability to the development of postoperative AF. Accordingly, supplementation of n-3 PUFA successfully reduced the incidence of postoperative AF after coronary bypass grafting. This response is due to an up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, as shown in experimental models. In turn, non-enzymatic antioxidant reinforcement through vitamin C administration prior to cardiac surgery has also reduced the postoperative AF incidence. Therefore, it should be expected that a mixed therapy result in an improvement of the cardioprotective effect by modulating both components of the antioxidant system. We present available evidence supporting the view of an effective prevention of postoperative AF including a 2-step therapeutic strategy: n-3 PUFA followed by vitamin C supplementation to patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The present study should encourage the design of clinical

  17. A Comparison of the Incidence of Early Postoperative Infections between Patients Using Synthetic Mesh and Those Undergoing Traditional Pelvic Reconstructive Surgical Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Mašata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New mesh-related complications such as erosion, etc., can result from abnormal postoperative healing due to surgical site infection. The aim of our study was to compare systemic inflammatory responses and the incidence of early infectious complications after reconstructive surgery using synthetic mesh and after traditional vaginal wall repair. In this prospective observational study 99 women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse were included; 55 women underwent traditional repair and 44 repair using mesh. After the procedure infectious complications were monitored. The patients who underwent reconstructive surgery using mesh material were more likely to have febrile morbidity in the postoperative period than the patients who had been treated with traditional repair (p=0.031; there was a higher incidence of combination febrile morbidity with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP > 50 mg/l; p=0.046, and a higher incidence of CRP increase over 30 mg/l; p=0.005. Reconstructive procedures using synthetic mesh are accompanied by a higher incidence of early post-operative infectious complications.

  18. Therapeutic options and postoperative wound complications after extremity soft tissue sarcoma resection and postoperative external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouarab, Mohamed H; Salem, Iman L; Degheidy, Magdy M; Henn, Dominic; Hirche, Christoph; Eweida, Ahmad; Uhl, Matthias; Kneser, Ulrich; Kremer, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas occur most commonly in the lower and upper extremities. The standard treatment is limb salvage surgery combined with radiotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy is associated with wound complications. This systematic review aims to summarise the available evidence and review the literature of the last 10 years regarding postoperative wound complications in patients who had limb salvage surgical excision followed by direct closure vs flap coverage together with postoperative radiotherapy and to define the optimal timeframe for adjuvant radiotherapy after soft tissue sarcomas resection and flap reconstruction. A literature search was performed using PubMed. The following keywords were searched: limb salvage, limb-sparing, flaps, radiation therapy, radiation, irradiation, adjuvant radiotherapy, postoperative radiotherapy, radiation effects, wound healing, surgical wound infection, surgical wound dehiscence, wound healing, soft tissue sarcoma and neoplasms. In total, 1045 papers were retrieved. Thirty-seven articles were finally selected after screening of abstracts and applying dates and language filters and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Plastic surgery provides a vast number of reconstructive flap procedures that are directly linked to decreasing wound complications, especially with the expectant postoperative radiotherapy. This adjuvant radiotherapy is better administered in the first 3-6 weeks after reconstruction to allow timely wound healing and avoid local recurrence. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Alcohol screening and risk of postoperative complications in male VA patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Katharine A; Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili; Bryson, Chris L; Bishop, Michael J; Blough, David K; Henderson, William G; Maynard, Charles; Hawn, Mary T; Tønnesen, Hanne; Hughes, Grant; Beste, Lauren A; Harris, Alex H S; Hawkins, Eric J; Houston, Thomas K; Kivlahan, Daniel R

    2011-02-01

    Patients who misuse alcohol are at increased risk for surgical complications. Four weeks of preoperative abstinence decreases the risk of complications, but practical approaches for early preoperative identification of alcohol misuse are needed. To evaluate whether results of alcohol screening with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire-up to a year before surgery-were associated with the risk of postoperative complications. This is a cohort study. Male Veterans Affairs (VA) patients were eligible if they had major noncardiac surgery assessed by the VA's Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) in fiscal years 2004-2006, and completed the AUDIT-C alcohol screening questionnaire (0-12 points) on a mailed survey within 1 year before surgery. One or more postoperative complication(s) within 30 days of surgery based on VASQIP nurse medical record reviews. Among 9,176 eligible men, 16.3% screened positive for alcohol misuse with AUDIT-C scores ≥ 5, and 7.8% had postoperative complications. Patients with AUDIT-C scores ≥ 5 were at significantly increased risk for postoperative complications, compared to patients who drank less. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking, and days from screening to surgery, the estimated prevalence of postoperative complications increased from 5.6% (95% CI 4.8-6.6%) in patients with AUDIT-C scores 1-4, to 7.9% (6.3-9.7%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 5-8, 9.7% (6.6-14.1%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 9-10 and 14.0% (8.9-21.3%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 11-12. In fully-adjusted analyses that included preoperative covariates potentially in the causal pathway between alcohol misuse and complications, the estimated prevalence of postoperative complications increased significantly from 4.8% (4.1-5.7%) in patients with AUDIT-C scores 1-4, to 6.9% (5.5-8.7%) in patients with AUDIT-Cs 5-8 and 7.5% (5.0-11.3%) among those with AUDIT-Cs 9-10. AUDIT-C scores of 5 or more up to a year before surgery were

  20. Use of Probiotics as Prophylaxis for Postoperative Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mangell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative bacterial infections are common despite prophylactic administration of antibiotics. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in patients has contributed to the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. A restricted use of antibiotics must be followed in most clinical situations. In surgical patients there are several reasons for an altered microbial flora in the gut in combination with an altered barrier function leading to an enhanced inflammatory response to surgery. Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that probiotics (mainly lactobacilli may reduce the number of potentially pathogenia bacteria (PPM and restore a deranged barrier function. It is therefore of interest to test if these abilities of probiotics can be utilized in preoperative prophylaxis. These factors may be corrected by perioperative administration of probiotics in addition to antibiotics. Fourteen randomized clinical trials have been presented in which the effect of such regimens has been tested. It seems that in patients undergoing liver transplantation or elective surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract prophylactic administration of different probiotic strains in combination with different fibers results in a three-fold reduction in postoperative infections. In parallel there seems to be a reduction in postoperative inflammation, although that has not been studied in a systematic way. The use of similar concepts in colorectal surgery has not been successful in reducing postoperative infections. Reasons for this difference are not obvious. It may be that higher doses of probiotics with longer duration are needed to influence microbiota in the lower gastrointestinal tract or that immune function in colorectal patients may not be as important as in transplantation or surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The favorable results for the use of prophylactic probiotics in some settings warrant further controlled studies to elucidate potential

  1. Cognitive function is linked to adherence to bariatric postoperative guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Galioto, Rachel; Limbach, Kristen; Gunstad, John; Heinberg, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Impairment in cognitive function is found in a significant subset of individuals undergoing bariatric surgery, and recent work shows this impairment is associated with smaller postoperative weight loss. Reduced cognitive function could contribute to poorer adherence to postoperative guidelines, although this has not been previously examined. The present study examined the relationship between cognitive function and adherence to bariatric postoperative guidelines. We expected that higher cognitive function would be associated with better adherence to postoperative guidelines. Thirty-seven bariatric surgery patients completed cognitive testing and a self-report measure of adherence to postoperative bariatric guidelines during their 4- to 6-week postoperative appointment. Strong correlations were observed between adherence to postoperative guidelines and cognitive indices of attention, executive function, and memory. Results show that cognitive performance is strongly associated with adherence to postoperative guidelines shortly after bariatric surgery. Further work is needed to clarify whether this relationship is present at later postoperative stages and the degree to which this relationship mediates postoperative weight loss outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anterior Cervical Infection: Presentation and Incidence of an Uncommon Postoperative Complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobrial, George M; Harrop, James S; Sasso, Rick C; Tannoury, Chadi A; Tannoury, Tony; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; De Giacomo, Anthony F; Jobse, Bruce C; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Thompson, Sara E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective multi-institutional case series. The anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) affords the surgeon the flexibility to treat a variety of cervical pathologies, with the majority being for degenerative and traumatic indications. Limited data in the literature describe the presentation and true incidence of postoperative surgical site infections. A retrospective multicenter case series study was conducted involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network, selected for their excellence in spine care and clinical research infrastructure and experience. Medical records for 17 625 patients who received cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, inclusive, were reviewed to identify the occurrence of 21 predefined treatment complications. Patients who underwent an ACDF were identified in the database and reviewed for the occurrence of postoperative anterior cervical infections. A total of 8887 patients were identified from a retrospective database analysis of 21 centers providing data for postoperative anterior cervical infections (17/21, 81% response rate). A total of 6 postoperative infections after ACDF were identified for a mean rate of 0.07% (range 0% to 0.39%). The mean age of patients identified was 57.5 (SD = 11.6, 66.7% female). The mean body mass index was 22.02. Of the total infections, half were smokers (n = 3). Two patients presented with myelopathy, and 3 patients presented with radiculopathic-type complaints. The mean length of stay was 4.7 days. All patients were treated aggressively with surgery for management of this complication, with improvement in all patients. There were no mortalities. The incidence of postoperative infection in ACDF is exceedingly low. The management has historically been urgent irrigation and debridement of the surgical site. However, due to the rarity of this occurrence, guidance for management is limited to

  3. Risks of postoperative paresis in motor eloquently and non-eloquently located brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermueller, Thomas; Schaeffner, Michael; Gerhardt, Julia; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2014-01-01

    When treating cerebral metastases all involved multidisciplinary oncological specialists have to cooperate closely to provide the best care for these patients. For the resection of brain metastasis several studies reported a considerable risk of new postoperative paresis. Pre- and perioperative chemotherapy (Ctx) or radiotherapy (Rtx) alter vasculature and adjacent fiber tracts on the one hand, and many patients already present with paresis prior to surgery on the other hand. As such factors were repeatedly considered risk factors for perioperative complications, we designed this study to also identify risk factors for brain metastases resection. Between 2006 and 2011, we resected 206 brain metastases consecutively, 56 in eloquent motor areas and 150 in non-eloquent ones. We evaluated the influences of preoperative paresis, previous Rtx or Ctx as well as recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class on postoperative outcome. In general, 8.7% of all patients postoperatively developed a new permanent paresis. In contrast to preoperative Ctx, previous Rtx as a single or combined treatment strategy was a significant risk factor for postoperative motor weakness. This risk was even increased in perirolandic and rolandic lesions. Our data show significantly increased risk of new deficits for patients assigned to RPA class 3. Even in non-eloquently located brain metastases the risk of new postoperative paresis has not to be underestimated. Despite the microsurgical approach, our cohort shows a high rate of unexpected residual tumors in postoperative MRI, which supports recent data on brain metastases’ infiltrative nature but might also be the result of our strict study protocol. Surgical resection is a safe treatment of brain metastases. However, preoperative Rtx and RPA score 3 have to be taken into account when surgical resection is considered

  4. Postoperative Course and Complications after Pull-through Vaginoplasty for Distal Vaginal Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Roshanak; Dietrich, Jennifer E

    2015-12-01

    To report the usual postoperative course and complications after pull-through vaginoplasty for isolated distal vaginal atresia. Retrospective chart review at Texas Children's Hospital of all patients who were diagnosed with isolated distal vaginal atresia and underwent pull-through vaginoplasty during the study time frame. None. Postoperative complications such as vaginal stenosis or infection and postoperative vaginal diameter. Sixteen patients were identified and charts were reviewed. Patients were initially evaluated by pelvic magnetic resonance imaging and found to have distended hematometrocolpos with distal vaginal atresia. All patients underwent pull-through vaginoplasty with similar operative techniques. The average distance from the perineum to the level of the obstruction was 1.84 ± 1.2 cm. Two patients, both with obstructions at greater than 3 cm, experienced stricture formation postoperatively. Four patients (25%) experienced postoperative vaginitis. One patient (6.25%) experienced a postoperative urinary tract infection. Two groups (3 cm or less versus greater than 3 cm) were compared, and the presence of stricture was statistically different based on mean centimeters from perineum prior to pull-through vaginoplasty (P = .038). Distal vaginal atresia is managed with pull-through vaginoplasty. Atresias that extend greater than 3 cm from the perineum are at increased risk for vaginal stricture formation and should be followed to monitor for their formation. Other complications are infrequent and minor. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased neural responses to empathy for pain might explain how acute stress increases prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, L; Majdandžic, J; Hummer, A; Windischberger, C; Heinrichs, M; Lamm, C

    2017-03-01

    Recent behavioral investigations suggest that acute stress can increase prosocial behavior. Here, we investigated whether increased empathy represents a potential mechanism for this finding. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed the effects of acute stress on neural responses related to automatic and regulatory components of empathy for pain as well as subsequent prosocial behavior. Stress increased activation in brain areas associated with the automatic sharing of others' pain, such as the anterior insula, the anterior midcingulate cortex, and the primary somatosensory cortex. In addition, we found increased prosocial behavior under stress. Furthermore, activation in the anterior midcingulate cortex mediated the effects of stress on prosocial behavior. However, stressed participants also displayed stronger and inappropriate other-related responses in situations which required them to take the perspective of another person, and to regulate their automatic affective responses. Thus, while acute stress may increase prosocial behavior by intensifying the sharing of others' emotions, this comes at the cost of reduced cognitive appraisal abilities. Depending on the contextual constraints, stress may therefore affect empathy in ways that are either beneficial or detrimental. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Postoperative Complications of Beger Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Samejima Peternelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic pancreatitis (CP is considered an inflammatory disease that may cause varying degrees of pancreatic dysfunction. Conservative and surgical treatment options are available depending on dysfunction severity. Presentation of Case. A 36-year-old male with history of heavy alcohol consumption and diagnosed CP underwent a duodenal-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR or Beger procedure after conservative treatment failure. Refractory pain was reported on follow-up three months after surgery and postoperative imaging uncovered stones within the main pancreatic duct and intestinal dilation. The patient was subsequently subjected to another surgical procedure and intraoperative findings included protein plugs within the main pancreatic duct and pancreaticojejunal anastomosis stricture. A V-shaped enlargement and main pancreatic duct dilation in addition to the reconstruction of the previous pancreaticojejunal anastomosis were performed. The patient recovered with no further postoperative complications in the follow-up at an outpatient clinic. Discussion. Main duct and pancreaticojejunal strictures are an unusual complication of the Beger procedure but were identified intraoperatively as the cause of patient’s refractory pain and explained intraductal protein plugs accumulation. Conclusion. Patients that undergo Beger procedures should receive close outpatient clinical follow-up in order to guarantee postoperative conservative treatment success and therefore guarantee an early detection of postoperative complications.

  7. Diagnosis, prevention and management of postoperative pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Sj Singh; Kulshrestha, A

    2012-07-01

    Postoperative pulmonary edema is a well-known postoperative complication caused as a result of numerous etiological factors which can be easily detected by a careful surveillance during postoperative period. However, there are no preoperative and intraoperative criteria which can successfully establish the possibilities for development of postoperative pulmonary edema. The aims were to review the possible etiologic and diagnostic challenges in timely detection of postoperative pulmonary edema and to discuss the various management strategies for prevention of this postoperative complication so as to decrease morbidity and mortality. The various search engines for preparation of this manuscript were used which included Entrez (including Pubmed and Pubmed Central), NIH.gov, Medknow.com, Medscape.com, WebMD.com, Scopus, Science Direct, MedHelp.org, yahoo.com and google.com. Manual search was carried out and various text books and journals of anesthesia and critical care medicine were also searched. From the information gathered, it was observed that postoperative cardiogenic pulmonary edema in patients with serious cardiovascular diseases is most common followed by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema which can be due to fluid overload in the postoperative period or it can be negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE). NPPE is an important clinical entity in immediate post-extubation period and occurs due to acute upper airway obstruction and creation of acute negative intrathoracic pressure. NPPE carries a good prognosis if promptly diagnosed and appropriately treated with or without mechanical ventilation.

  8. Utility of Postoperative Antibiotics After Percutaneous Pinning of Pediatric Supracondylar Humerus Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Nicholas O; Seeley, Mark A; Hariharan, Arun; Farley, Frances A; Caird, Michelle S; Li, Ying

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures are common injuries that are often treated surgically with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Although surgical-site infections are rare, postoperative antibiotics are frequently administered without evidence or guidelines for their use. With the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms and heightened focus on health care costs, appropriate and evidence-based use of antibiotics is needed. We hypothesized that postoperative antibiotic administration would not decrease the rate of surgical-site infection. A billing query identified 951 patients with operatively treated supracondylar humerus fractures at our institution over a 15-year period. Records were reviewed for demographic data, perioperative antibiotic use, and the presence of surgical-site infection. Exclusion criteria were open fractures, open reduction, pathologic fractures, metabolic bone disease, the presence of other injuries that required operative treatment, and follow-up <2 weeks after pin removal. χ and Fisher exact test were used to compare antibiotic use to the incidence of surgical-site infection. Six hundred eighteen patients met our inclusion criteria. Two hundred thirty-eight patients (38.5%) received postoperative antibiotics. Eleven surgical-site infections were identified for an overall rate of 1.8%. The use of postoperative antibiotics was not associated with a lower rate of surgical-site infection (P=0.883). Patients with a type III fracture (P<0.001), diminished preoperative vascular (P=0.001) and neurological status (P=0.019), and postoperative hospital admission (P<0.001) were significantly more likely to receive postoperative antibiotics. Administration of postoperative antibiotics after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures does not decrease the rate of surgical-site infection. Level III-therapeutic.

  9. Postoperative infection in the foot and ankle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Victoria O

    2012-07-01

    Our discussion highlights the commonly performed surgical procedures in the foot and ankle and reviews the various imaging modalities available for the detection of infection with graphic examples to better enable radiologists to approach the radiological evaluation of postoperative infection in the foot and ankle. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious inflammation remains a diagnostic challenge usually needing a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and imaging studies to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  10. Modern radiological postoperative diagnostics of the hip joint in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.A.; Thierjung, H.; Kloth, J.K.; Egermann, M.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of bone healing and loosening of endoprosthesis material was long the primary indication for postoperative projection radiography and CT imaging of the hip joint following trauma and endoprosthesis implantation. With the increasing number of joint-preserving surgery, e. g. of surgical hip luxation and hip arthroscopy for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), high-resolution imaging of intra-articular pathologies before and after surgery has become increasingly important. In this review article, diagnostic imaging of the hip joint is presented following common trauma surgery and orthopedic surgery interventions. The imaging modalities of projection radiography, CT and MRI including direct MR-arthrography are discussed with regard to their diagnostic capability in the postoperative assessment of the hip joint. Among others topics, imaging is discussed following hip arthroplasty, following surgical hip luxation and arthroscopic interventions for the treatment of FAI, as well as following core decompression for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Moreover, orthopedic interventions of the hip joint in children and adolescents are presented and the dedicated reporting of postoperative imaging is outlined.

  11. Postoperative Compensatory Ammonium Excretion Subsequent to Systemic Acidosis in Cardiac Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrborn, Friederike; Dohle, Daniel-Sebastian; Waack, Indra N; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Jakob, Heinz; Teloh, Johanna K

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative acid-base imbalances, usually acidosis, frequently occur after cardiac surgery. In most cases, the human body, not suffering from any severe preexisting illnesses regarding lung, liver, and kidney, is capable of transient compensation and final correction. The aim of this study was to correlate the appearance of postoperatively occurring acidosis with renal ammonium excretion. Between 07/2014 and 10/2014, a total of 25 consecutive patients scheduled for elective isolated coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled in this prospective observational study. During the operative procedure and the first two postoperative days, blood gas analyses were carried out and urine samples collected. Urine samples were analyzed for the absolute amount of ammonium. Of all patients, thirteen patients developed acidosis as an initial disturbance in the postoperative period: five of respiratory and eight of metabolic origin. Four patients with respiratory acidosis but none of those with metabolic acidosis subsequently developed a base excess > +2 mEq/L. Ammonium excretion correlated with the increase in base excess. The acidosis origin seems to have a large influence on renal compensation in terms of ammonium excretion and the possibility of an overcorrection.

  12. Oral surgery in patients under antithrombotic therapy: perioperative bleeding as a significant risk factor for postoperative hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Amanda L; Souza, Alessandra F; Martins, Maria A P; Fraga, Marina G; Travassos, Denise V; Oliveira, Ana C B; Ribeiro, Daniel D; Silva, Tarcília A

    2018-01-01

    : To investigate perioperative and postoperative bleeding, complications in patients under therapy with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs submitted to oral surgery. To evaluate the risk of bleeding and safety for dental surgery, a retrospective chart review was performed. Medical and dental records of patients taking oral antithrombotic drugs undergoing dental surgery between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Results were statistically analyzed using Fisher's exact test, t test or the χ test. One hundred and seventy-nine patients underwent 293 surgical procedures. A total of eight cases of perioperative and 12 episodes of postoperative bleeding were documented. The complications were generally managed with local measures and did not require hospitalization. We found significant association of postoperative hemorrhage with increased perioperative bleeding (P = 0.043) and combination of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy (P bleeding is 8.8 times bigger than procedures without perioperative bleeding. Dental surgery in patients under antithrombotic therapy might be carried out without altering the regimen because of low risk of perioperative and postoperative bleeding. However, patients with increased perioperative bleeding should be closely followed up because of postoperative complications risk.

  13. Brake response time before and after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niederseer David

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the numbers of total knee arthroplasty (TKA are increasing, there is only a small number of studies investigating driving safety after TKA. The parameter 'Brake Response Time (BRT' is one of the most important criteria for driving safety and was therefore chosen for investigation. The present study was conducted to test the hypotheses that patients with right- or left-sided TKA show a significant increase in BRT from pre-operative (pre-op, 1 day before surgery to post-operative (post-op, 2 weeks post surgery, and a significant decrease in BRT from post-op to the follow-up investigation (FU, 8 weeks post surgery. Additionally, it was hypothesized that the BRT of patients after TKA is significantly higher than that of healthy controls. Methods 31 of 70 consecutive patients (mean age 65.7 +/- 10.2 years receiving TKA were tested for their BRT pre-op, post-op and at FU. BRT was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator. We used normative BRT data from 31 healthy controls for comparison. Results There were no significant increases between pre-op and post-op BRT values for patients who had undergone left- or right-sided TKA. Even the proportion of patients above a BRT threshold of 700 ms was not significantly increased postop. Controls had a BRT which was significantly better than the BRT of patients with right- or left-sided TKA at all three time points. Conclusion The present study showed a small and insignificant postoperative increase in the BRT of patients who had undergone right- or left-sided TKA. Therefore, we believe it is not justified to impair the patient's quality of social and occupational life post-surgery by imposing restrictions on driving motor vehicles beyond an interval of two weeks after surgery.

  14. Imaging of the postoperative middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T. [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75940, Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to present the principles and the indications of surgical treatment of middle ear pathologies; and (b) to review the imaging findings after middle ear surgery, including the normal postoperative aspects and imaging findings in patients presenting with unsatisfactory surgical results or with suspicion of postoperative complications. This review is intentionally restricted to the most common diseases involving the middle ear: chronic otitis media and otosclerosis. In these specific fields of interest, CT and MR imaging play a very important role in the postoperative follow-up and in the work-up of surgical failures and complications. (orig.)

  15. Using the Mouse Grimace Scale to Reevaluate the Efficacy of Postoperative Analgesics in Laboratory Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, Lynn C; Sorge, Robert E; Sotocinal, Susana G; Tabaka, John M; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S; Zaloum, Austin; King, Oliver D; Mogil, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative pain management in animals is complicated greatly by the inability to recognize pain. As a result, the choice of analgesics and their doses has been based on extrapolation from greatly differing pain models or the use of measures with unclear relevance to pain. We recently developed the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS), a facial-expression–based pain coding system adapted directly from scales used in nonverbal human populations. The MGS has shown to be a reliable, highly accurate measure of spontaneous pain of moderate duration, and therefore is particularly useful in the quantification of postoperative pain. In the present study, we quantified the relative intensity and duration of postoperative pain after a sham ventral ovariectomy (laparotomy) in outbred mice. In addition, we compiled dose–response data for 4 commonly used analgesics: buprenorphine, carprofen, ketoprofen, and acetaminophen. We found that postoperative pain in mice, as defined by facial grimacing, lasts for 36 to 48 h, and appears to show relative exacerbation during the early dark (active) photophase. We find that buprenorphine was highly effective in inhibiting postoperative pain-induced facial grimacing in mice at doses equal to or lower than current recommendations, that carprofen and ketoprofen are effective only at doses markedly higher than those currently recommended, and that acetaminophen was ineffective at any dose used. We suggest the revision of practices for postoperative pain management in mice in light of these findings. PMID:22330867

  16. Surgeon-reported conflict with intensivists about postoperative goals of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Olson, Terrah J; Brasel, Karen J; Redmann, Andrew J; Alexander, G Caleb; Schwarze, Margaret L

    2013-01-01

    To examine surgeons' experiences of conflict with intensivists and nurses about goals of care for their postoperative patients. Cross-sectional incentivized US mail-based survey. Private and academic surgical practices. A total of 2100 vascular, neurologic, and cardiothoracic surgeons. Surgeon-reported rates of conflict with intensivists and nurses about goals of care for patients with poor postsurgical outcomes. The adjusted response rate was 55.6%. Forty-three percent of surgeons reported sometimes or always experiencing conflict about postoperative goals of care with intensivists, and 43% reported conflict with nurses. Younger surgeons reported higher rates of conflict than older surgeons with both intensivists (57% vs 32%; P = .001) and nurses (48% vs 33%; P = .001). Surgeons practicing in closed intensive care units reported more frequent conflict than those practicing in open intensive care units (60% vs 41%; P = .005). On multivariate analysis, the odds of reporting conflict with intensivists were 2.5 times higher for surgeons with fewer years of experience compared with their older colleagues (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8) and 70% higher for reporting conflict with nurses (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6). The odds of reporting conflict with intensivists about goals of postoperative care were 40% lower for surgeons who primarily managed their intensive care unit patients than for those who worked in a closed unit (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40-0.96). Surgeons regularly experience conflict with critical care clinicians about goals of care for patients with poor postoperative outcomes. Higher rates of conflict are associated with less experience and working in a closed intensive care unit.

  17. Postoperative Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Spine Metastases: A Critical Review to Guide Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, Kristin J., E-mail: kjanson3@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Lo, Simon S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Fisher, Charles [Department of Surgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for metastatic spinal tumors is increasingly being performed in clinical practice. Whereas the fundamentals of SBRT practice for intact spinal metastases are established, there are as yet no comprehensive practice guidelines for the postoperative indications. In particular, there are unique considerations for patient selection and treatment planning specific to postoperative spine SBRT that are critical for safe and effective management. The purpose of this critical review is to discuss the rationale for treatment, describe those factors affecting surgical decision making, introduce modern surgical trends, and summarize treatment outcomes for both conventional postoperative external beam radiation therapy and postoperative spine SBRT. Lastly, an in-depth practical discussion with respect to treatment planning and delivery considerations is provided to help guide optimal practice.

  18. Postoperative long-term changes of nutritional and immunological states in patients with esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Keiko

    1990-01-01

    Under nutritional support, surgical and postoperative adjuvant therapy were performed in 27 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer. The patients were divided into 2 groups, that were patients with postoperative chemotherapy (group A; 13 cases) and patients with postoperative radiation therapy (group B; 14 cases). Nutritional and immunological parameters were measured and compared among each groups. Group B had received higher nutritional support than group A, especially during the period of postoperative therapy. In group B, nutritional and immunological parameters maintained normal level, except serum albumin levels, counts of peripheral lymphocytes and factor XIII. In spite of higher nutritional support, levels of Zn in group B kept low. As for arterio-venous difference of amino acids, the tendency of negative balance in group B was stronger than that in group A. Arginine concentration in venous plasma increased evidently in group B. (author)

  19. Coordinated increase in skeletal muscle fiber area and expression of IGF-I with resistance exercise in elderly post-operative patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Andersen, Jesper L

    2010-01-01

    Hypertrophy of developing skeletal muscle involves stimulation by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), however, the role of IGF-I in adult muscle is less clarified. In the present study, the mRNA splice variants of IGF-I (IGF-IEa and MGF) and the changes in muscle fiber cross sectional area after...... and in addition induces marked increases in the expression of IGF-I splice variants, supporting the idea that IGF-I is involved in regulating muscle hypertrophy.......-operated-side served as a within subject control. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of both limbs at +2d post-operative (baseline), at 5weeks and 12weeks post-surgery to analyze for changes in type 1 and type 2 muscle fiber area. Changes in expression levels of IGF-I mRNA isoforms were determined...

  20. Consensus statement on the anticipation and prevention of acute postoperative pain: multidisciplinary RADAR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, A; Bali, S; Baxter, A; Bruce, G; England, J; Heafield, R; Langford, R; Makin, R; Power, I; Trim, J

    2009-10-01

    There has been considerable investment in efforts to improve postoperative pain management, including the introduction of acute pain teams. There have also been a number of guidelines published on postoperative pain management and there is widespread agreement on how pain should be practically managed. Despite these advances, there is no apparent improvement in the number of patients experiencing moderately severe or extreme pain after surgery. This highlights significant scope for improvement in acute postoperative pain management. In January 2009, a multidisciplinary UK expert panel met to define and agree a practical framework to encourage implementation of the numerous guidelines and fundamentals of pain management at a local level. The panel recognised that to do this, there was a need to organise the information and guidelines into a simplified, accessible and easy-to-implement system based on their practical clinical experience. Given the volume of literature in this area, the Chair recommended that key international guidelines from professional bodies should be distributed and then reviewed during the meeting to form the basis of the framework. Consensus was reached by unanimous agreement of all ten participants. This report provides a framework for the key themes, including consensus recommendations based upon practical experience agreed during the meeting, with the aim of consolidating the key guidelines to provide a fundamental framework which is simple to teach and implement in all areas. Key priorities that emerged were: Responsibility, Anticipation, Discussion, Assessment and Response. This formed the basis of RADAR, a novel framework to help pain specialists educate the wider care team on understanding and prioritising the management of acute pain. Acute postoperative pain can be more effectively managed if it is prioritised and anticipated by a well-informed care team who are educated with regard to appropriate analgesic options and understand what

  1. Post-operative cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: A prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Kotekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Aging population is a major demographic trend worldwide. Globally, 50% of all the elderly individuals are estimated to undergo atleast one surgical procedure and post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD is one of the most common and often poorly understood post-operative complications in this section of the population. This randomised prospective study was conducted to assess the post-operative cognitive status in the elderly undergoing non-cardiac surgery, evaluate the cognitive parameters affected, evaluate the potential risk factors and thereby analyse the potential for implementation of preventive strategies. Methods: This study was conducted on 200 patients aged 60 years or older scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgeries. The baseline cognitive status of the patients was assessed 2 days prior to the date of the surgery. The post-operative cognitive status was assessed on the 3 rd day, 7 th day and after 1 month. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS and SPSS. Results: The incidence of POCD showed a gradual decline from postoperative day 3 to 30. Females were found to be at significant risk in developing POCD. Advancing age and level of education emerged as dominant factors, while type of anaesthesia, duration of surgery, and presence of coexisting comorbidities had no influence on the incidence of cognitive dysfunction. Conclusion: POCD is a definite complication after surgery and anaesthesia in the elderly population. Gender emerged as a significant risk factor with increasing age as a dominating factor contributing to POCD.

  2. Postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum: A rare complication after appendectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Faghihi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG is an uncommon inflammatory ulcerative skin disease. It is characterized by painful progressive necrosis of the wound margins. Rarely, postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum (PPG manifests as a severe disturbance of wound healing following surgical interventions. Only rare cases of this complication have been reported after appendectomy. We report a case of PPG in a 29-year-old female after appendectomy. She was successfully treated with oral prednisolone. Postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of any postoperative delayed wound healing, because this disease is simply distinguished from a postoperative wound.

  3. Postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum: A rare complication after appendectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, G; Abtahi-Naeini, B; Nikyar, Z; Jamshidi, K; Bahrami, A

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon inflammatory ulcerative skin disease. It is characterized by painful progressive necrosis of the wound margins. Rarely, postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum (PPG) manifests as a severe disturbance of wound healing following surgical interventions. Only rare cases of this complication have been reported after appendectomy. We report a case of PPG in a 29-year-old female after appendectomy. She was successfully treated with oral prednisolone. Postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of any postoperative delayed wound healing, because this disease is simply distinguished from a postoperative wound. PMID:25511218

  4. Postoperative high-dose pelvic radiotherapy for N+ prostate cancer: Toxicity and matched case comparison with postoperative prostate bed-only radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Praet, Charles; Ost, Piet; Lumen, Nicolaas; De Meerleer, Gert; Vandecasteele, Katrien; Villeirs, Geert; Decaestecker, Karel; Fonteyne, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report on toxicity of postoperative high-dose whole-pelvis radiotherapy (WPRT) with androgen deprivation therapy for lymph node metastasized (N1) prostate cancer (PC). To perform a matched-case analysis to compare this toxicity profile to postoperative prostate bed-only radiotherapy (PBRT). Materials and methods: Forty-eight N1-PC patients were referred for WPRT and 239 node-negative patients for PBRT. Patients were matched 1:1 according to pre-treatment demographics, symptoms, treatment and tumor characteristics. Mean dose to the prostate bed was 75 Gy (WPRT–PBRT) and 54 Gy to the elective nodes (WPRT) in 36 or 37 fractions. End points are genito-urinary (GU) and gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicity. Results: After WPRT, 35% developed grade 2 (G2) and 4% G3 acute GU toxicity. Acute GI toxicity developed in 42% (G2). Late GU toxicity developed in 36% (G2) and 7% (G3). One patient had G4 incontinence. Recuperation occurred in 59%. Late GI toxicity developed in 25% (G2) with 100% recuperation. Incidence of acute and late GI toxicity was higher following WPRT compared to PBRT (p ⩽ 0.041). GU toxicity was similar. With WPRT mean dose to bladder and rectosigmoid were higher. Conclusions: Postoperative high-dose WPRT comes at the cost of a temporary increase in G2. GI toxicity compared to PBRT because larger volumes of rectosigmoid are irradiated

  5. Analysis of postoperative biochemical values and clinical outcomes after adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Andrew J; Kahramangil, Bora; Monteiro, Rosebel; Krishnamurthy, Vikram; Jin, Judy; Shin, Joyce; Siperstein, Allan; Berber, Eren

    2018-04-01

    Primary aldosteronism causes hypertension and hypokalemia and is often surgically treatable. Diagnosis includes elevated plasma aldosterone, suppressed plasma renin activity, and elevated aldosterone renin ratio. Adrenalectomy improves hypertension and hypokalemia. Postoperative plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity may be useful in documenting cure or failure. A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism from 2010 to 2016 was performed, analyzing preoperative and postoperative plasma aldosterone, plasma renin activity, hypertension, and hypokalemia. The utility of postoperative testing was assessed. Clinical cure was defined as improved hypertension control and resolution of potassium loss. Biochemical cure was defined as aldosterone renin ratio reduction to <23.6. Forty-four patients were included; 20 had plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity checked on postoperative day 1. In the study, 40/44 (91%) were clinically cured. All clinical failures had of biochemical failure at follow-up. Postoperative day 1aldosterone renin ratio <23.6 had PPV of 95% for clinical cure. Cured patients had mean plasma aldosterone drop of 33.1 ng/dL on postoperative day 1; noncured patient experienced 3.9 ng/dL increase. A cutoff of plasma aldosterone decrease of 10 ng/dL had high positive predictive value for clinical cure. Changes in plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity after adrenalectomy correlate with improved hypertension and hypokalemia. The biochemical impact of adrenalectomy manifests as early as postoperative day 1. We propose a plasma aldosterone decrease of 10 ng/dL as a criterion to predict clinical cure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Need for postoperative experience in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcione, S; Api, P; Magnoni, G

    1984-01-01

    A clinical evaluation regarding the efficacy of post-operative radiotherapy in 294 patients with breast cancer is presented. In the Author's opinion post-operative radiotherapy is fundamental in the treatment of this tumor. 21 refs.

  7. Baseline and postoperative levels of C-reactive protein and interleukins as inflammatory predictors of atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Alexander; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Sabashnikov, Anton; Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sadeq; Ryazanov, Mikhail; Tse, Gary; Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Liu, Tong; Lotfaliani, Mohammadreza; Sedaghat, Meghdad; Baker, William L; Ghanei, Azam; Yavuz, Senol; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Izadpanah, Payman; Dehghan, Hamidreza; Testa, Luca; Nikfard, Maryam; Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Mashhour, Ahmed; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Rezaeisadrabadi, Mohammad; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Zhigalov, Konstantin; Benedetto, Umberto; Aminolsharieh Najafi, Soroosh; Szczechowicz, Marcin; Roever, Leonardo; Meng, Lei; Gong, Mengqi; Deshmukh, Abhishek J; Palmerini, Tullio; Linde, Cecilia; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Stone, Gregg W; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Calkins, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a leading arrhythmia with high incidence and serious clinical implications after cardiac surgery. Cardiac surgery is associated with systemic inflammatory response including increase in cytokines and activation of endothelial and leukocyte responses. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the strength of evidence for evaluating the association of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukins (IL), with POAF following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), isolated valvular surgery, or a combination of these procedures. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies evaluating measured baseline (from one week before surgical procedures) and postoperative levels (until one week after surgical procedures) of inflammatory markers in patients with POAF. A compre-hensive search was performed in electronic medical databases (Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Science Direct, and Google Scholar) from their inception through May 2017 to identify relevant studies. A comprehensive subgroup analysis was performed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. A literature search of all major databases retrieved 1014 studies. After screening, 42 studies were analysed including a total of 8398 patients. Pooled analysis showed baseline levels of CRP (standard mean difference [SMD] 0.457 mg/L, p < 0.001), baseline levels of IL-6 (SMD 0.398 pg/mL, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of CRP (SMD 0.576 mg/L, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of IL-6 (SMD 1.66 pg/mL, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of IL-8 (SMD 0.839 pg/mL, p < 0.001), and postoperative levels of IL-10 (SMD 0.590 pg/mL, p < 0.001) to be relevant inflammatory parameters significantly associated with POAF. Perioperative inflammation is proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of POAF. Therefore, perioperative assessment of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 can help clinicians in terms of predicting and monitoring for POAF.

  8. Management of postoperative pain: experience of the Niamey National Hospital, Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaibou MS

    2012-12-01

    gathered at the Niamey National Hospital gives baseline data that can be the impetus to increase training in pain management and to establish standardized protocols.Keywords: postoperative pain, pain scales, Niamey National Hospital

  9. Late post-operative hypoxaemia and organ dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    an adverse effect of tissue hypoxia on wound healing and on resistance to bacterial wound infections. Finally, mental confusion and surgical delirium may be related to inadequate arterial oxygenation during the late post-operative period. Late post-operative constant and episodic hypoxaemia may therefore......Constant and episodic hypoxaemia are common after major operations in the late post-operative period in the surgical ward. Recent studies have shown that hypoxaemia may be related to the development of myocardial ischaemia and cardiac arrhythmias. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated...

  10. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed....... METHODS: Review of controlled, clinical trials evaluating postoperative pulmonary function in patients positioned in the supine vs. the sitting or standing position and patients positioned in the supine vs. the lateral position. Data were obtained from a search in the Medline and Cochrane databases (1966...

  11. Topical versus intravenous tranexamic acid as a blood conservation intervention for reduction of post-operative bleeding in hemiarthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Walid Mohamed; Moez, Khaled K; Elkhouly, Abeer H

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to test the effectiveness of topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss in pelvic hemiarthoplasty surgeries compared with intravenous TXA, regarding the incidence of thromboembolic complications (deep vein thrombosis [DVT], pulmonary embolism (PE) and cerebrovascular stroke [CVS]). After obtaining institutional ethical approval 60 patients divided into three groups. Group A: Received intravenous TXA Group B: Received topical TXA Group C: Control group (placebo saline). All patients were received general anesthesia and post-operative bleeding, immediate and 24 h post-operatively, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, platelets and coagulation profile (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio) baseline, immediate and 24 h post-operatively. Thromboelastography was recorded baseline, immediate and 24 h post-operatively. Incidence of DVT, PE and CVS was recorded. There was statistical significant elevation hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit in both Groups A and B, significant increase in blood loss in Group C, significant increase in number of patients receiving blood in Group C, there was a significant decrease in "r" and "k" times and a significant increase in maximum amplitude and α-angle in Group A, statistically significant increase in the incidence of thromboembolic events in the form of DVT, PE and CVS in Group A. Topical TXA is effective in decreasing post-operative blood loss with possible side-effects of this route of administration.

  12. Genetic polymorphism in postoperative sepsis after open heart surgery in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Dicky; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Murni, Tri Wahyu; Rachmat, Jusuf; Harahap, Alida Roswita; Rahayuningsih, Sri Endah; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Santoso, Anwar

    2016-05-01

    Sepsis is one of the complications following open heart surgery. Toll-like receptor 2 and toll-interacting protein polymorphism influence the immune response after open heart surgery. This study aimed to assess the genetic distribution of toll-like receptor 2 N199N and toll-interacting protein rs5743867 polymorphism in the development of postoperative sepsis. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 108 children open heart surgery with a Basic Aristotle score ≥6. Patients with an accompanying congenital anomaly, human immunodeficiency virus infection, or history of previous open heart surgery were excluded. The patients' nutritional status and genetic polymorphism were assessed prior to surgery. The results of genetic polymorphism were obtained through genotyping. Patients' ages on the day of surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass times were recorded. The diagnosis of sepsis was established according to Surviving Sepsis Campaign criteria. Postoperative sepsis was observed in 21% of patients. There were 92.6% patients with toll-like receptor 2 N199N polymorphism and 52.8% with toll-interacting protein rs5743867 polymorphism. Toll-like receptor 2 N199N polymorphism tends to increase the risk of sepsis (odds ratio = 1.974; 95% confidence interval: 0.23-16.92; p = 0.504), while toll-interacting protein rs5743867 polymorphism tends to decrease the risk of sepsis (odds ratio = 0.496; 95% confidence interval: 0.19-1.27; p = 0.139) in infants open heart surgery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Evaluation of Postoperative Hydronephrosis Following Ureteroscopy in Pediatric Population: Incidence and Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökce, Mehmet Ilker; Telli, Onur; Özkıdık, Mete; Akıncı, Aykut; Hajıyev, Perviz; Soygür, Tarkan; Burgu, Berk

    2016-07-01

    To identify the incidence and associated factors of the postoperative hydronephrosis in pediatric patients who underwent ureterorenoscopy (URS) for renal or ureteral stones. We evaluated the results of 116 patients who underwent semirigid or flexible URS retrospectively. Primary end points of the study were to determine the incidence of postoperative hydronephrosis and factors associated with the development of postoperative hydronephrosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to define factors associated with the presence of hydronephrosis. Mean age of the population was 9.5 years and mean stone size was 9.4 mm. Hydronephrosis was detected in 32 (27.6%) patients. Stone-free status was achieved in 101 (87%) patients. Univariate analysis revealed history of ipsilateral URS, duration of operation, presence of impacted stone, development of ureteral injury during operation, and presentation with a renal colic episode as the parameter associated with increased risk of hydronephrosis. History of ipsilateral URS (odds ratio: 1.664, P = .027), presence of impacted stones (odds ratio: 1.788, P = .014), and development of ureteral injury during operation (odds ratio: 1.106, P = .039) were found to be the independent markers of developing postoperative hydronephrosis in a multivariate analysis. Ipsilateral hydronephrosis following URS develops in a significant portion of patients. In patients with history of ipsilateral procedure and those with an impacted stone and had ureteral injury, the risk of postoperative hydronephrosis is higher; therefore, physicians should keep these parameters in mind in the decision-making process of selective imaging postoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of Postoperative Complications After Trimodality Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingya; Wei, Caimiao; Tucker, Susan L.; Myles, Bevan; Palmer, Matthew; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Lin, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: While trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer has improved patient outcomes, surgical complication rates remain high. The goal of this study was to identify modifiable factors associated with postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2011, 444 patients were treated at our institution with surgical resection after chemoradiation. Postoperative (pulmonary, gastrointestinal [GI], cardiac, wound healing) complications were recorded up to 30 days postoperatively. Kruskal-Wallis tests and χ 2 or Fisher exact tests were used to assess associations between continuous and categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression tested the association between perioperative complications and patient or treatment factors that were significant on univariate analysis. Results: The most frequent postoperative complications after trimodality therapy were pulmonary (25%) and GI (23%). Lung capacity and the type of radiation modality used were independent predictors of pulmonary and GI complications. After adjusting for confounding factors, pulmonary and GI complications were increased in patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT; odds ratio [OR], 2.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.104-3.688; OR, 1.704; 95% CI, 1.03-2.82, respectively) and for patients treated with 3D-CRT versus proton beam therapy (PBT; OR, 3.154; 95% CI, 1.365-7.289; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.78-3.08, respectively). Mean lung radiation dose (MLD) was strongly associated with pulmonary complications, and the differences in toxicities seen for the radiation modalities could be fully accounted for by the MLD delivered by each of the modalities. Conclusions: The radiation modality used can be a strong mitigating factor of postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation

  15. Postoperative radiation therapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Shikama, Naoto; Gomi, Koutarou; Shinoda, Atsunori; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Arakawa, Kazukiyo; Sasaki, Shigeru; Takei, Kazuyoshi; Sone, Syusuke

    2000-01-01

    The authors retrospectively assessed the usefulness of postoperative radiation therapy after local resection of adenoid cystic carcinoma, with emphasis on organ-conserving treatment and the cosmetic results. Between 1985 and 1995, 32 patients underwent local resection followed by postoperative radiation therapy with curative and organ-conserving intent. None of patients received any form of chemotherapy as part of their initial treatment. Radiation therapy was carried out by techniques that were appropriate for the site and extension of each tumor. The 5-year local control, disease-free, and overall survival rates of all patients were 76%, 68%, and 86%, respectively. The 5-year local control rate and disease-free survival rate of patients with microscopically positive margins were 89% and 75%, respectively, and higher than in patients with macroscopically residual disease, but no significant difference in 5-year overall survival rate was observed. The postoperative cosmetic results in 29 patients with head and neck lesions were evaluated. No difference was documented between the cosmetic results postoperatively setting and after postoperative radiotherapy, and no significant differences in cosmetic results were observed according to radiation dose. The combination of local resection with organ-conserving intent and postoperative radiation therapy provided good cosmetic results in patients with T1 or T2 lesions. Postoperative radiation therapy with smaller fractions is useful, because good local control can be achieved in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma having microscopically positive margins without inducing any late adverse reactions. However, the number of patients was too small and the follow-up period was too short to draw any definite conclusion in regard to fraction size. A much longer follow-up study with a larger number patients will be required to accurately determine the optimal treatment intensity and duration of treatment. (K.H.)

  16. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...

  17. Postoperative opioid analgesia: time for a reconsideration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Rung, G W; Callesen, T

    1996-01-01

    Postoperative pain relief has improved in recent years with the development of new analgesics, additional routes of administration and the appearance of the hypothesis of preemptive as well as balanced analgesia (Kehlet H; Postoperative pain relief-what is the issue? Br J Anaesth 1994;72:375-8). ......Postoperative pain relief has improved in recent years with the development of new analgesics, additional routes of administration and the appearance of the hypothesis of preemptive as well as balanced analgesia (Kehlet H; Postoperative pain relief-what is the issue? Br J Anaesth 1994......;72:375-8). Many initial improvements simply involved the administration of opioid analgesics in new ways, such as continuous or on demand intravenous (i.v.) or epidural infusion. These methods allow lower total opioid dosages, provide a more stable concentration of opioid at the receptor and correspondingly...

  18. Post-operative adhesions after digestive surgery: their incidence and prevention: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaïssi, M; Gaujoux, S; Veyrie, N; Denève, E; Brigand, C; Castel, B; Duron, J J; Rault, A; Slim, K; Nocca, D

    2012-04-01

    Post-operative adhesions after gastrointestinal surgery are responsible for significant morbidity and constitute an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to review the surgical literature to determine the incidence, consequences and the variety of possible countermeasures to prevent adhesion formation. A systematic review of English and French language surgical literature published between 1995 and 2009 was performed using the keywords "adhesion" and "surgery". Peritoneal adhesions are reported as the cause of 32% of acute intestinal obstruction and 65-75% of all small bowel obstructions. It is estimated that peritoneal adhesions develop after 93-100% of upper abdominal laparotomies and after 67-93% of lower abdominal laparotomies. Nevertheless, only 15-18% of these adhesions require surgical re-intervention. The need for re-intervention for adhesion-related complications varies depending on the initial type of surgery, the postoperative course and the type of incision. The laparoscopic approach appears to decrease the risk of adhesion formation by 45% and the need for adhesion-related re-intervention to 0.8% after appendectomy and to 2.5% after colorectal surgery. At the present time, only one product consisting of hyaluronic acid applied to a layer of carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm(®)) has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative adhesion formation; but this product is also associated with a significant increase in the incidence of anastomotic leakage when the membrane is applied in direct contact with the anastomosis. The use of this product has not been shown to decrease the risk of re-intervention for bowel obstruction. The prevention of postoperative adhesions is an important public health goal, particularly in light of the frequency of this complication. The routine use of anti-adhesion products is not recommended given the lack of studies with a high level of evidence concerning their efficacy and safety of

  19. Pre-existing and Postoperative Intimal Hyperplasia and Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Marwan; Duque, Juan C; Martinez, Laisel; Escobar, Luis A; Wu, Wensong; Pan, Yue; Fernandez, Natasha; Velazquez, Omaida C; Jaimes, Edgar A; Salman, Loay H; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I

    2016-09-01

    The contribution of intimal hyperplasia (IH) to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure is uncertain. This observational study assessed the relationship between pre-existing, postoperative, and change in IH over time and AVF outcomes. Prospective cohort study with longitudinal assessment of IH at the time of AVF creation (pre-existing) and transposition (postoperative). Patients were followed up for up to 3.3 years. 96 patients from a single center who underwent AVF surgery initially planned as a 2-stage procedure. Veins and AVF samples were collected from 66 and 86 patients, respectively. Matched-pair tissues were available from 56 of these patients. Pre-existing, postoperative, and change in IH over time. Anatomic maturation failure was defined as an AVF that never reached a diameter > 6mm. Primary unassisted patency was defined as the time elapsed from the second-stage surgery to the first intervention. Maximal intimal thickness in veins and AVFs and change in intimal thickness over time. Pre-existing IH (>0.05mm) was present in 98% of patients. In this group, the median intimal thickness increased 4.40-fold (IQR, 2.17- to 4.94-fold) between AVF creation and transposition. However, this change was not associated with pre-existing thickness (r(2)=0.002; P=0.7). Ten of 96 (10%) AVFs never achieved maturation, whereas 70% of vascular accesses remained patent at the end of the observational period. Postoperative IH was not associated with anatomic maturation failure using univariate logistic regression. Pre-existing, postoperative, and change in IH over time had no effects on primary unassisted patency. The small number of patients from whom longitudinal tissue samples were available and low incidence of anatomic maturation failure, which decreased the statistical power to find associations between end points and IH. Pre-existing, postoperative, and change in IH over time were not associated with 2-stage AVF outcomes. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc

  20. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...

  1. Post-operative pain prevalence, predictors, management practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MWASHAMBWA

    developing countries however, the prevalence of post-operative pain is relatively very high and pain control strategies ... Keywords: post-operative pain, prevalence, predictors, pain management, satisfaction, Tanzania. Introduction ..... perception and patterns of cerebral activation during noxious heat stimulation in humans.

  2. Postoperative pneumonia-prevention program for the inpatient surgical ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Sherry M; Martin, Molinda; Yoon, Jung K; Bech, Fritz

    2010-04-01

    Postoperative pneumonia can lead to increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, and costs. Pneumonia-prevention programs have been successfully implemented in ICU settings, but no program exists for surgical ward patients. A pilot prevention program was designed and implemented based on literature review. The program consisted of education of physicians and ward staff and a standardized postoperative electronic order set consisting of incentive spirometer, chlorhexidine oral hygiene, ambulation, and head-of-bed elevation. Quarterly staff meetings discussed the results of and compliance with the program. The intervention commenced in April 2007. Baseline incidence of inpatient ward pneumonia was calculated from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY 2007. Postintervention incidence was calculated in the same manner from FY 2007 through FY 2008. Any patient who contracted pneumonia in the ICU was excluded from analysis. There was a significant decrease in ward pneumonia incidence from 0.78% in the preintervention group compared with 0.18% in the postintervention group (p = 0.006), representing an 81% decrease in incidence from 2006 to 2008. The pneumonia-prevention program was very successful in diminishing postoperative pneumonia on the surgical ward. There was a highly statistically significant 4-fold decrease in pneumonia incidence after program implementation. The interventions were not costly but did require ongoing communication and cooperation between physician and nursing leadership to achieve compliance with the measures. This program has great potential for dissemination to hospital surgical wards and could decrease inpatient postoperative pneumonias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Comparison of the effects of oxycodone versus fentanyl on airway reflex to tracheal extubation and postoperative pain during anesthesia recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A double-blind, randomized clinical consort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Nyeongkeon; Park, Sang-Jin

    2018-03-01

    Fentanyl has been suggested to be effective for controlling airway and hemodynamic responses to tracheal extubation. This study was performed to compare the effects of oxycodone and fentanyl on airway and hemodynamic responses and postoperative pain during the recovery period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Ninety patients aged 18 to 65 years were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 groups: fentanyl, oxycodone, and control. Coughing responses (incidence and severity), hemodynamic responses during the recovery period, and acute postoperative pain were assessed. The incidence of cough was decreased in the fentanyl and oxycodone groups compared with that in the control group at the points of awareness and extubation, and no significant difference was observed between the 2 treatment groups. Severe cough response was decreased in the fentanyl and oxycodone groups compared with that in the control group at the point of extubation, and no significant change was observed in cough severity between the 2 treatment groups. Postoperative pain scores were lower in the fentanyl and oxycodone groups than those in the control group at 5 and 30 minutes postoperatively, and no significant difference was observed between the 2 treatment groups. Hemodynamic responses did not differ among the 3 groups during the recovery period. Oxycodone treatment before tracheal extubation reduced cough response and was as effective as fentanyl treatment for improving extubation quality. Furthermore, single boluses of fentanyl and oxycodone showed equal effectiveness in attenuating acute postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  4. Association between serum lactate and postoperative outcomes following coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hasanshiri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased serum lactate during cardio-pulmonary bypass is associated with high mortality and cardiac complications up to 10-20 percent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of serum lactate increase on postoperative outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG Surgery. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on cases (no=116 undergoing CABG at Beheshti hospital in Kashan between 2013-2014. Demographic data, variables related to surgery, serum lactate level and the time of tracheal extubation, length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU and hospital post-surgery left ventricular ejection fraction were collected. These data was compared in two groups: Normal serum lactate ( 2 m mol\\liter group. Results: The postoperative hyperlactatemia was observed in 62.1 % of patients. There were no significant differences between two groups in time of tracheal extubation, length of stay in ICU and hospital. There was a relationship between the mean postoperative serum lactate and blood sugar, bicarbonate, pH, length of cardiopulmonary bypass and the aortic cross clamping time. There was a significant relationship between the serum lactate increment and the left ventricular ejection fraction decrement. Conclusion: Hyperlactatemia is probably associated with such important factors as high blood sugar, longer duration of aortic cross clamp and cardio-pulmonary bypass time. So controlling such factors can reduce the rate of hyperlactatemia and help postoperative recovery.

  5. Postoperative infection risk after splenectomy: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmparas, Galinos; Lamb, Alexander W; Lee, Debora; Nguyen, Brandon; Eng, Jamie; Bloom, Matthew B; Ley, Eric J

    2015-05-01

    Splenectomy is associated with a life-long risk for overwhelming infections. The risk for early post-operative infectious complications following traumatic and elective splenectomy is, however, understudied. This investigation aimed to determine if splenectomy increases the risk for post-operative infections. This was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) between 1/2011 and 7/2013 investigating the risk for infectious complications in patients undergoing a splenectomy compared with those undergoing any other abdominal surgery. During the 30-month study period, a total of 1884 patients were admitted to the SICU. Of those, 33 (2%) had a splenectomy and 493 (26%) had an abdominal surgery. The two groups were well balanced for age, APACHE IV score >20, and past medical history, including diabetes mellitus, cardiac history, renal failure or immunosuppression. Patients undergoing splenectomy were more likely to have sustained a traumatic injury (30% vs. 7%, p splenectomy was associated with increased risk for infectious complications (49% vs. 29%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) [95% CI]: 2.7 [1.3, 5.6], p = 0.01), including intra-abdominal abscess (9% vs. 3%, AOR [95% CI]: 4.3 [1.1, 16.2], p = 0.03). On a subgroup analysis, there were no differences between traumatic and elective splenectomy with regards to overall infectious complications (50% vs. 46%, p = 0.84), although, abdominal abscess developed only in those who had an elective splenectomy (0% vs. 12%, p = 0.55). Splenectomy increases the risk for post-operative infectious complications. Further studies identifying strategies to decrease the associated morbidity are necessary. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Residual urine output and postoperative mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Feng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chao, Anne; Huang, Tao-Min; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Shih-I; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Wang, Wei-Jie; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Hu, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between residual urine output and postoperative survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients is unknown. To explore the relationship between amount of urine before surgery and postoperative mortality and differences between postoperative nonanuria and anuria in maintenance hemodialysis patients. A total of 109 maintenance hemodialysis patients underwent major operations. Anuria was defined as urine output <30 mL in the 8 hours before the first session of postoperative dialysis. Propensity scores for postoperative anuria were developed. Postoperative residual urine output was 159.2 mL/8 h (SD, 115.1) in 33 patients; 76 patients were anuric. Preoperative residual urine output and adequate perioperative blood transfusion were positively related to postoperative urine output. Propensity-adjusted 30-day mortality was associated with postoperative anuria (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-17.96; P = .03), prior stroke (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 1.43-13.89; P = .01) and higher disease severity (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21; P = .049) at the first postoperative dialysis. OR of 30-day mortality was 5.38 for nonanuria to anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .03) and 5.13 for preoperative anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .01). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 30-day mortality differed significantly among patients for nonanuria to nonanuria, anuria, and nonanuria to anuria (log rank, P = .045). Patients with preoperative nonanuria and postoperative anuria had higher mortality than did patients with no anuria before and after surgery and patients with anuria before surgery. Postoperative residual urine output is an important surrogate marker for disease severity.

  7. Tissue responses to postoperative laser therapy in diabetic rats submitted to excisional wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano de Loura Santana

    Full Text Available In a previous study about low-level laser therapy biomodulation on a full-thickness burn model we showed that single and fractionated dose regimens increased wound healing and leukocyte influx similarly when compared with untreated control. In order to verify if this finding would be similar in an impaired wound model, we investigated the effect of single and multiple irradiations on wound closure rate, type of inflammatory infiltrate, myofibroblasts, collagen deposition, and optical retardation of collagen in diabetic rats. Female Wistar rats in the same estrous cycle had diabetes induced with streptozotocin and an 8-mm excisional wound performed with a punch. The experimental groups were: control group--untreated ulcer; single-dose group--ulcer submitted to single dose of diode laser therapy (λ = 660 ± 2 nm; P = 30 mW; energy density: 4 J/cm2 and fractionated-dose group--ulcer submitted to 1 J/cm2 laser therapy on Days 1, 3, 8, and 10. The ulcers were photographed on the experimental days and after euthanasia tissue samples were routinely processed for histological and immunohistochemistry analyses. Independently of the energy density, laser therapy accelerated wound closure by approximately 40% in the first three days in comparison to the control group. Laser therapy increased acute inflammatory infiltrate until Day 3. Both laser groups exhibited more myofibroblasts and better collagen organization than the control group. The findings demonstrate that low-level laser therapy in the immediate postoperative period can enhance the tissue repair process in a diabetes model. Similar effects were achieved with laser therapy applied a single time with an energy density of 4 J/cm2 and applied four times with an energy density of 1 J/cm2. The application of laser therapy in the inflammatory phase was the most important factor to the enhancement of the tissue repair process.

  8. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postoperative Transfusions and 24-Hour Chest-Tube Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Heather R.; Ramaiah, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    An increasing obese population in the United States focuses attention on the effect of obesity on surgical outcomes. Our objective was to see if obesity, determined by body mass index (BMI), contributed to bleeding in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as measured by intraoperative and postoperative packed red blood cell transfusion frequency and amount and 24-hour chest-tube output. A retrospective chart review examined 150 subjects undergoing single-surgeon off-pump or on-pump CABG surgery between September 2006 and April 2009. BMI groups included normal-weight (BMI trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The percentage of subjects receiving transfusions in the combined intraoperative or 72-hour postoperative period showed a decreasing linear trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The transfusion amount during the 72-hour postoperative period varied significantly between BMI groups (p = 0.021), and the test for a linear decrease across groups was significant (p = 0.020). Twenty-four hour chest-tube output showed variation across all three BMI categories (p = 0.018) with chest-tube output decreasing with increasing obesity in a linear fashion (p = 0.006). Transfusion rate and amount indicate total blood loss is decreased in the obese, and chest-tube output findings give a direct measurable indicator of blood loss from the surgical site indicating increasing BMI is linearly correlated with decreasing postoperative bleeding. PMID:22654469

  9. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... systemic diseases (hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus),. Original Article. INTRODUCTION. Postoperative ... vertigo, etc.) have been shown.[3-15]. In this study, we aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperative NLR and postoperative pain (which was evaluated by analgesic demand at.

  10. Predicting postoperative haemoglobin changes after burn surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burn surgery is associated with significant blood loss and fluid shifts that cause rapid haemoglobin (Hb) changes during and after surgery. Understanding the relationship between intraoperative and postoperative (day 1) Hb changes may assist in avoiding postoperative anaemia and unnecessary ...

  11. Abdominal CT findings of delayed postoperative complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissin, R.; Osadchy, A. [Sapir Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Kfar Saba (Israel)]. E-mail: zisinrivka@clalit.org.il; Gayer, G. [Assaf Harofe Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Zrifin (Israel)

    2007-10-15

    Despite progress in surgical techniques and modern medical treatment, postoperative complications occur not infrequently and vary according to type of surgery, clinical setting, and time elapsed since surgery. In general, they can be divided into early and delayed complications. Delayed postoperative complications can be classified as specific and nonspecific. The common nonspecific delayed complications are incisional hernia and postoperative bowel obstruction. Bowel obstruction can be further categorized as obstruction related to benign or neoplastic etiology, the latter occurring in oncology patients in whom the primary surgery was related to an underlying abdominal neoplasm. Gossypiboma is another, fortunately rare, postoperative complication. Specific complications appear after specific operations and include the following: Splenosis - following splenectomy. Retained gallstones and spilled gallstones - following cholecystectomy, mainly laparoscopic. Dropped appendicolith and stump appendicitis - following appendectomy, mainly laparoscopic. Obturation obstruction by a bezoar - following gastric surgery. Afferent loop syndrome (ALS) - following Bilroth II gastrectomy. (author)

  12. Severe Postoperative Complications may be Related to Mesenteric Traction Syndrome during Open Esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, R; Svendsen, L B; Secher, N H; Goetze, J P; Rünitz, K; Achiam, M P

    2017-09-01

    During abdominal surgery, traction of the mesenterium provokes mesenteric traction syndrome, including hypotension, tachycardia, and flushing, along with an increase in plasma prostacyclin (PGI 2 ). We evaluated whether postoperative complications are related to mesenteric traction syndrome during esophagectomy. Flushing, hemodynamic variables, and plasma 6-keto-PGF 1α were recorded during the abdominal part of open ( n = 25) and robotically assisted ( n = 25) esophagectomy. Postoperative complications were also registered, according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Flushing appeared in 17 (open) and 5 (robotically assisted) surgical cases ( p = 0.001). Mean arterial pressure was stable during both types of surgeries, but infusion of vasopressors during the first hour of open surgery was related to development of widespread (Grade II) flushing ( p = 0.036). For patients who developed flushing, heart rate and plasma 6-keto-PGF 1α also increased ( p = 0.001 and p syndrome manifests more frequently during open than robotically assisted esophagectomy, and postoperative complications appear to be associated with severe mesenteric traction syndrome.

  13. Postoperative radiation for advanced head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K. Kian; Garden, Adam S.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss both general and specific indications for radiation following surgery for patients with cancers of the head and neck. Patients with advanced cancers of the head and neck are often not suitable candidates for treatment with definitive radiation, and are treated with surgery. Frequently these patients fail by recurring in either the primary sites or in the necks. Adjuvant radiation is therefore often a critical component in the management of these patients. While radiation can be done either prior to or after surgery, most centers prefer the postoperative setting. This refresher course will review general concepts of postoperative irradiation for the patient with head and neck cancer and apply these concepts to specific situations. The course will begin with a broad review of the indications for postoperative irradiation as not all patients undergoing surgery for cancers of the head and neck require additional treatment. We will also review the concept of using postoperative radiation to allow for more conservative surgery with preservation of function. The second portion of the course will focus on general techniques of postoperative irradiation. We will review concepts of patient setup and treatment portal design and describe how specific techniques are practiced at MDACC. Controversial topics, including field matching, total dose and fractionation, and the timing of postoperative radiation will be discussed. The final section of the course will review the results of postoperative irradiation as applied to the head and neck in general as well as to specific subsites. In addition to results for the common scenarios of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx, we will review results of postoperative irradiation for skin cancers of the head and neck, paranasal sinuses, and salivary glands

  14. Postoperative pain after hip fracture is procedure specific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Palm, H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hip fracture patients experience high pain levels during postoperative rehabilitation. The role of surgical technique on postoperative pain has not been evaluated previously. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen hip fracture patients were included in a descriptive prospective study. All.......001) and walking (r=-0.36, P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative pain levels after surgery for hip fracture are dependent on the surgical procedure, which should be taken into account in future studies of analgesia and rehabilitation....... patients received continuous epidural analgesia and were treated according to a standardized perioperative rehabilitation programme. Resting pain, pain on hip flexion, and walking were measured during daily physiotherapy sessions on a verbal five-point rating scale during the first four postoperative days...

  15. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Postoperative pain is well known and usually disturbing complication of surgery. Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of postoperative pain. We aimed to investigate possible relationship between preoperatively measured neutrophil‑lymphocyte ratio (NLR) – as an ...

  16. Training of medical staff positively influences postoperative pain management at home in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepponen, K; Kokki, H; Ahonen, R

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how parents manage their child's postoperative pain at home following day-case surgery. The incidence of pain, different analgesics used and problems related to administering medications were the main interests of the study. A postal questionnaire was sent to the parents of 275 children who were under 8 years of age and had undergone an ear, nose and throat (ENT) day-case operation. The questionnaire was sent to the parents a week after discharge from hospital. Altogether, the parents of 227 children answered the questionnaire (response rate 83%). The study was divided into two phases (preintervention and postintervention), and incorporated a training program for doctors and nurses between these two phases. The training program aimed to improve the treatment practices of postoperative pain in children. Seventy-eight per cent of the children in the preintervention study and 75% in the postintervention study experienced at least mild pain after discharge. The training program for doctors and nurses affected the home treatment practices of postoperative pain. The proportion of parents treating their children increased from 68% to 80% after the training program (p = 0.028). Many parents faced problems while treating their children; for example, 19% (n = 30) of the children refused to take their medicine, and suppositories were regarded to be an especially unpleasant dosage form. However, no serious adverse effects were reported. We conclude that due to the pain experienced at home by the great majority of children following day-case ENT operations, parents need information on how to manage their child's pain. A training program for doctors and nurses can improve the treatment of children's pain even at home. Since some children dislike suppositories, it would be worth considering the use of small tablets or mixtures instead.

  17. Multicentre prospective cohort study of body mass index and postoperative complications following gastrointestinal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, T. M.; Nepogodiev, D.; Chapman, S. J.; Glasbey, J. C.; Khatri, C.; Kong, C. Y.; Claireaux, H. A.; Bath, M. F.; Mohan, M.; McNamee, L.; Kelly, M.; Mitchell, H.; Fitzgerald, J. E.; Harrison, E. M.; Bhangu, A.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThere is currently conflicting evidence surrounding the effects of obesity on postoperative outcomes. Previous studies have found obesity to be associated with adverse events, but others have found no association. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing body mass index (BMI) is an independent risk factor for development of major postoperative complications.MethodsThis was a multicentre prospective cohort study across the UK and Republic of Ireland. Consecutive pati...

  18. Comparison of bandage contact lens removal on the fourth versus seventh postoperative day after photorefractive keratectomy: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadpour

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Following PRK surgery, BCL removal on the seventh postoperative day yields faster visual rehabilitation and lower rate of postoperative complications with no increase in eye pain, discomfort or infection.

  19. Postoperative stiff shoulder after open rotator cuff repair: a 3- to 20-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastamäki, H; Vastamäki, M

    2014-12-01

    Stiffness after a rotator cuff tear is common. So is stiffness after an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. In the literature, however, postoperative restriction of passive range of motion after open rotator cuff repair in shoulders with free passive range of motion at surgery has seldom been recognized. We hypothesize that this postoperative stiffness is more frequent than recognized and slows the primary postoperative healing after a rotator cuff reconstruction. We wondered how common is postoperative restriction of both active and passive range of motion after open rotator cuff repair in shoulders with free passive preoperative range of motion, how it recovers, and whether this condition influences short- and long-term results of surgery. We also explored factors predicting postoperative shoulder stiffness. We retrospectively identified 103 postoperative stiff shoulders among 416 consecutive open rotator cuff repairs, evaluating incidence and duration of stiffness, short-term clinical results and long-term range of motion, pain relief, shoulder strength, and functional results 3-20 (mean 8.7) years after surgery in 56 patients. The incidence of postoperative shoulder stiffness was 20%. It delayed primary postoperative healing by 3-6 months and resolved during a mean 6.3 months postoperatively. External rotation resolved first, corresponding to that of the controls at 3 months; flexion and abduction took less than 1 year after surgery. The mean summarized range of motion (flexion + abduction + external rotation) increased as high as 93% of the controls' range of motion by 6 months and 100% by 1 year. Flexion, abduction, and internal rotation improved to the level of the contralateral shoulders as did pain, strength, and function. Age at surgery and condition of the biceps tendon were related to postoperative stiffness. Postoperative stiff shoulder after open rotator cuff repair is a common complication resolving in 6-12 months with good long-term results. © The

  20. The postoperative handover: a focus group interview study with nurse anaesthetists, anaesthesiologists and PACU nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randmaa, Maria; Engström, Maria; Swenne, Christine Leo; Mårtensson, Gunilla

    2017-08-04

    To investigate different professionals' (nurse anaesthetists', anaesthesiologists', and postanaesthesia care unit nurses') descriptions of and reflections on the postoperative handover. A focus group interview study with a descriptive design using qualitative content analysis of transcripts. One anaesthetic clinic at two hospitals in Sweden. Six focus groups with 23 healthcare professionals involved in postoperative handovers. Each group was homogeneous regarding participant profession, resulting in two groups per profession: nurse anaesthetists (n=8), anaesthesiologists (n=7) and postanaesthesia care unit nurses (n=8). Patterns and five categories emerged: (1) having different temporal foci during handover, (2) insecurity when information is transferred from one team to another, (3) striving to ensure quality of the handover, (4) weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the bedside handover and (5) having different perspectives on the transfer of responsibility. The professionals' perceptions of the postoperative handover differed with regard to temporal foci and transfer of responsibility. All professional groups were insecure about having all information needed to ensure the quality of care. They strived to ensure quality of the handover by: focusing on matters that deviated from the normal course of events, aiding memory through structure and written information and cooperating within and between teams. They reported that the bedside handover enhances their control of the patient but also that it could threaten the patient's privacy and that frequent interruptions could be disturbing. The present findings revealed variations in different professionals' views on the postoperative handover. Healthcare interventions are needed to minimise the gap between professionals' perceptions and practices and to achieve a shared understanding of postoperative handover. Furthermore, to ensure high-quality and safe care, stakeholders/decision makers need to pay attention

  1. Early Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Detecting Radicular Pain After Lumbar Decompression Surgery: Retrospective Study of the Relationship Between Dural Sac Cross-sectional Area and Postoperative Radicular Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Takahashi, Jun; Oba, Hiroki; Ikegami, Shota; Mogami, Yuji; Shibata, Syunichi; Ohji, Yoshihito; Tanikawa, Hirotaka; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-01

    A retrospective analysis. To evaluate the association between early postoperative dural sac cross-sectional area (DCSA) and radicular pain. The correlation between postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and postoperative neurological symptoms after lumbar decompression surgery is controversial. This study included 115 patients who underwent lumbar decompression surgery followed by MRI within 7 days postoperatively. There were 46 patients with early postoperative radicular pain, regardless of whether the pain was mild or similar to that before surgery. The intervertebral level with the smallest DCSA was identified on MRI and compared preoperatively and postoperatively. Risk factors for postoperative radicular pain were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Subanalysis according to absence/presence of a residual suction drain also was performed. Multivariate regression analysis showed that smaller postoperative DCSA was significantly associated with early postoperative radicular pain (per -10 mm; odds ratio, 1.26). The best cutoff value for radicular pain was early postoperative DCSA of 67.7 mm. Even with a cutoff value of surgery. The best cutoff value for postoperative radicular pain was 67.7 mm. Absence of a suction drain at the time of early postoperative MRI was related to smaller DCSA.

  2. Is low serum albumin associated with postoperative complications in patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal malignancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Sean L; De Silva, Ramesh P; Dhital, Kumud; Gett, Rohan M

    2015-01-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: in patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal malignancy, is low serum albumin associated with postoperative complications? Altogether, 87 papers were found using the reported search, of which 16 demonstrated the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. This paper includes 2 level 2 papers, 12 level 3 papers and 2 level 4 papers. All the papers compared either all or some of the following postoperative complications: mortality, morbidity, anastomotic leak, respiratory and non-respiratory complications, and length of hospital stay. Eleven of the 16 papers found an association between low serum albumin and postoperative complications. Of these, one study showed that low serum albumin combined with low fibrinogen levels (FA score) was predictive of postoperative recurrence of oesophageal cancer. Another study showed that when combined with white cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP, NUn score), serum albumin had a high diagnostic accuracy for major complications after postoperative day 3. The largest study compared the in-hospital mortality in 7227 patients who underwent oesophageal surgery for malignancy. The percentage of in-hospital mortality was associated with low serum albumin (35.0 g/l, 21.0 vs 11.3%, P papers found no significant association between low serum albumin and postoperative complications. Of these papers, one showed that low serum albumin was not an independent risk factor, while four others found no association between low serum albumin with respiratory complications, anastomotic leak and postoperative mortality. Instead, these studies found other factors responsible for postoperative complications such as: CRP, smoking, disease duration, malnutrition and low T-cell levels. Taken together

  3. Combining antiangiogenic therapy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy increases treatment efficacy in stage IIIA (N2) non-small cell lung cancer without increasing adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Su, Yanjun; You, Jian; Gong, Liqun; Zhang, Zhenfa; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Zhenqing; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Changli

    2016-09-20

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combining Endostar antiangiogenic therapy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC, we conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label clinical study of 30 NSCLC patients. Patients were randomly assigned to the test or control groups, which received either two cycles of an NP neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen combined with Endostar or the NP regimen alone, respectively, at a 2:1 ratio. Efficacy was assessed after 3 weeks, and surgical resection occurred within 4 weeks, in the 26 patients who successfully completed treatment. While total response rates (RR) and clinical benefit rates (CBR) did not differ between the experimental groups, total tumor regression rates (TRR) were higher in the test group than in the control group. Median DFS and OS also did not differ between the test and control groups. Clinical perioperative indicators, including intraoperative blood loss, number of dissected lymph node groups, duration of postoperative indwelling catheter use, and time to postoperative discharge, were comparable in the test and control groups. Finally, hematological and non-hematological toxicities and postoperative pathological indicators, including down-staging ratio, complete resection ratio, and metastatic lymph node ratio, also did not differ between the groups. Overall, combining Endostar with NP neoadjuvant chemotherapy increased therapeutic efficacy without increasing adverse effects in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT02497118).

  4. Delayed postoperative gastric emptying following intrathecal morphine and intrathecal bupivacaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: A decrease in the rate of gastric emptying can delay resumption of enteral feeding, alter bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and result in larger residual gastric volumes, increasing the risk of nausea and vomiting. We compared the effects of 1) intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) and 2) the combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) on the rate of gastric emptying in patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty four fasting ASA 1-3 patients were randomly assigned, in a double blind manner, to receive intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (17.5 mg), either alone (group 1), or followed by intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) (group 2). Gastric emptying was measured (using an acetaminophen absorption technique), twice in each patient; preoperatively, and approximately one hour postoperatively. Gastric emptying parameters are: AUC (area under the plasma acetaminophen concentration time curve), maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration (Cmax), and time to Cmax (tCmax), analyzed using paired Student\\'s t tests. RESULTS: Gastric emptying rates were reduced in both group 1 (AUC = 14.98 (3.8) and 11.05 (4.6) pre- and postoperatively, respectively) and group 2 (AUC = 13.93 (3.59) and 6.4 (3.42) pre- and postoperatively, respectively); the magnitude of the reduction was greater in group 2 [AUC (P = 0.04), Cmax (P = 0.05), tCmax (P = 0.13)]. CONCLUSION: The combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) delays gastric emptying postoperatively.

  5. Incidence, predictors and outcomes of postoperative coma: an observational study of 858,606 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jessica; Blake, Kathryn; Fennema, Jordan; Harris, David; Shanks, Amy; Avidan, Michael S; Kelz, Max B; Mashour, George A

    2013-08-01

    Coma is a state of profound unresponsiveness that can occur as a serious perioperative complication. The study of risk factors for, and sequelae of, postoperative coma has been limited due to the rarity of the event. To determine the incidence, risk factors and impact of postoperative coma in a large patient population. Observational study using a prospectively gathered national dataset. Data from 858 606 patients were analysed. The incidence of postoperative coma of more than 24-h duration was identified. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors and develop a risk model of postoperative coma in derivation and validation cohorts; 30-day mortality was also analysed. The incidence of postoperative coma was 0.06%. Multivariate analysis revealed the following independent predictors: liver disease, systemic sepsis, age at least 63 years, renal disease, emergency operation, cardiac disease, hypertension, prior neurological disease, diabetes mellitus and BMI 25 to 29.99 kg m (protective). These predictors were incorporated into a risk index classification; odds ratios for postoperative coma increased from 2.5 with one risk factor to 18.4 with three. Coma was associated with 74.2% all-cause mortality; coma associated with cardiac arrest had a 1.9-fold higher mortality. This is the largest study of postoperative coma ever reported and will be useful for determining risk of coma of more than 24 h duration when evaluating an unresponsive patient following surgery. Data on prognosis will aid medical and ethical decision-making for the comatose surgical patient.

  6. Influence of Postoperative Hypertension on the Development of Spinal Epidural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Tetsuro; Ebata, Shigeto; Haro, Hirotaka

    2017-11-01

    Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is a rare postoperative complication but can result in catastrophic neurological deficits requiring immediate surgical evacuation of the hematoma. Knowing the risk factors for postoperative SEH can help surgeons stratify patients. Therefore, to identify possible risk factors for postoperative SEH, we reviewed 6 clinical cases and examined the relation between postoperative hypertension and the risk of developing SEH. A retrospective review was conducted of 1282 consecutive patients who underwent spinal surgery at a single institution between 2010 and 2015. Of this cohort, 6 patients developed symptomatic SEH and underwent emergency hematoma evacuation. The 6 SEH patients were evaluated for previously described risk factors of postoperative hematoma formation. In particular, postoperative blood pressure measurements were reviewed. The incidence of postoperative symptomatic SEH was 0.468%. Two patients developed SEH secondary to a nonfunctional surgical drain in the early postoperative period (5 or 12 h post-surgery). Preoperative and postoperative hypertension was observed in 4 patients who developed SEH at greater than or equal to 48 h following surgery. Our findings suggest that rigorous postoperative blood pressure control may decrease the risk of SEH. © 2017 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Post-operative serious adverse events in a mixed surgical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M S; Petersen, E E; Dahl, J B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of surgical procedures is increasing, and knowledge of surgical risk factors, post-operative mortality and serious adverse events (SAE) is essential. The aim with our study was to determine the risk of a composite outcome of post-operative: death; myocardial infarction...... or gynaecological surgery was conducted retrieving data from The Danish Civil Registration System and the National Patient Register. Total observation time was from January 1, 2012 to June 6, 2013. RESULTS: A total7449 adult patients were included in the final analysis. The risk of the composite outcome during...... of 8.3% (7.8-9.0). The results are applicable in estimations of adequate sample sizes in future clinical trials investigating effects of interventions on SAEs....

  8. Orthopedic radiology in the postoperative patient (practical orthopedic radiology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, B.N.; Gelman, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    This course examines various aspects of the radiologic examination of postoperative orthopedic patients. The operative indications, pertinent aspects of surgical technique, expected postoperative radiographic appearances, and radiographic findings indicating postoperative complications are discussed. The evaluation of total joint replacement surgery, spinal surgery, lower extremity procedures, and failed orthopedic devices and appliances are covered

  9. Post-operative Transient Hypoparathyroidism: Incidence and Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is limited data on the incidence and risk factors for developing postoperative hypoparathyroidism (POHP) in the South African setting. Objectives: This study aims to calculate the incidence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism in a South African tertiary setting, and to compare local risk factors for POHP to ...

  10. Acute Postoperative Pain Therapy: Current State . Patient Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lončarić-Katušin, Mirjana; Persoli-Gudelj, Marijana; Šimić-Korać, Nataša; Blažanin, Božidar; Žunić, Josip; Korać, Želimir

    2006-01-01

    In effective control of acute postoperative pain, it is essential to respect the principles of multimodal balanced analgesia, and to apply them within organized units for the management of acute postoperative pain (acute pain service). The aim of the study was to find out patient expectations and experience in the intensity of acute postoperative pain, and the efficiency of therapy they received. Between October 11, 2002 and December 14, 2002, 103 patients having undergone elective operative ...

  11. MRI characteristics of torn and untorn post-operative menisci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Rosas, Humberto; Liu, Fang [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Williams, Adam [Radiology and Imaging Consultants, Colorado Springs (United States)

    2017-10-15

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of torn and untorn post-operative menisci. The study group consisted of 140 patients with 148 partially resected menisci who were evaluated with a repeat knee MRI examination and subsequent repeat arthroscopic knee surgery. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively assessed the following MRI characteristics of the post-operative meniscus: contour (smooth or irregular), T2 line through the meniscus (no line, intermediate signal line, intermediate-to-high signal line, and high fluid-like signal line), displaced meniscus fragment, and change in signal pattern through the meniscus compared with baseline MRI. Positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated using arthroscopy as the reference standard. All 36 post-operative menisci with no T2 line were untorn at surgery (100% NPV), whereas 46 of the 79 post-operative menisci with intermediate T2 line, 16 of the 18 post-operative menisci with intermediate-to-high T2 line, and 14 of the 15 post-operative menisci with high T2 line were torn at surgery (58.2%, 88.9%, and 93.3% PPV respectively). Additional MRI characteristics associated with torn post-operative meniscus at surgery were irregular meniscus contour (PPV 85.7%), displaced meniscus fragment (PPV 100%), and change in signal pattern through the meniscus (PPV 99.4%). Post-operative menisci with no T2 signal line were untorn at surgery. The most useful MRI characteristics for predicting torn post-operative menisci at surgery were change in signal pattern through the meniscus compared with baseline MRI, and displaced meniscus fragment followed by high T2 line through the meniscus, intermediate-to-high T2 line through the meniscus, and irregular meniscus contour. (orig.)

  12. MRI characteristics of torn and untorn post-operative menisci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Rosas, Humberto; Liu, Fang; Williams, Adam

    2017-01-01

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of torn and untorn post-operative menisci. The study group consisted of 140 patients with 148 partially resected menisci who were evaluated with a repeat knee MRI examination and subsequent repeat arthroscopic knee surgery. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively assessed the following MRI characteristics of the post-operative meniscus: contour (smooth or irregular), T2 line through the meniscus (no line, intermediate signal line, intermediate-to-high signal line, and high fluid-like signal line), displaced meniscus fragment, and change in signal pattern through the meniscus compared with baseline MRI. Positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated using arthroscopy as the reference standard. All 36 post-operative menisci with no T2 line were untorn at surgery (100% NPV), whereas 46 of the 79 post-operative menisci with intermediate T2 line, 16 of the 18 post-operative menisci with intermediate-to-high T2 line, and 14 of the 15 post-operative menisci with high T2 line were torn at surgery (58.2%, 88.9%, and 93.3% PPV respectively). Additional MRI characteristics associated with torn post-operative meniscus at surgery were irregular meniscus contour (PPV 85.7%), displaced meniscus fragment (PPV 100%), and change in signal pattern through the meniscus (PPV 99.4%). Post-operative menisci with no T2 signal line were untorn at surgery. The most useful MRI characteristics for predicting torn post-operative menisci at surgery were change in signal pattern through the meniscus compared with baseline MRI, and displaced meniscus fragment followed by high T2 line through the meniscus, intermediate-to-high T2 line through the meniscus, and irregular meniscus contour. (orig.)

  13. Risk factors for postoperative complications in robotic general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantola, Giovanni; Brunaud, Laurent; Nguyen-Thi, Phi-Linh; Germain, Adeline; Ayav, Ahmet; Bresler, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    The feasibility and safety of robotically assisted procedures in general surgery have been reported from various groups worldwide. Because postoperative complications may lead to longer hospital stays and higher costs overall, analysis of risk factors for postoperative surgical complications in this subset of patients is clinically relevant. The goal of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative morbidity after robotic surgical procedures in general surgery. We performed an observational monocentric retrospective study. All consecutive robotic surgical procedures from November 2001 to December 2013 were included. One thousand consecutive general surgery patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean overall postoperative morbidity and major postoperative morbidity (Clavien >III) rates were 20.4 and 6 %, respectively. This included a conversion rate of 4.4 %, reoperation rate of 4.5 %, and mortality rate of 0.2 %. Multivariate analysis showed that ASA score >3 [OR 1.7; 95 % CI (1.2-2.4)], hematocrit value surgery [OR 1.5; 95 % CI (1-2)], advanced dissection [OR 5.8; 95 % CI (3.1-10.6)], and multiquadrant surgery [OR 2.5; 95 % CI (1.7-3.8)] remained independent risk factors for overall postoperative morbidity. It also showed that advanced dissection [OR 4.4; 95 % CI (1.9-9.6)] and multiquadrant surgery [OR 4.4; 95 % CI (2.3-8.5)] remained independent risk factors for major postoperative morbidity (Clavien >III). This study identifies independent risk factors for postoperative overall and major morbidity in robotic general surgery. Because these factors independently impacted postoperative complications, we believe they could be taken into account in future studies comparing conventional versus robot-assisted laparoscopic procedures in general surgery.

  14. Computed tomography findings of early abdominal postoperative complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zissin, R.; Osadchy, A.; Gayer, G.

    2007-01-01

    Various surgical approaches are used for different abdominal pathological conditions. Postoperative complications occur not infrequently and vary according to the type of the surgery and the clinical context. Nowadays, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) provides superb anatomic detail and diagnostic accuracy for various intraabdominal pathological processes, even if clinically unsuspected, and it thus has become an essential diagnostic tool for evaluating postoperative insults. Other advantages of abdominal MDCT include its accessibility and its speed, which allow scanning of uncooperative, marginally stable patients. Computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous (PC) drainage of postoperative collections is another advantage of CT. Therefore, although CT requires transportation of a critically ill, postoperative patient, it is recommended in any suspicious clinical setting because several conditions require prompt management and a correct diagnosis is crucial. In assessing a patient for suspected postoperative complications, several points should be taken into consideration, including the relevant clinical and laboratory data, the surgical findings, the type of the surgery, the time elapsed since surgery, and the operative technique (either open laparotomy of laparoscopic procedure). (author)

  15. Clinical factors associated with postoperative hydronephrosis after ureteroscopic lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to determine the predictors of ipsilateral hydronephrosis after ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2014, a total of 204 patients with ureteral calculi who underwent ureteroscopic lithotripsy were reviewed. Patients with lack of clinical data, presence of ureteral rupture, and who underwent simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL were excluded. Postoperative hydronephrosis was determined via computed tomographic scan or renal ultrasonography, at 6 months after ureteroscopic lithotripsy. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine clinical factors associated with ipsilateral hydronephrosis. Results: A total of 137 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the patients was 58.8±14.2 years and the mean stone size was 10.0±4.6 mm. The stone-free rate was 85.4%. Overall, 44 of the 137 patients (32.1% had postoperative hydronephrosis. Significant differences between the hydronephrosis and nonhydronephrosis groups were noted in terms of stone location, preoperative hydronephrosis, impacted stone, operation time, and ureteral stent duration (all, p<0.05. On multivariable analysis, increasing preoperative diameter of the hydronephrotic kidney (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.31; p=0.001 and impacted stone (adjusted OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.15–7.61; p=0.031 independently predicted the occurrence of postoperative hydronpehrosis. Conclusions: Large preoperative diameter of the hydronephrotic kidney and presence of impacted stones were associated with hydronephrosis after ureteroscopic stone removal. Therefore, patients with these predictive factors undergo more intensive imaging follow-up in order to prevent renal deterioration due to postoperative hydronephrosis.

  16. Parasympathetic denervation increases responses to VIP in isolated rat parotid acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter found in the salivary glands of many species, including the rat parotid gland. Parasympathetic denervation has been reported to deplete VIP in the rat parotid gland and to lead to supersensitivity to this peptide in vivo. We have compared the effects of VIP on acini isolated from parasympathetically denervated and unoperated parotid glands to examine possible supersensitivity to the peptide in vitro. VIP normally produced responses similar to those obtained with a low concentration of the beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO), but strikingly different from the effects obtained with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (CARB). In parotid membrane preparations, VIP stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Dissociated acini treated with VIP showed increases in cAMP accumulation and amylase release which were potentiated by forskolin and also by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. After parasympathetic denervation, maximal effects of VIP on adenylate cyclase, cAMP accumulation and amylase release in intact cells were increased two- to five-fold over contralateral control (or unoperated) parotid responses. The increase in adenylate cyclase-mediated responses after denervation was specific to VIP; there was no increased response nor increased sensitivity of any of these responses to ISO. Specific [125I]VIP binding to parotid acini increased two-fold per gland and three-fold per mg of protein after denervation; this probably explains the observed increases in the response to VIP

  17. Postoperative radiation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and target volume delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yingming Zhu,* Minghuan Li,* Li Kong, Jinming Yu Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and patients who are treated with surgery alone, without neoadjuvant therapies, experience frequent relapses. Whether postoperative therapies could reduce the recurrence or improve overall survival is still controversial for these patients. The purpose of our review is to figure out the value of postoperative adjuvant therapy and address the disputes about target volume delineation according to published data. Based on the evidence of increased morbidity and disadvantages on patient survival caused by postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy (RT alone provided by studies in the early 1990s, the use of postoperative adjuvant therapies in cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has diminished substantially and has been replaced gradually by neoadjuvant chemoradiation. With advances in surgery and RT, accumulating evidence has recently rekindled interest in the delivery of postoperative RT or chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage T3/T4 or N1 (lymph node positive carcinomas after radical surgery. However, due to complications with the standard radiation field, a nonconforming modified field has been adopted in most studies. Therefore, we analyze different field applications and provide suggestions on the optimization of the radiation field based on the major sites of relapse and the surgical non-clearance area. For upper and middle thoracic esophageal carcinomas, the bilateral supraclavicular and superior mediastinal areas remain common sites of recurrence and should be encompassed within the clinical target volume. In contrast, a consensus has yet to be reached regarding lower thoracic esophageal carcinomas; the

  18. Early postoperative cartilage evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging using T2 mapping after arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kammei; Arai, Yuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Kan, Hiroyuki; Matsuki, Tomohiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to quantitatively evaluate postoperative changes in cartilage by T2 mapping after arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy. The study enrolled 17 patients with 20 knees that underwent arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy. MRI was performed preoperatively and at six months postoperatively, with subjects evaluated by T2 mapping of the central part of the medial condyle of the femur in the sagittal plane. Regions of interest (ROIs) were set at 10 points between the point of intersection of the anatomical axis of the femur and the articular surface of the medial condyle and posterior area approximately 90 degrees to the anatomical axis. Pre- and postoperative T2 values at each ROI were evaluated. Postoperative T2 values were significantly longer than preoperative values at approximately 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees to the anatomical axis of the femur. The maximum change between pre- and postoperative T2 values was +6.65% at 30 degrees to the anatomical axis. Mechanical stress at positions approximately 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees relative to the anatomical axis of the femur increased soon after arthroscopic medial meniscectomy. These findings indicate the start of degeneration, via disorganization of collagen arrays, of the articular cartilage and increased water content. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Outpatient outcomes and satisfaction in pediatric population: data from the postoperative phone call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenn, B Randall; Choudhry, Dinesh K; Sacks, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Quality and patient/parent satisfaction are goals for pediatric perioperative services. As part of the implementation of our operating room electronic medical record (EMR), a postoperative phone call questionnaire was developed to assess patients discharged after outpatient surgery. The goal of this initiative was to determine the rate of common postoperative complications and understand reasons for patient/parent dissatisfaction. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for chart review. The postoperative phone call survey was attempted by our postanesthesia care unit nursing staff on all pediatric outpatients. The call was attempted for 3 days. From 2009 to 2013, more than 37 000 phone records existed in our EMR, Epic Optime (Epic Systems, Verona, WI). These data were extracted to a business intelligence (BI) program, QlikView (Qliktech, Radnor, PA, USA). A BI dashboard was constructed to obtain phone call results for any given time frame from monthly to spanning several years. Complications were logged as 4-point severity rating scales (none, mild, moderate, severe) with descriptions for each level. The BI dashboard calculated the overall and rates by severity for the following: (i) nausea, (ii) vomiting, (iii) pain, (iv) bleeding, (v) hoarseness, and (vi) difficulty eating. Of 42 688 outpatient cases, 37 620 postoperative phone calls were completed for an overall response rate of 88%. Pain, at 11.1%, was the highest reported postoperative complication. The rate of dissatisfaction was reported to be 0.31%. Most patients reporting dissatisfaction (62%) did not report any complications. Contingency coefficient showed that there was little relationship between satisfaction and presence of complications. A postoperative phone survey is cost-effective and appreciated by patients. We found that satisfaction with our perioperative services was not related to the rates of reported complications. Although reducing complications is of utmost importance

  20. Postoperative radiological survey of colorectal anastomoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, G.; Danesini, G.; Frigerio, L.F.; Pestalozza, M.A.; Severini, A.; Bellomi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The early postoperative study of colo-rectal anastomoses is a common diagnostic procedure with symptomatic patients which is extended to asymptomatic patients by some authors. Eighty-eight anastomotic fistulas were early diagnosed after intervention in 316 patients who underwent a water-soluble contrast enema. Four out of these fistulas (4.5%) could not be demonstrated at complete filling on X-ray, but were only opacified on radiographs taken after the spontaneous evacuation of contrast medium. The increase in endoluminal pressure due to the evacuation and the lack of ballooon catheter probably play a role in allowing these fistulas to be visualized

  1. The importance of extreme weight percentile in postoperative morbidity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stey, Anne M; Moss, R Lawrence; Kraemer, Kari; Cohen, Mark E; Ko, Clifford Y; Lee Hall, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    Anthropometric data are important indicators of child health. This study sought to determine whether anthropometric data of extreme weight were significant predictors of perioperative morbidity in pediatric surgery. This was a cohort study of children 29 days up to 18 years of age undergoing surgical procedures at participating American College of Surgeons' NSQIP Pediatric hospitals in 2011 and 2012. The primary outcomes were composite morbidity and surgical site infection. The primary predictor of interest was weight percentile, which was divided into the following categories: ≤5(th) percentile, 6(th) to 94(th), or ≥95(th) percentile. A hierarchical multivariate logistic model, adjusting for procedure case mix, demographic, and clinical patient characteristic variables, was used to quantify the relationship between weight percentile category and outcomes. Children in the ≤5th weight percentile had 1.19-fold higher odds of overall postoperative morbidity developing than children in the nonextreme range (95% CI, 1.10-1.30) when controlling for clinical variables. Yet these children did not have higher odds of surgical site infection developing. Children in the ≥95(th) weight percentile did not have a significant increase in overall postoperative morbidity. However, they were at 1.35-fold increased odds of surgical site infection compared with those in the nonextreme range when controlling for clinical variables (95% CI, 1.16-1.57). Both extremely high and extremely low weight percentile scores can be associated with increased postoperative complications after controlling for clinical variables. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attacking Postoperative Metastases using Perioperative Oncolytic Viruses and Viral Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Lee-Hwa; Auer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection of solid primary malignancies is a mainstay of therapy for cancer patients. Despite being the most effective treatment for these tumors, cancer surgery has been associated with impaired metastatic clearance due to immunosuppression. In preclinical surgery models and human cancer patients, we and others have demonstrated a profound suppression of both natural killer (NK) and T cell function in the postoperative period and this plays a major role in the enhanced development of metastases following surgery. Oncolytic viruses (OV) were originally designed to selectively infect and replicate in tumors, with the primary objective of directly lysing cancer cells. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that OV infection results in a profound inflammatory reaction within the tumor, initiating innate and adaptive immune responses against it that is critical for its therapeutic benefit. This anti-tumor immunity appears to be mediated predominantly by NK and cytotoxic T cells. In preclinical models, we found that preoperative OV prevents postoperative NK cell dysfunction and attenuates tumor dissemination. Due to theoretical safety concerns of administering live virus prior to surgery in cancer patients, we characterized safe, attenuated versions of OV, and viral vaccines that could stimulate NK cells and reduce metastases when administered in the perioperative period. In cancer patients, we observed that in vivo infusion with oncolytic vaccinia virus and ex vivo stimulation with viral vaccines promote NK cell activation. These preclinical studies provide a novel and clinically relevant setting for OV therapy. Our challenge is to identify safe and promising OV therapies that will activate NK and T cells in the perioperative period preventing the establishment of micrometastatic disease in cancer patients. PMID:25161958

  3. MR imaging of avascular femoral head necrosis - pre- and postoperative studies. Prae- und postoperative kernspintomographische Untersuchungen bei avaskulaeren Hueftkopfnekrosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schedel, H; Ziegler, L; Vogl, T; Hilbertz, T; Lissner, J [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Buchner, H [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik

    1992-05-01

    46 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head were examined by T[sub 2]- and T[sub 1]-weighted MR before and after infusion of Gd-DTPA. Both sides were involved in 12 cases. The classification was done according to Ficat. In early stages and in postoperative studies a correlation of signal intensity after infusion of Gd-DTPA and clinical symptoms was found. Hyperintensity of the avascular area or of the implanted material was assumed to be vascularised or vital components in 4 cases of Ficat 1 and 15 postoperative studies. Contrariwise, we found in 5 patients with severe postoperative symptoms, low signal intensity areas due to avascular regions. (orig.).

  4. Preoperative cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels and the risk of postoperative delirium in elderly hip fracture patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging and neurodegenerative disease predispose to delirium and are both associated with increased activity of the innate immune system resulting in an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in the brain. We examined whether hip fracture patients who develop postoperative delirium have altered levels of inflammatory mediators in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) prior to surgery. Methods Patients were 75 years and older and admitted for surgical repair of an acute hip fracture. CSF samples were collected preoperatively. In an exploratory study, we measured 42 cytokines and chemokines by multiplex analysis. We compared CSF levels between patients with and without postoperative delirium and examined the association between CSF cytokine levels and delirium severity. Delirium was diagnosed with the Confusion Assessment Method; severity of delirium was measured with the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98. Mann–Whitney U tests or Student t-tests were used for between-group comparisons and the Spearman correlation coefficient was used for correlation analyses. Results Sixty-one patients were included, of whom 23 patients (37.7%) developed postsurgical delirium. Concentrations of Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (P=0.021), Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (P=0.032) and Interleukin-6 (P=0.005) were significantly lower in patients who developed delirium postoperatively. Conclusions Our findings fit the hypothesis that delirium after surgery results from a dysfunctional neuroinflammatory response: stressing the role of reduced levels of anti-inflammatory mediators in this process. Trial registration The Effect of Taurine on Morbidity and Mortality in the Elderly Hip Fracture Patient. Registration number: NCT00497978. Local ethical protocol number: NL16222.094.07. PMID:24093540

  5. The impact of obesity on early postoperative outcomes in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Ali N; Bauer, John A; Michalsky, Marc P; Olshove, Vincent; Boettner, Bethany; Phillips, Alistair; Cook, Stephen C

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity continues to increase, it now includes the growing number of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). This particular obese patient population may pose additional intraoperative as well as postoperative challenges that may contribute to poor outcomes. Our aims were to determine the influence of obesity on morbidity and mortality in adults with CHD undergoing surgical repair at a free standing children's hospital. A retrospective analysis of adult (≥18 years) CHD surgery cases from 2002 to 2008 was performed. Congenital heart lesions were defined as mild, moderate, or complex. Patients were categorized by body mass index (BMI): underweight (BMI obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Demographics, incidence of mortality, or specific morbidities were statistically compared using Fisher's exact test and analyses of variance (anovas). In this population (n = 165), overweight (29%) and obese (22%) patients were prevalent. Hypertension (HTN) and pre-HTN were more prevalent in obese and overweight patients. Postoperative renal dysfunction was observed in obese patients with complex CHD (P = .04). Mortality was not different among groups. Obesity is becoming increasingly common among adults with CHD. Despite marginal evidence of postoperative renal complications in obese patients with CHD of severe complexity, the overall presence of obesity did not influence mortality or short term postoperative morbidities. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Congenital Heart Disease © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Immediate postoperative complications in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumul Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe.

  7. Influence of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Rong Zeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effect of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients. METHODS: The cataract patients were selected in our hospital. The patients were divided into control group(corneal limbus opposite curved scleral tunnel incision groupand observation group(above the top of cornea or temporal transparent corneal incision grouprandomly. At 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the change of corneal astigmatism and vision of the patients in two groups were compared and analyzed. RESULTS:Compared with control group, 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the average corneal astigmatism and surgically induced corneal astigmatism of the patients in observation group were decreased significantly. The visual acuity and corrected visual acuity were increased significantly. There was statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION: Center distance and small incision corneal phacoemulsification can reduce postoperative astigmatism and improve postoperative visual acuity for cataract patients. It provides guarantee for further strengthen the clinical treated effect for cataract patients.

  8. Routine versus Selective Postoperative Nasogastric Suction In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2005-12-02

    Dec 2, 2005 ... Mobilization of the patient in the postoperative period is dependent on the presence of a NGT. The longer it is kept in place the longer will be the duration of patients' restriction in bed. Prolonged immobilization after surgery infact enhances the risk of postoperative complication like DVT and delays recovery ...

  9. Effect of Music Therapy on Postoperative Pain Management in Gynecological Patients: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Wai Man; Chow, Ka Ming

    2015-12-01

    Unrelieved postoperative pain may have a negative impact on the physiological and psychological well-being of patients. Pharmacological methods are currently used to relieve such pain in gynecological patients; however, inadequate pain control is still reported, and the use of nonpharmacological pain-relieving methods is increasingly being advocated, one of which is music therapy. The purpose of this literature review was to identify, summarize, and critically appraise current evidence on music therapy and postoperative pain management among gynecological patients. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, and Allied and Complementary Medicine was conducted using the search terms music, gynecological, pain, surgery, operative, and post-operative to identify relevant articles in English from 1995 to the present. All identified articles were assessed independently for inclusion into review. A total of 7 articles were included after removal of duplicates and exclusion of irrelevant studies. All the included studies assessed the effects of music therapy on postoperative pain intensity, and three of them measured pain-related physiological symptoms. The findings indicated that music therapy, in general, was effective in reducing pain intensity, fatigue, anxiety, and analgesic consumption in gynecological patients during the postoperative period. It is recommended as an adjunct to pharmacological pain-relieving methods in reducing postoperative pain. Future researches on music therapy to identify the most effective application and evaluate its effect by qualitative study are recommended. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intraoperative performance and postoperative outcomes of microcoaxial phacoemulsification. Observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Viraj; Vasavada, Vaishali; Raj, Shetal M; Vasavada, Abhay R

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the intraoperative performance and postoperative outcomes after microcoaxial phacoemulsification. Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India. A prospective observational case series comprised 84 eyes with age-related uncomplicated cataract having microcoaxial phacoemulsification through a 2.2 mm clear corneal incision by a standard surgical technique. Phacoemulsification parameters (Infiniti Vision System, Alcon) were microburst width, 30 ms; preset power, 50%; vacuum, 650 mm Hg; aspiration flow rate, 25 cc/minute. A single-piece Alcon AcrySof intraocular lens was implanted with the C cartridge (Alcon) cartridge. The incision was measured at the end of surgery. Observations included surgical time (from commencement of sculpting to end of epinucleus removal), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), wound burns, intraoperative complications, postoperative increase in mean central corneal thickness (CCT) at 1 day and 1 month, mean % decrease in endothelial cell density (ECD), absolute mean change in coefficient of variation (cv) 3 months, and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) at 1 day. Data were analyzed using a 1-sample t test with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The mean follow up was 3 months +/- 0.3 (SD). The mean incision size at the end of surgery was 2.3 +/- .09 mm; mean surgical time, 4.5 +/- 1.5 minutes; and mean CDE, 2.3 +/- 2.2 seconds. No wound burns or other intraoperative complications occurred. The postoperative CCT increased by a mean of 16 microm at 1 day (95% CI, 8-25; P = .66;) and by a mean of 3.14 microm at 1 month (95% CI, 2.26-4.05; P = .92). The ECD decreased by a mean of 5.8% (95% CI, 6.8-3.5; P = .82) and the mean coefficient of variation, by 3.3 (95% CI, 4.5-2.0; P = .65). At 1 day, the UCVA was 20/20 in 29% of cases, 20/20 to 20/40 in 58%, and 20/40 to 20/50 in 12%. Microcoaxial phacoemulsification was safely and effectively performed, achieving consistent and satisfactory postoperative outcomes.

  11. Pediatric cardiac postoperative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auler Jr. José Otávio Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo, Medical School is a referral center for the treatment of congenital heart diseases of neonates and infants. In the recent years, the excellent surgical results obtained in our institution may be in part due to modern anesthetic care and to postoperative care based on well-structured protocols. The purpose of this article is to review unique aspects of neonate cardiovascular physiology, the impact of extracorporeal circulation on postoperative evolution, and the prescription for pharmacological support of acute cardiac dysfunction based on our cardiac unit protocols. The main causes of low cardiac output after surgical correction of heart congenital disease are reviewed, and methods of treatment and support are proposed as derived from the relevant literature and our protocols.

  12. Factors Associated with Postoperative Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola O. Nafiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Almost all pediatric orthotopic liver transplant (OLT recipients require mechanical ventilation in the early postoperative period. Prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation (PPMV may be a marker of severe disease and may be associated with morbidity and mortality. We determined the incidence and risk factors for PPMV in children who underwent OLT. Methods. This was a retrospective analysis of data collected on 128 pediatric OLT recipients. PPMV was defined as postoperative ventilation ≥ 4 days. Perioperative characteristics were compared between cases and control groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios for PPMV after controlling for relevant cofactors. Results. An estimated 25% (95% CI, 17.4%–32.6% required PPMV. The overall incidence of PPMV varied significantly by age group with the highest incidence among infants. PPMV was associated with higher postoperative mortality (p=0.004 and longer intensive care unit (p<0.001 and hospital length of stay (p<0.001. Multivariable analysis identified young patient age, preoperative hypocalcemia, and increasing duration of surgery as independent predictors of PPMV following OLT. Conclusion. The incidence of PPMV is high and it was associated with prolonged ICU and hospital LOS and higher posttransplant mortality. Surgery duration appears to be the only modifiable predictor of PPMV.

  13. Management of postoperative urinary retention: a randomized trial of in-out versus overnight catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hung; Lam, Becky

    2004-08-01

    There has been no consensus on the best catheterization strategy for the management of postoperative urinary retention. A prospective randomized trial was undertaken to establish the best practice guidelines for the management of postoperative urinary retention. The authors also evaluated the contemporary incidence of urinary retention following different categories of general surgery and examined risk factors associated with its occurrence. All patients who underwent elective inpatient surgery between January 2002 and June 2003 were recruited into the study. Patients who developed postoperative urinary retention were randomized to either having in-out catheterization or placement of an indwelling catheter for 24 h after surgery. A total of 1448 patients was recruited. The overall incidence of urinary retention was 4.1% (n = 60). Significant risk factors associated with postoperative urinary retention included old age, anorectal procedures and use of spinal anaesthesia. Comparison of re-catheterization and urinary tract infection rates between patients who were treated with in-out versus overnight catheterization found no significant differences. Postoperative urinary retention should be managed by in-out catheterization. Indwelling catheterization for 24 h appeared to bestow no additional benefits. The incidence of urinary retention increases with age, anorectal procedures and the use of spinal anaesthesia.

  14. Increased neural responses to empathy for pain might explain how acute stress increases prosociality

    OpenAIRE

    Tomova, L.; Majdand?i?, J.; Hummer, A.; Windischberger, C.; Heinrichs, M.; Lamm, C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent behavioral investigations suggest that acute stress can increase prosocial behavior. Here, we investigated whether increased empathy represents a potential mechanism for this finding. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed the effects of acute stress on neural responses related to automatic and regulatory components of empathy for pain as well as subsequent prosocial behavior. Stress increased activation in brain areas associated with the automatic sharing of...

  15. [Post-operative infections after cosmetic tourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst-Albrechtsen, Sine; Sørensen, Lene Birk; Juel, Jacob

    2018-06-11

    Cosmetic tourism is defined as patient mobility across borders, typically constituted by patients seeking cosmetic surgery at lower costs abroad. The most common procedures are abdominoplasty, fat grafting and breast augmentation. Very little is known about the complication rates after cosmetic tourism, and there is a paucity of evidence in all aspects of cosmetic tourism. In this review, we focus on post-operative complications i.e. post-operative infections, in particular with rare microorganisms such as mycobacteria.

  16. Can MRI diffusion-weighted imaging identify postoperative residual/recurrent soft-tissue sarcomas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Maher ElDaly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI and quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC mapping in the detection of recurrent/residual postoperative soft tissue sarcomas. Materials and Methods: This study included 36 patients; 27 patients had postoperative recurrent/residual soft tissue sarcomas and 9 patients had postoperative and treatment-related changes (inflammation/fibrosis. The DWI was obtained with 3 b values including 0, 400, and 800 s/mm2. Calculation of the ADC value of the lesion was done via placing the region of interest (ROI to include the largest area of the lesion. ADC values were compared to histopathology. Results: Our results showed that including CE-MRI improved the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in recurrence detection compared to conventional non-enhanced sequences. However, it showed low specificity (55.56% with a high false-positive rate that may lead to an unnecessary biopsy of a mass such as region of postoperative scar tissue. Conclusion: The joint use of gadolinium-enhanced MRI and quantitative DWI with ADC mapping offer added value in the detection of recurrent/residual postoperative soft tissue sarcoma. This combined use increased both the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity with a cut-off average ADC value for detecting nonmyxoid recurrent/residual lesions ≤1.3 × 10−3 mm2/s (100% specificity and 90.48% sensitivity. Our results showed limited value of DWI with ADC mapping in assessing myxoid sarcomatous tumor recurrences.

  17. EVALUATION OF POSTOPERATIVE VISUAL OUTCOME IN TRAUMATIC CATARACT AND A STUDY OF POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS IN SUCH CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Bhattacharjee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cataract formation is commonly observed as a result of blunt or penetrating ocular injury and constitutes one of major causes of acute or longstanding visual loss. The surgical technique, timing of surgery and postoperative complications have all been considered to be significant factors in determining the final visual outcome. The aim of the present study is to evaluate postoperative visual outcome in a series of patients with traumatic cataract and to assess the postoperative complications conducted at IQ City Medical College, Durgapur, West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS A consecutive series of 45 patients with traumatic cataract were carefully selected from outpatient department between May 2015 and April 2017. All the patients had undergone manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS with IOL implantation. Postoperative visual outcome and postoperative complications were assessed. RESULTS Corrected Visual Acuity (VA at the end of 6th week in 45 cases ranged between 6/6 and 6/60. Subjective correction with glasses ranged from -2 dioptre spherical to +1.5 dioptre spherical. 25 cases (55.5% had VA 6/6-6/9, 15 cases (33.3% had VA of 6/12 to 6/18, 4 cases (8.9% had VA between 6/24 and 6/36 and 1 case had VA 6/60. The group which had VA between 6/12 and 6/18 was due to the presence of posterior capsular opacification. CONCLUSION The present study reveals most of the traumatic cataract cases had favourable visual outcome. Considering the fact that a good number of paediatric patients were treated in this study, it assumes more significance with the favourable visual outcome that could be achieved, thus preventing deprivation amblyopia and blindness.

  18. Ketamine added to morphine or hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia for acute postoperative pain in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Johnston, Bradley; Kaushal, Alka; Cheng, Davy; Zhu, Fang; Martin, Janet

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether ketamine added to morphine or hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) provides clinically relevant reductions in postoperative pain, opioid requirements, and adverse events when compared with morphine or hydromorphone PCA in adults undergoing surgery. We systematically searched six databases up to June 2, 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ketamine plus morphine/hydromorphone PCA vs morphine/hydromorphone PCA for postoperative pain in adults. Thirty-six RCTs including 2,502 patients proved eligible, and 22 of these were at low risk of bias. The addition of ketamine to morphine/hydromorphone PCA decreased postoperative pain intensity at six to 72 hr when measured at rest (weighted mean difference [WMD] on a 10-cm visual analogue scale ranged from -0.4 to -1.3 cm) and during mobilization (WMD ranged from -0.4 to -0.5 cm). Adjunctive ketamine also significantly reduced cumulative morphine consumption at 24-72 hr by approximately 5-20 mg. Predefined subgroup analyses and meta-regression did not detect significant differences across subgroups, including a dose-response relationship. There was no significant difference in patient satisfaction scores at 24 and 48 hr. Nevertheless, the addition of ketamine to morphine/hydromorphone PCA significantly reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting (relative risk, 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.85; absolute risk reduction, 8.9%; 95% CI, 4.6 to 12.2). Significant effects on other adverse events (e.g., hallucinations, vivid dreams) were not detected, though only a few studies reported on them. Adding ketamine to morphine/hydromorphone PCA provides a small improvement in postoperative analgesia while reducing opioid requirements. Adjunctive ketamine also reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting without a detected increase in other adverse effects; however, adverse events were probably underreported.

  19. Effect on bone density of postoperative calcium and vitamin-D supplementation in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, Erik; Westerdahl, Johan; Bergenfelz, Anders

    2009-05-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is associated with decreased bone density and increased fracture risk. A significant number of pHPT patients have low calcium intake and suffer from vitamin deficiency. Thus, we adopted a policy of postoperative supplements with calcium and vitamin D after parathyroid surgery. In this study, we investigated if this policy enhanced the postoperative increase in bone density. Forty-two consecutive patients (83% female) were studied. The first 21 patients received no supplements, whereas the following 21 patients received 1,000 g calcium and 800 IU hydroxy D: -vitamin daily (Ca-D group) for 1 year postoperatively. The patients were monitored with bone density and biochemistry pre- and at 1 year postoperatively. Preoperatively, the patients without vitamin D supplementation (non-Ca-D group) did neither differ in biochemistry, clinical features, nor in bone density from patients in Ca-D group. Postoperatively, there was a tendency that patients in Ca-D group increased their bone density, at all sites measured, in a greater extent than patients that did not receive calcium and vitamin D supplementation. In conclusion, based on our results, it is difficult to give a recommendation of vitamin D supplementation in routine use following surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. Based on the present data, a calculation of sample size for a future randomized controlled trial is presented.

  20. Mitomycin-augmented non-penetrating deep sclerectomy: preoperative gonioscopy and postoperative perimetric, tonometric and medication trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsel, William Eric; Groth, Sylvia Linner

    2013-03-01

    Non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) can enhance drainage of aqueous humour without disrupting the trabecular endothelial layer, reducing risks of postoperative hypotony and hyphema. This study explores associations of angle morphology with surgical efficacy in eyes with open and obstructed angles. Eighty-nine consecutive eyes undergoing successful NPDS (non-implant, with 0.4 mg/ml mitomycin C and limbus-based two-layer closure) were studied in this institutional review board-approved retrospective quality assurance study. Postoperative complication frequency, intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma medications required and acuity were monitored (baseline vs 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-month postoperative levels), along with 30-2 Humphrey MD and corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) (baseline vs 6, 12 and 18-month postoperative values). Preoperative gonioscopy was compared with the subsequent requirement for specific postoperative interventions. IOP at all five postoperative intervals was reduced (22 ± 0.9 to 12 ± 0.5 mm Hg; p<0.0001). No hyphema were observed. Postoperative hypotony (IOP < 4 mm Hg) occurred rarely (8/445; 1.8%). Mean glaucoma medication use dropped from 3.1 ± 0.1 to 0.23 ± 0.1 at 18 months (p<0.0001). Mean 30-2 MD improved by approximately 1.4 dB at 6, 12 and 18 months (p<0.002); CPSD remained stable. Following NPDS, a sustained IOP decrease of 10 mm Hg (45%) was attained, with stable acuity, increased perimetric generalised light sensitivity and 90% reduction in medical therapy requirement. Morbidity risk was associated with narrow gonioscopic angle insertion and synechia, but not with shallow approach or trabecular pigmentation.

  1. Imaging of postoperative knee extensor mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motamedi, Kambiz [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Musculoskeletal Imaging-Department of Radiology, 200 Medical Plaza, Suite 165-59, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Seeger, Leanne L. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Musculoskeletal Imaging-Department of Radiology, 200 Medical Plaza, Suite 165-57, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Hame, Sharon L. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Box 956902, 76-143 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Disorders of the anterior knee are common and include patellofemoral syndrome, patella instability, patella fracture, and patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures. Depending on the operative procedure performed, the post-operative imaging appearance of these knees may be confusing. It is crucial for the radiologist to be familiar with the procedures performed in order to recognize the postoperative findings. Radiologists must be able to interpret hardware (anchors, screw and wires) and disruptions in soft tissue planes that may persist with these types of procedures.

  2. Impact of enteral nutrition on postoperative immune function and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Hou, M X; Wu, X L; Bao, L D; Dong, P D

    2015-06-10

    We studied the effects of enteral nutrition (EN) support initiated 1 week before surgery on postoperative nutritional status, immune function, and inflammatory response in gastric cancer patients. A total of 200 gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into two groups: EN starting 1 week before surgery (study group) and EN starting early after surgery (control group). The two groups received EN support, following different therapeutic schedules, until the 9th day after operation. In the patients, body weight, skinfold thickness, upper-arm circumference, white blood cell count, albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, peripheral immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), T lymphocyte subsets, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 10 days before and after surgery and on the first day after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of recovery time of passage of gas by anus, abdominal distension, stomachache, blood glucose, hepatic and renal functions, and electrolytes between the two groups of patients (P > 0. 05). Adverse reactions occurred to both groups at 1 and 2 days after operation. Such conditions was improved after the intravenous drip rate was adjusted. The albumin and prealbumin levels of the patients in both groups decreased at 1 day after operation (P gastric cancer patients can improve their postoperative nutritional status and immune function, can reduce inflammatory response, and is more conducive to the recovery of patients.

  3. Postoperative course of chronic subdural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tsubone, Kyoji; Kyuma, Yoshikazu; Kuwabara, Takeo

    1983-01-01

    1) Fourty cases of chronic subdural hematoma were operated on by trephination, irrigation and external drainage. Postoperative neurological recovery and decrease of hematoma cavity on CT scan were followed. 2) Operation were effective for recovery of neurological grade in 28 cases, moderately effective in 7 cases and not effective in 5 cases. 3) Withinthe tenth postoperative day, more than half residual hematoma cavity existed in 53% of examined cases. After that, more than half residual cavity existed in only 17%. 4) Preoperative feature of neurologically unimproved cases were no definite history of head trauma and water like low density of hematoma cavity. Postoperative feature was persistence of more than three fourth of residual hematoma cavity on CT scan. 5) A group of unimproved cases described above are thought to have a feature of subdural hygroma rather than subdural hematoma. When possibility of subdural hygroma is high in preoperative differential diagnosis, indication of operation should be different from chronic subdural hematoma. (author)

  4. Prolonged amelioration of experimental postoperative pain by bupivacaine released from microsphere-coated hernia mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, Rachit; Wang, Jeffery Chi-Fei; Pham, Lan; Blaskovich, Phillip D; Costa, Daniel; Nichols, Gary; Hildebrand, William; Scarborough, Nelson; Herman, Clifford; Strichartz, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative pain alters physiological functions and delays discharge. Perioperative local anesthetics are effective analgesics in the immediate 1- to 2-day postoperative period, but acute pain often lasts longer. The goal of this work was to develop a local anesthetic formulation adhering to an intraoperative implanted device that reduces pain for at least 3 days after surgery. Six groups, each with 8 rats, were studied. In a control group (group I), one 1.2-cm-long incision of the skin was followed by blunt dissection to separate the skin away from the underlying tissues and closing with 2 sutures. In 3 of the treatment groups, the same surgical procedure was used, with the subcutaneous space formed by the blunt dissection lined with a 1-cm square patch of hernia mesh coated with poly lactide co-glycolic acid microspheres containing approximately 17 mg of bupivacaine (group II), no drug (placebo; group III), or bupivacaine free-base powder (group IV). Uncoated mesh implants (group V) served as a secondary control. A standard bupivacaine solution (0.4 mL, 0.5%; 2-mg dose) was infiltrated subcutaneously 30 minutes before the surgery and served as a standard control (group VI). Mechanosensitivity of the skin was tested by the local subcutaneous muscle responses to cutaneous tactile stimulation by von Frey hairs with forces of 4 g (for allodynia) and 15 g (for hyperalgesia) preoperatively and for 7 postoperative days. Control rats (group I) showed mechanohypersensitivity, indicative of postoperative allodynia and hyperalgesia, for all 7 postoperative days. Mechanohyperalgesia in rats that received mesh coated with bupivacaine-releasing microspheres (group II) was reduced during this period to 13% of control postoperative values (P < 0.001); mesh coated with bupivacaine base (group IV) reduced it by 50% (P = 0.034). The placebo mesh (group III) and uncoated mesh (group V) caused no significant reduction of mechanohypersensitivity, and bupivacaine solution infiltrated

  5. Postoperative hypoxia and length of intensive care unit stay after cardiac surgery: the underweight paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ranucci

    Full Text Available Cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass can be associated with postoperative lung dysfunction. The present study investigates the incidence of postoperative hypoxia after cardiac surgery, its relationship with the length of intensive care unit stay, and the role of body mass index in determining postoperative hypoxia and intensive care unit length of stay.Single-center, retrospective study.University Hospital. Patients. Adult patients (N = 5,023 who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB.None.According to the body mass index, patients were attributed to six classes, and obesity was defined as a body mass index >30. POH was defined as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <200 at the arrival in the intensive care unit. Postoperative hypoxia was detected in 1,536 patients (30.6%. Obesity was an independent risk factor for postoperative hypoxia (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 2.05-2.78, P = 0.001 and postoperative hypoxia was a determinant of intensive care unit length of stay. There is a significant inverse correlation between body mass index and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, with the risk of postoperative hypoxia increasing by 1.7 folds per each incremental body mass index class. The relationship between body mass index and intensive care unit length of stay is U-shaped, with longer intensive care unit stay in underweight patients and moderate-morbid obese patients.Obese patients are at higher risk for postoperative hypoxia, but this leads to a prolonged intensive care unit stay only for moderate-morbid obese patients. Obese patients are partially protected against the deleterious effects of hemodilution and transfusions. Underweight patients present the "paradox" of a better lung gas exchange but a longer intensive care unit stay. This is probably due to a higher severity of their cardiac disease.

  6. Extended release local anesthetic agents in a postoperative arthritic pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickowicz, Diana E; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Haze, Amir; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics play an important role in postoperative pain management in orthopedic joint procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an intraoperative extra-articular injection of poly(DL-lactic acid co castor oil 3:7), p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 loaded with 15% bupivacaine, for postoperative analgesia following knee arthroplasty. Prolonged release local anesthetic formulation was synthesized by mixing p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 with bupivacaine base. Under anesthesia, the knee joint of Sprague-Dawley rats was exposed, a hole drilled in the femoral trochlea. 0.2 mL of either 15% polymer-bupivacaine formulation or plain bupivacaine (control) was injected locally and compared with a nonsurgery control group. Mechanical hyperalgesia was determined by counting the vocalizations and leg withdrawal after joint squeezing. Behavioral assessments over a day postoperative period revealed a reduction in rearing and ambulation in an open-field apparatus in animals of both experimental groups compared with the nonsurgery control. The vocalizations during the hyperalgesia test increased compared with the control at 24 h. At 48 h, 3.667 ± 0.5138, p = 0.0076 vocalizations were recorded for the plain bupivacaine group versus 1.417 ± 0.5138, p < 0.0001 in the 15% polymer-bupivacaine formulation. Bupivacaine encapsulated in p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 extended the duration of the analgesia compared with plain drug in rats and could represent effective postoperative analgesic in orthopedic joint procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Scalp Nerve Block pada Kraniotomi Evakuasi Pasien Moderate Head Injury dengan Subdural Hemorrhage dan Intracerebral Hemorrhage Frontotemporoparietal Dekstra Mencegah Stress Response Selama dan Pascabedah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Gunadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin incision and craniotomy are recognized as an acute noxious stimulation during intracranial surgery which may result in stress response causing an increase in intracranial pressure. Scalp nerve block may be effective in reducing stress response. It can also be used to provide post-operative analgesia. A twenty two years old male with moderate head injury, subdural hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage at right fronto-temporo-parietal region underwent evacuation craniotomy with combined scalp nerve block and general anesthesia at Dr. Hasan General Sadikin Hospital Bandung on August 14th 2012. After induction and before incision of the skin, a scalp nerve block was performed using 0.5% bupivacaine. Hemodynamic (blood pressure and heart rate changes after incision of the skin and craniotomy were not significant, and so was post-operative blood glucose concentration. Post-operative analgetic was given eight hours after the block. The result demonstrates that scalp nerve block using 0.5% bupivacaine successfully blunts stress response and can be used as post-operative analgesia.

  8. Postoperative complications and mortality after major gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobson, Triin; Karjagin, Juri; Vipp, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The incidence of postoperative complications and death is low in the general population, but a subgroup of high-risk patients can be identified amongst whom adverse postoperative outcomes occur more frequently. The present study was undertaken to describe the incidence o...

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of routine postoperative body temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Hester; Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Goossens, Astrid; Speelman, Peter; Legemate, Dink A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On surgical wards, body temperature is routinely measured, but there is no proof that this is useful for detecting postoperative infection. The aim of this study was to compare temperature measurements (the test) with the confirmed absence or presence of a postoperative infection (the

  10. Perioperative management in order to minimise postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Results from a Swedish web-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pether K. Jildenstål

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Swedish anaesthesia personnel are concerned about the risk of postoperative cognitive side-effects but are more concerned about cardiovascular/pulmonary risks, pain, PONV and the rare event of awareness. Most respondents were not convinced about the use of depth-of-anaesthesia monitors. There is a need to improve knowledge around risk factors, prevention and management of postoperative cognitive side effects.

  11. Postoperative ileus involves interleukin-1 receptor signaling in enteric glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, Burkhard; Hupa, Kristof Johannes; Snoek, Susanne A; van Bree, Sjoerd; Stein, Kathy; Schwandt, Timo; Vilz, Tim O; Lysson, Mariola; Veer, Cornelis Van't; Kummer, Markus P; Hornung, Veit; Kalff, Joerg C; de Jonge, Wouter J; Wehner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common consequence of abdominal surgery that increases the risk of postoperative complications and morbidity. We investigated the cellular mechanisms and immune responses involved in the pathogenesis of POI. We studied a mouse model of POI in which intestinal manipulation leads to inflammation of the muscularis externa and disrupts motility. We used C57BL/6 (control) mice as well as mice deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokine signaling components (TLR-2(-/-), TLR-4(-/-), TLR-2/4(-/-), MyD88(-/-), MyD88/TLR adaptor molecule 1(-/-), interleukin-1 receptor [IL-1R1](-/-), and interleukin (IL)-18(-/-) mice). Bone marrow transplantation experiments were performed to determine which cytokine receptors and cell types are involved in the pathogenesis of POI. Development of POI did not require TLRs 2, 4, or 9 or MyD88/TLR adaptor molecule 2 but did require MyD88, indicating a role for IL-1R1. IL-1R1(-/-) mice did not develop POI; however, mice deficient in IL-18, which also signals via MyD88, developed POI. Mice given injections of an IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) or antibodies to deplete IL-1α and IL-1β before intestinal manipulation were protected from POI. Induction of POI activated the inflammasome in muscularis externa tissues of C57BL6 mice, and IL-1α and IL-1β were released in ex vivo organ bath cultures. In bone marrow transplantation experiments, the development of POI required activation of IL-1 receptor in nonhematopoietic cells. IL-1R1 was expressed by enteric glial cells in the myenteric plexus layer, and cultured primary enteric glia cells expressed IL-6 and the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in response to IL-1β stimulation. Immunohistochemical analysis of human small bowel tissue samples confirmed expression of IL-1R1 in the ganglia of the myenteric plexus. IL-1 signaling, via IL-1R1 and MyD88, is required for development of POI after intestinal manipulation in mice. Agents that interfere with

  12. Postoperative mortality after inpatient surgery: Incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarie Fecho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Karamarie Fecho1, Anne T Lunney1, Philip G Boysen1, Peter Rock2, Edward A Norfleet11Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USAPurpose: This study determined the incidence of and identified risk factors for 48 hour (h and 30 day (d postoperative mortality after inpatient operations.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Anesthesiology’s Quality Indicator database as the main data source. The database was queried for data related to the surgical procedure, anesthetic care, perioperative adverse events, and birth/death/operation dates. The 48 h and 30 d cumulative incidence of postoperative mortality was calculated and data were analyzed using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test and generalized estimating equations.Results: The 48 h and 30 d incidence of postoperative mortality was 0.57% and 2.1%, respectively. Higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores, extremes of age, emergencies, perioperative adverse events and postoperative Intensive Care Unit admission were identified as risk factors. The use of monitored anesthesia care or general anesthesia versus regional or combined anesthesia was a risk factor for 30 d postoperative mortality only. Time under anesthesia care, perioperative hypothermia, trauma, deliberate hypotension and invasive monitoring via arterial, pulmonary artery or cardiovascular catheters were not identified as risk factors.Conclusions: Our findings can be used to track postoperative mortality rates and to test preventative interventions at our institution and elsewhere.Keywords: postoperative mortality, risk factors, operations, anesthesia, inpatient surgery

  13. Fosaprepitant versus ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients who undergo gynecologic abdominal surgery with patient-controlled epidural analgesia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Tomohiro; Kume, Katsuyoshi; Kakuta, Nami; Hamaguchi, Eisuke; Tsutsumi, Rie; Kawanishi, Ryosuke; Fukuta, Kohei; Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is the most common postoperative complication. The postoperative use of opioids is known to increase the incidence. We compared fosaprepitant, a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, and ondansetron for their preventive effects on PONV in patients who underwent gynecologic abdominal surgery with patient-controlled epidural analgesia. This prospective, double-blind, randomized study comprised 44 patients who underwent gynecologic abdominal surgery. They were randomly allocated to receive 150 mg intravenous fosaprepitant (n = 24; NKI group) or 4 mg ondansetron (n = 20; ONS group) before anesthesia, which was maintained with volatile anesthetics, remifentanil, fentanyl, and rocuronium. All patients received postoperative fentanyl by patient-controlled epidural anesthesia. The incidence of nausea and vomiting, complete response rate (i.e., no vomiting and no rescue antiemetic use), rescue antiemetic use, nausea score (0-3), and visual analog scale score (VAS 0-10) for pain were recorded at 2, 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery. No (0 %) patient in the NKI group experienced vomiting after surgery; however, 4-6 (20-30 %) of 20 patients in the ONS group experienced vomiting. This difference was significant at 0-24, 0-48, and 0-72 h. During the study period, no significant differences existed between the NK1 and ONS groups in the incidence of PONV, complete response rate, rescue antiemetic use, nausea score, and VAS score for pain. Compared to ondansetron, fosaprepitant more effectively decreased the incidence of vomiting in patients who underwent gynecologic abdominal surgery with patient-controlled epidural analgesia.

  14. Heart Rate Variability Responses of Individuals With and Without Saline-Induced Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Bradley, T Douglas; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S; Rubianto, Jonathan; Gavrilovic, Bojan; Perger, Elisa; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2018-03-30

    Postoperative development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been attributed to the fluid overloaded state of patients during the postoperative period. In this context, alterations in cardiac autonomic regulation caused by OSA may explain the increased postoperative risk for adverse cardiovascular events. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with fluid overload-induced OSA will experience autonomic dysregulation, compared to those without fluid overload-induced OSA. Twenty-one normotensive, nonobese (mean body mass index 24.5 kg/m2) males (mean age 37 years) underwent a sleep study. Participants were randomly assigned to infusion with saline during sleep either at the minimum rate (control) or as a bolus of 22 mL/kg body weight (intervention). Participants were blinded to the intervention and crossed over to the other study arm after 1 week. Measures of heart rate variability were calculated from electrocardiography recordings presaline and postsaline infusion in the intervention arm. Heart rate variability measures computed were: standard deviation of the RR interval; root mean square of successive differences; low-frequency, high-frequency, and total power; and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power. Although presaline infusion values were similar, postsaline infusion values of the standard deviation of the RR interval and high-frequency power were lower in the group whose apnea-hypopnea index increased in response to saline infusion, compared to the group whose apnea-hypopnea index did not increase in response to saline infusion ( P variability, consistent with vagal withdrawal. Future work should explore autonomic dysregulation in the postoperative period and its association with adverse events. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Postoperative studies following ventral and dorsal cystotomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was however no urine leakage into the peritoneal cavity following either of the approaches. The incision wounds were also seen to have healed by the fourteen postoperative day when the postmortem studies were carried out. KEY WORDS: Cystotomy, incisions, postoperative, adhesions, dogs. Nigerian Veterinary ...

  16. Postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients on statins undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The efficacy of perioperative statin therapy in decreasing postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing valve replacements and repairs is unknown. The aim of our study was to determine whether or not the literature supports the hypothesis that statins decrease postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF), and hence ...

  17. Alternative therapy applications for postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiravalle, Paulette; McCaffrey, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    The potential for postoperative nausea and vomiting is present in any patient who undergoes surgery and both are unpleasant and potentially dangerous consequences of surgery. Three types of complementary and alternative therapies that may help patients with postoperative nausea and vomiting include acupressure, acupuncture, and aromatherapy.

  18. Postoperative rhabdomyolysis following robotic renal and adrenal surgery: a cautionary tale of compounding risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Russell S; Gerke, Travis; Mason, James B; Sorensen, Matthew D; Joseph, Jason P; Dahm, Philipp; Su, Li-Ming

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed at reviewing a contemporary series of patients who underwent robotic renal and adrenal surgery by a single surgeon at a tertiary referral academic medical center over a 6-year period, specifically focusing on the unique and serious complication of post-operative rhabdomyolysis of the dependent lower extremity. The cases of 315 consecutive patients who underwent robotic upper tract surgery over a 6-year period from August 2008 to June 2014 using a standardized patient positioning were reviewed and analyzed for patient characteristics and surgical variables that may be associated with the development of post-operative rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of post-operative rhabdomyolysis in our series was 3/315 (0.95%). All three affected patients had undergone robotic nephroureterectomy. Those patients who developed rhabdomyolysis had significantly higher mean Body Mass Index, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and median length of stay than those who did not. The mean OR time in the rhabdomyolysis group was noted to be 52 min longer than the non-rhabdomyolysis group, though this value did not reach statistical significance. Given the trends of increasing obesity in the United States and abroad as well as the continued rise in robotic upper tract urologic surgeries, urologists need to be increasingly vigilant for recognizing the risk factors and early treatment of the unique complication of post-operative rhabdomyolysis.

  19. A review of recent advances in data analytics for post-operative patient deterioration detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Clemence; Bezemer, Rick; Atallah, Louis

    2018-06-01

    Most deaths occurring due to a surgical intervention happen postoperatively rather than during surgery. The current standard of care in many hospitals cannot fully cope with detecting and addressing post-surgical deterioration in time. For millions of patients, this deterioration is left unnoticed, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. Postoperative deterioration detection currently relies on general scores that are not fully able to cater for the complex post-operative physiology of surgical patients. In the last decade however, advanced risk and warning scoring techniques have started to show encouraging results in terms of using the large amount of data available peri-operatively to improve postoperative deterioration detection. Relevant literature has been carefully surveyed to provide a summary of the most promising approaches as well as how they have been deployed in the perioperative domain. This work also aims to highlight the opportunities that lie in personalizing the models developed for patient deterioration for these particular post-surgical patients and make the output more actionable. The integration of pre- and intra-operative data, e.g. comorbidities, vitals, lab data, and information about the procedure performed, in post-operative early warning algorithms would lead to more contextualized, personalized, and adaptive patient modelling. This, combined with careful integration in the clinical workflow, would result in improved clinical decision support and better post-surgical care outcomes.

  20. The Impact of Obesity on Postoperative Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease Undergoing Pulmonary Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Matthew W; Earing, Michael G; Hill, Garick D; Cohen, Scott B; Bartz, Peter J; Tweddell, James S; Ginde, Salil

    2015-01-01

    The impact of obesity on surgical morbidity in adults with congenital heart disease is currently unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of obesity on postoperative outcomes in adults with congenital heart disease undergoing reoperation for pulmonary valve replacement. A retrospective analysis was performed assessing the influence of obesity on surgical outcomes. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. The mean body mass index of the cohort was 25.9 ± 6.9 kg/m2 . The cohort included 71 patients with 17 patients (24%) being obese. There was no postoperative mortality. Obese patients had a longer hospital length of stay (6.6 vs. 4.7 days; P obesity was independently associated with hospital length of stay >5 days (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-18.2, P = .01) and with increased postoperative arrhythmias (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 1.7-40, P Obesity is associated with increased morbidity in adults with congenital heart disease undergoing pulmonary valve replacement, including longer hospitalization and higher risk for postoperative arrhythmias. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Immunonutrition - the influence of early postoperative glutamine supplementation in enteral/parenteral nutrition on immune response, wound healing and length of hospital stay in multiple trauma patients and patients after extensive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Kai J; Schallert, Reiner; Daniel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    In the postoperative phase, the prognosis of multiple trauma patients with severe brain injuries as well as of patients with extensive head and neck surgery mainly depends on protein metabolism and the prevention of septic complications. Wound healing problems can also result in markedly longer stays in the intensive care unit and general wards. As a result, the immunostimulation of patients in the postoperative phase is expected to improve their immunological and overall health. A study involving 15 patients with extensive ENT tumour surgery and 7 multiple-trauma patients investigated the effect of enteral glutamine supplementation on immune induction, wound healing and length of hospital stay. Half of the patients received a glutamine-supplemented diet. The control group received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous diet. In summary, we found that total lymphocyte counts, the percentage of activated CD4+DR+ T helper lymphocytes, the in-vitro response of lymphocytes to mitogens, as well as IL-2 plasma levels normalised faster in patients who received glutamine-supplemented diets than in patients who received isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets and that these parameters were even above normal by the end of the second postoperative week. We believe that providing critically ill patients with a demand-oriented immunostimulating diet is fully justified as it reduces septic complications, accelerates wound healing, and shortens the length of ICU (intensive care unit) and general ward stays.

  2. A Prospective Study of Postoperative Vomiting in Children Undergoing Different Surgical Procedures under General Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Choudhary

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the risk factors associated with postoperative vomiting (POV in paediatric population undergoing common surgeries. The risk factors studied for association with POV were age> 5 years, female gender, previous history of POV/motion sickness, type of surgery and duration of anaesthesia> 45 min. A total of 100 ASA grade I and II patients of either sex aged between 2-12 years undergoing elective surgical procedures were screened for the study. All patients underwent similar anaesthe-sia protocol and received two antiemetic agents (ondansetron 0.05mg.kg-1 and dexamethasone 0.15mg.kg-1 in premedication. The patients were observed for 24 hours postoperatively for the incidence of vomiting, number of times rescue antiemetic given and any adverse reaction to antiemetic.Overall 34% patients (34/100 developed POV of which 26 had only one episode and 8 patients had 2 episodes during first 24 h. Incidence of POV was 13% (13/100 in first 4 h whereas it was 29% (29/100 in late postoperative period. In early post operative period, POV was not associated significantly with any predicted risk factors. However, age>5years, duration of anaesthesia>45 minutes and history of motion sickness/POV were significantly associated in late postoperative period(4-24h. Female gender and type of surgery were not associated with increased POV. The combination antiemetic effectively prevented POV in early postoperative period (0-4h only but not in late postoperative period(0-24h.

  3. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway are not involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold induced by plantar incision in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohtani N

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Norimasa Ohtani, Eiji Masaki Division of Dento-oral Anesthesiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan Background: Approximately half of all patients who undergo surgery develop postoperative pain, the mechanisms of which are not well understood by anesthesiologists. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway play an important role in regulation of pain transmission in the spinal cord. Impairment of inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord is suggested as part of the mechanism for neuropathic pain, which is one component of postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether impairment of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold in rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–300 g were anesthetized with sevoflurane and an intrathecal (IT catheter was implanted. Six days later, a plantar incision was made. On the following day, saline, a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole, or a D2-like receptor antagonist (sulpiride was administered intrathecally. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed by exposure to infrared radiant heat and the von Frey filament test before and after plantar incision.Results: Plantar incision decreased both thermal latency and the mechanical nociceptive threshold. IT administration of quinpirole inhibited the nociceptive responses induced by plantar incision, but sulpiride had no effect.Conclusion: A D2-like receptor agonist had antinociceptive effects on the hypersensitivity response triggered by a surgical incision, but a D2-like receptor antagonist had no effect on this response. These results suggest that impairment and/or modification of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is not involved in the postoperative decrease in nociceptive threshold. Keywords: postoperative pain, descending pathway

  4. Ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block with intravenous dexketoprofen improves postoperative analgesia in abdominal hysterectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Evren; Kol, Iclal Ozdemir; Duger, Cevdet; Kaygusuz, Kenan; Gursoy, Sinan; Mimaroglu, Caner

    2013-01-01

    In this study, our aim was to evaluate the effects of intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol with ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve block on analgesic quality and morphine consumption after total abdominal hysterectomy operations. We conducted this randomized controlled clinical study on 61 patients. The study was conducted in the operation room, post-anesthesia care unit, and inpatient clinic. We randomly grouped the 61 patients into control group (group C), block group (group B) and dexketoprofen-block group (group DB). Before the skin incision performed after anesthesia induction, we performed ilioinguinal iliohypogastric block (group C given saline and group P and DB given levobupivacaine). In contrast to group C and B, group DB was given dexketoprofen. We administered morphine analgesia to all patients by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) during the postoperative 24 hours. We recorded Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), satisfaction scores, morphine consumption and side effects during postoperative 24 hours. We found the DB group's VAS scores to be lower than the control group and block group's (p dexketoprofen increases patient satisfaction by decreasing opioid consumption, increasing patient satisfaction, which suggests that dexketoprofen trometamol is an effective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic in postoperative analgesia. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. The pre, post brachytherapy and postoperative CEA serum concentration of 53 rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Danh; Nguyen Kim Luu; Phan Van Dan

    2008-01-01

    CEA serum concentration level of 53 rectal cancer patients was measured at moments pre, post brachytherapy (45 Gy), post surgery one week, 6 months and 12 months. Response to radiation with reduce CEA serum concentration was achieved in 20/53 patients (37,7%), mainly at staging Dukes B, C. Postoperative CEA level of patients significantly decreased, especially in resection group. (author)

  6. Overprescription of postoperative narcotics: a look at postoperative pain medication delivery, consumption and disposal in urological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Cory; Laciak, Robert; Southwick, Andrew; Bishoff, Jay

    2011-02-01

    Prescription narcotic abuse is a significant social problem. Surplus medication following surgery is 1 source of prescription diversion. We assessed prescribing practices, consumption and disposal of prescribed narcotics after urological surgery. Surveys were administered to a 3-month consecutive sample of adult patients who underwent surgery performed by full and adjunct University of Utah Urology faculty. Surveys were performed 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively. With the exception of the investigators, prescribing physicians had no prior knowledge of the study. Data collected included perception of pain control, type and quantity of medication prescribed, quantity of leftover medication, refills needed, disposal instructions and surplus medication disposition. Overall 47% of 586 patients participated in the study. Hydrocodone was prescribed most commonly (63%), followed by oxycodone (35%), and 86% of the patients were satisfied with pain control. Of the dispensed narcotics 58% was consumed and 12% of patients requested refills. A total of 67% of patients had surplus medication from the initial prescription and 92% received no disposal instructions for surplus medication. Of those patients with leftover medication 91% kept the medication at home while 6% threw it in the trash, 2% flushed it down the toilet and less than 1% returned it to a pharmacy. Overprescription of narcotics is common and retained surplus medication presents a readily available source of opioid diversion. It appears that no entity on the prescribing or dispensing ends of prescription opioid delivery is fulfilling the responsibility to accurately educate patients on proper surplus medication disposal. Surgeons should analyze prescribing practices and consider decreasing the quantity of postoperative narcotics prescribed. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Depression as an independent predictor of postoperative delirium in spine deformity patients undergoing elective spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Adogwa, Owoicho; Lydon, Emily; Sergesketter, Amanda; Kaakati, Rayan; Mehta, Ankit I; Vasquez, Raul A; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A; Karikari, Isaac O

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Depression is the most prevalent affective disorder in the US, and patients with spinal deformity are at increased risk. Postoperative delirium has been associated with inferior surgical outcomes, including morbidity and mortality. The relationship between depression and postoperative delirium in patients undergoing spine surgery is relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if depression is an independent risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium in patients undergoing decompression and fusion for deformity. METHODS The medical records of 923 adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing elective spine surgery at a single major academic institution from 2005 through 2015 were reviewed. Of these patients, 255 (27.6%) patients had been diagnosed with depression by a board-certified psychiatrist and constituted the Depression group; the remaining 668 patients constituted the No-Depression group. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and intra- and postoperative complication rates were collected for each patient and compared between groups. The primary outcome investigated in this study was rate of postoperative delirium, according to DSM-V criteria, during initial hospital stay after surgery. The association between depression and postoperative delirium rate was assessed via multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS Patient demographics and comorbidities other than depression were similar in the 2 groups. In the Depression group, 85.1% of the patients were taking an antidepressant prior to surgery. There were no significant between-group differences in intraoperative variables and rates of complications other than delirium. Postoperative complication rates were also similar between the cohorts, including rates of urinary tract infection, fever, deep and superficial surgical site infection, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, urinary retention, and proportion of patients transferred to the intensive care unit. In

  8. Clinical value of FDG-PET in the follow up of post-operative patients with endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, Tsuneo; Higashi, Tatsuya; Ishimori, Takayoshi

    2003-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of FDG-PET in the follow up of post-operative patients with endometrial cancer was retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-one post-operative patients with endometrial cancer received 30 FDG-PET examinations to evaluate recurrence or response to treatment. The findings of FDG-PET were compared with their serum levels of tumor markers, CT and/or MRI findings, and the final outcome. Results of FDG-PET were also correlated with the clinical course of each patient. In detecting recurrent lesions and evaluating treatment responses, FDG-PET, with the help in anatomic information by CT/MRI, showed better diagnostic ability (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 88.2%, accuracy 93.3%) compared with combined conventional imaging (sensitivity 84.6%, specificity 85.7%, accuracy 85.0%) and tumor markers (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 70.6%, accuracy 83.3%). FDG-PET had no false-negative results, suggesting the possibility of its use as the first-line examination in a patient's follow-up. FDG-PET could detect unknown lesions in 4 cases, and, as reported for other malignancies, FDG-PET affected the patient management in one-third of the cases. Furthermore, the results of FDG-PET correlated well with the clinical outcome of the patients, with patients with negative PET results tending to show disease-free courses. These results suggest that, despite the limited number of patients studied, FDG-PET was accurate in detecting recurrence and evaluating therapeutic response, and could afford important information in the management of post-operative patients with endometrial cancer. FDG-PET also appeared to have a possibility to predict the outcome of each patient. (author)

  9. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma: Predictive value of immunohistochemical markers for postoperative survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhao-Shan; Niu, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for over 90% of all primary liver cancers. With an ever increasing incidence trend year by year, it has become the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Hepatic resection is generally considered to be one of the most effective therapies for HCC patients, however, there is a high risk of recurrence in postoperative HCC. In clinical practice, there exists an urgent need for valid prognostic markers to identify patients with prognosis, hence the importance of studies on prognostic markers in improving the prediction of HCC prognosis. This review focuses on the most promising immunohistochemical prognostic markers in predicting the postoperative survival of HCC patients. PMID:25624992

  10. Clinical evaluation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for the early detection of postoperative complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frask, Agata; Orłowski, Michał; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Gajewski, Krzysztof; Michalik, Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Among the most common early complications after bariatric surgery are anastomosis leak and bleeding. In order to react quickly and perform accurate treatment before the clinical signs appear, early predictors should be found. In the study C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were investigated. Characterized by a relatively short half-life, they can predict surgical complications. To develop and implement certain standards for early detection of complications. The study involved 319 adults who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a surgical intervention for morbid obesity at the Department of General Surgery of Ceynowa Hospital in Wejherowo. Every patient had CRP and PCT levels measured before the surgery and on the 1 st and 2 nd postoperative day (POD). Early postoperative complications occurred in 19 (5.96%) patients. Septic and non-septic complications occurred in 3 and 16 patients respectively. Among the patients with septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder (p = 0.0221). Among the patients with non-septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 1 st and 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. Among the patients with septic and non-septic postoperative complications PCT level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. The CRP and PCT level are supposed to be relevant diagnostic markers to predict non-septic and septic complications after LSG.

  11. A comparison of three antiemetic combinations for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ledesma, M J; López-Olaondo, L; Pueyo, F J; Carrascosa, F; Ortega, A

    2002-12-01

    In this study we compared the efficacy and safety of three antiemetic combinations in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Ninety ASA status I-II women, aged 18-65 yr, undergoing general anesthesia for major gynecological surgery, were included in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. A standardized anesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia (intrathecal morphine plus IV patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine) were used in all patients. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ondansetron 4 mg plus droperidol 1.25 mg after the induction of anesthesia and droperidol 1.25 mg 12 h later (Group 1, n = 30), dexamethasone 8 mg plus droperidol 1.25 mg after the induction of anesthesia and droperidol 1.25 mg 12 h later (Group 2, n = 30), or ondansetron 4 mg plus dexamethasone 8 mg after the induction of anesthesia and placebo 12 h later (Group 3, n = 30). A complete response, defined as no PONV in 48 h, occurred in 80% of patients in Group 1, 70% in Group 3, and 40% in Group 2 (P = 0.004 versus Groups 1 and 3). The incidences of side effects and other variables that could modify the incidence of PONV were similar among groups. In conclusion, ondansetron, in combination with droperidol or dexamethasone, is more effective than dexamethasone in combination with droperidol in women undergoing general anesthesia for major gynecological surgery with intrathecal morphine plus IV PCA with morphine for postoperative analgesia. The combination of ondansetron plus dexamethasone or droperidol was significantly better than the combination of dexamethasone plus droperidol in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in women undergoing general anesthesia for major gynecological surgery, with intrathecal and IV morphine (patient-controlled analgesia) for management of postoperative pain.

  12. Impact of exercise pulmonary hypertension on postoperative outcome in primary mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Julien; Donal, Erwan; Mahjoub, Haifa; Miltner, Beatrice; Dulgheru, Raluca; Thebault, Christophe; Pierard, Luc A; Pibarot, Philippe; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-03-01

    The management of asymptomatic patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) remains controversial. Exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (ExPHT) was recently reported as a strong predictor of rapid onset of symptoms. We hypothesised that ExPHT is a predictor of postoperative cardiovascular events in patients with primary MR. One hundred and two patients with primary MR, no or mild symptoms (New York heart association (NYHA) ≤2), and no LV dysfunction/dilatation, were prospectively recruited in 3 centres and underwent exercise-stress echocardiography. The presence of ExPHT was defined as an exercise systolic pulmonary arterial pressure >60 mm Hg. All patients were closely followed up and operated on when indication for surgery was reached. Postoperative events were defined as the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), stroke, cardiac-related hospitalisation or death. Among the 102 patients included, 59 developed ExPHT (58%). These patients were significantly older than those without ExPHT (p=0.01). During a mean postoperative follow-up of 50±23 months, 28 patients (26%) experienced a predefined cardiovascular event. Patients with ExPHT had significantly higher rate of postoperative events (39% vs 12%, p=0.005); the rate of events was still higher in these patients (32% vs 9%, p=0.013), even when excluding early postoperative AF (ie, within 48 h). Event-free survival was significantly lower in the ExPHT group (all events: 5-year: 60±8% vs 88±5%, p=0.007, events without early AF: 5-year: 67±7% vs 90±4%, p=0.02). Using Cox multivariable analysis, ExPHT remained independently associated with higher risk of postoperative events in all models (all p≤0.04). ExPHT is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiac events following mitral valve surgery in patients with primary MR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is independently associated with reduced postoperative opioid consumption in bariatric patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Turan

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that recurrent nocturnal hypoxemia may affect pain response and/or the sensitivity to opioid analgesia. We tested the hypothesis that nocturnal hypoxemia, quantified by sleep time spent at an arterial saturation (SaO2 < 90% and minimum nocturnal SaO2 on polysomnography, are associated with decreased pain and reduced opioid consumption during the initial 72 postoperative hours in patients having laparoscopic bariatric surgery.With Institutional Review Board approval, we examined the records of all patients who underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2010 and had an available nocturnal polysomnography study. We assessed the relationships between the time-weighted average of pain score and total opioid consumption during the initial 72 postoperative hours, and: (a the percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90%, (b the minimum nocturnal SaO2, and (c the number of apnea/hypopnea episodes per hour of sleep. We used multivariable regression models to adjust for both clinical and sleep-related confounders.Two hundred eighteen patients were included in the analysis. Percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90% was inversely associated with total postoperative opioid consumption; a 5-%- absolute increase in the former would relatively decrease median opioid consumption by 16% (98.75% CI: 2% to 28%, P = 0.006. However, the percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90% was not associated with pain. The minimum nocturnal SaO2 was associated neither with total postoperative opioid consumption nor with pain. In addition, neither pain nor total opioid consumption was significantly associated with the number of apnea/hypopnea episodes per hour of sleep.Preoperative nocturnal intermittent hypoxia may enhance sensitivity to opioids.

  14. The Relationship Between Intraoperative Tear Dimensions and Postoperative Pain in 1624 Consecutive Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Daniel Y T; Walton, Judie R; Lam, Patrick; Murrell, George A C

    2017-03-01

    Rotator cuff repair often results in significant pain postoperatively, the cause of which is undetermined. Purpose/Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rotator cuff tear area and postoperative pain in patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. We hypothesized that larger tears would be more painful because of elevated repair tension at 1 week postoperatively but that smaller tears would be more painful because of a greater healing response, especially from 6 weeks postoperatively. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 1624 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were moderate to severe osteoarthritis, isolated subscapularis repair, calcific tendinitis, synthetic patch repair, revision surgery, and retears on ultrasound at 6 months after surgery. Rotator cuff tears were subdivided into groups based on the tear size and retear rate found for each group. A modified L'Insalata questionnaire was given before surgery and at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient tests were performed between rotator cuff tear areas and pain scores. Intraoperative rotator cuff tear areas did not correlate with pain scores preoperatively or at 1 week after surgery. A smaller tear area was associated with more frequent and severe pain with overhead activities, at rest, and during sleep as well as a poorer perceived overall shoulder condition at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after repair ( r = 0.11-0.23, P 8 cm 2 . There were fewer retears with smaller tears, but they were more painful than large tears postoperatively from 6 weeks to 6 months after surgery. Smaller tears may heal more vigorously, causing more pain. Patients with smaller tears experienced more pain after rotator cuff repair compared with patients with larger tears. These findings are contrary to previous ideas about tear size and

  15. Relationship between preoperative radial artery and postoperative arteriovenous fistula blood flow in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Michiko; Io, Hiroaki; Tanimoto, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Yoshio; Fukui, Mitsumine; Hamada, Chieko; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    It is recommended that arteriovenous fistula (AVF) blood flow should be more than 425 ml/min before cannulation. However, the relationship between preoperative radial artery flow (RAF) and postoperative AVF blood flow has still not been examined. Sixty-one patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) were examined. They had an AVF prepared at Juntendo University Hospital from July 2006 through August 2007. Preoperative RAF and postoperative AVF blood flows were measured by ultrasonography. AVF blood flow gradually increased after the operation. AVF blood flow was significantly correlated with preoperative RAF. When preoperative RAF exceeded 21.4 ml/min, AVF blood flow rose to more than 425 ml/min. The postoperative AVF blood flow in the group with RAF of more than 20 ml/min was significantly higher than that in those with less than 20 ml/min. Preoperative RAF of less than 20 ml/min had a significantly high risk of primary AVF failure within 8 months compared with that of more than 20 ml/min. It appears that measurement of RAF by ultrasonography is useful for estimating AVF blood flow postoperatively and can predict the risk of complications in ESKD patients.

  16. Pre- and Postoperative Imaging of the Aortic Root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Frandics P.; Mitchell, R. Scott; Miller, D. Craig; Fleischmann, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional datasets acquired using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are ideally suited for characterization of the aortic root. These modalities offer different advantages and limitations, which must be weighed according to the clinical context. This article provides an overview of current aortic root imaging, highlighting normal anatomy, pathologic conditions, imaging techniques, measurement thresholds, relevant surgical procedures, postoperative complications and potential imaging pitfalls. Patients with a range of clinical conditions are predisposed to aortic root disease, including Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Various surgical techniques may be used to repair the aortic root, including placement of a composite valve graft, such as the Bentall and Cabrol procedures; placement of an aortic root graft with preservation of the native valve, such as the Yacoub and David techniques; and implantation of a biologic graft, such as a homograft, autograft, or xenograft. Potential imaging pitfalls in the postoperative period include mimickers of pathologic processes such as felt pledgets, graft folds, and nonabsorbable hemostatic agents. Postoperative complications that may be encountered include pseudoaneurysms, infection, and dehiscence. Radiologists should be familiar with normal aortic root anatomy, surgical procedures, and postoperative complications, to accurately interpret pre- and postoperative imaging performed for evaluation of the aortic root. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26761529

  17. Predictors of postoperative hemoglobin drop after laparoscopic myomectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrowski, Rafał; Jäger, Christoph; Forster, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) can be associated with significant bleeding. To identify factors influencing the postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) drop after LM. This is a retrospective, single-center study. We evaluated data of 150 consecutive patients undergoing LM due to intramural myomas between 2010 and 2015. The median age of the patients was 37 (23-53) years. The mean diameter of the largest myoma was 5.7 ±2.3 (1.5-12) cm. The mean surgical time was 83 ±38 (35-299) min. The median number of sutures was 3 (1-11). The mean postoperative Hb drop was 1.6 ±1.2 (0-6) g/dl, and the mean estimated blood loss was 261 ±159 (50-1700) ml. In the univariate analysis, the postoperative Hb drop correlated with the duration of surgery (p < 0.001), diameter of the largest myoma (p < 0.001), cumulative myoma weight (p < 0.001), and number of sutures (p < 0.001), but not with patients' age or number of intramural myomas. In the multivariable analysis, the surgical time ( β = 0.395, p < 0.001), diameter of the largest myoma ( β = 0.292, p = 0.03) and preoperative Hb concentration ( β = 0.299, p < 0.001) predicted the postoperative Hb change. Surgical time and dominant myoma diameter are independent predictors of the postoperative Hb drop after LM.

  18. Pectus excavatum with delayed diagnosis of implant tear on MRI apparently causing recurrent postoperative seromas: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Arti R.; Powell, Daniel K.; Irish, Robert D.; Math, Kevin R. [Mount Sinai Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Seroma formation is the most common early postoperative complication after pectus excavatum repair, but later seromas are rare. While many seromas eventually resorb or decrease in size after aspiration, our case demonstrates recurrent seroma formation as a late complication of pectus excavatum repair in a patient with an implant tear. Postoperative seromas can result in prolonged chest wall pain, large chest wall masses, and increased mass effect on the heart with potential risk for resultant right ventricular outflow obstruction. This case report illustrates a solid silicone implant tear. Though rare, early recognition may help to decrease the likelihood of recurrent postoperative seromas. (orig.)

  19. Post-operative swallowing in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueha, R; Nito, T; Sakamoto, T; Yamauchi, A; Tsunoda, K; Yamasoba, T

    2016-02-01

    Some patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) require surgical interventions such as tracheostomy and aspiration prevention. Few studies have investigated the postoperative clinical course of MSA patients. The aim of this study was to determine a management strategy for dysphagia and respiratory disorder in MSA. From 2001 to 2014, 18 MSA patients (13 males and 5 females, 52-76 years) underwent tracheostomy (TR, n = 11) or laryngeal closure (LC, n = 12). Five patients underwent LC following TR. Vocal fold impairment, the degree of dysphagia and pre/post-operative oral ingestion, and postoperative survival time were evaluated retrospectively. Swallowing function was assessed using the penetration aspiration scale (PAS). TR was performed due to respiratory disorder in seven patients and due to dysphagia in four patients. PAS scores ranged 1-8 in TR patients and 7-8 in LC patients. Seven of 11 patients who underwent TR displayed worsened PAS scores, and no patients displayed improved PAS scores following TR. All patients who underwent LC regained complete or partial oral intake after surgery. There were no significant differences in postoperative survival time between the two groups. Considering the impacts of TR and LC on survival time, postoperative feeding and swallowing, LC is a good option for treating MSA patients with dysphagia. © 2015 EAN.

  20. Predictive images of postoperative levator resection outcome using image processing software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawatari, Yuki; Fukushima, Mikiko

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of processed images to predict postoperative appearance following levator resection. Analysis involved 109 eyes from 65 patients with blepharoptosis who underwent advancement of levator aponeurosis and Müller's muscle complex (levator resection). Predictive images were prepared from preoperative photographs using the image processing software (Adobe Photoshop ® ). Images of selected eyes were digitally enlarged in an appropriate manner and shown to patients prior to surgery. Approximately 1 month postoperatively, we surveyed our patients using questionnaires. Fifty-six patients (89.2%) were satisfied with their postoperative appearances, and 55 patients (84.8%) positively responded to the usefulness of processed images to predict postoperative appearance. Showing processed images that predict postoperative appearance to patients prior to blepharoptosis surgery can be useful for those patients concerned with their postoperative appearance. This approach may serve as a useful tool to simulate blepharoptosis surgery.

  1. Intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in polytraumatized patients. a longitudinal, prospective and observational study of the procedure-related impact on cardiopulmonary- and inflammatory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husebye Elisabeth E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early intramedullary nailing (IMN of long bone fractures in severely injured patients has been evaluated as beneficial, but has also been associated with increased inflammation, multi organ failure (MOF and morbidity. This study was initiated to evaluate the impact of primary femoral IMN on coagulation-, fibrinolysis-, inflammatory- and cardiopulmonary responses in polytraumatized patients. Methods Twelve adult polytraumatized patients with femoral shaft fractures were included. Serial blood samples were collected to evaluate coagulation-, fibrinolytic-, and cytokine activation in arterial blood. A flow-directed pulmonary artery (PA catheter was inserted prior to IMN. Cardiopulmonary function parameters were recorded peri- and postoperatively. The clinical course of the patients and complications were monitored and recorded daily. Results Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS was 31 ± 2.6. No procedure-related effect of the primary IMN on coagulation- and fibrinolysis activation was evident. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α increased significantly from 6 hours post procedure to peak levels on the third postoperative day. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 increased from the first to the third postoperative day. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 peaked on the first postoperative day. A procedure-related transient hemodynamic response was observed on indexed pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRI two hours post procedure. 11/12 patients developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, 7/12 pneumonia, 3/12 acute lung injury (ALI, 3/12 adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, 3/12 sepsis, 0/12 wound infection. Conclusion In the polytraumatized patients with femoral shaft fractures operated with primary IMN we observed a substantial response related to the initial trauma. We could not demonstrate any major additional IMN-related impact on the inflammatory responses or on the cardiopulmonary function parameters. These results have to be interpreted

  2. Quality assessment of cataract surgery in Denmark - risk of retinal detachment and postoperative endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Søren Solborg

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to examine whether the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR) could be used to monitor and assess the quality of cataract surgery in Denmark by studying the risks of two serious postoperative complications following cataract surgery - retinal detachment (RD......) and postoperative endophthalmitis (PE). The thesis consists of four retrospective studies. In the first study (paper I), we used data from the NPR in the calendar period 2000-2010 to investigate the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) using the fellow non-operated eyes of the patients as reference....... The study showed that over a 10-year study period, the risk of PRD was increased by a factor of 4.2 irrespective of sex and age. The risk of PRD was highest in the first part of the postoperative period and then gradually decreased but remained statistically significantly higher than the risk of RD in non...

  3. Attention enhances contrast appearance via increased input baseline of neural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrone, Elizabeth K; Heeger, David J; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-12-30

    Covert spatial attention increases the perceived contrast of stimuli at attended locations, presumably via enhancement of visual neural responses. However, the relation between perceived contrast and the underlying neural responses has not been characterized. In this study, we systematically varied stimulus contrast, using a two-alternative, forced-choice comparison task to probe the effect of attention on appearance across the contrast range. We modeled performance in the task as a function of underlying neural contrast-response functions. Fitting this model to the observed data revealed that an increased input baseline in the neural responses accounted for the enhancement of apparent contrast with spatial attention. © 2014 ARVO.

  4. Does using a femoral nerve block for total knee replacement decrease postoperative delirium?

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    Kinjo Sakura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of peripheral nerve blocks on postoperative delirium in older patients has not been studied. Peripheral nerve blocks may reduce the incidence of postoperative opioid use and its side effects such as delirium via opioid-sparing effect. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients who underwent total knee replacement. Baseline cognitive function was assessed using the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status. Postoperative delirium was measured using the Confusion Assessment Method postoperatively. Incidence of postoperative delirium was compared in two postoperative management groups: femoral nerve block ± patient-controlled analgesia and patient-controlled analgesia only. In addition, pain levels (using numeric rating scales and opioid use were compared in two groups. Results 85 patients were studied. The overall incidence of postoperative delirium either on postoperative day one or day two was 48.1%. Incidence of postoperative delirium in the femoral nerve block group was lower than patient controlled analgesia only group (25% vs. 61%, P = 0.002. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to postoperative pain level or the amount of intravenous opioid use. Conclusions Femoral nerve block reduces the incidence of postoperative delirium. These results suggest that a larger randomized control trial is necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

  5. Postoperative radiotherapy for merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuya; Asakawa, Isao; Katayama, Emiko; Kajitani, Chikae; Tamamoto, Tetsuro; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Fukumoto, Takaya; Asada, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Seven patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) who visited our department of radiation oncology from February 2005 to July 2011 received postoperative radiotherapy (50-60 Gy). All patients were alive without recurrence (median follow-up period: 47.6 (14.7-88.4) months). All of them had grade 2 dermatitis, and one grade 2 oral mucositis and three grade 2 lymphedema were observed. No adverse event grade 3 (CTCAE v4.0) or over was observed. In our hospital, clinical results of postoperative radiotherapy for MCC were fairly good, and adverse events were acceptable during the follow-up period. (author)

  6. Postoperative pain assessment using four behavioral scales in Pakistani children undergoing elective surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Shamim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several measurement tools have been used for assessment of postoperative pain in pediatric patients. Self-report methods have limitations in younger children and parent, nurse or physician assessment can be used as a surrogate measure. These tools should be tested in different cultures as pain can be influenced by sociocultural factors. The objective was to assess the inter-rater agreement on four different behavioral pain assessment scales in our local population. Materials and Methods: This prospective, descriptive, observational study was conducted in Pakistan. American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children, 3-7 years of age, undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. Four pain assessment scales were used, Children′s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS, Toddler Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale (TPPPS, objective pain scale (OPS, and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC. After 15 and 60 min of arrival in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU, each child evaluated his/her postoperative pain by self-reporting and was also independently assessed by the PACU nurse, PACU anesthetist and the parent. The sensitivity and specificity of the responses of the four pain assessment scales were compared to the response of the child. Results: At 15 min, sensitivity and specificity were >60% for doctors and nurses on FLACC, OPS, and CHEOPS scales and for FLACC and CHEOPS scale for the parents. Parents showed poor agreement on OPS and TPPS. At 60 min, sensitivity was poor on the OPS scale by all three observers. Nurses showed a lower specificity on FLACC tool. Parents had poor specificity on CHEOPS and rate of false negatives was high with TPPS. Conclusions: We recommend the use of FLACC scale for assessment by parents, nurses, and doctors in Pakistani children aged between 3 and 7.

  7. Attenuation of postoperative adhesions using a modeled manual therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Bove

    Full Text Available Postoperative adhesions are pathological attachments that develop between abdominopelvic structures following surgery. Considered unavoidable and ubiquitous, postoperative adhesions lead to bowel obstructions, infertility, pain, and reoperations. As such, they represent a substantial health care challenge. Despite over a century of research, no preventive treatment exists. We hypothesized that postoperative adhesions develop from a lack of movement of the abdominopelvic organs in the immediate postoperative period while rendered immobile by surgery and opiates, and tested whether manual therapy would prevent their development. In a modified rat cecal abrasion model, rats were allocated to receive treatment with manual therapy or not, and their resulting adhesions were quantified. We also characterized macrophage phenotype. In separate experiments we tested the safety of the treatment on a strictureplasty model, and also the efficacy of the treatment following adhesiolysis. We show that the treatment led to reduced frequency and size of cohesive adhesions, but not other types of adhesions, such as those involving intraperitoneal fatty structures. This effect was associated with a delay in the appearance of trophic macrophages. The treatment did not inhibit healing or induce undesirable complications following strictureplasty. Our results support that that maintained movements of damaged structures in the immediate postoperative period has potential to act as an effective preventive for attenuating cohesive postoperative adhesion development. Our findings lay the groundwork for further research, including mechanical and pharmacologic approaches to maintain movements during healing.

  8. Attenuation of postoperative adhesions using a modeled manual therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Geoffrey M; Chapelle, Susan L; Hanlon, Katherine E; Diamond, Michael P; Mokler, David J

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative adhesions are pathological attachments that develop between abdominopelvic structures following surgery. Considered unavoidable and ubiquitous, postoperative adhesions lead to bowel obstructions, infertility, pain, and reoperations. As such, they represent a substantial health care challenge. Despite over a century of research, no preventive treatment exists. We hypothesized that postoperative adhesions develop from a lack of movement of the abdominopelvic organs in the immediate postoperative period while rendered immobile by surgery and opiates, and tested whether manual therapy would prevent their development. In a modified rat cecal abrasion model, rats were allocated to receive treatment with manual therapy or not, and their resulting adhesions were quantified. We also characterized macrophage phenotype. In separate experiments we tested the safety of the treatment on a strictureplasty model, and also the efficacy of the treatment following adhesiolysis. We show that the treatment led to reduced frequency and size of cohesive adhesions, but not other types of adhesions, such as those involving intraperitoneal fatty structures. This effect was associated with a delay in the appearance of trophic macrophages. The treatment did not inhibit healing or induce undesirable complications following strictureplasty. Our results support that that maintained movements of damaged structures in the immediate postoperative period has potential to act as an effective preventive for attenuating cohesive postoperative adhesion development. Our findings lay the groundwork for further research, including mechanical and pharmacologic approaches to maintain movements during healing.

  9. Risk factors for postoperative liver failure after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yoshitaka; Nishida, Minekatsu; Takao, Takashi; Mori, Naohide; Tamesa, Takao; Tangoku, Akira; Oka, Masaaki

    2004-01-01

    Selection of patients for hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma conventionally has been based upon Child-Pugh grading. However, postoperative liver failure after hepatectomy is a major cause of hospital mortality. A new predictor of postoperative liver failure is required. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative liver failure after hepatectomy. Perioperative risk factors for liver failure after hepatectomy were analyzed in 112 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma Eight of these patients died of liver failure. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate significant independent factors among 17 variables, including the serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (ALPR) on the first day after hepatectomy. ALPR was calculated as the postoperative ALP level divided by the ALP level before surgery. Significant risk factors of postoperative liver failure were ALPR on postoperative day 1 (ALPR1), sex, operative blood loss, and operative procedure. As an indicator of liver failure, the diagnostic accuracy of the ALPR1 was 93.7% when the ALPR was less than 0.4 on the first postoperative day. The ALPR and the serum total bilirubin concentration after hepatectomy were uncorrelated. ALPR1 is a useful predictor of liver failure after hepatectomy.

  10. Role of ketamine in acute postoperative pain management: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Brian M; Shah, Khushbu; Parikh, Anant; Sifonios, Anthony N; Le, Vanny; Eloy, Jean D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this narrative review was to examine the usage of ketamine as a postoperative analgesic agent across a wide variety of surgeries. A literature search was performed using the phrases "ketamine" and "postoperative pain." The authors analyzed the studies that involved testing ketamine's effectiveness at controlling postoperative pain. Effectiveness was assessed through various outcomes such as the amount of opiate consumption, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, and persistent postoperative pain at long-term follow-up. While many different administration protocols were evaluated, delivering ketamine both as a pre- or perioperative bolus and postoperative infusion for up to 48 hours appeared to be the most effective. These effects are dose-dependent. However, a number of studies analyzed showed no benefit in using ketamine versus placebo for controlling postoperative pain. While ketamine is a safe and well-tolerated drug, it does have adverse effects, and there are concerns for possible neurotoxicity and effects on memory. In a number of limited situations, ketamine has shown some efficacy in controlling postoperative pain and decreasing opioid consumption. More randomized controlled trials are necessary to determine the surgical procedures and administrations (i.e., intravenous, epidural) that ketamine is best suited for.

  11. Decreased length of stay and earlier oral feeding associated with standardized postoperative clinical care for total gastrectomies at a cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Luke V; Rifkin, Marissa B; Yoon, Sam S; Ariyan, Charlotte E; Strong, Vivian E

    2016-09-01

    Standardization of postoperative care has been shown to decrease postoperative length of stay. In June 2009, we standardized postoperative care for all gastrectomies at our institution. Four years' worth of total gastrectomies (2 years prior to standardization and 2 years after standardization) were reviewed to determine the effect of standardization on postoperative care, length of stay, complications, and readmissions. Between June 2007 and July 2011, 99 patients underwent curative intent open total gastrectomy: 51 patients prior to standardization, and 48 patients poststandardization. Patients were predominantly male (70%); median age was 63; and median body mass index was 26. Standardization of postoperative care was associated with a decrease in median time to beginning both clear liquids and a postgastrectomy diet, earlier removal of epidural catheters, earlier use of oral pain medication, less time receiving intravenous fluids, and decreased length of stay (all P Care Center, or readmission. Institution of standardized postoperative orders for total gastrectomy was associated with a significantly decreased length of stay and earlier oral feeding without increasing postoperative complications, early postoperative outpatient visits, or readmissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercegovac, Maja; Subotic, Dragan; Zugic, Vladimir; Jakovic, Radoslav; Moskovljevic, Dejan; Bascarevic, Slavisa; Mujovic, Natasa

    2014-05-19

    The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer.

  13. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  14. Idiopathic scoliosis: evaluation of loss of correction in postoperative follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Faria Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative loss of scoliosis correction using third-generation instrumental, comparing the immediately postoperative period, and the last visit of the patients operated on from 2002 to 2010. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted by analysis of medical records, in which 45 patients undergoing scoliosis correction were included. Variables were evaluated preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and in the last follow-up visit after surgery. Statistical analysis of data was performed in PASW program, with a significance level of 95%. RESULTS: Among the 45 patients studied, 88.9% were female and 82.8% were in the skeletally immature group. The mean pre-operative Cobb was 57°, the postoperative was 6.5° and at the last visit, it was 7.04°. There was no statistic difference between postoperative Cobb angle and that at the last examination (p = 0.176. CONCLUSION: There was no significant loss of scoliosis correction loss between the immediate postoperative and the final radiographic evaluation.

  15. Remnant pancreatic parenchymal volume predicts postoperative pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Keisuke; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Naoya; Uemura, Kenichiro; Sudo, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yasushi; Kondo, Naru; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatectomy, including pancreatoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy, often causes postoperative pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI). Our aim was to clarify a relationship between remnant pancreatic volume and postoperative PEI. A total of 227 patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy or distal pancreatectomy were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a (13)C-labeled mixed triglyceride breath test to assess pancreatic exocrine function and abdominal dynamic computed tomography for assessing remnant pancreatic volume after pancreatectomy at a median of 7 months postoperatively. The percent (13)CO2 cumulative dose at 7 hours (% dose (13)C cum 7 h) pancreatectomy were performed in 174 (76.7%) and 53 (23.3%) patients, respectively. Of the 227 patients, 128 (56.3%) developed postoperative PEI. Postoperative % dose (13)C cum 7 h was strongly correlated with remnant pancreatic volume (r = .509, P pancreatectomy (P pancreatectomy. Remnant pancreatic volume may predict postoperative PEI in patients who undergo pancreatectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of major postoperative cardiac complications in a surgical ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Paula C; Abelha, Fernando J

    2008-03-01

    Cardiovascular complications are associated with increased mortality and morbidity during the postoperative period, resulting in longer hospital stay and higher treatment costs. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of major postoperative cardiac complications. 187 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) between November 2004 and April 2005. Variables recorded were age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, type and magnitude of surgery, mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) at postoperative day 0, 1, 2 and 3, history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) score, major cardiac events (MCE): acute myocardial infarction (AMI), pulmonary edema (PE), ventricular fibrillation (VF) or primary cardiac arrest (PCA). Correlations between variables and MCE were made by univariate analysis by simple logistic regression with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Total of 14 MCE: 9 AMI, 1 VF, 4 PE. Significant risk factors for MCE were high-risk surgery (OR 8.26, 95% CI 1.76-38.85, p = 0.008), RCRI > or = 2 (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.22-13.16, p = 0.022), admission cTnI (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-1.99, p = 0.018); day 1 cTnI (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.27-2.41, p = 0.001); day 2 cTnI (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.24-3.98, p = 0.007), SAPS II (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12, p or = 2, cTnI levels and SAPS II were predictors of postoperative MCE. Patients with MCE had longer ICU stay and higher mortality rate.

  17. The impact of music on postoperative pain and anxiety following cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Nikandish; Ali, Sahmedini Mohammad; Saeed, Khademi; Abul-Qasim, Avand; Reza, Tabatabaee Hamid

    2007-10-01

    The relief of post-cesarean delivery pain is important. Good pain relief improves mobility and reduces the risk of thromboembolic disease, which may have been increased during pregnancy. Pain may impair the mother's ability to optimally care for her infant in the immediate postpartum period and may adversely affect early interactions between mother and infant. It is necessary, therefore that pain relief be safe and effective and results in no adverse neonatal effects during breast-feeding. Music may be considered as a potential method of post cesarean pain therapy due to its noninvasiveness and lack of side effects. In this study we evaluated the effect of intraoperative music under general anesthesia for reducing the postoperative morphine requirements after cesarean section. In a double blind placebo-controlled trial, 100 women (ASA I) scheduled for elective cesarean section under general anesthesia, were randomly allocated into two groups of fifty. After standardization of anesthesia, patients in the music group were exposed to a compact disk of Spanish guitar after induction of anesthesia up to the time of wound dressing. In the control group patients were exposed to white music. Post operative pain and anxiety were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) up to six hours after discharge from PACU. Morphine was given intravenously for reducing pain to VAS 0.05). In addition, morphine requirements were not different between two groups at different time intervals up to six hours postoperatively (P>0.05). There were not statistically significant difference between two groups regarding postoperative anxiety score and vomiting frequency (P>0.05). As per conditions of this study, intraoperative Spanish music was not effective in reducing postoperative pain after cesarean section. In addition postoperative morphine requirement, anxiety, and vomiting were not affected by the music during general anesthesia.

  18. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of memory, concentration, and speed of information processing. It is a frequent complication following surgery and can have a debilitating effect on patients' recovery and future prognosis. Neuropsychological testing is needed...... to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  19. Body position and late postoperative nocturnal hypoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Stausholm, K; Edvardsen, L

    1997-01-01

    Thirteen patients were monitored for nocturnal body position (supine vs. side) and arterial oxygen saturation pre-operatively and on the second postoperative night after major abdominal surgery. The number of positional changes were significantly decreased after operation (p ... position than on the side (p movements....... towards more time spent in the supine position (p = 0.1). Individual mean arterial oxygen saturation decreased postoperatively (p positions (p = 0.9). Pre-operatively, episodic desaturations were significantly more frequent in the supine...

  20. Evaluation of postoperative recovery in day surgery patients using a mobile phone application: a multicentre randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaensson, M; Dahlberg, K; Eriksson, M; Nilsson, U

    2017-11-01

    Many patients undergoing anaesthesia and surgery experience postoperative complications. Our aim was to investigate whether a systematic follow-up smartphone-based assessment, using recovery assessment by phone points (RAPP) compared with standard care, had a positive effect on day surgery patients' postoperative recovery. We also investigated whether there were differences in women and men's recovery and recovery scores. The study was a single-blind, multicentre randomized controlled trial. A total of 997 patients were randomly allocated to either RAPP or standard care. The Swedish web version of a quality of recovery (SwQoR) questionnaire was used to evaluate the patients' postoperative recovery, either on paper or using an application (RAPP) on postoperative days seven and 14. On postoperative day seven the RAPP group reported significantly better values in seven out of 24 items of the SwQoR: sleeping difficulties; not having a general feeling of wellbeing; having difficulty feeling relaxed/comfortable; and dizziness; headache; pain in the surgical wound; and a swollen surgical wound compared with the control group, implying a good postoperative recovery. Both men and women in the RAPP group reported significantly better values (and, hence good postoperative recovery) compared with the control group in the items sleeping difficulties; not having a general feeling of wellbeing and pain in the surgical wound. Measurement of patient-reported outcomes using a smartphone-based application was associated with decreased discomfort from several postoperative symptoms. Systematic e-assessment can thereby increase patients' quality of recovery and identify key areas for improvement in perioperative care. NCT02492191. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

  1. Preoperative vs. postoperative radiation prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification: A rural community hospital's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantorowitz, David A.; Muff, Nicholas S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In vivo data employing a rat model, suggest equivalent suppression of ectopic bone formation by single-fraction irradiation given either pre (≤4 h)- or post (≤24 h)-surgery. Two subsequent randomized clinical trials, from tertiary academic centers with robust experience in heterotopic bone prophylaxis, have reached similar conclusions. To assess the transferability of the above data to the community setting we reviewed our rural community hospital experience with pre- and postoperative radiation prophylaxis. Methods and Materials: Between 11/90 and 6/96, 16 surgerized hips with high risk of heterotopic bone formation received 7.00-8.00 Gy in one fraction either preoperatively (≤4 h) (n = 9) or postoperatively (≤3 days for six hips; day 7 for one hip) (n = 7). Initial patients were routinely treated postoperatively. In late 1992, treatment preference was switched to preoperative irradiation in response to evolving data. The two groups were similar with respect to age, sex, nature of surgery, presurgical Brooker and Harris scores, and in U. of Rochester risk classification distribution. Irradiation was given via 4-20 MV photons through equally weighted AP:PA portals to the periacetabular tissues and proximal one third to one-half of the femoral component. Radiation dose, energy, portal, and blocking design were all similar for the two groups. Hip radiographs were obtained immediately postsurgery and at last follow-up: Delta grades (Brooker grade at follow-up--Brooker grade immediately postsurgery) were computed. Harris scale scores of hip function and movement were assigned via personal interviews and examinations performed prior to irradiation and at last follow-up. Results: All 16 hips are evaluable. Follow-up interval among the post-operative group (mean = 39.8 months; range 18.6-65.8) was significantly longer than among the preoperative group (mean = 20.4 months; range 8.6-41.3) (p < 0.02). The mean Delta grade among the postoperative and

  2. Factors associated with acute postoperative pain following breast reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita R. Kulkarni

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: This study identifies patients at risk for severe acute postoperative pain following breast reconstruction. These findings will allow plastic surgeons to better tailor postoperative care to improve patient comfort, reduce clinical morbidity, and enhance patient satisfaction with their surgical outcome.

  3. Post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreijer, Bjørn; Møller, Morten H; Bartholdy, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition....

  4. [Impact of hypoxen therapy on postoperative course in gynecologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugieva, M Z; Kotenko, K V; Morozova, K V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the use of hypoxen (antihypoxant) during the early postoperative course in gynecologic patients. The patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment scheme. 339 patients of the control group were under the routine therapy after the laparatomic gynecologic operations. 52 patients were additionally treated with hypoxen (antioxidant) (the main group). The impact of hypoxen on the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation and its preventive effect on prolongation of the postoperative pain syndrom were estimated. The results of the study showed that hypoxen inhibited lipid peroxidation and activated the antioxidant system in the postoperative patients vs. the control group. It was also observed that among the patients additionally treated with hypoxen the percentage of those with prolonged postoperative pains was statistically lower (pgynecologic operations. The additional use of hypoxen in the routine therapy of the gynecologic patients prevented prolongation of the postoperative pain syndrom.

  5. Bisensory stimulation increases gamma-responses over multiple cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowitz, O W; Quiroga, R Q; Schürmann, M; Başar, E

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of the discussion about gamma (approx. 40 Hz) oscillations as information carriers in the brain, we investigated the relationship between gamma responses in the EEG and intersensory association. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were compared with bisensory evoked potentials (BEPs; simultaneous auditory and visual stimulation) in 15 subjects. Gamma responses in AEPs, VEPs and BEPs were assessed by means of wavelet decomposition. Overall maximum gamma-components post-stimulus were highest in BEPs (P < 0.01). Bisensory evoked gamma-responses also showed significant central, parietal and occipital amplitude-increases (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively; prestimulus interval as baseline). These were of greater magnitude when compared with the unisensory responses. As a correlate of the marked gamma responses to bimodal stimulation we suggest a process of 'intersensory association', i.e. one of the steps between sensory transmission and perception. Our data may be interpreted as a further example of function-related gamma responses in the EEG.

  6. Post-operative radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Kian K.; Garden, Adam S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss both general and specific indications for radiation following surgery for patients with cancers of the head and neck. Patients with advanced cancers of the head and neck are often not suitable candidates for treatment with definitive radiation, and are treated with surgery. Frequently these patients fail by recurring in either the primary sites or in the necks. Adjuvant radiation is therefore often a critical component in the management of these patients. While radiation can be done either prior to or after surgery, most centers prefer the postoperative setting. This refresher course will review general concepts of postoperative irradiation for the patient with head and neck cancer and apply these concepts to specific situations. The course will begin with a broad review of the indications for postoperative irradiation as not all patients undergoing surgery for cancers of the head and neck require additional treatment. We will also review the concept of using postoperative radiation to allow for more conservative surgery with preservation of function. The second portion of the course will focus on general techniques of postoperative irradiation. We will review concepts of patient setup and treatment portal design and describe how specific techniques are practiced at MDACC. Controversial topics, including field matching, total dose and fractionation, and the timing of postoperative radiation will be discussed. The final section of the course will review the results of postoperative irradiation as applied to the head and neck in general as well as to specific subsites. In addition to results for the common scenarios of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx, we will review results of postoperative irradiation for skin cancers of the head and neck, paranasal sinuses, and salivary glands

  7. Hypoalbuminaemia-a marker of malnutrition and predictor of postoperative complications and mortality after hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldebeyan, Sultan; Nooh, Anas; Aoude, Ahmed; Weber, Michael H; Harvey, Edward J

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to determine the effect of hypoalbuminaemia as a marker of malnutrition on the 30-day postoperative complication rate and mortality in patients receiving surgical treatment for hip fractures using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database. We analyzed all patients admitted with hip fractures receiving surgical treatment from 2011 to 2013. Patients were dichotomized based on their albumin levels; hypoalbuminaemia (albumin 3.5g/dL). Patient demographics, postoperative complications, and length of stay were analysed. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the ability of albumin level for predicting postoperative complications, length of stay, and mortality. A total of 10,117 patients with hip fractures were identified with 5414 patients with normal albumin levels, and 4703 with low albumin. Multivariate analysis showed that when controlling for comorbidities; hypoalbuminaemia alone was a predictor of postoperative complications (death, unplanned intubation, being on a ventilator >48h, sepsis, and blood transfusion), and increased length of stay (6.90±7.23 versus 8.44±8.70, CI 0.64-1.20, Ppatients with hip fractures. Furthermore, patients with hypoalbuminaemia had a longer hospital length of stay. Further studies are needed to assess whether nutritional support can improve postoperative complications in patients with hypoalbuminaemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Postoperative Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: The Case of the Missing Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croke, Jennifer; Malone, Shawn; Roustan Delatour, Nicolas; Belanger, Eric; Avruch, Leonard; Morash, Christopher; Kayser, Cathleen; Underhill, Kathryn; Spaans, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy (XRT) increases survival in high-risk prostate cancer patients. Approximately 50% of patients on long-term follow-up relapse despite adjuvant XRT and the predominant site of failure remains local. Four consensus guidelines define postoperative clinical target volume (CTV) in prostate cancer. We explore the possibility that inadequate CTV coverage is an important cause of local failure. This study evaluates the utility of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in defining prostate bed CTV. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate cancer patients treated with postoperative XRT who also had preoperative staging MRI were included. The four guidelines were applied and the CTVs were expanded to create planning target volumes (PTVs). Preoperative MRIs were fused with postoperative planning CT scans. MRI-based prostate and gross visible tumors were contoured. Three-dimensional (3D) conformal four- and six-field XRT plans were developed and dose–volume histograms analyzed. Subtraction analysis was conducted to assess the adequacy of prostate/gross tumor coverage. Results: Gross tumor was visible in 18 cases. In all 20 cases, the consensus CTVs did not fully cover the MRI-defined prostate. On average, 35% of the prostate volume and 32% of the gross tumor volume were missed using six-field 3D treatment plans. The entire MRI-defined gross tumor volume was completely covered in only two cases (six-field plans). The expanded PTVs did not cover the entire prostate bed in 50% of cases. Prostate base and mid-zones were the predominant site of inadequate coverage. Conclusions: Current postoperative CTV guidelines do not adequately cover the prostate bed and/or gross tumor based on preoperative MRI imaging. Additionally, expanded PTVs do not fully cover the prostate bed in 50% of cases. Inadequate CTV definition is likely a major contributing factor for the high risk of relapse despite adjuvant XRT. Preoperative imaging may lead to more

  9. Bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts after orthognathic surgery: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hye; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative maxillary cysts are locally aggressive lesions, usually developing as delayed complications many years after radical antral surgery. This report describes a case of bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts following orthognathic surgery performed approximately 21 years previously. The patient complained of stinging pain on her right cheek. Radiographic examination revealed low-attenuation lesions on both maxillary sinuses with discontinuously corticated margins without distinct expansion or bone destruction. The cysts were enucleated with the removal of metal plates and screws for pain relief. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of postoperative maxillary cysts lined by ciliated, pseudostratified columnar cells. The patient has remained asymptomatic thus far, and there was no evidence of local recurrence at 21 months of postoperative follow-up.

  10. Bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts after orthognathic surgery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hye; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Postoperative maxillary cysts are locally aggressive lesions, usually developing as delayed complications many years after radical antral surgery. This report describes a case of bilateral postoperative maxillary cysts following orthognathic surgery performed approximately 21 years previously. The patient complained of stinging pain on her right cheek. Radiographic examination revealed low-attenuation lesions on both maxillary sinuses with discontinuously corticated margins without distinct expansion or bone destruction. The cysts were enucleated with the removal of metal plates and screws for pain relief. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of postoperative maxillary cysts lined by ciliated, pseudostratified columnar cells. The patient has remained asymptomatic thus far, and there was no evidence of local recurrence at 21 months of postoperative follow-up.

  11. Postoperative Chemotherapy for Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate and cognitive function of 43 children, age <3 years, with medulloblastoma treated with intensive postoperative chemotherapy alone, without radiotherapy, were determined at the University of Wurzburg and other centers in Germany Chemotherapy consisted of three two-month cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, vincristine, carboplatin, and etoposide.

  12. Postoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colorectal anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Anastomotic leakage (AL) is the most important and one of the most serious complications after colorectal resections with primary anastomosis. Any factors that contribute to increase the risk of AL should be identified and - if possible - eliminated. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs......) are often used for treating pain after surgical procedures, among these also colorectal resections. The objective of this Ph.d. thesis was to investigate whether the use of NSAIDs in the postoperative period increases the risk of AL, and investigate the effect on pathophysiological mechanisms. In order...

  13. Comparison of the Effect of Noise Levels on Stress Response in Two Different Operation Groups in an Orthopedic Surgery Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibe Baytan Yildiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this randomized, single-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of noise on hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress response by measuring the level of noise in the surgery rooms of patients undergoing knee operations under neuroaxial anesthesia. Gerec ve Yontem: We compared patient responses from two groups of patients: those undergoing knee operations in a surgery room where the noise level (measured in decibels is high, and those undergoing meniscus operations in a surgery room with lower noise levels. The STAI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-1, and the anxiety test (STAI-2wereperformed at preoperative and postoperative periods. 20 ml of blood sample was taken for basal, intraoperative 30th minute, and postoperative 1st hour measurements. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures were found to be higher in the high noise level group. ACTH levels were increased during the early postoperative period and became normal during the late postoperative period in the high noise level group whereas ACTH levels were significantly decreased in the low-noise level group. Basal cortisol levels were significantly higher in the high noise level group. HCRP, an inflammatory response mediator was found to be decreased in both groups. Early and late blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the high noise group. There was a greater increase in early and late blood glucose levels in the high noise group. In the postoperative period, although the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-2 levels being higher in patients subject to noisier environment determines how people feel independent of the conditions and state they are in, this result made us consider that the noise the patients were subjected to in the intraoperative period may cause a stress response. Discussion: As a result we believe that standard noise levels should be achieved by reducing the factors causing high noise levels in the operating room. This will

  14. Postoperative singultus: an osteopathic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petree, Kristie; Bruner, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Singultus, or hiccups, is a common medical condition. Despite exponential leaps in medicine, the pathophysiologic cause remains poorly defined. Persistent singultus has been associated with conditions such as pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction. Singultus is also a well-known postoperative complication. The criterion standard of care for patients with singultus involves ruling out lethal pathologic causes, attempting physical stimulation with Valsava maneuvers or drinking water, and, if no relief has been achieved, administering drugs to ease the symptoms. The authors report a case of a man whose postoperative singultus was successfully managed with osteopathic manipulative treatment. This approach addresses many of the possible underlying neuromechanical causes of the aberrant reflex with minimal potential for adverse effects. Physicians should consider osteopathic manipulative treatment in the care of patients with singultus. © 2015 The American Osteopathic Association.

  15. Postoperative MR arthography of the shoulder joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, T.; Trattnig, S.; Breitenseher, M.; Freilinger, W.; Cochole, M.; Imhof, H.

    1996-01-01

    Indications of MR arthrography were analyzed in this prospective study. The aim was to evaluate possible advantages over conventional MRI, establish diagnostic criteria and to analyze its meaning further for the therapeutic management of postoperative patients. MR arthrography was performed in eight patients who had undergone surgical repair of rotator cuff lesions (modified Neer acromioplasty) and in six patients who had undergone arthroscopic therapy of recurrent unidirectional dislocation of the shoulder by combined arthroscopic intra- and extracapsular repair. MR investigations were performed before and after application of a contrast solution (2 mmol Gd-DTPA). All patients suffered from chronic postoperative pain. In patients with rotator cuff lesions, a partial tear could be verified in one patient and excluded in all others. In patients after arthroscopic therapy by combined intra- and extracapsular repair, a radiologically patulous-appearing capsule correlated with clinically recurrent dislocations. In all other patients diagnostic criteria, such as distribution of the intra-articular contrast solution, proliferation of scar tissue, nodular appearance of the glenohumeral ligaments and capsule thickness, correlated with a regular postoperative status. MR arthrography of the shoulder represents a promising method in the evaluation of the postoperative shoulder. It might further improve the evaluation of reactive capsule alterations, scar tissue proliferation, and the labroligamentous complex, as well as the ability to differentiate partial and complete rerupture from degenerative changes of the rotator cuff. (orig.) [de

  16. Adaptation responses to increasing drought frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, A. J.; Adamson, D. C.; Schwabe, K.

    2016-12-01

    Using state contingent analysis we discuss how and why irrigators adapt to alternative water supply signals. This analysis approach helps to illustrate how and why producers currently use state-general and state-allocable inputs to adapt and respond to known and possible future climatic alternative natures. Focusing on the timing of water allocations, we explore inherent differences in the demand for water by two key irrigation sectors: annual and perennial producers which in Australia have allowed a significant degree of risk-minimisation during droughts. In the absence of land constraints, producers also had a capacity to respond to positive state outcomes and achieve super-normal profits. In the future, however, the probability of positive state outcomes is uncertain; production systems may need to adapt to minimise losses and/or achieve positive returns under altered water supply conditions that may arise as a consequence of more frequent drought states. As such, producers must assess whether altering current input/output choice sets in response to possible future climate states will enhance their long-run competitive advantage for both expected new normal and extreme water supply outcomes. Further, policy supporting agricultural sector climate change resilience must avoid poorly-designed strategies that increase producer vulnerability in the face of drought. Our analysis explores the reliability of alternative water property right bundles and how reduced allocations across time influence alternative responses by producers. We then extend our analysis to explore how management strategies could adapt to two possible future drier state types: i) where an average reduction in water supply is experienced; and ii) where the frequency of droughts increase. The combination of these findings are subsequently used to discuss the role water reform policy has to deal with current and future climate scenarios. We argue current policy strategies could drive producers to

  17. Utility of screening questionnaire and polysomnography to predict postoperative outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Hiromi; Tripi, Jennifer; Walia, Hina; Tumin, Dmitry; Splaingard, Mark; Jatana, Kris R; Tobias, Joseph D; Raman, Vidya T

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has increased concurrently with the increasing prevalence of obesity. We have previously validated a short questionnaire predicting the occurrence of OSA on polysomnography (PSG). This follow-up study assessed the utility of the questionnaire in predicting postoperative outcomes. Children undergoing surgery and completing a sleep study were prospectively screened for OSA using a short questionnaire. Procedures within 1 year of PSG were included in the analysis. Questionnaires were scored according to a cutoff previously deemed optimal for predicting OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5) on the sleep study. Postoperative outcomes included prolonged (>60 min) length of stay (LOS) in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and oxygen requirement in the PACU. The study cohort included 185 patients (100/85 male/female) age 8 ± 4 years, undergoing adenotonsillectomy (n = 109), other ear, nose, and throat (ENT) procedures (n = 18), or non-ENT procedures (n = 58). There were 45 patients with OSA documented by PSG and 122 patients identified as likely to have OSA according to questionnaire responses (89% sensitivity, 41% specificity). PACU LOS was prolonged in 55/181 (30%) cases and supplemental oxygen was used in the PACU in 29/181 (16%) cases. In separate multivariable models, supplemental oxygen use in the PACU was more common if a patient scored ≥2/6 points on the short questionnaire scale (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 1.3, 19.9; p = 0.023) or if the patient was diagnosed with OSA on PSG (OR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 13.5; p = 0.005). Neither OSA on PSG nor questionnaire score ≥2/6 were associated with prolonged PACU stay. Both OSA diagnosis based on the AHI and the questionnaire scale achieved comparable predictive value for the need for oxygen use in the PACU. The utility of the questionnaire in predicting rare adverse events (e.g., unplanned admission or rapid response team activation) remains to be determined

  18. The use of the virtual reality as intervention tool in the postoperative of cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira; Oliveira, Géssica Uruga; Maynard, Luana Godinho; Araújo Filho, Amaro Afrânio de; Silva, Walderi Monteiro da; Cerqueria Neto, Manoel Luiz; Antoniolli, Angelo Roberto; Santana-Filho, Valter J

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac surgery has been the intervention of choice in many cases of cardiovascular diseases. Susceptibility to postoperative complications, cardiac rehabilitation is indicated. Therapeutic resources, such as virtual reality has been helping the rehabilitational process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of virtual reality in the functional rehabilitation of patients in the postoperative period. Patients were randomized into two groups, Virtual Reality (VRG, n = 30) and Control (CG, n = 30). The response to treatment was assessed through the functional independence measure (FIM), by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Evaluations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. On the first day after surgery, patients in both groups showed decreased functional performance. However, the VRG showed lower reduction (45.712.3) when compared to CG (35.0612.09, P0.05). In evaluating the NHP field, we observed a significant decrease in pain score at third assessment (Pinteraction. The length of stay was significantly shorter in patients of VRG (9.410.5 days vs. 12.2 1 0.9 days, Pvirtual reality demonstrated benefits, with better functional performance in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  19. Treatment Result of Postoperative Radiotherapy of Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Charn Il; Kim, Il Han; Ha, Sung Whan; Lee, Hyo Pyo; Shin, Myon Woo; Kim, Jung Soo

    1985-01-01

    The early carcinoma of the uterine cervix may be treated by either radical surgery or radical radiotherapy according to the patient characteristics, and the survival is high with either treatment. But, because of the size of the lesion, metastasis to lymph nodes, and vascular space invasion by tumor have all been shown to influence recurrence and survival, postoperative radiotherapy may be considered as their histopathologic finding after radical surgery. However, there are still debates on the increasing survival rates with postoperative radiotherapy. Two hundreds and three patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix who were treated with postoperative radiotherapy from February 1979 to September 1982 in the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University were analyzed and following results were obtained. 3-year actuarial survival rate and 3-year disease free survival rate were 83.4% and 73.4% respectively and 3-year actuarial survival rates by stages were 90.7% for I B, 69.6% for II A, and 85.2% for II b. The overall acute complication rate was 57.6%; tolerable cases was 50.2% and severe cases was 7.4%, Late complication rate was 7.9% and the major late complication were intestinal obstruction, aggravated urinary symptom, radiation cystitis in ORDER of frequency

  20. Postoperative Adverse Events Inconsistently Improved by the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist: A Systematic Literature Review of 25 Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Elzerie; McKenna, Chloe; Bartlett, Lynne; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Ho, Yik-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) has been widely implemented in an effort to decrease surgical adverse events. This systematic literature review examined the effects of the SSC on postoperative outcomes. The review included 25 studies: two randomised controlled trials, 13 prospective and ten retrospective cohort trials. A meta-analysis was not conducted as combining observational studies of heterogeneous quality may be highly biased. The quality of the studies was largely suboptimal; only four studies had a concurrent control group, many studies were underpowered to examine specific postoperative outcomes and teamwork-training initiatives were often combined with the implementation of the checklist, confounding the results. The effects of the checklist were largely inconsistent. Postoperative complications were examined in 20 studies; complication rates significantly decreased in ten and increased in one. Eighteen studies examined postoperative mortality. Rates significantly decreased in four and increased in one. Postoperative mortality rates were not significantly decreased in any studies in developed nations, whereas they were significantly decreased in 75 % of studies conducted in developing nations. The checklist may be associated with a decrease in surgical adverse events and this effect seems to be greater in developing nations. With the observed incongruence between specific postoperative outcomes and the overall poor study designs, it is possible that many of the positive changes associated with the use of the checklist were due to temporal changes, confounding factors and publication bias.

  1. Validation of post-operative atrial fibrillation in the Western Denmark Heart Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Sarah Bach; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan; Mortensen, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Post-operative new-onset atrial fibrillation and flutter (POAF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality following cardiac surgery. Registers and databases are important data sources for observational studies in this research area; hence, the aim was to assess the data...... of the registry. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  2. Role of Ketamine in Acute Postoperative Pain Management: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Brian M.; Shah, Khushbu; Parikh, Anant; Sifonios, Anthony N.; Eloy, Jean D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this narrative review was to examine the usage of ketamine as a postoperative analgesic agent across a wide variety of surgeries. Design. A literature search was performed using the phrases “ketamine” and “postoperative pain.” The authors analyzed the studies that involved testing ketamine's effectiveness at controlling postoperative pain. Effectiveness was assessed through various outcomes such as the amount of opiate consumption, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, and persistent postoperative pain at long-term follow-up. Results. While many different administration protocols were evaluated, delivering ketamine both as a pre- or perioperative bolus and postoperative infusion for up to 48 hours appeared to be the most effective. These effects are dose-dependent. However, a number of studies analyzed showed no benefit in using ketamine versus placebo for controlling postoperative pain. While ketamine is a safe and well-tolerated drug, it does have adverse effects, and there are concerns for possible neurotoxicity and effects on memory. Conclusions. In a number of limited situations, ketamine has shown some efficacy in controlling postoperative pain and decreasing opioid consumption. More randomized controlled trials are necessary to determine the surgical procedures and administrations (i.e., intravenous, epidural) that ketamine is best suited for. PMID:26495312

  3. Role of Ketamine in Acute Postoperative Pain Management: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Radvansky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this narrative review was to examine the usage of ketamine as a postoperative analgesic agent across a wide variety of surgeries. Design. A literature search was performed using the phrases “ketamine” and “postoperative pain.” The authors analyzed the studies that involved testing ketamine’s effectiveness at controlling postoperative pain. Effectiveness was assessed through various outcomes such as the amount of opiate consumption, visual analog scale (VAS pain scores, and persistent postoperative pain at long-term follow-up. Results. While many different administration protocols were evaluated, delivering ketamine both as a pre- or perioperative bolus and postoperative infusion for up to 48 hours appeared to be the most effective. These effects are dose-dependent. However, a number of studies analyzed showed no benefit in using ketamine versus placebo for controlling postoperative pain. While ketamine is a safe and well-tolerated drug, it does have adverse effects, and there are concerns for possible neurotoxicity and effects on memory. Conclusions. In a number of limited situations, ketamine has shown some efficacy in controlling postoperative pain and decreasing opioid consumption. More randomized controlled trials are necessary to determine the surgical procedures and administrations (i.e., intravenous, epidural that ketamine is best suited for.

  4. Ultrasound diagnosis of postoperative complications of nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, Caterina; Erra, Carmen; Fernandez Marquez, Eduardo Marcos; Ortensi, Andrea; Faiola, Andrea; Coraci, Daniele; Piccinini, Giulia; Padua, Luca

    2018-05-03

    Peripheral nerve injuries often undergo