WorldWideScience

Sample records for increased milk protein

  1. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  2. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  3. Prion protein in milk.

    Nicola Franscini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions are known to cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE after accumulation in the central nervous system. There is increasing evidence that prions are also present in body fluids and that prion infection by blood transmission is possible. The low concentration of the proteinaceous agent in body fluids and its long incubation time complicate epidemiologic analysis and estimation of spreading and thus the risk of human infection. This situation is particularly unsatisfactory for food and pharmaceutical industries, given the lack of sensitive tools for monitoring the infectious agent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed an adsorption matrix, Alicon PrioTrap, which binds with high affinity and specificity to prion proteins. Thus we were able to identify prion protein (PrP(C--the precursor of prions (PrP(Sc--in milk from humans, cows, sheep, and goats. The absolute amount of PrP(C differs between the species (from microg/l range in sheep to ng/l range in human milk. PrP(C is also found in homogenised and pasteurised off-the-shelf milk, and even ultrahigh temperature treatment only partially diminishes endogenous PrP(C concentration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In view of a recent study showing evidence of prion replication occurring in the mammary gland of scrapie infected sheep suffering from mastitis, the appearance of PrP(C in milk implies the possibility that milk of TSE-infected animals serves as source for PrP(Sc.

  4. Association of Genetic Variants of Milk Proteins with Milk Production ...

    Administrator

    For example, increasing the frequency of a milk protein genotype associated with ... date of milking, somatic cell count, daily milk yield, protein and fat ..... G sulla ripartizione percentuale delle caseine αS1, αS2, β e κ in vacche die razze. Bruna.

  5. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 904 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  6. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 90�4 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  7. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  9. Ultrafiltration of skimmed goat milk increases its nutritional value by concentrating nonfat solids such as proteins, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn.

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rumen-protected lysine, methionine, and histidine increase milk protein yield in dairy cows fed a metabolizable protein-deficient diet.

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Cassidy, T W; Heyler, K S; Lapierre, H; Varga, G A; de Veth, M J; Patton, R A; Parys, C

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet with rumen-protected (RP) Lys, Met, and specifically His on dairy cow performance. The experiment was conducted for 12 wk with 48 Holstein cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by DIM and milk yield and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets, based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage: control, MP-adequate diet (ADMP; MP balance: +9 g/d); MP-deficient diet (DMP; MP balance: -317 g/d); DMP supplemented with RPLys (AminoShure-L, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY) and RPMet (Mepron; Evonik Industries AG, Hanau, Germany; DMPLM); and DMPLM supplemented with an experimental RPHis preparation (DMPLMH). The analyzed crude protein content of the ADMP and DMP diets was 15.7 and 13.5 to 13.6%, respectively. The apparent total-tract digestibility of all measured nutrients, plasma urea-N, and urinary N excretion were decreased by the DMP diets compared with ADMP. Milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake was greater for the DMP diets compared with ADMP. Compared with ADMP, dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be lower for DMP, but was similar for DMPLM and DMPLMH (24.5, 23.0, 23.7, and 24.3 kg/d, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by DMP (35.2 kg/d), but was similar to ADMP (38.8 kg/d) for DMPLM and DMPLMH (36.9 and 38.5kg/d, respectively), paralleling the trend in DMI. The National Research Council 2001model underpredicted milk yield of the DMP cows by an average (±SE) of 10.3 ± 0.75 kg/d. Milk fat and true protein content did not differ among treatments, but milk protein yield was increased by DMPLM and DMPLMH compared with DMP and was not different from ADMP. Plasma essential amino acids (AA), Lys, and His were lower for DMP compared with ADMP. Supplementation of the DMP diets with RP AA increased plasma Lys, Met, and His. In conclusion, MP deficiency, approximately 15% below the National Research Council requirements from 2001, decreased

  11. Short communication: Effects of increasing protein and energy in the milk replacer with or without direct-fed microbial supplementation on growth and performance of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Geiger, A J; Ward, S H; Williams, C C; Rude, B J; Cabrera, C J; Kalestch, K N; Voelz, B E

    2014-11-01

    Forty-four Holstein calves were fed a direct-fed microbial (DFM) and 1 of 2 milk replacers to evaluate calf performance and growth. Treatments were (1) a control milk replacer [22:20; 22% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat], (2) an accelerated milk replacer (27:10; 27% CP and 10% fat), (3) the control milk replacer with added DFM (22:20+D), and (4) the accelerated milk replacer with added DFM (27:10+D). Dry matter intake, rectal temperatures, respiration scores and rates, and fecal scores were collected daily. Body weight, hip and withers height, heart girth, blood, and rumen fluid samples were collected weekly. Effects of treatment, sex, week, and their interactions were analyzed. Calves fed an accelerated milk replacer, regardless of DFM supplementation, consumed more CP and metabolizable energy in the milk replacer. No treatment differences were found for starter intake or intake of neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber in the starter. Calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had greater preweaning and weaning body weight compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Average daily gain was greater during the preweaning period for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but the same pattern did not hold true during the postweaning period. Feed efficiency did not differ among treatments. Hip height tended to be and withers height and heart girth were greater at weaning for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Fecal scores were greatest in calves fed DFM. Overall acetate, propionate, butyrate, and n-valerate concentrations were lower in calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but DFM did not have an effect. Rumen pH was not different. Blood metabolites were unaffected by DFM supplementation, but calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had increased partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate, and total bicarbonate in the blood. Direct-fed microbial supplementation did not appear to benefit the calf

  12. Cheese from ultrafiltered milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    Buijsse, C.A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk

  13. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    Bovenhuis, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Korver, S.

    1992-01-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each

  14. Does milk increase mucus production?

    Bartley, Jim; McGlashan, Susan Read

    2010-04-01

    Excessive milk consumption has a long association with increased respiratory tract mucus production and asthma. Such an association cannot be explained using a conventional allergic paradigm and there is limited medical evidence showing causality. In the human colon, beta-casomorphin-7 (beta-CM-7), an exorphin derived from the breakdown of A1 milk, stimulates mucus production from gut MUC5AC glands. In the presence of inflammation similar mucus overproduction from respiratory tract MUC5AC glands characterises many respiratory tract diseases. beta-CM-7 from the blood stream could stimulate the production and secretion of mucus production from these respiratory glands. Such a hypothesis could be tested in vitro using quantitative RT-PCR to show that the addition of beta-CM-7 into an incubation medium of respiratory goblet cells elicits an increase in MUC5AC mRNA and by identifying beta-CM-7 in the blood of asthmatic patients. This association may not necessarily be simply cause and effect as the person has to be consuming A1 milk, beta-CM-7 must pass into the systemic circulation and the tissues have to be actively inflamed. These prerequisites could explain why only a subgroup of the population, who have increased respiratory tract mucus production, find that many of their symptoms, including asthma, improve on a dairy elimination diet. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Short-term effects of milking frequency on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count and milk protein profile in dairy goats

    Torres, Alexandr; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without impai...... was returned to X2 and X1. Finally, quantitative analysis showed an increase in intensities of milk protein bands from X1 to X2, but the intensities of casein bands (αS1-CN, αS2-CN, β-CN, κ-CN) and major whey proteins (α-La, β-Lg) decreased from X2 to X3.......Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without...... impairing milk quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short term effects of three milking frequencies on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk protein profile in dairy goats traditionally milked once a day. Twelve Majorera goats in early lactation (48±4 d...

  16. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Increasing Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Mice

    Tiange Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM, a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes. MFGM was found to have partially improved serum lipid profiles, as well as to have suppressed HFD-induced adipogenesis as shown by reduced expression of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. MFGM also markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, showing activation of AMPK pathway. Moreover, MFGM promoted browning of inguinal WAT by upregulation the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in HFD mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that MFGM may protect against diet-induced adiposity by suppressing adipogenesis and promoting brown-like transformation in WAT.

  17. Whey and Casein Proteins and Medium-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids from Milk Do Not Increase Low-Grade Inflammation in Abdominally Obese Adults.

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation can be modulated by dietary factors. Dairy products are rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are known to possess pro-inflammatory properties. However, different fatty acid compositions may exert different effects. Other components such as milk proteins may exert anti-inflammatory properties which may compensate for the potential negative effects of SFAs. Generally, the available data suggest a neutral role of dairy product consumption on inflammation. To investigate the effects of, and potential interaction between, a dietary supplementation with whey protein and milk fat, naturally enriched in medium-chain SFA (MC-SFA), on inflammatory markers in abdominal obese adults. The study was a 12-week, randomized, double-blinded, intervention study. Sixty-three adults were equally allocated to one of four groups which received a supplement of either 60 g/day whey or 60 g/day casein plus 63 g/day milk fat either high or low in MC-SFA content. Fifty-two subjects completed the study. Before and after the intervention, changes in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Changes in inflammatory genes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue were also documented. There were no differences in circulating inflammatory markers between protein types or fatty acid compositions in abdominally obese subjects, with the exception of an increase in adiponectin in response to high compared to low MC-SFA consumption in women. We found that combined dairy proteins and MC-SFAs influenced inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue, while no effect was detected by dairy proteins or MC-SFA per se. Whey protein compared with casein and MC-SFA-enriched milk fat did not alter circulating markers of low-grade inflammation in

  18. Commercial Milk Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit Reactivities to Purified Milk Proteins and Milk-Derived Ingredients.

    Ivens, Katherine O; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2016-07-01

    Numerous commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits exist to quantitatively detect bovine milk residues in foods. Milk contains many proteins that can serve as ELISA targets including caseins (α-, β-, or κ-casein) and whey proteins (α-lactalbumin or β-lactoglobulin). Nine commercially-available milk ELISA kits were selected to compare the specificity and sensitivity with 5 purified milk proteins and 3 milk-derived ingredients. All of the milk kits were capable of quantifying nonfat dry milk (NFDM), but did not necessarily detect all individual protein fractions. While milk-derived ingredients were detected by the kits, their quantitation may be inaccurate due to the use of different calibrators, reference materials, and antibodies in kit development. The establishment of a standard reference material for the calibration of milk ELISA kits is increasingly important. The appropriate selection and understanding of milk ELISA kits for food analysis is critical to accurate quantification of milk residues and informed risk management decisions. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. The natural history of cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance

    Høst, A; Jacobsen, H P; Halken, S

    1995-01-01

    In prospective studies th incidence of cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) in infancy in western industrialized countries has been estimated to be about 2-3% based on strict diagnostic criteria. A significant association between early neonatal exposure to cow's milk formula...... feeding and subsequent development of CMPA/CMPI has been documented. The small amounts of 'foreign' protein in human milk may rather induce tolerance than allergic sensitization. The findings of specific IgE to individual cow's milk proteins in cord blood of the majority of infants who later develop CMPA...... with an early increased IgE response to cow's milk protein have an increased risk of persisting CMPA, development of persistent adverse reactions to other foods and development of allergy against environmental inhalant allergens. Cow's milk protein/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), meaning reproducible adverse reactions...

  20. [Cow's milk protein sensitive enteropathy].

    Harms, H K

    1982-01-01

    Cow's milk protein sensitive enteropathy (CMPSE) is characterized by the following items: 1. The great majority of affected infants have not been breast fed or only for a few days. Additional risks are immaturity, preceding enteritis, trisomy 21, and abdominal operation in the newborn. 2. Half of the patients become ill during the first two weeks after starting cow's milk formula. The main symptoms are watery, mucus containing diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal distension, pallor and rapid weight loss. 3. In CMPSE the small intestinal mucosa shows varying degrees of inflammation and villous atrophy. Bloody stools refer to large bowel affection. 4. CMPSE is always transitory and usually persists for less than one year. Inadequate treatment leads to "severe protracted diarrhea" or "intractable diarrhea" syndrome. Soya-based formula should not be the diet of first choice, since secondary intolerance to soya proteins will frequently develop. Exclusive breast feeding during the first months of life is the best prophylaxis of CMPSE.

  1. Effect of protein degradability on milk production of dairy ewes.

    Mikolayunas-Sandrock, C; Armentano, L E; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of protein degradability of dairy sheep diets on milk yield and protein utilization across 2 levels of milk production. Three diets were formulated to provide similar energy concentrations and varying concentrations of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP): 12% RDP and 4% RUP (12-4) included basal levels of RDP and RUP, 12% RDP and 6% RUP (12-6) included additional RUP, and 14% RDP and 4% RUP (14-4) included additional RDP. Diets were composed of alfalfa-timothy cubes, whole and ground corn, whole oats, dehulled soybean meal, and expeller soybean meal (SoyPlus, West Central, Ralston, IA). Estimates of RDP and RUP were based on the Small Ruminant Nutrition System model (2008) and feed and orts were analyzed for Cornell N fractions. Eighteen multiparous dairy ewes in midlactation were divided by milk yield (low and high) into 2 blocks of 9 ewes each and were randomly assigned within block (low and high) to 3 pens of 3 ewes each. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square within each block and applied to pens for 14-d periods. We hypothesized that pens consuming high-RUP diets (12-6) would produce more milk and milk protein than the basal diet (12-4) and pens consuming high-RDP diets (14-4) would not produce more milk than the basal diet (12-4). Ewes in the high-milk-yield square consumed more dry matter and produced more milk, milk fat, and milk protein than ewes in the low-milk-yield square. There was no effect of dietary treatment on dry matter intake. Across both levels of milk production, the 12-6 diet increased milk yield by 14%, increased milk fat yield by 14%, and increased milk protein yield by 13% compared with the 14-4 and 12-4 diets. Gross N efficiency (milk protein N/intake protein N) was 11 and 15% greater in the 12-6 and 12-4 diets, respectively, compared with the 14-4 diet. Milk urea N concentration was greater in the 12-6 diet and tended to be

  2. The changes of proteins fractions shares in milk and fermented milk drinks.

    Bonczar, Genowefa; Walczycka, Maria; Duda, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    polyacrylamid gel) basing on procedure described by Laemmli (1970). It was shown that, in comparison with raw milk, the pasteurised milk had smaller amounts of αs-, β- and κ-casein, whereas the shares of γ-casein and peptides were greater, and there were no changes in immunoglobulin, α-lactalbumin or β-lactoglobulin levels, which indicated that hydrolysis of caseins had occurred. In all freshly fermented milk drinks, a drop in αs- and β-casein was observed relative to raw milk. An increase in peptides and γ-casein was also noticed (with the exception of acidified milk). There were differences in α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin levels between the different drinks: raw, pasteurised or freshly fermented milk. It was shown that kefir, compared to the other drinks, had the lowest levels of αs- and β-casein, α-lactalbumin and of peptides, as well as the highest level of γ-casein, which is evidence of an increased rate of hydrolysis in that drink. It was stated that, during the storage of fermented milk drinks, the levels of lactoferrin, serum albumin and peptides significantly increased whereas the content of κ-casein diminished. The proportions of serum albumin and lactoferrin in fermented milk drinks increased relative to raw milk and/or after storage, which is evidence of aggregation of proteins of low molecular mass into bigger conglomerates. The observed differences between fermented milks, including during chilled storage, in the amounts of individual proteins proves the different proteolytic abilities of starter cultures used in fermented milk production. α-lactoalbumin and β-lactoglobulin are, besides caseins, the most allergenic milk proteins. So, kefir, because of its low α-lactoalbumin content, and Bifidobacterium bifidum milk, with the lowest content of β-lactoglobulin, were the most advantageous and least allergenic drinks examined.

  3. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of high temperatures on milk proteins

    Maćej Ognjen D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures Induce certain changes in milk constituents, but the degree of these changes depends on both the temperature and time of heat treatment. The most pronounced changes take place in milk proteins. The forewarming of milk causes an increase in acidity, the precipitation of soluble Ca-phosphate, whey protein denaturation and coagulation, as well as the interaction with casein micelles, the Maillard browning reaction, the dephosphorylation of casein, the hydrolysis of casein micelles, changes in whey proteins, an extension of the rennet coagulation time and an exchange of the rheological properties of the acid and rennet casein gels, changes in the zeta-potential and casein micelle hydration, the interaction between the milk proteins and proteins of milk fat globule membrane.

  5. Interactions between milk protein ingredients and other milk components during processing

    Liu, Guanchen

    research in our group shown that, both MWP and NWP can give a higher viscosity and denser microstructure compared to WPC when used as fat replacer in low-fat yoghurt. In the thesis, we investigated how these two types of commercial whey protein particles interact with other milk components and how...... these interactions affect final acidified milk products. By detecting the properties of the whey protein aggregates, MWP and NWP showed low native whey protein content, low free thiol content and high surface hydrophobicity and were relatively stable at high temperature in the 5 % pure dispersions. When MWP and NWP...... were added to non-fat milk model systems (5% protein in total) and processed into chemically (glucono-delta-lactone) acidified milk gels, the formation of disulfide-linked structures was closely related to the increased particle size of heated milk model systems and the rheological behavior...

  6. Detection of cow's milk proteins and minor components in human milk using proteomics techniques.

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Varalda, A; Peila, C; Fabris, C; Conti, A; Bertino, E

    2012-10-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are the best characterized food allergens. The aim of this study was to investigate cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, and other minor protein components by proteomics techniques, more sensitive than other techniques used in the past. Sixty-two term and 11 preterm colostrum samples were collected, subjected to a treatment able to increase the concentration of the most diluted proteins and simultaneously to reduce the concentration of the proteins present at high concentration (Proteominer Treatment), and subsequently subjected to the steps of proteomic techniques. The most relevant finding in this study was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in human colostrum, then bovine alpha-1-casein could be considered the cow's milk allergen that is readily secreted in human milk and could be a cause of sensitization to cow's milk in exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. Another interesting result was the detection, at very low concentrations, of proteins previously not described in human milk (galectin-7, the different isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein and the serum amyloid P-component), probably involved in the regulation of the normal cell growth, in the pro-apoptotic function and in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. Further investigations are needed to understand if these families of proteins have specific biological activity in human milk.

  7. Milk proteins interact with goat Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins and decrease their binding to sperm.

    de Menezes, Erika Bezerra; van Tilburg, Mauricio; Plante, Geneviève; de Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Moura, Arlindo A; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2016-11-01

    Seminal plasma Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins bind to sperm at ejaculation and promote capacitation. When in excess, however, BSP proteins damage the sperm membrane. It has been suggested that milk components of semen extenders associate with BSP proteins, potentially protecting sperm. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate if milk proteins interact with BSP proteins and reduce BSP binding to goat sperm. Using gel filtration chromatography, milk was incubated with goat seminal plasma proteins and loaded onto columns with and without calcium. Milk was also fractionated into parts containing mostly whey proteins or mostly caseins, incubated with seminal plasma proteins and subjected to gel filtration. Eluted fractions were evaluated by immunoblot using anti-goat BSP antibodies, confirming milk protein-BSP protein interactions. As determined by ELISA, milk proteins coated on polystyrene wells bound to increasing of goat BSP proteins. Far-western dot blots confirmed that BSP proteins bound to caseins and β-lactoglobulin in a concentration-dependent manner. Then, cauda epididymal sperm from five goats was incubated with seminal plasma; seminal plasma followed by milk; and milk followed by seminal plasma. Sperm membrane proteins were extracted and evaluated by immunoblotting. The pattern of BSP binding to sperm membrane proteins was reduced by 59.3 % when epididymal sperm were incubated with seminal plasma and then with skimmed milk (p  0.05). In conclusion, goat BSP proteins have an affinity for caseins and whey proteins. Milk reduces BSP binding to goat sperm, depending whether or not sperm had been previously exposed to seminal plasma. Such events may explain the protective effect of milk during goat sperm preservation.

  8. Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis in Rats after Ingestion of Acidified Bovine Milk Compared with Skim Milk.

    Nakayama, Kyosuke; Kanda, Atsushi; Tagawa, Ryoichi; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-27

    Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS), we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards. Triceps muscle samples were excised for assessing fractional synthetic rate (FSR), plasma components, intramuscular free amino acids and mTOR signaling. The FSR in the acidified milk group was significantly higher than in the skim milk group throughout the post-ingestive period. Plasma essential amino acids, leucine, and insulin levels were significantly increased in the acidified milk group at 30 min after administration compared to the skim milk group. In addition, acidified milk ingestion was associated with greater phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), and sustained phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These results indicate that compared with untreated milk, acidified milk ingestion is associated with greater stimulation of post-exercise MPS.

  9. Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis in Rats after Ingestion of Acidified Bovine Milk Compared with Skim Milk

    Kyosuke Nakayama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS, we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards. Triceps muscle samples were excised for assessing fractional synthetic rate (FSR, plasma components, intramuscular free amino acids and mTOR signaling. The FSR in the acidified milk group was significantly higher than in the skim milk group throughout the post-ingestive period. Plasma essential amino acids, leucine, and insulin levels were significantly increased in the acidified milk group at 30 min after administration compared to the skim milk group. In addition, acidified milk ingestion was associated with greater phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1, and sustained phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1. These results indicate that compared with untreated milk, acidified milk ingestion is associated with greater stimulation of post-exercise MPS.

  10. The effect of milk and milk proteins on risk factors of metabolic syndrome in overweight adolecents

    Arnberg, Karina

    This PhD is based on data from an intervention study with milk and milk proteins conducted in Danish adolescents with overweight. There is a high prevalence of overweight in Danish adolescents. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors related to overweight and believed to increase the risk...... of type-2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Overweight children have higher concentrations of the metabolic syndrome risk factors than normal weight children and the pathological condition underlying cardiovascular diseases, called atherosclerosis, seems to start in childhood. A well...... skimmed milk, whey, casein or water for three months. The background for the intervention is that milk is an important source of protein in the Western diet and epidemiological studies in children have shown that children drinking low amounts of milk have higher concentrations of the metabolic risk...

  11. Lactoferrin and prematurity: a promising milk protein?

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Sizonenko, Stéphane V

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is the major whey protein in milk, with multiple beneficial health effects including direct antimicrobial activities, anti-inflammatory effects, and iron homeostasis. Oral Lf supplementation in human preterm infants has been shown to reduce the incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. In preclinical models of antenatal stress and perinatal brain injury, bovine Lf protected the developing brain from neuronal loss, improved connectivity, increased neurotrophic factors, and decreased inflammation. It also supported brain development and cognition. Further, Lf can prevent preterm delivery by reducing proinflammatory factors and inhibiting premature cervix maturation. We review here the latest research on Lf in the field of neonatology.

  12. Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins or in whey (milk albumin. The allergic reaction is type IV mediated by T lymphocytes. The allergic reaction produces severe cellular damage and it triggers physical, mental and emotional symptomatology that may vary in time, intensity and severity. Lactose intolerance is originated by total or partial absence of the enzyme that digests this disaccharide. Lactose intolerance can be primary or congenital and secondary; the former being more rare and severe, the latter being more common. Lactase deficiency can be diagnosed by symptoms associated with cramping and diarrhea. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of available literature on cow’s milk protein allergy and lactose intolerance.

  13. Rheology and structure of milk protein gels

    Vliet, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Visschers, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on gel formation and rheology of milk gels are reviewed. A distinction is made between gels formed by aggregated casein, gels of `pure` whey proteins and gels in which both casein and whey proteins contribute to their properties. For casein' whey protein mixtures, it has been shown

  14. Protein carbonylation sites in bovine raw milk and processed milk products.

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Mnatsakanyan, Ruzanna; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-08-15

    During thermal treatment of milk, proteins are oxidized, which may reduce the nutritional value of milk, abolish protein functions supporting human health, especially important for newborns, and yield potentially harmful products. The side chains of several amino acids can be oxidized to reactive carbonyls, which are often used to monitor oxidative stress in organisms. Here we mapped protein carbonylation sites in raw milk and different brands of pasteurized, ultra high temperature (UHT) treated milk, and infant formulas (IFs) after digesting the precipitated proteins with trypsin. Reactive carbonyls were derivatized with O-(biotinylcarbazoylmethyl)hydroxylamine to enrich the modified peptides by avidin-biotin affinity chromatography and analyze them by nanoRP-UPLC-ESI-MS. Overall, 53 unique carbonylated peptides (37 carbonylation sites, 15 proteins) were identified. Most carbonyls were derived from dicarbonyls (mainly glyoxal). The number of carbonylation sites increased with the harsher processing from raw milk (4) to pasteurized (16) and UHT milk (16) and to IF (24). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mare’s milk: composition and protein fraction in comparison with different milk species

    Krešimir Kuterovac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of the mare’s milk as functional food especial for children intolerant to cow’s milk, with neurodermitis, allergies and similar disorders desiring to improve the quality of life is fiercely debated for last decades but there were no scientific studies to suggest such use of mare’s milk based on scientific research. The objectives of this study were to determine similarities of mare’s milk in comparison with milk of ruminants (cattle, sheep and goat and human milk in terms of milk composition and protein fraction as whey proteins, caseins and micelles size. All differences were discussed regarding usage of mare’s milk in human diet and compared to milk which is usually used in human nutrition. Regarding composition, the mare’s milk is similar to human milk in of crude protein, salt and lactose content, but it has significantly lower content of fat. Fractions of main proteins are similar between human and mare’s milk, except nitrogen casein (casein N which has twice lower content in human than in mare’s milk. Content of casein N from all ruminants’ milk differ much more. Just for true whey N and non-protein nitrogen (NPN similar content as human and mare’s milk has also goat milk. The casein content is the lowest in human milk; this content is three times greater in mare’s milk and six to seven times greater in goat’s and cow’s milk, while in sheep’s milk it is more than 10 times grater. In many components and fractions mare’s milk is more similar to human milk than milk of ruminants. A detail comparison of protein fraction shows quite large differences between milk of different species. More study and clinical research are needed that can recommend usage of mare’s milk in human diet as functional food on scientific bases.

  16. Thermal properties of milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins in pulsed electric field-treated bovine whole milk.

    Sharma, Pankaj; Oey, Indrawati; Everett, David W

    2016-09-15

    Thermodynamics of milk components (milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins) in pulsed electric field (PEF)-treated milk were compared with thermally treated milk (63 °C for 30 min and 73 °C for 15s). PEF treatments were applied at 20 or 26 kV cm(-1) for 34 μs with or without pre-heating of milk (55 °C for 24s), using bipolar square wave pulses in a continuous mode of operation. PEF treatments did not affect the final temperatures of fat melting (Tmelting) or xanthine oxidase denaturation (Tdenaturation), whereas thermal treatments increased both the Tmelting of milk fat and the Tdenaturation for xanthine oxidase by 2-3 °C. Xanthine oxidase denaturation was ∼13% less after PEF treatments compared with the thermal treatments. The enthalpy change (ΔH of denaturation) of whey proteins decreased in the treated-milk, and denaturation increased with the treatment intensity. New endothermic peaks in the calorimetric thermograms of treated milk revealed the formation of complexes due to interactions between MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and skim milk proteins. Evidence for the adsorption of complexes onto the MFGM surface was obtained from the increase in surface hydrophobicity of proteins, revealing the presence of unfolded hydrophobic regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protein, casein and micellar salts in milk: Current content and historical perspectives

    Bijl, E.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Huppertz, T.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The protein and fat content of Dutch bulk milk has been monitored since the 1950s and has increased considerably, by 11 and 20%, respectively, whereas milk yield has more than doubled. The change in protein and fat content of milk is advantageous for the dairy industry, as these are the 2 most

  18. MILK CANDIES WITH INCREASED SHELF LIFE

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  19. CSN1S2 protein of goat milk inhibits the decrease of viability and increases the proliferation of MC3T3E1 pre-osteoblast cell in methyl glyoxal exposure

    Choirunil Chotimah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether the CNS1S2 protein of goat milk is able to inhibit the toxicity of methyl glyoxal (MG towards MC3T3E1 pre-osteoblast cells. Methods: At confluency, pre-osteoblast cells were divided into five groups which included control (untreated, pre-osteoblast cells exposed to 5 µmol/L MG, pre-osteoblast cells exposed to MG in the presence of CSN1S2 protein at doses of 0.025, 0.050, and 0.100 mg/L, respectively. Analysis of reactive oxygen species was done with 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorochrome. The proliferation and viability of MC3T3E1 cells were measured by trypan blue staining. Malondialdehyde analysis was done colorimetrically. Results: Cell's viabilities were significantly lower in MG+0.050 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk compared to MG group (P<0.05. MG+0.100 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk significantly increased the cells viability compared to MG group (P<0.05. The levels of proliferation were significantly higher in MG+0.100 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk compared to control group and all treatment groups, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions: High dose of CSN1S2 protein of goat milk (0.100 mg/L in high MG environment inhibits the decrease of viability due to the increases of the proliferation of MC3T3E1 preosteoblast cell.

  20. Casein - whey protein interactions in heated milk

    Vasbinder, Astrid Jolanda

    2002-01-01

    Heating of milk is an essential step in the processing of various dairy products, like for example yoghurt. A major consequence of the heat treatment is the denaturation of whey proteins, which either associate with the casein micelle or form soluble whey protein aggregates. By combination of

  1. Immunofluorescence detection of milk protein in meat products

    Michaela Petrášová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are various vegetable protein additives intended for the manufacture of meat products in the food industry. These ingredients include both, plant-origin as well as animal-origin proteins. The most common vegetable additives include various types of flour, starch, fiber and plant protein. Among animal proteins, the most commonly used are plasma, collagen or milk protein. Milk protein is added to meat products due to its functional properties, such as emulsifying fats, improving the holding capacity of meat, improving juiciness, gel-forming capacity and affecting the taste of the product. Usage of these proteins, however, is currently limited by the effective legislation, not only in order to prevent consumer deception, but also because of their potential impact on consumers' health of. Thus, this issue has received considerable attention not only in the Czech Republic, but also globally. The main risk is the impossibility of selecting a suitable foodstuff for individuals with potential allergic reactions. The only option for allergic consumers to protect themselves is to strictly exclude the given allergen from their diet. Although the number of studies dealing with the reduction or loss of allergenicity is increasing, yet these practices are not common. Most of the population suffering from food allergies is thus still dependent on strict exclusion of foodstuffs causing adverse allergic reactions from their diet. Detection of allergens in foodstuffs is unfortunately quite difficult due to the fact that they occur in trace amounts and are often masked by different parts of the foodstuff. This research dealt with the detection of milk protein in meat products purchased in the market network of the Czech Republic, whereas declaration given by the manufacturer on the packaging for the small meat products purchased from the market was used to verify the detection of milk protein by the immunofluorescence method. 20 products were

  2. Functional and technological properties of camel milk proteins: a review

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2016-01-01

    This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being...... processed in dairy plants, and a number of consumer products have been marketed. A better understanding of the technological and functional properties, as required for product improvement, has been gained in the past years. Absence of the whey protein β-LG and a low proportion of к-casein cause differences...... in relation to dairy processing. In addition to the technological properties, there are also implications for human nutrition and camel milk proteins are of interest for applications in infant foods, for food preservation and in functional foods. Proposed health benefits include inhibition of the angiotensin...

  3. Effects of Genotype by Environment Interactions on Milk Yield, Energy Balance, and Protein Balance

    Beerda, B.; Ouweltjes, W.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Windig, J.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in genetic merit for milk yield are associated with increases in mobilization of body reserves. This study assessed the effects of genotype by environment (GxE) interactions on milk yield and energy and protein balances. Heifers (n = 100) with high or low genetic merit for milk yield were

  4. Trace elements and protein in human milk

    Abusamra, Y.I.H.

    1995-01-01

    The trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb and some related major elements which are Ca, Cl K and total protein contents of human samples from ninety mothers were examined in this study. Samples were collected from Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman, from the second day of delivery up to the third month where the milk reaches a relatively stable levels. These samples representing different stages of lactation which are colostrum ( 1-3 days ), tranitional ( up to 14 days ) and mature milk. The principle aim of this study is to measure the trace elements and protein contents in relation to stage of lactation and to compare with the literature. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence were used to measure trace elements in the samples. The methods were found to be quite reliable as proved by the analysis of the standard reference material HM-1. Whereas neutron activation analysis was used for measurements of total protein. Colostrum was found to have the highest amounts of trace elements and protein. Fe mean concentration was 273 g/dm 3 at colostrum stage and it decreased to 146 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 49% ). Zn decreased from 6000 g/dm 3 in colostrum to 1300 g/dm 3 in mature stage ( 78% ). Mn was 12g/dm 3 in colostrum, and it decreased to 2.9 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 75% ). Cu decreased from 370 g/dm 3 to 117 g/dm 3 ( 68% ). Ni decreased from 24 g/dm 3 to 8.8 g/dm 3 ( 63% ) and Pb from 12 g/dm 3 to 2.6 g/dm 3 ( 76% ). Total protein was 37.3% of the dry milk in colostrum and it was 12.2% in mature milk. (author). 75 refs., 25 tabs., 30 figs

  5. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative trait locus ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs in dairy cattle.

  6. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise.

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-03

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a "fast" protein and caseinate (CA) as a "slow" protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP.

  7. The Protein Component of Sow Colostrum and Milk

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Hurley, W L

    2016-01-01

    The production of colostrum and milk by the sow are primary limiting factors affecting survival, growth and development of the piglets. The proteins of colostrum and milk provide not only a supply of amino acids to the neonate but also a wide range of bioactive factors. Proteins in sow mammary...... secretions include those associated with the milk fat membranes, caseins, mammary-derived whey proteins, immunoglobulins, hormones and growth factors, enzymes, and a wide range of other proteins. Concentrations of most milk-specific proteins typically are lower in colostrum than in milk, while concentrations...... of immunoglobulins and other bioactive proteins often are enriched in colostrum compared with mature milk. Dietary protein is utilized for milk protein production with approximately 50% efficiency. During both the colostrum period and at peak lactation as much as 700–800 g of protein is secreted daily by today...

  8. Model test on the relationship feed energy and protein ratio to the production and quality of milk protein

    Hartanto, R.; Jantra, M. A. C.; Santosa, S. A. B.; Purnomoadi, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find an appropriate relationship model between the feed energy and protein ratio with the amount of production and quality of milk proteins. This research was conducted at Getasan Sub-district, Semarang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia using 40 samples (Holstein Friesian cattle, lactation period II-III and lactation month 3-4). Data were analyzed using linear and quadratic regressions, to predict the production and quality of milk protein from feed energy and protein ratio that describe the diet. The significance of model was tested using analysis of variance. Coefficient of determination (R2), residual variance (RV) and root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) were reported for the developed equations as an indicator of the goodness of model fit. The results showed no relationship in milk protein (kg), milk casein (%), milk casein (kg) and milk urea N (mg/dl) as function of CP/TDN. The significant relationship was observed in milk production (L or kg) and milk protein (%) as function of CP/TDN, both in linear and quadratic models. In addition, a quadratic change in milk production (L) (P = 0.003), milk production (kg) (P = 0.003) and milk protein concentration (%) (P = 0.026) were observed with increase of CP/TDN. It can be concluded that quadratic equation was the good fitting model for this research, because quadratic equation has larger R2, smaller RV and smaller RMSPE than those of linear equation.

  9. Amino acid nutrition beyond methionine and lysine for milk protein

    Amino acids are involved in many important physiological processes affecting the production, health, and reproduction of high-producing dairy cows. Most research and recommendations for lactating dairy cows has focused on methionine and lysine for increasing milk protein yield. This is because these...

  10. Use of Donkey Milk in Children with Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy

    Paolo Polidori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is the best nutritional support that insures the right development and influences the immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed, it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infant develops allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Cow’s milk allergy can be divided into immunoglobulin IgE mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Most infants with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow’s milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow’s milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. Donkey milk total protein content is low (1.5–1.8 g/100 g, very close to human milk. A thorough analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study; the interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in humans. The content of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, peptides with antimicrobial activity, able to stimulate the development of the neonatal intestine, was determined. Donkey milk is characterized by a low casein content, with values very close to human milk; the total whey protein content in donkey milk ranges between 0.49 and 0.80 g/100 g, very close to human milk (0.68–0.83 g/100 g. Among whey proteins, α-lactalbumin average concentration in donkey milk is 1.8 mg/mL. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using donkey milk in feeding children with CMPA.

  11. Evaluation of energy status of dairy cows using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

    Kirovski Danijela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy status of dairy cows may be estimated using results for concentrations of fat, protein and urea (MUN in milk samples obtained from bulk tank or individual cows. Using individual cow milk samples is recommended on dairy farms in our geografical region due to the unhomogenity of cows in the herds in respect to their genetic potential for milk production. Depression of milk fat occurs as a consequence of heat stress, underfeeding of peripartal cows, overfeeding concentrate with reduced ration fiber levels or overfeeding with dietary fat. High milk fat content is usually combined with severe negative energy balance. Nutrition and feeding practices have great impact on milk protein level. A deficiency of crude protein in the ration may depress protein in milk. Feeding excessive dietary protein does not significantly increase milk protein. MUN analyses point out potential problems in feeding program on dairy farm. High MUN values may reflect excessive dietary crude protein and/or low rumen degradable non fiber carbohydrates intake. Also, MUN levels is impacted by heat stress since its value is increased during the summer season. Low MUNs indicate a possible dietary protein deficiency. Additionally, low MUNs concentration may indicate excess in dietary nonstructural carbohydrates. On the bases on the interrelationships between protein and urea concentrations, as well as protein and fat concentrations in individual milk sample, estimation of energy balance of dairy cows may be done more accurately.

  12. Distribution of Spiked Drugs between Milk Fat, Skim Milk, Whey, Curd, and Milk Protein Fractions: Expansion of Partitioning Models.

    Lupton, Sara J; Shappell, Nancy W; Shelver, Weilin L; Hakk, Heldur

    2018-01-10

    The distributions of eight drugs (acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid/salicylic acid, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, flunixin, phenylbutazone, praziquantel, and thiamphenicol) were determined in milk products (skim milk, milk fat, curd, whey, and whey protein) and used to expand a previous model (from 7 drugs to 15 drugs) for predicting drug distribution. Phenylbutazone and praziquantel were found to distribute with the lipid and curd phases (≥50%). Flunixin distribution was lower but similar in direction (12% in milk fat, 39% in curd). Acetaminophen, ciprofloxacin, and praziquantel preferentially associated with casein proteins, whereas thiamphenicol and clarithromycin associated preferentially to whey proteins. Regression analyses for log [milk fat]/[skim milk] and log [curd]/[whey] had r 2 values of 0.63 and 0.67, respectively, with p of <0.001 for 15 drugs (7 previously tested and 8 currently tested). The robustness of the distribution model was enhanced by doubling the number of drugs originally tested.

  13. The effect of UV-C pasteurization on bacteriostatic properties and immunological proteins of donor human milk.

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2013-01-01

    Human milk possesses bacteriostatic properties, largely due to the presence of immunological proteins. Heat treatments such as Holder pasteurization reduce the concentration of immunological proteins in human milk and consequently increase the bacterial growth rate. This study investigated the bacterial growth rate and the immunological protein concentration of ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiated, Holder pasteurized and untreated human milk. Samples (n=10) of untreated, Holder pasteurized and UV-C irradiated human milk were inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus and the growth rate over 2 hours incubation time at 37°C was observed. Additionally, the concentration of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme of untreated and treated human milk was analyzed. The bacterial growth rate of untreated and UV-C irradiated human milk was not significantly different. The bacterial growth rate of Holder pasteurized human milk was double compared to untreated human milk (ppasteurization, resulting in bacteriostatic properties similar to those of untreated human milk.

  14. Claudins, dietary milk proteins, and intestinal barrier regulation.

    Kotler, Belinda M; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L

    2013-01-01

    The family of claudin proteins plays an important role in regulating the intestinal barrier by modulating the permeability of tight junctions. The impact of dietary protein on claudin biology has not been studied extensively. Whey proteins have been reported to improve intestinal barrier function, but their mechanism of action is not clear. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated increased intestinal claudin expression in response to milk protein components. Reviewed here are new findings suggesting that whey-protein-derived transforming growth factor β transcriptionally upregulates claudin-4 expression via a Smad-4-dependent pathway. These and other data, including limited clinical studies, are summarized below and, in the aggregate, suggest a therapeutic role for whey protein in diseases of intestinal barrier dysfunction, perhaps, in part, by regulating claudin expression. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  15. Acute phase proteins in bovine milk in an experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    Eckersall, P D; Young, F J; Nolan, A M

    2006-01-01

    and serum amyloid A increase in serum during mastitis. The concentrations of these proteins were determined in an experimental model using a field strain of Staphylococcus aureus to induce subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The expression of mRNA coding for these proteins was assessed and the presence of M......The objectives were to establish the origin of 2 acute phase proteins in milk during subclinical bovine mastitis and to characterize the relationship between those proteins in milk and blood. Haptoglobin (Hp) and mammary-associated serum amyloid A (M-SAA3) appear in milk during mastitis, whereas Hp...

  16. Composition and Variation of Macronutrients, Immune Proteins, and Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Human Milk From Nonprofit and Commercial Milk Banks.

    Meredith-Dennis, Laura; Xu, Gege; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Underwood, Mark A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2018-02-01

    When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization. Randomly acquired human milk samples from three different milk banks ( n = 3 from each bank) were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations using a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy human milk analyzer. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, α antitrypsin, casein, and HMO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of protein and fat were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized compared with the Holder and vat pasteurized samples, respectively. The concentrations of all immune-modulating proteins were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized samples compared with vat and/or Holder pasteurized samples. The total HMO concentration and HMOs containing fucose, sialic acid, and nonfucosylated neutral sugars were significantly ( p < .05) less in retort sterilized compared with Holder pasteurized samples. Random milk samples that had undergone retort sterilization had significantly less immune-protective proteins and total and specific HMOs compared with samples that had undergone Holder and vat pasteurization. These data suggest that further analysis of the effect of retort sterilization on human milk components is needed prior to widespread adoption of this process.

  17. Comparison of the protein and fatty acid fraction of Balkan donkey and human milk

    Jasmina Gubić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the protein and fatty acid fractions of Balkan donkey and human milk in the early lactation stage (40 and 90 day. This study revealed that donkey milk contains αs1-casein (1.38-1.89 g/L and higher concentration of β-casein (0.1-0.55 g/L in comparison to human milk. The concentration of α-lactalbumin increased during the lactation phases from 40 to 90 days in both types of milk. Donkey milk contained β-lactoglobulin in low concentrations which decreased to 90th day of lactation. Donkey milk was particularly rich in two whey proteins, lactoferrin and lysozyme, which were found to have molecular weight of approximately 76 kDa and 14.9-15.4 kDa, respectively. The content of lysozyme in donkey milk ranged from 2.39 to 2.97 g/L, while human milk contained 30-50 times lower concentrations of lysozyme in comparison to donkey milk. Thus, donkey milk contained also a higher concentration of lactoferrin (0.012-0.25 g/L than it was found in the human milk. Lysozyme and lactoferrin content in donkey milk increased during the period from 40th to 90th day of lactation. The percentage of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA was similar in donkey and human milk. The content of essential fatty acids increased during 40-90 days of lactation and was approximately 2.5 times higher in comparison to human milk.

  18. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square...... design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables...... were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while...

  19. Influence of soybean and corn gluten proteins as substitutes for milk protein in milk replacers on growth, liver and thyroid functions in buffalo calves

    Abdelaal, A.E.; EL-Ashry, M.A.; Ibrahim, I.I.; Fekry, A.E.; Elwan, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty suckling buffalo calves (3 weeks old) were allotted to four nutritional groups: Control group, fed 100% skim milk based replacer (Group a); and in the other three groups 50% of milk protein was substituted by american soybean flour (Group B) Egyptian soybean meal (Group C) and corn gluten (Group D). Fat was added to all replacers at the rate of 20% on dry basis. Calf starter and hay were offered ad libitum with the liquid diets from the fourth week. Body weight was recorded weekly. Serum proteins, cholesterol, T 4, T 3, and the enzymic activities of GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase were determined at 6, 9 and 12 weeks of age. The use of american soybean and corn gluten proteins resulted, approximately, in the same body weight gain as in skim milk fed group (A), indicating that whole milk can be reserved from human consumption and the calves can be reared on milk replacers containing plant proteins. Substitution of milk protein with soybean and corn gluten protein resulted in a significant increase in each of serum globulins, A/G ratio and cholesterol, significant decrease in serum total proteins and GPT activity, and no change in growth rate and thyroid function

  20. Analysis and Application of Whey Protein Depleted Skim Milk Systems

    Sørensen, Hanne

    homogenisation (UHPH). The microfiltration will result in a milk fraction more or less depleted from whey protein, and could probably in combination with UHPH treatment contribute to milk fractions and cheeses with novel micro and macrostructures. These novel fractions could be used as new ingredients to improve......-destructive methods for this purpose. A significant changed structure was observed in skim milk depleted or partly depleted for whey protein, acidified and UHPH treated. Some of the properties of the UHPH treated skim milk depleted from whey protein observed in this study support the idea, that UHPH treatment has...... this. LF-NMR relaxation were utilised to obtain information about the water mobility (relaxation time), in diluted skim milk systems depleted from whey protein. Obtained results indicate that measuring relaxation times with LF-NMR could be difficult to utilize, since no clear relationship between...

  1. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    S. Mattii

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999 and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000. In particular the inverse correlation between cheese yields and somatic cells’content have been demonstrated. In Italy the regulation in force DPR 54/97 acknowledges what expressed in EEC 46/92 Directive (Tripodi, 1999 without fixing the limit threshold of somatic cells for buffalo’s milk....

  2. Interaction of milk proteins and Binder of Sperm (BSP) proteins from boar, stallion and ram semen.

    Plante, Geneviève; Lusignan, Marie-France; Lafleur, Michel; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian semen contains a family of closely related proteins known as Binder of SPerm (BSP proteins) that are added to sperm at ejaculation. BSP proteins extract lipids from the sperm membrane thereby extensively modifying its composition. These changes can ultimately be detrimental to sperm storage. We have demonstrated that bovine BSP proteins interact with major milk proteins and proposed that this interaction could be the basis of sperm protection by milk extenders. In the present study, we investigated if homologous BSP proteins present in boar, stallion and ram seminal plasma display a similar affinity for the milk proteins in order to assess whether the mechanism of sperm protection by milk for these species could be general. Skim milk was incubated with seminal plasma proteins (boar, stallion and ram), chromatographed on a Sepharose CL-4B column and protein fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. Boar, stallion and ram BSP proteins displayed affinity for a milk protein fraction (F1) mainly composed of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and κ-casein. They also had affinity for another milk protein fraction (F2) composed mostly of casein micelles. However, stallion BSP showed higher affinity for the fraction (F1). These results further extend our view that the association of BSP proteins with milk proteins could be a general feature of the mechanism of mammalian sperm protection by milk to prevent detrimental effect of prolonged exposure of sperm to seminal plasma.

  3. Detection and characterisation of Complement protein activity in bovine milk by bactericidal sequestration assay.

    Maye, Susan; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Kelly, Philip M

    2015-08-01

    While the Complement protein system in human milk is well characterised, there is little information on its presence and activity in bovine milk. Complement forms part of the innate immune system, hence the importance of its contribution during milk ingestion to the overall defences of the neonate. A bactericidal sequestration assay, featuring a Complement sensitive strain, Escherichia coli 0111, originally used to characterise Complement activity in human milk was successfully applied to freshly drawn bovine milk samples, thus, providing an opportunity to compare Complement activities in both human and bovine milks. Although not identical in response, the levels of Complement activity in bovine milk were found to be closely comparable with that of human milk. Differential counts of Esch. coli 0111 after 2 h incubation were 6.20 and 6.06 log CFU/ml, for raw bovine and human milks, respectively - the lower value representing a stronger Complement response. Exposing bovine milk to a range of thermal treatments e.g. 42, 45, 65, 72, 85 or 95 °C for 10 min, progressively inhibited Complement activity by increasing temperature, thus confirming the heat labile nature of this immune protein system. Low level Complement activity was found, however, in 65 and 72 °C heat treated samples and in retailed pasteurised milk which highlights the outer limit to which high temperature, short time (HTST) industrial thermal processes should be applied if retention of activity is a priority. Concentration of Complement in the fat phase was evident following cream separation, and this was also reflected in the further loss of activity recorded in low fat variants of retailed pasteurised milk. Laboratory-based churning of the cream during simulated buttermaking generated an aqueous (buttermilk) phase with higher levels of Complement activity than the fat phase, thus pointing to a likely association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) layer.

  4. ANTIGENICITY OF COW'S MILK PROTEINS IN TWO ANIMAL MODELS

    T.R. Neyestani; M. Djalali M. I'ezeshki

    2000-01-01

    Antigenicity of proteins found in cow's milk is age dependent. This is primarily due to infants possessing a more permeable intestinal wall than that in adults. Thus infants may acquire cow's milk allergy during their first year of life. While milk antigen specific IgE may cause allergy in susceptible subjects, there is some evidence indicating that milk antigen specific IgG may play some role in chronic disease development. The puropose of this study was to determine the antigenicity of cow'...

  5. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  6. The influence of protein feed supplements for composition of cow milk

    Čermák Bohuslav

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments at three experimental groups(each n=9 cows the supplement of protein through extracted soja and AMINOTEK were observed. Average daily milk yield depend on month after calving. (1st x= 28  s´=20,2, 2nd x=35 s=25,6, 3nd x=31 s=26,8. The differences among basic milk nutriments were not statistical significant during experiment. The contents of milk nutriments were decreased at the control group and at the both experiment groups in January. A tendency to higher level of proteins, methionine and cystine  was at the experiment groups. The content of lysine is constant. We observed increase content of oil acid in milk tested dairy cow. These dairy cows were fed by AMINOTEK suplement. The oil acid could be basic component in another non-saturated acid in milk fat (NNKT. Again was find higher delegacy linol acid.

  7. The Influence of the Addition of Polyacrylic Hydrogel on the Content of Proteins, Minerals and Trace Elements in Milk Protein Solutions

    Aleksandar Ž. Kostić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of milk protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate and bovine serum albumin (BSA were treated with polyacrylic hydrogel to establish whether the hydrogel could be used for decontamination of heavy metal ions from milk protein-based products. The obtained results indicated that swelling of hydrogel in these solutions had different effects on their mineral, trace element and total protein content. Total protein and phosphorus content increased in milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate solutions after swelling of hydrogel without changes in their protein compositions. On the other hand, the protein content in BSA solution decreased after swelling. The content of Na did not change in milk protein concentrate solution, whereas it significantly increased in whey protein concentrate solution after hydrogel swelling. The content of Ca and Mg was reduced after the swelling in milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate solutions for 20.3–63.4 %, depending on the analysed sample and the mineral. The content of Zn did not change during swelling, whereas the content of Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb significantly decreased after hydrogel swelling in all analysed samples. According to the obtained results, the addition of polyacrylic hydrogel to milk and whey protein concentrate solutions can significantly decrease the content of heavy metal ions without affecting their protein composition. Therefore, this work could be useful in developing a new technological process for heavy metal purification of milk protein-based products.

  8. Proteolysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins during in vitro gastric digestion of milk.

    Ye, A; Cui, J; Singh, H

    2011-06-01

    The influence of gastric proteolysis on the physicochemical characteristics of milk fat globules and the proteins of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) in raw milk and cream was examined in vitro in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) containing various pepsin concentrations at pH 1.6 for up to 2h. Apparent flocculation of the milk fat globules occurred in raw milk samples incubated in SGF containing pepsin, but no coalescence was observed in either raw milk samples or cream samples. The changes in the particle size of the fat globules as a result of the flocculation were dependent on the pepsin concentration. Correspondingly, the physical characteristics of the fat globules and the composition of the MFGM proteins in raw milk changed during incubation in SGF containing pepsin. The major MFGM proteins were hydrolyzed at different rates by the pepsin in the SGF; butyrophilin was more resistant than xanthine oxidase, PAS 6, or PAS 7. Peptides with various molecular weights, which altered with the time of incubation and the pepsin concentration, were present at the surfaces of the fat globules. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of milk proteins-lutein complexes and the impact on lutein chemical stability.

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the interaction of WPI (whey protein isolate) and SC (sodium caseinate) with hydrophobic lutein was investigated through UV-vis spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) as well as fluorescence. The effects on lutein's chemical stability were also examined. The decrease of turbidity of lutein suggested that lutein's aqueous solubility was improved after binding with milk proteins. CD analysis indicated lutein had little impact on the secondary structures of both proteins. Different preparation methods have significant impacts on the binding constant. Fluorescence results indicated that WPI and SC interact with lutein by hydrophobic contacts. Milk proteins have protective effects on lutein against oxidation and decomposition, and SC showed better capability in protecting lutein from oxidation than WPI during 16 days storage. The lutein's chemical stability was increased with increasing of proteins concentration. The results indicated that milk proteins may act as effective carriers for lipophilic nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk.

  11. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  12. Cobalamin and its binding protein in rat milk

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1989-01-01

    Cobalamin and its binding protein, haptocorrin, are present in rat milk throughout the lactation period. The concentration of cobalamin is approximately 0.3-times the concentration of the unsaturated binding protein. The concentration of the unsaturated cobalamin-binding protein varies between 18...

  13. Milk-derived proteins and minerals alter serum osteocalcin in prepubertal boys after 7 days

    Mark, A.B.; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2010-01-01

    growth depending on the content of milk minerals (calcium and phosphorus). This was a randomized, parallel, double-blind study. Eight-year-old boys (n = 57) received 1 of 4 milk drinks: whey protein with low or high content of minerals, or casein protein with low or high content of minerals. The amount......OC was significantly affected by the treatments (P milk-derived proteins and minerals with regard to sOC (P = .01). The intake of milk drinks containing whey increased sOC at the low content of minerals, whereas it decreased sOC at the high content of minerals (P ...). In contrast, milk drinks containing casein increased sOC both at the low and at the high contents of minerals. In conclusion, whey and casein (corresponding to their content in 1.5 L of milk) differently affect sOC in 8-year-old boys depending on the content of milk minerals, but do not seem to affect other...

  14. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  15. Influence of prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment on biologically-active human milk proteins.

    Chang, Jih-Chin; Chen, Chao-Huei; Fang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Teh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive proteins in human milk may be influenced by prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these procedures. Three forms of human milk - freshly expressed, frozen at -20°C for a prolonged duration, and pasteurized milk - were collected from 14 healthy lactating mothers and a milk bank. The concentrations of major bioactive proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and leptin) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Changes in these proteins by heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C for 30 minutes were further evaluated. The mean concentrations of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A were significantly reduced by 66% and 25.9%, respectively, in pasteurized milk compared with those in freshly-expressed milk. Heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C did not cause significant changes in lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A, but there was an apparent increase in lysozyme (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in leptin level among these three forms of milk prior to (p = 0.153) or after heat treatment (p = 0.053). Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. [Attitudes towards cow's milk protein allergy management by spanish gastroenterologist].

    Pascual Pérez, Alicia Isabel; Méndez Sánchez, Alejandra; Segarra Cantón, Óscar; Espin Jaime, Beatriz; Jiménez Treviño, Santiago; Bousoño García, Carlos; Díaz Martín, Juan José

    2018-01-09

    Food allergy is an increasing health problem in the developed world. Cow's milk protein is the main cause of food allergy in infants. Without an appropriate diagnostic workup, there is a high risk of both over- and underdiagnosis and therefore, over and undertreatment. The objective of our study was to analyze the variability in cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) management by pediatric gastroenterologists in Spain. A fifty item questionnaire, including open and closed items in a Likert's scale from 0 to 5, was drafted and distributed through the Spanish Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SEGHNP) e-mail list. Seventy-three questionnaires were received back out of 321. Only 3 of the items achieved concordance greater than 90%. Thirty-three percent considered oral challenge to be necessary for the diagnosis of CMPA under any circumstance. Twenty-five percent considered that symptom improvement after cow's milk removal was enough for the diagnosis. Oral challenge was performed at home by 83.5% in non-IgE mediated cases. Extensively hydrolyzed casein formulas were the treatment of choice for 69.9%. Soy formulas were the last option. Almost all respondents were aware of the existence of clinical guidelines on CMPA, being European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidelines the most followed (64.4%). Twenty-three percent considered that their knowledge about allergy was inadequate. Although CMPA is a prevalent condition that pediatric gastroenterologists have been treating for decades, we found a huge variability on its management. There is potential for improvement in this field among pediatric gastroenterologist in the future. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES OF THE COW MILK WHEY PROTEINS (Bos taurus

    A. V. Iukalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the biological functions of milk whey proteins, which are implemented at the level of their proteolytic degradation products — bioactive peptides have been reviewed. The main functions of these proteins is to provide the amino acid nutrition of mammals in the early stages of development, as well as the transport of fatty acids, retinol, involved in the synthesis of lactose, ions of calcium and iron, immune protection, antimicrobial action, etc. However, in recent years, it has been found that milk proteins like casein are precursors of biologically active peptides. Аngiotensin — converting enzyme, opioid peptides which are opiate receptor agonists, anti–microbial peptides, peptides with immunomodulatory and hypocholesterolemic action, and peptides affecting motility have been found among the products of proteolytic degradation of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-laktoalbumin, lactoferrin and milk whey albumin. Also data on the possible participation of peptides from milk whey proteins in the implementation of the biological functions of both the assimilation of calcium, antioxidant effect, the regulation of appetite, anticarcinogenic are provided. The authors assume that the phenomenon of bioactive peptides formation could be considered as an additional function of natural food proteins, which gives advantages to the mammals and has a positive effect on their development in the postnatal period. Ways of bioactive peptides formation, their resistance to action of proteolytic enzymes, the ability to cross into the bloodstream and have biological effects have been also discussed. Up to date, only a few products with bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins are obtained. Further studies of their structure, mechanism of action, ways of formation and methods of isolation are required for their wider use. Formation of functional products based on bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins will allow efficient use of milk whey, which is often a

  18. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Megumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered compared with control rats (vehicle administered. This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1, total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK, and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  19. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared with control rats (vehicle administered). This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  20. Milk protein concentration, estimated breeding value for fertility, and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows.

    Morton, John M; Auldist, Martin J; Douglas, Meaghan L; Macmillan, Keith L

    2017-07-01

    Milk protein concentration in dairy cows has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance, and genetic factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance may contribute to the observed phenotypic associations. It was of interest to assess whether these beneficial phenotypic associations are accounted for or interact with the effects of estimated breeding values for fertility. The effects of a multitrait estimated breeding value for fertility [the Australian breeding value for daughter fertility (ABV fertility)] on reproductive performance were also of interest. Interactions of milk protein concentration and ABV fertility with the interval from calving date to the start of the herd's seasonally concentrated breeding period were also assessed. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using data collected from 74 Australian seasonally and split calving dairy herds. Associations between milk protein concentration, ABV fertility, and reproductive performance in Holstein cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression. Between 52,438 and 61,939 lactations were used for analyses of 4 reproductive performance measures. Milk protein concentration was strongly and positively associated with reproductive performance in dairy cows, and this effect was not accounted for by the effects of ABV fertility. Increases in ABV fertility had important additional beneficial effects on the probability of pregnancy by wk 6 and 21 of the herd's breeding period. For cows calved before the start of the breeding period, the effects of increases in both milk protein concentration and ABV fertility were beneficial regardless of their interval from calving to the start of the breeding period. These findings demonstrate the potential for increasing reproductive performance through identifying the causes of the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance and then devising management

  1. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  2. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  3. The effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes

    Marta Oravcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes. Breed lactation curves for daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content were modelled as a sub-model of the three-trait animal model based on repeated test-day records that were collected by the Breeding Services of the Slovak Republic between 1995 and 2010. Data included 188403 (Tsigai and 352094 (Improved Valachian ewe’s performance records. Pedigree file included 35484 (Tsigai and 66994 (Improved Valachian animals with genetic ties to ewes with milk performance data. The fixed part of the model included parity, litter size and stage of lactation. The effect of days in milk (i.e. stage of lactation was fitted using Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve. The random part of the model included flock-test day effect, direct additive genetic effect, and permanent environmental effect of ewe nested within lactation. Due to limited number of test-day records in the first and the eighth month of lactation and related difficulties in modelling milk traits in these phases of lactation, the lactation curves were plotted between days 30 and 210. During lactation period the daily milk yield curves were decreasing, while milk fat and protein content were increasing. Because of higher changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with higher changes at the end of lactation in Tsigai and smaller changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with smaller changes at the end of lactation in Improved Valachian, 150d milk yield and average milk fat and protein content were almost the same in both breeds.

  4. Increase in. gamma. -radiation from powdered milk and beef

    Sievert, R M; Gustafsson, S; Sylander, C G

    1956-01-01

    Samples of powdered milk and beef preserved during the years 1953 to 1956 were examined for the presence of ..gamma..-radiation. The higher ..gamma..-radiation found in the last year was attributed to an increase in fission products. Data are compared with measurements on a series of children.

  5. Greater mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products.

    Abrams, Steven A; Schanler, Richard J; Lee, Martin L; Rechtman, David J

    2014-01-01

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants milk fortified with a human milk protein-based fortifier (HM) (n=167) or a diet containing variable amounts of milk containing cow milk-based protein (CM) (n=93). Principal outcomes were mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN). Mortality (2% versus 8%, p=0.004) and NEC (5% versus 17%, p=0.002) differed significantly between the HM and CM groups, respectively. For every 10% increase in the volume of milk containing CM, the risk of sepsis increased by 17.9% (pmilk diet, devoid of CM-containing products, was associated with lower mortality and morbidity in EP infants without compromising growth and should be considered as an approach to nutritional care of these infants.

  6. Effect of dietary protein level on ewe milk yield and on air quality under different ventilation rates

    A. Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of dietary N utilization for milk protein synthesis in dairy animals is quite low (15 to 35% (NRC, 1988; Tamminga, 1992, therefore farmers are driven to use high protein level diets for sustaining milk production in lactating animals. Previous experiments have demonstrated that an increase in the protein level of diet from 13 to 16% resulted in higher blood urea concentrations (Jaime and Purroy, 1995 and increased N excretion in urine in sheep (Gonzalez et al., 1984.

  7. Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties

    JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

  8. TOLERANCE OF MILK FORMULAS FOR INFANTS AND THE PROBLEM OF QUALITATIVE PROTEIN COMPOSITION

    A. Shaafsma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of milk formulas for infants production is complex and multistage and includes the thermal processing. There is data, that different regimens of thermal processing influence on the structure of the protein-carbohydrate complexes, which can affect the formula’s protein uptake. It was shown, that interaction between complex protein units of the formula and the cells of the Peyer’s patches increased the risk of allergic reactions development in infants with predisposition to atopy. The influence of denaturation of milk formulas on the tolerance of them is discussed in this article.

  9. Effect of processing intensity on immunologically active bovine milk serum proteins

    Brick, Tabea; Ege, Markus; Boeren, Sjef; Böck, Andreas; Mutius, Von Erika; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of raw cow’s milk instead of industrially processed milk has been reported to protect children from developing asthma, allergies, and respiratory infections. Several heat-sensitive milk serum proteins have been implied in this effect though unbiased assessment of milk proteins in general

  10. Utilization of nitrogen and energy from diets containing protein and fat derived from either goat milk or cow milk.

    Ceballos, Laura Sanz; Morales, Eva Ramos; Martínez, Luis Pérez; Extremera, Francisca Gil; Sampelayo, M Remedios Sanz

    2009-11-01

    Consumption of whole milk and related dairy products has decreased considerably as a result of negative aspects associated with the consumption of saturated fats. The main difference between the composition of goat milk and cow milk concerns the composition of the fat, that of goat milk containing a larger proportion of medium-chain triglycerides. The metabolic utilization of these compounds is fundamentally oriented towards their use as sources of energy, and they may even contribute to the synthesis of proteins. This study was carried out, using 40 rats at weaning, in order to determine whether, on the basis of their fat and protein composition, there is any difference between the nutritional utilization of the N and the energy from goat and cow milk. Eight animals were killed on arrival at the laboratory, and the rest were divided into four groups of eight animals and killed at the end of the experiment. Each group was given a different diet: diet 1 contained fat and protein from goat milk; diet 2 had fat from cow milk and protein from goat milk; diet 3 had fat from goat milk and protein from cow milk; diet 4 had fat and protein from cow milk. The animals were allowed to feed ad libitum for 30 d and a balance assay was performed during the final 7 d to determine N and energy utilization. At the same time and by the comparative slaughter method, the protein and fat deposition for each group was established. It was concluded that goat milk protein is more digestible than that of cow milk. Moreover, the metabolic utilization of digestible N was found to be dependent on the sources of both the protein and the fat in the diet; a higher degree of utilization was recorded for the digestible N obtained using diets with protein or fat from goat milk. Consumption of diets with goat milk fat led to a lower level of thermogenesis associated with protein oxidation and a higher one for that associated with fat oxidation, which in turn implied a protein-sparing effect of the

  11. EFFECT OF PROTEIN UNDEGRADED SUPPLEMENTATION ON PRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION OF MILK IN DAIRY COWS

    B.P. Widyobroto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to examine the effect of undegraded protein supplementation on nutrientsintake, production and milk composition in dairy cows. The purpose of this research was to provideinformation on the undegraded protein supplementation to increase milk production and composition indairy cows. The research was conducted for 3 months in Boyolali-Central Java. The study used 20lactation cows (<3 months of lactation, aged 3 to 3.5 years with body weight from 350 to 400 kg. Thecows were then randomly divided into 2 groups of ten based on their body weight, milk production,lactation period and age. The first group (control and the second group (treated, both were fed dietbased on NRC (1987. The second group was added undegraded protein (UDP of 30 g/l milk that mixedby concentrate. The observed variables were dry matter intake (DM, organic matter (OM, crudeprotein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, milk production and milk composition including fat, proteinand solid non fat (SNF. Data obtained were examined by t-test.The results showed that intake of DM, OM, and the NDF of treated and control groups were notdifferent (9.57; 8.49; 4.98 vs 9.44; 8.38; 5.40 kg/cow/d, respectively; however, protein intake of treatedgroup was higher (P<0.01 than that of the control group (1097 vs. 1210g/cow/d. Milk production ofcows receiving UDP supplementation tended to be higher than that in the control group (+ 1:45kg/cow/d. Although they tended to be lower in fat (4.13 vs. 3.88%, protein (2.45 vs. 2.27% and SNF(7.26 vs. 6.94%, but protein and fat production were higher for cows receiving UDP supplementation(366 each; 214 vs. 330; 196g/cow/d. It can be concluded that UDP supplementation increased milk, fatproduction and milk protein but it tended to reduce the level of fat, protein and SNF milk.

  12. Nutrient Fortification of Human Donor Milk Affects Intestinal Function and Protein Metabolism in Preterm Pigs

    Sun, Jing; Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    2018-01-01

    (BC) may be an alternative nutrient fortifier, considering its high content of protein and milk bioactive factors. Objective: We investigated whether BC was superior to an FF product based on processed bovine milk and vegetable oil to fortify donor human milk (DHM) for preterm pigs, used as a model......) and DHM with or without FF or BC fortification (+4.6 g protein ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ d-1). Results: DPM-fed pigs showed higher growth (10-fold), protein synthesis (+15-30%), villus heights, lactase and peptidase activities (+30%), and reduced intestinal cytokines (-50%) relative to DHM pigs (all P ....05). Fortification increased protein synthesis (+20-30%), but with higher weight gain and lower urea and cortisol concentrations for DHM+BC compared with DHM+FF pigs (2- to 3-fold differences, all P ≤ 0.06). DHM+FF pigs showed more diarrhea and reduced lactase and peptidase activities, hexose uptake, and villus...

  13. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  14. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices.

  15. The use of radiolabelled milk proteins to study thermally-induced interactions in milk systems

    Noh, B.

    1988-01-01

    Heat induced complexes between milk proteins are of considerable importance in determining the heat stability and rennin clottability of milk products. Thiol-disulfide interchange reactions have been suggested as the principal reaction mechanism for complex formation. Studies to data have not adequately established the mechanism and stoichiometry of complex formation in situ in total milk system. Tracer amounts of 14 C-β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin were heated under various conditions. After clotting with rennet, radioactivity retained in the curd was counted to estimate extent of interaction of β-lactoglobulin with casein. 14 C- and 3 H-Methyl labelled proteins were used for the preparation of radiolabelled artificial casein micelles. These micelles with radiolabelled whey proteins were heated and heat-induced complexes were separated on Sephacryl S-300 eluting with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride to break all non-covalent bonds. Further separation of the protein complexes was obtained using CPG-10 or Sephacryl S-1000. The ratios of 3 H to 14 C labelled proteins in the protein complexes suggested that the stoichiometries of k-, α s2 -casein, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the heat-induced complexes varied as a function of the heat treatment

  16. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  17. Influence of casein as a percentage of true protein and protein level on color and texture of milks containing 1 and 2% fat.

    Misawa, Noriko; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-07-01

    Combinations of fresh liquid microfiltration retentate of skim milk, ultrafiltered retentate and permeate produced from microfiltration permeate, cream, and dried lactose monohydrate were used to produce a matrix of 20 milks. The milks contained 5 levels of casein as a percentage of true protein of about 5, 25, 50, 75, and 80% and 4 levels of true protein of 3.0, 3.76, 4.34, and 5.0% with constant lactose percentage of 5%. The experiment was replicated twice and repeated for both 1 and 2% fat content. Hunter color measurements, relative viscosity, and fat globule size distribution were measured, and a trained panel documented appearance and texture attributes on all milks. Overall, casein as a percentage of true protein had stronger effects than level of true protein on Hunter L, a, b values, relative viscosity, and fat globule size when using fresh liquid micellar casein concentrates and milk serum protein concentrates produced by a combination of microfiltration and ultrafiltration. As casein as a percentage of true protein increased, the milks became more white (higher L value), less green (lower negative a value), and less yellow (lower b value). Relative viscosity increased and d(0.9) generally decreased with increasing casein as a percentage of true protein. Panelists perceived milks with increasing casein as a percentage of true protein as more white, more opaque, and less yellow. Panelists were able to detect increased throat cling and mouthcoating with increased casein as a percentage of true protein in 2% milks, even when differences in appearance among milks were masked. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Soluble Milk Protein Supplementation with Moderate Physical Activity Improves Locomotion Function in Aging Rats.

    Aude Lafoux

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass and functional capacity. Present study was designed to compare the impact of specific dairy proteins on muscular function with or without a low-intensity physical activity program on a treadmill in an aged rat model. We investigated the effects of nutritional supplementation, five days a week over a 2-month period with a slow digestible protein, casein or fast digestible proteins, whey or soluble milk protein, on strength and locomotor parameters in sedentary or active aged Wistar RjHan rats (17-19 months of age. An extensive gait analysis was performed before and after protein supplementation. After two months of protein administration and activity program, muscle force was evaluated using a grip test, spontaneous activity using an open-field and muscular mass by specific muscle sampling. When aged rats were supplemented with proteins without exercise, only minor effects of different diets on muscle mass and locomotion were observed: higher muscle mass in the casein group and improvement of stride frequencies with soluble milk protein. By contrast, supplementation with soluble milk protein just after physical activity was more effective at improving overall skeletal muscle function in old rats compared to casein. For active old rats supplemented with soluble milk protein, an increase in locomotor activity in the open field and an enhancement of static and dynamic gait parameters compared to active groups supplemented with casein or whey were observed without any differences in muscle mass and forelimb strength. These results suggest that consumption of soluble milk protein as a bolus immediately after a low intensity physical activity may be a suitable nutritional intervention to prevent decline in locomotion in aged rats and strengthen the interest to analyze the longitudinal aspect of locomotion in aged rodents.

  19. Soluble Milk Protein Supplementation with Moderate Physical Activity Improves Locomotion Function in Aging Rats.

    Lafoux, Aude; Baudry, Charlotte; Bonhomme, Cécile; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Huchet, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass and functional capacity. Present study was designed to compare the impact of specific dairy proteins on muscular function with or without a low-intensity physical activity program on a treadmill in an aged rat model. We investigated the effects of nutritional supplementation, five days a week over a 2-month period with a slow digestible protein, casein or fast digestible proteins, whey or soluble milk protein, on strength and locomotor parameters in sedentary or active aged Wistar RjHan rats (17-19 months of age). An extensive gait analysis was performed before and after protein supplementation. After two months of protein administration and activity program, muscle force was evaluated using a grip test, spontaneous activity using an open-field and muscular mass by specific muscle sampling. When aged rats were supplemented with proteins without exercise, only minor effects of different diets on muscle mass and locomotion were observed: higher muscle mass in the casein group and improvement of stride frequencies with soluble milk protein. By contrast, supplementation with soluble milk protein just after physical activity was more effective at improving overall skeletal muscle function in old rats compared to casein. For active old rats supplemented with soluble milk protein, an increase in locomotor activity in the open field and an enhancement of static and dynamic gait parameters compared to active groups supplemented with casein or whey were observed without any differences in muscle mass and forelimb strength. These results suggest that consumption of soluble milk protein as a bolus immediately after a low intensity physical activity may be a suitable nutritional intervention to prevent decline in locomotion in aged rats and strengthen the interest to analyze the longitudinal aspect of locomotion in aged rodents.

  20. Preparation of recombinant proteins in milk to improve human and animal health

    Soler , Eric; Thépot , Dominique; Rival-Gervier , Sylvie; JOLIVET , Geneviève; Houdebine , Louis-Marie

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Milk is a very abundant source of proteins for animal and human consumption. Milk composition can be modified using transgenesis, including exogenous gene addition and endogenous gene inactivation. The study of milk protein genes has provided researchers with regulatory regions capable of efficiently and specifically driving the expression of foreign genes in milk. The projects underway are aimed at modifying milk composition, improving its nutritional value, reducing ...

  1. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Cow’s milk protein allergy in infants

    Daly, Deirdre

    2016-05-01

    Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in early childhood in the developed world next to egg allergy. The prevalence is estimated at three to seven per cent, with a resolution rate of 80 to 90 per cent at six years. Accurate diagnosis rests on a good clear allergy focused history.

  3. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    SAM

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length ... quantitative trait locus (QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 6, 7 and 20 in ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs ...

  4. Review: Milk Proteins as Nanocarrier Systems for Hydrophobic Nutraceuticals.

    Kimpel, Florian; Schmitt, Joachim J

    2015-11-01

    Milk proteins and milk protein aggregates are among the most important nanovehicles in food technology. Milk proteins have various functional properties that facilitate their ability to carry hydrophobic nutraceutical substances. The main functional transport properties that were examined in the reviewed studies are binding of molecules or ions, surface activity, aggregation, gelation, and interaction with other polymers. Hydrophobic binding has been investigated using caseins and isolated β-casein as well as whey proteins. Surface activity of caseins has been used to create emulsion-based carrier systems. Furthermore, caseins are able to self-assemble into micelles, which can incorporate molecules. Gelation and interaction with other polymers can be used to encapsulate molecules into protein networks. The release of transported substances mainly depends on pH and swelling behavior of the proteins. The targeted use of nanocarrier systems requires specific knowledge about the binding mechanisms between the proteins and the carried substances in a certain food matrix. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Effect of increased intake of skimmed milk, casein, whey or water on body composition and leptin in overweight adolescents

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS: Dairy proteins may support muscle protein synthesis and improve satiety in adults. However, there are limited studies using exact measures of body composition, especially in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the effect of milk proteins and water on body composition...... and leptin in overweight adolescents. METHODS: Subjects (n = 193) aged 12-15 years were randomized to drink 1 L d(-1) of skimmed milk, whey, casein (all milk-based drinks 35 g protein L(-1) ) or water for 12 weeks. Twenty participants dropped out. A pre-test control group of 32 adolescents was examined 12...... weeks before start of intervention. Outcomes included leptin and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. The effects of the milk-based drinks on body composition and leptin were compared with baseline, pre-test control and water. RESULTS: Lean mass index (LMI) increased compared to baseline (all 95...

  6. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Olga Rybak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  7. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Olga Rybak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  8. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    O. Rybak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence o f fatglobules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions.It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  9. Rodent malaria in rats exacerbated by milk protein, attenuated by low-protein vegetable diet

    Doorne, C.W. van; Eling, W.M.C.; Luyken, R.

    1998-01-01

    Young male Wistar rats were fed a purified, vegetable, low-protein diet containing 6% protein from maize gluten and 2% from soy protein isolate, or comparable diets in which maize gluten was replaced partly or completely by the equivalent amount of a milk protein concentrate. Diets with adequate

  10. Milk C-reactive protein in canine mastitis.

    Vasiu, Iosif; Dąbrowski, Roman; Martinez-Subiela, Silvia; Ceron, Jose J; Wdowiak, Anna; Pop, Raul Alexandru; Brudaşcă, Florinel Gheorghe; Pastor, Josep; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2017-04-01

    Presence of mastitis in lactating bitches can become life threatening for both the bitch and pups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in both milk and serum for canine mastitis diagnosis. Our study showed that milk CRP levels ranged between 0.1 and 4.9μg/mL and from 0.3 to 40.0μg/mL in healthy and diseased bitches (Pcanine mastitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Milk: Bioactive Proteins/Peptides and Functional Properties.

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-23

    Breastfeeding has been associated with many benefits, both in the short and in the long term. Infants being breastfed generally have less illness and have better cognitive development at 1 year of age than formula-fed infants. Later in life, they have a lower risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Several components in breast milk may be responsible for these different outcomes, but bioactive proteins/peptides likely play a major role. Some proteins in breast milk are comparatively resistant towards digestion and may therefore exert their functions in the gastrointestinal tract in intact form or as larger fragments. Other milk proteins may be partially digested in the upper small intestine and the resulting peptides may exert functions in the lower small intestine. Lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA have been found intact in the stool of breastfed infants and are therefore examples of proteins that are resistant against proteolytic degradation in the gut. Together, these proteins serve protective roles against infection and support immune function in the immature infant. α-lactalbumin, β-casein, κ-casein and osteopontin are examples of proteins that are partially digested in the upper small intestine, and the resulting peptides influence functions in the gut. Such functions include stimulation of immune function, mineral and trace element absorption and defense against infection. © 2016 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Infants and children with cow milk allergy/intolerance. Investigation of the uptake of cow milk protein and activation of the complement system

    Husby, S; Høst, A; Teisner, B

    1990-01-01

    Seventeen children with challenge-verified cow milk allergy/intolerance (CMAI), age 3-78 months, median 12 months, were re-challenged with cow milk in increasing doses. All subjects developed symptoms, such as bronchospasm, rhinitis, diarrhoea, erythema or eczema. Blood samples were taken before...... and up to 24 h after the start of the challenge. The cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) was determined in serum with ELISA (lower detection limit 0.3 micrograms/l). BLG was detectable in five children at low levels (below 2 micrograms/l). Analysis of the size distribution of the BLG by size...

  13. The human milk project: a quality improvement initiative to increase human milk consumption in very low birth weight infants.

    Ward, Laura; Auer, Christine; Smith, Carrie; Schoettker, Pamela J; Pruett, Raymond; Shah, Nilesh Y; Kotagal, Uma R

    2012-08-01

    Human milk has well-established health benefits for preterm infants. We conducted a multidisciplinary quality improvement effort aimed at providing at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in the first 14 days of life to very low birth weight (VLBW) (milk program, and twice-daily physician evaluation of infants' ability to tolerate feedings. The number of infants receiving at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in their first 14 days of life increased from 50% to 80% within 11 months of implementation, and this increase has been sustained for 4 years. Infants who met the feeding goal because they received donor milk increased each year. Since September 2007, infants have received, on average, 1,111 mL of human milk/kg. Approximately 4% of infants did not receive any human milk. Respiratory instability was the most frequent physiological reason given by clinicians for not initiating or advancing feedings in the first 14 days of life. Our quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher consumption of human milk in VLBW infants in the first 14 days of life. Other clinicians can use these described quality improvement methods and techniques to improve their VLBW babies' consumption of human milk.

  14. Antioxidative properties of milk protein preparations fermented by Polish strains of Lactobacillus helveticus.

    Skrzypczak, Katarzyna W; Gustaw, Waldemar Z; Jabłońska-Ryś, Ewa D; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Sławińska, Aneta; Radzki, Wojciech P; Gustaw, Klaudia M; Waśko, Adam D

    2017-01-01

    The increasing significance of food products containing substances with antioxidative activi- ties is currently being observed. This is mainly due to the fact that pathogenic changes underlying some diseases are related to the carcinogenic effects of free radicals. Antioxidative compounds play an important role in supporting and enhancing the body’s defense mechanisms, which is useful in preventing some civili- zation diseases. Unfortunately, it has been already proved that some synthetic antioxidants pose a potential risk in vivo. Therefore, antioxidant compounds derived from a natural source are extremely valuable. Milk is a source of biologically active precursors, which when enclosed in structural protein sequences are inactive. The hydrolysis process, involving bacterial proteolytic enzymes, might release biopeptides that act in various ways, including having antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties of milk protein preparations fermented by Polish strains of L. helveticus. The research also focused on evaluating the dynamics of milk acidification by these strains and analyzing the textural properties of the skim milk fermented products obtained. The research studied Polish strains of L. helveticus: B734, 141, T80 and T105, which have not yet been used industrially. The antioxidant properties of 1% (w/v) solutions of milk protein preparations (skim milk powder, caseinoglycomacropeptide and α-lactoalbumin) fermented by these strains were determined by neutralizing the free radicals with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙). Moreover, solutions of skim milk powder (SMP) fermented by the microorganisms being tested were analyzed on gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The dynamics of milk acidification by these microorganisms was also analyzed L. helveticus strains were used to prepare fermented regenerated skim milk products that were subjected to texture profile analysis (TPA) performed using a TA-XT2i

  15. The effect of milk proteins on appetite regulation and diet induced thermogenesis

    Lorenzen, Janne; Frederiksen, Rikke; Hoppe, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is increasing evidence to support that a high-protein diet may promote weight loss and prevent weight (re)gain better than a low-protein diet, and that the effect is due to higher diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and increased satiety. However, data on the effect...... of different types of protein are limited. In the present study we compare the effect of whey, casein and milk on DIT and satiety. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventeen slightly overweight (29 ± 4 kg/m(2)) male subjects completed the study. The study had a randomized, crossover design, where the effect on 4 h...... for baseline values. There was no significant difference in effect on EE, protein oxidation or carbohydrate oxidation. CONCLUSIONS: Milk reduced subsequent EI more than isocaloric drinks containing only whey or casein. A small but significant increase in lipid oxidation was seen after casein compared with whey....

  16. Electrophoretic characterization of protein interactions suggesting limited feasibility of accelerated shelf-life testing of ultra-high temperature milk.

    Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Chandrapala, Jayani; Donkor, Osaana; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated shelf-life testing is applied to a variety of products to estimate keeping quality over a short period of time. The industry has not been successful in applying this approach to ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk because of chemical and physical changes in the milk proteins that take place during processing and storage. We investigated these protein changes, applying accelerated shelf-life principles to UHT milk samples with different fat levels and using native- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Samples of UHT skim and whole milk were stored at 20, 30, 40, and 50°C for 28d. Irrespective of fat content, UHT treatment had a similar effect on the electrophoretic patterns of milk proteins. At the start of testing, proteins were bonded mainly through disulfide and noncovalent interactions. However, storage at and above 30°C enhanced protein aggregation via covalent interactions. The extent of aggregation appeared to be influenced by fat content; whole milk contained more fat than skim milk, implying aggregation via melted or oxidized fat, or both. Based on reduction in loss in absolute quantity of individual proteins, covalent crosslinking in whole milk was facilitated mainly by products of lipid oxidation and increased access to caseins for crosslinking reactions. Maillard and dehydroalanine products were the main contributors involved in protein changes in skim milk. Protein crosslinking appeared to follow a different pathway at higher temperatures (≥40°C) than at lower temperatures, making it very difficult to extrapolate these changes to protein interactions at lower temperatures. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of two pasteurization methods on the protein content of human milk.

    Baro, Cristina; Giribaldi, Marzia; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Dellavalle, Giuseppina; Conti, Amedeo; Tonetto, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Coscia, Alessandra; Fabris, Claudio; Moro, Guido Eugenio; Cavallarin, Laura; Bertino, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    The Holder method is the recommended pasteurization method for human milk banks, as it ensures the microbiological safety of human milk (HM). The loss of some biologically active milk components, due to the heat treatment, is a main limit to the diffusion of donor HM. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization may be an alternative to maintain the nutritional and immunological quality of HM. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of Holder and HTST pasteurization on the HM protein profile. The protein patterns of HTST-treated milk and raw milk were similar. The Holder method modified bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and components of the immune system. The HTST method preserved the integrity of bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and, to some extent, of IgAs. Holder pasteurization decreased the amount of bile salt-stimulated lipase and inactivated the remaining molecules, while the HTST method did not alter its activity. Pasteurization increased the bioavailable lysine quantity. HTST pasteurization seems to better retain the protein profile and some of the key active components of donor HM.

  18. Further observations on incorporation of the 14C-leucine into proteins by freshly secreted milk

    Singh, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Using freshly secreted bovine milk, no incorporation of DL (1- 14 C)-leucine was observed in the total milk proteins and acid precipitated casein, when these protein fractions were isolated from skim milk. A significant portion of the radioactivity however, remained associated with the heat coagulable whey proteins and proteose-peptone fractions. This association was shown to be due to non enzymatic physical sequestering of the radioactive amino acid or its metabolites with these proteins. Most of the radioactivity was associated with the cream layer proteins and the cellular fraction. The results obtained using filtered milk, incubated milk and certain antibiotics also indicated that the incorporation of 14 C leucine into proteins by freshly secreted milk may be a purely microbial process and physical sequestering of an amino acids with milk proteins. (author)

  19. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different ( p protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  20. Milk-derived proteins and peptides in clinical trials

    Jolanta Artym

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are reviewed, involving proteins and peptides derived from milk (predominantly bovine, with the exception of lactoferrin, which will be the subject of another article. The most explored milk fraction is α-lactalbumin (LA, which is often applied with glycomacropeptide (GMP – a casein degradation product. These milk constituents are used in health-promoting infant and adult formulae as well as in a modified form (HAMLET to treat cancer. Lactoperoxidase (LCP is used as an additive to mouth hygiene products and as a salivary substitute. Casein derivatives are applied, in addition, in the dry mouth syndrome. On the other hand, casein hydrolysates, containing active tripeptides, found application in hypertension and in type 2 diabetes. Lysozyme is routinely used for food conservation and in pharmaceutical products. It was successfully used in premature infants with concomitant diseases to improve health parameters. When used as prophylaxis in patients with scheduled surgery, it significantly reduced the incidence of hepatitis resulting from blood transfusion. Lysozyme was also used in infected children as an antimicrobial agent showing synergistic effects in combination with different antibiotics. Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP was introduced to therapy of Alzheimer’s disease patients. The therapeutic value of PRP was proved in several clinical trials and supported by studies on its mechanism of action. Concentrated immunoglobulin preparations from colostrum and milk of hyperimmunized cows showed efficacy in prevention of infections by bacteria, viruses and protozoa. A nutrition formula with milk-derived TGF-β2 (Modulen IBD® found application in treatment of pediatric Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the preparations containing milk-derived products are safe and effective measures in prevention and treatment of infections as well as autoimmune and neoplastic diseases.

  1. Role of dietary supplementation in the protein content of bovine milk

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... protein contents was 32.85 µg/ml (3.3%), which increased to 34.08 µg/ml (3.4 %), 34.03 µg/ml (3.4 %) and ... *Corresponding author: E.mail: aqib72@aup.edu.pk. Phone: .... Figure 2. SDS-PAGE analysis for the composition of milk protein ... detoxified matri flour with wheat flour on the quality of pan bread.

  2. Palm kernel expeller increases milk fat content when fed to grazing ...

    van Wyngaard, Josef

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... blocks to one of four treatment concentrates: PKE0, PKE10, PKE20, and PKE30, .... Milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content were ... added heat-stable alpha-amylase (protein enzyme EC 3.2.1.1) (1 ...

  3. Study the Characterization of Spectral Absorbance on Irradiated Milk Protein

    Fohely, F.; Suardi, N.

    2018-04-01

    The milk has been adopted as a structural nature food for a long era since it is containing most of the growth factors, protective agents, and enzymes needed for the body. a few attempts have been conducted to treat the dairy products especially raw milk by the means of ionizing radiation. as its production has been an expanding industry for many years due to the high demands from the consumers worldwide, there is still some doubt about preserving these products by irradiation. In this work, a preliminary effort to describe the influences of ionizing radiation on raw milk’s protein will be devoted to measuring the spectral absorbance of the total protein (after subjected to varied radiation doses) by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy analysis. The absorbance spectrum then analyzed based on absorbance spectra of organic compounds. A comparison is made between the effects of different radiation doses to estimate the influence in milk’s structure.

  4. Histopathologic findings in children diagnosed with cow's milk protein allergy.

    Cervantes-Bustamante, R; Pedrero-Olivares, I; Toro-Monjaraz, E M; Murillo-Márquez, P; Ramírez-Mayans, J A; Montijo-Barrios, E; Zárate-Mondragón, F; Cadena-León, J; Cazares-Méndez, M; López-Ugalde, M

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy is the most common cause of food allergy. The challenge test, either open or doubled-blind with a placebo control, is regarded as the criterion standard. Endoscopy and histologic findings are considered a method that can aid in the diagnosis of this entity. The aim of this study was to describe the histopathologic findings in children suspected of cow's milk protein allergy that were seen at our hospital. A descriptive, observational study was conducted on 116 children clinically suspected of presenting with cow's milk protein allergy that were seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría. Upper endoscopy and rectosigmoidoscopy with biopsies were performed and the findings were described. Of the 116 patients, 64 (55.17%) were girls and 52 (44.83%) were boys. The rectum was the site with the greatest presence of eosinophils per field in both groups, followed by the duodenum. In general, more than 15 eosinophils were found in 46% of the patients. Between 40 and 45% of the cases had the histologic criterion of more than 15 to 20 eosinophils per field and the rectosigmoid colon was the most affected site. Therefore, panendoscopy and rectosigmoidoscopy with biopsy and eosinophil count are suggested. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide

    Calzone Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians. The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups who met three times in Italy. This guide is the result of a consensus reached in the following areas. Cow's milk allergy should be suspected in children who have immediate symptoms such as acute urticaria/angioedema, wheezing, rhinitis, dry cough, vomiting, laryngeal edema, acute asthma with severe respiratory distress, anaphylaxis. Late reactions due to cow's milk allergy are atopic dermatitis, chronic diarrhoea, blood in the stools, iron deficiency anaemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, chronic vomiting, colic, poor growth (food refusal, enterocolitis syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilic oesophagogastroenteropathy. An overview of acceptable means for diagnosis is included. According to symptoms and infant diet, three different algorithms for diagnosis and follow-up have been suggested.

  6. Severe Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome to Cow’s Milk in Infants

    Min Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow’s milk is the most common cause of food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical features and treatment outcomes of infants with severe FPIES to cow’s milk. We reviewed all infants ≤12 months of age who were hospitalized and diagnosed with severe FPIES to cow’s milk between 1 January 2011 and 31 August 2014 in a tertiary Children’s Medical Center in China. Patients’ clinical features, feeding patterns, laboratory tests, and treatment outcomes were reviewed. A total of 12 infants met the inclusion criteria. All infants presented with diarrhea, edema, and hypoalbuminemia. Other main clinical manifestations included regurgitation/vomiting, skin rashes, low-grade fever, bloody and/or mucous stools, abdominal distention, and failure to thrive. They had clinical remission with resolution of diarrhea and significant increase of serum albumin after elimination of cow’s milk protein (CMP from the diet. The majority of infants developed tolerance to the CMP challenge test after 12 months of avoidance. In conclusion, we reported the clinical experience of 12 infants with severe FPIES to cow’s milk, which resulted in malnutrition, hypoproteinemia, and failure to thrive. Prompt treatment with CMP-free formula is effective and leads to clinical remission of FPIES in infants.

  7. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of milk by CUPRAC and ABTS methods with separate characterisation of milk protein fractions.

    Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Demir, Aslı; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2015-05-01

    Most milk-applied antioxidant assays in literature are based on the isolation and quantification of individual antioxidative compounds, whereas total antioxidant capacity (TAC) gives a more holistic picture due to cooperative action of antioxidants. Recently, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method has been modified to measure the antioxidant capacities of thiol-containing proteins, where the classical ammonium acetate buffer - that may otherwise precipitate proteins- was replaced with concentrated urea buffer (able to expose embedded thiol groups of proteins to oxidative attack) adjusted to pH 7.0. Thus, antioxidant capacity of milk was investigated with two competing TAC assays, namely CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid))/persulphate, because only these assays were capable of evaluating protein contribution to the observed TAC value. As milk fat caused turbidity, experiments were carried out with skim milk or defatted milk samples. To determine TAC, modified CUPRAC method was applied to whole milk, separated and redissolved protein fractions, and the remaining liquid phase after necessary operations. Both TAC methods were investigated for their dilution sensitivity and antioxidant power assessment of separate milk fractions such as casein and whey. Proteins like β-lactoglobulin and casein (but not simple thiols) exhibited enhanced CUPRAC reactivity with surfactant (SDS) addition. Addition of milk protein fractions to whole skim milk produced significant 'negative-biased' deviations (up to -26% relative standard error) from TAC absorbance additivity in the application of the ABTS method, as opposed to that of the CUPRAC method less affected by chemical deviations from Beer's law thereby producing much smaller deviations from additivity (i.e. the property of additivity is valid when the measured TAC of a mixture is equal to the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of its constituents).

  8. Structural changes induced by high-pressure processing in micellar casein and milk protein concentrates.

    Cadesky, Lee; Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Kriner, Kyle T; Karwe, Mukund V; Moraru, Carmen I

    2017-09-01

    Reconstituted micellar casein concentrates and milk protein concentrates of 2.5 and 10% (wt/vol) protein concentration were subjected to high-pressure processing at pressures from 150 to 450 MPa, for 15 min, at ambient temperature. The structural changes induced in milk proteins by high-pressure processing were investigated using a range of physical, physicochemical, and chemical methods, including dynamic light scattering, rheology, mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, proteomics, and soluble mineral analyses. The experimental data clearly indicate pressure-induced changes of casein micelles, as well as denaturation of serum proteins. Calcium-binding α S1 - and α S2 -casein levels increased in the soluble phase after all pressure treatments. Pressurization up to 350 MPa also increased levels of soluble calcium and phosphorus, in all samples and concentrations, whereas treatment at 450 MPa reduced the levels of soluble Ca and P. Experimental data suggest dissociation of calcium phosphate and subsequent casein micelle destabilization as a result of pressure treatment. Treatment of 10% micellar casein concentrate and 10% milk protein concentrate samples at 450 MPa resulted in weak, physical gels, which featured aggregates of uniformly distributed, casein substructures of 15 to 20 nm in diameter. Serum proteins were significantly denatured by pressures above 250 MPa. These results provide information on pressure-induced changes in high-concentration protein systems, and may inform the development on new milk protein-based foods with novel textures and potentially high nutritional quality, of particular interest being the soft gel structures formed at high pressure levels. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  9. Distribution of Animal Drugs among Curd, Whey, and Milk Protein Fractions in Spiked Skim Milk and Whey.

    Shappell, Nancy W; Shelver, Weilin L; Lupton, Sara J; Fanaselle, Wendy; Van Doren, Jane M; Hakk, Heldur

    2017-02-01

    It is important to understand the partitioning of drugs in processed milk and milk products, when drugs are present in raw milk, in order to estimate the potential consumer exposure. Radioisotopically labeled erythromycin, ivermectin, ketoprofen, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, sulfadimethoxine, and thiabendazole were used to evaluate the distribution of animal drugs among rennet curd, whey, and protein fractions from skim cow milk. Our previous work reported the distribution of these same drugs between skim and fat fractions of milk. Drug distribution between curd and whey was significantly correlated (R 2 = 0.70) to the drug's lipophilicity (log P), with improved correlation using log D (R 2 = 0.95). Distribution of drugs was concentration independent over the range tested (20-2000 nM). With the exception of thiabendazole and ivermectin, more drug was associated with whey protein than casein on a nmol/g protein basis (oxytetracycline experiment not performed). These results provide insights into the distribution of animal drug residues, if present in cow milk, among milk fractions, with possible extrapolation to milk products.

  10. Camel milk and milk products

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  11. Polymorphism in ovine ANXA9 gene and physic-chemical properties and the fraction of protein in milk.

    Pecka-Kiełb, Ewa; Czerniawska-Piątkowska, Ewa; Kowalewska-Łuczak, Inga; Vasil, Milan

    2018-04-16

    Annexin A9 (ANXA9) is a specific fatty acid transport protein. ANXA9 gene is expressed in various tissues, including secretory tissue and mammary glands. The association between three SNPs of the ANXA9 gene and sheep's milk compositions was assessed. Genotype analysis was performed with the use of PCR-RFLP method. The studied ANXA9 polymorphisms had the following MAF (Major Allele Frequency): SNP1: allele G 0,66; SNP2: allele G 0,54; SNP3: allele C 0,57. The study found the most desired profile of protein fractions, namely an increased kappa-casein fractions and a decreased level of whey protein in sheep's milk for SNP1 and SNP3 polymorphisms. Sheep with the SNP1 GA genotype had the highest (P <0.05) content of fat and dry matter in milk. AXNA9 gene polymorphism did not influence the levels of protein, lactose or urea in sheep's milk. The information contained in this study may be useful for determining the impact of the ANXA9 gene on sheep's milk. The ANXA9 SNP1 and SNP3 polymorphisms results could be included in the breeding programs to select the sheep with the genotypes ensuring the highest kappa-casein levels in milk. However, it is worth conducting further research on ANXA9 and milk composition in larger herds of animals and various breeds of sheep. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiulcerative Activity of Milk Proteins Hydrolysates.

    Carrillo, Wilman; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Martínez-Maqueda, Daniel; Ramos, Mercedes; Recio, Isidra; Carvalho, João Ernesto de

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have shown the protective effect of dairy products, especially α-lactalbumin and derived hydrolysates, against induced gastric ulcerative lesions. The mucus strengthening represents an important mechanism in the defense of gastrointestinal mucosa. Previously, a hydrolysate from casein (CNH) and a hydrolysate from whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin (WPH) demonstrated a stimulatory activity on mucus production in intestinal goblet cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible antiulcerative activity of these two hydrolysates in an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. All tested samples significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions index (ULI), compared with the saline solution, using doses of 300 and 1000 mg kg -1 body weight with decreases up to 66.3% ULI. A dose-response relationship was found for both hydrolysates. The involvement of endogenous sulfhydryl (SH) groups and prostaglandins (PGs) in the antiulcerative activity was evaluated using their blockage. The antiulcerative activity of WPH showed a drastic decrease in presence of N-ethylmaleimide (from 41.4% to 9.2% ULI). However, the CNH antiulcerative properties were not significantly affected. The cytoprotective effect of WPH appears to depend on a PG-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, CNH and WPH demonstrated in vivo antiulcerative properties and represent a promising alternative as protectors of the gastric mucosa.

  13. Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase

    Megan Emerson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led to increased selection of plain milk, but may compromise total milk purchased. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of small prizes as incentives to improve healthy food and beverage selection by elementary school students; (2 Methods: In a small Midwestern school district, small prizes were given to elementary school students who selected a “Power Plate” (PP, the healthful combination of a plain milk, a fruit, a vegetable and an entrée with whole grain over two academic school years; (3 Results: PP selection increased from 0.05 per student to 0.19, a 271% increase (p < 0.001. All healthful foods had increased selection with plain milk having the greatest increase, 0.098 per student to 0.255, a 159% increase (p < 0.001; (4 Total milk purchased increased modestly from 0.916 to 0.956 per student (p = 0.000331. Conclusion: Giving small prizes as a reward for healthful food selection substantially improves healthful food selection and the effect is sustainable over two academic years.

  14. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55 kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77 ± 0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the

  15. Milk consumption during pregnancy increases birth weight, a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization.

    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-16

    Antenatal dietary lifestyle intervention and nutrition during pregnancy and early postnatal life are important for appropriate lifelong metabolic programming. Epidemiological evidence underlines the crucial role of increased birth weight as a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases of civilization such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Obstetricians and general practitioners usually recommend milk consumption during pregnancy as a nutrient enriched in valuable proteins and calcium for bone growth. However, milk is not just a simple nutrient, but has been recognized to function as an endocrine signaling system promoting anabolism and postnatal growth by activating the nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1. Moreover, pasteurized cow's milk transfers biologically active exosomal microRNAs into the systemic circulation of the milk consumer apparently affecting more than 11,000 human genes including the mTORC1-signaling pathway. This review provides literature evidence and evidence derived from translational research that milk consumption during pregnancy increases gestational, placental, fetal and birth weight. Increased birth weight is a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization thus involving key disciplines of medicine. With regard to the presented evidence we suggest that dietary recommendations promoting milk consumption during pregnancy have to be re-evaluated.

  16. Effect of Processing Intensity on Immunologically Active Bovine Milk Serum Proteins.

    Brick, Tabea; Ege, Markus; Boeren, Sjef; Böck, Andreas; von Mutius, Erika; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-08-31

    Consumption of raw cow's milk instead of industrially processed milk has been reported to protect children from developing asthma, allergies, and respiratory infections. Several heat-sensitive milk serum proteins have been implied in this effect though unbiased assessment of milk proteins in general is missing. The aim of this study was to compare the native milk serum proteome between raw cow's milk and various industrially applied processing methods, i.e., homogenization, fat separation, pasteurization, ultra-heat treatment (UHT), treatment for extended shelf-life (ESL), and conventional boiling. Each processing method was applied to the same three pools of raw milk. Levels of detectable proteins were quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry following filter aided sample preparation. In total, 364 milk serum proteins were identified. The 140 proteins detectable in 66% of all samples were entered in a hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting proteomics pattern separated mainly as high (boiling, UHT, ESL) versus no/low heat treatment (raw, skimmed, pasteurized). Comparing these two groups revealed 23 individual proteins significantly reduced by heating, e.g., lactoferrin (log2-fold change = -0.37, p = 0.004), lactoperoxidase (log2-fold change = -0.33, p = 0.001), and lactadherin (log2-fold change = -0.22, p = 0.020). The abundance of these heat sensitive proteins found in higher quantity in native cow's milk compared to heat treated milk, renders them potential candidates for protection from asthma, allergies, and respiratory infections.

  17. Distribution of protein fraction in the milk of West African dwarf goat ...

    Milks from lactating West African dwarf goat and white Fulani cow were analysed for total protein, casein, whey protein, non protein nitrogen, Globulin and albumin and proteose peptone contents. Milk samples were from healthy goats and cows (n=24) in mid-lactation. The data were grouped and analysed as treatment 1 ...

  18. Bodybuilding protein supplements and cow's milk allergy in adult.

    Sousa, M J C S; Reis Ferreira, A L; Moreira da Silva, J P

    2018-01-01

    We report a case of a previously healthy 24-year-old man with a 3-month history of gastrointestinal symptoms during exercise and also few minutes after the ingestion of cow's milk (CM) without exercise. He reported the ingestion of a blend of hydrolyzed whey and casein proteins for bodybuilding for the last 2 years. The in vivo tests showed positivity to CM, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and casein extracts, and also to the protein supplement. The serum specific IgE was positive for CM, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin. The in vivo and in vitro tests results suggested an IgE-mediated CMA. Adult-onset CMA has been rarely reported, and to our knowledge this is the first case possibly related to bodybuilding supplements. The authors theorize that the presentation of large amounts of proteins in the gastrointestinal tract may favor sensitization.

  19. Effects of Ohmic Heating on Microbial Counts and Denaturatiuon of Proteins in Milk

    SUN, Huixian; KAWAMURA, Shuso; HIMOTO, Jun-ichi; ITOH, Kazuhiko; WADA, Tatsuhiko; KIMURA, Toshinori

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the inactivation effects of ohmic heating (internal heating by electric current) and conventional heating (external heating by hot water) on viable aerobes and Streptococcus thermophilus 2646 in milk under identical temperature history conditions. The effects of the two treatments on quality of milk were also compared by assessing degrees of protein denaturation in raw and sterilized milk (raw milk being sterilized by ohmic heating or conventional heating)...

  20. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    F. Dohme-Meier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5. Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP. The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S, 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-oil (C or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC. All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1 or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments

  1. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    Berends, H.; van den Borne, J. J G C; Røjen, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    recycling but urea reused for anabolism remained unaffected. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (-9%) with increasing low-N SF intake, indicating reduced rumen fermentation. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake resulted in decreased urea production, excretion......The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [15N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body...... of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [15N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW-0.75·d-1). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea...

  2. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves.

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Røjen, B A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-02-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [(15)N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body weight), after being exposed to the following experimental treatments for 11 wk: a low level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 12% of total N intake), a high level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 22% of total N intake), or a high level of SF with a high N content (SF providing 36% of total N intake). The SF mixture consisted of 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw on a dry matter basis. Total N intake was equalized to 1.8g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1) by adjusting N intake via MR. All calves were housed individually on metabolic cages to allow for quantification of a N balance of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [(15)N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1)). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea recycling but urea reused for anabolism remained unaffected. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (-9%) with increasing low-N SF intake, indicating reduced rumen fermentation. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake resulted in decreased urea production, excretion, and return to ornithine cycle, and increased protein retention by 17%. This increase was likely related to an effect of energy availability on protein retention due to an increase in total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (>10%) and due to an increased energy supply via the MR. In conclusion, increasing low-N SF intake at the expense of N intake from MR, did not affect protein retention efficiency in calves. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N

  3. Rheological, functional and thermo-physical properties of ultrasound treated whey proteins with addition of sucrose or milk powder

    Anet Režek Jambrak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound represents a non-thermal food processing technique and has great potential to be used in the food industry. The objective of this research was to observe ultrasound impact on physical properties of model systems prepared with whey protein isolates (WPI or whey protein concentrates (WPC with or without sucrose or milk powder addition. This kind of systems is often used in milk beverages and milk based products. Model systems with protein and milk powder or sucrose addition were treated with high power ultrasound (HPU probe of 30 kHz frequency for 5 and 10 minutes. After sonication several properties were determined and examined: solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, rheological and thermophysical properties. Ultrasound treatment showed severe influence on all examined properties, caused by protein denaturation as a consequence of cavitation and microstreaming effects. Ultrasound treatment caused decrease in protein solubility for whey protein isolate and whey protein concentrates model systems, compared to untreated sample. There was statistically significant increase in foam volume of model systems, prepared with sucrose or milk powder and WPI after ultrasound treatment. Statistically significant decrease in emulsion activity and emulsion stability indices was observed for model systems prepared solely with isolates and concentrates. After treatment of whey protein model systems (with or without milk powder or sucrose with 30 kHz ultrasound, the changes in consistency coefficients (k were observed, but there were no significant changes in flow behaviour indices (n. After addition of milk powder or sucrose, statistically significant decrease in initial freezing and melting temperatures was observed due to the ultrasound treatment.

  4. TREATMENT WITH AMINO-ACID-BASED FORMULA OF CHILDREN WITH ALIMENTARY ALLERGY TO COW MILK PROTEINS

    E. I. Vishneva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of alimentary allergy in children of the 1st year of life is increasing overall. This kind of disorders involves different organs and tissues, and its clinical manifestations are not pathognomic. Among the most important allergens one of the key roles play cow milk proteins. Hypoallergenic formulas are recommended for the non-invasive dietary diagnostics and treatment. Amino-acid-based formulas meet the criteria of being hypoallergenic.

  5. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  6. Combining proteomic tools to characterize the protein fraction of llama (Lama glama) milk.

    Saadaoui, Besma; Bianchi, Leonardo; Henry, Céline; Miranda, Guy; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Llamas belong to the Camelidae family along with camels. While dromedary camel milk has been broadly characterized, data on llama milk proteins are scarce. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the protein composition of llama milk. Skimmed llama milk proteins were first characterized by a 2D separation technique coupling RP-HPLC in the first dimension with SDS-PAGE in the second dimension (RP-HPLC/SDS-PAGE). Llama milk proteins, namely caseins (αs1 -, αs2 -, β-, and κ-caseins), α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin, were identified using PMF. Llama milk proteins were also characterized by online LC-ESI-MS analysis. This approach allowed attributing precise molecular masses for most of the previously MS-identified llama milk proteins. Interestingly, α-lactalbumin exhibits distinct chromatographic behaviors between llama and dromedary camel milk. De novo sequencing of the llama α-lactalbumin protein by LC coupled with MS/MS (LC-MS/MS) showed the occurrence of two amino acid substitutions (R62L/I and K89L/I) that partly explained the higher hydrophobicity of llama α-lactalbumin compared with its dromedary counterpart. Taken together, these results provide for the first time a thorough description of the protein fraction of Lama glama milk. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Comparison of composition and whey protein fractions of human, camel, donkey, goat and cow milk

    Halima El-Hatmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical parameters of milk samples of five different species: cow, goat, donkey, camel and human. Also the analysis of whey protein profile in different milk samples was performed by anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC while polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify a single fraction. Camel milk was the most acid (pH 6.460±0.005 and the richest in total proteins (3.41±0.31 % and ash (0.750±0.102 %, whereas donkey milk had a neutral pH (7.03±0.02 and characterised by low proteins (1.12±0.40 % and fat (0.97±0.03 % content, being very close to human milk. Proteomic analysis of cow, goat, donkey, camel and human milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was similar to human milk in lacking of β-lactoglobulin and richness of α-lactalbumin. The knowledge gained from the proteomic comparison of the milk samples analysed within this study might be of relevance, both, in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  8. Interactions in heated milk model systems with different ratios of nanoparticulated whey protein at varying pH

    Liu, Guanchen; Jæger, Tanja C.; Nielsen, Søren B.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the interactions between nanoparticulated whey protein (NWP) and other milk proteins during acidification, milk model systems were diluted to 0.5% protein concentration and adjusted to pH of 6.0-4.5 following homogenisation and heat treatment. The diluted systems with different...... concentrations of NWP (0-0.5%) were characterised in terms of particle size, viscosity, surface charge and hydrophobicity. When pH was adjusted to 5.5, aggregation was initiated at levels of NWP (0.25-0.5%) leading to significant increase in particle size and viscosity. Pure NWP (0.5%) showed largest initial...

  9. Chemical characteristics and enhanced hepatoprotective activities of Maillard reaction products derived from milk protein-sugar system.

    Oh, Nam Su; Young Lee, Ji; Lee, Hyun Ah; Joung, Jae Yeon; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Sae Hun; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Kwang Won

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, antioxidative properties, and hepatoprotective effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) from milk protein reacted with sugars. The MRP were obtained from milk protein, whey protein concentrates and sodium caseinate, using 2 types of sugars, lactose and glucose, by heating the mixture at 55°C for 7d in a sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Changes in the chemical modification of the milk protein were monitored by measuring the protein-bound carbonyls and PAGE protein profiles. The results showed that the amount of protein-bound carbonyls increased after Maillard reaction (MR). In addition, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis indicated a formation of high-molecular weight complexes through MR. The modification sites induced by MR of milk protein were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic-digested gel spots of MRP. As a result, modification and their localization in AA sequence of MRP was identified. Also, the MRP showed higher antioxidant activities than the intact milk protein, and they reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species production and inhibited the depletion of the reduced glutathione concentrations in the HepG2 cells. In particular, glucose-sodium caseinate MRP showed the highest biological activities among all MRP. Therefore, these results suggest that the MRP from milk protein reacting with sugars possess effective antioxidant activity and have a protective ability against oxidative damage. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumption of milk-protein combined with green tea modulates diet-induced thermogenesis.

    Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-08-01

    Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP) in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18-60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured. Green tea (GT)vs. placebo (PL) capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL), and 3.5 g (3.5 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL). After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT.

  11. Cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance in infancy. Some clinical, epidemiological and immunological aspects

    Høst, A

    1994-01-01

    Reproducible clinically abnormal reactions to cow's milk protein (CMP) may be due to the interaction between one or more milk proteins and one or more immune mechanisms, possibly any of the four basic types of hypersensitivity reactions. At present, evidence for type I, III and IV reactions against...... CMP has been demonstrated. Immunologically mediated reactions, mainly immediate IgE-mediated reactions are defined as cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Non immunologically reactions against CMP are defined as cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI). Many studies on "cow's milk allergy'" have...... with CMPA/CMPI develop symptoms before one month of age, often within one week after introduction of cow's milk based formula. The majority have > or = 2 symptoms and symptoms from > or = 2 organ systems. About 50%-70% have cutaneous symptoms, 50-60% gastrointestinal symptoms, and about 20-30% respiratory...

  12. Expression of plant sweet protein brazzein in the milk of transgenic mice.

    Sen Yan

    Full Text Available Sugar, the most popular sweetener, is essential in daily food. However, excessive sugar intake has been associated with several lifestyle-related diseases. Finding healthier and more economical alternatives to sugars and artificial sweeteners has received increasing attention to fulfill the growing demand. Brazzein, which comes from the pulp of the edible fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill, is a protein that is 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose by weight. Here we report the production of transgenic mice that carry the optimized brazzein gene driven by the goat Beta-casein promoter, which specifically directs gene expression in the mammary glands. Using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that brazzein could be efficiently expressed in mammalian milk, while retaining its sweetness. This study presents the possibility of producing plant protein-sweetened milk from large animals such as cattle and goats.

  13. Crosslinking of milk proteins by microbial transglutaminase: Utilization in functional yogurt products

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2018-01-01

    Key modifying roles of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) in the development of innovative probiotic and non-probiotic yogurts with improved functional and quality characteristics have been comprehensively reviewed. MTGase crosslinking reactions with milk proteins stabilize the three-dimensional......Key modifying roles of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) in the development of innovative probiotic and non-probiotic yogurts with improved functional and quality characteristics have been comprehensively reviewed. MTGase crosslinking reactions with milk proteins stabilize the three......-dimensional structure of yogurt. Yogurts treated with MTGase showed decreased syneresis, increased water-holding capacity and viscosity, homogeneous structure, desired texture, and physicochemical high stability during storage time. The utilization of MTGase does not affect negatively the sensory attributes of yogurt...

  14. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone

    Ludwig, Susann K. J.; Tokarski, Christian; Lang, Stefan N.; van Ginkel, Leendert A.; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan; Nielen, Michel W. F.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD) depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this ‘protein microarray on a smartphone’-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring. PMID:26308444

  15. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone.

    Susann K J Ludwig

    Full Text Available Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1. Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this 'protein microarray on a smartphone'-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring.

  16. Nutrient digestibility and milk production responses to increasing levels of palmitic acid supplementation vary in cows receiving diets with or without whole cottonseed.

    Rico, J E; de Souza, J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    Our study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of a palmitic acid-enriched supplement in basal diets with or without the inclusion of whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility and production responses of dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (149 ± 56 days in milk) were used in a split plot Latin square design experiment. Cows were blocked by 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) and allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, = 8) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, = 8) that was fed throughout the experiment. A palmitic acid-enriched supplement (PA 88.5% C16:0) was fed at 0, 0.75, 1.50, or 2.25% of ration DM in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square design within each basal diet group. Periods were 14 d with the final 4 d used for data collection. PA dose increased milk fat content linearly, and cubically affected yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. The PA dose did not affect milk protein and lactose contents, BW, and BCS, but tended to increase yields of milk, milk protein, and milk lactose. Also, PA dose reduced DMI and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically, and increased 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically. There were no effects of basal diet on the yield of milk or milk components, but DMI tended to decrease in CS compared with SH, increasing feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI). Compared with SH, CS diets increased yield of preformed milk fatty acids and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility, and tended to decrease 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility. We observed basal diet × PA dose interactions for yields of milk and milk protein and for 16-carbon and total fatty acid digestibility, as well as tendency for yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. Also, there was a tendency for an interaction between basal diet and PA dose for NDF digestibility, which increased more for CS with increasing PA than for SH. PA dose linearly decreased digestibility of total fatty acids in SH diets but did not affect it in CS diets Results demonstrate

  17. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Røjen, B.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [15N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180 ± 3.7 kg of body

  18. Quantitative proteomic analysis of whey proteins in the colostrum and mature milk of yak (Bos grunniens).

    Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Xiaowei; Yu, Shumin; Cao, Suizhong

    2015-02-01

    Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important natural resource in mountainous regions. To date, few studies have addressed the differences in the protein profiles of yak colostrum and milk. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the protein profiles of whey from yak colostrum and milk. Milk samples were collected from 21 yaks after calving (1 and 28 d). Whey protein profiles were generated through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-labelled proteomics. We identified 183 proteins in milk whey; of these, the expression levels of 86 proteins differed significantly between the whey from colostrum and milk. Haemoglobin expression showed the greatest change; its levels were significantly higher in the whey from colostrum than in mature milk whey. Functional analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed proteins were associated with biological regulation and response to stimuli. Further, eight differentially expressed proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were enriched in milk whey. These findings add to the general understanding of the protein composition of yak milk, suggest potential functions of the differentially expressed proteins, and provide novel information on the role of colostral components in calf survival. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. FOLATE CYCLE GENE POLYMORPHISM AND ENDOGENOUS PEPTIDES IN CHILDREN WITH COW’S MILK PROTEIN ALLERGY

    T. A. Shumatova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Folate cycle gene polymorphisms and the levels of endogenous antimicrobial peptides and proteins in the blood and coprofiltrates were studied in 45 children aged 3 to 12 months with cow’s milk protein allergy. The polymorphic variants of the MTHFR, MTRR, and MTR genes were shown to be considered as a risk factor for the development of allergy. There was a significant increase in the levels of zonulin, β-defensin 2, transthyretin, and eosinophil cationic protein in the coprofiltrates and in those of eotaxin, fatty acidbinding proteins, and membrane permeability-increasing protein in the serum (p<0.05. The finding can improve the diagnosis of the disease for a predictive purpose for the evaluation of the efficiency of performed therapy.

  20. Peptidomic analysis reveals proteolytic activity of kefir microorganisms on bovine milk proteins

    Dallas, David C.; Citerne, Florine; Tian, Tian; Silva, Vitor L. M.; Kalanetra, Karen M.; Frese, Steven A.; Robinson, Randall C.; Mills, David A.; Barile, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Scope The microorganisms that make up kefir grains are well known for lactose fermentation, but the extent to which they hydrolyze and consume milk proteins remains poorly understood. Peptidomics technologies were used to examine the proteolytic activity of kefir grains on bovine milk proteins. Methods and results Gel electrophoresis revealed substantial digestion of milk proteins by kefir grains, with mass spectrometric analysis showing the release of 609 protein fragments and alteration of the abundance of >1,500 peptides that derived from 27 milk proteins. Kefir contained 25 peptides identified from the literature as having biological activity, including those with antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, opioid and anti-oxidative functions. 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing identified the principle taxa in the culture as Lactobacillus species. Conclusion The model kefir sample contained thousands of protein fragments released in part by kefir microorganisms and in part by native milk proteases. PMID:26616950

  1. Peptidomic analysis reveals proteolytic activity of kefir microorganisms on bovine milk proteins.

    Dallas, David C; Citerne, Florine; Tian, Tian; Silva, Vitor L M; Kalanetra, Karen M; Frese, Steven A; Robinson, Randall C; Mills, David A; Barile, Daniela

    2016-04-15

    The microorganisms that make up kefir grains are well known for lactose fermentation, but the extent to which they hydrolyze and consume milk proteins remains poorly understood. Peptidomics technologies were used to examine the proteolytic activity of kefir grains on bovine milk proteins. Gel electrophoresis revealed substantial digestion of milk proteins by kefir grains, with mass spectrometric analysis showing the release of 609 protein fragments and alteration of the abundance of >1500 peptides that derived from 27 milk proteins. Kefir contained 25 peptides identified from the literature as having biological activity, including those with antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, opioid and anti-oxidative functions. 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing identified the principle taxa in the culture as Lactobacillus species. The model kefir sample contained thousands of protein fragments released in part by kefir microorganisms and in part by native milk proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphatase Activity of Microbial Populations in Different Milk Samples in Relation to Protein and Carbohydrate Content

    Sosanka Protim SANDILYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle milk is a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and all other major and micro nutrients. At a moderate pH, milk is an excellent media for the growth of microbes and thus, intake of raw milk is precarious. In this study, attempt was made for a qualitative study of eight raw milk samples of different varieties of cow and goat milk, collected from Jorhat district of Assam, India, on the basis of nutritional value and microbial population. The highest microbial population was found in the milk collected from cross hybrid variety of cow, whereas microbial contamination was the least in Jersey cow milk. Samples of C1 (Jersey cow variety showed presence of the highest amount of protein and carbohydrate content as compared to the others. Almost all the milk samples showed positive acid and alkaline phosphatase activity. Maximum acid phosphatase activity was observed in cross hybrid cow milk, whereas local cow milk exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity did not show any co-relationship with microbial population of the milk samples. Similarly, the protein and carbohydrate content of the samples did not have any significant impact on both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  3. Low-protein solid feed improves the utilization of milk replacer for protein gain in veal calves

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to quantify the contribution of low-protein solid feed (SF) intake, in addition to milk replacer, to protein and energy retention in veal calves. Because of potential interactions between milk replacer and SF, occurring at either the level of digestion or postabsorption, this

  4. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-12-08

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats.

  5. Effect of milk proteins on linear growth and IGF variables in overweight adolescents

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-01-01

    Milk may stimulate growth acting via insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion but the effect in adolescents is less examined. This study investigates the effect of milk proteins on linear growth, IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in overweight adolescents....

  6. Proteomic study on the stability of proteins in bovine, camel, and caprine milk sera after processing

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Smits, Marcel; Hooijdonk, van Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Milk proteins have been shown to be very sensitive to processing. This study aims to investigate the changes of the bovine, camel, and caprine milk proteins after freezing, pasteurization (62 °C, 30 min), and spray drying by proteomic techniques, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and

  7. The antigenicity-allergenicity of camel milk proteins (camelus dromedarus) in BALB/c mice after oral sensitization

    Dalal, R; Youcef, N; Mezemaze, F; Saidi, D; Kheroua, O

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: When the breastfeeding is not possible or not wished, it is usually replaced by cow's milk or by some conventional cow’s milk-based infant formulas. However these proteins can involve at certain subjects pathological manifestations like the cow's milk allergy (CMA). The substitution of cow's milk by other treated milk, called "hypoallergenic", is currently the only alternative. The using of the camel milk, species taxonomically far away from the cow can be considered...

  8. Freezing and thawing effects on fat, protein, and lactose levels of human natural milk administered by gavage and continuous infusion

    Andrea D. Abranches

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the changes in human milk macronutrients: fat, protein, and lactose in natural human milk (raw, frozen and thawed, after administration simulation by gavage and continuous infusion. METHOD: an experimental study was performed with 34 human milk samples. The infrared spectrophotometry using the infrared analysis equipment MilkoScan Minor(r (Foss, Denmark equipment was used to analyze the macronutrients in human milk during the study phases. The analyses were performed in natural (raw samples and after freezing and fast thawing following two steps: gavage and continuous infusion. The non-parametric Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: the fat content was significantly reduced after administration by continuous infusion (p < 0.001 during administration of both raw and thawed samples. No changes in protein and lactose content were observed between the two forms of infusion. However, the thawing process significantly increased the levels of lactose and milk protein. CONCLUSION: the route of administration by continuous infusion showed the greatest influence on fat loss among all the processes required for human milk administration.

  9. Freezing and thawing effects on fat, protein, and lactose levels of human natural milk administered by gavage and continuous infusion.

    Abranches, Andrea D; Soares, Fernanda V M; Junior, Saint-Clair G; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth L

    2014-01-01

    to analyze the changes in human milk macronutrients: fat, protein, and lactose in natural human milk (raw), frozen and thawed, after administration simulation by gavage and continuous infusion. an experimental study was performed with 34 human milk samples. The infrared spectrophotometry using the infrared analysis equipment MilkoScan Minor® (Foss, Denmark) equipment was used to analyze the macronutrients in human milk during the study phases. The analyses were performed in natural (raw) samples and after freezing and fast thawing following two steps: gavage and continuous infusion. The non-parametric Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used for the statistical analysis. the fat content was significantly reduced after administration by continuous infusion (praw and thawed samples. No changes in protein and lactose content were observed between the two forms of infusion. However, the thawing process significantly increased the levels of lactose and milk protein. the route of administration by continuous infusion showed the greatest influence on fat loss among all the processes required for human milk administration. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Green Tea Polyphenols Decrease Strecker Aldehydes and Bind to Proteins in Lactose-Hydrolyzed UHT Milk.

    Jansson, Therese; Rauh, Valentin; Danielsen, Bente P; Poojary, Mahesha M; Waehrens, Sandra S; Bredie, Wender L P; Sørensen, John; Petersen, Mikael A; Ray, Colin A; Lund, Marianne N

    2017-12-06

    The effect of epigallocatechin gallate enriched green tea extract (GTE) on flavor, Maillard reactions and protein modifications in lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) ultrahigh temperature (UHT) processed milk was examined during storage at 40 °C for up to 42 days. Addition of GTE inhibited the formation of Strecker aldehydes by up to 95% compared to control milk, and the effect was similar when GTE was added either before or after UHT treatment. Release of free amino acids, caused by proteolysis, during storage was also decreased in GTE-added milk either before or after UHT treatment compared to control milk. Binding of polyphenols to milk proteins was observed in both fresh and stored milk samples. The inhibition of Strecker aldehyde formation by GTE may be explained by two different mechanisms; inhibition of proteolysis during storage by GTE or binding of amino acids and proteins to the GTE polyphenols.

  11. Characterization and identification of novel antidiabetic and anti-obesity peptides from camel milk protein hydrolysates.

    Mudgil, Priti; Kamal, Hina; Yuen, Gan Chee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2018-09-01

    In-vitro inhibitory properties of peptides released from camel milk proteins against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA), and porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) were studied. Results revealed that upon hydrolysis by different enzymes, camel milk proteins displayed dramatic increase in inhibition of DPP-IV and PPL, but slight improvement in PPA inhibition was noticed. Peptide sequencing revealed a total of 20 and 3 peptides for A9 and B9 hydrolysates respectively, obtained the score of 0.8 or more on peptide ranker and were categorized as potential DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. KDLWDDFKGL in A9 and MPSKPPLL in B9 were identified as most potent PPA inhibitory peptide. For PPL inhibition only 7 and 2 peptides qualified as PPL inhibitory peptides from hydrolysates A9 and B9, respectively. The present study report for the first time PPA and PPL inhibitory and only second for DPP-IV inhibitory potential of protein hydrolysates from camel milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of increasing the colloidal calcium phosphate of milk on the texture and microstructure of yogurt.

    Ozcan, T; Horne, D; Lucey, J A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of increasing the colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) content on the physical, rheological, and microstructural properties of yogurt was investigated. The CCP content of heated (85°C for 30 min) milk was increased by increasing the pH by the addition of alkali (NaOH). Alkalized milk was dialyzed against pasteurized skim milk at approximately 4°C for 72 h to attempt to restore the original pH and soluble Ca content. By adjustment of the milk to pH values 7.45, 8.84, 10.06, and 10.73, the CCP content was increased to approximately 107, 116, 123, and 128%, respectively, relative to the concentration in heated milk. During fermentation of milk, the storage modulus (G') and loss tangent values of yogurts were measured using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Large deformation rheological properties were also measured. The microstructure of yogurt was observed using fluorescence microscopy, and whey separation was determined. Acid-base titration was used to evaluate changes in the CCP content in milk. Total Ca and casein-bound Ca increased with an increase in the pH value of alkalization. During acidification, elevated buffering occurred in milk between pH values 6.7 to 5.2 with an increase in the pH of alkalization. When acidified milk was titrated with alkali, elevated buffering occurred in milk between pH values 5.6 to 6.4 with an increase in the pH of alkalization. The high residual pH of milk after dialysis could be responsible for the decreased contents of soluble Ca in these milks. The pH of gelation was higher in all dialyzed samples compared with the heated control milk, and the gelation pH was higher with an increase in CCP content. The sample with highest CCP content (128%) exhibited gelation at very high pH (6.3), which could be due to alkali-induced CN micellar disruption. The G' values at pH 4.6 were similar in gels with CCP levels up to 116%; at higher CCP levels, the G' values at pH 4.6 greatly decreased. Loss tangent values at pH 5.1 were similar

  13. Diagnosis and management of cow's milk protein allergy in infants.

    De Greef, Elisabeth; Hauser, Bruno; Devreker, Thierry; Veereman-Wauters, Gigi; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2012-02-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is frequently suspected in infants with a variety of symptoms. A thorough history and careful clinical examination are necessary to exclude other underlying diseases and to evaluate the severity of the suspected allergy. Care should be taken to diagnose CMPA adequately to avoid an unnecessary diet. We make recommendations based on systematic literature searches using the best-available evidence from PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and bibliographies. Skin prick tests, patch tests and serum specific IgE are only indicative of CMPA. Breastfed infants have a decreased risk of developing CMPA; an elimination diet for the mother is indicated if CMPA is confirmed. If a food challenge is positive in formula fed infants, an extensively hydrolysed formula and cow's milk-free diet is recommended. If symptoms do not improve, an amino acid based formula should be considered. In severe CMPA with life-threatening symptoms, an amino-acid formula is recommended. Elimination diet by a double-blind placebo controlled food challenge is the gold standard for diagnosis. Elimination of the offending allergen from the infants' diet is the main treatment principle.

  14. Enhancing bioactive peptide release and identification using targeted enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins.

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2018-06-01

    Milk proteins have been extensively studied for their ability to yield a range of bioactive peptides following enzymatic hydrolysis/digestion. However, many hurdles still exist regarding the widespread utilization of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides as health enhancing agents for humans. These mostly arise from the fact that most milk protein-derived bioactive peptides are not highly potent. In addition, they may be degraded during gastrointestinal digestion and/or have a low intestinal permeability. The targeted release of bioactive peptides during the enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins may allow the generation of particularly potent bioactive hydrolysates and peptides. Therefore, the development of milk protein hydrolysates capable of improving human health requires, in the first instance, optimized targeted release of specific bioactive peptides. The targeted hydrolysis of milk proteins has been aided by a range of in silico tools. These include peptide cutters and predictive modeling linking bioactivity to peptide structure [i.e., molecular docking, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR)], or hydrolysis parameters [design of experiments (DOE)]. Different targeted enzymatic release strategies employed during the generation of milk protein hydrolysates are reviewed herein and their limitations are outlined. In addition, specific examples are provided to demonstrate how in silico tools may help in the identification and discovery of potent milk protein-derived peptides. It is anticipated that the development of novel strategies employing a range of in silico tools may help in the generation of milk protein hydrolysates containing potent and bioavailable peptides, which in turn may be used to validate their health promoting effects in humans. Graphical abstract The targeted enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins may allow the generation of highly potent and bioavailable bioactive peptides.

  15. Relationship between content of crude protein in rations for dairy cows and milk yield, concentration of urea in milk and ammonia emissions.

    Frank, B; Swensson, C

    2002-07-01

    During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmental influence of dairy production. The main focus has been on nitrogen and phosphorus. Modern dairy production in Western Europe is often based on imported feed-stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the risk of contamination with Salmonella and the ban of using GMO crops in Swedish dairy production. An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a lower content of crude protein in the diet would decrease the ammonia release from cow manure and whether a well-balanced diet using only feedstuffs of Swedish origin would maintain milk production. Five treatments were arranged in a Latin square design. Two different protein supplements made of ingredients of Swedish origin were each fed at two protein levels, and a fifth imported commercial protein mix was fed at the higher level. The treatments with low protein levels (13.1 to 13.5%) had a significantly lower milk yield, kilograms of ECM, but, on the other hand the net profit, milk income minus feed cost was nearly the same in all treatments except diet C, which had lower feed cost but also lower net profit due to lower milk yield. The content of urea in milk was higher with diets high in crude protein (17%) content. A decreased protein level in the diets did not influence the content of casein or whey protein, but the commercial concentrate showed a tendency to give lower values than the Swedish mixtures. The low protein diets gave significantly lower ammonia release from manure compared with the high protein diets. There were no production differences between the diets of Swedish feeds compared with the imported control. The readily fermentable beet pulp should have helped cows use the higher N diet more efficiently and increased the response. This gives the rumen microbes a possibility to match the

  16. The dual effects of Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis on the antioxidant activity of milk proteins.

    Oh, N S; Lee, H A; Lee, J Y; Joung, J Y; Lee, K B; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the enhanced effects on the biological characteristics and antioxidant activity of milk proteins by the combination of the Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maillard reaction products were obtained from milk protein preparations, such as whey protein concentrates and sodium caseinate with lactose, by heating at 55°C for 7 d in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The Maillard reaction products, along with untreated milk proteins as controls, were hydrolyzed for 0 to 3h with commercial proteases Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, and Flavorzyme (Novozymes, Bagsværd, Denmark). The antioxidant activity of hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products was determined by reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and the ability to reduce ferric ions. Further characteristics were evaluated by the o-phthaldialdehyde method and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The degree of hydrolysis gradually increased in a time-dependent manner, with the Alcalase-treated Maillard reaction products being the most highly hydrolyzed. Radical scavenging activities and reducing ability of hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products increased with increasing hydrolysis time. The combined products of enzymatic hydrolysis and Maillard reaction showed significantly greater antioxidant activity than did hydrolysates or Maillard reaction products alone. The hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products generated by Alcalase showed significantly higher antioxidant activity when compared with the other protease products and the antioxidant activity was higher for the whey protein concentrate groups than for the sodium caseinate groups. These findings indicate that Maillard reaction products, coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis, could act as potential antioxidants in the pharmaceutical, food, and dairy industries. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association

  17. Supplementation of adjuvants for increasing the nutritive value and cell viability of probiotic fermented milk beverage.

    Shobharani, P; Agrawal, Renu

    2009-01-01

    Probiotic are microorganisms that, upon ingestion in adequate amounts, exert a beneficial effect on the host. In the present work, the potent probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides was used as a starter culture in the preparation of fermented milk beverage. The product was analyzed for protein, titrable acidity, fat, total sugar, fatty acids and minerals. The viability of culture and nutrition in the product was further enhanced with supplementation of adjuvants like tryptone, casein hydrolysate, cysteine hydrochloride and ascorbic acid. After 5 days, maximum viability was observed on supplementation of tryptone (100 mg/l). The protein content was enhanced by 1.1-fold in the presence of tryptone (100 mg/l) as compared with control after 5 days of storage. Fermented milk supplemented with tryptone (100 mg/l) showed maximum bioavailability of the minerals like iron (92.05%), zinc (95.02%) and magnesium (92.04%) as compared with control. The increase in the composition of beneficial fatty acids on supplementation of adjuvants supports the therapeutic value of the product.

  18. Cow&s milk protein allergy with gastrointestinal manifestations

    Sofia Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA is the leading cause of food allergy in children under three years of age, although its gastrointestinal manifestations may occur in all age groups. In the suspicion of CMPA based on the anamnesis and physical examination, an elimination diet should be initiated for a variable length of time according to the clinical picture, followed by an oral food challenge (OFC confi rming or excluding the diagnosis. Complementary exams such as skin prick tests and specifi c IgE may be necessary. Treatment is based on an elimination diet and demands nutritional counselling and growth monitoring. Usually an OFC is repeated after three to 12 months of elimination diet. Tolerance is achieved at three years of age in more than 80% of the children. The aim of this work is to make a brief review and update on CMPA in pediatric age, proposing a management approach based on recent international recommendations.

  19. Milk yield differences between 1x and 4x milking are associated with changes in mammary mitochondrial number and milk protein gene expression, but not mammary cell apoptosis or "SOCS" gene expression

    Milking frequency is known to affect milk production and lactation persistence in dairy cows. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying this effect are only partially understood. Previous work in dairy cows examining increases in milk yield due to increased milking frequency have identified changes in...

  20. Differences in postprandial protein handling after beef compared with milk ingestion during postexercise recovery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Burd, Nicholas A; Gorissen, Stefan H; van Vliet, Stephan; Snijders, Tim; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2015-10-01

    Protein consumed after resistance exercise increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis rates. To date, dairy protein has been studied extensively, with little known about the capacity of other protein-dense foods to augment postexercise muscle protein synthesis rates. We aimed to compare protein digestion and absorption kinetics, postprandial amino acid availability, anabolic signaling, and the subsequent myofibrillar protein synthetic response after the ingestion of milk compared with beef during recovery from resistance-type exercise. In crossover trials, 12 healthy young men performed a single bout of resistance exercise. Immediately after cessation of exercise, participants ingested 30 g protein by consuming isonitrogenous amounts of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled beef or milk. Blood and muscle biopsy samples were collected at rest and after exercise during primed continuous infusions of l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and l-[ring-3,5-(2)H2]tyrosine to assess protein digestion and absorption kinetics, plasma amino acid availability, anabolic signaling, and subsequent myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in vivo in young men. Beef protein-derived phenylalanine appeared more rapidly in circulation compared with milk ingestion (P Nutrition.

  1. [A CASE OF ANAPHYLAXIS IN THE PEDIATRIC PATIENT WITH MILK ALLERGY DUE TO TRACES OF MILK PROTEIN IN THE LACTOSE USED AS AN EXCIPIENT OF INAVIR INHALATION].

    Morikawa, Miki; Kanemitsu, Yoshitomi; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Morikawa, Akimasa; Tomioka, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    The patient was a 6-year-old female with milk allergy and persistent asthma. She experienced anaphylactic reactions just after the inhalation of Inavir (Laninamivir Octanoate Hydrate) to treat flu infection. A skin-prick test showed positive reactions for Inavir inhaler powder and lactose used as an excipient but negative for Laninamivir. Same results were obtained in a drug-stimulated basophil activation test. The lactose excipient in Inavir inhaler powder was supposed to contain milk proteins, which caused anaphylactic reactions. To test this possibility, we examined the contamination of allergic milk proteins in the lactose excipient and found the smear band by silver staining, which was identified as β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) by Western blotting using specific monoclonal antibody and patient's sera. The β-LG in Inavir was supposed to be glycosylated with lactose because the molecular weight was slightly higher than β-LG standard reference as seen in mobility. In fact, the incubation with lactose in vitro tended to increase molecular weight. Following these results, we herein report that the trace amounts of β-LG contaminated in the lactose excipient of Inavir could cause immediate allergic reactions. The risk that the lactose-containing dry powder inhalers cause allergic reactions for patients with cow's milk allergy need to be reminded. In particular, the use for flu patients should be paid careful attention because of increased airway hypersensitivity in those patients.

  2. Skim Milk, Whey, and Casein Increase Body Weight and Whey and Casein Increase the Plasma C-Peptide Concentration in Overweight Adolescents12

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2012-01-01

    insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12–15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein....... Outcomes were BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZs), waist circumference, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and plasma C-peptide. We found no change in BAZ in the pretest control and water groups, whereas it was greater at 12 wk in the skim milk, whey, and casein groups compared with baseline...... and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P

  3. Evaluation of increased milking frequency as an additional treatment for cows with clinical mastitis.

    Krömker, Volker; Zinke, Claudia; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Klocke, Doris; Reimann, Anette; Eller, Georg

    2010-02-01

    This field study focused on the possible effects of increased milking frequency (milking four times a day in comparison with milking twice a day) on clinical and bacteriological cure rates of clinical, antibiotically treated mastitis cases. Parameters tested were clinical, microbiological and full (cytomicrobiological) cure as well as the development of milk yield after the clinical mastitis episode. Cows from a large dairy herd meeting the study criteria (n=93) were assigned to two treatment groups by a systematic randomization scheme (blocked by body temperature 39.5 degrees C). Both groups were randomly divided by experimental treatments: a) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 2-times a day; b) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 4-times a day. Treatments were initiated before the culture results were known. Cows were surveyed and evaluated on days 1-6, 24 and 31. No significant differences between treatment and control groups regarding clinical cure, microbiological cure, full cure and milk production could be established. Applying a 4-times a day milking regime did not lead to any significant effect, either positive or negative. Therefore, the results suggest that milking 4-times a day as a supporting therapy for mild, moderate and severe antimicrobially treated mastitis cases cannot be recommended.

  4. Effect of fortification with various types of milk proteins on the rheological properties and permeability of nonfat set yogurt.

    Peng, Y; Serra, M; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2009-01-01

    Yogurt base was prepared from reconstituted skim milk powder (SMP) with 2.5% protein and fortified with additional 1% protein (wt/wt) from 4 different milk protein sources: SMP, milk protein isolate (MPI), micellar casein (MC), and sodium caseinate (NaCN). Heat-treated yogurt mixes were fermented at 40 degrees C with a commercial yogurt culture until pH 4.6. During fermentation pH was monitored, and storage modulus (G') and loss tangent (LT) were measured using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Yield stress (sigma(yield)) and permeability of gels were analyzed at pH 4.6. Addition of NaCN significantly reduced buffering capacity of yogurt mix by apparently solubilizing part of the indigenous colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) in reconstituted SMP. Use of different types of milk protein did not affect pH development except for MC, which had the slowest fermentation due to its very high buffering. NaCN-fortified yogurt had the highest G' and sigma(yield) values at pH 4.6, as well as maximum LT values. Partial removal of CCP by NaCN before fermentation may have increased rearrangements in yogurt gel. Soluble casein molecules in NaCN-fortified milks may have helped to increase G' and LT values of yogurt gels by increasing the number of cross-links between strands. Use of MC increased the CCP content but resulted in low G' and sigma(yield) at pH 4.6, high LT and high permeability. The G' value at pH 4.6 of yogurts increased in the order: SMP = MC yogurt. Practical Application: In yogurt processing, it is common to add additional milk solids to improve viscosity and textural attributes. There are many different types of milk protein powders that could potentially be used for fortification purposes. This study suggests that the type of milk protein used for fortification impacts yogurt properties and sodium caseinate gave the best textural results.

  5. Infrared analyzers for breast milk analysis: fat levels can influence the accuracy of protein measurements.

    Kwan, Celia; Fusch, Gerhard; Bahonjic, Aldin; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2017-10-26

    Currently, there is a growing interest in lacto-engineering in the neonatal intensive care unit, using infrared milk analyzers to rapidly measure the macronutrient content in breast milk before processing and feeding it to preterm infants. However, there is an overlap in the spectral information of different macronutrients, so they can potentially impact the robustness of the measurement. In this study, we investigate whether the measurement of protein is dependent on the levels of fat present while using an infrared milk analyzer. Breast milk samples (n=25) were measured for fat and protein content before and after being completely defatted by centrifugation, using chemical reference methods and near-infrared milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar) with two different calibration algorithms provided by the manufacturer (released 2009 and 2015). While the protein content remained unchanged, as measured by elemental analysis, measurements by infrared milk analyzer show a difference in protein measurements dependent on fat content; high fat content can lead to falsely high protein content. This difference is less pronounced when measured using the more recent calibration algorithm. Milk analyzer users must be cautious of their devices' measurements, especially if they are changing the matrix of breast milk using more advanced lacto-engineering.

  6. The distribution of environmental contaminants and pharmaceuticals among skim milk, milk fat, curd, whey, and milk protein fractions through milk processing

    Twenty-seven environmental contaminants and pharmaceuticals encompassing a wide range of physicochemical properties were utilized to determine the effects of milk processing on xenobiotic distribution among milk fractions. Target compounds included radiolabeled antibiotics [ciprofloxacin (CIPR), cl...

  7. Influences of different thermal processings in milk, bovine meat and frog protein structure.

    Coura Oliveira, Tatiana; Lopes Lima, Samuel; Bressan, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have associated the digestibility of proteins to its imunogenic potential. Though, it was objectified to evaluate the impact of the thermal processing with high and low temperatures on the proteins structure of three types of foods, by means of the digestibility in vitro and electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida. The pasteurize was observed in such a way, firing 95 ºC during 15 minutes, how much freeze dried causes qualitative and quantitative modifications of constituent proteins of the food. The most sensible proteins to the increasing thermal processing order were beef, frog meat, and the last, cow milk. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased

  9. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of storage and heating on protein glycation levels of processed lactose-free and regular bovine milk products.

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-04-15

    Thermal treatment preserves the microbiological safety of milk, but also induces Maillard reactions modifying for example proteins. The purpose of this study was evaluating the influence of consumer behaviors (storage and heating) on protein glycation degrees in bovine milk products. Lactosylation and hexosylation sites were identified in ultra-high temperature (UHT), lactose-free pasteurized, and lactose-free UHT milk (ULF) and infant formula (IF) using tandem mass spectrometry (electron transfer dissociation). Overall, 303 lactosylated and 199 hexosylated peptides were identified corresponding to 170 lactosylation (31 proteins) and 117 hexosylation sites (25 proteins). In quantitative terms, storage increased lactosylation up to fourfold in UHT and IF and hexosylation up to elevenfold in ULF and threefold in IF. These levels increased additionally twofold when the stored samples were heated (40°C). In conclusion, storage and heating appear to influence protein glycation levels in milk at similar or even higher degrees than industrial processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the anti-HIV effects of native lactoferrin and other milk proteins and protein-derived peptides

    Berkhout, Ben; van Wamel, Jeroen L. B.; Beljaars, Leonie; Meijer, Dirk K. F.; Visser, Servaas; Floris, René

    2002-01-01

    In a search for natural proteins with anti-HIV activity, we screened a large set of purified proteins from bovine milk and peptide fragments thereof. Because several charged proteins and peptides are known to inhibit the process of virus entry, we selected proteins with an unusual charge composition

  12. Characterization of the anti-HIV effects of native lactoferrin and other milk proteins and protein-derived peptides

    Berkhout, B; van Wamel, JLB; Beljaars, L; Meijer, DKF; Visser, Servaas; Floris, R

    In a search for natural proteins with anti-HIV activity, we screened a large set of purified proteins from bovine milk and peptide fragments thereof. Because several charged proteins and peptides are known to inhibit the process of virus entry, we selected proteins with an unusual charge composition

  13. Safety evaluation of an IPP tripeptide-containing milk protein hydrolysate

    Ponstein-Simarro Doorten, A.Y.; Wiel, J.A.G. van de; Jonker, D.

    2009-01-01

    Tensguard™ is a milk protein hydrolysate containing the lactotripeptide IPP. It is derived from cow's milk, which is present in the human diet and has a safe history of consumption. The final Tensguard™ product, a supplement or a functional food ingredient, is intended for use by people who want to

  14. Practical dietary management of protein energy malnutrition in young children with cow's milk protein allergy.

    Meyer, Rosan; Venter, Carina; Fox, Adam T; Shah, Neil

    2012-06-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) affects between 1.9 and 4.9% of infants and young children. This food allergy requires the complete elimination of cow's milk and its derivatives, impacting on nutritional status. The risk of having protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in children with CMPA has been well documented. In 2007, the World Health Organisation published guidelines on the dietary management of PEM, which has impacted on the recommendations and composition on specialist feeds for many chronic diseases, but not on CMPA. The main change in management of the child with PEM is the protein energy ratio and energy requirements. The ideal protein energy ratio lies between 8.9 and 11.5%, which would ensure a deposition of about 70% lean and 30% fat mass. In addition, for optimal catch-up growth between 5 and 10 g/kg/day, energy requirements should be between 105 and 126 kcal/kg/day. Although most current hypoallergenic formulas fall well within the recommendation for protein, there is a problem in achieving energy requirements. As a result, modular additions are often made, disturbing the protein energy ratio or feeds are concentrated, which impacts on osmolality. We therefore aimed to review current guidelines on PEM and how these can be applied in the management of the malnourished child with CMPA. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of dietary protein quality and feeding level on milk secretion and mammary protein synthesis in the rat

    Sampson, D.A.; Jansen, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Protein synthesis was studied in mammary tissue of rats fed diets deficient in protein quality and/or restricted in food intake throughout gestation and lactation. Diets containing 25% wheat gluten (WG), wheat gluten plus lysine and threonine (WGLT), or casein (C) were pair-fed from conception until day 15 of lactation at 100% or 85% of WG ad libitum consumption (PF100 and PF85, respectively). A seventh group was fed C ad libitum. Rates of protein synthesis were measured in vivo at day 15 of lactation from incorporation of [3- 3 H]phenylalanine. At both PF100 and PF85, fractional and absolute rates of mammary gland protein synthesis were two- to three-fold higher in rats fed C than in those fed WG. Pup weights showed similar treatment effects. Both mammary protein synthesis rates and pup weights were significantly higher in rats fed C at PF85 than rats fed WG ad libitum. Food restriction from PF100 to PF85 depressed pup weights and mammary protein synthesis rates in rats fed WGLT, but had no effect in rats fed WG. These results demonstrate that when food intake is restricted, improvement of protein quality of the maternal diet increases milk output in the rat in association with increased rates of mammary protein synthesis

  17. A process efficiency assessment of serum protein removal from milk using ceramic graded permeability microfiltration membrane.

    Tremblay-Marchand, D; Doyen, A; Britten, M; Pouliot, Y

    2016-07-01

    Microfiltration (MF) is a well-known process that can be used in the dairy industry to separate caseins from serum proteins (SP) in skim milk using membranes with a pore diameter of 0.1μm. Graded permeability ceramic membranes have been studied widely as means of improving milk fractionation by overcoming problems encountered with other MF membranes. The ideal operating parameters for process efficiency in terms of membrane selectivity, permeate flux, casein loss, SP transmission, energy consumption, and dilution with water remain to be determined for this membrane. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP), volumetric concentration factor (VCF), and diafiltration on overall process efficiency. Skim milk was processed using a pilot-scale MF system equipped with 0.72-m(2) graded permeability membranes with a pore size of 0.1μm. In the first experiment, in full recycle mode, TMP was set at 124, 152, 179, or 207 kPa by adjusting the permeate pressure at the outlet. Whereas TMP had no significant effect on permeate and retentate composition, 152 kPa was found to be optimal for SP removal during concentration and concentration or diafiltration experiments. When VCF was increased to 3×, SP rejection coefficient increased along with energy consumption and total casein loss, whereas SP removal rate decreased. Diafiltering twice allowed an increase in total SP removal but resulted in a substantial increase in energy consumption and casein loss. It also reduced the SP removal rate by diluting permeate. The membrane surface area required for producing cheese milk by blending whole milk, cream, and MF retentate (at different VCF) was estimated for different cheese milk casein concentrations. For a given casein concentration, the same quantity of permeate and SP would be produced, but less membrane surface area would be needed at a lower retentate VCF. Microfiltration has great potential as a process of adding value to conventional

  18. Milk production and nutrient digestibility responses to increasing levels of stearic acid supplementation of dairy cows.

    Boerman, J P; de Souza, J; Lock, A L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of a stearic acid (C18:0)-enriched supplement on nutrient digestibility, production responses, and the maximum amount of C18:0 that can be incorporated into the milk fat of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32; 145 ± 66 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (30 to 70 kg/d) were blocked by milk yield and assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Treatments were diets supplemented with a C18:0-enriched supplement (SA; 93% C18:0) at 0, 0.80, 1.50, or 2.30% of diet dry matter (DM). Periods were 21 d with the final 5 d used for data and sample collection. Dry matter intake increased linearly as SA supplementation increased. Supplementation of SA had no effect on the yield of milk or milk components. Due to the increase in DM intake, SA linearly reduced the ratio of energy-corrected milk to DM intake. Supplementation of SA did not affect body weight. Increasing SA reduced digestibility of 16-carbon, 18-carbon, and total fatty acids (FA), with the reduction in digestibility of 18-carbon FA being approximately 30 percentage units from the 0.0 to 2.30% SA supplemented diets. Supplementation of SA linearly increased concentrations of preformed milk fatty acids (FA) but did not affect the yield of preformed milk FA. Yields of C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1 were increased by SA supplementation; however, the increase from 0 to 2.3% SA was only 16 g/d. The concentration and yield of de novo and 16-carbon milk FA were unaffected by SA supplementation. In conclusion, increasing doses of SA decreased FA digestibility and had little effect on production parameters. Although SA increased the yield of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 in milk fat, it had no overall effect on milk fat yield. The lack of production responses to a C18:0-enriched fat supplement was most likely associated with the marked decrease in FA digestibility. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  20. Proteomic and functional analyses reveal MAPK1 regulates milk protein synthesis.

    Lu, Li-Min; Li, Qing-Zhang; Huang, Jian-Guo; Gao, Xue-Jun

    2012-12-27

    L-Lysine (L-Lys) is an essential amino acid that plays fundamental roles in protein synthesis. Many nuclear phosphorylated proteins such as Stat5 and mTOR regulate milk protein synthesis. However, the details of milk protein synthesis control at the transcript and translational levels are not well known. In this current study, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/MS-based proteomic technology was used to identify phosphoproteins responsible for milk protein synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs). The effect of L-Lys on DCMECs was analyzed by CASY technology and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The results showed that cell proliferation ability and β-casein expression were enhanced in DCMECs treated with L-Lys. By phosphoproteomics analysis, six proteins, including MAPK1, were identified up-expressed in DCMECs treated with 1.2 mM L-Lys for 24 h, and were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot. Overexpression and siRNA inhibition of MAPK1 experiments showed that MAPK1 upregulated milk protein synthesis through Stat5 and mTOR pathway. These findings that MAPK1 involves in regulation of milk synthesis shed new insights for understanding the mechanisms of milk protein synthesis.

  1. Estimating milk yield and value losses from increased somatic cell count on US dairy farms.

    Hadrich, J C; Wolf, C A; Lombard, J; Dolak, T M

    2018-04-01

    Milk loss due to increased somatic cell counts (SCC) results in economic losses for dairy producers. This research uses 10 mo of consecutive dairy herd improvement data from 2013 and 2014 to estimate milk yield loss using SCC as a proxy for clinical and subclinical mastitis. A fixed effects regression was used to examine factors that affected milk yield while controlling for herd-level management. Breed, milking frequency, days in milk, seasonality, SCC, cumulative months with SCC greater than 100,000 cells/mL, lactation, and herd size were variables included in the regression analysis. The cumulative months with SCC above a threshold was included as a proxy for chronic mastitis. Milk yield loss increased as the number of test days with SCC ≥100,000 cells/mL increased. Results from the regression were used to estimate a monetary value of milk loss related to SCC as a function of cow and operation related explanatory variables for a representative dairy cow. The largest losses occurred from increased cumulative test days with a SCC ≥100,000 cells/mL, with daily losses of $1.20/cow per day in the first month to $2.06/cow per day in mo 10. Results demonstrate the importance of including the duration of months above a threshold SCC when estimating milk yield losses. Cows with chronic mastitis, measured by increased consecutive test days with SCC ≥100,000 cells/mL, resulted in higher milk losses than cows with a new infection. This provides farm managers with a method to evaluate the trade-off between treatment and culling decisions as it relates to mastitis control and early detection. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life.

    Barbano, D M; Ma, Y; Santos, M V

    2006-03-01

    Pasteurized fluid milk shelf life is influenced by raw milk quality. The microbial count and somatic cell count (SCC) determine the load of heat-resistant enzymes in milk. Generally, high levels of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk are required to contribute sufficient quantities of heat-stable proteases and lipases to cause breakdown of protein and fat after pasteurization. Sanitation, refrigeration, and the addition of CO2 to milk are used to control both total and psychrotrophic bacteria count. It is not uncommon for total bacterial counts of raw milk to be milk processors have not focused much attention on milk SCC. Increased SCC is correlated with increased amounts of heat-stable protease (plasmin) and lipase (lipoprotein lipase) in milk. When starting with raw milk that has a low bacterial count, and in the absence of microbial growth in pasteurized milk, enzymes associated with high SCC will cause protein and fat degradation during refrigerated storage, and produce off-flavors. As the ability to kill, remove, or control microbial growth in pasteurized refrigerated milk continues to improve, the original milk SCC will be the factor limiting the time of refrigerated storage before development of an off-flavor in milk. Most healthy cows in a dairy herd have a milk SCC 200,000 cell/mL are usually due to the contribution of high SCC milk from a small number of cows in the herd. Technology to identify these cows and keep their milk out of the bulk tank could substantially increase the value of the remaining milk for use in fluid milk processing. To achieve a 60- to 90-d shelf life of refrigerated fluid milk, fluid processors and dairy farmers need to work together to structure economic incentives that allow farmers to produce milk with the SCC needed for extended refrigerated shelf life.

  3. The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.

    Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W

    2013-10-01

    percentage, and total milk fat and protein yields were greater for animals reared on MP and MPA compared with M. Body weight, hip height and width at parturition, milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, or days in milk did not differ among treatments. Increasing nutrient intake, during the milk feeding period, improved the BW gain of calves and milk production of dairy heifers during first lactation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), dimethyl labeling and LC-MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four

  5. Identification and quantification of major bovine milk proteins by liquid chromatography.

    Bordin, G; Cordeiro Raposo, F; de la Calle, B; Rodriguez, A R

    2001-08-31

    In the field of food quality, bovine milk products are of particular interest due to the social and economic importance of the dairy products market. However, the risk of fraudulent manipulation is high in this area, for instance, replacing milk powder by whey is very interesting from an economic point of view. Therefore, there is a need to have suitable analytical methods available for the determination of all milk components, which is currently not the case, especially for the main proteins. The detection of potential manipulations requires then a clear analytical characterisation of each type of bovine milk, what constitutes the goal of this work. The separation of the major milk proteinic components has been carried out by ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC with photodiode array detection, using a C4 column. The overall optimisation has been achieved using a statistical experimental design procedure. The identification of each protein was ascertained using retention times, peak area ratios and second derivative UV spectra. Quantification was based on calibration curves drawn using purified proteins. Major sources of uncertainty were identified and the full uncertainty budget was established. The procedure was initially developed using the skimmed milk powder certified reference material CRM 063R and then applied to various types of commercial milks as well as to raw milk. The method is able to separate and quantify the seven major proteins (K-casein, alphas2-casein, alphas1-casein, beta-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin B and beta-lactoglobulin A) in one run and also to provide precise determinations of the total protein concentration. These are important results towards the further development of a reference method for major proteins in milk. In addition, the use of a certified material reference is suggested in order to make comparisons of method performances possible.

  6. Enzymatic Release and Characterization of Novel Bioactive Peptides from Milk Proteins

    De Gobba, Cristian

    -inhibitory, antioxidant and antimicrobial peptides) released from milk proteins by mean of enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis. Goat milk fractions (produced using microfiltration membranes) and bovine casein were used as substrates. The goat milk fractions (retentate, permeate and skimmed milk) were hydrolysed with two...... commercial enzymes. The bovine casein was hydrolysed using the supernatant of a Greenlandic bacterium (Arsukibacterium ikkense), produced in the NOVENIA project, which contains cold-active proteolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates were tested for the relevant bioactivities and active fractions were fractionated...... protein hydrolysates made in other studies. Regarding radical scavenging activity, the bovine casein hydrolysates also showed a positive correlation between extent of hydrolysis and activity, although the difference between the unhydrolysed sample and the hydrolysates was less marked. The goat milk...

  7. Protein fraction heterogeneity in donkey’s milk analysed by proteomic methods

    G. D'Urso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Donkey’s milk is often well tolerate by patients affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, probably thanks to its protein composition. This empiric evidence, confirmed by some clinical trials, needs to be better investigated. A preliminary survey on the protein fraction of donkey’s milk was carried out: fifty-six individual milk samples have been collected and analysed by IEF and SDS-PAGE. Five different IEF patterns have been identified, showing a marked heterogeneity both in casein and whey protein fractions. A single IEF pattern showed an apparent reduced amount of casein fraction highlighted by SDS. Three of the five IEF patterns have been further investigated by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS.

  8. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane proteins from transgenic cloned cattle.

    Shunchao Sui

    Full Text Available The use of transgenic livestock is providing new methods for obtaining pharmaceutically useful proteins. However, the protein expression profiles of the transgenic animals, including expression of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM proteins, have not been well characterized. In this study, we compared the MFGM protein expression profile of the colostrum and mature milk from three lines of transgenic cloned (TC cattle, i.e., expressing recombinant human α-lactalbumin (TC-LA, lactoferrin (TC-LF or lysozyme (TC-LZ in the mammary gland, with those from cloned non-transgenic (C and conventionally bred normal animals (N. We identified 1, 225 proteins in milk MFGM, 166 of which were specifically expressed only in the TC-LA group, 265 only in the TC-LF group, and 184 only in the TC-LZ group. There were 43 proteins expressed only in the transgenic cloned animals, but the concentrations of these proteins were below the detection limit of silver staining. Functional analysis also showed that the 43 proteins had no obvious influence on the bovine mammary gland. Quantitative comparison revealed that MFGM proteins were up- or down-regulated more than twofold in the TC and C groups compared to N group: 126 in colostrum and 77 in mature milk of the TC-LA group; 157 in colostrum and 222 in mature milk of the TC-LF group; 49 in colostrum and 98 in mature milk of the TC-LZ group; 98 in colostrum and 132 in mature milk in the C group. These up- and down-regulated proteins in the transgenic animals were not associated with a particular biological function or pathway, which appears that expression of certain exogenous proteins has no general deleterious effects on the cattle mammary gland.

  9. Long-Term Oral Feeding of Lutein-Fortified Milk Increases Voluntary Running Distance in Rats

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared wit...

  10. Influence of Prolonged Storage Process, Pasteurization, and Heat Treatment on Biologically-active Human Milk Proteins

    Jih-Chin Chang

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status.

  11. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...... by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...

  12. Diagnostic approach and management of cow's milk protein allergy in infants and children

    Koletzko, S; Niggemann, B; Arato, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: This position paper provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of suspected cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) in Europe. It presents a practical approach with a diagnostic algorithm and is based on recently published evidence based guidelines on CMPA. DIAGNOSIS:: If CMPA...... is suspected by history and examination, strict allergen avoidance is initiated. In certain circumstances (e.g. a clear history of immediate symptoms or a life threatening reaction with a positive test for cow's milk protein (CMP) specific IgE) the diagnosis can be made without a milk challenge. In all other...

  13. Colostrum and milk protein rankings and ratios of importance to neonatal calf health using a proteomics approach

    Nissen, Asger; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Bendixen, Emøke

    2017-01-01

    Administration of colostrum to the newborn calf before gut closure is pivotal to its health, because of the transfer of passive immunity. Traditionally, passive immunity has been attributed to the transfer of immunoglobulins although it is increasingly clear that multiple other factors contribute......, including innate immune proteins, developmental factors, immunomodulatory factors, and the presence of cellular immunity. The objective of this study was to produce a comprehensive comparison of the bovine colostrum proteome and the milk proteome by applying 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass...... spectrometry. Further, the objectives were to rank proteins mutually and generate protein ratios from the spectral counts of the 2 proteomes and ELISA to gain insight into which proteins could be of most relevance to neonatal calf health. To obtain an in-depth picture of the bovine colostrum and milk proteome...

  14. Gastrointestinal sensitivity to soy and milk proteins in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Kloster Smerud, H; Fellström, B; Hällgren, R; Osagie, S; Venge, P; Kristjánsson, G

    2010-11-01

    sensitivity to food antigens has been postulated as a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). in this study we used a recently developed mucosal patch technique to evaluate rectal mucosal sensitivity to soy and cow's milk (CM) proteins in IgAN patients (n = 28) compared to healthy subjects (n = 18). The rectal mucosal production of nitric oxide (NO) and release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were measured. Serum samples were analyzed for IgA and IgG antibodies to alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein and soy. 14 of 28 (14/28) patients experienced a rectal mucosal reaction, measured by increased NO and/or MPO levels, upon rectal challenge with soy and/or cow's milk proteins. The levels of IgG antibodies to alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin and casein were significantly higher in CM sensitive as compared with non-sensitive IgAN patients, whereas the mean serum levels of IgA antibodies were similar. No differences were seen in serum levels of IgA or IgG antibodies to soy. it is concluded that approximately half of our IgAN patients have a rectal mucosal sensitivity to soy or CM, and that an immune reactivity against antigens may be involved in the pathogenesis of IgAN in this subgroup of patients.

  15. Manganese binding proteins in human and cow's milk

    Loennerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.; Hurley, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    Manganese nutrition in the neonatal period is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of information on the amount of manganese in infant foods and its bioavailability. Since the molecular localization of an element in foods is one determinant of its subsequent bioavailability, a study was made of the binding of manganese in human and cow's milk. An extrinsic label of 54 Mn was shown to equilibrate isotopically with native manganese in milks and formulas. Milk samples were separated into fat, casein and whey by ultracentrifugation. In human milk, the major part (71%) of manganese was found in whey, 11% in casein and 18% in the lipid fraction. In contrast, in cow's milk, 32% of total manganese was in whey, 67% in casein and 1% in lipid. Within the human whey fraction, most of the manganese was bound to lactoferrin, while in cow's whey, manganese was mostly complexed to ligands with molecular weights less than 200. The distribution of manganese in formulas was closer to that of human milk than of cow's milk. The bioavailability of manganese associated with lactoferrin, casein and low molecular weight complexes needs to be assessed

  16. Effects of sterilization, packaging, and storage on vitamin C degradation, protein denaturation, and glycation in fortified milks.

    Gliguem, H; Birlouez-Aragon, I

    2005-03-01

    Monitoring the nutritional quality of dietetic milk throughout its shelf life is particularly important due to the high susceptibility of some vitamins to oxidation, and the continuous development of the Maillard reaction during storage. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the vitamin C content and protein modification by denaturation and glycation on fortified milk samples (growth milks) destined for 1- to 3-yr-old children. The influences of the sterilization process, formulation, packaging, and storage duration at ambient temperature in the dark were studied. Vitamin C degradation was particularly influenced by type of packaging. The use of a 3-layered opaque bottle was associated with complete oxidation of vitamin C after 1 mo of storage, whereas in the 6-layered opaque bottle, which has an oxygen barrier, the vitamin C content slowly decreased to reach 25% of the initial concentration after 4 mo of storage. However, no significant effect of vitamin C degradation during storage could be observed in terms of Maillard reaction, despite the fact that a probable impact occurred during sterilization. Furosine content and the FAST (fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and soluble tryptophan) index-indicators of the early and advanced Maillard reaction, respectively-were significantly higher in the in-bottle sterilized milk samples compared with UHT samples, and in fortified milk samples compared with cow milk. However, after 1 mo, the impact of storage was predominant, increasing the furosine level and the FAST index at similar levels for the differently processed samples. The early Maillard reaction developed continuously throughout the storage period.In conclusion, only packaging comprising an oxygen and light barrier is compatible with vitamin C fortification of milk. Furthermore, short storage time or low storage temperature is needed to retard vitamin C degradation, protein denaturation, and development of the Maillard reaction.

  17. Role of dietary supplementation in the protein content of bovine milk

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... Results of protein contents of fodder (FOD) in comparison with concentrates that is,. F-COC, F-MSC .... including proteins which provide a bulk amount of raw ... degradability of dietary protein and fat on ruminal, blood, and milk.

  18. Komposisi Kimiawi dan Fraksinasi Protein Susu Kuda Sumba (THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PROTEIN FRACTIONATION OF SUMBA MARE’S MILK

    Annytha Ina Rohi Detha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine both chemical composition and fraction of the proteincompounds of sumba mare’s milk. Determination of the chemical compositions of sumba mare’s milk havedone by analyzing protein content using the Kjeldahl method, fat content using Gerber method, lactosecontent and the total solids content. Identification of antimicrobial compounds of whey proteins in milkusing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. The results showed that the average ofsumba mare’s milk contained protein, fat, lactose and total solids were; 1.82%, 1.67%, 6.48% and 11.37%respectively. The average value of protein and fat in sumba mare’s milk was decrease significantly at fifthmonth of lactation period. Based on identification of antimicrobial compounds using HPLC method, thereare six main peaks with different polarities and retention times. In conclusion, sumba mare’s milk havea balance composition that can be used as a source of nutritious food and the milk likely also has six mainantimicrobial compounds in its whey protein.

  19. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images......The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow’s milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes...... of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R2=0.974 for protein and R2=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly the obtained results were significantly worse (best models...

  20. Ingestion of Casein in a Milk Matrix Modulates Dietary Protein Digestion and Absorption Kinetics but Does Not Modulate Postprandial Muscle Protein Synthesis in Older Men.

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Snijders, Tim; Linkens, Armand M A; Hamer, Henrike M; van Kranenburg, Janneau; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-07-01

    The slow digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics of isolated micellar casein have been held responsible for its relatively lower postprandial muscle protein synthetic response compared with rapidly digested proteins such as isolated whey. However, casein is normally consumed within a milk matrix. We hypothesized that protein digestion and absorption kinetics and the subsequent muscle protein synthetic response after micellar casein ingestion are modulated by the milk matrix. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a milk matrix on casein protein digestion and absorption kinetics and postprandial muscle protein synthesis in older men. In a parallel-group design, 32 healthy older men (aged 71 ± 1 y) received a primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine, L-[ring-3,5-(2)H2]-tyrosine, and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine, and ingested 25 g intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine labeled casein dissolved in bovine milk serum (Cas+Serum) or water (Cas). Plasma samples and muscle biopsies were collected in the postabsorptive state and for 300 min in the postprandial period to examine whole-body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Casein ingestion increased plasma leucine and phenylalanine concentrations and L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments, with a more rapid rise after Cas vs. Cas+Serum. Nonetheless, dietary protein-derived phenylalanine availability did not differ between Cas+Serum (47 ± 2%, mean ± SEM) and Cas (46 ± 3%) when assessed over the 300-min postprandial period (P = 0.80). The milk matrix did not modulate postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates from 0 to 120 min (0.038 ± 0.005 vs. 0.031 ± 0.007%/h) or from 120 to 300 min (0.052 ± 0.004 vs. 0.067 ± 0.005%/h) after Cas+Serum vs. Cas. Similarly, no treatment differences in muscle protein-bound L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments were observed at 120 min (0.003 ± 0.001 vs. 0.002 ± 0.001) or 300 min (0.015 ± 0.002 vs. 0.016 ± 0.002 mole

  1. The homeodomain protein ladybird late regulates synthesis of milk proteins during pregnancy in the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans.

    Geoffrey M Attardo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina, the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1 by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This

  2. Modern proteomic methodologies for the characterization of lactosylation protein targets in milk.

    Arena, Simona; Renzone, Giovanni; Novi, Gianfranco; Paffetti, Alessandro; Bernardini, Giulia; Santucci, Annalisa; Scaloni, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Heat treatment of milk induces the Maillard reaction between lactose and proteins; in this context, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin adducts have been used as markers to monitor milk quality. Since some milk proteins have been reported as essential for the delivery of microelements and, being resistant against proteolysis in the gastrointestinal tract, also contributing to the acquired immune response against pathogens and the stimulation of cellular proliferation, it is crucial to systematically determine the milk subproteome affected by the Maillard reaction for a careful evaluation of aliment functional properties. This is more important when milk is the unique nutritional source, as in infant diet. To this purpose, a combination of proteomic procedures based on analyte capture by combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, selective trapping of lactosylated peptides by m-aminophenylboronic acid-agarose chromatography and collision-induced dissociation and electron transfer dissociation MS was used for systematic identification of the lactosylated proteins in milk samples subjected to different thermal treatments. An exhaustive modification of proteins was observed in milk powdered preparations for infant nutrition. Globally, this approach allowed the identification of 271 non-redundant modification sites in 33 milk proteins, which also included low-abundance components involved in nutrient delivery, defence response against virus/microorganisms and cellular proliferative events. A comparison of the modified peptide identification percentages resulting from electron transfer dissociation or collision-induced dissociation fragmentation spectra confirmed the first activation mode as most advantageous for the analysis of lactosylated proteins. Nutritional, biological and toxicological consequences of these findings are discussed on the basis of the recent literature on this subject, emphasizing their impact on newborn diet.

  3. Relationship of a Special Acidified Milk Protein Drink with Cognitive Performance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Young Adults

    Yoshie Saito

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A previous in vivo study with rats suggested that a special milk protein drink manufactured using an acidification procedure to suppress the aggregation of milk proteins was absorbed quickly after feeding. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measure crossover study to investigate the short-term effects on cognitive performance in 29 healthy young adult men after they consumed this drink in the morning. After an overnight fast, subjects were tested for performance in the Uchida–Kraepelin serial arithmetic test and the Stroop test as well as for subjective feeling, body temperature, and heart rate variability before and after consumption of either the acidified milk protein drink or an isoenergetic placebo drink. Subjects showed a significant improvement in performance in the Uchida–Kraepelin test, the primary outcome measured, when they consumed the acidified milk protein drink compared with the placebo control condition. In addition, consumption of the acidified milk protein drink, compared with the placebo control, was associated with increases in vagally-mediated heart rate variability indices which, from recent theoretical perspectives, may reflect a higher ability to modulate cognitive and behavioral processes. There was no significant difference in subjective feelings and body temperature between the test drink conditions. These data suggest that consumption of the acidified milk protein drink may improve cognitive performance, with possible involvement of physiological systems that regulate cognition and behavior.

  4. Low-protein solid feed improves the utilization of milk replacer for protein gain in veal calves.

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Alferink, S J J; van Reenen, C G; Bokkers, E A M; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-11-01

    This study was designed to quantify the contribution of low-protein solid feed (SF) intake, in addition to milk replacer, to protein and energy retention in veal calves. Because of potential interactions between milk replacer and SF, occurring at either the level of digestion or postabsorption, this contribution might differ from that in calves fed either SF or milk replacer alone. Forty-eight Holstein Friesian male calves, 55±0.3 kg of body weight (BW), were divided across 16 groups of 3 calves each. Groups were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 incremental levels of SF intake: 0, 9, 18, or 27 g of DM of SF/kg of BW(0.75) per day. The SF mixture consisted of 25% chopped wheat straw, 25% chopped corn silage, and 50% nonpelleted concentrate (on a DM basis). Each group was housed in a respiration chamber for quantification of energy and N balance at each of 2 BW: at 108±1.1 kg and at 164±1.6 kg. The milk replacer supply was 37.3g of DM/kg of BW(0.75) per day at 108 kg of BW and 40.7 g of DM/kg of BW(0.75) per day at 164 kg of BW, irrespective of SF intake. Within a chamber, each calf was housed in a metabolic cage to allow separate collection of feces and urine. Indirect calorimetry and N balance data were analyzed by using regression procedures with SF intake-related variables. Nitrogen excretion shifted from urine to feces with increasing SF intake. This indicates a higher gut entry rate of urea and may explain the improved N utilization through urea recycling, particularly at 164 kg of BW. At 108 kg of BW, the gross efficiency of N retention was 61% for calves without SF, and it increased with SF intake by 5.4%/g of DM of SF per day. At 164 kg of BW, this efficiency was 49% for calves without SF, and it increased by 9.9%/g of DM of SF per day. The incremental efficiency of energy retention, representing the increase in energy retained per kilojoule of extra digestible energy intake from SF, was 41% at 108 kg of BW and 54% at 164 kg of BW. Accordingly, the apparent

  5. Effect of dietary protein sources of on blood or milk urea nitrogen of native cows

    Sarker, N R; Huque, K S; Asaduzzaman, M. [Animal Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)], E-mail: nathusarker@yahoo.com

    2009-07-01

    When feed protein metabolism in ruminants produces urea in the liver and recycles or blood urea (BUN) filters into milk urea nitrogen (MUN), an indicator of protein status in diets or feeding urea as one of the non-protein nitrogen sources for ruminants is scientifically acceptable throughout the world; a section of environmentalists, policy makers or even professionals often raise question of residual effects in milk and/or meat of fattening and/or dairy cattle fed with diets containing urea. Keeping their views in consideration, a feeding trial on 30 Pabna milking cows of 2 to 4 parities dividing equally into 5 groups was arranged to determine the effect of feeding of different sources of protein on BUN and MUN, and milk yield or protein content. To achieve the objectives, a group of cows was fed a diet of rice straw and concentrate as the control (T{sub 0}), two out of the rests was fed either with urea-molasses straw (UMS) (T{sub 1}) or Matikalai (Vigna mungo) hay ( T{sub 2}) as sources of basal roughage. The rest two groups of cows were fed the control diet replacing % of feed protein by the amount of urea and molasses fed to UMS group. The amount of urea and molasses was fed daily either in two meals (T{sub 3}) or fed to cows mixing with other concentrate feed (T{sub 4}). In addition, a concentrate mixture containing 45 % wheat bran, 24% Khesari bran, 12% Til oil cake, 12% soybean meal, 4% fishmeal, 2.0% oyster-shell, 0.5% DCP and 0.5% common salt, was supplied twice daily. Having adjusted the cows with the diets for 20 d, a 20 d feeding trial was conducted, when feed intake and samples of blood and milk were collected. Milk samples were collected from individual cow after feeding the experimental diets in the morning and evening milking. Samples were collected from milk bucket after complete milking and mixing thoroughly. Samples were analyzed for milk urea content (MUN) using a Colorimetric p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) method as described by Bector et

  6. [Tool of nutrition education for allergic to egg and cow's milk protein in pediatric age].

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael

    2014-05-01

    Food allergy affects a large part of the population and their numbers are increasing. Although the knowing of this pathology is growing, allergic patients have really difficulties to lead a normal life, especially with food. Until now,this group hadn t practical tools that would help them in the development of a balanced daily diet, as there are for the general population in the form of pyramids and dietary guidelines . This work has covered this need for two of the most prevalent allergies in early life. gather information on the allergy of cow's milk protein and egg, to design a food pyramid for these patients, based on the consensus, recommendations and scientific guidance. After confirming the absence of a similar work, food pyramids allergy to egg and cow's milk protein, adapted to each, and a joint pyramid is designed to both allergies. Besides basic recommendations for healthy eating were included in general and in particular individuals, with special interest for the collective (food hygiene, food additives, cosmetics, medicines, etc). Due to the importance of nutrition in childhood and acquires the underlying difficulties this group, to properly plan the diet is very important as it can prevent accidents and long-term nutritional deficiencies. Therefore provide graphical tools and practices to this goal, is importance for population and medical and scientific community, and is the result of this work. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective effect of CSN1S2 protein of goat milk on ileum microstructure and inflmmation in rat-CFAinduced rheumatoid arthritis

    Rista Nikmatu Rohmah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the protective effect of goat milk alpha (S2-casein (CSN1S2 protein on ileum microstructure and inflammation in rat-complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis model. Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of two models. The body weight, food intake and albumin level of all subjects were calculated. The ileum microstructures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Histopathological analysis was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and the level expressions of immunoglobulin E, secretory immunoglobulin A, interleukin-17, interleukin-10, Ki-67 and caspase-9 were measured by using western blotting. Results: CSN1S2 protein of milk or yogurt could repair the ileum villi of rat arthritis group similar to the normal. The level expressions showed the immunoglobulin E, secretory immunoglobulin A, interleukin-17 and caspase-9 decreased in milk CSN1S2 protein and yogurt CSN1S2 protein rat groups. The level expression of interleukin-10 was increased, and also Ki- 67 was significantly increased in milk CSN1S2 protein and yogurt CSN1S2 protein rat groups. CSN1S2 protein of milk and yogurt could increase the body weight and albumin significantly, meanwhile food intake increased but not significantly. Conclusions: CSN1S2 protein of goat milk and yogurt could repair the ileum microstructure, suppress inflammatory process and also increase the body weight, food intake and albumin level. This result indicates that goat CSN1S2 protein may protect the ileum disorder in rheumatoid arthritis disease.

  8. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  9. Filter-aided sample preparation with dimethyl labeling to identify and quantify milk fat globule membrane proteins.

    Lu, J.; Boeren, J.A.; Vries, de S.C.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine milk is a major nutrient source in many countries and it is produced at an industrial scale. Milk is a complex mixture of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The composition of the bovine milk samples can vary depending on the genetic makeup of the bovine species as well as

  10. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  11. Absorption and retention of free and milk protein-bound cyano- and hydroxocobalamins

    Kornerup, Linda Skibsted; Juul, Christian Bredgaard; Fedosov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    alone or bound to milk protein. Materials and methods We synthesized labeled OH[57Co]Cbl from commercially available CN[57Co]Cbl. Recombinant bovine transcobalamin (rbTC) was produced in yeast and skimmed milk obtained off the shelf. Male Wistar rats (250–300 g) received labeled Cbl by gastric gavage...... and CNCbl are absorbed equally well, but much more OHCbl accumulated in the liver. Benefits of oral supplementation with OHCbl compared to CNCbl should be investigated....

  12. Effect of gum tragacanth exuded by three Iranian Astragalus on mixed milk protein system during acid gelation.

    Nejatian, Mohammad; Hatami, Masoud; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2013-02-01

    The effects of various concentrations of three species of gum tragacanth on the gelation process, microstructure and viscoelastic properties of milk protein mixed gels acidified at 37°C by glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) were investigated using dynamic rheometry and microscopy. According to rheological measurements, the addition of gum tragacanth in the range of 0.05-0.2% (w/w) into milk protein dispersions led to a weaker structure for the milk protein network, compared to the control sample. This weakening effect could be eliminated by adding 0.3% (w/w) gum tragacanth exudates from A. gossypinus; the compositional features of gum tragacanth may have been responsible for the improved protein-protein interactions, greater structural strength and reduced gelation time onset. It was determined by scanning electron microscopy that the addition of gum tragacanth at a low concentration caused the density of the matrix to increase, while an open structure was observed in the presence of a higher gum concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Urea recycling contributes to nitrogen retention in calves fed milk replacer and low-protein solid feed.

    Berends, Harma; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Røjen, Betina A; van Baal, Jürgen; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2014-07-01

    Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea recycling to protein anabolism in calves during the transition from preruminants (milk-fed calves) to ruminants [solid feed (SF)-fed calves] is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify urea recycling in milk-fed calves when provided with low-protein SF. Forty-eight calves [164 ± 1.6 kg body weight (BW)] were assigned to 1 of 4 SF levels [0, 9, 18, and 27 g of dry matter (DM) SF · kg BW(-0.75) · d⁻¹] provided in addition to an identical amount of milk replacer. Urea recycling was quantified after a 24-h intravenous infusion of [¹⁵N₂]urea by analyzing urea isotopomers in 68-h fecal and urinary collections. Real-time qPCR was used to measure gene expression levels of bovine urea transporter B (bUTB) and aquaglyceroporin-3 and aquaglyceroporin-7 in rumen wall tissues. For every incremental gram of DM SF intake (g DM · kg(0.75)), nitrogen intake increased by 0.70 g, and nitrogen retention increased by 0.55 g (P intake, but aquaglyceroporin-7 expression did not. We conclude that in addition to the increase in digested nitrogen, urea recycling contributes to the observed increase in nitrogen retention with increasing SF intake in milk-fed calves. Furthermore, ruminal bUTB and aquaglyceroporin-3 expression are upregulated with SF intake, which might be associated with urea recycling. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

    Higashi, K; Ishikawa, T; Shige, H; Tomiyasu, K; Yoshida, H; Ito, T; Nakajima, K; Yonemura, A; Sawada, S; Nakamura, H

    1997-10-01

    The acute effects of olive oil, milk fat and safflower oil on postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein metabolism were investigated. Eight Healthy male volunteers randomly underwent three types of oral fat-vitamin A loading tests. The test drink was a mixture of retinyl palmitate (RP)(50,000 IU of aqueous vitamin A/m2 body surface area) and one of the three types of oils (40 g of fat/m2 body surface area): olive oil (70.7% oleic acid of total fatty acids); milk fat (69.3% saturated fatty acid); safflower oil (74.2% linoleic acid). Olive oil significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and RP concentrations 4 hours after fat loading, as compared to other fats. Increases of remnant like particle concentrations were higher after olive oil than after the other two fats. These results show that olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

  15. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  16. Consumption of Milk-Protein Combined with Green Tea Modulates Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

    Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18–60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m2. They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ were measured. Green tea (GT vs. placebo (PL capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL, and 3.5 g (3.5 MP (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL. After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p < 0.001. Post-hoc, areas under the curve (AUCs for diet-induced energy expenditure were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001 for GT + water (41.11 [91.72] kJ·3.5 h vs. PL + water (10.86 [28.13] kJ·3.5 h, GT + 3.5 MP (10.14 [54.59] kJ·3.5 h and PL + 3.5 MP (12.03 [34.09] kJ·3.5 h, but not between GT + 3.5 MP, PL + 3.5 MP and PL + water, indicating that MP inhibited DIT following GT. DIT after GT + 15 MP (167.69 [141.56] kJ·3.5 h and PL + 15 MP (168.99 [186.56] kJ·3.5 h was significantly increased vs. PL + water (P < 0.001, but these were not different from each other indicating that 15 g MP stimulated DIT, but inhibited the GT effect on DIT. No significant differences in RQ were seen between conditions for baseline and post-treatment. In conclusion, consumption of milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT.

  17. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THIheat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THIheat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THIHeat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct biosensor immunoassays for the detection of nonmilk proteins in milk powder

    Haasnoot, W.; Olieman, K.; Cazemier, G.; Verheijen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The low prices of some nonmilk proteins make them attractive as potential adulterants in dairy products. An optical biosensor (BIACORE 3000) was used to develop a direct and combined biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for the simultaneous detection of soy, pea, and soluble wheat proteins in milk powders.

  19. Identification of novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides in camel milk protein hydrolysates.

    Nongonierma, Alice B; Paolella, Sara; Mudgil, Priti; Maqsood, Sajid; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2018-04-01

    Nine novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides (FLQY, FQLGASPY, ILDKEGIDY, ILELA, LLQLEAIR, LPVP, LQALHQGQIV, MPVQA and SPVVPF) were identified in camel milk proteins hydrolysed with trypsin. This was achieved using a sequential approach combining liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), qualitative/quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and confirmatory studies with synthetic peptides. The most potent camel milk protein-derived DPP-IV inhibitory peptides, LPVP and MPVQA, had DPP-IV half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of 87.0 ± 3.2 and 93.3 ± 8.0 µM, respectively. DPP-IV inhibitory peptide sequences identified within camel and bovine milk protein hydrolysates generated under the same hydrolysis conditions differ. This was linked to differences in enzyme selectivity for peptide bond cleavage of camel and bovine milk proteins as well as dissimilarities in their amino acid sequences. Camel milk proteins contain novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptides which may play a role in the regulation of glycaemia in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New Milk Protein-Derived Peptides with Potential Antimicrobial Activity: An Approach Based on Bioinformatic Studies

    Bartłomiej Dziuba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New peptides with potential antimicrobial activity, encrypted in milk protein sequences, were searched for with the use of bioinformatic tools. The major milk proteins were hydrolyzed in silico by 28 enzymes. The obtained peptides were characterized by the following parameters: molecular weight, isoelectric point, composition and number of amino acid residues, net charge at pH 7.0, aliphatic index, instability index, Boman index, and GRAVY index, and compared with those calculated for known 416 antimicrobial peptides including 59 antimicrobial peptides (AMPs from milk proteins listed in the BIOPEP database. A simple analysis of physico-chemical properties and the values of biological activity indicators were insufficient to select potentially antimicrobial peptides released in silico from milk proteins by proteolytic enzymes. The final selection was made based on the results of multidimensional statistical analysis such as support vector machines (SVM, random forest (RF, artificial neural networks (ANN and discriminant analysis (DA available in the Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides (CAMP database. Eleven new peptides with potential antimicrobial activity were selected from all peptides released during in silico proteolysis of milk proteins.

  1. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactions between acidified dispersions of milk proteins and dextran or dextran sulfate.

    Pachekrepapol, U; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2014-09-01

    Polysaccharides are often used to stabilize cultured milk products, although the nature of these interactions is not entirely clear. The objective of this study was to investigate phase behavior of milk protein dispersions with added dextran (DX; molecular weight = 2 × 10(6) Da) or dextran sulfate (DS; molecular weight = 1.4 × 10(6) Da) as examples of uncharged and charged polysaccharides, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk (5-20% milk solids, wt/wt) was acidified to pH 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, or 4.9 at approximately 0°C (to inhibit gelation) by addition of 3 N HCl. Dextran or DS was added to acidified milk samples to give concentrations of 0 to 2% (wt/wt) and 0 to 1% (wt/wt) polysaccharide, respectively. Milk samples were observed for possible phase separation after storage at 0°C for 1 and 24h. Possible gelation of these systems was determined by using dynamic oscillatory rheology. The type of interactions between caseins and DX or DS was probed by determining the total carbohydrate analysis of supernatants from phase-separated samples. At 5.0 to 7.5% milk solids, phase separation of milk samples occurred after 24h even without DX or DS addition, due to destabilization of caseins in these acidic conditions, and a stabilizing effect was observed when 0.7 or 1.0% DS was added. At higher milk solids content, phase separation was not observed without DX or DS addition. Similar results were observed at all pH levels. Gelation occurred in samples containing high milk solids (≥10%) with the addition of 1.0 to 2.0% DX or 0.4 to 1.0% DS. Based on carbohydrate analysis of supernatants, we believe that DX interacted with milk proteins through a type of depletion flocculation mechanism, whereas DS appeared to interact via electrostatic-type interactions with milk proteins. This study helps to explain how uncharged and charged stabilizers influence the texture of cultured dairy products. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. LINEARIZATION OF THE BRADFORD PROTEIN ASSAY TO APPLICATION IN COW MILK PROTEINS QUANTIFICATION BY UV-Vis SPECTROPHOTOMETRY METHOD

    Alessa Siqueira de Oliveira dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable methods for determination and quantification of total protein in food are essential information to ensure quality and safety of food trade. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linearity of calibration curves obtained from different proteins (blood serum albumin-BSA, α-LA, β-LG, caseins (CN: αs, β and κ-CAS with the reagent of Bradford. Comercial UHT skimmed bovine milk was analyzed for the determination of total protein using the Bradford method by reading at 595 nm. The determination of the concentrations of total milk protein was achieved by linear regression. The Bradford method showed a high sensitivity for the determination of total proteins in bovine milk dilution 1:25 to values closer to those obtained by the Kjeldahl method. The results showed that the calibration curve of standard proteins β-CN and BSA obtained better linearity with less variation in the absorbance measurements for the determination of total protein of milk.

  4. Distribution of animal drugs among curd, whey, and milk protein fractions in spiked skim milk and whey

    It is important to understand the partitioning of drugs in processed milk and milk products, when drugs are present in raw milk, in order to estimate the potential consumer exposure. Radioisotopically labelled erythromycin, ivermectin, ketoprofen, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, sulfadimethoxine, and...

  5. Analysis of Proximate and Protein Profile of Kefir from Fermented Goat and Cow Milk

    Erwin Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of proximate and protein profile in kefir from fermented goat milk and cow milk with different concentration of kefir grains. The research design was true experimental with Completely Randomized Design (CRD of 3 repetitions. The research procedures consisted of kefir production, proximate analysis and protein profile characterization. Proximate assay result was analyzed by using LSD, whereas the protein profile was analyzed by descriptive qualitative method. Based on the analysis of kefir proximate levels, the kefir grain (5% showed the highest proximate level of both kefirs from goat milk and cow milk. The analysis of protein profile of cow milk kefir showed 75 kDa of protein ribbon, while the goat milk kefir showed 48 kDa, 60 kDa and 75 kDa. Therefore it can be concluded that the proximate level of goat and cow milk kefir with different concentration of kefir grains showed significant differences in the nutrition content as well as its protein profiles.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis karakteristik proksimat dan profil protein pada kefir hasil fermentasi susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi biji kefir yang berbeda-beda. Penelitian ini adalah eksperimen murni, dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL 3 kali ulangan. Prosedur penelitian meliputi pembuatan kefir, analisis proksimat dan profil protein. Data hasil proksimat dianalisi uji BNT, sedangkan profil protein dianalisis deskriptif kualitatif. Berdasarkan analisis kadar proksimat kefir, kefir grains 5% menunjukan kadar proksimat paling tinggi baik pada kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi. Sedangkan analisis profil protein kefir susu sapi menunjukan pita protein 75 kDa, pada kefir susu kambing yaitu 48 kDa, 60 kDa dan 75 kDa. Simpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa kadar proksimat kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi kefir grains yang berbeda menunjukan perbedaan kandungan yang berbeda secara signifikan dengan

  6. Effect of homogenization and pasteurization on the structure and stability of whey protein in milk.

    Qi, Phoebe X; Ren, Daxi; Xiao, Yingping; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a 2-stage homogenizer at 35°C (6.9 MPa/10.3 MPa) and, along with skim milk, were subjected to HTST pasteurization (72°C for 15 s) or UHT processing (135°C for 2 s). Other whole milk samples were processed using homogenization followed by either HTST pasteurization or UHT processing. The processed skim and whole milk samples were centrifuged further to remove fat and then acidified to pH 4.6 to isolate the corresponding whey fractions, and centrifuged again. The whey fractions were then purified using dialysis and investigated using the circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared, and Trp intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Results demonstrated that homogenization combined with UHT processing of milk caused not only changes in protein composition but also significant secondary structural loss, particularly in the amounts of apparent antiparallel β-sheet and α-helix, as well as diminished tertiary structural contact. In both cases of homogenization alone and followed by HTST treatments, neither caused appreciable chemical changes, nor remarkable secondary structural reduction. But disruption was evident in the tertiary structural environment of the whey proteins due to homogenization of whole milk as shown by both the near-UV circular dichroism and Trp intrinsic fluorescence. In-depth structural stability analyses revealed that even though processing of milk imposed little impairment on the secondary structural stability, the tertiary structural stability of whey protein was altered significantly. The following order was derived based on these studies: raw whole>HTST, homogenized, homogenized and pasteurized>skimmed and pasteurized, and skimmed UHT

  7. Estimating the wound healing ability of bioactive milk proteins using an optimized cell based assay

    Nyegaard, Steffen; Andreasen, Trine; Rasmussen, Jan Trige

    Milk contains many different proteins of which the larger constituents like the caseins and major whey constituents are well characterized. We have for some time been studying the structure and function of proteins associated with the milk fat globule membrane like lactadherin, MUC1/15, xanthine...... oxidoreductase along with minor whey constituents like osteopontin, EPV20 etc. The enterocyte migration rate is a key parameter in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and intestinal repair when recovering from infection or intestinal diseases like Crohns and ulcerative colitis. We developed a novel in vitro wound...... healing assay to determine the bioactive effects of various milk proteins using human small intestine cells grown on extracellular matrix. Silicone inserts are placed in a 96-well plate and enterocytes seeded around it, creating a monolayer with a cell free area. In current ongoing experiments, various...

  8. MILK WITH INCREASED CONCENTRATION OF MELATONIN PACKAGING FACTORS ON CONSUMER PURCHASE INTENTION

    Maria Patricia Milagres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conjoint analysis of factors was used employed to develop a label for the packaging of milk with increased concentration of melatonin. Three factors were selected with three or two levels for the assembly of packaging: packaging design (“blue design with stars and pouring milk”, “white without drawing” and “blue stars with and without drawing”, name (“milk night “and” melatonin “ and informative text about getting natural melatonin by night milking, and the benefits of this compound (“with” and “without”. Twelve packaging designs were created based on a complete factorial arrangement. The designs were presented to 144 consumers who were asked to assess purchase intent of each package. For the joint analysis of factors, the ideal product or more likely to purchase for the most consumers would be blue with stars and packaging design of milk pouring, named milk night and in the presence of informational text, demonstrating that consumers like a package that brings the product and that contains information described. Therefore, the packaging has a major influence on consumer choice and can contribute positively or negatively to the acceptance of food.

  9. Identification of milk proteins enhancing the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin and lactoferricin.

    Murata, M; Wakabayashi, H; Yamauchi, K; Abe, F

    2013-08-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is known as an iron-binding antimicrobial protein present in exocrine secretions such as milk and releases the potent antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin (LFcin) by hydrolysis with pepsin. The antimicrobial activity of LF and LFcin has been studied well; however, their cooperative action with other milk proteins remains to be elucidated. In this study, we identified milk proteins enhancing the antimicrobial activity of bovine LF and LFcin against gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. As the target fraction, we isolated a minor milk protein fraction around 15 kDa, which was identified as bovine RNase 5 (angiogenin-1), RNase 4, and angiogenin-2 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As these proteins are collectively known as the RNase A family, we referred to the target protein fraction as milk RNase of 15 kDa (MR15). The number of colony-forming units of Escherichia coli and other pathogenic microorganisms with the addition of MR15 to LF (MR15:LF ratio=16:1,000) was dramatically lowered than that with LF alone. On the other hand, MR15 itself did not show any reductions in the number of colony-forming units at the concentrations tested. Similarly, the antimicrobial activities of LFcin against various microorganisms were significantly enhanced by the addition of MR15. These results suggest that LF and MR15 may be concomitantly acting antimicrobial agents in milk. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    Hamzah M. Maswadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes. The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  11. beta-Carotene in breast milk and serum is increased after a single beta-carotene dose.

    Canfield, L M; Giuliano, A R; Neilson, E M; Yap, H H; Graver, E J; Cui, H A; Blashill, B M

    1997-07-01

    Normal lactating mothers were administered a single dose of 60 or 210 mg beta-carotene and changes in serum and milk retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and carotenoids were monitored for 8 d. Average serum beta-carotene concentrations increased 4.1- and 4.0-fold after the 60- and 210-mg doses, respectively. Milk beta-carotene concentrations increased 4.1- and 3.0-fold after the 60- and 210-mg doses, respectively. Maximum serum concentrations were reached 24 h after both supplements, although concentrations of milk beta-carotene continued to rise for 2-3 d. After 8 d, both serum and milk beta-carotene continued to rise for 2-3 d. After 8 d, both serum and milk beta-carotene concentrations remained about twofold higher than baseline concentrations. Increases in serum or milk beta-carotene concentrations were not dose-dependent. Initial serum and milk concentrations of beta-carotene predicted increases after supplementation, and increases in serum beta-carotene concentrations predicted those in milk. Concentrations of milk carotenoids were less than one-tenth their respective concentrations in serum. Lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in serum or milk did not change significantly after beta-carotene supplementation. Retinol esters account for most of the retinol equivalents in the milk of well-nourished mothers. Initial and maximum concentrations of beta-carotene in serum and milk were strongly correlated for individual mothers. Collectively, the data showed that a single 60-mg supplement of beta-carotene sustained elevated beta-carotene concentrations in serum and milk for > 1 wk in normal mothers but did not affect concentrations of other major carotenoids, retinol, or alpha-tocopherol.

  12. Utilization of {sup 15}N-Diammonium Phosphate by Ruminants to Produce Milk and Meat Proteins

    Piva, G.; Silva, S. [Istituto di Zootecnicae di Chimica Agraria, Facolta di Agraria Univ. Cattolicas. Cuore, Piacenza (Italy)

    1968-07-01

    The authors investigated the alimentary role of diammonium phosphate (DAP) in ruminants. For this study DAP labelled with {sup 15}N was used; analysis of the {sup 15}N atomic per cent excess was made with an Italelettronica mass spectrophotometer (model SP 21 F) and the amino acid determination by a Beckman-Spinco amino acid analyser (model 120B) fitted with a preparative column. For the experiment 7 g of DAP at 15 and 20 at. % excess {sup 15}N were administered once to mature lactating and non-lactating sheep, respectively. The measurement of {sup 15}N in the protein and isolated amino acids of milk and meat showed: (1) The milk protein produced in the first 24 h contained the highest atomic per cent excess of {sup 15}SN, 0.093; (2) That the supplemental {sup 15}N was found in all the amino acids of milk proteins except tryptophane. The atomic per cent excess of {sup 15}N was observed to vary between the various amino acids. These results confirmed previous observations on bacterial protein synthesized from DAP. (3) Muscle protein {sup 15}N maximized on the third day after administration of the {sup 15}N-DAP, with an atomic per cent excess of 0.040; (4) The atomic per cent excess of {sup 15}N in the individual amino acids of muscle protein is significant in only two amino' acids, serine and cystine; and (5) That after 8 d of adaptation there are no traces of DAP in milk or meat proteins, urine or faeces. The authors conclude that the ruminant, after a period of adaptation and through the mediation of ruminant microorganisms, is able to use the nitrogen of diammonium phosphate for the synthesis of milk and meat proteins. (author)

  13. Fatty acid profile and composition of milk protein fraction in dairy cows fed long-chain unsaturated fatty acids during the transition period

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilization of different sources of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids in diets for dairy cows during the transition period and early lactation on the milk fatty acid profile and composition of the protein fraction. Thirty-six Holstein cows were divided into three groups, fed the following diets: control (C; soybean oil (SO; and calcium salts of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (CS. The milk samples utilized for analysis were obtained weekly from parturition to twelve weeks of lactation; each one of the samples originated from two daily milkings. Milk composition and total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen and non-casein nitrogen levels were analyzed. The cows receiving the diet with calcium salts had lower concentrations of non-protein nitrogen (%CP in milk compared with the animals fed the diet with soybean oil. There was a decrease in concentration of medium-chain fatty acids C12-C16, and a concomitant increase in concentrations of long-chain fatty acids >C18 in milk fat for the animals fed the diets CS and SO when compared with diet C. Soybean oil and CS diets increased milk-fat concentrations of the acids C18: 1 trans-11, C18: 2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18: 2 trans-10 cis-12 in relation to diet C. The utilization of sources of long-chain fatty acids in the diet of dairy cows increases the biological value of milk in early lactation due to higher concentrations of specific fatty acids such as CLA C18: 2cis-9, trans-11.

  14. Preparation and characterization of milk protein films and their application for packaging of Cheddar cheese.

    Wagh, Y R; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Emerald, F Magdaline Eljeeva; Nath, B Surendra

    2014-12-01

    Casein and whey protein concentrate (WPC) films, plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol independently, were prepared by casting. The film thickness, water vapour and oxygen permeation and tensile and moisture sorption properties of the films were determined. The tensile strength (TS), tensile strain (TE) and elastic modulus (EM) of the films ranged from 0.71 to 4.58 MPa, 19.22 to 66.63 % and 2.05 to 6.93 MPa, respectively. The film properties were influenced by the type of biopolymer (casein and whey protein concentrate), plasticizer and its concentration. Increasing the plasticizer concentration, increased the film thickness, TE and water vapour permeability (WVP), but decreased the TS and EM. As the concentration of plasticizer increased to the highest level, the film thickness increased from 0.168 to 0.305 mm for glycerol-plasticized films and from 0.251 to 0.326 mm for sorbitol-plasticized films. The film thickness increased because the amount of plasticizer in the film network increased and the amount of biopolymer remained same. Casein films showed superior tensile properties as compared to WPC films. The WVP of both casein and WPC films lied between 3.87 and 13.97 g.mm./(m(2).h.kPa). The moisture sorption isotherms of both films were typical of high-protein material, and were adequately described by the GAB model. The oxygen permeability of casein films was relatively lower than that of WPC films, regardless of the plasticizer used. The sensory data revealed that the organoleptic quality of Cheddar cheese was unaffected by milk-protein film packaging.

  15. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy to probe the milk fat globule membrane and associated proteins.

    Gallier, Sophie; Gragson, Derek; Jiménez-Flores, Rafael; Everett, David

    2010-04-14

    The bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is an important, biologically relevant membrane due to its functional and health properties. Its composition has been thoroughly studied, but its structure, especially the lateral organization of its components, still remains unclear. We have used confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to investigate the surface structure of the MFGM in globules with different degrees of processing using two types of fluorescently labeled phospholipid probes and a protein dye. Using this technique, we have observed heterogeneities in the distribution of MFGM lipids and proteins relating to the processing and size of the globules. The effect of pretreating the milk (centrifugation, pasteurization-homogenization and churning) was studied by double-staining the surface of the milk fat globules, followed by observation using CLSM, and by determining the phospholipid profile of raw milk, raw cream, processed milk and buttermilk powder. Our findings agree with other techniques by showing that the composition of the MFGM changes with processing through the loss of phospholipids and the adsorption of caseins and whey proteins onto the surface.

  16. Milk protein enriched beverage reduces post-exercise energy intakes in women with higher levels of cognitive dietary restraint

    Virgilio, Nicolina; Donno, De Roberta; Bandini, Enrica; Napolitano, Aurora; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the satiating efficacy of milk proteins compared to carbohydrates in twenty women during post-exercise period. Methods: A milk protein-enriched beverage (MPB), and an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched beverage (CB) containing respectively 9.3. g and 0.3.

  17. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    Ciesla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Le Tien, C.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling

  18. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    Ciesla, K. E-mail: kciesla@orange.ichtj.waw.pl; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Le Tien, C

    2004-10-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and {beta}-sheets, in particular from increase of {beta}-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  19. Cell Surface Properties of Lactococcus lactis Reveal Milk Protein Binding Specifically Evolved in Dairy Isolates

    Mariya Tarazanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface properties of bacteria are determined by the molecular composition of the cell wall and they are important for interactions of cells with their environment. Well-known examples of bacterial interactions with surfaces are biofilm formation and the fermentation of solid materials like food and feed. Lactococcus lactis is broadly used for the fermentation of cheese and buttermilk and it is primarily isolated from either plant material or the dairy environment. In this study, we characterized surface hydrophobicity, charge, emulsification properties, and the attachment to milk proteins of 55 L. lactis strains in stationary and exponential growth phases. The attachment to milk protein was assessed through a newly developed flow cytometry-based protocol. Besides finding a high degree of biodiversity, phenotype-genotype matching allowed the identification of candidate genes involved in the modification of the cell surface. Overexpression and gene deletion analysis allowed to verify the predictions for three identified proteins that altered surface hydrophobicity and attachment of milk proteins. The data also showed that lactococci isolated from a dairy environment bind higher amounts of milk proteins when compared to plant isolates. It remains to be determined whether the alteration of surface properties also has potential to alter starter culture functionalities.

  20. Cell Surface Properties of Lactococcus lactis Reveal Milk Protein Binding Specifically Evolved in Dairy Isolates

    Tarazanova, Mariya; Huppertz, Thom; Beerthuyzen, Marke; van Schalkwijk, Saskia; Janssen, Patrick; Wels, Michiel; Kok, Jan; Bachmann, Herwig

    2017-01-01

    Surface properties of bacteria are determined by the molecular composition of the cell wall and they are important for interactions of cells with their environment. Well-known examples of bacterial interactions with surfaces are biofilm formation and the fermentation of solid materials like food and feed. Lactococcus lactis is broadly used for the fermentation of cheese and buttermilk and it is primarily isolated from either plant material or the dairy environment. In this study, we characterized surface hydrophobicity, charge, emulsification properties, and the attachment to milk proteins of 55 L. lactis strains in stationary and exponential growth phases. The attachment to milk protein was assessed through a newly developed flow cytometry-based protocol. Besides finding a high degree of biodiversity, phenotype-genotype matching allowed the identification of candidate genes involved in the modification of the cell surface. Overexpression and gene deletion analysis allowed to verify the predictions for three identified proteins that altered surface hydrophobicity and attachment of milk proteins. The data also showed that lactococci isolated from a dairy environment bind higher amounts of milk proteins when compared to plant isolates. It remains to be determined whether the alteration of surface properties also has potential to alter starter culture functionalities. PMID:28936202

  1. Increasing milk solids production across lactation through genetic selection and intensive pasture-based feed system.

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index (EBI), on overall performance and lactation profiles for milk, milk solids, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) within 2 pasture-based systems of milk production likely to be used in the future, following abolition of the European Union's milk quota system. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of animals with North American origin and average or lower genetic merit at the time of the study; HighNA, North American Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit; and HighNZ, New Zealand Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark pasture (MP) system (2.64 cows/ha and 344 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,056 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). Pasture was allocated to achieve similar postgrazing residual sward heights for both treatments. A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, FS, and the interaction between genotype and FS on milk production, BW, and BCS across lactation were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotype and FS accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype by FS interaction was observed for any of the variables measured. Results show that milk solids production of the national average dairy cow can be increased across lactation through increased EBI. High EBI genotypes (HighNA and HighNZ) produced more milk solids per cow and

  2. Comparative proteomic exploration of whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk using iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS.

    Yang, Mei; Cao, Xueyan; Wu, Rina; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Yue, Xiqing; Wu, Junrui

    2017-09-01

    Whey, an essential source of dietary nutrients, is widely used in dairy foods for infants. A total of 584 whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk were identified and quantified by the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic method. The 424 differentially expressed whey proteins were identified and analyzed according to gene ontology (GO) annotation, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway, and multivariate statistical analysis. Biological processes principally involved biological regulation and response to stimulus. Major cellular components were extracellular region part and extracellular space. The most prevalent molecular function was protein binding. Twenty immune-related proteins and 13 proteins related to enzyme regulatory activity were differentially expressed in human and bovine milk. Differentially expressed whey proteins participated in many KEGG pathways, including major complement and coagulation cascades and in phagosomes. Whey proteins show obvious differences in expression in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk, with consequences for biological function. The results here increase our understanding of different whey proteomes, which could provide useful information for the development and manufacture of dairy products and nutrient food for infants. The advanced iTRAQ proteomic approach was used to analyze differentially expressed whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk.

  3. Effect of protein concentrate supplementation on the composition of amino acids in milk from dairy cows in an organic farming system

    Pavel Horký

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our experiment examined the effect of feeding a protein concentrate supplement on the composition of amino acids in milk from dairy cows managed in an organic farming system. The experiment included two groups of cows. Animals in both groups received an identical basic feed ration composed of maize silage, clover-grass haylage from the first cutting, grass haylage from the first cutting, winter wheat and spring barley. The first group of dairy cows (n = 10 served as a control without the addition of protein concentrate to the feed ration. The second experimental group (n = 10 received in addition to the basic feed ration a protein concentrate composed of soybean, sunflower and linseed cakes at rate 1 kg per head per day. The experiment lasted 30 days. Milk analysed for amino acid content was sampled at 10-day intervals. Addition of the protein concentrate significantly increased milk contents of aspartic acid, proline, threonine, glycine, alanine and glutamic acid. A significant decrease of valine also was recorded in milk from the experimental group. The results of our experiment show that a protein concentrate supplement can affect concentrations of some amino acids in milk from dairy cows. 

  4. Protein Digestion and Quality of Goat and Cow Milk Infant Formula and Human Milk Under Simulated Infant Conditions.

    Maathuis, Annet; Havenaar, Robert; He, Tao; Bellmann, Susann

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of true ileal protein digestion and digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) of a goat milk-based infant formula (GIF), a cow milk-based infant formula (CIF), and human milk (HM). The GIF, CIF, and HM were investigated in an in vitro gastrointestinal model simulating infant conditions. Digested compounds were dialyzed from the intestinal compartment as bioaccessible fraction. Dialysate was collected in 15 to 60-minute periods for 4 hours. True ileal protein digestibility and DIAAS were determined as bioaccessible nitrogen (N) and amino acids. N bioaccessibility from the GIF showed similar kinetics to that of HM. The CIF showed a delay in N bioaccessibility versus the GIF and HM. In the 1st hour of digestion, N bioaccessibility was 19.9% ± 3.5% and 23.3% ± 1.3% for the GIF and HM, respectively, and 11.2% ± 0.6% for CIF (P < 0.05 vs HM). In the 3rd hour of digestion, the N bioaccessibility was higher (P < 0.05) for the CIF (28.9% ± 1.2%) than for the GIF (22.5% ± 1.6%) and HM (20.6% ± 1.0%). After 4 hours, the true ileal protein digestibility of the GIF, CIF, and HM was 78.3% ± 3.7%, 73.4% ± 2.7%, and 77.9% ± 4.1%, respectively. The DIAAS for the GIF, CIF, and HM for 0- to 6-month-old infants was 83%, 75%, and 77% for aromatic AA. The protein quality is not different between the GIF, CIF, and HM, but the kinetics of protein digestion of the GIF is more comparable to that of HM than that of the CIF.

  5. Electrophoretic and immunological properties of folate-binding protein isolated from bovine milk

    Iwai, Kazuo; Tani, Masako; Fushiki, Tohru

    1983-01-01

    Changes of the folate-binding protein (FBP) concentration in bovine milk after parturition were investigated. The FBP was highly purified from mature milk by affinity chromatography. The purified FBP showed a single protein band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was immunologically homogenous in double immunodiffusion. However, in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the FBP was separated into several spots in isoelectric focusing in the first dimension, and each spot also showed two molecular weights in SDS-gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. But these FBP molecules were immunologically identical with each other. The neuraminidase treatment obviously diminished the number of isoelectric points of the FBP. Thus, the variety of FBP molecules was at least partially due to the variability of the sialic acid content in the carbohydrate moieties. Moreover, the milk FBP showed species-specificity among mammals immunologically as well as physicochemically. (author)

  6. Increase of calcium and reduction of lactose concentration in milk by treatment with kefir grains and eggshell.

    Fina, Brenda L; Brun, Lucas R; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are the main source of calcium (Ca), but the loss of the consumption habit contributes to low consumption in adulthood, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Domestic use of kefir is straightforward and the eggshell is a natural discarded source of Ca. This paper proposes the development of an enriched Ca reduced lactose milk using eggshell and kefir. During the in vitro preparation, the pH, Ca and lactose contents were measured. Ca intestinal absorption of untreated milk and milk with kefir was compared. Finally, human volunteers consumed this dairy product and 24-h urine Ca was measured. Results showed that the beverage has lower lactose and higher Ca than untreated milk and milk with kefir. Intestinal Ca absorption was not different between both milks and an increase in urinary Ca excretion was observed in humans. This study provides a methodology to prepare at home a dairy product that could contribute to improve the Ca intake in adults.

  7. Grazing Soybean to Increase Voluntary Cow Traffic in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    C. E. F. Clark

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS require cow traffic to enable cows to be milked. The interval between milkings can be manipulated by strategically allocating pasture. The current experiment investigated the effect of replacing an allocation of grazed pasture with grazed soybean (Glycine max with the hypothesis that incorporating soybean would increase voluntary cow traffic and milk production. One hundred and eighty mixed age, primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian/Illawarra cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 90/group with a 2×2 Latin square design. Each group was either offered treatments of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoach ex Chiov. pasture (pasture or soybean from 0900 h to 1500 h during the experimental period which consisted of 2 periods of 3 days following 5 days of training and adaptation in each period with groups crossing over treatments after the first period. The number of cows trafficking to each treatment was similar together with milk yield (mean ≈18 L/cow/d in this experiment. For the cows that arrived at soybean or pasture there were significant differences in their behaviour and consequently the number of cows exiting each treatment paddock. There was greater cow traffic (more cows and sooner exiting pasture allocations. Cows that arrived at soybean stayed on the allocation for 25% more time and ate more forage (8.5 kg/cow/d/allocation relative to pasture (4.7 kg/cow/d/allocation. Pasture cows predominantly replaced eating time with rumination. These findings suggest that replacing pasture with alternative grazeable forages provides no additional incentive to increase voluntary cow traffic to an allocation of feed in AMS. This work highlights the opportunity to increase forage intakes in AMS through the incorporation of alternative forages.

  8. Optimization of protein fractionation by skim milk microfiltration: Choice of ceramic membrane pore size and filtration temperature.

    Jørgensen, Camilla Elise; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Rukke, Elling-Olav; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Schüller, Reidar B; Skeie, Siv B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how ceramic membrane pore size and filtration temperature influence the protein fractionation of skim milk by cross flow microfiltration (MF). Microfiltration was performed at a uniform transmembrane pressure with constant permeate flux to a volume concentration factor of 2.5. Three different membrane pore sizes, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20µm, were used at a filtration temperature of 50°C. Furthermore, at pore size 0.10µm, 2 different filtration temperatures were investigated: 50 and 60°C. The transmission of proteins increased with increasing pore size, giving the permeate from MF with the 0.20-µm membrane a significantly higher concentration of native whey proteins compared with the permeates from the 0.05- and 0.10-µm membranes (0.50, 0.24, and 0.39%, respectively). Significant amounts of caseins permeated the 0.20-µm membrane (1.4%), giving a permeate with a whitish appearance and a casein distribution (αS2-CN: αS1-CN: κ-CN: β-CN) similar to that of skim milk. The 0.05- and 0.10-µm membranes were able to retain all caseins (only negligible amounts were detected). A permeate free from casein is beneficial in the production of native whey protein concentrates and in applications where transparency is an important functional characteristic. Microfiltration of skim milk at 50°C with the 0.10-µm membrane resulted in a permeate containing significantly more native whey proteins than the permeate from MF at 60°C. The more rapid increase in transmembrane pressure and the significantly lower concentration of caseins in the retentate at 60°C indicated that a higher concentration of caseins deposited on the membrane, and consequently reduced the native whey protein transmission. Optimal protein fractionation of skim milk into a casein-rich retentate and a permeate with native whey proteins were obtained by 0.10-µm MF at 50°C. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Genetic parameters estimate for milk and mozzarella cheese yield, fat and protein percentage in dairy buffaloes in Brazil

    H. Tonhati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was analyze the (covariance components and genetic and phenotypic relationships in the following traits: accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270, observed until 305 days of lactation; accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270/ A and at 305 days (MY305, observed until 335 days of lactation; mozzarella cheese yield (MCY and fat (FP and protein (PP percentage, observed until 335 days of lactation. The (covariance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology in analyses single, two and three-traits using animal models. Heritability estimated for MY270, MY270/A, MY305, MCY, FP and PP were 0.22; 0.24, 0.25, 0.14, 0.29 and 0.40 respectively. The genetic correlations between MCY and the variables MY270, MY270/A, MY305, PP and FP was: 0.85; 1.00; 0.89; 0.14 and 0.06, respectively. This way, the selection for the production of milk in long period should increase MCY. However, in the search of animals that produce milk with quality, the genetic parameters suggest that another index should be composed allying these studied traits.

  10. Role of intestinal brush border peptidases in the simulated digestion of milk proteins.

    Picariello, Gianluca; Miralles, Beatriz; Mamone, Gianfranco; Sánchez-Rivera, Laura; Recio, Isidra; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the "often neglected" intestinal brush border membranes (BBMs) hydrolases on dietary peptides, exploring the possibility that the disintegration of proteins progressed in the small intestine up to a "core" of intrinsically stable oligopeptides, persisting independently on the up-stream breakdown. Samples of sodium caseinate, skim milk powder, and whey protein isolate were submitted to in vitro simulated gastropancreatic digestion using two different procedures: (i) a simplified model involving the main compartmental specific proteases; (ii) a static digestion method based on a frameset of parameters inferred from in vivo. The gastroduodenal digesta were further hydrolyzed with peptidases from porcine jejunal BBM. The peptidomes arising from the two digestion models, characterized by combined HPLC and MS techniques, differed to some extent. However, only specific protein domains survived digestion, among which are potential bioactive or immunogenic (food allergy) peptides. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) after BBM digestion (70-77%) practically did not differ between the digestion models and significantly increased the DH after duodenal steps. Any in vitro digestion model should be supplemented with a jejunal phase to realistically determine the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of dietary peptides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves.

    Pluschke, A M; Gilbert, M S; Williams, B A; van den Borne, J J G C; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-08-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with gelatinized corn starch (GCS) to determine the effect on protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves. In total, 16 male Holstein-Friesian calves received either MR with lactose as the carbohydrate source (control) or 18% GCS at the expense of lactose. In the adaptation period, calves were exposed to an increasing dose of GCS for 14 weeks. The indigestible marker cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was incorporated into the MR for calculating apparent nutrient digestibility, whereas a pulse dose of chromium (Cr) chloride was fed with the last MR meal 4 h before slaughter as an indicator of passage rates. The calves were anesthetized and exsanguinated at 30 weeks of age. The small intestine was divided in three; small intestine 1 and 2 (SI1 and SI2, respectively) and the terminal ileum (last ~100 cm of small intestine) and samples of digesta were collected. Small intestinal digesta was analysed for α-amylase, lipase and trypsin activity. Digestibility of protein was determined for SI1, SI2, ileum and total tract, whereas digestibility of fat was determined for SI1, SI2 and total tract. Apparent protein digestibility in the small intestine did not differ between treatments but was higher in control calves at total tract level. Apparent crude fat digestibility tended to be increased in SI1 and SI2 for GCS calves, but no difference was found at total tract level. Activity of α-amylase in SI2 and lipase in both SI1 and SI2 was higher in GCS calves. Activity of trypsin tended to be higher in control calves and was higher in SI1 compared with SI2. A lower recovery of Cr in SI2 and a higher recovery of Cr in the large intestine suggest an increased rate of passage for GCS

  12. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging.

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow's milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.974 for protein and R(2)=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly with the obtained results were significantly worse (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.890 for fat content and R(2)=0.720 for protein content). The results have been compared with previously published Vis/SW-NIR spectroscopic study of similar samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Edible foam based on Pickering effect of probiotic bacteria and milk proteins

    Yücel, Cigdem; Geng, Xiaolu; Cárdenas, Marité

    2017-01-01

    We report the preparation and characterization of aqueous Pickering foams using bio-particles constituted by lactic acid bacteria surface modified by oppositely charged milk proteins. Cell surface modification was shown by zeta potential measurements. Foams stabilized by bacterial Pickering bio-p...

  14. Do infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate levels of vitamin D?

    Silva, Cristiane M; Silva, Silvia A da; Antunes, Margarida M de C; Silva, Gisélia Alves Pontes da; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti; Brandt, Katia G

    To verify whether infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate vitamin D levels. This cross-sectional study included 120 children aged 2 years or younger, one group with cow's milk protein allergy and a control group. The children were recruited at the pediatric gastroenterology, allergology, and pediatric outpatient clinics of a university hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. A questionnaire was administered to the caregiver and blood samples were collected for vitamin D quantification. Vitamin D levels <30ng/mL were considered inadequate. Vitamin D level was expressed as mean and standard deviation, and the frequency of the degrees of sufficiency and other variables, as proportions. Infants with cow's milk protein allergy had lower mean vitamin D levels (30.93 vs.35.29ng/mL; p=0.041) and higher deficiency frequency (20.3% vs.8.2; p=0.049) than the healthy controls. Exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants with cow's milk protein allergy had higher frequency of inadequate vitamin D levels (p=0.002). Regardless of sun exposure time, the groups had similar frequencies of inadequate vitamin D levels (p=0.972). Lower vitamin D levels were found in infants with CMPA, especially those who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed, making these infants a possible risk group for vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Calling biomarkers in milk using a protein microarray on your smartphone

    Ludwig, S.K.J.; Tokarski, Christian; Lang, Stefan N.; Ginkel, Van L.A.; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay

  16. Do infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate levels of vitamin D?

    Cristiane M. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To verify whether infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate vitamin D levels. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 120 children aged 2 years or younger, one group with cow's milk protein allergy and a control group. The children were recruited at the pediatric gastroenterology, allergology, and pediatric outpatient clinics of a university hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. A questionnaire was administered to the caregiver and blood samples were collected for vitamin D quantification. Vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL were considered inadequate. Vitamin D level was expressed as mean and standard deviation, and the frequency of the degrees of sufficiency and other variables, as proportions. Results: Infants with cow's milk protein allergy had lower mean vitamin D levels (30.93 vs.35.29 ng/mL; p = 0.041 and higher deficiency frequency (20.3% vs.8.2; p = 0.049 than the healthy controls. Exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants with cow's milk protein allergy had higher frequency of inadequate vitamin D levels (p = 0.002. Regardless of sun exposure time, the groups had similar frequencies of inadequate vitamin D levels (p = 0.972. Conclusions: Lower vitamin D levels were found in infants with CMPA, especially those who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed, making these infants a possible risk group for vitamin D deficiency.

  17. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-09-16

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after delivery were analyzed by filter aided sample preparation and dimethyl labeling combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 247 and 200 milk serum proteins were identified and quantified, respectively. The milk serum proteome showed a high similarity (80% overlap) on the qualitative level between women and over lactation. The quantitative changes in milk serum proteins were mainly caused by three groups of proteins, enzymes, and transport and immunity proteins. Of these 21 significantly changed proteins, 30% were transport proteins, such as serum albumin and fatty acid binding protein, which are both involved in transporting nutrients to the infant. The decrease of the enzyme bile salt-activated lipase as well as the immunity proteins immunoglobulins and lactoferrin coincide with the gradual maturation of the digestive and immune system of infants. The human milk serum proteome didn't differ qualitatively but it did quantitatively, both between mothers and as lactation advanced. The changes of the breast milk serum proteome over lactation corresponded with the development of the digestive and immune system of infants. Breast milk proteins provide nutrition, but also contribute to healthy development of infants. Despite the previously reported large number of identified breast milk proteins and their changes over lactation, less is known on the changes of these proteins in individual mothers. This study is the first to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes of milk proteome over lactation between individual mothers. The results indicate that the differences in the milk proteome between individual mothers are more related to the

  18. Effect of homogenization and heat treatment on the behavior of protein and fat globules during gastric digestion of milk.

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2017-01-01

    The effects of homogenization and heat treatment on the formation and the breakdown of clots during gastric digestion of whole milk were investigated using a human gastric simulator. Homogenization and heat treatment led to formation of coagula with fragmented and crumbled structures compared with the coagulum formed from raw whole milk, but a larger fraction of the protein and more fat globules were incorporated into the coagula induced by action of the milk-clotting enzyme pepsin. The fat globules in the whole milk appeared to be embedded in the clots as they formed. After formation of the clot, the greater numbers of pores in the structures of the clots formed with homogenized milk and heated whole milk led to greater rates of protein hydrolysis by pepsin, which resulted in faster release of fat globules from the clots into the digesta. Coalescence of fat globules occurred both in the digesta and within the protein clots no matter whether they were in homogenized or heated milk samples. The formation of clots with different structures and hence the changes in the rates of protein hydrolysis and the release of milk fat into the digesta in the stomach provide important information for understanding the gastric emptying of milk and the potential to use this knowledge to manipulate the bioavailability of fat and other fat-soluble nutrients in dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Production and quality evaluation of probiotic soy milk | Onyibe ...

    Soy milk is produced from a protein rich legume with high nutritional value. Adding probiotic agent(s) to soy milk increases its health value. In this study, soy milk and probiotic soy milk samples were produced, their qualities evaluated and shelf life at different temperatures of storage monitored. Products were of good taste ...

  20. Evolution of protein bound Maillard reaction end-products and free Amadori compounds in low lactose milk in presence of fructosamine oxidase I.

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Buonanno, Martina; Fiore, Alberto; Monti, Simona Maria; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Thermal treatments and storage influence milk quality, particularly in low lactose milk as the higher concentration of reducing sugars can lead to the increased formation of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The control of the Amadori products (APs) formation is the key step to mitigate the Maillard reaction (MR) in milk. The use of fructosamine oxidases, (Faox) provided promising results. In this paper, the effects of Faox I were evaluated by monitoring the concentration of free and bound MRPs in low lactose milk during shelf life. Results showed that the enzyme reduced the formation of protein-bound MRPs down to 79% after six days at 37°C. Faox I lowered the glycation of almost all the free amino acids resulting effective on basic and polar amino acids. Data here reported corroborate previous findings on the potentiality of Faox enzymes in controlling the early stage of the MR in foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein characterization of pasteurized milk, cheese whey and their mixtures by using the CEM SprintTM analyzer

    Igor Moura Paiva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the protein analyzer SprintTM was assessed regarding its capacity of predicting addition of whey in milk. This type of practice is relatively common in dairy plants, since whey, as it is a protein component, may be added with little loss of milk protein content. Besides,its incorrect elimination contributes to environmental pollution. Mixtures of milk and whey were prepared in different levels of addition and two methods of milk partition were tested. The results indicated that the concentration of trichloroacetic acid (TCA from the selected method was not suitable for the present purpose while the chosen method using glacial acetic acid (GAA has presented a satisfactory separation of the soluble and insoluble milk components. Even though the concentration of whey protein and casein are the essential parameters for determining whey addition in milk, the use of measurements from total protein was important in order to improve the linearity of the method due to the fact that the rates whey protein/total protein and casein/total protein presented the best results concerning fraud prediction capacity. Therefore, as the equipment is a rapid, safe and efficient platform, it can be used as an alternative to be implemented in laboratories of food quality control which perform or plan to perform assays to verify the whey addition in fluid milk.

  2. Cow's milk protein allergy and other food hypersensitivities in infants.

    Venter, Carina

    2009-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FHS) is the umbrella term used to describe both food allergy, which involves the immune system, and food intolerances, which do not. It is therefore important that the diagnosis is made by a specialist health care professional such as a paediatrician or allergist. Some experienced dietitians and health visitors may be able to assist in making a diagnosis. The diagnostic work-up includes a medical history and blood tests/skin tests (where applicable). A food and symptom diary followed by a special test diet to identify the foods causing the infant's symptoms may also be needed. Once a diagnosis is made, dietary advice should be given to eliminate or reduce the intake of the offending foods. For cow's milk hypersensitivity in infants, this will include choosing the most appropriate specialised infant formula.

  3. Detection of relevant amounts of cow's milk protein in non-pre-packed bakery products sold as cow's milk-free.

    Trendelenburg, V; Enzian, N; Bellach, J; Schnadt, S; Niggemann, B; Beyer, K

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is no mandatory labelling of allergens for non-pre-packed foods in the EU. Therefore, consumers with food allergy rely on voluntary information provided by the staff. The aim of this study was to characterize allergic reactions to non-pre-packed foods and to investigate whether staff in bakery shops were able to give advice regarding a safe product choice. Questionnaires were sent to 200 parents of children with a food allergy. Staff of 50 bakery shops were interviewed regarding selling non-pre-packed foods to food-allergic customers. Bakery products being recommended as 'cow's milk-free' were bought, and cow's milk protein levels were measured using ELISA. A total of 104 of 200 questionnaires were returned. 25% of the children experienced an allergic reaction due to a non-pre-packed food from bakery shops and 20% from ice cream parlours. Sixty percent of the bakery staff reported serving food-allergic customers at least once a month, 24% once a week. Eighty four percent of the staff felt able to advise food-allergic consumers regarding a safe product choice. Seventy three 'cow's milk-free' products were sold in 44 bakery shops. Cow's milk could be detected in 43% of the bakery products, 21% contained >3 mg cow's milk protein per serving. Staff in bakery shops felt confident about advising customers with food allergy. However, cow's milk was detectable in almost half of bakery products being sold as 'cow's milk-free'. Every fifth product contained quantities of cow's milk exceeding an amount where approximately 10% of cow's milk-allergic children will show clinical relevant symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Human milk fortifier with high versus standard protein content for promoting growth of preterm infants: A meta-analysis.

    Liu, Tian-Tian; Dang, Dan; Lv, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Teng-Fei; Du, Jin-Feng; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    To compare the growth of preterm infants fed standard protein-fortified human milk with that containing human milk fortifier (HMF) with a higher-than-standard protein content. Published articles reporting randomized controlled trials and prospective observational intervention studies listed on the PubMed®, Embase®, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the keywords 'fortifier', 'human milk', 'breastfeeding', 'breast milk' and 'human milk fortifier'. The mean difference with 95% confidence intervals was used to compare the effect of HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content on infant growth characteristics. Five studies with 352 infants with birth weight ≤ 1750 g and a gestational age ≤ 34 weeks who were fed human milk were included in this meta-analysis. Infants in the experimental groups given human milk with higher-than-standard protein fortifier achieved significantly greater weight and length at the end of the study, and greater weight gain, length gain, and head circumference gain, compared with control groups fed human milk with the standard HMF. HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content can improve preterm infant growth compared with standard HMF. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Bovine serum albumin and skim-milk improve boar sperm motility by enhancing energy metabolism and protein modifications during liquid storage at 17 °C.

    Fu, Jieli; Li, Yuhua; Wang, Lirui; Zhen, Linqing; Yang, Qiangzhen; Li, Peifei; Li, Xinhong

    2017-10-15

    Both bovine serum albumin (BSA) and skim-milk have been reported to improve sperm quality, primarily by enhancing sperm motility, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, boar semen samples were collected and diluted with Androstar ® Plus extender containing different concentrations (0, 2, 4 g/l) of BSA and skim-milk. On days 0, 3, 5 and 7, the sperm motility parameters were determined using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), and the ATP concentrations, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated using commercial kits. The levels of protein phosphorylation, acylation and ubiquitination were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that supplementation with BSA and skim-milk provided higher sperm motility parameters, ATP levels, GAPDH activity and mitochondrial membrane potential than the control group (P levels of protein phosphorylation, acetylation and succinylation of the spermatozoa in the treated groups were dramatically higher than those in the control group (P level had a decreasing trend, the change in ubiquitination modification was not significantly different between the control group and treated groups. Moreover, the changes in protein modifications between the BSA treated group and skim-milk treated group were not distinctly dissimilar. Taken together, these results suggest that BSA and skim-milk had a positive role in the regulation of boar sperm motility by influencing sperm protein modifications changes as well as increasing the GAPDH activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular ATP content. This research provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying BSA and skim-milk protective effects on boar sperm in the male reproductive system and suggests the feasibility of using skim-milk instead of BSA as a boar semen extender supplement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Shift in the isoelectric-point of milk proteins as a consequence of adaptive divergence between the milks of mammalian species.

    Khaldi, Nora

    2011-07-29

    Abstract Background Milk proteins are required to proceed through a variety of conditions of radically varying pH, which are not identical across mammalian digestive systems. We wished to investigate if the shifts in these requirements have resulted in marked changes in the isoelectric point and charge of milk proteins during evolution. Results We investigated nine major milk proteins in 13 mammals. In comparison with a group of orthologous non-milk proteins, we found that 3 proteins κ-casein, lactadherin, and muc1 have undergone the highest change in isoelectric point during evolution. The pattern of non-synonymous substitutions indicate that selection has played a role in the isoelectric point shift, since residues that show significant evidence of positive selection are much more likely to be charged (p = 0.03 for κ-casein; p < 10-8 for muc1). However, this selection does not appear to be solely due to adaptation to the diversity of mammalian digestive systems, since striking changes are seen among species that resemble each other in terms of their digestion. Conclusion The changes in charge are most likely due to changes of other protein functions, rather than an adaptation to the different mammalian digestive systems. These functions may include differences in bioactive peptide releases in the gut between different mammals, which are known to be a major contributing factor in the functional and nutritional value of mammalian milk. This raises the question of whether bovine milk is optimal in terms of particular protein functions, for human nutrition and possibly disease resistance. This article was reviewed by Fyodor Kondrashov, David Liberles (nominated by David Ardell), and Christophe Lefevre (nominated by Mark Ragan).

  7. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow?s milk, ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and stored at 4? during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made withou...

  8. Determination of free and bound riboflavin in cow's milk using a novel flavin-binding protein.

    Koop, Julia; Monschein, Stefanie; Pauline Macheroux, E; Knaus, Tanja; Macheroux, Peter

    2014-03-01

    A recently described putative protease from the gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (termed ppBat) exhibits two tryptophan residues in the interface which enable specific binding of the isoalloxazine heterocycle of riboflavin and its two cofactor forms, FMN and FAD. Recombinant ppBat was used to capture riboflavin from bovine milk directly without any prior preparation steps. The flavin-loaded protein was then re-isolated by means of affinity chromatography to identify and quantify the captured flavins. Free riboflavin concentrations were determined to 197 and 151μg/l for milk with 3.5% and 0.5% fat content, respectively. Total riboflavin concentrations were also determined after acid-treatment of milk and were 4-5 times higher than for free riboflavin. Free FMN and FAD were not detectable and only trace amounts of FMN were found in milk following acid treatment. The method appears to be amenable to develop a direct assay for free riboflavin in milk and other foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc finger protein 521 overexpression increased transcript levels of ...

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... Zinc finger protein 521 is highly expressed in brain, neural stem cells and early progenitors of the human .... Membranes were blocked for 1 h with 10% skim milk and ..... fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis.

  10. [Determination of total protein content in soya-bean milk via visual moving reaction boundary titration].

    Guo, Chengye; Wang, Houyu; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi

    2013-11-01

    A visual, rapid and accurate moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) method was used for the determination of the total protein in soya-bean milk. During the process, moving reaction boundary (MRB) was formed by hydroxyl ions in the catholyte and soya-bean milk proteins immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (PAG), and an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. The velocity of MRB has a relationship with protein concentration, which was used to obtain a standard curve. By paired t-test, there was no significant difference of the protein content between MRBT and Kjeldahl method at 95% confidence interval. The procedure of MRBT method required about 10 min, and it had linearity in the range of 2.0-14.0 g/L, low limit of detection (0.05 g/L), good precision (RSD of intra-day < 1.90% and inter-day < 4.39%), and high recoveries (97.41%-99.91%). In addition, non-protein nitrogen (NPN) such as melamine added into the soya-bean milk had weak influence on MRBT results.

  11. Effects of Holder pasteurization on the protein profile of human milk.

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Cavaletto, Maria; Spertino, Stefano; Icardi, Sara; Tortone, Claudia; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2016-04-07

    The most widespread method for the treatment of donor milk is the Holder pasteurization (HoP). The available literature data show that HoP may cause degradation of some bioactive components. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HoP on the protein profile of human milk (HM) using a GeLC-MS method, a proteomic approach and a promising technique able to offer a qualitative HM protein profile. HM samples were collected by standardized methods from 20 mothers carrying both preterm and term newborns. A aliquot of each sample was immediately frozen at -80 °C, whilst another one was Holder pasteurized and then frozen. All samples were then analyzed by GeLC-MS. The protein bands of interest were excised from the gel, digested with trypsin and identified by nano-HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The protein profile before and after HoP showed qualitative differences only in 6 samples out of 20, while in the remaining 14 no detectable differences were found. The differences interested only colostrums and transitional milk samples and regarded the decrease of the electrophoretic bands corresponding to alpha and beta-casein, tenascin, lactoferrin and immunoglobulin. In the majority of samples, HoP did not cause any modification, thereby preserving the biological activity of HM proteins.

  12. Increasing Household Protein Consumption Through Minilivestock ...

    Mini-livestock production can be a major contributor of a more balanced diet for both rural and urban settlements. The attributes of mini-livestock gives it the potential of increasing household protein consumption as well as being a source of income. Mini-livestock production can be practiced in rural and urban settlements ...

  13. Donkey’s milk caseins characterization

    F. Polidori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years the interest around donkey’s milk had a marked increase since it has been demonstrated that this milk can be used for feeding of infants affected by dairy cow’s milk protein intolerance (Businco et al., 2000; Iacono et al., 1992.

  14. Perinatal factors associated with the development of cow's milk protein allergy.

    Toro Monjaraz, E M; Ramírez Mayans, J A; Cervantes Bustamante, R; Gómez Morales, E; Molina Rosales, A; Montijo Barrios, E; Zárate Mondragón, F; Cadena León, J; Cazares Méndez, M; López-Ugalde, M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has increased in recent years, and is associated with antimicrobial use during the perinatal period, prematurity, the type of childbirth, and the decrease in breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to analyze whether there is any association between these factors and the development of CMPA. A retrospective, comparative, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted by reviewing the case records of 101 children diagnosed with CMPA and seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría within the time frame of January 2012 and August 2013. The following variables were included: age, sex, weeks of gestation, history of maternal infection and antimicrobial use during the pregnancy, type of delivery, and feeding with human milk, and its duration. Likewise, the case records of 90 children were reviewed as a control group on not having CMPA or any other allergy. The chi-square test was used for proportions, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparing means in the statistical analysis. The factors associated with CMPA were the use of antimicrobials during gestation and breastfeeding duration in months. Both factors were statistically significant (P<.001). No association was found between CMPA and gestational age or type of delivery. The statistically significant associated factors were breastfeeding duration and the use of antimicrobials during the gestational stage. These results underline the necessity for prospective studies. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves

    Pluschke, A.M.; Gilbert, M.S.; Williams, B.A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with

  16. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after

  17. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    Zhang, Lina; Waard, de Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; Hooijdonk, van Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Goudoever, van Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after

  18. Fast and selective determination of total protein in milk powder via titration of moving reaction boundary electrophoresis.

    Guo, Cheng-ye; Wang, Hou-yu; Liu, Xiao-ping; Fan, Liu-yin; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Cheng-xi

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) was developed for rapid and accurate quantification of total protein in infant milk powder, from the concept of moving reaction boundary (MRB) electrophoresis. In the method, the MRB was formed by the hydroxide ions and the acidic residues of milk proteins immobilized via cross-linked polyacrylamide gel (PAG), an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. As a proof of concept, we chose five brands of infant milk powders to study the feasibility of MRBT method. The calibration curve of MRB velocity versus logarithmic total protein content of infant milk powder sample was established based on the visual signal of MRB motion as a function of logarithmic milk protein content. Weak influence of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) reagents (e.g., melamine and urea) on MRBT method was observed, due to the fact that MRB was formed with hydroxide ions and the acidic residues of captured milk proteins, rather than the alkaline residues or the NPN reagents added. The total protein contents in infant milk powder samples detected via the MRBT method were in good agreement with those achieved by the classic Kjeldahl method. In addition, the developed method had much faster measuring speed compared with the Kjeldahl method. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Linearization of the Bradford protein assay to application in cow milk proteins quantification by UV-Vis spectrophotometry method.

    SANTOS, A. S. de O. dos; COSTA, F. F.; ESTEVES, W. T.; BRITO, M. A. V. P. e; FURTADO, M. A. M.; MARTINS, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable methods for determination and quantification of total protein in food are essential information to ensure quality and safety of food trade. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linearity of calibration curves obtained from different proteins (blood serum albumin-BSA, α-LA, β-LG, αs, β and κ-CAS) with the reagent of Bradford. Comercial UHT skimmed bovine milk was analyzed for the determination of total protein using the Bradford method by reading at 595 nm. The determinatio...

  20. FACTORS INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF MILK PRODUCTION IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Kremyanskaya E. V.

    2016-01-01

    The study justifies the need for improving the competitiveness of milk production in the commodity market, identifies the key indicators of improving the competitiveness of milk, which include the quality and level of costs. A direct dependence of the efficiency of realization of milk and incentives of operators of machine milking (milkers) on the quality of the raw milk produced is defined by means of the method of statistical groupings. A correlation and regression analysis of the quality o...

  1. Stability of milk fat globule membrane proteins toward human enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion.

    Le, T T; Van de Wiele, T; Do, T N H; Debyser, G; Struijs, K; Devreese, B; Dewettinck, K; Van Camp, J

    2012-05-01

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction refers to the thin film of polar lipids and membrane proteins that surrounds fat globules in milk. It is its unique biochemical composition that renders MFGM with some beneficial biological activities, such as anti-adhesive effects toward pathogens. However, a prerequisite for the putative bioactivity of MFGM is its stability during gastrointestinal digestion. We, therefore, subjected MFGM material, isolated from raw milk, to an in vitro enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE, in combination with 2 staining methods, Coomassie Blue and periodic acid Schiff staining, was used to evaluate polypeptide patterns of the digest, whereas mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of specific MFGM proteins. Generally, it was observed that glycoproteins showed higher resistance to endogenous proteases compared with non-glycosylated proteins. Mucin 1 displayed the highest resistance to digestion and a considerable part of this protein was still detected at its original molecular weight after gastric and small intestine digestion. Cluster of differentiation 36 was also quite resistant to pepsin. A significant part of periodic acid Schiff 6/7 survived the gastric digestion, provided that the lipid moiety was not removed from the MFGM material. Overall, MFGM glycoproteins are generally more resistant to gastrointestinal digestion than serum milk proteins and the presence of lipids, besides glycosylation, may protect MFGM glycoproteins from gastrointestinal digestion. This gastrointestinal stability makes MFGM glycoproteins amenable to further studies in which their putative health-promoting effects can be explored. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows

    Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hymøller, Lone

    2014-01-01

    rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage...... of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were...... taken during the last 3d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg...

  3. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    E. Nurdin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  4. Genetic Architecture of Milk, Fat, Protein, Mastitis and Fertility Studied using NGS Data in Holstein Cattle

    Sahana, Goutam; Janss, Luc; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    The use of genomic information in genetic evaluation has revolutionized dairy cattle breeding. It remains a major challenge to understand the genetic basis of variation for quantitative traits. Here, we study the genetic architecture for milk, fat, protein, mastitis and fertility indices in dairy...... cattle using NGS variants. The analysis was done using a linear mixed model (LMM) and a Bayesian mixture model (BMM). The top 10 QTL identified by LMM analyses explained 22.61, 23.86, 10.88, 18.58 and 14.83% of the total genetic variance for these traits respectively. Trait-specific sets of 4,964 SNPs...... from NGS variants (most ‘associated’ SNP for each 0.5 Mbp bin) explained 81.0, 81.6, 85.0, 60.4 and 70.9% of total genetic variance for milk, fat, protein, mastitis and fertility indices when analyzed simultaneously by BMM...

  5. Crop milk protein is synthesised following activation of the IRS1/Akt/TOR signalling pathway in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Hu, X-C; Gao, C-Q; Wang, X-H; Yan, H-C; Chen, Z-S; Wang, X-Q

    2016-12-01

    The experiment was conducted to study whether insulin receptor substance 1 (IRS1) / Protein kinase B (Akt)/target of the rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway activation stimulates crop milk protein synthesis in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). Crop milk was collected from ten 1-d-old squabs and analysed for nutrient content. During the non-breeding period and the first day of lactation, blood samples were collected from 5 pairs of breeding pigeons and the levels of prolactin and insulin were determined. Crop samples were collected from 5 pairs of breeders at d 14 and 16 of the incubation period and d 1, 3 and 7 of the lactation period. Crop samples were evaluated for changes in crop weight and thickness and changes in the expression patterns of IRS1/Akt/TOR signalling pathway-related proteins. The results demonstrated that prolactin induces a gradual increase in the relative weight and thickness of the crop, with crops reaching a maximum size at the third day of lactation. Pigeon crop milk contains 64.1% crude protein and 29.7% crude fat based on dry weight. Serum prolactin and insulin levels in the lactation period were significantly higher than those in the non-breeding period. Compared with non-breeding pigeons, the expression of the phosphorylated IRS1 phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated TOR, phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase, phosphorylated S6, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E were significantly up-regulated in the crop of pigeons in the lactation period. In conclusion, prolactin might induce changes in crop tissue and form the physiological structure for crop milk synthesis. Furthermore, the synthesis of crop milk protein is regulated by activation of the IRS1/Akt/TOR signalling pathway.

  6. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete; Mortensen, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single...

  7. High intakes of skimmed milk, but not meat, increase serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in eight-year-old boys

    Hoppe, C.; Mølgaard, C; Juul, A.

    2004-01-01

    To examine whether a high protein intake (PI) from either milk or meat, at a level often seen in late infancy, could increase s-IGF-I and s-IGF-I/s-IGFBP-3 in healthy, prepubertal children. IGF-I levels are positively associated with growth velocity in children and some studies suggest that a high...... animal PI can stimulate growth. During protein deprivation IGF-I decrease, but it is unknown whether a high PI can increase s-IGF-I in well-nourished children....

  8. Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology to Screen Interactions Between Exopolysaccharides and Milk Proteins

    Babol, Linnéa Nygren; Svensson, Birte; Ipsen, Richard

    2011-01-01

    derived from three homopolysaccharide (HoPS)-producing Lactobacilli strains; Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus salvarius. The purified milk proteins applied were β-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and κ-casein. The results show that the binding capacity depends on the p......-lactoglobulin. Under the tested conditions, HoPS from L. plantarum showed always either a lower binding response or no binding at all compared with HoPS from L. salvarius and L. sakei....

  9. Interfacial dilational properties of tea polyphenols and milk proteins with gut epithelia and the role of mucus in nutrient adsorption.

    Guri, Anilda; Li, Yang; Corredig, Milena

    2015-12-01

    By interacting with nutrients, the mucus layer covering the intestinal epithelium may mediate absorption. This study aimed to determine possible interactions between epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), skim milk proteins or their complexes with human intestinal mucin films. The films were extracted from postconfluent monolayers of HT29-MTX, a human intestinal cell line, and a model system was created using drop shape tensiometry. The EGCG uptake tested in vitro on postconfluent Caco-2 cells or co-cultures of Caco-2/HT29-MTX (mucus producing) showed recovery of bioavailable EGCG only for Caco-2 cell monolayers, suggesting an effect of mucus on absorption. Interfacial dilational rheology was employed to characterize the properties of the interface mixed with mucus dispersion. Adsorption of polyphenols greatly enhanced the viscoelastic modulus of the mucus film, showing the presence of interactions between the nutrient molecules and mucus films. On the other hand, in situ digestion of milk proteins using trypsin showed higher surface activities as a result of protein unfolding and competitive adsorption of the hydrolyzed products. There was an increase of viscoelastic modulus over the drop ageing time for the mixed interfaces, indicating the formation of a stiffer interfacial network. These results bring new insights into the role of the mucus layer in nutrient absorption and the interactions of mucus and dairy products.

  10. Development and Testing of a Device to Increase the Level of Automation of a Conventional Milking Parlor through Vocal Commands

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable wireless device with a “vocal commands” feature for activating the mechanical milking phase in conventional milking parlors was developed and tested to increase the level of automation in the milking procedures. The device was tested in the laboratory and in a milking parlor. Four professional milkers participated in the experiment. Before the start of the tests, a set of acoustic models with speaker-dependent commands defined for the project was acquired for each milker using a dedicated “milker training procedure”. Two experimental sessions were performed by each milker, with one session in the laboratory and a subsequent session in the milking parlor. The device performance was evaluated based on the accuracy demonstrated in the vocal command recognition task and rated using the word recognition rate (WRR. The data were expressed as %WRR and grouped based on the different cases evaluated. Mixed effects logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between the %WRR and explanatory variables. The results indicated significant effects due to the location where the tests were performed. Higher values of the %WRR were found for tests performed in the laboratory, whereas lower values were found for tests performed in the milking parlor (due to the presence of background noise. Nevertheless, the general performance level achieved by the device was sufficient for increasing the automation level of conventional milking parlors.

  11. Distinct composition of bovine milk from Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows with good, poor or non-coagulation properties as reflected in protein genetic variants and isoforms

    Jensen, Hanne Bak; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Andersen, Kell Kleiner

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine variation in overall milk, protein, and mineral composition of bovine milk in relation to rennet-induced coagulation, with the aim of elucidating the underlying causes of milk with impaired coagulation abilities. On the basis of an initial screening of 892...... of minerals (Ca, P, Mg) were identified in poorly coagulating and noncoagulating milk in comparison with milk with good coagulation properties. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of a great variety of genetic variants of the major milk proteins, namely, αS1...... milk samples from 42 herds with Danish Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows, a subset of 102 samples was selected to represent milk with good, poor, or noncoagulating properties (i.e., samples that within each breed represented the most extremes in regard to coagulation properties). Milk with good...

  12. Detection of dietary DNA, protein, and glyphosate in meat, milk, and eggs.

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Young, A E

    2017-07-01

    Products such as meat, milk, and eggs from animals that have consumed genetically engineered (GE) feed are not currently subject to mandatory GE labeling requirements. Some voluntary "non-genetically modified organism" labeling has been associated with such products, indicating that the animals were not fed GE crops, as there are no commercialized GE food animals. This review summarizes the available scientific literature on the detection of dietary DNA and protein in animal products and briefly discusses the implications of mandatory GE labeling for products from animals that have consumed GE feed. Because glyphosate is used on some GE crops, the available studies on glyphosate residues in animal products are also reviewed. In GE crops, recombinant DNA (rDNA) makes up a small percentage of the plant's total DNA. The final amount of DNA in food/feed depends on many factors including the variable number and density of cells in the edible parts, the DNA-containing matrix, environmental conditions, and the specific transgenic event. Processing treatments and animals' digestive systems degrade DNA into small fragments. Available reports conclude that endogenous DNA and rDNA are processed in exactly the same way in the gastrointestinal tract and that they account for a very small proportion of food intake by weight. Small pieces of high copy number endogenous plant genes have occasionally been detected in meat and milk. Similarly sized pieces of rDNA have also been identified in meat, primarily fish, although detection is inconsistent. Dietary rDNA fragments have not been detected in chicken or quail eggs or in fresh milk from cows or goats. Collectively, studies have failed to identify full-length endogenous or rDNA transcripts or recombinant proteins in meat, milk, or eggs. Similarly, because mammals do not bioaccumulate glyphosate and it is rapidly excreted, negligible levels of glyphosate in cattle, pig and poultry meat, milk, and eggs have been reported. Despite

  13. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transition cow performance when brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS; Mycogen F2F444) was included in the diet during the transition period, and to determine if any production response occurring during the first 3 wk of lactation would persist from wk 4 to 15 when a common diet was fed. Seventy Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity (either second or third and greater) and calving date and randomly assigned to the CCS (a mixture of varieties of conventional corn silage) or BMRCS treatment. Diets were formulated with the objective of keeping all ration parameters the same, with the exception of neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility values (30 h) for CCS and BMRCS averaged 56.8 and 73.8%, respectively. Prepartum rations contained 47% corn silage, 18% wheat straw, 7% alfalfa haylage, and 28% concentrate, and averaged 45% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Postpartum rations contained 40% corn silage, 15% alfalfa haylage, 1% straw, and 44% concentrate. Milk weights (3×/d) and dry matter intake were recorded daily, and milk composition was measured weekly. Cows fed BMRCS had higher dry matter intake during the 2-wk period before calving (14.3 vs. 13.2 kg/d) and the 3-wk period after calving (20.1 vs. 18.1 kg/d) than did cows fed CCS. Yields of milk, solids, and lactose were increased, whereas a trend was observed for a reduction in somatic cell counts and linear scores in the postpartum period for cows receiving BMRCS during the transition. A significant carryover effect of BMRCS was observed on production from wk 4 to 15 when the common diet was fed, with yields of protein (1.36 vs. 1.30 kg/d), lactose (2.24 vs. 2.12 kg/d), and solids (5.82 vs. 5.51 kg/d) increasing significantly, and yields of fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat tending to increase during this period for cows that had been fed BMRCS. The increased intakes during the last 2 wk of the prepartum period in

  14. Novel determination of protein, fat, and lactose of milk by liquid scintillation counter

    Noble, R.C.; Shand, J.H.; West, I.G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for routine determination of protein, fat, and lactose contents of milk is based on the ability of a scintillation counter to measure coloration or opalescence through attenuation of photons emitted from sealed miniature carbon-14 and hydrogen-3 radioactive standards. A series of simplified and accurate analytical procedures enable full advantage to be taken of the automatic facilities on the modern liquid scintillation counter. The methods provide several advantages over existing procedures. Accuracy of quantification was high as assessed by comparing the results with those derived by recommended Kjeldahl, Gerber, and colorimetric procedures for protein, fat, and lactose determinations, respectively

  15. The Effect of increasing levels of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid profile of Saanen dairy goats.

    Sharifi, M; Bashtani, M; Naserian, A A; Farhangfar, H

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed (DPS) on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid (FA) profile of dairy goats. Eight multiparous Saanen dairy goats, averaging 97 ± 7 days in milk (DIM) and 2150 ± 130 g of milk production, were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design. Experimental diets contained 0% (control), 6% (DPS6), 12% (DPS12) and 18% (DPS18) of DPS. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and the composition and digestibility of the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were not affected by the diets. Adding DPS to the diet increased linearly total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in milk and blood (p content in milk and blood. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the blood, ruminal pH, NH 3 -N, ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate, butyrate, isovalerate and valeric acid concentration had no significant effect among the diets. The propionate acid concentration decreased linearly as DPS was added to the diet, and DPS18 had minimum propionate acid concentration (p < 0.05). The inclusion of DPS18 to diets increased linearly the proportion of C18:0 (compared to control) as well as cis-18:1, trans-18:1 (compared to control and DPS6) and decreased C14:1 (compared to control) in milk fat (p < 0.05). The concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in DPS18 was higher than other diets (p = 0.04). The results of this study implied that replacing DPS with a part of dairy goats' ration had no negative effects on the performance of the animals and could also improve the antioxidant activity and increase the concentration of CLA in their milk. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Identification of plant proteins in adulterated skimmed milk powder by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Luykx, D.M.A.M.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Ferranti, P.; Frankhuizen, R.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Hooijerink, H.; America, A.H.P.

    2007-01-01

    The EU subsidises the use of skimmed-milk powder (SMP) in compound feeding stuffs. There are indications of falsified SMP content due to the addition of plant proteins. These proteins are not allowed in SMP and cannot be identified by the official reference method. Since soy and pea proteins are

  17. Variations in protein and fat contents and their fractions in milk from two species fed different forages.

    Kholif, S M; El-Shewy, A A; Morsy, T A; Abd El-Rahman, H H

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed at determining the variations in milk constituents which could be varied by feed and animal species. To achieve this goal, two groups of homoparity Baladi cows and Egyptian buffaloes (n = 20 per species) were used. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 10): subgroup I received legume forage (Egyptian clover) and subgroup II received grass forage (sorghum forage). All experimental animals were fed the diet consisting of concentrate, forage and rice straw as 50, 25 and 25% of dry matter intake respectively. Milk samples were taken for analysis. The trial lasted until the 3rd month of parturition. The main results indicated that lactating cattle fed legume forage significantly (p ≤ 0.01) had more content of casein nitrogen (513 mg/100 ml milk), lower content of glutamic acid (23.56 g/100 g milk protein) and more content of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (0.77 g/100 g milk fat) compared with 433, 26.67 and 0.53, respectively, for cattle fed grass forage. With regard to the species effect, results showed that buffalo milk appeared to contain significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01) contents of casein nitrogen, phenylalanine, glutamic and arachidonic acid compared with cow's milk. However, the latter was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) more in the cis-9, trans-11CLA (0.59 g/100 g milk fat) than that in buffalo milk (0.47 g/100 g milk fat). The results revealed that not only forage type played a critical role in determining the variations of milk nitrogen distribution, milk amino acids and fatty acids but also animal species had a significant effect on these parameters. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. The continuing debate over increasing consumption of raw (unpasteurised) milk: is it safe?

    Jordan, K. N.; Hunt, K.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The debate on the consumption of raw (unpasteurised) milk continues. On one side there is the risk of illness associated with pathogenic bacteria that may be in the milk, a risk that can be mitigated by pasteurisation of the milk prior to consumption. On the other side, there are those who believ...

  19. Human milk arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents increase following supplementation during pregnancy and lactation

    van Goor, Saskia A.; Dijick-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Doornbos, Bennard; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Schaafsma, Anne; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Djick-Brouwer, D.A.J.

    Introduction: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are important for neurodevelopment. Maternal diet influences milk DHA, whereas milk AA seems rather constant. We investigated milk AA, DHA and DHA/AA after supplementation of AA plus DHA, or DHA alone during pregnancy and lactation.

  20. High-intensity-exercise-induced intestinal damage is protected by fermented milk supplemented with whey protein, probiotic and pomegranate (Punica granatum L.).

    Chaves, Fernanda M; Baptista, Igor L; Simabuco, Fernando M; Quaresma, Paula G F; Pena, Fabiola L; Bezerra, Rosangela M N; Pauli, Jose R; da Cunha, Diogo T; Campos-Ferraz, Patricia L; Antunes, Adriane E C

    2018-04-01

    Here we evaluated the effect of fermented milk supplemented with whey protein (approximately 80 % protein), probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12) and pomegranate juice (Punica granatum L.) on the physical performance, intestinal motility and villi structure, inflammatory markers and intestinal microbiota of rats under high-intensity acute exercise. In all, twenty-four Wistar rats were separated into groups: control (Ctrl), supplemented (Supp), exercised (Exe) and exercised and supplemented (Exe+Supp). Rats in the Supp groups received fermented milk during 6 weeks by oral administration. At the end of the supplementation period, the Exe groups were submitted to high-intensity acute exercise on a treadmill. We found that intense acute exercise caused changes in the intestinal villi interspace, changes in the proportion of Lactobacillus species and an increase in Clostridium species, as well as a decrease in intestinal motility. Supplementation increased intestinal motility, and maintained the intestinal villi interspace and the natural microbiota proportions of the exercised rats. Physical performance was not improved by fermented milk supplementation. We conclude that the fermented milk containing whey protein, B. animalis (BB12) and pomegranate juice can re-establish intestinal microbiota and protect the animals from the undesirable effects of intense acute exercise.

  1. The composition and functional properties of whey protein concentrates produced from buttermilk are comparable with those of whey protein concentrates produced from skimmed milk.

    Svanborg, Sigrid; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Skeie, Siv B

    2015-09-01

    The demand for whey protein is increasing in the food industry. Traditionally, whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates are produced from cheese whey. At present, microfiltration (MF) enables the utilization of whey from skim milk (SM) through milk protein fractionation. This study demonstrates that buttermilk (BM) can be a potential source for the production of a WPC with a comparable composition and functional properties to a WPC obtained by MF of SM. Through the production of WPC powder and a casein- and phospholipid (PL)-rich fraction by the MF of BM, sweet BM may be used in a more optimal and economical way. Sweet cream BM from industrial churning was skimmed before MF with 0.2-µm ceramic membranes at 55 to 58°C. The fractionations of BM and SM were performed under the same conditions using the same process, and the whey protein fractions from BM and SM were concentrated by ultrafiltration and diafiltration. The ultrafiltration and diafiltration was performed at 50°C using pasteurized tap water and a membrane with a 20-kDa cut-off to retain as little lactose as possible in the final WPC powders. The ultrafiltrates were subsequently spray dried, and their functional properties and chemical compositions were compared. The amounts of whey protein and PL in the WPC powder from BM (BMWPC) were comparable to the amounts found in the WPC from SM (SMWPC); however, the composition of the PL classes differed. The BMWPC contained less total protein, casein, and lactose compared with SMWPC, as well as higher contents of fat and citric acid. No difference in protein solubility was observed at pH values of 4.6 and 7.0, and the overrun was the same for BMWPC and SMWPC; however, the BMWPC made less stable foam than SMWPC. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical, Physiochemical, and Microstructural Properties, and Probiotic Survivability of Fermented Goat Milk Using Polymerized Whey Protein and Starter Culture Kefir Mild 01.

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Cuina; Wang, Mu; Guo, Mingruo

    2017-11-01

    A set-type fermented goat milk (FGM) using polymerized whey protein (PWP) as main thickening agent and Kefir Mild 01 as starter culture was developed. The FGM with PWP (0.3%, w/v) and pectin (0.2%, w/v) had low syneresis (5.44 ± 0.92%), desirable viscosity (952.86 ± 61.52 mPa⋅s), and hardness (112.57 ± 3.23 g), which were comparable to a fermented cow milk. Sensory evaluation data showed that the FGM with PWP and pectin had higher scores of both flavor (4.41 ± 0.39) and taste (3.72 ± 0.34) than the sample without PWP. Chemical composition of both fermented goat and cow milk were analyzed. The protein content of goat and cow milk samples were 3.50% ± 0.12% and 3.28% ± 0.09% (w/w), respectively. Lactobacillus acidophilus population in both FGM samples remained above 10 6 CFU/g during the 1st 4-wk storage. There was a slight but no significant (P > 0.05) decrease in pH and TA during storage. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs displayed a compact and homogeneous protein network of the FGM with PWP and pectin. Polymerized whey protein may be a novel protein-based thickening agent for formulation of a set-type FGM with starter culture Kefir Mild 01. Fermented goat milk is an increasingly popular dairy product in the world. However, it is difficult to make set type fermented goat milk due to the smaller size and lower content of casein micelles in goat milk. A fermented goat milk with PWP (0.3%, w/v) and pectin (0.2%, w/v) was successfully developed in this study. The product fermented by Kefir Mild 01 starter culture had a similar taste with Kefir but no yeast or alcoholic exists. The new product would be a promising food in the market. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. S100B Protein concentration in milk-formulas for preterm and term infants. Correlation with industrial preparation procedures.

    Nigro, Francesco; Gagliardi, Luigi; Ciotti, Sabina; Galvano, Fabio; Pietri, Amedeo; Tina, Gabriella Lucia; Cavallaro, Daniela; La Fauci, Luca; Iacopino, Leonardo; Bognanno, Matteo; Li Volti, Giovanni; Scacco, Antonio; Michetti, Fabrizio; Gazzolo, Diego

    2008-05-01

    Human milk S100B protein possesses important neurotrophic properties. However, in some conditions human milk is substituted by milk formulas. The aims of the present study were: to assess S100B concentrations in milk formulas, to verify any differences in S100B levels between preterm and term infant formulas and to evaluate the impact of industrial preparation at predetermined phases on S100B content. Two different set of samples were tested: (i) commercial preterm (n = 36) and term (n = 36) infant milk formulas; ii) milk preterm (n = 10) and term infant (n = 10) formulas sampled at the following predetermined industrial preparation time points: skimmed cow milk (Time 0); after protein sources supplementation (Time 1); after pasteurization (Time 2); after spray-drying (Time 3). Our results showed that S100B concentration in preterm formulas were higher than in term ones (p 0.05) at Time 2, whereas a significant (p pasteurization but not spry-drying. New feeding strategies in preterm and term infants are therefore warranted in order to preserve S100B protein during industrial preparation.

  4. Addition of sodium caseinate to skim milk increases nonsedimentable casein and causes significant changes in rennet-induced gelation, heat stability, and ethanol stability.

    Lin, Yingchen; Kelly, Alan L; O'Mahony, James A; Guinee, Timothy P

    2017-02-01

    The protein content of skim milk was increased from 3.3 to 4.1% (wt/wt) by the addition of a blend of skim milk powder and sodium caseinate (NaCas), in which the weight ratio of skim milk powder to NaCas was varied from 0.8:0.0 to 0.0:0.8. Addition of NaCas increased the levels of nonsedimentable casein (from ∼6 to 18% of total casein) and calcium (from ∼36 to 43% of total calcium) and reduced the turbidity of the fortified milk, to a degree depending on level of NaCas added. Rennet gelation was adversely affected by the addition of NaCas at 0.2% (wt/wt) and completely inhibited at NaCas ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Rennet-induced hydrolysis was not affected by added NaCas. The proportion of total casein that was nonsedimentable on centrifugation (3,000 × g, 1 h, 25°C) of the rennet-treated milk after incubation for 1 h at 31°C increased significantly on addition of NaCas at ≥0.4% (wt/wt). Heat stability in the pH range 6.7 to 7.2 and ethanol stability at pH 6.4 were enhanced by the addition of NaCas. It is suggested that the negative effect of NaCas on rennet gelation is due to the increase in nonsedimentable casein, which upon hydrolysis by chymosin forms into small nonsedimentable particles that physically come between, and impede the aggregation of, rennet-altered para-casein micelles, and thereby inhibit the development of a gel network. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety evaluation of a milk-based protein powder produced by a novel manufacturing technique.

    LeBeau, A; Matulka, R; Comstock, B

    2017-05-01

    TruActive™ NF is a novel, fat-free, milk-based protein powder to be added to food to increase protein content and is manufactured using non-thermal treatment to reduce potential pathogens most relevant to protecting public health. TruActive™ NF was evaluated for potential pathogens of concern to public health regulators; none were detected. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of TruActive™ NF at a 90 th percentile consumption for the powder in nutritional beverages and bars is 14,700 mg/day. In vitro genotoxicity testing revealed that concentrations of TruActive™ NF up to 5000 μg/plate did not induce point mutations in selected strains. Oral administration of TruActive™ NF to male Sprague-Dawley rats in an in vivo mammalian chromosomal aberration assay did not induce chromosomal aberrations or significantly affect mitosis in bone marrow cells at 2000 mg/kg. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered TruActive™ NF at concentrations of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% of the diet during a 28-day subacute dietary study followed by a 14-day recovery period. Some parameters were altered at the 30% diet concentration. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) in the 28-day dietary study was at 15% of the diet (11,812 mg/kg bw/day for male rats and 11,521 mg/kg bw/day for female rats). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    An increasing body of evidence supports the health beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, incorporation of marine oils into foods has also gained an increasing interest. However, the highly unsaturated lipids present in marine oils are prone to lipid oxidation......, and their addition to foods is therefore limited by the development of unpleasant off-flavors. Hence, efficient strategies are necessary to protect the lipids and thereby make fish oil-enriched food products successful in the marketplace. In an attempt to increase the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched food...... stable product. Thus, a better understanding of factors influencing lipid oxidation in delivery emulsions themselves is therefore needed to understand the differences observed between food systems. In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface...

  7. Short communication: Artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2015-01-01

    tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D-3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56 degrees N for 24 d...... exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D-3 or 25OHD(3) level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease......The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We...

  8. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  9. Quantitation and Identification of Intact Major Milk Proteins for High-Throughput LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS Analyses.

    Delphine Vincent

    Full Text Available Cow's milk is an important source of proteins in human nutrition. On average, cow's milk contains 3.5% protein. The most abundant proteins in bovine milk are caseins and some of the whey proteins, namely beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and serum albumin. A number of allelic variants and post-translationally modified forms of these proteins have been identified. Their occurrence varies with breed, individuality, stage of lactation, and health and nutritional status of the animal. It is therefore essential to have reliable methods of detection and quantitation of these proteins. Traditionally, major milk proteins are quantified using liquid chromatography (LC and ultra violet detection method. However, as these protein variants co-elute to some degree, another dimension of separation is beneficial to accurately measure their amounts. Mass spectrometry (MS offers such a tool. In this study, we tested several RP-HPLC and MS parameters to optimise the analysis of intact bovine proteins from milk. From our tests, we developed an optimum method that includes a 20-28-40% phase B gradient with 0.02% TFA in both mobile phases, at 0.2 mL/min flow rate, using 75°C for the C8 column temperature, scanning every 3 sec over a 600-3000 m/z window. The optimisations were performed using external standards commercially purchased for which ionisation efficiency, linearity of calibration, LOD, LOQ, sensitivity, selectivity, precision, reproducibility, and mass accuracy were demonstrated. From the MS analysis, we can use extracted ion chromatograms (EICs of specific ion series of known proteins and integrate peaks at defined retention time (RT window for quantitation purposes. This optimum quantitative method was successfully applied to two bulk milk samples from different breeds, Holstein-Friesian and Jersey, to assess differences in protein variant levels.

  10. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (Pcows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (Pcows, which resulted in an increase (Pcows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (Pcows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male progeny from cows fed DDGS during lactation had greater average daily gain and were heavier at day 129 and at weaning compared with male progeny from cows fed a control diet.

  11. S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in human milk.

    Ruisong Li

    Full Text Available Human milk contains a wide variety of nutrients that contribute to the fulfillment of its functions, which include the regulation of newborn development. However, few studies have investigated the concentrations of S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF in human milk. The associations of the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF with maternal factors are not well explored.To investigate the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF in human milk and characterize the maternal factors associated with their levels in human milk, human milk samples were collected at days 3, 10, 30, and 90 after parturition. Levels of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF, and their mRNAs in the samples were detected. Then, these concentrations were compared with lactation and other maternal factors. S100B protein levels in human milk samples collected at 3, 10, 30, and 90 d after parturition were 1249.79±398.10, 1345.05±539.16, 1481.83±573.30, and 1414.39±621.31 ng/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BDNF concentrations in human milk samples were 10.99±4.55, 13.01±5.88, 13.35±6.43, and 2.83±5.47 µg/L, while those of GDNF were 10.90±1.65, 11.38±1., 11.29±3.10, and 11.40±2.21 g/L for the same time periods. Maternal post-pregnancy body mass index was positively associated with S100B levels in human milk (r = 0.335, P = 0.030<0.05. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the levels of S100B protein and BDNF (z = 2.09, P = 0.037<0.05. Delivery modes were negatively associated with the concentration of GDNF in human milk.S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF are present in all samples of human milk, and they may be responsible for the long term effects of breast feeding.

  12. Evolution of major milk proteins in Mus musculus and Mus spretus mouse species: a genoproteomic analysis

    Panthier Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to their high level of genotypic and phenotypic variability, Mus spretus strains were introduced in laboratories to investigate the genetic determinism of complex phenotypes including quantitative trait loci. Mus spretus diverged from Mus musculus around 2.5 million years ago and exhibits on average a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in every 100 base pairs when compared with any of the classical laboratory strains. A genoproteomic approach was used to assess polymorphism of the major milk proteins between SEG/Pas and C57BL/6J, two inbred strains of mice representative of Mus spretus and Mus musculus species, respectively. Results The milk protein concentration was dramatically reduced in the SEG/Pas strain by comparison with the C57BL/6J strain (34 ± 9 g/L vs. 125 ± 12 g/L, respectively. Nine major proteins were identified in both milks using RP-HPLC, bi-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-Tof mass spectrometry. Two caseins (β and αs1 and the whey acidic protein (WAP, showed distinct chromatographic and electrophoresis behaviours. These differences were partly explained by the occurrence of amino acid substitutions and splicing variants revealed by cDNA sequencing. A total of 34 SNPs were identified in the coding and 3'untranslated regions of the SEG/Pas Csn1s1 (11, Csn2 (7 and Wap (8 genes. In addition, a 3 nucleotide deletion leading to the loss of a serine residue at position 93 was found in the SEG/Pas Wap gene. Conclusion SNP frequencies found in three milk protein-encoding genes between Mus spretus and Mus musculus is twice the values previously reported at the whole genome level. However, the protein structure and post-translational modifications seem not to be affected by SNPs characterized in our study. Splicing mechanisms (cryptic splice site usage, exon skipping, error-prone junction sequence, already identified in casein genes from other species, likely explain the existence of multiple αs1-casein

  13. The effect of ewes relocation on milk composition and milk flow kinetics

    Lucia Jackuliaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of an influence of ewes relocation and milking in other parlour (treatment on milk flow kinetics, milkability and milk composition was the aim of this study. In total 34 ewes of two breeds and crosbreeds Tsigai (14 heads and Improved Valachian (20 heads with Lacaune were tested. Two weeks after lamb weaning the ewes were milked in parallel milking parlour (1x16 stalls under shelter. On the last evening milking (first experimental milking, EB before relocation of flock to another parlour, and during next three continuous evening milkings (E0 - second, E1 - third and E2 - fourth milking of exp. after relocation the milk flow kinetics were measured using electronic collection jar. On day E0 after morning milking the flock was moved on a pasture and milked in other parlour (1x24-stalls. During E0 we recorded a significant decrease of total milk yield in comparison with EB (0.527 ±0.04 and 0.647 ±0.04 L. Significant differences were also recorded in machine milk yield, machine stripping, milking time and in maximum milk flow rate. During E0 there was a higher number of nonbimodal and lower numbers of bimodal flow types. The response of ewe to E0 depended on its response to EB. Ewes with bimodal flow at EB responded more negatively to E0 than ewes with nonbimodal or plateau flow. During E2 there were significantly increased protein content and solids not fat in milk. Thus the treatment significantly influenced the milkability of ewes in a negative way, but more clear response was found out in ewes with bimodal flow response to machine milking before treatment. We could assume that relocation to other milking conditions caused only short-term changes in milk flow kinetic and milk yield. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Short communication: Effect of commercial or depurinized milk diet on plasma advanced oxidation protein products, cardiovascular markers, and bone marrow CD34+ stem cell potential in rat experimental hyperuricemia.

    Kocic, Gordana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Jevtovic, Tatjana; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Veljkovic, Andrej; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Jovanovic, Aneta; Jovanovic, Jelena; Zivkovic, Petar

    2014-11-01

    Cardiovascular repair and myocardial contractility may be improved by migration of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and their delivery to the site of injury, a process known as BMSC homing. The aim of our study was to examine the dietary effect of a newly patented depurinized milk (DP) that is almost free of uric acid and purine and pyrimidine compounds compared with a standard commercial 1.5% fat UHT milk diet or allopurinol therapy in rat experimental hyperuricemia. Bone marrow stem cell potential (BMCD34(+), CD34-postive bone marrow cells), plasma oxidative stress parameters [advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], myocardial damage markers [creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], plasma cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were investigated. The DP milk diet significantly increased the number of BMCD34(+) stem cells compared with commercial UHT milk. Allopurinol given alone also increased the number of BMCD34(+). Hyperuricemia caused a significant increase in all plasma enzyme markers for myocardial damage (CPK, LDH, and AST). A cardioprotective effect was achieved with allopurinol but almost equally with DP milk and more than with commercial milk. Regarding plasma AOPP, TBARS, and cholesterol levels, the most effective treatment was DP milk. In conclusion, the protective role of a milk diet on cardiovascular function may be enhanced through the new depurinized milk diet, which may improve cardiovascular system function via increased bone marrow stem cell regenerative potential, decreased plasma oxidative stress parameters, and decreased levels of myocardial damage markers and cholesterol. New dairy technology strategies focused on eliminating harmful milk compounds should be completely nontoxic. Novel milk products should be tested for their ability to improve tissue repair and function. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  15. Formulation and Physicochemical Evaluation of Frozen Snacks Based on Whey Protein Isolate and Skimmed Milk

    Maria Ioana MORAR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Four different formulations of frozen snacks were prepared by reconstituting whey protein isolate with skimmed milk then adding different ingredients such as cocoa and vanilla (CW, cranberries and cocoa (CrC, sour cherries and vanilla (ChW, as well as cranberries, cocoa and vanilla (CrCW. Formulation with 50% skimmed milk, 15% whey protein isolate, 10% fructose, 1% vanilla, and 24% sour cherries (ChW was selected based on sensory characteristics; the addition of sour cherry significantly (p < 0.05 changed the appearance of the frozen snack and thus this formulation showed the highest score for overall acceptability (7.6 points. This product contains 16.5 g protein, 0.2 g fat, and 16.4 g carbohydrates per 100 g frozen snack that gives an energy value of approximately 133 kcal (556 kJ. Thus, ChW is a low calories snack (under 200 kcal/100 g product characterized by high-protein content and very low-fat content.

  16. Bovine milk in human nutrition--a review.

    Haug, Anna; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd M

    2007-09-25

    Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite?) regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases.

  17. Adipokines in human breast milk.

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Bae, Yoon Ju; Kiess, Wieland

    2018-01-01

    The review describes the molecular characteristics of so far detected breast milk adipokines and ranks their breast milk level compared to the respective levels in maternal and infant blood. Moreover, analytical knowledge for measurements of breast milk adipokines will be delineated. Next, we summarized data about two main potential influencing factors on adipokine concentration in breast milk, maternal weight and pasteurization of milk. Finally, associations between adipokines in breast milk and weight gain in infants as well as the putative mechanisms for effects of breast milk adipokines on food intake and weight gain in later life will debated. Our findings suggest that a source of adipokines in human breast milk cannot be uniformly defined. In dependence on the ratio between serum and breast milk levels the major quantity of these proteins may be derived from peripheral tissues, from the breast tissue itself or from both. Thus, leptin and in part adiponectin levels in breast milk are dependent on a plenty of influencing factors with an important relevance of maternal anthropometric characteristics There is some evidence that leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin levels in breast milk may be associated with growth gain of infants and even with increased risk for being overweight during infancy or childhood. We hypothesize that a dysregulation in adipokine homeostasis in early life could promote obesity and metabolic disturbance in later life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    plasma urea-N concentration tended to be lower in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Plasma glucose concentration was greater in cows fed diets containing WDDGS-CM compared with those fed diets containing WDDGS-peas, but the difference in plasma glucose concentration between WDDGS-CM and WDDGS-peas was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. In summary, feeding coextruded compared with nonextruded supplements or WDDGS-peas compared WDDGS-CM increased yields of milk, fat, and protein. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women

    Paige K. Berger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers (n = 41 were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p < 0.01. Post hoc comparisons showed the HFCS-sweetened beverage vs. control beverage increased breast milk fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL, 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL, 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL, and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL (all p < 0.05. The mean incremental area under the curve for breast milk fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. −2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p < 0.01. There was no treatment × time interaction for breast milk glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  20. Partially hydrolyzed whey proteins prevent clinical symptoms in a cow's milk allergy mouse model and enhance regulatory T and B cell frequencies

    Kiewiet, Mensiena B. Gea; van Esch, Betty C. A. M.; Garssen, Johan; Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Partially hydrolyzed cow's milk proteins are used to prevent cow's milk allergy in children. Here we studied the immunomodulatory mechanisms of partial cow's milk hydrolysates in vivo. Methods and results: Mice were sensitized with whey or partially hydrolyzed whey using cholera toxin.

  1. Partially hydrolyzed whey proteins prevent clinical symptoms in a cow's milk allergy mouse model and enhance regulatory T and B cell frequencies

    Kiewiet, Mensiena B. Gea; van Esch, Betty C. A. M.; Garssen, Johan; Faas, Marijke M.; de Vos, Paul

    Scope: Partially hydrolyzed cow's milk proteins are used to prevent cow's milk allergy in children. Here we studied the immunomodulatory mechanisms of partial cow's milk hydrolysates in vivo. Methods and results: Mice were sensitized with whey or partially hydrolyzed whey using cholera toxin.

  2. Partially hydrolyzed whey proteins prevent clinical symptoms in a cow's milk allergy mouse model and enhance regulatory T and B cell frequencies

    Kiewiet, Mensiena B Gea; van Esch, Betty C A M; Garssen, Johan; Faas, Marijke M; Vos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    SCOPE: Partially hydrolyzed cow's milk proteins are used to prevent cow's milk allergy in children. Here we studied the immunomodulatory mechanisms of partial cow's milk hydrolysates in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were sensitized with whey or partially hydrolyzed whey using cholera toxin.

  3. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: Oxidation linked to changes in protein composition at the oil-water interface

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Baron, Caroline; Bruni Let, Mette

    2007-01-01

    Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 °C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed...

  4. Milk protein responses to balanced amino acid and removal of Leucine and Arginine supplied from jugular-infused amino acid mixture in lactating dairy cows.

    Tian, W; Wang, H R; Wu, T Y; Ding, L Y; Zhao, R; Khas, E; Wang, C F; Zhang, F Q; Mi, F Y; Wang, L; Ning, L T

    2017-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the milk protein response when cows were supplied a balanced AA profile and to determine whether a deficiency of Leucine (Leu) or Arginine (Arg) had a negative effect on milk protein. Eight mid-lactation Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 5-day continuous jugular infusions of saline (CTL), EAA mixture prepared on the profile of casein and supplied (in % of lysine (Lys)) 100% of Lys, 33.3% of methionine (Met), 110.2% of Leu, 43.6% of Arg, 50.8% of threonine (Thr), 81.6% of valine (Val), 69.7% of isoleucine (Ile), 61.4% of phenylalanine (Phe) and 34.2% of histidine (His) (Casein, 160 g/d), EAA mixture excluding Leu (-Leu, 163 g/d) or EAA mixture excluding Arg (-Arg, 158 g/d) in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four infusion periods separated by 7-day interval period. The basal diet supplied 1.6 Mcal NE L and 94.4 g MP per 1 kg DM to meet requirements for lactation. The Casein treatment provided a balanced supply (in % of MP) of 10.3% Leu and 5.3% Arg, whereas in the two subsequent -Leu and -Arg treatments, the concentration of Leu and Arg was reduced to 8.4 and 4.6% respectively. Dry matter intake (15.4 kg/day) was not affected by treatments. The Casein treatment increased milk yield (14.9%, p < 0.001), milk protein yield (120 g, p < 0.001) and milk protein efficiency (0.03, p = 0.099) than CTL treatment. However, the -Leu treatment decreased the responses of above-measured parameters by 6.25%, 70 g, 0.05 (p < 0.06) (compared with Casein). These effects of Leu were related to decreased Leu concentration and improved concentration of Ile and Val in plasma. The -Arg treatment decreased the plasma Arg concentration than the Casein treatment, whereby resulted in the decrease of milk yield (5.7%, p = 0.073), milk protein yield (60 g, p = 0.011) and milk protein efficiency (0.04, p = 0.037). In conclusion, supply of EAA profile of casein can increase the lactation production in dairy cows, and 8

  5. Influence of recycling rate increase of aseptic carton for long-life milk on GWP reduction

    Mourad, Anna Lucia; Garcia, Eloisa E.C.; Vilela, Gustavo Braz; Von Zuben, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Tetra Pak, through intensive cooperation with its supply chain, increased the post-consumer recycling rate of the aseptic packaging for long-life milk in the last 10 years. In continuation of a previous study that presented a superior overall performance in terms of reduction of the consumption of natural resources, air emissions and most of the water emissions, the objective of the present work was to apply life cycle assessment (LCA) to measure the global warming potential (GWP). The system was assessed using as functional unit 1000 liters of milk packaged in Tetra Pak Aseptic containers. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was calculated for recycling rates of 2%, 22%, 30%, 40% and 70% of the post-consumer residues in Scenarios I (only cardboard recycling) and II (total aseptic laminate recycling). Scenario I showed a 14% reduction in GWP, representing 26 kg of avoided CO 2 equiv. emitted due to the efforts of Tetra Pak to increase the recycling rate from 2% (2000) to 22% (2004). If it will be possible to increase the recycling rate to 70% of post-consumer packages in the future, a 48% reduction of GWP could be attained. Methane exhibited the greatest mass reduction among the greenhouse emissions, since it is emitted during the production of cardboard and also as a result of anaerobic degradation in landfills. The total reduction of the energy requirements of the system due to the increase of the recycling rate (from 2% to 22%) is 154 MJ/1000 liters, a saving of 7%. Scenario II (which considers additional polyethylene and aluminum recycling) has a smaller effect on GWP reduction than Scenario I, since PE/AL represent only 25% of the total mass of the container. The major benefit of the recycling of aseptic cartons is the reduction of the amounts of virgin materials required and the consequent reduction of air emissions. The results of this study can be used to encourage the collection of post-consumer milk cartons as part of environmental education

  6. Prospective estimation of IgG, IgG subclass and IgE antibodies to dietary proteins in infants with cow milk allergy. Levels of antibodies to whole milk protein, BLG and ovalbumin in relation to repeated milk challenge and clinical course of cow milk allergy

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Gjesing, B

    1992-01-01

    Prospectively, serum levels of IgE, specific IgE antibodies (AB) to whole cow milk protein (CMP), bovine se-albumin, bovine immunoglobulin, bovine lactoferrin, bovine lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), IgG and IgG subclass antibodies to ovalbumin (OA) and BLG, and IgG4 RAST to CMP (bovine...... whey) were measured in 39 infants with cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) at birth (cord blood), at time of diagnosis and before and after milk challenge at the age of 12 months. Immunological measurements were also undertaken in 33 control infants without CMPA at birth, at 6 months and at 18 months...... of the type of CMPA (IgE-mediated (CMA) or non-IgE-mediated (CMI)), and irrespective of whether remission had occurred. In cord blood 25/33 (76%) of the infants with CMPA had specific IgE-AB to one or more of the bovine milk proteins indicating a prenatal intrauterine sensitization to cow milk protein. At 6...

  7. Cow's milk increases the activities of human nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and delta and retinoid X receptor alpha involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, obesity, and inflammation.

    Suhara, W; Koide, H; Okuzawa, T; Hayashi, D; Hashimoto, T; Kojo, H

    2009-09-01

    The nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) have been shown to play crucial roles in regulating energy homeostasis including lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammatory responses, and cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Because PPAR agonists have the potential to prevent or ameliorate diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and obesity, we have explored new natural agonists for PPAR. For this purpose, cow's milk was tested for agonistic activity toward human PPAR subtypes using a reporter gene assay. Milk increased human PPARalpha activity in a dose-dependent manner with a 3.2-fold increase at 0.5% (vol/vol). It also enhanced human PPARdelta activity in a dose-dependent manner with an 11.5-fold increase at 0.5%. However, it only slightly affected human PPARgamma activity. Ice cream, butter, and yogurt also increased the activities of PPARalpha and PPARdelta, whereas vegetable cream affected activity of PPARdelta but not PPARalpha. Skim milk enhanced the activity of PPAR to a lesser degree than regular milk. Milk and fresh cream increased the activity of human retinoid X receptor (RXR)alpha as well as PPARalpha and PPARdelta, whereas neither affected vitamin D3 receptor, estrogen receptors alpha and beta, or thyroid receptors alpha and beta. Both milk and fresh cream were shown by quantitative real-time PCR to increase the quantity of mRNA for uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an energy expenditure gene, in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in UCP2 mRNA was found to be reduced by treatment with PPARdelta-short interfering (si)RNA. This study unambiguously clarified at the cellular level that cow's milk increased the activities of human PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and RXRalpha. The possible role in enhancing the activities of PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and RXRalpha, and the health benefits of cow's milk were discussed.

  8. Production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk highly enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from dairy cows fed alfalfa protein concentrate or supplemental vitamin E.

    Fauteux, M-C; Gervais, R; Rico, D E; Lebeuf, Y; Chouinard, P Y

    2016-06-01

    Given its elevated content of carotenoids, alfalfa protein concentrates (APC) have the potential to prevent oxidation of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The effects of feeding APC or supplemental vitamin E on production, composition, and oxidative stability of milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids were evaluated using 6 lactating Holstein cows (224±18d in milk) in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (21-d periods, 14d for adaptation). Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) (1) 9% soybean meal (control, CTL); (2) 9% soybean meal + 300 IU of vitamin E/kg (VitE treatment); or (3) 9% APC (APC treatment). Cows received a continuous abomasal infusion of 450g/d of linseed oil. As a result, milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 increased from 1.08±0.13 to 3.9±0.40% (mean ± SD), whereas cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased from 0.40±0.04 to 14.27±1.81% during the experimental period compared with the pretrial period. Milk yield tended to be higher for APC (14.7kg/d) compared with CTL (13.4kg/d), and was greater than that for VitE (13.0kg/d). Protein yield was higher in cows fed APC (518g/d) compared with VitE (445g/d) but was not different from that in cows fed CTL (483g/d). These effects resulted in improved milk N efficiency in cows fed APC (26.1% of N intake secreted in milk) compared with CTL (23.0%) and VitE (22.9%). Feeding APC increased milk fat content of lutein (252μg/g) compared with CTL (204μg/g) and VitE (190μg/g). Milk fat content of vitamin E was higher for APC (34.5μg/g) compared with CTL (19.0μg/g) and tended to be lower than that with VitE (44.9μg/g). Redox potential of fresh milk from cows fed APC (152mV) was similar to that of VitE (144mV), but lower than that of CTL (189mV). Treatments had no effect on fresh milk contents of dissolved oxygen (8.1±1.5mg/L), and conjugated diene hydroperoxides (2.7±0.5mmol/L). The concentrations of volatile lipid oxidation products (propanal, hexanal, hept-cis-4-enal, 1-octen-3-one) tended

  9. Urea recycling contributes to nitrogen retention in calves fed milk replacer and low-protein solid feed

    Berends, Harma; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Røjen, Betina A.

    2014-01-01

    Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea...... recycling to protein anabolism in calves during the transition from preruminants (milk-fed calves) to ruminants [solid feed (SF)-fed calves] is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify urea recycling in milk-fed calves when provided with low-protein SF. Forty-eight calves [164 ± 1.6 kg body weight (BW......)] were assigned to 1 of 4 SF levels [0, 9, 18, and 27 g of dry matter (DM) SF · kg BW2-0.75 . d-1] provided in addition to an identical amount of milk replacer. Urea recycling was quantified after a 24-h intravenous infusion of [15N2]urea by analyzing urea isotopomers in 68-h fecal and urinary...

  10. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    Lina Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP, dimethyl labeling and LC–MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four individual mothers. A total of 247 proteins were identified, of which 200 proteins were quantified. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication (Zhang et al., 2006 [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2016 [2] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD003465.

  11. Effect of feed intake on heat production and protein and fat deposition in milk-fed veal calves.

    Labussiere, E; Maxin, G; Dubois, S; van Milgen, J; Bertrand, G; Noblet, J

    2009-04-01

    Energy requirements for veal calves have not been updated recently despite the increased age at slaughter and the predominance of the Prim'Holstein breed in Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of four feeding levels (FLs) on protein and fat deposition and heat production in milk-fed calves at three stages of fattening and to determine energy requirements of calves. At each stage, 16 Prim'Holstein male calves (mean body weight (BW): 73.4, 151.6 and 237.4 kg) were fed a milk replacer at 79%, 87%, 95% or 103% of a reference FL. Measurements for one stage were conducted over 4 successive weeks in two open-circuit respiration chambers and consisted of a 6-day nitrogen and energy balance followed by a fasting day for estimating fasting heat production (FHP) of the calves. Heat production (HP) measurements were analyzed using a modeling approach to partition it between HP due to physical activity (AHP), feed intake (thermic effect of feeding (TEF)) and FHP. There was no effect of FL and stage on apparent digestibility coefficients, except for a tendency for increased digestibility coefficient of fat as animals got older. The metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy (DE) ratio did not depend on FL but decreased (P intake, respectively. The FHP, expressed per kg BW0.85, increased with increasing FL, suggesting that also ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) may depend on FL. For an average intake of 625 kJ ME/kg BW0.85 per day (95% of the reference FL), FHP was 298 kJ/kg BW0.85 per day. Energy retention as protein and fat increased with increasing FL resulted in higher BW gain. But the rate of increase depended on stage of growth. The slope relating protein deposition to FL was lower in the finishing phase than in the growing phase, while the slope for lipid deposition was greater. Protein and fat contents of BW gain were not affected by FL but increased as animals got older. From these results, the energy requirements of veal calves are

  12. Influence of twisted tape turbulence promoter on fouling reduction in microfiltration of milk proteins

    Popović Svetlana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane filtration has become one of the major technologies in the food industry. It is widely applied in the dairy industry, and it is mostly used for the concentration and fractionation of milk proteins and for the whey processing. Of all pressure driven membrane processes, ultrafiltration is the most widely used. The major disadvantage of pressure driven membrane processes is severe fouling of membrane during filtration particularly when the fluids containing proteins are processed. Fouling with proteins is complex phenomenon because it occurs at the membrane surface as well as in the pores of membrane, and depends on the operating conditions and on the interactions of proteins and membrane material. In order to reduce fouling of the membrane different techniques have been developed, and one of them relies on the changing of the hydrodynamic conditions in the membrane or module. In this study, influence of twisted tape turbulence promoters on the fouling reduction in cross-flow microfiltration of skim milk was investigated. Twisted tapes with tree characteristic ratios of helix element length to the tape diameter (aspect ratio were studied. It was shown that twisted tapes with different aspect ratios reduce fouling of membrane by a factor of three or more. The presence of twisted tape induces changes in the flow patterns from straight to helicoidally thus producing turbulence flow at the lower cross-flow rates. Turbulence intensification prevents accumulation of proteins at membrane surface enabling reduction in reversible fouling what results in the reduction of overall membrane fouling. The best performance was achieved using a twisted tape with the lowest aspect ratio of 1.0. This promoter reduces fouling seven times at low transmembrane pressure and low cross-flow velocity. The twisted tape with aspect ratio 1.0 induces the most intensive turbulence, the longest helicoidal flow path, and appearance of vortices near the membrane surfaces

  13. Comparison of the dilational behaviour of adsorbed milk proteins at the air-water and oil-water interfaces.

    Williams, A.; Prins, A.

    1996-01-01

    The interfacial dilational properties of two milk proteins, β-casein and β-lactoglobulin, have been compared at the air-water and paraffin oil-water interfaces. The measurements were performed as a function of bulk protein concentration using a modified Langmuir trough technique at a frequency of

  14. Soy compared with milk protein in a Western diet changes fecal microbiota and decreases hepatic steatosis in obese OLETF rats.

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Schuster, Colin M; Phillips, Kathryn E; Meers, Grace M; Chintapalli, Sree V; Wankhade, Umesh D; Shankar, Kartik; Butteiger, Dustie N; Krul, Elaine S; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2017-08-01

    Soy protein is effective at preventing hepatic steatosis; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that soy vs. dairy protein-based diet would alter microbiota and attenuate hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. Male OLETF rats were randomized to "Western" diets containing milk protein isolate (MPI), soy protein isolate (SPI) or 50:50 MPI/SPI (MS) (n=9-10/group; 21% kcal protein) for 16 weeks. SPI attenuated (Pcontent, and hepatic 16:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-7 PUFA concentrations) (Pbacterial 16S rRNA analysis revealed SPI-intake elicited increases (P<.05) in Lactobacillus and decreases (P<.05) in Blautia and Lachnospiraceae suggesting decreases in fecal secondary bile acids in SPI rats. SPI and MS exhibited greater (P<.05) hepatic Fxr, Fgfr4, Hnf4a, HmgCoA reductase and synthase mRNA expression compared with MPI. Overall, dietary SPI compared with MPI decreased hepatic steatosis and diacylglycerols, changed microbiota populations and altered bile acid signaling and cholesterol homeostasis in a rodent model of obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  16. Properties of Folate Binding Protein Purified from Cow’s Milk

    SUBANDRATE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid played an important role in the metabolism of the body. To measure the serum folic acid levels could use the folate binding protein (FBP from cow’s milk with a technique analogous to ELISA. The aims of this study were to identify characteristics of FBP from cow’s milk and binding capacity of FBP to folic acid and to purify FBP from other whey protein passed through DEAE-cellulose chromatography column. Each of DEAE-cellulose peaks was passed in affinity chromatography column. FBP was released from affinity column with sodium acetate buffer pH 3.5. The purity of obtained FBP was demonstrated by a single spot in SDS-PAGE analysis and the estimated molecular weight of FBP was around 31 kDa. Our study indicated that 1 mol FBP bound 1 mol folic acid. Alkylation with iodoacetic acid decreased the binding capacity of FBP which suggested the presence of a–SH or imidazol group in its active site. The importance of disulfide bridge was proven by decreasing of folate binding capacity of FBP after -mercaptoethanol treatment. In contrary, the folate binding didn need Ca2+ ion, as indicated by EDTA test which gave the same result as control.

  17. Higher protein intake strategies in human milk fortification for preterms infants feeding. Auxological and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Biasini, A; Neri, C; China, M C; Monti, F; Di Nicola, P; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal growth restriction and failure to thrive still remain a major problem in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants . The goal for the nutritional care of these infants is to achieve rate of growth similar to those of the fetus in utero at the equivalent gestational age. Human milk fortified remains the best food for all these preterms. Two groups of preterm of weight 580-1250 g and gestational age 23-32 wk, were fed with different protein intake in the human/maternal milk fortified ( 3,5 g Kg-1 per day and 4,8 g Kg-1 per day in the control and intervention group respectively).The feeding tolerance, intrahospital growth, neurological outcome and anthropometric data until 12 months of corrected age, were evaluated. The protein supplemented group (PSG) showed an intrahospital highter growth rate ( mostly in head circumference, p 0,02, and length growth, p 0,04) only in the preterms with 580-980 g and 23-30 wk. In the same preterms, Griffith Development Mental Score at 3 and 12 months corrected age showed higher score than in the control group in the Performance (p 0,04) and Hearing/Language (p 0,03) items. The auxological evaluation in the postdischarge period showed in the PSG group mean z-score values for length higher than those in the control group at 9 (p 0,04) months of corrected age.

  18. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF SOME PROTEINS IN THE MILK OF CARPATHIAN GOAT

    MIHAELA ZAULET

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects of the polymorphism of some Carpathian goat milk proteins. The Carpathian breed is the main breed of goats reared in Romania. The optimal working conditions were determined for the identification of the casein phenotypes. The technique of the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used. The milk samples were processed to remove the fat and whey and the migration was done in the presence of a standard sample which contained proteins with different molecular weights. The interpretation of the electrophoresis migrations revealed the presence of two genotypes, the homozygous genotype β-Cn BB and the heterozygous β-Cn AB. The homozygous genotype β-Cn AA was not identified in any individual. The heterozygous genotype β-Cn AB displayed a high frequency (59% and it was observed in 10 individuals. The homozygous genotype β-Cn BB was observed in 7 individuals and it had a frequency of 41%. The homozygous genotype β-Cn AA has not been identified in the studied population. The distribution of these genotypes showed that allele β-CnB was predominant (70% over allele β-can (30%.

  19. KEEPING QUALITY OF YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND SKIM MILK POWDER BY USING GAMMA RADIATION

    ANWAR, M.M.; YOUSEF, E.T.; ABD-ELHADI, Y.A.

    2009-01-01

    Four batches of yoghurt were prepared to study the effect of gamma radiation doses on the quality of yoghurt. All samples were prepared by the addition of 1.5% whey proteins concentrate and 1.5% skim milk powder (from buffalo's milk). The four yoghurt batches were treated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. All treated yoghurt was kept in a refrigerator at 7 0C and samples were examined every three days for chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Control yoghurt that was not exposed to gamma radiation exhibited the highest total bacterial counts and lactic acid bacterial counts after 6 day from storage while the irradiated samples counts were decreased and this decrease was proportional to the dose of gamma radiation used. Applying gamma radiation improved the keeping quality of yoghurt, which provide that control yoghurt was still accepted till the 12 th day while the samples irradiated with 1, 2 and 3 kGy were still accepted till the 15, 24 and 30 days, respectively. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all yoghurt treatment and there were non-significant differences among yoghurt treatments considering the chemical composition. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be recommended for both increasing the shelf-life of yoghurt and enhance its overall quality.

  20. Short communication: The gain-of-function Y581S polymorphism of the ABCG2 transporter increases secretion into milk of danofloxacin at the therapeutic dose for mastitis treatment.

    Otero, J A; Barrera, B; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M; Álvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 restricts the exposure of certain drugs and natural compounds in different tissues and organs. Its expression in the mammary gland is induced during lactation and is responsible for the active secretion of many compounds into milk, including antimicrobial agents. This particular function of ABCG2 may affect drug efficacy against mastitis and the potential presence of drug residues in the milk. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies showed increased transport of several compounds, including fluoroquinolones, by the bovine ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism. Our main purpose was to study the potential effect of this bovine ABCG2 polymorphism on the secretion into milk of the antimicrobial danofloxacin administered at the therapeutic dose of 6mg/kg used for mastitis treatment. In addition, the effect of this polymorphism on the relative mRNA and protein levels of ABCG2 by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were studied. Danofloxacin 18% (6mg/kg) was administered to 6 Y/Y homozygous and 5 Y/S heterozygous cows. Danofloxacin levels in milk and milk-to-plasma concentration ratios were almost 1.5- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in Y/S cows compared with the Y/Y cows, showing a higher capacity of this variant to transport danofloxacin into milk. Furthermore, the higher activity of this polymorphism is not linked to higher ABCG2 mRNA or protein levels. These results demonstrate the relevant effect of the Y581S polymorphism of the bovine ABCG2 transporter in the secretion into milk of danofloxacin after administration of 6mg/kg, with potentially important consequences for mastitis treatment and for milk residue handling. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  2. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants are increased by feeding a milk-based infant formula supplemented with carotenoids.

    Mackey, Amy D; Albrecht, Daniel; Oliver, Jeffery; Williams, Timberly; Long, Amy C; Price, Pamela T

    2013-06-01

    Human milk is the gold standard of infant nutrition and is a source of important substances, including carotenoids. Infant formulas are designed to mimic the composition and/or performance of human milk, although currently carotenoids are not routinely added to US infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess plasma concentrations of β-carotene, lutein and lycopene 56 days after feeding infants milk-based infant formula without (CTRL) or with different concentrations of added carotenoids (L1 and L2). Plasma carotenoid concentrations increased in infants fed carotenoid-supplemented formulas as compared with the control formula with no added carotenoids. At study day 56, infants fed the supplemented formulas (L1 and L2) had mean plasma lutein, β-carotene and lycopene concentrations that were within the range of a concurrent group of human milk-fed infants (HM). Anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants fed the supplemented formulas were within the range of the HM group and are consistent with reported plasma carotenoid ranges in human milk-fed infants. The experimental formulas were well tolerated and anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Gastric Emptying and Gastrointestinal Transit Compared among Native and Hydrolyzed Whey and Casein Milk Proteins in an Aged Rat Model.

    Dalziel, Julie E; Young, Wayne; McKenzie, Catherine M; Haggarty, Neill W; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-12-13

    Little is known about how milk proteins affect gastrointestinal (GI) transit, particularly for the elderly, in whom digestion has been observed to be slowed. We tested the hypothesis that GI transit is faster for whey than for casein and that this effect is accentuated with hydrolysates, similar to soy. Adult male rats (18 months old) were fed native whey or casein, hydrolyzed whey (WPH) or casein (CPH), hydrolyzed blend (HB; 60% whey:40% casein), or hydrolyzed soy for 14 days then treated with loperamide, prucalopride, or vehicle-control for 7 days. X-ray imaging tracked bead-transit for: gastric emptying (GE; 4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine (LI) transit (12 h). GE for whey was 33 ± 12% faster than that for either casein or CPH. SI transit was decreased by 37 ± 9% for casein and 24 ± 6% for whey compared with hydrolyzed soy, and persisted for casein at 12 h. Although CPH and WPH did not alter transit compared with their respective intact counterparts, fecal output was increased by WPH. Slowed transit by casein was reversed by prucalopride (9-h), but not loperamide. However, rapid GE and slower SI transit for the HB compared with intact forms were inhibited by loperamide. The expected slower GI transit for casein relative to soy provided a comparative benchmark, and opioid receptor involvement was corroborated. Our findings provide new evidence that whey slowed SI transit compared with soy, independent of GE. Increased GI transit from stomach to colon for the HB compared with casein suggests that including hydrolyzed milk proteins in foods may benefit those with slowed intestinal transit.

  5. Impact of Diet Supplemented by Coconut Milk on Corticosterone and Acute Phase Protein Level under High Stocking Density

    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of coconut milk supplementation on corticosterone and acute phase protein level under high stocking density. A total 300 Cobb 500 male chicks were placed in cages and stocked as 10 birds/cage (normal stocking density and 15 birds/cage (high stocking density. The treatments were as (i control diet and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (ii control diet + 3% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (iii control diet + 5% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage. On day 42, 20 birds per treatment were slaughtered to collect blood samples. The results showed higher level of corticosterone and acute phase protein level in control diet compare to other supplemented diets with coconut milk. In conclusion, coconut milk decreased the level of corticosterone and acute phase protein when chicks were subjected to high stocking density.

  6. [Study of the contents in fat, in protein and in vitamin D of powdered milk varieties sold in Dakar].

    Ndiaye, B; Fall, M; Fall, D; Sarr, S O; Faye, D; Diop, A; Diop, Y M

    2008-01-01

    The powdered milk is a much appreciated food in Senegal. However no particular control is realized by authorities on the various marks of milk imported before their marketing. In the concern to protect the health of the consumers, but especially in front of the very big variety of the sources of supply in this product we determined the contents in fat, in protein and in vitamin D main variety show of marketed powdered milk Dakar. Chemical methods were operated to determine the fat contents and in proteins. The liquid chromatography in high performance was used to identify and measure the vitamin D. The obtained results profits showed that all the studied samples of milk had contents in fat included between 25 and 31 g %, those in proteins were included between 23 and 25 g %. As regards the dosage of the vitamin D, a single sample had content weaker than that mentioned on the packaging by the manufacturer. The results of this study allowed to notice most of the variety varieties of powdered milk marketed in Dakar were in accordance with the standards established for this food and are consequently good quality.

  7. Minimal dose of milk protein concentrate to enhance the anabolic signalling response to a single bout of resistance exercise; a randomised controlled trial.

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Zeng, Nina; D'Souza, Randall F; Mitchell, Sarah M; Aasen, Kirsten; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2017-01-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to induce muscle hypertrophy. Supplemental protein intake is known to enhance gains in muscle mass through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which initiates protein translation. While the optimal dose of high quality protein to promote post exercise anabolism in young or older men has been investigated, little is known about the minimum doses of protein required to potentiate the resistance exercise activation of anabolic signalling in middle aged men. Twenty healthy men (46.3 ± 5.7 years, BMI: 23.9 ± 6.6 kg/m 2 ) completed a single bout of unilateral resistance exercise consisting of 4 sets of leg extension and press at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Participants were randomised to consume either formulated milk product containing 9 g milk protein (FMP) or an isoenergetic carbohydrate placebo (CHO) immediately post exercise, in a double blind fashion. A single muscle biopsy was collected at pre-exercise baseline and then bilateral biopsies were collected 90 and 240 min after beverage consumption. P70S6K Thr389 phosphorylation was increased with exercise irrespective of group, P70S6K Thr421/Ser424 was increased with exercise only in the FMP group at 240 min. Likewise, rpS6 Ser235/236 phosphorylation was increased with exercise irrespective of group, rpS6 Ser240/244 increased to a greater extent following exercise in the FMP group. mRNA expression of the amino acid transporter, LAT1/ SLC7A5 increased with both exercise and beverage consumption irrespective of group. PAT1/ SLC36A1 , CAT1/ SLC7A1 and SNAT2/ SLC38A2 mRNA increased only after exercise regardless of group. Nine grams of milk protein is sufficient to augment some measures of downstream mTORC1 signalling after resistance exercise but does not potentiate exercise induced increases in amino acid transporter expression. Formulated products containing nine grams of milk protein would be expected stimulate muscle

  8. A nine-country study of the protein content and amino acid composition of mature human milk

    Ping Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. Objective: Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis. Design: Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30–188 days postpartum from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer. Total protein was calculated as total nitrogen×6.25. True protein, which includes protein, free amino acids, and peptides, was calculated from the total amino acids. Results: Mean total protein from individual countries (standard deviation [SD] ranged from 1,133 (125.5 to 1,366 (341.4 mg/dL; the mean across all countries (SD was 1,192 (200.9 mg/dL. Total protein, true protein, and amino acid composition were not significantly different across countries except Chile, which had higher total and true protein. Amino acid profiles (percent of total amino acids did not differ across countries. Total and true protein concentrations and 16 of 18 amino acid concentrations declined with the stage of lactation. Conclusions: Total protein, true protein, and individual amino acid concentrations in human milk steadily decline from 30 to 151 days of lactation, and are significantly higher in the second month of lactation compared with the following 4 months. There is a high level of consistency in the protein content and amino acid composition of human milk across geographic locations. The size and diversity of the study population and highly standardized procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of human milk support

  9. Temporal Changes of Protein Composition in Breast Milk of Chinese Urban Mothers and Impact of Caesarean Section Delivery

    Michael Affolter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk (BM protein composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present study aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BM major proteins over lactation stages and the impact of mode of delivery on immune factors, in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. 450 BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities, covering 8 months of lactation were analyzed for α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, serum albumin, total caseins, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG and transforming growth factor (TGF β1 and β2 content by microfluidic chip- or ELISA-based quantitative methods. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, IgM and TGF-β1 contents followed similar variations characterized by highest concentrations in early lactation that rapidly decreased before remaining stable up to end of lactation. TGF-β2 content displayed same early dynamics before increasing again. Total caseins followed a different pattern, showing initial increase before decreasing back to starting values. Serum albumin and IgG levels appeared stable throughout lactation. In conclusion, BM content in major proteins of urban mothers in China was comparable with previous studies carried out in other parts of the world and C-section delivery had only very limited impact on BM immune factors.

  10. Impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cattle producers' reports of milking labour management, milk production and milk quality.

    Tse, C; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J; Rushen, J; Pajor, E A

    2018-04-04

    Automatic milking systems (AMS), or milking robots, are becoming widely accepted as a milking technology that reduces labour and increases milk yield. However, reported amount of labour saved, changes in milk yield, and milk quality when transitioning to AMS vary widely. The purpose of this study was to document the impact of adopting AMS on farms with regards to reported changes in milking labour management, milk production, milk quality, and participation in dairy herd improvement (DHI) programmes. A survey was conducted across Canada over the phone, online, and in-person. In total, 530 AMS farms were contacted between May 2014 and the end of June 2015. A total of 217 AMS producers participated in the General Survey (Part 1), resulting in a 41% response rate, and 69 of the respondents completed the more detailed follow-up questions (Part 2). On average, after adopting AMS, the number of employees (full- and part-time non-family labour combined) decreased from 2.5 to 2.0, whereas time devoted to milking-related activities decreased by 62% (from 5.2 to 2.0 h/day). Median milking frequency was 3.0 milkings/day and robots were occupied on average 77% of the day. Producers went to fetch cows a median of 2 times/day, with a median of 3 fetch cows or 4% of the herd per robot/day. Farms had a median of 2.5 failed or incomplete milkings/robot per day. Producers reported an increase in milk yield, but little effect on milk quality. Mean milk yield on AMS farms was 32.6 kg/cow day. Median bulk tank somatic cell count was 180 000 cells/ml. Median milk fat on AMS farms was 4.0% and median milk protein was 3.3%. At the time of the survey, 67% of producers were current participants of a DHI programme. Half of the producers who were not DHI participants had stopped participation after adopting AMS. Overall, this study characterized impacts of adopting AMS and may be a useful guide for making this transition.

  11. The rapid determination of fat and protein content in fresh raw milk using the laser light scattering technology

    Xin, Qi; Zhi Ling, Hou; Jian Long, Tian; Zhu, Yu

    2006-08-01

    The aim was to develop a simple and rapid method for determination of fat and protein content in milk. Based on the laser light scattering theory, the ratio of the scattered light (at 90±0.05° scattering angles) intensity to the transmitted light intensity, which is called scattered-transmitted-ratio method, is adopted as the optical parameter representing the milk fat content and the protein content. In this way, the influence of the fluctuation of the power of the light source is eliminated and the accuracy of determination is improved accordingly. The system we use is real-time and can satisfy the challenging requirements of dairy farming. Results of this study indicate the feasibility of using this technology for fresh milk fat and protein analysis. The fat contents and protein contents of 50 milk samples determined by this method were consistent with the values obtained by the reference methods based on Rose-Gottlieb method and Kjeldahl determination of N method. In this paper, the operating principle of the instrument is introduced and the influence of the environmental conditions, such as the homogenization pressure and homogenization temperature, etc. on the result of the test is analyzed. Through data analysis, the concrete schemes for testing the fat using the curve fitting and testing the protein using the surface fitting technique are determined. Finally, the difference from the reference values of the test is discussed.

  12. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk.

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant's optimal growth and development. The growing infant's immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant's innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk's effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant's intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant's gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing infant.

  13. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    E. Nurdin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcumamangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milkprotein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomizeddesign was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcumazeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. Thecollected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects wastested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbssignificantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreasedmastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  15. Effects of cow milk versus extensive protein hydrolysate formulas on infant cognitive development.

    Mennella, Julie A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Papas, Mia A

    2016-03-01

    Little research has focused on infant developmental effects, other than growth, of formulas that differ substantially in the form of protein. To examine development of infants fed formulas differing in free amino acid content, we randomized 0.5-month-old infants (n = 79) to either a control group who fed only cow milk formula (CMF) during the first 8 months (CMF8), or to one of two experimental groups: one experimental group fed extensively protein hydrolyzed formula (EHF) for 1-3 months during first 4.5 months (EHF1-3) of life, and the other fed EHF for 8 months (EHF8). The Mullen Scales of Early Learning were administered monthly from 1.5 to 8.5 months to assess fine (FM) and gross (GM) motor control, receptive (RL) and expressive (EL) language, visual reception (VR), and an early learning composite (ELC). Across the 5.5-8.5-month time period, when compared to CMF8 infants, GM scores in EHF1-3 infants averaged 1.5 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.0) and in EHF8 infants 2.2 points higher (95 % CI 0.3, 4.0). Similarly, VR scores averaged 1.9 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.8) in EHF1-3 infants and 2.2 points higher (95 % CI -0.2, 4.5) in EHF8 infants. EHF8 infants' RL scores averaged 1.8 points lower (95 % CI 0.1, 3.6) than CMF8 infants. These data suggest that the form of protein in infant formula may impact cognitive development and that the higher free amino acid content in breast milk may be a contributing factor to the differential cognitive development between breastfed and CMF-fed infants. clinicaltrials.gov NCT00994747.

  16. Milk peptides increase iron solubility in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our objectives were to investigate whether these fractions a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Peptid...

  17. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. DESIGN: During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet...... through questionnaires and on covariates through telephone interviews and ascertained birth outcomes through registry linkages. Findings were adjusted for mother's parity, age, height, prepregnant BMI, gestational weight gain, smoking status, and total energy intake; father's height; and family...

  18. [Determination of fat, protein and DM in raw milk by portable short-wave near infrared spectrometer].

    Li, Xiao-yun; Wang, Jia-hua; Huang, Ya-wei; Han, Dong-hai

    2011-03-01

    Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy calibrations of fat, protein and DM in raw milk were studied with partial least-squares (PLS) regression using portable short-wave near infrared spectrometer. The results indicated that good calibrations of fat and DM were found, the correlation coefficients were all 0.98, the RMSEC were 0.187 and 0.217, RMSEP were 0.187 and 0.296, the RPDs were 5.02 and 3.20 respectively; the calibration of protein needed to be improved but can be used for practice, the correlation coefficient was 0.95, RMSEC was 0.105, RMSEP was 0.120, and RPD was 2.60. Furthermore, the measuring accuracy was improved by analyzing the correction relation of fat and DM in raw milk This study will probably provide a new on-site method for nondestructive and rapid measurement of milk.

  19. Determination of protein concentration in raw milk by mid-infrared fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy.

    Etzion, Y; Linker, R; Cogan, U; Shmulevich, I

    2004-09-01

    This study investigates the potential use of attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range for determining protein concentration in raw cow milk. The determination of protein concentration is based on the characteristic absorbance of milk proteins, which includes 2 absorbance bands in the 1500 to 1700 cm(-1) range, known as the amide I and amide II bands, and absorbance in the 1060 to 1100 cm(-1) range, which is associated with phosphate groups covalently bound to casein proteins. To minimize the influence of the strong water band (centered around 1640 cm(-1)) that overlaps with the amide I and amide II bands, an optimized automatic procedure for accurate water subtraction was applied. Following water subtraction, the spectra were analyzed by 3 methods, namely simple band integration, partial least squares (PLS) and neural networks. For the neural network models, the spectra were first decomposed by principal component analysis (PCA), and the neural network inputs were the spectra principal components scores. In addition, the concentrations of 2 constituents expected to interact with the protein (i.e., fat and lactose) were also used as inputs. These approaches were tested with 235 spectra of standardized raw milk samples, corresponding to 26 protein concentrations in the 2.47 to 3.90% (weight per volume) range. The simple integration method led to very poor results, whereas PLS resulted in prediction errors of about 0.22% protein. The neural network approach led to prediction errors of 0.20% protein when based on PCA scores only, and 0.08% protein when lactose and fat concentrations were also included in the model. These results indicate the potential usefulness of Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy for rapid, possibly online, determination of protein concentration in raw milk.

  20. Lowering rumen-degradable protein maintained energy-corrected milk yield and improved nitrogen-use efficiency in multiparous lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Kaufman, J D; Kassube, K R; Ríus, A G

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of reducing rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) proportions on feed intake, milk production, and N-use efficiency in primiparous and multiparous cows exposed to warm climates. Eighteen primiparous and 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments formulated to contain 2 proportions of RDP (10 and 8%) and 2 proportions RUP (8 and 6%) of dry matter (DM) indicated as follows: (1) 10% RDP, 8% RUP; (2) 8% RDP, 8% RUP; (3) 10% RDP, 6% RUP; and (4) 8% RDP, 6% RUP. Protein sources were manipulated to obtain desired RDP and RUP proportions. Diets were isoenergetic and contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate (DM basis). Cows were individually fed the 10% RDP, 8% RUP diet 3 wk before treatment allocation. Cows were exposed to the prevailing Tennessee July and August temperature and humidity in a freestall barn with no supplemental cooling. Main effects and their interaction were tested using the Mixed procedure of SAS (least squares means ± standard error of the mean; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Observed values of nutrient intake and milk production were used to obtain NRC (2001) model predictions. Cows showed signs of heat stress throughout the study. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased dry matter intake (DMI; 0.9 kg/d) at 8% RUP, but increased DMI (2.6 kg/d) at 6% RUP in primiparous cows. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased milk yield (10%) at 8% RUP, but increased yield (14%) at 6% RUP. Treatments did not affect yield of energy-corrected milk. For multiparous cows, treatments did not affect DMI. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased yield of energy-corrected milk (3.4%) at 8% RUP, but increased yield (8.8%) at 6% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP and 8 to 6% RUP both increased N-use efficiency for primiparous and multiparous cows. The NRC

  1. Role of Proteins and of Some Bioactive Peptides on the Nutritional Quality of Donkey Milk and Their Impact on Human Health

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Donkey milk could be considered a good and safer alternative, compared to other types of milk, for infants affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, when breastfeeding is not possible. Interestingly, donkey milk has low allergenicity, mainly due to the low total casein amount, and the content of some whey proteins that act as bioactive peptides. The amount of lysozyme, an antibacterial agent, is 1.0 g/L, similar to human milk. Lactoferrin content is 0.08 g/L, with this protein being involved in the regulation of iron homoeostasis, anti-microbial and anti-viral functions, and protection against cancer development. Lactoperoxidase, another protein with antibacterial function, is present in donkey milk, but in very low quantities (0.11 mg/L. β-lactoglobulin content in donkey milk is 3.75 g/L—this protein is able to bind and transport several hydrophobic molecules. Donkey milk’s α-lactalbumin concentration is 1.8 g/L, very close to that of human milk. α-lactalbumin shows antiviral, antitumor, and anti-stress properties. Therefore, donkey milk can be considered as a set of nutraceuticals properties and a beverage suitable, not only for the growing infants, but for all ages, especially for convalescents and for the elderly.

  2. Milk protein-gum tragacanth mixed gels: effect of heat-treatment sequence.

    Hatami, Masoud; Nejatian, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Pourmand, Hanieh

    2014-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the heat-treatment sequence of biopolymer mixtures as a formulation parameter on the acid-induced gelation of tri-polymeric systems composed of sodium caseinate (Na-caseinate), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and gum tragacanth (GT). This was studied by applying four sequences of heat treatment: (A) co-heating all three biopolymers; (B) heating the milk-protein dispersion and the GT dispersion separately; (C) heating the dispersion containing Na-caseinate and GT together and heating whey protein alone; and (D) co-heating whey protein with GT and heating Na-caseinate alone. According to small-deformation rheological measurements, the strength of the mixed-gel network decreased in the order: C>B>D>A samples. SEM micrographs show that the network of sample C is much more homogenous, coarse and dense than sample A, while the networks of samples B and D are of intermediate density. The heat-treatment sequence of the biopolymer mixtures as a formulation parameter thus offers an opportunity to control the microstructure and rheological properties of mixed gels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fermented milk for hypertension

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  4. Effect of repeat unit structure and molecular mass of lactic acid bacteria hetero-exopolysaccharides on binding to milk proteins

    Birch, Johnny; HarÐarson, HörÐur Kári; Khan, Sanaullah

    2017-01-01

    -exopolysaccharides (HePSs) of 0.14–4.9 MDa from lactic acid bacteria to different milk proteins (β-casein, κ-casein, native and heat-treated β-lactoglobulin) at pH 4.0–5.0. Maximum binding capacity (RUmax) and apparent affinity (KA,app) were HePS- and protein-dependent and varied for example 10- and 600-fold......, respectively, in the complexation with native β-lactoglobulin at pH 4.0. Highest RUmax and KA,app were obtained with heat-treated β-lactoglobulin and β-casein, respectively. Overall, RUmax and KA,app decreased 6- and 20-fold, respectively, with increasing pH from 4.0 to 5.0. KA,app was influenced by ionic......Interactions of exopolysaccharides and proteins are of great importance in food science, but complicated to analyze and quantify at the molecular level. A surface plasmon resonance procedure was established to characterize binding of seven structure-determined, branched hetero...

  5. Correlation between the Insertion/Deletion Mutations of Prion Protein Gene and BSE Susceptibility and Milk Performance in Dairy Cows

    Hu Shen-rong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the 23 bp and 12 bp insertion/deletion (indel mutations within the bovine prion protein (PRNP gene in Chinese dairy cows, and to detect the associations of two indel mutations with BSE susceptibility and milk performance.

  6. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND AN ATRAZINE METABOLITE MIXTURE ON DIFFERENTIATED MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL MILK PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN CULTURE

    Effects of Atrazine and an Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on Differentiated Mammary Epithelial Cell Milk Protein Production in CultureE.P. Hines, R. Barbee, M. Blanton, M.S. Pooler, and S.E. Fenton. US EPA, ORD/NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC, 27711, USA.Previous studies have ...

  7. Binding Interactions Between α-glucans from Lactobacillus reuteri and Milk Proteins Characterised by Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Diemer, Silja Kej; Svensson, Birte; Babol, Linnéa N.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between milk proteins and α-glucans at pH 4.0–5.5 were investigated by use of surface plasmon resonance. The α-glucans were synthesised with glucansucrase enzymes from Lactobacillus reuteri strains ATCC-55730, 180, ML1 and 121. Variations in the molecular characteristics of the α...

  8. Binding Interactions Between alpha-glucans from Lactobacillus reuteri and Milk Proteins Characterised by Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Diemer, Silja K.; Svensson, Birte; Babol, Linnea N.; Cockburn, Darrell; Grijpstra, Pieter; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Folkenberg, Ditte M.; Garrigues, Christel; Ipsen, Richard H.

    Interactions between milk proteins and alpha-glucans at pH 4.0-5.5 were investigated by use of surface plasmon resonance. The alpha-glucans were synthesised with glucansucrase enzymes from Lactobacillus reuteri strains ATCC-55730, 180, ML1 and 121. Variations in the molecular characteristics of the

  9. Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on

  10. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

    T. Norrapoke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05 by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p0.05; however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p0.05 among dietary treatments (p>0.05; however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p0.05 milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS.

  11. Genetic Variation and Population Structure in Jamunapari Goats Using Microsatellites, Mitochondrial DNA, and Milk Protein Genes

    Rout, P. K.; Thangraj, K.; Mandal, A.; Roy, R.

    2012-01-01

    Jamunapari, a dairy goat breed of India, has been gradually declining in numbers in its home tract over the years. We have analysed genetic variation and population history in Jamunapari goats based on 17 microsatellite loci, 2 milk protein loci, mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVRI) sequencing, and three Y-chromosomal gene sequencing. We used the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mismatch distribution, microsatellite data, and bottleneck tests to infer the population history and demography. The mean number of alleles per locus was 9.0 indicating that the allelic variation was high in all the loci and the mean heterozygosity was 0.769 at nuclear loci. Although the population size is smaller than 8,000 individuals, the amount of variability both in terms of allelic richness and gene diversity was high in all the microsatellite loci except ILST 005. The gene diversity and effective number of alleles at milk protein loci were higher than the 10 other Indian goat breeds that they were compared to. Mismatch analysis was carried out and the analysis revealed that the population curve was unimodal indicating the expansion of population. The genetic diversity of Y-chromosome genes was low in the present study. The observed mean M ratio in the population was above the critical significance value (Mc) and close to one indicating that it has maintained a slowly changing population size. The mode-shift test did not detect any distortion of allele frequency and the heterozygosity excess method showed that there was no significant departure from mutation-drift equilibrium detected in the population. However, the effects of genetic bottlenecks were observed in some loci due to decreased heterozygosity and lower level of M ratio. There were two observed genetic subdivisions in the population supporting the observations of farmers in different areas. This base line information on genetic diversity, bottleneck analysis, and mismatch analysis was obtained to assist the conservation

  12. Fortification of maternal milk

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  13. Hubungan antara konsumsi protein dengan produksi, protein dan laktosa susu kambing Peranakan Ettawa

    Galuh Estu Prihatiningsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine a correlation between crude protein intake, milk production, milk protein and milk lactose. This study used purposive sampling method. The sample used in this study were 35 Etawa crossbred goats with months of lactation 4-5 and lactation periods 2-3. Parameters observed were crude protein intake, milk production, milk protein and milk lactose. Data were analyzed using correlation analysis and simple linear regression. The result showed that crude protein intake, total milk production concentrations of milk protein and lactose were 0.77 kg/day; 0.30 kg/day; 0.196% and 3.32% respectively. There was a medium positive linear correlation between the crude protein intake with total milk production, protein and lactose content of milk. The correlation coefficient (r were 0.258; 0.254 and 0,255 respectively. It could be concluded that the higher crude protein intake would increase the amount of milk production, protein and lactose contents. Keywords: crude protein intake, total milk production, milk protein, milk lactose

  14. Effect of milk protein composition of a model infant formula on the physicochemical properties of in vivo gastric digestates.

    Tari, N Rafiee; Fan, M Z; Archbold, T; Kristo, E; Guri, A; Arranz, E; Corredig, M

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effect of protein composition and, in particular, the presence of whey proteins or β-casein on the digestion behavior of a model infant formula using an in vivo piglet model. Three isocaloric diets optimized for piglets were prepared with the same concentrations of protein. For protein source, 1 diet contained only whey proteins and 2 contained a casein:whey protein ratio of 40:60 but differed in the amount of β-casein. To obtain the desired protein compositions, skim milk was microfiltered at 7 or 22°C, and retentates and permeates were combined with whey protein isolate. The diets were optimized to the nutritional needs of the piglets and fed to 24 newborn piglets for 18 d. Eight piglets were also fed ad libitum with sow milk and considered only as reference (not included in the statistical analysis). The study was carried out in 2 blocks, killing the animals 60 and 120 min after the last meal. All gastric contents, regardless of diet, showed a wide range of pH. Postprandial time did not affect the pH or physical properties of the gastric digesta. The digesta from whey protein-casein formulas showed significantly higher viscosity, a higher storage modulus, and a denser microstructure than digesta obtained from piglets fed whey protein formula. The β-casein:total casein ratio at the level used in this study did not significantly affect the physical and chemical properties of the stomach digestate. Although caseins showed extensive gastric hydrolysis, whey proteins remained largely intact at both postprandial times. The results indicate that the presence of different concentrations of milk proteins can be critical to the digestion properties of the food matrix and may affect the nutritional properties of the components. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. GWA Analysis for Milk Production Traits in Dairy Sheep and Genetic Support for a QTN Influencing Milk Protein Percentage in the LALBA Gene

    García-Gámez, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Sahana, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip to conduct a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for milk production traits in dairy sheep by analyzing a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep. The studied population consisted of a total of 1,681 Churra ewes belonging to 16 half...... identified was located within the coding gene sequence (LALBA_g.242T.C) and was predicted to cause an amino acid change in the protein (Val27Ala). Different approaches, including GWA analysis, a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium study and a concordance test with the QTL segregating status...

  16. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow’s milk, ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and stored at 4℃ during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk. Yogurt-cheese made using ultrafiltrated cow’s milk showed the highest yield. However, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had higher protein content and titratable acidity than yogurt-cheese made using raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk. Fat and lactose contents in the yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk were lower. Yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk contained several soy protein bands corresponding to the sizes of α2-, β-, and κ-casein band. Yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had similar elasticity to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk but had lower cohesiveness. There was no significant difference in the number of lactic acid bacteria in the different cheeses, as all had over 8.0 Log CFU/g. Considering these data and the fact that proteins and fats of vegetable origin with high biological value were observed as well as unsaturated fats, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk can be considered to be a functional food. PMID:26761829

  17. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    Nicole Theresa Cacho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system

  18. SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND GROWTH IN INFANTS WITH COWS MILK PROTEIN INTOLERANCE USING 2 DIFFERENT WHEY-PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE BASED FORMULAS IN A PRIMARY HEALTH-CARE SETTING

    VERWIMP, JJM; BINDELS, JG; BARENTS, M; HEYMANS, HSA

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept(R) or Pepti Junior(R). The efficacy of

  19. Ultilization of nitrogen from feed protein and NPN for milk protein synthesis in the ewe

    Ulbrich, M.; Boldt, E.; Geissler, C.

    1989-01-01

    Two lactating Merino ewes with a rumen fistula were housed in metabolic boxes for N balance studies and fed a diet composed of oats, sugar beet pulp and hay. After adaptation on dietary ammonium sulfate suplementation the ewes received 21 g 15 N-ammonium sulfate daily lasting for 10 days. Uptake and utilization of nitrogen especially for protein syntheses were determined. (author)

  20. The 82-plex plasma protein signature that predicts increasing inflammation

    Tepel, Martin; Beck, Hans C; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define the specific plasma protein signature that predicts the increase of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein from index day to next-day using proteome analysis and novel bioinformatics tools. We performed a prospective study of 91 incident kidney....... The prediction model selected and validated 82 plasma proteins which determined increased next-day C-reactive protein (area under receiver-operator-characteristics curve, 0.772; 95% confidence interval, 0.669 to 0.876; P signature (P ....001) was associated with observed increased next-day C-reactive protein. The 82-plex protein signature outperformed routine clinical procedures. The category-free net reclassification index improved with 82-plex plasma protein signature (total net reclassification index, 88.3%). Using the 82-plex plasma protein...

  1. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women.

    Berger, Paige K; Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W; Fujiwara, Hideji; Goran, Michael I

    2018-05-24

    This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers ( n = 41) were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL), 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL), 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL), and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL) (all p fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. -2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  2. Improvement of physicochemical and rheological properties of kombucha fermented milk products by addition of transglutaminase and whey protein concentrate

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of addition of transglutaminase (TG-0.02%, w/w and whey protein concentrate (WPC-0.03%, w/w, on quality of kombucha fermented milk product. Samples were prepared from pasteurized semi-skim milk (0.9%, w/w fat and kombucha inoculum (10%, v/v. The pH values were measured during the fermentation of milk (lasted until reached 4.5. Syneresis, water holding capacity and the product texture (firmness and consistency, were assessed after production. Rheological properties of kombucha fermented milk samples were measured during ten days of storage. The sample containing TG had the lowest syneresis (21 ml, the highest water holding capacity (62% and the highest textural characteristics (firmness - 23.99g, consistency - 626.54gs after production. The addition of WPC to milk improved the rheological properties, while the addition of TG improved it even to a significantly greater extent after the production and during 10 days of the storage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  3. Modeling heterogeneous (co)variances from adjacent-SNP groups improves genomic prediction for milk protein composition traits

    Gebreyesus, Grum; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Accurate genomic prediction requires a large reference population, which is problematic for traits that are expensive to measure. Traits related to milk protein composition are not routinely recorded due to costly procedures and are considered to be controlled by a few quantitative trait loci...... of large effect. The amount of variation explained may vary between regions leading to heterogeneous (co)variance patterns across the genome. Genomic prediction models that can efficiently take such heterogeneity of (co)variances into account can result in improved prediction reliability. In this study, we...... developed and implemented novel univariate and bivariate Bayesian prediction models, based on estimates of heterogeneous (co)variances for genome segments (BayesAS). Available data consisted of milk protein composition traits measured on cows and de-regressed proofs of total protein yield derived for bulls...

  4. MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES — AN INNOVATIVE METHOD OF PROTEIN BIOLOGICAL VALUE INCREASING IN YOUNG CHILDREN FEEDING

    I. V. Gmoshinskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualitatively new approach to protein production for milk formulas for infants is discussed in this article. The advantage of membrane technologies usage is that they allow preserving protein biological value and make it possible to control the levels of amino-acids in protein by optimizing their proportion and quantity.

  5. 2008 Chinese Milk Products Crisis

    Rini Ariani Basyamfar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Milk is one of the most important food products for children’s growth and overall health.  Melamine (2,4,6-triazine-1,3,5-triamino) is an organic compound used in the manufacture of pesticides, plastics, sanitizers, and disinfectants.  Melamine when added to milk increases the overall amount of nitrogen in the milk thus fooling common tests for protein content.  Melamine is also extremely harmful when ingested, especially for young children.  Sanlu, one of China's largest dairy prod...

  6. Intake of milk with added micronutrients increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to reduce body weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial in Mexican women.

    Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Caamaño, Maria Del C; Martínez, Guadalupe; Gutiérrez, Jessica; García, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the intake of low-fat milk and low-fat milk with added micronutrients on anthropometrics, body composition, blood glucose levels, lipids profile, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure of women following an energy-restricted diet. A 16-week randomized, controlled intervention study. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (aged 34±6 years) from five rural communities in Querétaro, Mexico. Women followed an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal) and received in addition one of the following treatments: 250 mL of low-fat milk (LFM) three times/day, 250 mL of low-fat milk with micronutrients (LFM+M) three times/day, or a no milk control group (CON). Weight, height, and hip and waist circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, and blood analysis were done at baseline and at the end of the 16 weeks. Changes in weight and body composition. One-factor analysis of variance, adjusted by age, baseline values, and community random effects. After the 16-week intervention, participants in the LFM+M group lost significantly more weight (-5.1 kg; 95% CI: -6.2 to -4.1) compared with LFM (-3.6 kg; 95% CI: -4.7 to -2.6) and CON (-3.2 kg; 95% CI: -4.3 to -2.2) group members (P=0.035). Body mass index change in the LFM+M group (-2.3; 95% CI: -2.7 to -1.8) was significantly greater than LFM group members (-1.5; 95% CI: -2.0 to -1.1) and CON group members (-1.4; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.9) (P=0.022). Change in percent body fat among LFM+M group members (-2.7%; 95% CI: -3.2 to -2.1) was significantly higher than LFM group members (-1.8%; 95% CI: -2.3 to -1.3) and CON group members (-1.6%; 95% CI: -2.2 to -1.0) (P=0.019). Change in bone mineral content was

  7. Protein intake does not increase vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis during cycling

    Hulston, CJ; Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of protein ingestion on leg protein turnover and vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis during bicycle exercise and recovery. METHODS: Eight healthy males participated in two experiments in which they ingested either a carbohydrate solution...... sampling, and blood flow measurements. Muscle protein synthesis was calculated from the incorporation of l-[ring-C6]phenylalanine into protein. RESULTS: Consuming protein during exercise increased leg protein synthesis and decreased net leg protein breakdown; however, protein ingestion did not increase...... protein synthesis within the highly active vastus lateralis muscle (0.029%·h(-1), ± 0.004%·h(-1), and 0.030%·h(-1), ± 0.003%·h(-1), in CHO and CHO + P, respectively; P = 0.88). In contrast, consuming protein, during exercise and recovery, increased postexercise vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis...

  8. A 100-Year Review: The production of fluid (market) milk.

    Barbano, David M

    2017-12-01

    During the first 100 years of the Journal of Dairy Science, dairy foods and dairy production dairy scientists have partnered to publish new data and research results that have fostered the development of new knowledge. This knowledge has been the underpinning of both the commercial development of the fluid milk processing industry and regulations and marketing policies for the benefit of dairy farmers, processors, and consumers. During the first 50 years, most of the focus was on producing and delivering high-quality raw milk to factories and improving the shelf life of pasteurized fluid milk. During the second 50 years, raw milk quality was further improved through the use of milk quality payment incentives. Due to changing demographics and lifestyle, whole fluid milk consumption declined and processing technologies were developed to increase the range of fluid milk products (skim and low-fat milks, flavored milks, lactose-reduced milk, long-shelf-life milks, and milks with higher protein and calcium contents) offered to the consumer. In addition, technology to produce specialty high-protein sports beverages was developed, which expanded the milk-based beverage offerings to the consumer. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Potential of Protein Fractions from Flour and Milk Substitutes from Canary Seeds (Phalaris canariensis L.).

    Valverde, María Elena; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Nieto-Rendón, Blanca; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2017-03-01

    Canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) is used to feed birds but it has been recently considered a promising cereal with nutraceutical potential for humans. The aim of this work was to analyze the protein fractions from canary seed flour and from milk substitutes (prepared by soaking the seeds in water 12 and 24 h), and to evaluate antioxidant and antihypertensive capacity of peptides obtained after in vitro digestion. Prolamins were the major protein fraction, followed by glutelins. After digestion, albumins and prolamins fractions from milks presented higher levels of peptides than flour, globulins showed more peptides in flour and glutelins were found in similar concentrations in all samples; 24 h milk prolamins had the highest concentration of peptides. Purification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), sequencing of peptides, in vitro antioxidant ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis, 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays, and antihypertensive capacity (angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) assay), indicated that peptides from canary seed prolamins were the most efficient compounds with antioxidant and antihypertensive activity. Canary seeds may be considered an accessible and cheap source to prepare milk substitutes with high contents of bioactive peptides with remarkable functional properties to promote better human health and healthy ageing.

  10. Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows during lactation.

    Bedö, S; Nikodémusz, E; Percsich, K; Bárdos, L

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of a dairy cow colony (n = 23) were analyzed during 11 months of lactation. Milk yield followed a characteristic decreasing pattern in negative correlations with solid components (milk protein, lactose, total solids, milk fat). Titrable acidity (degree SH) was significantly (p < 0.1) higher in the milk of fresh-milking cows and it correlated negatively with lactose and positively with milk protein, milk fat and total solids. The concentrations of Zn, Fe and Cu tended to decrease, while Mn showed insignificant variation during lactation. Milk vitamin A showed a significant positive whilst milk vitamin E had a negative correlation with milk fat.

  11. Camel milk protein hydrolysates with improved technofunctional properties and enhanced antioxidant potential in in vitro and in food model systems.

    Al-Shamsi, Kholoud Awad; Mudgil, Priti; Hassan, Hassan Mohamed; Maqsood, Sajid

    2018-01-01

    Camel milk protein hydrolysates (CMPH) were generated using proteolytic enzymes, such as alcalase, bromelain, and papain, to explore the effect on the technofunctional properties and antioxidant potential under in vitro and in real food model systems. Characterization of the CMPH via degree of hydrolysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and HPLC revealed that different proteins in camel milk underwent degradation at different degrees after enzymatic hydrolysis using 3 different enzymes for 2, 4, and 6 h, with papain displaying the highest degradation. Technofunctional properties, such as emulsifying activity index, surface hydrophobicity, and protein solubility, were higher in CMPH than unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. However, the water and fat absorption capacity were lower in CMPH compared with unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. Antioxidant properties as assessed by 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and metal-chelating activity were enhanced after hydrolysis, in contrast to ferric-reducing antioxidant power which showed a decrease after hydrolysis. The CMPH were also tested in real food model systems for their potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in fish mince and grape seed oil-in-water emulsion, and we found that papain-produced hydrolysate displayed higher inhibition than alcalase- and bromelain-produced hydrolysates. Therefore, the CMPH demonstrated effective antioxidant potential in vitro as well as in real food systems and showed enhanced functional properties, which guarantees their potential applications in functional foods. The present study is one of few reports available on CMPH being explored in vitro as well as in real food model systems. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF GOAT MILK CASEIN

    Samir Ahmed Salem; Elsayed Ibrahim Elagamy; Fatma Salama; Nagwa Hussein Abosoliman

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding of goat and cow milk caseins on the body weight gain, body organs, erythrocytic & leukocytic counts and their parameters, plasma lipid profile, liver enzyme activities, renal function and plasma proteins of rats over a period of 45 days was studied. Feeding of goat or cow milk caseins had no significant effect on the parameters studied (P≤0.05) between rats fed either milk. However, rats fed on goat milk casein showed a significant increase in high density lipoproteins...

  13. Milk protein intake, the metabolic-endocrine response, and growth in infancy: data from a randomized clinical trial.

    Socha, Piotr; Grote, Veit; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Janas, Roman; Demmelmair, Hans; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Subías, Joaquín Escribano; Scaglioni, Silvia; Verduci, Elvira; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Perrin, Emmanuel; Koletzko, Berthold

    2011-12-01

    Protein intake in early infancy has been suggested to be an important risk factor for later obesity, but information on potential mechanisms is very limited. This study examined the influence of protein intake in infancy on serum amino acids, insulin, and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis and its possible relation to growth in the first 2 y of life. In a multicenter European study, 1138 healthy, formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive cow-milk-based infant and follow-on formulas with lower protein (LP; 1.77 and 2.2 g protein/100 kcal) or higher protein (HP; 2.9 and 4.4 g protein/100 kcal) contents for the first year. Biochemical variables were measured at age 6 mo in 339 infants receiving LP formula and 333 infants receiving HP formula and in 237 breastfed infants. Essential amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, IGF-I, and urinary C-peptide:creatinine ratio, were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the HP group than in the LP group, whereas IGF-binding protein (IGF-BP) 2 was lower and IGF-BP3 did not differ significantly. The median IGF-I total serum concentration was 48.4 ng/mL (25th, 75th percentile: 27.2, 81.8 ng/mL) in the HP group and 34.7 ng/mL (17.7, 57.5 ng/mL) in the LP group; the urine C-peptide:creatinine ratios were 140.6 ng/mg (80.0, 203.8 ng/mg) and 107.3 ng/mg (65.2, 194.7 ng/mg), respectively. Most essential amino acids, IGF-I, C-peptide, and urea increased significantly in both the LP and HP groups compared with the breastfed group. Total IGF-I was significantly associated with growth until 6 mo but not thereafter. HP intake stimulates the IGF-I axis and insulin release in infancy. IGF-I enhances growth during the first 6 mo of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00338689.

  14. Reference-free spectroscopic determination of fat and protein in milk in the visible and near infrared region below 1000nm using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance fiber probe.

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Belikova, Valeria; Galyanin, Vladislav; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Meyer, Hans

    2017-05-15

    New technique of diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of milk fat and total protein content in the visible (Vis) and adjacent near infrared (NIR) region (400-995nm) has been developed and tested. Sample analysis was performed through a probe having eight 200-µm fiber channels forming a linear array. One of the end fibers was used for the illumination and other seven - for the spectroscopic detection of diffusely reflected light. One of the detection channels was used as a reference to normalize the spectra and to convert them into absorbance-equivalent units. The method has been tested experimentally using a designed sample set prepared from industrial raw milk standards with widely varying fat and protein content. To increase the modelling robustness all milk samples were measured in three different homogenization degrees. Comprehensive data analysis has shown the advantage of combining both spectral and spatial resolution in the same measurement and revealed the most relevant channels and wavelength regions. The modelling accuracy was further improved using joint variable selection and preprocessing optimization method based on the genetic algorithm. The root mean-square errors of different validation methods were below 0.10% for fat and below 0.08% for total protein content. Based on the present experimental data, it was computationally shown that the full-spectrum analysis in this method can be replaced by a sensor measurement at several specific wavelengths, for instance, using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for illumination. Two optimal sensor configurations have been suggested: with nine LEDs for the analysis of fat and seven - for protein content. Both simulated sensors exhibit nearly the same component determination accuracy as corresponding full-spectrum analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pair housing and enhanced milk allowance increase play behavior and improve performance in dairy calves

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    -housed calves could perform social play behavior (play fighting), and the duration of this was greater on d 15 and 29 than on d 43 [8.3, 10.7 and 3.5 (±1.3) corresponding to 69, 115 and 12 s/24 h for d 15, 29, and 43]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed animals had a greater concentrate intake than...... observed no effect of pair versus individual housing [810 and 840 (±40) g/d]. In conclusion, greater durations of play behavior in enhanced-fed calves suggest an animal welfare benefit of this feeding method. Enhanced-fed calves consumed less concentrate, but pair housing stimulated concentrate intake......To investigate the effects of social housing and milk feeding on play behavior and performance, 48 Holstein-Friesian male and female calves were either individually or pair housed in straw-bedded pens (3.0 m × 4.5 m). Half of the calves in each housing treatment were fed a standard milk allowance...

  16. Substituting milk for apple juice does not increase kidney stone risk in most normocalciuric adults who form calcium oxalate stones.

    Massey, L K; Kynast-Gales, S A

    1998-03-01

    Increasing intake of dietary calcium from less than 400 mg to 800 mg daily may decrease the absorption of dietary oxalate, which in turn would decrease urinary oxalate excretion. The effect of substituting milk for apple juice on urine composition and risk of calcium oxalate precipitability was studied. Twenty-one normocalciuric adults with a history of at least 1 calcium oxalate stone and urinary oxalate excretion exceeding 275 micromol/day on their self-selected diet. Randomized crossover trial. Each participant consumed two moderate-oxalate (2,011 micromol/day) study diets, which were identical except that one contained 360 mL milk and the other contained 540 mL apple juice as the beverage with meals. Four days free-living then 2 days in the metabolic unit of a university nutrition department. Tiselius risk index for calcium oxalate precipitability calculated from urine composition. Paired t tests. Twenty-four hour urinary oxalate excretion was 18% lower (Pjuice diet: 423 vs 514 micromol, respectively. Calcium excretion was 17% higher (Pjuice diet: 4.7 vs 3.9 mmol, respectively. Urinary magnesium and citrate excretion, volume, and Tiselius risk index did not differ between diets. Substituting 360 mL milk daily for apple juice with meals in a diet containing moderate amounts of dietary oxalate from whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables does not increase the risk index of calcium oxalate precipitability in most normocalciuric adults who form stones.

  17. Bovine leukemia virus infection in cattle of China: Association with reduced milk production and increased somatic cell score.

    Yang, Y; Fan, W; Mao, Y; Yang, Z; Lu, G; Zhang, R; Zhang, H; Szeto, C; Wang, C

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the individual cow effect of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk production and somatic cell score (SCS). The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) quantitative PCR established in this study and a commercial ELISA kit revealed that 49.1% of dairy cattle (964/1,963) from 6 provinces of China and 1.6% of beef cattle (22/1,390) from 15 provinces were BLV positive. In a detailed study of 105 cows, BLV was found most commonly in buffy coat samples that also had highest copy numbers (10(4.75±1.56) per mL); all cows negative for BLV in buffy coat samples were also negative in vaginal swab, milk, and fecal samples. Copy numbers of BLV were 10(2.90±0.42)/gram of feces, 10(0.83±0.62)/mL of milk, and 10(2.18±0.81) per vaginal swab. The BLV-positive cows had significantly lower milk production in the early (26.8 vs. 30.9kg) and middle stages of lactation (22.2 vs. 26.1kg) in animals with ≥4 parities than the BLV-negative cows; they also had significantly higher SCS in early and middle lactation stages (early=5.2 vs. 4.3; middle=4.9 vs. 3.9) in animals with ≥4 parities. Milk production and SCS did not significantly differ between the BLV-infected and -uninfected cows when they were in the late lactation stage or in animals with ≤3 parities. Taken together, our results indicate that BLV infections are widespread in the dairy farms of China. Vaginal secretions and feces may be involved in BLV transmission. A BLV infection may result in reduced milk yield and increased SCS in a parity and lactation stage-restricted manner. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional and therapeutic properties of goat’s milk

    Zrinka Filipović Dermit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of goat milk and its consumption in the world is increasing, and so is the population of goats which increases more than the population of other dairy animals. This is particularly true in countries where goat milk is reflection of the traditional production. Goat’s milk, in addition to the high nutritional value (better digestibility, hypoallergenic, higher buffering capacity, higher pH value is characterized by therapeutic characteristics important for human health. The preference of goat’s milk over cow’s milk is also a higher selenium content, which is essential for the activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, also significant in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Goat’s milk in comparison with cow’s, contains more fatty acids, which have beneficial effects on human health, especially the cardiovascular system. Goat’s milk proteins are more digestible than cow’s milk proteins, also an absorption of amino acids are more efficient. The sensitivity of people to α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin of cow’s milk is negligible after replacing cow’s milk with goat’s milk. The objective of this paper is to specify benefits of goat’s milk in regard to cow’s and highlight its therapeutic and nutritional values.

  19. The effects of increasing amounts of milk replacer powder added to whole milk on passage rate, nutrient digestibility, ruminal development, and body composition in dairy calves.

    Azevedo, R A; Machado, F S; Campos, M M; Lopes, D R G; Costa, S F; Mantovani, H C; Lopes, F C F; Marcondes, M I; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on feed intake, calf performance, feed efficiency, fecal score, passage rate, apparent nutrient digestibility, development of rumen and other organs, and body composition of increasing the total solids content of liquid feed (whole milk) by adding increasing amounts of milk replacer powder during the preweaning period. Crossbred Holstein-Gyr calves (n=32) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=8 per group), which consisted of different total solids concentrations: 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% of liquid feed. Calves received 6 L of liquid per day, divided into 2 equal meals (0800 and 1600 h) and provided in buckets, from 5 to 55d of age. Starter and water were provided ad libitum during the entire experiment. At 56d of age, animals were killed. Laboratory analysis determined that the actual total solids contents of the liquid feed were 13.5, 16.1, 18.2, and 20.4%, for the proposed 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% total solids treatments, respectively. The osmolality of liquid feed treatments was 265 to 533 mOsm/L. Fecal score was similar among treatments, except for wk 2 and 7. Intake of liquid feed was similar among treatments from 6wk of age. During wk 4, 5, and 6, we detected a linear decrease in starter intake. After wk 7, we observed greater starter intake for calves fed approximately 16.1% total solids. Water intake, feed efficiency, and withers height were similar among treatments. Increasing concentrations of total solids in liquid feed quadratically affected average daily gain, final body weight, and empty body weight. We observed a greater average daily gain for calves fed approximately 20.4% total solids. Passage rate, nutrient digestibility, development of pre-stomachs and intestine, and body composition were similar among treatments. Increasing the concentration of total solids in liquid feed up to 20.4% reduced starter intake between 4 and 6wk of life, but increased average daily gain. It did not affect

  20. Effects of Preparation Conditions on Morphology of Polyacrylonitrile Micro/Ultrafiltration Membrane and Its Application in Protein and Fat Separation from Milk

    Seyed Ali Alavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile (PAN micro/ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by phase inversion method. The effects of various preparation conditions including polymeric solution concentration, evaporation time, temperature, composition and residence time of the coagulation bath were investigated. Various important membrane characteristics such as pore size, bulk porosity, and mechanical and morphological properties were taken into the consideration. The characterizations were performed by measuring the bubble point, water flux, tensile strength and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. The results showed that by increasing the polymeric solution concentration from 13 to 17 wt%, the porosity and water flux were decreased. Moreover, the membrane skin layer was considerably thickened with a very significant decrease in its pore sizes which was achieved in ultrafiltration region. By increasing the evaporation time at atmospheric pressure, membrane skin layer was thickened and the pore sizes were decreased. Low coagulation bath temperatures (below 30°C resulted in lower pore size, water flux, and an increase in membrane mechanical strength. Introduction of isopropanol (IPA into the water coagulation bath led to lower coagulation rate and consequently, the formation of smaller pores became possible by using pure isopropanol as coagulation bath. Furthermore, by increasing the residence time in coagulation bath, a more porous structure with more uniform pore sizes were formed that showed better mechanical properties. Finally, the so-called ultrafiltration membranes were applied in concentration process of protein and milk fat. A protein rejection more than 93% was attained while a complete removal of milk fat was achieved.

  1. Effect of homogenization and pasteurization on the structure and thermal stability of whey protein in milk

    The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a two-...

  2. Greater mortality and mordidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants <1,250 g birth weight recei...

  3. Modulation of mammary gland development in pre-pubertal mice as affected by soya and milk protein supplements.

    Alston-Mills, Brenda; Lepri, J J; Martin, C A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of soya and whey milk protein, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), on mammary gland morphology and the structural support of the gland, in pre-pubertal mice after 7 d of treatment. In Expt 1, weaned (day 21) CD1 mice were given one of the four treatments, three included dietary supplements: (1) control diet, casein, (2) soya, (3) α-LA and (4) subcutaneous injection of 2·5 μg oestradiol benzoate in 20 μl maize oil and fed the control diet. All diets were isoenergetic with equal protein concentrations. All groups that were not treated with oestradiol received the vehicle. Whole-mount analyses were performed to determine longitudinal ductal growth and terminal end bud development. DNA was extracted from the gland and assessed by spectrophotometry (260/280 nm). Tissue extracts for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP(2)), tissue inhibitor of MMP(2) (TIMP(2)), and serum oestradiol and mammary tissue epidermal growth factors (EGF) were measured by immunoassays. Expt 2 utilised the Her2/neu transgenic strain, with the same protocols. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA. From Expt 1 and 2, soya and α-LA significantly increased ductal elongation when compared with the oestrogen and control groups. These results were corroborated by data on total DNA and the ratio of MMP(2):TIMP(2). The ratio of MMP(2):TIMP(2) was affected by α-LA. Serum oestradiol was decreased only in the oestradiol-treated groups in both experiments. Soya is known to be oestrogenic and can act on epithelia directly. The mechanism by which α-LA affects glandular development is by modulating the ECM or by promoting the synthesis/activity of EGF.

  4. Enzymatic-fluorometric analyses for glutamine, glutamate and free amino groups in protein-free plasma and milk

    Larsen, Torben; Fernández, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    This Technical Research Communication describes new analytical methods for free, unbound glutamic acid and glutamine in protein-free blood plasma and milk and introduces the use of quantitation of free amino groups in the same matrices for descriptive and analytical purposes. The present enzymatic......-fluorometric methods are easily performed within one working day, allowing for ‘high throughput’ assays of animal trials. These assays could support and enable further studies in lactation physiology with the objective of improved metabolic health....

  5. Bioactive proteins and energy value of okara as a byproduct in hydrothermal processing of soy milk.

    Stanojevic, Sladjana P; Barac, Miroljub B; Pesic, Mirjana B; Jankovic, Vanja S; Vucelic-Radovic, Biljana V

    2013-09-25

    The nutritional properties of raw okara obtained as a byproduct from six soybean varieties during hydrothermal cooking (HTC) of soy milk were assessed. The composition and residual activity (rTIA) of trypsin inhibitors (TIs), contents of lectin, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and energy values (EV) were correlated with the respective physicochemical properties of soybean and okara. Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk (BBI) TIs both comprised okara rTIA. TIs content was higher in okara (5.19-14.40%) than in soybean (3.10-12.17%), which additionally enriched okara by cysteine. Contents of KTI (r = 1.00;p < 0.05) and BBI (r = 0.89;p < 0.05) as well as BBI monomeric (r = 0.89;p < 0.05) and polymeric forms (r = 0.95;p < 0.05) in okara and in soybean were strongly correlated. Low urease index activity indicated that okara was heated adequately to inactivate antinutritional factors. The proximate composition of raw okara, advantageous rTIA, and a very low EV (2.74-3.78 kJ/g) qualify this byproduct for potential application in food preparation as a functional ingredient in dietary products.

  6. Clinical and pH-metric characteristics of gastro-oesophageal reflux secondary to cows' milk protein allergy.

    Cavataio, F; Iacono, G; Montalto, G; Soresi, M; Tumminello, M; Carroccio, A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: The primary aim was to assess whether there were differences in symptoms, laboratory data, and oesophageal pH-metry between infants with primary gastro-oesophageal reflux and those with reflux secondary to cows' milk protein allergy (CMPA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 96 infants (mean(SD) age 7.8(2.0) months) with either primary gastro-oesophageal reflux, reflux with CMPA, CMPA only, or none of these (controls) were studied. Symptoms, immunochemical data, and oesophageal pH were compared between the four groups and the effect of a cows' milk protein-free diet on the severity of symptoms was also assessed. RESULTS: 14 out of 47(30%) infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux had CMPA. These infants had similar symptoms to those with primary gastro-oesophageal reflux but higher concentrations of total IgE and circulating eosinophils (p gastro-oesophageal reflux secondary to CMPA and in 24 of 25 infants with CMPA only. No infants with primary gastro-oesophageal reflux and none of the controls had this pattern. A cows' milk protein-free diet was associated with a significant improvement in symptoms only in infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux with CMPA. CONCLUSION: A characteristic oesophageal pH pattern is useful in distinguishing infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux associated with CMPA. PMID:8813871

  7. Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology.

    Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis.

    Larsen, M; Røntved, C M; Theil, P K; Khatun, M; Lauridsen, C; Kristensen, N B

    2017-05-01

    The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at -14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[C]Phe infusion. Plasma volume was determined at +4 and +29 DRTC by dilution of a [I]BSA dose. Synthesis rate of tissue protein in biopsied rumen papillae was determined by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment, and mRNA expression of selected genes was measured by real-time qPCR. Total and differential leukocyte counts were performed and immune responsiveness of monocytes was evaluated by tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ) concentration on ex vivo whole blood stimulation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and responsiveness of T-lymphocytes by interferon γ (IFNγ) concentration on stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin β (SEB). Further, ELISA plasma concentrations of IgM, IgA, and IgG were determined. The DRTC affected the majority of investigated parameters as expected. The CAS treatment increased milk protein yield (P = 0.04), and tended to lower TNFɑ (P = 0.06), and lowered IFNγ (P = 0.03) responsiveness per monocyte and lymphocyte, respectively, compared with CTRL. Further, fractional synthesis rate of albumin was greater at +4 DRTC for CAS compared with CTRL but did not differ by +29 DRTC (interaction: P = 0.01). In rumen papillae, synthesis rate of tissue protein was greater for CAS compared with CTRL (P protein supply seem to

  9. Camel Milk Attenuates Rheumatoid Arthritis Via Inhibition of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    Hany H. Arab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Camel milk (CM has shown beneficial anti-inflammatory actions in several experimental and clinical settings. So far, its effect on rheumatoid arthritis (RA has not been previously explored. Thus, the current work aimed to evaluate the effects of CM in Adjuvant-induced arthritis and air pouch edema models in rats, which mimic human RA. Methods: CM was administered at 10 ml/kg orally for 3 weeks starting on the day of Freund’s adjuvant paw inoculation. The levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were measured by ELISA while the protein expression of NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of MAPK target proteins was assessed by Western blotting. Results: CM attenuated paw edema, arthritic index and gait score along with dorsal pouch inflammatory cell migration. CM lowered the TNF-α and augmented the anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. It also attenuated the expression of activated NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS in the lining of the dorsal pouch. Notably, CM inhibited the MAPK pathway signal transduction via lowering the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in rat hind paws. Additionally, CM administration lowered the lipid peroxide and nitric oxide levels and boosted glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity in sera and exudates of animals. Conclusion: The observed CM downregulation of the arthritic process may support the interest of CM consumption as an adjunct approach for the management of RA.

  10. Transfer of aflatoxin from feed to milk and curd in Sarda ewes with different milk production level

    G. Pulina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a toxin produced by some strains of Aspergillus growing in feedstuffs. Dairy animals fed with diet containing AFB1 excrete aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 into the milk. The carry over ratio (AFM1 excreted in milk/ AFB1 ingested has been found lower in sheep (Battacone et al., 2002a than in cattle (Veldman et al., 1992. Being AFM1 linked to milk proteins, its concentration in curd is higher than in milk. The AFM1 concentration in milk resulted not influenced by milk production level in cattle, therefore the total amount of AFM1 excreted in milk and, consequently, the carry-over ratio increased with milk yield (Munksgaard et al., 1987; Veldman et al., 1992...

  11. Human milk for the premature infant

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  12. Nitrogen balance and milk composition of dairy cows fed urea and soybean meal and two protein levels using sugar cane based diets

    Luís Henrique Andreucci Conti; Elmeson Ferreira de Jesus; Angélica Simone Cravo Pereira; Marcos André Arcari; Kleber da Cunha Peixoto Junior; Francisco Palma Rennó; Marcos Veiga dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding two levels of crude protein (CP) (low: 142 g CP/kg DM; and high: 156 g CP/kg DM) and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal and urea) to dairy cows using sugar cane as forage on microbial protein synthesis, the composition of the milk nitrogen fraction, nitrogen (N) balance and blood parameters. Twelve Holstein cows with an average milk yield of 22.0 ± 2.3 kg/day, and with 235 ± 40 days in milk were included in this study. The animals wer...

  13. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were...... higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 mug/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present...

  14. Comparative study of the gut microbiome potentially related to milk protein in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Chuanbiao; Huo, Dongxue; Hu, Qisong; Peng, Qiannan

    2017-02-08

    Previous studies suggested a close relationship between ruminant gut microbes and the mammary gland. In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to reveal the differences in the intestinal microbiome potentially related to milk components in Murrah buffaloes and Chinese Holstein cattle. A PCoA based on the weighted Unifrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern in the structure of intestinal microbiota between buffalo and cattle. We could attribute the structural difference to the genera of Sutterella, Coprococcus and Dorea. A further analysis of microbial functional features revealed that the biosynthesis of amino acids (including lysine, valine, leucine and isoleucine), lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and cofactor/vitamin biosynthesis were enriched in the buffalo. In contrast, dairy cattle had higher levels of pyruvate metabolism and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. A further correlation analysis based on different milk components and the typical microbiome uncovered a significant positive correlation between milk protein and the microbial biosynthesis of amino acids, which was also positively correlated in the genera of Parabacteroides, Dorea and Sutterella. This study will expand our understanding of the intestinal microbiome of buffalo and cattle as representative ruminants, as well as provide new views about how to improve the production and nutritional qualities of animal milk.

  15. High-protein goat's milk diet identified through newborn screening: clinical warning of a potentially dangerous dietetic practice.

    Maines, Evelina; Gugelmo, Giorgia; Tadiotto, Elisa; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Campostrini, Natascia; Pasini, Andrea; Ion-Popa, Florina; Vincenzi, Monica; Teofoli, Francesca; Camilot, Marta; Bordugo, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing optimal food for infants' healthy growth and development and the WHO recommends that infants should be exclusively breast-fed for the first 6 months of life. For mothers who are unable to breast-feed or who decide not to, infant formulas are the safest alternative. Despite recommendations, it is possible that parents make potentially harmful nutritional choices for their children because of cultural beliefs or misinformation on infant nutrition. We describe a possible health risk of not breast-feeding, highlighting a potentially dangerous dietetic practice. Design/Setting/Subjects We report the case of a newborn who was fed with undiluted goat's milk because her mother could not breast-feed and was not aware of infant formulas. The dietary mistake was detected because of a positive expanded newborn screening result, characterized by severe hypertyrosinaemia with high methionine and phenylalanine levels, a pattern suggestive of severe liver impairment. The pattern of plasma amino acids was related to a goat's milk diet, because of its very different composition compared with human milk and infant formula. Our experience demonstrates that, when breast-feeding is not possible or is not exclusive, infants may be at risk of dangerous nutritional practices, including diets with very high protein content, such as a goat's milk diet. Families of not breast-fed infants may need appropriate advice on safe alternatives for infant nutrition to avoid the risks of inappropriate diets.

  16. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition.

    Heck, J M L; van Valenberg, H J F; Dijkstra, J; van Hooijdonk, A C M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main components and milk fatty acid composition. Milk lactose concentration was rather constant throughout the season. Milk true protein content was somewhat more responsive to season, with the lowest content in June (3.21 g/100 g) and the highest content in December (3.38 g/100 g). Milk fat concentration increased from a minimum of 4.10 g/100 g in June to a maximum of 4.57 g/100 g in January. The largest (up to 2-fold) seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition were found for trans fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid. Milk protein composition was rather constant throughout the season. Milk unsaturation indices, which were used as an indication of desaturase activity, were lowest in spring and highest in autumn. Compared with a previous investigation of Dutch dairy milk in 1992, the fatty acid composition of Dutch raw milk has changed considerably, in particular with a higher content of saturated fatty acids in 2005 milk.

  17. [24-h intraesophageal pH determination in children allergic to cow's milk protein at a tertiary care hospital].

    Ramírez-Mayans, J A; Toro-Monjaraz, E M; Romero-Trujillo, J; Cervantes-Bustamante, R; Zárate-Mondragón, F; Montijo-Barrios, E; Cadena-León, J; Cazares-Méndez, M

    2014-01-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is being seen more frequently on a daily basis in pediatric consultations. It shares symptoms with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which can complicate the differential diagnosis. To attempt to corroborate the presence of acid GER in children with CMPA, as well as to find a characteristic profile through the 24-hour pH monitoring study in children with GER and CMPA METHODS: The intraesophageal pH monitoring studies performed on 47 children with CMPA were reviewed. The measurements in all the studies were carried out within a 24-hour period using Digitrapper® equipment with a multi-use GeroFlex® catheter, after calibration with pH 7 and pH 1 buffer solutions. Of the 47 children, 23 were boys (32.4%) and 24 were girls (33.8%) and the mean age was 5±3.7 years. Fourteen of the 47 children (29%) presented with GER, according to the result of the 24-hour intraesophageal measurement. Only 2 of the 47 patients studied fit the phasic profile. The findings show the existing relation between the two pathologies. Nevertheless, it is important to determine the presence of non-acid or weak acid reflux, because their existence can increase this association. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the suitability of goat milk protein as a source of protein in infant formulae and in follow-on formulae

    Tetens, Inge

    On request from the European Commission following an application by Dairy Goat Co-operative (NZ) Ltd, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on the suitability of goat milk protein as a source of protein in infant and follow-on formulae....... The Panel considered compositional data of an infant and a follow-on formula made from whole goat milk that retained the natural whey-to-casein ratio of goat milk, data from a double-blind, randomised, controlled, three-centre trial, and a re-analysis of the data of the trial which formed the basis...... of a previous evaluation of the Panel. A study in 200 Australian infants, randomised to receive an infant formula with unmodified goat milk protein or a cow milk formula exclusively for at least four months and thereafter in addition to complementary food until 12 months did not show statistically significant...

  19. Statistically defining optimal conditions of coagulation time of skim milk

    Celebi, M.; Ozdemir, Z.O.; Eroglu, E.; Guney, I

    2014-01-01

    Milk consist huge amount of largely water and different proteins. Kappa-kazein of these milk proteins can be coagulated by Mucor miehei rennet enzyme, is an aspartic protease which cleavege 105 (phenly alanine)-106 (methionine) peptide bond. It is commonly used clotting milk proteins for cheese production in dairy industry. The aim of this study to measure milk clotting times of skim milk by using Mucor Miehei rennet and determination of optimal conditions of milk clotting time by mathematical modelling. In this research, milk clotting times of skim milk were measured at different pHs (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0) and temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75 degree C). It was used statistical approach for defining best pH and temperature for milk clotting time of skim milk. Milk clotting activity was increase at acidic pHs and high temperatures. (author)

  20. Yield and quality of milk and udder health in Martina Franca ass: effects of daily interval and time of machine milking

    Giovanni Martemucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty asses of Martina Franca breed, machine milked twice a day, were used to assess the influence of milking interval (3-h, 5-h, and 8-h; N=5 and time (700, 1200 and 1900 on milk yield and udder health. Individual milk samples were taken to determine fat, protein and lactose con- tent. Sensory analysis profile was also assessed. Milk’s total bacterial count (TBC, somatic cell con- tent (SCC and udder’s skin temperature were considered to assess udder health. Milk yield increases by 28.4% (P<0.01 with a milking interval from 3-h to 8-h and is higher (P<0.01 at morning milking. The maximum milk yield per milking corresponds to 700 milking (1416.9 mL thus indicating a circa- dian rhythm in milk secretion processes. Milking intervals of 5 and 8 hours cause a decrease (P<0.01 in milk fat and lactose content. The 8-h interval leads to an increase (P<0.01 in SCC but without any significance for the health udder. No alterations about CBT, clinical evaluation and temperature of ud- der were observed. Milk organoleptic characteristics were better in the 3-h interval milking.

  1. Dehulling reduces toxicity and improves in vivo biological value of proteins in vegetal milk derived from two mucuna (Mucuna pruriens L.) seeds varieties.

    Mang, Yannick Dimitry; Njintang, Yanou Nicolas; Abdou, Bouba Armand; Scher, Joel; Bernard, Clémence; Mbofung, Moses C

    2016-06-01

    The present work was carried out to evaluate the nutritive quality (proximate and antinutrients composition) of vegetable milks prepared from whole and dehulled mucuna bean flours. Casein and mucuna milk diets were fed to rats (four weeks old; n = 8 per group) for 28 days to determine protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein efficiency ratio (NPER), true and apparent digestibility (TD and AD, respectively), organ-to-body weight ratios and hematological parameters. The experimental design was a factorial design with two variety of mucuna (cochinchinensis and veracruz) and two treatments (whole and dehulled beans). Protein, total sugar, dry matter and ash-content of mucuna milks ranged from 6.40 to 12.13 g/100 mL, 10.52 to 13.08 g/100 mL, 8.59 to 12.88 g/100 g and 0.31 to 0.92 g/100 g, respectively. Milks from dehulled flours had lower contents of tannins (80-87.08 %), phytates (76.67-78.16 %) and L-Dopamine (44.45-66.66 %) than that from whole flours. The PER of dehulled mucuna diets were 22.76-21.74 %, but negative PER and low NPER was observed for whole mucuna milk diets. TD for dehulled mucuna milk (85.15-85.96 %) were higher and similar to casein when compared to that of whole mucuna milk (47.87-51.17 %). Rats fed with diets containing whole mucuna milk lost weight and had higher kidney weight. In addition, the rats fed with milk from whole mucuna flours showed significantly lower levels of lymphocytes, granulocytes, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit than that fed with dehulled mucuna milk.

  2. Increasing protein stability by improving beta-turns.

    Fu, Hailong; Grimsley, Gerald R; Razvi, Abbas; Scholtz, J Martin; Pace, C Nick

    2009-11-15

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of how protein stability can be increased by improving beta-turns. We studied 22 beta-turns in nine proteins with 66-370 residues by replacing other residues with proline and glycine and measuring the stability. These two residues are statistically preferred in some beta-turn positions. We studied: Cold shock protein B (CspB), Histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein, Ubiquitin, Ribonucleases Sa2, Sa3, T1, and HI, Tryptophan synthetase alpha-subunit, and Maltose binding protein. Of the 15 single proline mutations, 11 increased stability (Average = 0.8 +/- 0.3; Range = 0.3-1.5 kcal/mol), and the stabilizing effect of double proline mutants was additive. On the basis of this and our previous work, we conclude that proteins can generally be stabilized by replacing nonproline residues with proline residues at the i + 1 position of Type I and II beta-turns and at the i position in Type II beta-turns. Other turn positions can sometimes be used if the phi angle is near -60 degrees for the residue replaced. It is important that the side chain of the residue replaced is less than 50% buried. Identical substitutions in beta-turns in related proteins give similar results. Proline substitutions increase stability mainly by decreasing the entropy of the denatured state. In contrast, the large, diverse group of proteins considered here had almost no residues in beta-turns that could be replaced by Gly to increase protein stability. Improving beta-turns by substituting Pro residues is a generally useful way of increasing protein stability. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. An integrated mechanical-enzymatic reverse osmosis treatment of dairy industry wastewater and milk protein recovery as a fat replacer: a closed loop approach

    F. Sarghini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry can be classified among the most polluting of the food industries in volume in regard to its large water consumption, generating from 0.2 to 10 L of effluent per liter of processed milk. Dairy industry effluents usually include highly dissolved organic matter with varying characteristics, and a correct waste management project is required to handle. In a framework of natural water resource availability and cost increase, wastewater treatment for water reuse can lower the overall water consumption and the global effluent volume of industrial plants. Moreover, correct dismissal of dairy industry wastewater is sometimes neglected by the operators , increasing the environmental impact due to the chemical and biological characteristics of such effluents. On the other hand, in the case of whey effluents, several by-products are still present inside, such as lactose and milk proteins. Membrane technology has some advantages including a high degree of reliability in removing dissolved, colloidal and particulate matter, like the selectivity in size of pollutants to be removed and the possibility of very compact treatment plants. For example, Reverse Osmosis (RO technology has been successfully applied for the treatment of dairy wastes (1, and as a technology for concentration and fractionation of whey. In this work a membrane treatment approach using reverse osmosis technology is investigated and implemented: the permeate obtained can be reused as clean warm water for cleaning and sanitation of production plants, while concentrated milk proteins are modified by using transglutaminase enzyme obtaining a high temperature resistant fat replacer to be used in different low-fat products like for example mozzarella cheese.

  4. Effect of supplementation with protein differ for rumen degradability on milk production and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows

    Talat N. Pasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lactating Sahiwal cows (n=24 of approximately similar yield and lactation were selected and randomly divided into four groups of six cows in each. These groups were fed ad libitum four iso- energetic and iso- proteic diets with different rumen undegradable protein (RUP sources: diet A 30% RUP, diet B 40% RUP, diet C 50% RUP and diet D 60% RUP in a completely randomized design. Among nutrients intake, dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake was significantly (P<0.01 different, while neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF intakes were similar across four diets. DM, CP and NDF digestibility were also different (P<0.05 except, NDF digestibility. Whole milk yield (kg/d and 4% fat corrected milk (FCM (kg/d, fat (g/d and protein (g/d was found maximum on diet B, followed by diet A. Not significant differences were found in fat, solid not fat (SNF, protein, lactose, salts and total solids percentage across all diet except SNF, lactose and salts percentages which were significantly lower (P<0.05 on diet D. Nitrogen intake, balance and utilization were statistically similar across all diets however, nitrogen excretion in milk (g/d and percentage of intake and urine (percentage of intake were significantly different across diets. Nitrogen intake and output varied (P<0.01 across all diets. Nitrogen balance and its utilization were maximum (P<0.001 on diet B, while other diets showed not significant differences among themselves. Based on presenting findings, it is concluded that feed intake, digestibility and production performance was maximum in early lactating Sahiwal cows when fed 40% rumen undegradable protein in total mixed ration based diet.

  5. Variability of the caprine whey protein genes and their association with milk yield, composition and renneting properties in the Sarda breed: 2. The BLG gene.

    Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Pira, Emanuela; Puggioni, Ornella; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2015-11-01

    The variability of the promoter region and the 3'UTR (exon-7) of the BLG gene, encoding the β-lactoglobulin, was investigated by sequencing in 263 lactating Sarda goats in order to assess its association with milk traits. Milk traits included: milk yield, fat, total protein and lactose content, pH, daily fat and protein yield (DFPY), freezing point, milk energy, somatic cell count, total microbial mesophilic count, rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd firming rate (k20) and curd firmness (a30). A total of 7 polymorphic sites were detected and the sequence analysed was given accession number KM817769. Only three SNPs (c.-381C>T, c.-323C>T and c.*420C>A) had minor allele frequency higher than 0.05. The effects of farm, stage of lactation and the interaction farm × stage of lactation significantly influenced all the milk traits (P T and c.*420C>A (P T (P < 0.001). The c.-381TT homozygous goats showed lower pH, RCT and k20 than c.-381CT (P < 0.05). In conclusion the polymorphism of the goat BLG gene did not affect the total protein content of the Sarda goat milk, and only weakly influenced RCT and k20. On the other hand, an interesting effect on milk yields and DFPY emerged in two SNPs. This information might be useful in dairy goat breeding programs.

  6. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    Haque, M.A.; Rashid, M.H.; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  7. Potential of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusion proteins in milk biopreservation.

    Lorena Rodríguez-Rubio

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage lytic enzymes have recently attracted considerable interest as novel antimicrobials against Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, antimicrobial activity in milk of HydH5 [a virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase (VAPGH encoded by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88], and three different fusion proteins created between HydH5 and lysostaphin has been assessed. The lytic activity of the five proteins (HydH5, HydH5Lyso, HydH5SH3b, CHAPSH3b and lysostaphin was confirmed using commercial whole extended shelf-life milk (ESL in challenge assays with 10(4 CFU/mL of the strain S. aureus Sa9. HydH5, HydH5Lyso and HydH5SH3b (3.5 µM kept the staphylococcal viable counts below the control cultures for 6 h at 37°C. The effect is apparent just 15 minutes after the addition of the lytic enzyme. Of note, lysostaphin and CHAPSH3b showed the highest staphylolytic protection as they were able to eradicate the initial staphylococcal challenge immediately or 15 min after addition, respectively, at lower concentration (1 µM at 37°C. CHAPSH3b showed the same antistaphyloccal effect at room temperature (1.65 µM. No re-growth was observed for the remainder of the experiment (up to 6 h. CHAPSH3b activity (1.65 µM was also assayed in raw (whole and skim and pasteurized (whole and skim milk. Pasteurization of milk clearly enhanced CHAPSH3b staphylolytic activity in both whole and skim milk at both temperatures. This effect was most dramatic at room temperature as this protein was able to reduce S. aureus viable counts to undetectable levels immediately after addition with no re-growth detected for the duration of the experiment (360 min. Furthermore, CHAPSH3b protein is known to be heat tolerant and retained some lytic activity after pasteurization treatment and after storage at 4°C for 3 days. These results might facilitate the use of the peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusions, particularly CHAPSH3b, as

  8. Changes in Holstein cow milk and serum proteins during intramammary infection with three different strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    Robert Claude

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens to cause mastitis in dairy cattle. Intramammary infection of dairy cows with S. aureus is often subclinical, due to the pathogen's ability to evade the innate defense mechanisms, but this can lead to chronic infection. A sub-population of S. aureus, known as small colony variant (SCV, displays atypical phenotypic characteristics, causes persistent infections, and is more resistant to antibiotics than parent strains. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the host immune response will be different for SCV than its parental or typical strains of S. aureus. In this study, the local and systemic immune protein responses to intramammary infection with three strains of S. aureus, including a naturally occurring bovine SCV strain (SCV Heba3231, were characterized. Serum and casein-depleted milk cytokine levels (interleukin-8, interferon-γ, and transforming growth factor-β1, as well as serum haptoglobin concentrations were monitored over time after intramammary infection with each of the three S. aureus strains. Furthermore, comparative proteomics was used to evaluate milk proteome profiles during acute and chronic phases of S. aureus intramammary infection. Results Serum IL-8, IFN-γ, and TGF-β1 responses differed in dairy cows challenged with different strains of S. aureus. Changes in overall serum haptoglobin concentrations were observed for each S. aureus challenge group, but there were no significant differences observed between groups. In casein-depleted milk, strain-specific differences in the host IFN-γ response were observed, but inducible IL-8 and TGF-β1 concentrations were not different between groups. Proteomic analysis of the milk following intramammary infection revealed unique host protein expression profiles that were dependent on the infecting strain as well as phase of infection. Notably, the protein, component-3 of the proteose peptone (CPP3, was

  9. Potential of the Virion-Associated Peptidoglycan Hydrolase HydH5 and Its Derivative Fusion Proteins in Milk Biopreservation

    Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; Martínez, Beatriz; Donovan, David M.; García, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophage lytic enzymes have recently attracted considerable interest as novel antimicrobials against Gram-positive bacteria. In this work, antimicrobial activity in milk of HydH5 [a virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase (VAPGH) encoded by the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88], and three different fusion proteins created between HydH5 and lysostaphin has been assessed. The lytic activity of the five proteins (HydH5, HydH5Lyso, HydH5SH3b, CHAPSH3b and lysostaphin) was confirmed using commercial whole extended shelf-life milk (ESL) in challenge assays with 104 CFU/mL of the strain S. aureus Sa9. HydH5, HydH5Lyso and HydH5SH3b (3.5 µM) kept the staphylococcal viable counts below the control cultures for 6 h at 37°C. The effect is apparent just 15 minutes after the addition of the lytic enzyme. Of note, lysostaphin and CHAPSH3b showed the highest staphylolytic protection as they were able to eradicate the initial staphylococcal challenge immediately or 15 min after addition, respectively, at lower concentration (1 µM) at 37°C. CHAPSH3b showed the same antistaphyloccal effect at room temperature (1.65 µM). No re-growth was observed for the remainder of the experiment (up to 6 h). CHAPSH3b activity (1.65 µM) was also assayed in raw (whole and skim) and pasteurized (whole and skim) milk. Pasteurization of milk clearly enhanced CHAPSH3b staphylolytic activity in both whole and skim milk at both temperatures. This effect was most dramatic at room temperature as this protein was able to reduce S. aureus viable counts to undetectable levels immediately after addition with no re-growth detected for the duration of the experiment (360 min). Furthermore, CHAPSH3b protein is known to be heat tolerant and retained some lytic activity after pasteurization treatment and after storage at 4°C for 3 days. These results might facilitate the use of the peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusions, particularly CHAPSH3b, as biocontrol agents

  10. Equilibrium of adsorption of mixed milk protein/surfactant solutions at the water/air interface.

    Kotsmar, C; Grigoriev, D O; Xu, F; Aksenenko, E V; Fainerman, V B; Leser, M E; Miller, R

    2008-12-16

    Ellipsometry and surface profile analysis tensiometry were used to study and compare the adsorption behavior of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)/C10DMPO, beta-casein (BCS)/C10DMPO and BCS/C12DMPO mixtures at the air/solution interface. The adsorption from protein/surfactant mixed solutions is of competitive nature. The obtained adsorption isotherms suggest a gradual replacement of the protein molecules at the interface with increasing surfactant concentration for all studied mixed systems. The thickness, refractive index, and the adsorbed amount of the respective adsorption layers, determined by ellipsometry, decrease monotonically and reach values close to those for a surface covered only by surfactant molecules, indicating the absence of proteins from a certain surfactant concentration on. These results correlate with the surface tension data. A continuous increase of adsorption layer thickness was observed up to this concentration, caused by the desorption of segments of the protein and transforming the thin surface layer into a rather diffuse and thick one. Replacement and structural changes of the protein molecules are discussed in terms of protein structure and surface activity of surfactant molecules. Theoretical models derived recently were used for the quantitative description of the equilibrium state of the mixed surface layers.

  11. A prospective study of cow's milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants. Incidence, pathogenetic role of early inadvertent exposure to cow's milk formula, and characterization of bovine milk protein in human milk

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Osterballe, O

    1988-01-01

    A cohort of 1,749 newborns in the municipality of Odense were followed prospectively for the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) during their first year of life. Altogether 39 fulfilled the criteria for CMA (2.2%). Out of the 39 infants, 17 developed symptoms of CMA during breast-feeding, in ...

  12. Immunomodulatory potential of a brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysate incorporated into low-fat milk following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Crowley, Damian; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; McCarthy, Aoife; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2015-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) protein rich fraction was previously hydrolysed using Alcalase (U) and three additional fractions were prepared by membrane fractionation; a 5-kDa retentate (U > 5), a 5-kDa permeate (U milk, subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) and their anti-inflammatory potential was investigated. The digestates caused a significant reduction (p RAW 264.7 cells. IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in stimulated Jurkat T cells and IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were not affected in the presence of the digestates. Results show that a SGID milk product supplemented with BSG hydrolysate and its associated ultrafiltered fractions can confer anti-inflammatory effects in Jurkat T cells.

  13. Comparative 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis of bovine mammary epithelial cells during lactation reveals protein signatures for lactation persistency and milk yield.

    Jagadeesh Janjanam

    Full Text Available Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling.

  14. [Faecal calprotectin as an aid to the diagnosis of non-IgE mediated cow's milk protein allergy].

    Trillo Belizón, Carlos; Ortega Páez, Eduardo; Medina Claros, Antonio F; Rodríguez Sánchez, Isabel; Reina González, Ana; Vera Medialdea, Rafael; Ramón Salguero, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the use of faecal calprotectin (FCP) in infants with signs and symptoms of non-IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy (CMA) for both diagnosis and prediction of clinical response at the time of withdrawal of milk proteins. A one year prospective study was conducted on 82 infants between 1 and 12 months of age in the Eastern area of Málaga-Axarquía, of whom 40 of them had been diagnosed with non-IgE-mediated CMA (with suggestive symptoms and positive response to milk withdrawal), 12 not diagnosed with CMA, and 30 of them were the control group. FCP was measured at three different times: time of diagnosis, and one and three months later. ANOVA for repeated measures, nominal logistic regression and ROC curves were prepared using the SPSS.20 package and Medcalc. Differences between diagnostic and control groups were assessed: there was a statistically significant relationship (p<.0001) between high FCP levels and infants suffering CMA, as well as the levels at time of diagnosis, 1 and 3 months (p <.001). A ROC curve was constructed between FCP levels and diagnosis of CMA, with 138 ug/g, with the best cut-off being with an area under the curve of 0.89. However, it is only 0.68 to predict a clinical response. FCP levels lower than 138ug/g could be useful to rule out non-IgE-mediated CMA diagnosis. Calprotectin is not a good test to predict clinical response to milk withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Viscosity and Analytical Differences between Raw Milk and UHT Milk of Czech Cows

    Kumbár V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity and analytical differences in four milk samples from Czech cows were described. Three samples of UHT milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat and one sample of raw milk from a Czech bio-farm were analyzed. The following analytical properties were observed: titratable acidity, fat content, dry matter content, and protein content. Titratable acidity and dry matter content decreased in dependence upon the increasing milk fat content. The protein content ranged 3.51-3.57 g per 100 g milk. The milk flow behaviour represented by density, dynamic and kinematic viscosity, as well as the dependence of the milk flow behaviour on temperature were investigated. These properties were measured using a digital densitometer and a rotary viscometer. Milk density was studied at temperatures ranging 0-60 °C and dynamic viscosity at 0-100 °C. With increasing temperature, the density and dynamic viscosity of the studied milk samples decreased. The temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was manifested in all samples. Kinematic viscosity was calculated from experimental data. Furthermore, mathematical models using Power law and Gaussian fitting were constructed. Determination coefficients achieved high values (0.843-0.997.

  16. Characterization of several milk proteins in Domestic Balkan donkey breed during lactation, using lab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis

    Gubić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic Balkan donkey (Equus asinus asinus is a native donkey breed, primarily found in the northern and eastern regions of Serbia. The objective of the study was to analyze proteins of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period (from the 45th to the 280th day by applying Lab-on-a-Chip electrophoresis. The chip-based separations were performed on the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer in combination with the Protein 80 Plus Lab Chip kit. The protein content of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period of 280 days ranged from 1.40 % to 1.92 % and the content of αs1-casein, αs2-casein, b-casein, α-, β- lactoglobulin, lysozyme, lactoferrin and serum albumin was relatively quantified. Lysozyme (1040-2970 mg/L, α-lactalbumin 12 kDa (1990-2730 mg/L and α-lactalbumin 17.7 kDa (2240-3090 mg/L were found to be the proteins with the highest relative concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  17. Determining the amount of rumen-protected methionine supplement that corresponds to the optimal levels of methionine in metabolizable protein for maximizing milk protein production and profit on dairy farms.

    Cho, J; Overton, T R; Schwab, C G; Tauer, L W

    2007-10-01

    The profitability of feeding rumen-protected Met (RPMet) sources to produce milk protein was estimated using a 2-step procedure: First, the effect of Met in metabolizable protein (MP) on milk protein production was estimated by using a quadratic Box-Cox functional form. Then, using these estimation results, the amounts of RPMet supplement that corresponded to the optimal levels of Met in MP for maximizing milk protein production and profit on dairy farms were determined. The data used in this study were modified from data used to determine the optimal level of Met in MP for lactating cows in the Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (NRC, 2001). The data used in this study differ from that in the NRC (2001) data in 2 ways. First, because dairy feed generally contains 1.80 to 1.90% Met in MP, this study adjusts the reference production value (RPV) from 2.06 to 1.80 or 1.90%. Consequently, the milk protein production response is also modified to an RPV of 1.80 or 1.90% Met in MP. Second, because this study is especially interested in how much additional Met, beyond the 1.80 or 1.90% already contained in the basal diet, is required to maximize farm profits, the data used are limited to concentrations of Met in MP above 1.80 or 1.90%. This allowed us to calculate any additional cost to farmers based solely on the price of an RPMet supplement and eliminated the need to estimate the dollar value of each gram of Met already contained in the basal diet. Results indicated that the optimal level of Met in MP for maximizing milk protein production was 2.40 and 2.42%, where the RPV was 1.80 and 1.90%, respectively. These optimal levels were almost identical to the recommended level of Met in MP of 2.40% in the NRC (2001). The amounts of RPMet required to increase the percentage of Met in MP from each RPV to 2.40 and 2.42% were 21.6 and 18.5 g/d, respectively. On the other hand, the optimal levels of Met in MP for maximizing profit were 2.32 and 2.34%, respectively. The amounts

  18. Nitrogen balance and milk composition of dairy cows fed urea and soybean meal and two protein levels using sugar cane based diets

    Luís Henrique Andreucci Conti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding two levels of crude protein (CP (low: 142 g CP/kg DM; and high: 156 g CP/kg DM and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal and urea to dairy cows using sugar cane as forage on microbial protein synthesis, the composition of the milk nitrogen fraction, nitrogen (N balance and blood parameters. Twelve Holstein cows with an average milk yield of 22.0 ± 2.3 kg/day, and with 235 ± 40 days in milk were included in this study. The animals were grouped into three balanced and contemporary 4x4 Latin squares for an experimental period of 21 days. On the 15th day of each period, milk and urine samples were collected for microbial protein synthesis determination. Total excretion of urine (L/day, milk urea nitrogen (MUN and blood urea were higher for the diets with high CP, regardless of the nitrogen source. Nitrogen efficiency was higher for cows fed diets with low CP. Cows in the final third of lactation can be fed diets with reduced CP levels, regardless of the nitrogen source, soybean meal or urea, without influencing the synthesis of microbial protein or the composition of the nitrogen fraction of milk.

  19. Use of test day milk fat and milk protein to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in Ontario.

    Duffield, T F; Kelton, D F; Leslie, K E; Lissemore, K D; Lumsden, J H

    1997-01-01

    Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels were determined for 1333 dairy cows in various stages of lactation and parity on 93 dairy farms in Ontario. The data were collected in a cross-sectional manner, as part of the 1992 Ontario Dairy Monitoring and Analysis Program. The median serum BHB was 536 mumol/L for all cows, with a range of 0 to 5801 mumol/L. When subclinical ketosis was defined as a serum BHB level of 1200 mumol/L or higher, the prevalence of ketosis for cows in early lactation ( 149 DIM), and dry cows were 5.3%, 3.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. The mean serum BHB was significantly higher in the early group compared with each of the other 3 groups (P ketosis. However, test-day fat percent and test-day protein percent, used alone or in combination, were not useful screening tests for identifying cows with subclinical ketosis. PMID:9360791

  20. Evolution of increased competitiveness in cows trades off with reduced milk yield, fertility and more masculine morphology.

    Sartori, Cristina; Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    In some species females compete for food, foraging territories, mating, and nesting sites. Competing females can exhibit morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations typical of males, which are commonly considered as secondary sexual traits. Competition and the development of traits increasing competitiveness require much energy and may exert adverse effects on fecundity and survival. From an evolutionary perspective, positive selection for increased competitiveness would then result in evolution of reduced values for traits related to fitness such as fecundity and survival. There is recent evidence for such evolutionary trade-offs involving male competition, but no study has considered competing females so far. Using data from competitions for dominance in cows (Bos taurus), we found negative genetic correlations between traits providing success in competition, that is, fighting ability and fitness traits related to milk production and with fertility (the inverse of parity-conception interval). Fighting ability also showed low but positive genetic correlations with "masculine" morphological traits, and negative correlations with "feminine" traits. A genetic change in traits over time has occurred due to selection on competitiveness, corresponding to an evolutionary process of "masculinization" counteracting the official selection for milk yield. Similar evolutionary trade-off between success in competition and fitness components may be present in various species experiencing female competition. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Use of γ-irradiation cross-linking to improve the water vapor permeability and the chemical stability of milk protein films

    Ouattara, B.; Canh, L.T.; Vachon, C.; Mateescu, M.A.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-01-01

    γ-irradiation was used to produce free-standing cross-linked milk proteins. Film forming solutions were prepared according to a method previously developed in our laboratory using calcium caseinate (cas) with various proportions of whey protein isolate (wpi) or whey protein concentrate (wpc). The following caseinate-whey protein (cas:wp) ratio were prepared: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. The WVP of the films was determined gravimetrically at 23 deg. C using a modified ASTM procedure. Molecular properties characterization was performed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Results showed significant (p≤0.05) reduction of the WVP of protein films for the following formulations: cas:wpi or cas:wpc (100:0); cas:wpi (25:75); cas:wpc (25:75); and cas:wpc (0:100). Mixture of cas and wpi produced a synergistic effect. The strongest combined effect was obtained for cas:wpi (25:75) formulation with permeability values of 2.07 and 1.38 g mm/m 2 d mm Hg for unirradiated and irradiated samples, respectively. γ-irradiation also induced a substantial increase of high molecular weight protein components in film forming solutions. The predominant fraction was ≥10x10 6 Da for irradiated film forming solutions, compared to less than 0.2x10 6 Da for native unirradiated solutions

  2. Use of {gamma}-irradiation cross-linking to improve the water vapor permeability and the chemical stability of milk protein films

    Ouattara, B.; Canh, L.T.; Vachon, C.; Mateescu, M.A.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    {gamma}-irradiation was used to produce free-standing cross-linked milk proteins. Film forming solutions were prepared according to a method previously developed in our laboratory using calcium caseinate (cas) with various proportions of whey protein isolate (wpi) or whey protein concentrate (wpc). The following caseinate-whey protein (cas:wp) ratio were prepared: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. The WVP of the films was determined gravimetrically at 23 deg. C using a modified ASTM procedure. Molecular properties characterization was performed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Results showed significant (p{<=}0.05) reduction of the WVP of protein films for the following formulations: cas:wpi or cas:wpc (100:0); cas:wpi (25:75); cas:wpc (25:75); and cas:wpc (0:100). Mixture of cas and wpi produced a synergistic effect. The strongest combined effect was obtained for cas:wpi (25:75) formulation with permeability values of 2.07 and 1.38 g mm/m{sup 2} d mm Hg for unirradiated and irradiated samples, respectively. {gamma}-irradiation also induced a substantial increase of high molecular weight protein components in film forming solutions. The predominant fraction was {>=}10x10{sup 6} Da for irradiated film forming solutions, compared to less than 0.2x10{sup 6} Da for native unirradiated solutions.

  3. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme, Immunoglobulin A, oligosaccharides and sodium in longitudinal samples of mother's milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Validation of protein evaluation systems by means of milk production experiments with dairy cows.

    Straalen, van W.M.; Salaün, C.; Veen, W.A.G.; Rypkema, Y.S.; Hof, G.; Boxem, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Protein evaluation systems (crude protein (CP), digestible crude protein (DCP), protein digested in the intestine (PDI), amino acids truly absorbed in the small intestine (AAT), absorbed protein (AP), metabolizable protein (MP), crude protein flow at the duodenum (AAS) and digestible protein in

  5. Small-angle reflectometry of milk protein (β -casein) at the air/serum interface and its conformational changes due to fat content and temperature

    Heidari, R.; White, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The surface structure of dispersed emulsions play a key role in stability of the system. Proteins being one of the most important surface-active components in foods stabilise interfaces by self-interaction, resulting in a stiff visco-elastic adsorbed layer. These interactions are sensitive to disruptive effects of lipids. Previous kinetics studies by the group 1 using the X-ray reflectivity method to investigate the surface adsorption of milk proteins indicate that β -casein had a stronger affinity for the air-liquid interface compared to whey proteins. It has been shown that initially a dense protein layer, with the thickness of 20 Angstroms is formed then a second more diffuse layer with lower volume density of protein follows. Here we report the conformational changes (with particular emphasise on the β -casein tail) occurred at the air-milk serum interface due to the effects of milk fat content, temperature and the milk preparation technique (ie homogenisation vs microfluidisation). In the effect of fat content on the adsorption of protein into the interface the key conclusion is that at lower temperatures the surface composition remains unchanged. The compositional changes, however, become significant at room temperature indicating adsorption of less reflective-water-soluble components into the surface layer. Repulsive interactions between casein aggregates are also involved. Microfluidised samples having the advantage of smaller particle size prove to be more stable to fat or temperature effects compared to the corresponding homogenised milks

  6. Effect of homogenisation in formation of thermally induced aggregates in a non- and low- fat milk model system with microparticulated whey proteins

    Celigueta Torres, Isabel; Nieto, Gema; Nylander, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    in the formation of protein aggregates were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the final complexes visualised by darkfield microscopy. Homogenisation of non-fat milk systems led to partial adsorption of caseins onto microparticles, independently of the type of microparticle. On the contrary...... are responsible for the formation of heat-induced aggregates that influence the texture and sensory characteristics of the final product. The formation of heat-induced complexes was studied in non- and low-fat milk model systems, where microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was used as fat replacer. Five MWP types......, homogenisation of low-fat milk resulted in preferential adsorption of caseins onto fat globules, rather than onto microparticles. Further heating of the milk, led to the formation of heat induced complexes with different sizes and characteristics depending on the type of MWP and the presence or not of fat...

  7. Protein energy malnutrition increases arginase activity in monocytes and macrophages.

    Corware, Karina; Yardley, Vanessa; Mack, Christopher; Schuster, Steffen; Al-Hassi, Hafid; Herath, Shanthi; Bergin, Philip; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition is commonly associated with immune dysfunctions and is a major factor in susceptibility to infectious diseases. In this study, we evaluated the impact of protein energy malnutrition on the capacity of monocytes and macrophages to upregulate arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression and increased pathogen replication. Our results show that monocytes and macrophages are significantly increased in the bone marrow and blood of mice fed on a protein low diet. No alteration in the capacity of bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from malnourished mice to phagocytose particles, to produce the microbicidal molecule nitric oxide and to kill intracellular Leishmania parasites was detected. However, macrophages and monocytes from malnourished mice express significantly more arginase both in vitro and in vivo. Using an experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis, we show that following protein energy malnutrition, the increased parasite burden measured in the spleen of these mice coincided with increased arginase activity and that macrophages provide a more permissive environment for parasite growth. Taken together, these results identify a novel mechanism in protein energy malnutrition that might contributes to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases by upregulating arginase activity in myeloid cells.

  8. Variations in carotenoids, vitamins A and E, and color in cow's plasma and milk following a shift from hay diet to diets containing increasing levels of carotenoids and vitamin E.

    Calderón, F; Chauveau-Duriot, B; Pradel, P; Martin, B; Graulet, B; Doreau, M; Nozière, P

    2007-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the variations in carotenoid, vitamins A and E concentrations, and color in the plasma and milk of dairy cows following a shift from a hay diet to diets containing increasing levels of carotenoids and vitamin E. This study was performed on 32 multiparous Montbéliarde dairy cows in midlactation. After a 6-wk preexperimental period on a diet based on hay and concentrates, the cows were allocated to 4 homogeneous groups, and thereafter fed for 6 wk on isoenergetic experimental diets where the hay was replaced by an experimental feed rich in carotenoids and vitamin E, consisting in 75% grass silage and 25% alfalfa protein concentrate (PX Agro Super Desialis, Châlons en Champagne, France). The hay-to-experimental feed ratios were 100/0 in group 1, 67/33 in group 2, 33/67 in group 3, and 0/100 in group 4, providing 1.6, 3.6, 5.4, and 7.4 g/d of total carotenoids, respectively. Variations in carotenoid, vitamins A and E concentrations as well as variations in color index (CI) were monitored from d -7 through to d 42 on the experimental diets. Zeaxanthin, lutein, 13-cis-beta-carotene, and all-trans-beta-carotene accounted for an average 3, 10, 9, and 78%, respectively, of total carotenoids in plasma and 0, 17, 12, and 71%, respectively, of total carotenoids in milk. The switch from preexperimental to experimental diets only slightly affected zeaxanthin, lutein, and vitamin A concentrations in plasma and milk. A rapid increase in vitamin E and beta-carotene (BC) was observed during the first week in both plasma and milk. For vitamin E, the time to reach a plateau was from 8 d (group 2) to 28 d (group 4) in plasma, and 5 d (groups 2-4) in milk. Plasma concentrations of BC had stabilized after 28 d in group 2 but were not stabilized after 42 d in groups 3 and 4, whereas milk concentrations of BC plateaued from d 21 in group 2 and d 28 in groups 3 and 4. At the end of the experimental period, BC and vitamin E concentrations in

  9. Evolution of protein bound Maillard reaction end-products and free Amadori compounds in low lactose milk in presence of fructosamine oxidase i

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Buonanno, Martina; Fiore, Alberto; Monti, Simona Maria; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Thermal treatments and storage influence milk quality, particularly in low lactose milk as the higher concentration of reducing sugars can lead to the increased formation of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The control of the Amadori products (APs) formation is the key step to mitigate the

  10. Peptidome analysis of human skim milk in term and preterm milk

    Wan, Jun; Cui, Xian-wei; Zhang, Jun; Fu, Zi-yi; Guo, Xi-rong; Sun, Li-Zhou; Ji, Chen-bo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A method was developed for preparation of peptide extracts from human milk. •Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 peptide-like features. •419 Peptides were identified by LC–MS/MS from 34 proteins. •Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis revealed 41 peptides differentially expressed. -- Abstract: The abundant proteins in human milk have been well characterized and are known to provide nutritional, protective, and developmental advantages to both term and preterm infants. Due to the difficulties associated with detection technology of the peptides, the expression of the peptides present in human milk is not known widely. In recent years, peptidome analysis has received increasing attention. In this report, the analysis of endogenous peptides in human milk was done by mass spectrometry. A method was also developed by our researchers, which can be used in the extraction of peptide from human milk. Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 Da peptide-like features. Out of these, 419 peptides were identified by MS/MS. The identified peptides were found to originate from 34 proteins, of which several have been reported. Analysis of the peptides’ cleavage sites showed that the peptides are cleaved with regulations. This may reflect the protease activity and distribution in human body, and also represent the biological state of the tissue and provide a fresh source for biomarker discovery. Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis was also used to test the effects of premature delivery on milk protein composition in this study. Differences in peptides expression between breast milk in term milk (38–41 weeks gestation) and preterm milk (28–32 weeks gestation) were investigated in this study. 41 Peptides in these two groups were found expressed differently. 23 Peptides were present at higher levels in preterm milk, and 18 were present at higher levels in term milk

  11. Peptidome analysis of human skim milk in term and preterm milk

    Wan, Jun; Cui, Xian-wei [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China); Zhang, Jun [Department of Pediatric Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (China); Fu, Zi-yi [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China); Guo, Xi-rong [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China); Institute of Pediatrics, Nanjing Medical University (China); Sun, Li-Zhou, E-mail: lizhou_sun121@hotmail.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (China); Ji, Chen-bo, E-mail: chenboji@njmu.edu.cn [Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Medical Institute, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital (China)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •A method was developed for preparation of peptide extracts from human milk. •Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 peptide-like features. •419 Peptides were identified by LC–MS/MS from 34 proteins. •Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis revealed 41 peptides differentially expressed. -- Abstract: The abundant proteins in human milk have been well characterized and are known to provide nutritional, protective, and developmental advantages to both term and preterm infants. Due to the difficulties associated with detection technology of the peptides, the expression of the peptides present in human milk is not known widely. In recent years, peptidome analysis has received increasing attention. In this report, the analysis of endogenous peptides in human milk was done by mass spectrometry. A method was also developed by our researchers, which can be used in the extraction of peptide from human milk. Analysis of the extracts by LC–MS/MS resulted in the detection of 1000–3000 Da peptide-like features. Out of these, 419 peptides were identified by MS/MS. The identified peptides were found to originate from 34 proteins, of which several have been reported. Analysis of the peptides’ cleavage sites showed that the peptides are cleaved with regulations. This may reflect the protease activity and distribution in human body, and also represent the biological state of the tissue and provide a fresh source for biomarker discovery. Isotope dimethyl labeling analysis was also used to test the effects of premature delivery on milk protein composition in this study. Differences in peptides expression between breast milk in term milk (38–41 weeks gestation) and preterm milk (28–32 weeks gestation) were investigated in this study. 41 Peptides in these two groups were found expressed differently. 23 Peptides were present at higher levels in preterm milk, and 18 were present at higher levels in term milk.

  12. Shortening a loop can increase protein native state entropy.

    Gavrilov, Yulian; Dagan, Shlomi; Levy, Yaakov

    2015-12-01

    Protein loops are essential structural elements that influence not only function but also protein stability and folding rates. It was recently reported that shortening a loop in the AcP protein may increase its native state conformational entropy. This effect on the entropy of the folded state can be much larger than the lower entropic penalty of ordering a shorter loop upon folding, and can therefore result in a more pronounced stabilization than predicted by polymer model for loop closure entropy. In this study, which aims at generalizing the effect of loop length shortening on native state dynamics, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study how gradual shortening a very long or solvent-exposed loop region in four different proteins can affect their stability. For two proteins, AcP and Ubc7, we show an increase in native state entropy in addition to the known effect of the loop length on the unfolded state entropy. However, for two permutants of SH3 domain, shortening a loop results only with the expected change in the entropy of the unfolded state, which nicely reproduces the observed experimental stabilization. Here, we show that an increase in the native state entropy following loop shortening is not unique to the AcP protein, yet nor is it a general rule that applies to all proteins following the truncation of any loop. This modification of the loop length on the folded state and on the unfolded state may result with a greater effect on protein stability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, In