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Sample records for increased anti-oxidative capacities

  1. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites

    Choudhury, Ambar K.; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated co...

  2. Parsley oil boosting anti oxidation capacity in irradiated rats

    Abbady, M.M.; Osman, S.A.A.; Abu-Ghadeer, A.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Many synthetic antioxidant components have shown toxic and/or mutagenic effects, which have directed most of the attention on the naturally occurring antioxidants. The present study aims to evaluate the possible antioxidant effects of parsley on levels of lipid peroxides, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in blood and certain tissues (liver, spleen and intestine) of whole body gamma irradiated rats (4.5 Gy). Parsley oil was orally administrated to rats (100 mg/kg bod. wt) for 7 days before radiation exposure. The data showed that parsley significantly ameliorates the decrease in the antioxidant system (GSH and SOD) and the increase in the lipid peroxides level caused by radiation exposure

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects and anti-oxidant capacity of Myrathius arboreus (Cecropiaceae) in experimental models.

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Ologe, Olufunmilayo; Alabi, Akinyinka; Tunde Yusuf, Ganiyu; Umukoro, Solomon

    2017-11-27

    Inflammation is involved in various diseases; search for safe treatments is warranted. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Myrathius arboreus (EEMa) were studied in carrageenan-induced model, formaldehyde sub-acute-induced model, and in 48 h lipopolysaccharide-induced air pouch model of inflammation. EEMa membrane-stabilizing activities and anti-oxidant capacity were determined in vitro. In the carrageenan model EEMa (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), or vehicle 3 mL/kg was administered orally in rats (n=5). After 1 h, 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan was injected into the right hind paw of rats. Change in edema sizes was measured for 3 h with plethysmometer. One-tenth milliliter (0.1 mL) of 2.5% formaldehyde was injected into the rat paw on the first day and the third day to induce sub-acute inflammation; changes in the edema sizes were determined, and percentages of inhibitions were calculated. Anti-inflammatory effects of EEMa were further examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced air-pouch based on leukocytes count, volume of exudates, levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxides, and tumor necrosis factor released into the inflammatory fluids. EEMa-free radicals scavenging activities were studied in DPPH and reducing power tests. Membrane-stabilizing activities of EEMa were evaluated in the red blood cell lysis induced by thermal and hypotonic solution. EEMa (250, 500 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001; p<0.05) inhibition of inflammation when compared with vehicle. Also, EEMa (250, 500, or 1000 μg/mL) significantly stabilized membrane and produced free radical scavenging activities. M. arboreus possesses anti-inflammatory and the anti-oxidant properties that might benefit translational medicine.

  4. Dietary α-ketoglutarate supplementation improves hepatic and intestinal energy status and anti-oxidative capacity of Cherry Valley ducks.

    Guo, Shuangshuang; Duan, Rui; Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Tan, Linglin; Cheng, Qiang; Liao, Man; Ding, Binying

    2017-11-01

    α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is an extensively used dietary supplement in human and animal nutrition. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in liver and intestinal mucosa of Cherry Valley ducks. A total of 80 1-day-old ducks were randomly assigned into four groups, in which ducks were fed basal diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% AKG, respectively. Graded doses of AKG supplementation linearly decreased the ratio of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the liver, but increased ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) in a quadratic and linear manner, respectively (P ducks. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  6. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-01-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  7. Plasma total anti-oxidant capacity correlates inversely with the extent of acute appendicitis: a case control study

    Devay Seda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of free oxygen radicals in inflammatory conditions is well known. Free radicals cause lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes resulting in cell death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of total anti-oxidant status (TAS, as a marker of anti-oxidant defense system and malondialdehyde (MDA, as a marker of oxidative stress, in the plasma of patients with acute appendicitis. Methods Fifty-one adult patients with a median age of 31 years who underwent operations with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis were included in this prospective study. Blood samples for C-reactive protein (CRP, MDA and TAS were collected preoperatively. Groups were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results There were 27 patients with acute phlagmenous appendicitis and 19 patients with advanced appendicitis (10 gangrenous and 9 perforated appendicitis, while 5 negative explorations were documented. No significant differences in WBC counts and MDA levels between groups were encountered. Plasma CRP was significantly higher in patients with perforated appendicitis, but not in the other groups. In advanced appendicitis group, TAS level was significantly lower than the other groups. On the other hand, plasma TAS level in acute phlagmenous appendicitis group was significantly higher. Conclusion A decrease in plasma total anti-oxidant capacity might be a predictor of the progression of inflammation to the perforation in acute appendicitis.

  8. High level of dietary soybean oil depresses the growth and anti-oxidative capacity and induces inflammatory response in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

    Mu, Hua; Shen, Haohao; Liu, Jiahuan; Xie, Fangli; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2018-06-01

    Increasing demand, uncertain availability and high price of fish oil with the expansion of aquaculture made it essential to search alternative lipid sources. Vegetable oil has been proved to be the best candidate for the replacement of fish oil in aquafeeds. However, this replacement especially in high level potentially has some negative effects on fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, anti-oxidative and inflammatory responses of large yellow croaker to replacement of dietary fish oil by soybean oil. Three isonitrogenous (46% crude protein) and isolipidic (13% crude lipids) diets were formulated to feed fish (initial body weight: 36.80 ± 0.39 g) for 12 weeks. The control diet was designed to contain 6.5% of fish oil, and named as FO. On the basis of the control diet, the fish oil was 50% and 100% replaced by soybean oil, and these two diets were named as FS and SO, respectively. Results showed that the specific growth rate significantly decreased in the SO group. Crude lipid contents in muscle and liver of fish fed SO diet were significantly higher than those in the FO group. The ratio of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to identified fatty acids in liver decreased significantly, while n-6 PUFAs increased significantly with increasing dietary soybean oil inclusion. The levels of triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acid and tumour necrosis factor α, and the activity of aspartate aminotransferase in serum significantly increased in SO group. The total anti-oxidative capacity and expressions of the anti-oxidation-related genes (superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, catalase, glutathion peroxidase and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) were significantly decreased by dietary soybean inclusion. Dietary soybean oil significantly decreased the gene expressions of the anti-inflammatory cytokines (arginase I and interleukin 10), and increased the pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin

  9. rhEPO Enhances Cellular Anti-oxidant Capacity to Protect Long-Term Cultured Aging Primary Nerve Cells.

    Wang, Huqing; Fan, Jiaxin; Chen, Mengyi; Yao, Qingling; Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Guilian; Wu, Haiqin; Yu, Xiaorui

    2017-08-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) may protect the nervous system of animals against aging damage, making it a potential anti-aging drug for the nervous system. However, experimental evidence from natural aging nerve cell models is lacking, and the efficacy of EPO and underlying mechanism of this effect warrant further study. Thus, the present study used long-term cultured primary nerve cells to successfully mimic the natural aging process of nerve cells. Starting on the 11th day of culture, cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Using double immunofluorescence labeling, we found that rhEPO significantly improved the morphology of long-term cultured primary nerve cells and increased the total number of long-term cultured primary cells. However, rhEPO did not improve the ratio of nerve cells. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure nerve cell activity and showed that rhEPO significantly improved the activity of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Moreover, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) double immunofluorescence labeling flow cytometry revealed that rhEPO reduced the apoptotic rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) immunohistochemistry staining showed that rhEPO significantly reduced the aging rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Immunochemistry revealed that rhEPO enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) abundance and reduced the intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) level. In addition, this effect depended on the dose, was maximized at a dose of 100 U/ml and was more pronounced than that of vitamin E. In summary, this study finds that rhEPO protects long-term cultured primary nerve cells from aging in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of this effect may be associated with the enhancement of the intracellular anti-oxidant

  10. Total anti-oxidant capacity of saliva in chronic periodontitis patients before and after periodontal treatment.

    Shirzaiy, M; Ansari, S M; Dehghan, J H; Ghaeni, S H

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease is among the most common inflammatory conditions which is associated with many different factors. One of the contributing factors to the pathogenesis of this condition may compromise the defensive mechanism of antioxidants. The present study evaluates the antioxidant capacity of saliva in periodontal patients before and after periodontal treatment. In this cross sectional study, 31 patients systemically healthy non smokers with chronic periodontitis were recruited. The antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured before the initial phase of periodontal therapy and after completion of the treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19 software. Paired T-Test, Independent sample T-test and ANOVA tests were used as appropriated. The mean and standard deviation antioxidant capacity of the saliva after the treatment.(0.962± 0.287µM)was significantly higher than before the treatment (0.655 ± 0.281 µM ,pperiodontal treatment was higher among men than among women; however, the difference was not significant (P=0.07). The mean difference of salivary antioxidant capacity was not significantly differed among different ages (P=0.772). The antioxidant capacity of saliva was higher after periodontal therapy among patients with periodontal disease, however the change was not varied across the ages and gender. Therefore, the alterations in the defensive mechanism of antioxidants could be the key factors contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.

  11. Anti-oxidant defence mechanism in vitiliginous skin increases with skin type

    Briganti, S.; Caron-Schreinemachers, A.-L. D. B.; Picardo, M.; Westerhof, W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitiligo skin shows different burning capacity in people with different phototype. In normal skin antioxidant status is correlated to skin phototype, but unexpectedly it appears that there is a gradual decrease in burning susceptibility of depigmented skin of individuals with increasing

  12. Consumption of reduced-fat products: Effects on parameters of anti-oxidative capacity

    Velthuis- Wierik, E.J.M. te; Berg, H. van den; Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Graaf, C. de

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Dietary fat intake is higher than recommended in most western countries and is associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer. The growing public concern about the adverse effects of a high fat intake has led to an increased availability of 'reduced-fat'

  13. Use of sodium butyrate as an alternative to dietary fiber: effects on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative capacity of rats.

    Lin, Yan; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Xu, Sheng-yu; Wu, De; Wu, Cai-mei; Wu, Xiu-qun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1) control diet (C group), (2) high fat + high fiber diet (HF group), (3) high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group), and (4) HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group)--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF) and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.

  14. Use of sodium butyrate as an alternative to dietary fiber: effects on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative capacity of rats.

    Yan Lin

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1 control diet (C group, (2 high fat + high fiber diet (HF group, (3 high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group, and (4 HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.

  15. Salt and nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension: kidney dysfunction and brain anti-oxidant capacity.

    Oktar, Süleyman; Ilhan, Selçuk; Meydan, Sedat; Aydin, Mehmet; Yönden, Zafer; Gökçe, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The specific aim of this study was to examine the effects of salt-loading on kidney function and brain antioxidant capacity. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control rats were given normal drinking water and no drug treatment for 2 weeks. LNNA group: rats were given normal drinking water and the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), 3 mg/kg/day. LNNA + Salt group: rats were given drinking water containing salt 2% and 3 mg/kg L-NNA. Salt group: rats were given drinking water containing salt 2% and no drug treatment. Basal blood pressure and the levels of serum BUN, creatinine, uric acid, cortisol, electrolyte, serum antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress were measured. NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels were measured in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and cerebellum. Salt overload increased the blood pressure of the LNNA + Salt group. Salt-loading enhanced BUN, creatinine, sodium retention. High salt produced an increase in uric acid levels and a decrease in cortisol levels in serum. Additionally, the oxidative stress index in serum increased in the LNNA + Salt group. Salt-loading enhanced brain NO levels, but not SOD and CAT activity. L-NNA increased brain SOD activity, but not CAT and NO levels. In conclusion, salt-loading causes hypertension, kidney dysfunction, and enhances oxidative stress in salt-sensitive rats.

  16. Dicranostiga leptopodu (Maxim.) Fedde extracts attenuated CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function.

    Tang, Deping; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jinzhou; Mao, Aihong; Liao, Shiqi; Wang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Dicranostiga Leptodu (Maxim.) fedde (DLF), a poppy plant, has been reported have many benefits and medicinal properties, including free radicals scavenging and detoxifying. However, the protective effect of DLF extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in mice liver has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function. In this study, the mice liver damage evoked by CCl 4 was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in lipid peroxidation, as well as alterations of mitochondrial respiratory function. Interestingly, pretreatment with DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced morphological damage and increasing of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. Additionally, DLF extracts improved mitochondrial function by preventing the disruption of respiratory chain and suppression of mitochondrial Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, administration with DLF extracts elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and maintained the balance of redox status. This results showed that toxic protection effect of DLF extracts on mice liver is mediated by improving mitochondrial respiratory function and keeping the balance of redox status, which suggesting that DLF extracts could be used as potential toxic protection agent for the liver against hepatotoxic agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-07

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between anti-oxidant capacity and manganese accumulation in the soft tissues of two freshwater molluscs: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia

    Oscar RAVERA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an element of great importance in the life cycle of plants and animals. For example, it plays an essential role as an activator of various enzymatic systems such as isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase. Freshwater Unionidae concentrate relatively large amounts of manganese in their tissues, but little is known about the physiological role of this metal. The aim of this research is to acquire a better knowledge of the role of manganese in molluscs which accumulate large amounts of this metal and in those with low manganese concentrations. As manganese is one of the metals present in the superoxide molecule, the possible relationship between manganese concentration in the soft tissues of molluscs and the antioxidant capacity of the metal can usefully be tested. To this end two species of molluscs were analysed: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae, which is very rich in manganese, and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia which has a low manganese content. The adults of both species were analysed for manganese concentration by ICP, and for antioxidant capacity as RAC (Relative Antioxidant Capacity by a superoxide dismutase method. The results clearly demonstrate the active role played by manganese against free radicals and consequently the important role of the metal in protecting Unio against oxidative stress. The low concentration of manganese in Viviparus may be the result of the effective excretion of this metal, as was found for ruthenium.

  19. Ferulic acid modification enhances the anti-oxidation activity of natural Hb in vitro.

    Qi, Donglai; Li, Qian; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiang

    2018-03-13

    During the development of artificial red blood cell (RBC) substitutes, oxidation side reaction is one of the major factors that hinder the application of haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). In order to avoid oxidation toxicity, we designed and prepared natural Hb conjugated with ferulic acid (FA) via simple chemical modification. In addition, the thiol groups on Hb surface were increased via the reaction of Hb with 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) and then modified with FA for the study of anti-oxidant ability. It was showed that Hb modified with FA (FA-Hb) had similar oxygen-binding capacity to natural Hb. Moreover, the anti-oxidant ability of FA-Hb in vitro in different systems was superior to natural Hb and in proportion to the degree of modification of FA. The results indicate that FA-Hb might have the potential to serve as a novel oxygen carrier with the capacity to reduce oxidative side reaction.

  20. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg–1, orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg–1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. PMID:26401358

  1. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats.

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg(-1), orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg(-1) for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility.

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package

  3. Increasing hydrogen storage capacity using tetrahydrofuran.

    Sugahara, Takeshi; Haag, Joanna C; Prasad, Pinnelli S R; Warntjes, Ashleigh A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-10-21

    Hydrogen hydrates with tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a promoter molecule are investigated to probe critical unresolved observations regarding cage occupancy and storage capacity. We adopted a new preparation method, mixing solid powdered THF with ice and pressurizing with hydrogen at 70 MPa and 255 +/- 2 K (these formation conditions are insufficient to form pure hydrogen hydrates). All results from Raman microprobe spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and gas volumetric analysis show a strong dependence of hydrogen storage capacity on THF composition. Contrary to numerous recent reports that claim it is impossible to store H(2) in large cages with promoters, this work shows that, below a THF mole fraction of 0.01, H(2) molecules can occupy the large cages of the THF+H(2) structure II hydrate. As a result, by manipulating the promoter THF content, the hydrogen storage capacity was increased to approximately 3.4 wt % in the THF+H(2) hydrate system. This study shows the tuning effect may be used and developed for future science and practical applications.

  4. Increasing transmission capacity : case studies and techniques

    Reisdorff, R.A. [Laminated Wood Systems, NE (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Many companies are stretching the capacities of their mature transmission lines as a result of deregulation in the electric utility industry. Since electric utilities are no longer in control of new generation locations or capacities, their mission has changed from supplying electricity to regional customers to that of the movement of power over their grid. There will also be even more pressure to maximize the thermal capacity of existing transmission lines once the regional transmission operators (RTOs) are in place. Various methods including conductor replacement or increasing structure height are available options to accomplish this. This paper discussed the available methods to increase ground clearance, including structure changeouts; pole top extensions; nip and tuck conductor; adding mid-span structures; and raising structures. Because the actual cost of line outages for maintenance of rebuild work will make many present day work procedures obsolete, the industry is changing to methods of safely increasing the existing structure heights without removing the line from service. The paper also presented the Phaiseraiser product which is a patented system, consisting of double steel members that are either single or multiple piece units which are used to support the raised structure. The paper discussed the product development of the Phaiseraiser product, with reference to wood stubs; pier foundation; pole enforcer methodology; testing; designs; and ordering requirements. Last, the paper discussed a custom designed installation tool package developed by Laminated Wood Systems (LWS); LWS structural analysis; estimated cost for Phaiseraiser installation on an h-frame; labor resources and training; maintenance considerations; completed Phaiseraiser projects; and a case study on the Omaha Public Power District. figs.

  5. Reracking to increase spent fuel storage capacity

    1980-05-01

    Many utilities have already increased their spent fuel pool storage capacity by replacing aluminum racks having storage densities as low as 0.2 MTU/ft 2 with stainless steel racks which can more than double storage densities. Use of boron-stainless steel racks or thin stainless steel cans containing reassembled fuel rods allows even higher fuel storage densities (up to approximately 1.25 MTU/ft 2 ). This report evaluates the economics of smaller storage gains that occur if pools, already converted to high density storage, are further reracked

  6. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis dys-function of diabetes rats.

    Khaki, Arash; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Hajhosseini, Laleh; Golzar, Farhad Sadeghpour; Ainehchi, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes rats have been linked to reproductive dysfunction and plant medicine has been shown to be effective in its treatment. Antioxidants have distinctive effects on spermatogenesis, sperm biology and oxidative stress, and changes in anti-oxidant capacity are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Animals (n = 80) were allocated randomly into eight groups, 10 each: Group 1: Control rats given only 5cc Normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily;Group2: rats received ginger (100mg/kg/rat) daily; Group 3: rats received cinnamon (75mg/kg) daily; Group 4: rats received ginger and cinnamon, (100mg/kg/rat ginger and 75mg/kg cinnamon) daily; Group 5: Diabetic control rats received only normal saline. Group 6: Diabetic rats received 100mg/kg/day ginger; Group 7: Diabetic rats received 75mg /kg/ day cinnamon; Group 8: Diabetic rats received ginger and cinnamon (100mg/kg/day and 75mg/kg /day). Diabetes was induced with 55 mg/kg, single intra-peritoneal injection of STZ in all groups. At the end of the experiment (56th day), blood samples were taken for determination of testosterone, LH,FSH, total anti-oxidant capacity, and levels of malondialdehyde, SOD, Catalase and GPX. All rats were euthanized, testes were dissected out and spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis for analysis. Sperm numbers, percentages of sperm viability and motility, and total serum testosterone increased in ginger and cinnamon and combined ginger and cinnamon treated diabetic rats compared with control groups. Serum testosterone, LH and FSH were higher compared to control group and also serum anti-oxidants (TAC, SOD, GPX and catalase) all were increased at the

  7. Increasing Capacity of Intersections with Transit Priority

    Yanxi Hao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated bus lane (DBL and transit signal priority (TSP are two effective and low-cost ways of improving the reliability of transits. However, these strategies reduce the capacity of general traffic. This paper presents an integrated optimization (IO model to improve the performance of intersections with dedicated bus lanes. The IO model integrated geometry layout, main-signal timing, pre-signal timing and transit priority. The optimization problem is formulated as a Mix-Integer-Non-Linear-Program (MINLP that can be transformed into a Mix-Integer-Linear-Program (MILP and then solved by the standard branch-and-bound technique. The applicability of the IO model is tested through numerical experiment under different intersection layouts and traffic demands. A VISSIM micro simulation model was developed and used to evaluate the performance of the proposed IO model. The test results indicate that the proposed model can increase the capacity and reduce the delay of general traffic when providing priority to buses.

  8. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    Bradl, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed 'tailor-made' depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents

  9. Electrophoretic characterization of D. melanogaster strains deficient in endogenous anti-oxidants in combination with gamma radiation

    Gomar A, S.

    2012-01-01

    The free radicals derived of the oxygen and other reactive species are generated by endogenous processes as sub-products of the aerobic metabolism or by exogenous factors as the environmental pollution, the biological half life of these free radicals is of microseconds, but they have the capacity of reacting with any atom or molecule to its around causing oxidant stress and damage to molecules, cellular membranes and tissues. To counteract them, there is endogenous and exogenous anti-oxidants, the first ones are synthesized by the organism for maintaining the cellular homeostasis as the superoxide dismutase and catalase. There are recent evidences that indicate that the sodium cooper chlorophyllin (SCC) presents a dual effect reducing and/or increasing the induced genetic damage by different mutagenic agents. One hypothesis for this effect is that the SCC can act as oxidant per se or through some of their metabolites. Results more recent indicated that a similar of the SCC, the protoporphyrin-Ix, can produce genetic damage. In this work exogenous anti-oxidants were used, as the SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix or the bilirubin in the induction of endogenous anti-oxidants enzymes to evaluate the supposed oxidant activity of the SCC and/or their metabolites. Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in superoxide dismutase, catalase and withered were used and a rustic strain Canton-S as control. In the three experiments were treated 60 males of 1 day of age, with SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix or bilirubin to one concentration of 69 m M during 12 days. Every 4 days 10 males were isolated to measure them the induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The results showed that the SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix and bilirubin considered like anti-oxidants, were able to increase the induction of the superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes. This result maybe is because they are able to generate reactive species of oxygen, as the anion superoxide and the hydrogen peroxide. Among the three

  10. CuZnSOD gene expression and its relationship with anti-oxidative ...

    ... and the minimum in the LY. The proportion of gene expression was positively correlated with the anti-oxidative capacity in muscle. The expression of the CuZnSOD gene was positively correlated with meat colour and tenderness; and negatively correlated with marbling score, drip loss, cooking loss and intramuscular fat.

  11. Anti-oxidation activity of different types of natural Cordyceps sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia.

    Li, S P; Li, P; Dong, T T; Tsim, K W

    2001-05-01

    Cordyceps, one of the well-known traditional Chinese medicines, consists of the dried fungus Cordyceps sinensis growing on the larva of the caterpillar. It is commonly used for the replenishment of body health. One of the known pharmacological effects is its anti-oxidation activity. However, there is a great variation of the quality in different sources of Cordyceps. Here, the water extracts of various sources of natural C. sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia were analyzed for their anti-oxidation activity by using three different assay methods such as the xanthine oxidase assay, the induction of hemolysis assay and the lipid peroxidation assay. The results showed that Cordyceps, in general, possesses a strong anti-oxidation activity in all assays tested. However, both natural and cultured Cordyceps showed the lowest inhibition in the lipid peroxidation when compared with the other two assay methods. The cultured Cordyceps mycelia had equally strong anti-oxidation activity as compared to the natural Cordyceps. Besides, the anti-oxidation activities were increased to 10-30 folds in the partially purified polysaccharide fractions from the cultured Cordyceps mycelia, which suggested that the activity could be derived partly from Cordyceps polysaccharides.

  12. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates

    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8% after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH (56.00% and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC (59.00% methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  13. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of the root bark extract of the African laburnum “Cassia sieberiana” and its effect on the anti-oxidant defence system in rats

    Nartey Edmund T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the widespread use of roots of Cassia sieberiana in managing several health conditions including gastric ulcer disease, there is little scientific data to support the rational phytotherapeutics as an anti-ulcer agent. This paper reports an evaluation of the in vivo anti-oxidant properties of an aqueous root bark extract of C. sieberiana in experimental gastric ulcer rats in a bid to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Fisher 344 (F344 rats received pretreatment of C. sieberiana root bark extract (500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days after which there was induction of gastric injury with absolute ethanol. The mean ulcer index (MUI was calculated and serum total anti-oxidant level determined. Gastric mucosal tissues were prepared and the activity level of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and myeloperoxidase (MPO were measured together with the level of lipid hydroperoxides (LPO. Statistical difference between treatment groups was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc t test. Statistical significance was calculated at P Results The administration of ethanol triggered severe acute gastric ulcer and pretreatment with C. sieberiana root bark extract significantly and dose dependently protected against this effect. The root bark extract also dose dependently and significantly inhibited the ethanol induced decrease in activity levels of the enzymes SOD, CAT and GPx. The extract also inhibited the ethanol-induced decrease in level of serum total anti-oxidant capacity. The increase in ethanol-induced LPO level and MPO activity were also significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by the root bark extract. Conclusions The gastro-cytoprotective effect, inhibition of decrease in activity of gastric anti-oxidant enzymes and MPO as well as the inhibition of gastric LPO level suggests that one of the anti-ulcer mechanisms of

  14. Garlic Consumption Alters Testicular Histology and Anti-Oxidant ...

    dependent fashion. These histological observations and the depletion in endogenous anti-oxidant status associated with the administration of garlic could result in significant affectation of male reproductive functions. Keywords: garlic, superoxide ...

  15. Inhibition delay increases neural network capacity through Stirling transform

    Nogaret, Alain; King, Alastair

    2018-03-01

    Inhibitory neural networks are found to encode high volumes of information through delayed inhibition. We show that inhibition delay increases storage capacity through a Stirling transform of the minimum capacity which stabilizes locally coherent oscillations. We obtain both the exact and asymptotic formulas for the total number of dynamic attractors. Our results predict a (ln2) -N-fold increase in capacity for an N -neuron network and demonstrate high-density associative memories which host a maximum number of oscillations in analog neural devices.

  16. The anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Fei, Tianyi; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang; Xie, Tianpei; Xu, Jifeng; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping

    2017-10-15

    Tea includes puer tea, black tea, green tea and many others. By using model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract were systemically examined in this study. We found that water extract of puer tea, black tea and green tea all increased the lifespan of worms, postponed Aβ-induced progressive paralysis in Alzheimer's disease transgenic worms, and improved the tolerance of worms to the oxidative stress induced by heavy metal Cr 6+ . Moreover, the anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract at low concentration were different among 4 kinds of brands of green tea. The underlying mechanisms were further explored using genetically manipulated-mutant worms. The anti-oxidative stress effects of green tea water extract depend on the dietary restriction and germline signaling pathways, but not the FOXO and mitochondrial respiratory chain signals. Therefore, tea water extract provides benefits of anti-aging, anti-AD and anti-oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Outsourcing to increase service capacity in a New Zealand hospital.

    Renner, C; Palmer, E

    1999-01-01

    Service firms manage variability using both demand-side tactics (levelling customer demand), and supply-side tactics (increasing available capacity). One popular way of increasing available capacity is the outsourcing of non-core services. This article uses a case study to examine the impact of an outsourced non-core service on a hospital's overall service system. Findings show that the outsourced service provides access to more sophisticated technology, increases in-house capacity and saves capital expenditure. However, the outsourcing also increases the scheduling problems that the hospital faces. These problems are largely due to communication delays from the involvement of more than one organisation. These delays decrease the response time available to match changes in demand for the outsourced service. Given the obvious benefits of such outsourcing, the article concludes that management should pay close attention to the communication pathways between organisations, in order to minimise the end effects identified in this study.

  18. Designing Experiences to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  19. Study of possibility of increasing the catchment's retention capacity by groundwater accumulation increase

    Baranovicova, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the possibility of increasing the catechumen's retention capacity by groundwater accumulation increase. This presentation solves possibilities of increasing of the retention capacity of ground waters on the dependence of surface water outflow on upper parts of Podluzianka River (Hron River Basin) and Predmieranka River (Kysuce River basin)

  20. Anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China

    Young-Min,Ahn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to verify anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of Korean wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China. Methods : For the measurement of anti-oxidation, SOD-like activity was evaluated using xanthine oxidase reduction method under in vitro environment. Subcutaneous and abdominal cancer were induced using CT-26 human colon cancer cells for the measurement of growth inhibition of cancer cells and differences in survival rate. Results : 1. Measurement of anti-oxidant activity of ginseng, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng samples showed concentration dependent anti-oxidant activity in HX/XOD system. Anti-oxidant activity showed drastic increase at 1mg/ml in all samples. 2. For the evaluation of growth inhibition of cancer cells after hypodermic implantation of CT-26 cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng and natural wild ginseng groups showed significant inhibition of tumor growth from the 12th day compared to the control group. Similar inhibitory effects were also shown on the 15th and 18th days. But there was no significant difference between the experiment groups. 3. For the observation of increase in survival rate of the natural wild ginseng group, CT-26 cancer cells were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice.

  1. Saponins from Panax japonicus attenuate D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment through its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in rats.

    Wang, Ting; Di, Guojie; Yang, Li; Dun, Yaoyan; Sun, Zhiwei; Wan, Jingzhi; Peng, Ben; Liu, Chaoqi; Xiong, Guangrun; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Ding

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective effects of saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) on D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain ageing, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. SPJ were analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were randomly divided into four groups: control group (saline), D-gal-treated group (400 mg/kg, subcutaneously), D-gal + SPJ groups (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) and vitamin E group (100 mg/kg). Rats were injected corresponding drugs once daily for 8 weeks. Neuroprotective effects of SPJ were evaluated by Morris water maze, histopathological observations, biochemical assays, western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in vivo as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and apoptosis assay in vitro. Our present study showed that D-gal had a neurotoxic effect in rats and in SH-SY5Y cells due to oxidative stress induction, including decreased total anti-oxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activity, ultimately leading to spatial learning and memory impairment in rats and ROS accumulation in SH-SY5Y cells. SPJ improved spatial learning and memory deficits, attenuated hippocampus histopathological injury and restored impaired anti-oxidative as well as anti-apoptotic capacities in D-gal-induced ageing rats. In addition, SPJ remarkably decreased lipofuscin levels, increased hippocampus nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue (SIRT1) protein levels and anti-oxidant genes expression such as manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), heme oxygenase (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) in D-gal-induced brain ageing. Our data suggested that D-gal induced multiple molecular and functional changes in brain similar to natural ageing process. SPJ protected brain from D-gal-induced neuronal

  2. Increasing Capacity Exploitation in Food Supply Chains Using Grid Concepts

    Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin

    Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid [1], like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.

  3. Anti-oxidant effect of gold nanoparticles restrains hyperglycemic conditions in diabetic mice

    Eom SooHyun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress is imperative for its morbidity towards diabetic complications, where abnormal metabolic milieu as a result of hyperglycemia, leads to the onset of several complications. A biological antioxidant capable of inhibiting oxidative stress mediated diabetic progressions; during hyperglycemia is still the need of the era. The current study was performed to study the effect of biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs to control the hyperglycemic conditions in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Results The profound control of AuNPs over the anti oxidant enzymes such as GSH, SOD, Catalase and GPx in diabetic mice to normal, by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and ROS generation during hyperglycemia evidence their anti-oxidant effect during hyperglycemia. The AuNPs exhibited an insistent control over the blood glucose level, lipids and serum biochemical profiles in diabetic mice near to the control mice provokes their effective role in controlling and increasing the organ functions for better utilization of blood glucose. Histopathological and hematological studies revealed the non-toxic and protective effect of the gold nanoparticles over the vital organs when administered at dosage of 2.5 mg/kilogram.body.weight/day. ICP-MS analysis revealed the biodistribution of gold nanoparticles in the vital organs showing accumulation of AuNPs in the spleen comparatively greater than other organs. Conclusion The results obtained disclose the effectual role of AuNPs as an anti-oxidative agent, by inhibiting the formation of ROS, scavenging free radicals; thus increasing the anti-oxidant defense enzymes and creating a sustained control over hyperglycemic conditions which consequently evoke the potential of AuNPs as an economic therapeutic remedy in diabetic treatments and its complications.

  4. Experimental studies on anti-oxidants reducing lipid peroxidation of irradiated mice

    Du Zeji; Liu Keliang; Su Liaoyuan

    1993-08-01

    The free radical plays an important role in the irradiation damage. The irradiation damage would be reduced if anti-oxidants is used, because anti-oxidants can scavenge free radicals and suppress lipid peroxidation. In the study, a fluoro-spectrophotometer was used to determine the changes of MDA levels in mice tissues and serum after irradiation and the protective effect of anti-oxidants of Vit E and DMSO on damage caused by free radicals. The results are as follows: (1) The highest MDA level was at 12 to 24 hours after irradiation dose of 3.0 Gy. (2) The MDA level is increasing with the increasing of irradiation dose. It means the MDA level can indicate the extent of irradiation damage. (3) Both Vit E and DMSO had a powerful effect on reducing MDA level, but the effect of DMSO was stronger than Vit E. The optimum doses of them were 0.25 mg/g body weight and 10 mg/g body weight respectively. (4) The best effect obtained was to use Vit E and DMSO simultaneously

  5. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on ...

    Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in maleWistar rats ...

  6. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa.

  7. Using ECC DRAM to Adaptively Increase Memory Capacity

    Luo, Yixin; Ghose, Saugata; Li, Tianshi; Govindan, Sriram; Sharma, Bikash; Kelly, Bryan; Boroumand, Amirali; Mutlu, Onur

    2017-01-01

    Modern DRAM modules are often equipped with hardware error correction capabilities, especially for DRAM deployed in large-scale data centers, as process technology scaling has increased the susceptibility of these devices to errors. To provide fast error detection and correction, error-correcting codes (ECC) are placed on an additional DRAM chip in a DRAM module. This additional chip expands the raw capacity of a DRAM module by 12.5%, but the applications are unable to use any of this extra c...

  8. Study on increasing spent fuel storage capacity at Juragua NPP

    Guerra Valdes, R.; Lopez Aldama, D.; Rodriguez Gual, M.; Garcia Yip, F.

    1999-01-01

    The delay in decision about the final disposal of the spent fuel, led to longer interim storage. The reracking og the storage pools was an economical and feasible option to increase the storage capacity on the site. Reracking of the storage facility led to the analysis of the new conditions for criticality, shielding, residual heat removal and mechanical loads over the structures. This paper includes a summary of the studies on criticality and dose rate changes in the vicinity of the storage pool of Juragua NPP

  9. Measures for Increasing of Company’s Production Capacity

    Ernesta Žikevičiūtė; Irena Zabielavičienė

    2012-01-01

    Production capacity improvements are poorly explored areas of economic literature and the existing methods are difficult to apply. For this reason, the organization has only a superficial analysis of capacity, but after all this time, each production company had to improve the production capacity for the market economy and the most economical use of production factors.This article explores the company’s production capacity for better use of tools. It also presents the capacity of their conce...

  10. Ferulic Acid Orchestrates Anti-Oxidative Properties of Danggui Buxue Tang, an Ancient Herbal Decoction: Elucidation by Chemical Knock-Out Approach.

    Amy G W Gong

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid, a phenolic acid derived mainly from a Chinese herb Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR, was reported to reduce the formation of free radicals. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, a herbal decoction composing of Astragali Radix (AR and ASR, has been utilized for more than 800 years in China having known anti-oxidative property. Ferulic acid is a major active ingredient in DBT; however, the role of ferulic acid within the herbal mixture has not been resolved. In order to elucidate the function of ferulic acid within this herbal decoction, a ferulic acid-depleted herbal decoction was created and named as DBTΔfa. The anti-oxidative properties of chemically modified DBT decoction were systemically compared in cultured H9C2 rat cardiomyoblast cell line. The application of DBT and DBTΔfa into the cultures showed functions in (i decreasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, detected by laser confocal; (ii increasing of the activation of Akt; (iii increasing the transcriptional activity of anti-oxidant response element (ARE; and (iv increasing the expressions of anti-oxidant enzymes, i.e. NQO1 and GCLM. In all scenario, the aforementioned anti-oxidative properties of DBTΔfa in H9C2 cells were significantly reduced, as compared to authentic DBT. Thus, ferulic acid could be an indispensable chemical in DBT to orchestrate multi-components of DBT as to achieve maximal anti-oxidative functions.

  11. Measures for Increasing of Company’s Production Capacity

    Ernesta Žikevičiūtė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Production capacity improvements are poorly explored areas of economic literature and the existing methods are difficult to apply. For this reason, the organization has only a superficial analysis of capacity, but after all this time, each production company had to improve the production capacity for the market economy and the most economical use of production factors.This article explores the company’s production capacity for better use of tools. It also presents the capacity of their concept, establishment, evaluates the factors leading to their production capacity, for developing efficiency measures and model presentation.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Required storage capacity to increase the value of renewable energy

    Nacht, T.

    2014-01-01

    The effort to achieve a more eco - friendly production of energy leads to larger shares of renewables in the electricity sector, resulting in more supply - dependency and volatility. This results in a time shift between production and consumption. In order to gain an upper hand, possibilities for transferring renewable energies from the time of production to the time when the demand occurs are researched. Energy storage systems will play a big role in this process, with pumped storage plants being the most developed and most common technology nowadays. As a first part of this thesis, the renewables in Germany are studied through the use of models on the basis of hourly measured values of the primary energy carriers for the corresponding technology. For these data series many years’ worth of measurements were considered, resulting in data for the hourly production values of the renewable energy sources. The results show a strong dependency between production and the seasons of the year. Furthermore a very small secured contribution of renewable production during times of peak load is registered, leading to the conclusion that energy storages are indeed necessary. Different strategies for the dispatch of the storage technologies pumped hydro storage, compressed air storage and hydrogen storage are developed for the region of Germany, which will be dispatched outside the energy - only market. The different strategies for the storage dispatch have the reduction of the resulting load in common, by preferably transferring renewable energy from times when it is not needed to those times with high loads. This resulting load needs to be covered by thermal power plants. The required capacities of the different storage technologies are evaluated and compared. By using pumped storage plants the increase in the value of renewables, as measured by the secure contribution during peak load hours, is determined. An analysis of different compositions of renewable production allows

  13. Working Fluids for Increasing Capacities of Heat Pipes

    Chao, David F.; Zhang, Nengli

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation has shown that the capacities of heat pipes can be increased through suitable reformulation of their working fluids. The surface tensions of all of the working fluids heretofore used in heat pipes decrease with temperature. As explained in more detail below, the limits on the performance of a heat pipe are associated with the decrease in the surface tension of the working fluid with temperature, and so one can enhance performance by reformulating the working fluid so that its surface tension increases with temperature. This improvement is applicable to almost any kind of heat pipe in almost any environment. The heat-transfer capacity of a heat pipe in its normal operating-temperature range is subject to a capillary limit and a boiling limit. Both of these limits are associated with the temperature dependence of surface tension of the working fluid. In the case of a traditional working fluid, the decrease in surface tension with temperature causes a body of the liquid phase of the working fluid to move toward a region of lower temperature, thus preventing the desired spreading of the liquid in the heated portion of the heat pipe. As a result, the available capillary-pressure pumping head decreases as the temperature of the evaporator end of the heat pipe increases, and operation becomes unstable. Water has widely been used as a working fluid in heat pipes. Because the surface tension of water decreases with increasing temperature, the heat loads and other aspects of performance of heat pipes that contain water are limited. Dilute aqueous solutions of long-chain alcohols have shown promise as substitutes for water that can offer improved performance, because these solutions exhibit unusual surface-tension characteristics: Experiments have shown that in the cases of an aqueous solution of an alcohol, the molecules of which contain chains of more than four carbon atoms, the surface tension increases with temperature when the

  14. The Increase in Container Capacity at Slovenia's Port of Koper

    Marko Perkovic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ports of the northern Adriatic are ranged in three countries, Koper's being the only one in Slovenia and therefore of distinctive import to the country, which with its limited coastal space has no other options for expanding maritime trade than increasing the capacity of this one extant port. The state of Slovenia is the largest shareholder and the future development of the port depends on decisions made by the Ministry of Infrastructure. The increase in container throughput in the Port of Koper requires a reconstruction and extension of the current container terminal as an absolute priority. Regarding economic sustainability the extension must be in line with the estimated growth of traffic as well as with the exploitation of present and future terminal capacities. The occasional expansion projects must fulfil environmental and safety requirements. For large container vessels (LOA more than 330 m calling at the Port of Koper the safety of the berthing and departure conditions have to be simulated under various metocean conditions. At the same time manoeuvres should not be intrusive – expected propeller wash or bottom wash phenomena must be analysed. When large powerful container vessels are manoeuvring in shallow water bottom wash is expected and because sediments at the port are quite contaminated with mercury some negative environmental influence is expected. The most important expected investment in the container terminal is therefore extending (enlarging and deepening the berth. The paper will present statistics and methods supporting container terminal enlargement and a safety and environmental assessment derived from the use of a ship handling simulator.

  15. Electrophoretic characterization of D. melanogaster strains deficient in endogenous anti-oxidants in combination with gamma radiation; Caracterizacion electroforetica de cepas de D. melanogaster deficientes en antioxidantes endogenos en combinacion con radiacion gamma

    Gomar A, S.

    2012-07-01

    The free radicals derived of the oxygen and other reactive species are generated by endogenous processes as sub-products of the aerobic metabolism or by exogenous factors as the environmental pollution, the biological half life of these free radicals is of microseconds, but they have the capacity of reacting with any atom or molecule to its around causing oxidant stress and damage to molecules, cellular membranes and tissues. To counteract them, there is endogenous and exogenous anti-oxidants, the first ones are synthesized by the organism for maintaining the cellular homeostasis as the superoxide dismutase and catalase. There are recent evidences that indicate that the sodium cooper chlorophyllin (SCC) presents a dual effect reducing and/or increasing the induced genetic damage by different mutagenic agents. One hypothesis for this effect is that the SCC can act as oxidant per se or through some of their metabolites. Results more recent indicated that a similar of the SCC, the protoporphyrin-Ix, can produce genetic damage. In this work exogenous anti-oxidants were used, as the SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix or the bilirubin in the induction of endogenous anti-oxidants enzymes to evaluate the supposed oxidant activity of the SCC and/or their metabolites. Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in superoxide dismutase, catalase and withered were used and a rustic strain Canton-S as control. In the three experiments were treated 60 males of 1 day of age, with SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix or bilirubin to one concentration of 69 m M during 12 days. Every 4 days 10 males were isolated to measure them the induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The results showed that the SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix and bilirubin considered like anti-oxidants, were able to increase the induction of the superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes. This result maybe is because they are able to generate reactive species of oxygen, as the anion superoxide and the hydrogen peroxide. Among the three

  16. Increasing capacity to deliver diabetes self-management education

    Carey, M. E.; Mandalia, P. K.; Daly, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop and test a format of delivery of diabetes self-management education by paired professional and lay educators. Methods: We conducted an equivalence trial with non-randomized participant allocation to a Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 di...... educator role can provide equivalent patient benefits. This could provide a method that increases capacity, maintains quality and is cost-effective, while increasing access to self-management education.......Aim: To develop and test a format of delivery of diabetes self-management education by paired professional and lay educators. Methods: We conducted an equivalence trial with non-randomized participant allocation to a Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed Type 2...... diabetes (DESMOND) course, delivered in the standard format by two trained healthcare professional educators (to the control group) or by one trained lay educator and one professional educator (to the intervention group). A total of 260 people with Type 2 diabetes diagnosed within the previous 12 months...

  17. Restaurant No. 1 seating capacity increases by 240

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    These days you need patience when looking for a seat in Restaurant No. 1 to eat your lunch. The opening of the new dining room, which will increase the restaurant’s seating capacity by 240, should alleviate the problem and improve service.   The new restaurant area. For the past several years the number of people using Restaurant No. 1 has grown steadily. Now, for a change, the restaurant itself is growing. Luz Lopez-Hernandez, leader of the project in the GS Department, explains: “Enlarging the restaurant has been on the GS Department's agenda for several years, but the project really got off the ground in 2009. Once it was approved and the design completed, construction itself only took seven months.” Seven months later, the restaurant extension is indeed on the verge of opening. One of the people who will be particularly happy is Joël Nallet, who manages the Novae restaurant: “I am thrilled, because until now, even if we managed to increase...

  18. Anti-oxidant supplementation improves boar sperm characteristics and fertility after cryopreservation: comparison between cysteine and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis).

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Gonzalez, N; Martínez, F; Cano, R; de Blas, I; Espinosa, E

    2010-08-01

    Anti-oxidants partially ameliorated the detrimental effects of reactive oxidative substances produced during cryopreservation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of anti-oxidant addition to the freezing extender on boar semen qualities and fertility capacity. Ejaculates were collected from a previously selected boar and semen samples were processed using the straw freezing procedure. In experiment 1, semen samples were cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations of cysteine (0, 5 and 10mM) to determinate a cysteine concentration capable of producing a protective effect during cryopreservation. Semen quality (total motility, progressive motility, viability, acrosome integrity and hypoosmotic swelling test) was evaluated after freezing and thawing and then every hour for 3h. In experiment 2, ejaculates were cryopreserved with lactose-egg yolk extender with or without the following anti-oxidants: cysteine, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and cysteine plus rosemary. Semen quality was evaluated. In the experiment 3, fertility capacity of semen frozen in anti-oxidant supplementation extenders was examined in vitro. A total of 2232 oocytes were in vitro matured and inseminated with frozen-thawed sperm. In summary: (i) the effective concentration of cysteine in freezing extender was 10mM; (ii) the addition of exogenous rosemary or cysteine to the freezing extender positively affected post-thawed viability and acrosome integrity. Only rosemary supplementation improved total motility at 3h and progressive motility at any time; (iii) the inclusion of rosemary into the extender was effective in penetration and cleavage rate and also in the efficiency of the fertilization system. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum oxidative-anti-oxidative stress balance is dysregulated in patients with hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Nishimura, Mamoru; Takaki, Akinobu; Tamaki, Naofumi; Maruyama, Takayuki; Onishi, Hideki; Kobayashi, Sayo; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Koike, Kazuko; Hagihara, Hiroaki; Kuwaki, Kenji; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Fusao; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with progression of chronic liver disease (CLD). This association is best established in chronic hepatitis C. However, the anti-oxidative state is not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to investigate the balance of oxidative and anti-oxidative stress in CLD patients. We recruited a study population of 208 patients, including healthy volunteers (HV; n = 15), patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related CLD without or with hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-non-HCC, n = 25, and HBV-HCC, n = 50, respectively), and patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related CLD without or with HCC (HCV-non-HCC, n = 49, and HCV-HCC, n = 69, respectively). Serum levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and anti-oxidative markers (OXY-adsorbent test; OXY) were determined, and the balance of these values was used as the oxidative index. Correlations among ROM, OXY, oxidative index and clinical characteristics were investigated. Patients with CLD exhibited elevated ROM and oxidative index compared to HV. Among patients with CLD, HCV positive status correlated with increased ROM. In CLD, HCV-HCC patients exhibited the highest ROM levels. Among HCV-related CLD patients, lower OXY correlated with HCC positive status, but was recovered by eradication of HCC. In HCV-HCC, lower OXY correlated with high PT-INR. HCV positive CLD patients displayed higher oxidative stress and HCV-HCC patients displayed lower anti-oxidative state. Anti-oxidative state depression was associated with liver reservoir-related data in HCV-HCC and could be reversed with HCC eradication. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  20. Does more international transmission capacity increase competition in the Belgian electricity market?

    Kupper, G.; Delarue, E.; Delvaux, B.; Meeus, L.; Bekaert, D.; Willems, Bert; Proost, S.; D'haeseleer, W.; Deketelaere, K.; Belmans, R.

    2009-01-01

    From a national market perspective, taking transmission capacity into account reduces current concentration measures, although they remain fairly high even after substantial capacity increases. From an international perspective, a more efficient use of current transmission capacity by coupling

  1. The use of filtered bags to increase waste payload capacity

    Dustin, D.F.; Thorp, D.T.; Rivera, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    For the past few years, the Department of Energy has favored the direct disposal of low plutonium content residue materials from Rocky Flats rather than engage in expensive and time consuming plutonium recovery operations. One impediment to direct disposal has been the wattage limit imposed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on hydrogenous materials such as combustibles and sludges. The issue of concern is the radiolytic generation and accumulation of hydrogen and other explosive gases in waste containers. The wattage limits that existed through 1996 restricted the amount of plutonium bearing hydrogenous materials that could be packaged in a WIPP bound waste drum to only a fraction of the capacity of a drum. Typically, only about one kilogram of combustible residue could be packaged in a waste drum before the wattage limit was exceeded resulting in an excessively large number of drums to be procured, stored, shipped, and interred. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated the use of filtered plastic bags (called bag-out bags) used to remove transuranic waste materials from glove box lines. The bags contain small, disk like HEPA filters which are effective in containing radioactively contaminated particulate material but allow for the diffusion of hydrogen gas. Used in conjunction with filtered 55 gallon drums, filtered bag-out bags were pursued as a means to increase the allowable wattage limits for selected residue materials. In February 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the use of filtered bag-out bags for transuranic waste materials destined for WIPP. The concomitant increase in wattage limits now allows for approximately four times the payload per waste drum for wattage limited materials

  2. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  3. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta essential oil in activated macrophages

    Karimian, Parastoo; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta (T. minuta) essential oil. Methods In the present study T. minuta essential oil was obtained from leaves of T. minuta via hydro-distillation and then was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The anti-oxidant capacity of T. minuta essential oil was examined by measuring reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen species and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. minuta essential oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α mRNA expression in lipopolysacharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time PCR. Results Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the main components in the T. minuta essential oil were dihydrotagetone (33.86%), E-ocimene (19.92%), tagetone (16.15%), cis-β-ocimene (7.94%), Z-ocimene (5.27%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The T. minuta essential oil had the ability to scavenge all reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species radicals with IC50 12-15 µg/mL, which indicated a potent radical scavenging activity. In addition, T. minuta essential oil significantly reduced NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthaseand TNF-α mRNA expression in the cells at concentrations of 50 µg/mL, indicating a capacity of this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. Conclusions T. minuta essential oil has radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities and could potentially be used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions. PMID:25182441

  4. Increasing Secondary Teachers' Capacity to Integrate the Arts

    Richard, Byron; Treichel, Christa J.

    2013-01-01

    Examples from a team of collaborating secondary teachers--one visual arts teacher and one science teacher--highlight key aspects of this professional development project in arts integration. The article traces a regional network designed to build teacher capacity with implications for the design, effectiveness, and sustainability of professional…

  5. Thymoquinone Attenuates Brain Injury via an Anti-oxidative Pathway in a Status Epilepticus Rat Model.

    Shao, Yi-Ye; Li, Bing; Huang, Yong-Mei; Luo, Qiong; Xie, Yang-Mei; Chen, Ying-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to seizure-induced brain injury. It is well known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive monomer extracted from black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed oil that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant activity in various diseases. This study evaluated the protective effects of TQ on brain injury in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model of SE and investigated the underlying mechanism related to antioxidative pathway. Electroencephalogram and Racine scale were used to value seizure severity. Passive-avoidance test was used to determine learning and memory function. Moreover, anti-oxidative activity of TQ was observed using Western blot and super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity assay. Latency to SE increased in the TQ-pretreated group compared with rats in the model group, while the total power was significantly lower. Seizure severity measured on the Racine scale was significantly lower in the TQ group compared with the model group. Results of behavioral experiments suggest that TQ may also have a protective effect on learning and memory function. Investigation of the protective mechanism of TQ showed that TQ-pretreatment significantly increased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 proteins and SOD in the hippocampus. These findings showed that TQ attenuated brain injury induced by SE via an anti-oxidative pathway.

  6. Association between the NF-E2 Related Factor 2 Gene Polymorphism and Oxidative Stress, Anti-Oxidative Status, and Newly-Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Population

    Xia Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a major risk factor in the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. NF-E2 related factor 2 (NRF2 is a pivotal transcription factor in oxidative stress related illnesses. This study included 2174 subjects with 879 cases of newly-diagnosed T2DM and 1295 healthy controls. Compared to individuals with the CC genotype, those with the AA genotype had lower total anti-oxidative capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity; and lower homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function index. Those with the AA genotype also had a higher malondialdehyde concentration and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index values. The frequency of allele A was significantly higher in T2DM subjects (29.4%, compared to control subjects (26.1%; p = 0.019. Individuals with the AA genotype had a significantly higher risk of developing T2DM (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.11, 2.20; p = 0.011, relative to those with the CC genotype, even after adjusting for known T2DM risk factors. Our results suggest that the NRF2 rs6721961 polymorphism was significantly associated with oxidative stress, anti-oxidative status, and risk of newly-diagnosed T2DM. This polymorphism may also contribute to impaired insulin secretory capacity and increased insulin resistance in a Chinese population.

  7. A potential biomarker for fatigue: Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity.

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nigeria's oil production and the need for increased producing capacity

    Okoroji, C. E. I.

    1998-01-01

    After 40 years of commercial oil production, Nigeria's crude oil production is moving through difficult times. This transition period has been made more difficult because of recurring international economic recession, lack-luster crude prices, and slow oil demand growth and Government funding problems etc. Crude oil remains the most important export revenue earner in Nigeria, and more efforts are required to encourage higher output levels to support more foreign exchange generation. Nigeria's crude oil production at present stands at 2.2 million barrels per day (mbpd). This study, covers the period 1998-2005, during which oil production is forecast to grow to about 2.85 mbpd while potential for new discoveries could raise production to more than 3.0 mbpd. These projected rates could depend to a large extent on the rate and size of new discoveries. However, Nigeria's crude oil potential is being constrained by both lack of infrastructure and inadequate investment. The massive investment needed to raise the country's productive capacity will require foreign capital, yet the current fiscal environment leaves much to be desired. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of Nigeria's past, present and future oil production. To meet the projected production capacity very early in the next millennium, current estimates put the overall potential investment needed for an accelerated capacity-expansion drive in order to ensure that there is adequate cushion of crude potential at $19.7 billion during the next seven years. Furthermore, not more than $12.0 billion of this requirement can be generated from Nigeria's government cash flow

  9. Increased Capacity for Work and Productivity After Breast Reduction.

    Cabral, Isaias Vieira; Garcia, Edgard da Silva; Sobrinho, Rebecca Neponucena; Pinto, Natália Lana Larcher; Juliano, Yara; Veiga-Filho, Joel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Veiga, Daniela Francescato

    2017-01-01

    Breast hypertrophy is a prevalent condition among women worldwide, which can affect different aspects of their quality of life. The physical and emotional impact of breast hypertrophy may harm daily activities, including work. To assess the impact of reduction mammaplasty on the ability to work and productivity of women with breast hypertrophy. A total of 60 patients with breast hypertrophy, already scheduled for breast reduction, aged 18 to 60 years and who had formal or autonomous employment were prospectively enrolled. The Brazilian versions of two validated tools, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment - General Health (WPAI-GH) and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) were self-administered at the preoperative evaluation and six months following surgery. The median age was 33 years, median body mass index was 24 kg/m 2 , and the median total weight of resected breast tissue was 617.5 g. According to the Brazilian classification of occupation, most patients (53%) had technical, scientific, artistic and similar occupations. There was a significant improvement in work capacity and productivity six months after the reduction mammaplasty, denoted by a decrease in presenteeism, absenteeism, and WLQ Productivity Loss Score (Wilcoxon analysis of variance: P work capacity and productivity of Brazilian women with breast hypertrophy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Concentrated fed-batch cell culture increases manufacturing capacity without additional volumetric capacity.

    Yang, William C; Minkler, Daniel F; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-10

    Biomanufacturing factories of the future are transitioning from large, single-product facilities toward smaller, multi-product, flexible facilities. Flexible capacity allows companies to adapt to ever-changing pipeline and market demands. Concentrated fed-batch (CFB) cell culture enables flexible manufacturing capacity with limited volumetric capacity; it intensifies cell culture titers such that the output of a smaller facility can rival that of a larger facility. We tested this hypothesis at bench scale by developing a feeding strategy for CFB and applying it to two cell lines. CFB improved cell line A output by 105% and cell line B output by 70% compared to traditional fed-batch (TFB) processes. CFB did not greatly change cell line A product quality, but it improved cell line B charge heterogeneity, suggesting that CFB has both process and product quality benefits. We projected CFB output gains in the context of a 2000-L small-scale facility, but the output was lower than that of a 15,000-L large-scale TFB facility. CFB's high cell mass also complicated operations, eroded volumetric productivity, and showed our current processes require significant improvements in specific productivity in order to realize their full potential and savings in manufacturing. Thus, improving specific productivity can resolve CFB's cost, scale-up, and operability challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing Community Research Capacity to Address Health Disparities.

    Komaie, Goldie; Ekenga, Christine C; Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Goodman, Melody S

    2017-02-01

    The Community Research Fellows Training program is designed to enhance capacity for community-based participatory research; program participants completed a 15-week, Master of Public Health curriculum. We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 81 participants from two cohorts to evaluate the learning environment and how the program improved participants' knowledge of public health research. Key areas that provided a conducive learning environment included the once-a-week schedule, faculty and participant diversity, and community-focused homework assignments. Participants discussed how the program enhanced their understanding of the research process and raised awareness of public health-related issues for application in their personal lives, professional occupations, and in their communities. These findings highlight key programmatic elements of a successful public health training program for community residents.

  12. How a high working memory capacity can increase proactive interference.

    Steinwascher, Merle A; Meiser, Thorsten

    2016-08-01

    Previous findings suggested that a high working memory capacity (WMC) is potentially associated with a higher susceptibility to proactive interference (PI) if the latter is measured under high cognitive load. To explain such a finding, we propose to consider susceptibility to PI as a net effect of individual executive processes and the intrinsic potential for PI. With the latter, we refer to the amount of information that is activated at a given time and that has the potential to exert PI subsequently. In two studies deploying generalized linear mixed models, susceptibility to PI was modeled as the decline of performance over trials of a complex span task. The results revealed that a higher WMC was associated with a higher susceptibility to PI. Moreover, the number of stimuli recalled in one trial as a proxy variable for the intrinsic potential for PI negatively affected memory performance in the subsequent trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate from yellow field pea seeds.

    Ndiaye, Fatou; Vuong, Tri; Duarte, Jairo; Aluko, Rotimi E; Matar, Chantal

    2012-02-01

    Enzymatic protein hydrolysates of yellow pea seed have been shown to possess high anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities. The aim of this work was to confirm the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activities of an enzymatic protein hydrolysate of yellow field pea seeds. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of peptides from yellow field pea proteins (Pisum sativum L.) were investigated in LPS/IFN-γ-activated RAW 264.7 NO⁻ macrophages. The immunomodulating potential of pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) was then studied in a murine model. Pea protein hydrolysate, after a 12 h pre-treatment, showed significant inhibition of NO production by activated macrophages up to 20%. Moreover, PPH significantly inhibited their secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α- and IL-6, up to 35 and 80%, respectively. Oral administration of PPH in mice enhanced the phagocytic activity of their peritoneal macrophages and stimulated the gut mucosa immune response. The number of IgA+ cells was elevated in the small intestine lamina propria, accompanied by an increase in the number of IL-4+, IL-10+ and IFN-γ+ cells. This was correlated to up-regulation of IL-6 secretion by small intestine epithelial cells (IEC), probably responsible for B-cell terminal differentiation to IgA-secreting cells. Moreover, PPH might have increased IL-6 production in IECs via the stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) family, especially TLR2 and TLR4 since either anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 was able to completely abolish PPH-induced IL-6 secretion. Enzymatic protein degradation confers anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating potentials to pea proteins, and the resulted peptides could be used as an alternative therapy for the prevention of inflammatory-related diseases.

  14. Increasing of registering capacity of nuclear emulsion for autoradiography

    Romanovskaya, K.M.; Savvateeva, J.P.; Tolkacheva, E.N.

    1977-01-01

    The ways of increasing detecting power of the type M nuclear emulsion gel have been investigated in these studies. There have been found conditions under which type M emulsion sensitivity increased by 15 to 20% without increasing fog grain background. The stability of photographic sensitivity during emulsion gel storage increased by two times. The prevention of latent image fading (by means of layer moisture content) decreased to 1.2% and increasing the detecting power of the emulsion (by means of exposure temperature) by up to 37 0 C. The exposure time of tritium labelled autographs has been decreased to about 20%. (author)

  15. Anti-oxidative activities of sorghum, foxtail millet and proso millet ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... The sorghum extract contained high amount of phenolic compounds as well as a high level of anti- oxidant activity ..... Low absorbance values in the FTC method indicate a high level of anti- oxidant activity. Figure 3 shows the changes in absorbance for each sample during 30 h of incubation at. 70°C. The ...

  16. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of an enzyme bath of Oryza sativa (rice bran) and Camellia sinensis O. Kuntz (green tea) fermented with Bacillus subtilis (OCB). Methods: The anti-oxidant effects of OCB were assessed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and flow ...

  17. Increasing Capacity for Environmental Engineering in Salta, Argentina

    Rajal, Verónica B.; Cid, Alicia G.; Cruz, Mercedes C.; Poma, Hugo R.; Cacciabue, Dolores Gutierrez; Romano, Neli; Moraga, Norma B.; Last, Jerold A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the United States National Institutes of Health includes the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health (ITREOH) Program. The “International Training Program in Environmental Toxicology and Public Health” Center, funded in 2002 is based at the University of California, Davis, and is part of the ITREOH group of Centers. It has major efforts focused at the public universities in Montevideo, Uruguay, and Salta, Argentina. Results Training and research efforts in Salta begun in 2005 in the College of Engineering. A donated used real-time PCR machine was the starting point and the initial FIC support was instrumental to face other problems including physical space, research projects and grants, trainees, training, networking, and distractions/opportunities in order to develop local capacities in Environmental Engineering using modern methodology. After six years of successful work, the Salta center has become a reference Center in the field, and is still growing and consolidating. Conclusions This program has had a significant impact locally and regionally. The model used in Argentina could be easily adapted to other fields or types of projects in Argentina and in other developing countries. PMID:22467330

  18. Increasing capacity for environmental engineering in Salta, Argentina.

    Rajal, Verónica B; Cid, Alicia G; Cruz, Mercedes C; Poma, Hugo R; Cacciabue, Dolores Gutierrez; Romano, Neli; Moraga, Norma B; Last, Jerold A

    2013-01-01

    The Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the United States National Institutes of Health includes the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health (ITREOH) Program. The "International Training Program in Environmental Toxicology and Public Health" Center, funded in 2002 is based at the University of California, Davis, and is part of the ITREOH group of Centers. It has major efforts focused at the public universities in Montevideo, Uruguay, and Salta, Argentina. Training and research efforts in Salta begun in 2005 in the College of Engineering. A donated used real-time PCR machine was the starting point and the initial FIC support was instrumental to face other problems including physical space, research projects and grants, trainees, training, networking, and distractions/opportunities in order to develop local capacities in Environmental Engineering using modern methodology. After 6 years of successful work, the Salta center has become a reference Center in the field, and is still growing and consolidating. This program has had a significant impact locally and regionally. The model used in Argentina could be easily adapted to other fields or types of projects in Argentina and in other developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and Its Increased Production Capacity

    Soebandrija, K. E. N.; Astuti, S. W. D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper has the objective to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer can lead to the cycle time target as part of Improvement efforts and its Productivity. Prior researches through prior journals both classics journal such as Quesnay (1766) and Solow (1957) and updated journal such as Reikard (2011) researches, are mentioned and elaborated. Precisely, the research is narrowed down and specified into automotive industry and eventually the software related of SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling ( SEM ). The analysis and its method are conducted through the calculation working time. The mentioned calculation are reinforced with the hypothesis test using SPSS Version 19 and involve parameters of production efficiency, productivity calculation, and the calculation of financial investments. The results obtained are augmented achievement of cycle time target ≤ 80 seconds posterior to improvement stand jig sealer. The result from calculation of SPSS-19 version comprise the following aspects: the one-sided hypothesis test is rejection of Ho:μ≥80 seconds, the correlation rs=0.84, regression y = 0.159+0.642x, validity R table = 0.4438, reliability value of Cronbach's alpha = 0.885>0.70, independence (Chi Square) Asymp. Sig=0.028financial analysis (NPV 2,340,596>0, PI 2.04>1, IRR 45.56%>i=12.68%, PP=1.86). The Mentioned calculation results support the hypothesis and ultimately align with the objective of this paper to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and its relation toward the cycle time target. Precisely, the improvement of production capacity of PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor.

  20. Oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot seminal plasma and their effects on sperm quality

    Han, Mingming; Ding, Fuhong; Meng, Zhen; Lei, Jilin

    2015-08-01

    In this research, the concentration and activity of oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot semen, and their effects on sperm quality were studied. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), uric acid, vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) were more abundant in seminal plasma than in spermatozoa. The variation for each of them was specific. In seminal plasma, the activity of SOD and GR increased from November 15, November 30 to December 15, and then decreased on December 30. The concentrations of both VC and uric acid decreased during the first 3 sampling times and increased on December 30. The oxidants in seminal plasma accumulated to the highest on December 30. Lactic acid (LA) and ATP levels decreased to the lowest on December 30. The correlation analysis showed that GR had the significant positive relevance to sperm motility and VSL/VCL, while ·OH had negative relevance to them.

  1. New degradation call admission control for increasing WCDMA system capacity

    Liu Ningqing; Lu Zhi; Gu Xuemai

    2006-01-01

    Propose a new degradation call admission control(DCAC)scheme, which can be used in wideband code division multiple access communication system. So-called degradation is that non-real time call has the characteristic of variable bit rate, so decreasing its bit rate can reduce the load of the system, consequently the system can admit new call which should be blocked when the system is close to full load, therefore new call's access probability increases. This paper brings forward design project and does system simulation, simulation proves that DCAC can effectively decrease calls' blocking probability and increase the total number of the on-line users.

  2. Lactoferricin Peptides Increase Macrophages' Capacity To Kill Mycobacterium avium.

    Silva, Tânia; Moreira, Ana C; Nazmi, Kamran; Moniz, Tânia; Vale, Nuno; Rangel, Maria; Gomes, Paula; Bolscher, Jan G M; Rodrigues, Pedro N; Bastos, Margarida; Gomes, Maria Salomé

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterial infections cause a significant burden of disease and death worldwide. Their treatment is long, toxic, costly, and increasingly prone to failure due to bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics. New therapeutic options are thus clearly needed. Antimicrobial peptides represent an important source of new antimicrobial molecules, both for their direct activity and for their immunomodulatory potential. We have previously reported that a short version of the bovine antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin with amino acids 17 to 30 (LFcin17-30), along with its variants obtained by specific amino acid substitutions, killed Mycobacterium avium in broth culture. In the present work, those peptides were tested against M. avium living inside its natural host cell, the macrophage. We found that the peptides increased the antimicrobial action of the conventional antibiotic ethambutol inside macrophages. Moreover, the d-enantiomer of the lactoferricin peptide (d-LFcin17-30) was more stable and induced significant killing of intracellular mycobacteria by itself. Interestingly, d-LFcin17-30 did not localize to M. avium -harboring phagosomes but induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines and increased the formation of lysosomes and autophagosome-like vesicles. These results lead us to conclude that d-LFcin17-30 primes macrophages for intracellular microbial digestion through phagosomal maturation and/or autophagy, culminating in mycobacterial killing. IMPORTANCE The genus Mycobacterium comprises several pathogenic species, including M. tuberculosis , M. leprae , M. avium , etc. Infections caused by these bacteria are particularly difficult to treat due to their intrinsic impermeability, low growth rate, and intracellular localization. Antimicrobial peptides are increasingly acknowledged as potential treatment tools, as they have a high spectrum of activity, low tendency to induce bacterial resistance, and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we

  3. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Radiation Safety, Chiba, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  4. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  5. Attenuation of Diabetic Nephropathy by Carvacrol through Anti-oxidative Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Hamid Reza Jamshidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetes, a common metabolic disorder, is prevalent in many countries. Nephropathy is a main debate’s side effect. Role of oxidative stress is well known in induction of diabetic nephropathy while carvacrol is a potent anti-oxidant that might attenuate oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of carvacrol in decreasing nephropathy-induced oxidative damage in diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty five Wistar rats (200-250 g were divided to 7 groups. The rats received alloxan (i.p., 200 mg/kg for induction of diabetes. After one week, fasting blood sugar (FBS was assessed and the rats with FBS>250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after alloxan injection, the blood urea (BUN and creatinine (Cr were determined for confirmation of inducing nephropathy. Then, the animals were treated with carvacrol for one week. Finally, they were anesthetized and blood was collected from animal’s heart for calculation of BUN and Cr. Furthermore, the kidneys were for oxidative stress markers such as glutathione capacity, protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Results: Our results showed that glutathione level and catalase activity significantly increased after treatment with carvacrol. Same results were found in rats that received vitamin E. Also, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, BUN and Cr levels significantly decreased after treatment with carvacrol in comparison with diabetic rats. Conclusion: Our results showed that carvacrol improved nephropathy-induced oxidative damage similar to vitamin E. Therefore, it may be suggested that carvacrol can be suggested as a useful supplement in decreasing diabetic complaints along with anti-diabetic drugs.

  6. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total proteins in Wistar rats. Christian E Odo, Okwesili FC Nwodo, Parker E Joshua, Chibuike S Ubani, Okon E Etim, Okechukwu PC Ugwu ...

  7. Theranostic carbon dots derived from garlic with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages

    Yang, Chuanxu; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Hansen, Line

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent garlic carbon dots with superior photostability are synthesized via microwave assisted heating. The garlic dots are biocompatible, have low toxicity and can be used as benign theranostic nanoparticles for bioimaging with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages....

  8. Lower growth temperature increases alternative pathway capacity and alternative oxidase protein in tobacco.

    Vanlerberghe, G C; McIntosh, L

    1992-09-01

    Suspension cells of NT1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv bright yellow) have been used to study the effect of growth temperature on the CN-resistant, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive alternative pathway of respiration. Mitochondria isolated from cells maintained at 30 degrees C had a low capacity to oxidize succinate via the alternative pathway, whereas mitochondria isolated from cells 24 h after transfer to 18 degrees C displayed, on average, a 5-fold increase in this capacity (from 7 to 32 nanoatoms oxygen per milligram protein per minute). This represented an increase in alternative pathway capacity from 18 to 45% of the total capacity of electron transport. This increased capacity was lost upon transfer of cells back to 30 degrees C. A monoclonal antibody to the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway (the alternative oxidase) from Sauromatum guttatum (T.E. Elthon, R.L. Nickels, L. McIntosh [1989] Plant Physiology 89: 1311-1317) recognized a 35-kilodalton mitochondrial protein in tobacco. There was an excellent correlation between the capacity of the alternative path in isolated tobacco mitochondria and the levels of this 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein. Cycloheximide could inhibit both the increased level of the 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein and the increased alternative pathway capacity normally seen upon transfer to 18 degrees C. We conclude that transfer of tobacco cells to the lower temperature increases the capacity of the alternative pathway due, at least in part, to de novo synthesis of the 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein.

  9. Network Capacity Assessment and Increase in Systems with Intermittent Water Supply

    Ilaya-Ayza, Amilkar Ernesto; Campbell-Gonzalez, Enrique; Pérez García, Rafael; Izquierdo Sebastián, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Water supply systems have been facing many challenges in recent decades due to the potential effects of climate change and rapid population growth. Water systems need to expand because of demographic growth. Therefore, evaluating and increasing system capacity is crucial. Specifically, we analyze network capacity as one of the main features of a system. When the network capacity starts to decrease, there is a risk that continuous supply will become intermittent. This paper discusses how...

  10. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...... or the duration of diabetes. Whether the reduced capacity is due to widespread microangiopathy or another pathological process affecting the myocardium remains to be established....

  11. Brief report on development of indigofera pseudotinctoria mats high flavonoid mutant and anti-oxidation of its exacts

    Shen Xiaoxia; Mei Shufang; Shu Xiaoli; Wu Dianxing

    2010-01-01

    Mutant high in flavonoid was successfully developed after the dry seeds of Indigofera pseudotinctoria Mats were irradiated by 300 Gy 60 Co gamma rays. The contents of flavonoid in different tissues of mutant line MJ-HF1 were all higher than that of the wild type, especially in the seeds and leaves, which was 5.89 and 1.46 times of the wild type. Anti-oxidation testing showed that the flavonoid exacts from MJ-HF1 could decrease the contents of malondialdehyde(MDA) and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the aged white mice in a 30-day feeding test. (authors)

  12. Real-Time H2 O2 Measurements in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) Show Increased Antioxidant Capacity in Cells From Osteoporotic Women.

    Román, Flavia; Urra, Carla; Porras, Omar; Pino, Ana María; Rosen, Clifford J; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) derived from an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major determinant of aging and lifespan. It has also been associated with several age-related disorders, like postmenopausal osteoporosis of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are the common precursors for osteoblasts and adipocytes; appropriate commitment and differentiation of MSCs into a specific phenotype is modulated, among other factors, by ROS balance. MSCs have shown more resistance to ROS than differentiated cells, and their redox status depends on complex and abundant anti-oxidant mechanisms. The purpose of this work was to analyze in real time, H 2 O 2 signaling in individual h-MSCs, and to compare the kinetic parameters of H 2 O 2 management by cells derived from both control (c-) and osteoporotic (o-) women. For these purposes, cells were infected with a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor named HyPer, which is specific for detecting H 2 O 2 inside living cells. Subsequently, cells were sequentially challenged with 50 and 500 μM H 2 O 2 pulses, and the cellular response was recorded in real time. The results demonstrated adequate expression of the biosensor allowing registering fluorescence from HyPer at a single cell level. Comparison of the response of c- and o-MSCs to the oxidant challenges demonstrated improved antioxidant activity in o-MSCs. This was further corroborated by measuring the relative expression of mRNAs for catalase, superoxide dismutase-1, thioredoxine, and peroxiredoxine, as well as by cell-surviving capacity under short-term H 2 O 2 treatment. We conclude that functional differences exist between healthy and osteoporotic human MSCs. The mechanism for these differences requires further study. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 585-593, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Lower Growth Temperature Increases Alternative Pathway Capacity and Alternative Oxidase Protein in Tobacco 1

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C.; McIntosh, Lee

    1992-01-01

    Suspension cells of NT1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv bright yellow) have been used to study the effect of growth temperature on the CN-resistant, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive alternative pathway of respiration. Mitochondria isolated from cells maintained at 30°C had a low capacity to oxidize succinate via the alternative pathway, whereas mitochondria isolated from cells 24 h after transfer to 18°C displayed, on average, a 5-fold increase in this capacity (from 7 to 32 nanoatoms oxygen per milligram protein per minute). This represented an increase in alternative pathway capacity from 18 to 45% of the total capacity of electron transport. This increased capacity was lost upon transfer of cells back to 30°C. A monoclonal antibody to the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway (the alternative oxidase) from Sauromatum guttatum (T.E. Elthon, R.L. Nickels, L. McIntosh [1989] Plant Physiology 89: 1311-1317) recognized a 35-kilodalton mitochondrial protein in tobacco. There was an excellent correlation between the capacity of the alternative path in isolated tobacco mitochondria and the levels of this 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein. Cycloheximide could inhibit both the increased level of the 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein and the increased alternative pathway capacity normally seen upon transfer to 18°C. We conclude that transfer of tobacco cells to the lower temperature increases the capacity of the alternative pathway due, at least in part, to de novo synthesis of the 35-kilodalton alternative oxidase protein. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16652932

  14. Stimulation of the sensory pudendal nerve increases bladder capacity in the rat.

    Hokanson, James A; Langdale, Christopher L; Sridhar, Arun; Grill, Warren M

    2018-04-01

    Pudendal nerve stimulation is a promising treatment approach for lower urinary tract dysfunction, including symptoms of overactive bladder. Despite some promising clinical studies, there remain many unknowns as to how best to stimulate the pudendal nerve to maximize therapeutic efficacy. We quantified changes in bladder capacity and voiding efficiency during single-fill cystometry in response to electrical stimulation of the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats. Increases in bladder capacity were dependent on both stimulation amplitude and rate. Stimulation that produced increases in bladder capacity also led to reductions in voiding efficiency. Also, there was a stimulation carryover effect, and increases in bladder capacity persisted during several nonstimulated trials following stimulated trials. Intravesically administered PGE 2 reduced bladder capacity, producing a model of overactive bladder (OAB), and sensory pudendal nerve stimulation again increased bladder capacity but also reduced voiding efficiency. This study serves as a basis for future studies that seek to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of sensory pudendal nerve stimulation for the symptoms of OAB.

  15. Working memory training may increase working memory capacity but not fluid intelligence.

    Harrison, Tyler L; Shipstead, Zach; Hicks, Kenny L; Hambrick, David Z; Redick, Thomas S; Engle, Randall W

    2013-12-01

    Working memory is a critical element of complex cognition, particularly under conditions of distraction and interference. Measures of working memory capacity correlate positively with many measures of real-world cognition, including fluid intelligence. There have been numerous attempts to use training procedures to increase working memory capacity and thereby performance on the real-world tasks that rely on working memory capacity. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that training on complex working memory span tasks leads to improvement on similar tasks with different materials but that such training does not generalize to measures of fluid intelligence.

  16. Achieving increased spent fuel storage capacity at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Cook, D.H.; Chang, S.J.; Dabs, R.D.; Freels, J.D.; Morgan, K.A.; Rothrock, R.B.; Griess, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The HFIR facility was originally designed to store approximately 25 spent cores, sufficient to allow for operational contingencies and for cooling prior to off-site shipment for reprocessing. The original capacity has now been increased to 60 positions, of which 53 are currently filled (September 1994). Additional spent cores are produced at a rate of about 10 or 11 per year. Continued HFIR operation, therefore, depends on a significant near-term expansion of the pool storage capacity, as well as on a future capability of reprocessing or other storage alternatives once the practical capacity of the pool is reached. To store the much larger inventory of spent fuel that may remain on-site under various future scenarios, the pool capacity is being increased in a phased manner through installation of a new multi-tier spent fuel rack design for higher density storage. A total of 143 positions was used for this paper as the maximum practical pool capacity without impacting operations; however, greater ultimate capacities were addressed in the supporting analyses and approval documents. This paper addresses issues related to the pool storage expansion including (1) seismic effects on the three-tier storage arrays, (2) thermal performance of the new arrays, (3) spent fuel cladding corrosion concerns related to the longer period of pool storage, and (4) impacts of increased spent fuel inventory on the pool water quality, water treatment systems, and LLLW volume

  17. Development of functionally graded anti-oxidation coatings for carbon/carbon composites

    Jeon, J.H. [Dept. of Materials Technology, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Changwon (Korea); Fang Hai-Tao; Lai Zhong-Hong; Yin Zhong-Da [Materials Science and Engineering School, Harbin Inst. of Tech., Harbin (China)

    2005-07-01

    The concept of functionally graded materials (FGMs) was originated in the research field of thermal barrier coatings. Continuous changes in the composition, grain size, porosity, etc., of these materials result in gradients in such properties as mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. In recent years, functionally graded structural composite materials have received increased attention as promising candidate materials to exhibit better mechanical and functional properties than homogeneous materials or simple composite materials. Therefore the research area of FGMs has been expending in the development of various structural and functional materials, such as cutting tools, photonic crystals, dielectric and piezoelectric ceramics, thermoelectric semiconductors, and biomaterials. We have developed functionally graded structural ceramic/metal composite materials for relaxation of thermal stress, functionally graded anti-oxidation coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and functionally graded dielectric ceramic composites to develop advanced dielectric ceramics with flat characteristics of dielectric constant in a wide temperature range. This paper introduces functionally graded coatings for C/C composites with superior oxidation resistance at high temperatures. (orig.)

  18. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Sida rhombifolia stems and roots in adjuvant induced arthritic rats.

    Narendhirakannan, R T; Limmy, T P

    2012-04-01

    Free radical stress leads to tissue injury and progression of disease conditions such as arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hepatic injury, aging and ischemia, reperfusion injury of many tissues, gastritis, tumor promotion, neurodegenerative diseases and carcinogenesis. Safer anti-oxidants suitable for long term use are needed to prevent or stop the progression of free radical mediated disorders. Herbal medicine provides a foundation for various traditional medicine systems worldwide. The Sida species is one of the most important families of medicinal plants in India. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate the possible anti-oxidant potential of Sida rhombifolia extracts for 30 days on adjuvant induced arthritis in experimental rats. The altered levels of hematological parameters were reverted to near normal levels, especially the elevated rate of erythrocyte sedimentation was significantly reduced by S. rhombifolia extracts in experimental rats. Oral administration of root and stem of S. rhombifolia extracts significantly increased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase and decreased the levels of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity in arthritis induced rats. The free radical scavenging activity of the plant was further evidenced by histological and transmission electron microscopy observations made on the hind limb tissue.

  19. A novel strategy involved in [corrected] anti-oxidative defense: the conversion of NADH into NADPH by a metabolic network.

    Ranji Singh

    Full Text Available The reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH is pivotal to the cellular anti-oxidative defence strategies in most organisms. Although its production mediated by different enzyme systems has been relatively well-studied, metabolic networks dedicated to the biogenesis of NADPH have not been fully characterized. In this report, a metabolic pathway that promotes the conversion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, a pro-oxidant into NADPH has been uncovered in Pseudomonas fluorescens exposed to oxidative stress. Enzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase (PC, malic enzyme (ME, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, malate synthase (MS, and isocitrate lyase (ICL that are involved in disparate metabolic modules, converged to create a metabolic network aimed at the transformation of NADH into NADPH. The downregulation of phosphoenol carboxykinase (PEPCK and the upregulation of pyruvate kinase (PK ensured that this metabolic cycle fixed NADH into NADPH to combat the oxidative stress triggered by the menadione insult. This is the first demonstration of a metabolic network invoked to generate NADPH from NADH, a process that may be very effective in combating oxidative stress as the increase of an anti-oxidant is coupled to the decrease of a pro-oxidant.

  20. The dipteran parasitoid Exorista bombycis induces pro- and anti-oxidative reactions in the silkworm Bombyx mori: Enzymatic and genetic analysis.

    Makwana, Pooja; Pradeep, Appukuttan Nair R; Hungund, Shambhavi P; Ponnuvel, Kangayam M; Trivedy, Kanika

    2017-02-01

    Hymenopteran parasitoids inject various factors including polydnaviruses along with their eggs into their host insects that suppress host immunity reactions to the eggs and larvae. Less is known about the mechanisms evolved in dipteran parasitoids that suppress host immunity. Here we report that the dipteran, Exorista bombycis, parasitization leads to pro-oxidative reactions and activation of anti-oxidative enzymes in the silkworm Bombyx mori larva. We recorded increased activity of oxidase, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin peroxidase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and peroxidases in the hemolymph plasma, hemocytes, and fat body collected from B. mori after E. bombycis parasitization. Microarray and qPCR showed differential expression of genes encoding pro- and anti-oxidant enzymes in the hemocytes. The significance of this work lies in increased understanding of dipteran parasitoid biology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The anti-oxidant effects of melatonin derivatives on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Phiphatwatcharaded, Chawapon; Puthongking, Ploenthip; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Johns, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit; Sakolchai, Sumon; Mahakunakorn, Pramote

    2017-07-01

    Aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of indole ring modified melatonin derivatives as compared with melatonin in primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. Anti-oxidant activity of melatonin (MLT), acetyl-melatonin (AMLT) and benzoyl-melatonin (BMLT) was evaluated by5 standard methods as follows: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP); superoxide anion scavenging; nitric oxide (NO) scavenging; and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs).Evaluation of cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and protectivity against H 2 O 2 induced cellular damage was performed via MTT assay in HGF cells. According to the standard anti-oxidant assays, the antioxidant power of AMLT and BMLT were slightly less than MLT in FRAP and superoxide scavenging assays. In the NO scavenging and TBARs assays, BMLT and AMLT were more potent than MLT, whereas DPPH assays demonstrated that MLT was more potent than others. BMLT and AMLT had more potent anti-oxidant and protective activities against H 2 O 2 in HGF cells as compared with MLT. MLT derivatives demonstrated different anti-oxidant activities as compared with MLT, depending upon assays. These findings imply that N-indole substitution of MLT may help to improve hydrogen atom transfer to free radicals but electron transfer property is slightly decreased. Anti-oxidant and protective effects of melatonin derivatives (AMLT and BMLT) on human gingival fibroblasts imply the potential use of these molecules as alternative therapeutics for chronic inflammatory oral diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tailoring Spectator Experiences for Non-Regular Attendants to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  3. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation Increases Reward Responsiveness in Individuals with Higher Hedonic Capacity.

    Duprat, Romain; De Raedt, Rudi; Wu, Guo-Rong; Baeken, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been documented to influence striatal and orbitofrontal dopaminergic activity implicated in reward processing. However, the exact neuropsychological mechanisms of how DLPFC stimulation may affect the reward system and how trait hedonic capacity may interact with the effects remains to be elucidated. In this sham-controlled study in healthy individuals, we investigated the effects of a single session of neuronavigated intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) on reward responsiveness, as well as the influence of trait hedonic capacity. We used a randomized crossover single session iTBS design with an interval of 1 week. We assessed reward responsiveness using a rewarded probabilistic learning task and measured individual trait hedonic capacity (the ability to experience pleasure) with the temporal experience of pleasure scale questionnaire. As expected, the participants developed a response bias toward the most rewarded stimulus (rich stimulus). Reaction time and accuracy for the rich stimulus were respectively shorter and higher as compared to the less rewarded stimulus (lean stimulus). Active or sham stimulation did not seem to influence the outcome. However, when taking into account individual trait hedonic capacity, we found an early significant increase in the response bias only after active iTBS. The higher the individual's trait hedonic capacity, the more the response bias toward the rich stimulus increased after the active stimulation. When taking into account trait hedonic capacity, one active iTBS session over the left DLPFC improved reward responsiveness in healthy male participants with higher hedonic capacity. This suggests that individual differences in hedonic capacity may influence the effects of iTBS on the reward system.

  4. Efficient Control of Energy Storage for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    grid is usually limited by overvoltage, and the efficient control of distributed electrical energy storage systems (EESSs) can considerably increase this capacity. In this paper, a new control approach based on the voltage sensitivity analysis is proposed to prevent overvoltage and increase the PV......Photovoltaic (PV) systems are among the renewable sources that electrical energy systems are adopting with increasing frequency. The majority of already-installed PV systems are decentralized units that are usually connected to lowvoltage (LV) distribution grids. The PV hosting capacity of an LV...... hosting capacity of LV grids by determining dynamic set points for EESS management. The method has the effectiveness of central control methods and can effectively decrease the energy storage required for overvoltage prevention, yet it eliminates the need for a broadband and fast communication. The net...

  5. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography in dual salt system increases protein binding capacity.

    Senczuk, Anna M; Klinke, Ralph; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Vedantham, Ganesh; Yigzaw, Yinges

    2009-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) uses weakly hydrophobic resins and requires a salting-out salt to promote protein-resin interaction. The salting-out effects increase with protein and salt concentration. Dynamic binding capacity (DBC) is dependent on the binding constant, as well as on the flow characteristics during sample loading. DBC increases with the salt concentration but decreases with increasing flow rate. Dynamic and operational binding capacity have a major raw material cost/processing time impact on commercial scale production of monoclonal antibodies. In order to maximize DBC the highest salt concentration without causing precipitation is used. We report here a novel method to maintain protein solubility while increasing the DBC by using a combination of two salting-out salts (referred to as dual salt). In a series of experiments, we explored the dynamic capacity of a HIC resin (TosoBioscience Butyl 650M) with combinations of salts. Using a model antibody, we developed a system allowing us to increase the dynamic capacity up to twofold using the dual salt system over traditional, single salt system. We also investigated the application of this novel approach to several other proteins and salt combinations, and noted a similar protein solubility and DBC increase. The observed increase in DBC in the dual salt system was maintained at different linear flow rates and did not impact selectivity.

  6. Serum total anti-oxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers

    Abstract. Cigarette smoke has been reported to contain free radicals. The interaction of these free radicals with the body defense system and associated health risk among Nigerian smokers have remained scarcely investigated despite the high numbers of smokers in our society. This study thus, investigates the serum total ...

  7. Does recombinant human Epo increase exercise capacity by means other than augmenting oxygen transport?

    Lundby, C; Robach, P; Boushel, R

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in humans increases maximal oxygen consumption by augmenting the maximal oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Systemic and leg oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake were studied during...... before rHuEpo treatment). Blood buffer capacity remained unaffected by rHuEpo treatment and hemodilution. The augmented hematocrit did not compromise peak cardiac output. In summary, in healthy humans, rHuEpo increases maximal oxygen consumption due to augmented systemic and muscular peak oxygen delivery....

  8. Integrated project for increasing the capacity of spent fuel pools at Cofrentes NPP

    Rebollo Garcia, C.; Arana, S.

    1996-01-01

    The current storage capacity of the Cofrentes NPP will have reached its limit by the end of its 15th cycle, in the year 2005. The works performed by Empresarios Agrupados for IBERDROLA show that it is possible to increase this capacity in successive phases, so as to make the Power Plant self-sufficient for 16 more years (up to 2021) in the case of compact storage, or for 50 more years (2055) in the case of consolidated storage or second level storage. Optimisation of the management of high-activity wastes goes with a series of tasks which come under the group referred to as Integrated Project for Increasing the Capacity of Spent Fuel Pools. The main activities of the project can be summarised under the following three items: increase of storage capacity (feasibility study, specification for the purchase of racks, manufacture, assembly and tests), improvement of the capacity of the pool cooling system and modification of the components and accessories located inside the pools which interfere with the new racks. Another series of activities with less technical and economic impact are: modification of fuel handling machines, management of generated radwaste, licensing and modification of plant documentation (seismic analysis, radiation areas, as-built drawings and verification of the validation of purification and HVAC systems). (Author)

  9. Frontal theta and beta synchronizations for monetary reward increase visual working memory capacity.

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2013-06-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is affected by motivational influences; however, little is known about how reward-related brain activities facilitate the VWM systems. To investigate the dynamic relationship between VWM- and reward-related brain activities, we conducted time-frequency analyses using electroencephalograph (EEG) data obtained during a monetary-incentive delayed-response task that required participants to memorize the position of colored disks. In case of a correct answer, participants received a monetary reward (0, 10 or 50 Japanese yen) announced at the beginning of each trial. Behavioral results showed that VWM capacity under high-reward condition significantly increased compared with that under low- or no-reward condition. EEG results showed that frontal theta (6 Hz) amplitudes enhanced during delay periods and positively correlated with VWM capacity, indicating involvement of theta local synchronizations in VWM. Moreover, frontal beta activities (24 Hz) were identified as reward-related activities, because delay-period amplitudes correlated with increases in VWM capacity between high-reward and no-reward conditions. Interestingly, cross-frequency couplings between frontal theta and beta phases were observed only under high-reward conditions. These findings suggest that the functional dynamic linking between VWM-related theta and reward-related beta activities on the frontal regions plays an integral role in facilitating increases in VWM capacity.

  10. Electrochemical study of the increased antioxidant capacity of flavonoids through complexation with iron(II) ions

    Porfírio, Demóstenes Amorim; Ferreira, Rafael de Queiroz; Malagutti, Andréa Renata; Valle, Eliana Maíra Agostini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal-Flavonoid complexes exhibit greater antioxidant capacity than the free flavonoid;. • Voltammetric profile is an additional information for determining antioxidant capacity;. • Pyrogallol group is a stronger complex-forming group than the catechol;. • Morin, quercetin and fisetin increased their antioxidant capacity in 15%, 32% and 28%, respectively. - Abstract: Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants in the human body through various mechanisms, with an emphasis on suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by inhibiting enzymes, the direct capture of ROS, and the regulation/protection of antioxidant defenses. Additionally, flavonoids can coordinate with transition metals to catalyze electron transport and promote free radical capture. Recently, metal ion chelation mechanisms have generated considerable interest, as experimental data show that flavonoids in metal complexes exhibit greater antioxidant activity than free flavonoids. However, few studies have correlated the complexing properties of flavonoids with their antioxidant capacity. Thus, the aim of this study was to use the CRAC (Ceric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) electrochemical assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of five free flavonoids and Fe 2+ -flavonoid complexes. In addition, the interactions between the flavonoids and Fe 2+ were analyzed based on the oxidation peaks formed in their cyclic voltammograms

  11. Network Capacity Assessment and Increase in Systems with Intermittent Water Supply

    Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems have been facing many challenges in recent decades due to the potential effects of climate change and rapid population growth. Water systems need to expand because of demographic growth. Therefore, evaluating and increasing system capacity is crucial. Specifically, we analyze network capacity as one of the main features of a system. When the network capacity starts to decrease, there is a risk that continuous supply will become intermittent. This paper discusses how network expansion carried out throughout the network life span typically reduces network capacity, thus transforming a system originally designed to work with continuous supply into a system with intermittent supply. A method is proposed to expand the network capacity in an environment of economic scarcity through a greedy algorithm that enables the definition of a schedule for pipe modification stages, and thus efficiently expands the network capacity. This method is, at the same time, an important step in the process of changing a water system from intermittent back to continuous supply—an achievement that remains one of the main challenges related to water and health in developing countries.

  12. Constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity causes significant increase of modelled tropical vegetation surface temperature

    Kattge, J.; Knorr, W.; Raddatz, T.; Wirth, C.

    2009-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity is one of the most sensitive parameters of terrestrial biosphere models whose representation in global scale simulations has been severely hampered by a lack of systematic analyses using a sufficiently broad database. Due to its coupling to stomatal conductance changes in the parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity may potentially influence transpiration rates and vegetation surface temperature. Here, we provide a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity for different plant functional types in the context of the photosynthesis model proposed by Farquhar et al. (1980), based on a comprehensive compilation of leaf photosynthesis rates and leaf nitrogen content. Mean values of photosynthetic capacity were implemented into the coupled climate-vegetation model ECHAM5/JSBACH and modelled gross primary production (GPP) is compared to a compilation of independent observations on stand scale. Compared to the current standard parameterisation the root-mean-squared difference between modelled and observed GPP is substantially reduced for almost all PFTs by the new parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity. We find a systematic depression of NUE (photosynthetic capacity divided by leaf nitrogen content) on certain tropical soils that are known to be deficient in phosphorus. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees derived by this study is substantially lower than standard estimates currently used in terrestrial biosphere models. This causes a decrease of modelled GPP while it significantly increases modelled tropical vegetation surface temperatures, up to 0.8°C. These results emphasise the importance of a constrained parameterisation of photosynthetic capacity not only for the carbon cycle, but also for the climate system.

  13. Post-voiding residual urine and capacity increase in orthotopic urinary diversion: Standard vs modified technique

    Bančević Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ever since the time when the first orthotopic urinary diversion (pouch was performed there has been a constant improvement and modification of surgical techniques. The aim has been to create a urinary reservoir similar to normal bladder, to decrease incidence of postoperative complications and provide an improved life quality. The aim of this study was to compare postvoiding residual urine (PVR and capacity of the pouch constructed by standard or modified technique. Methods. In this prospective and partially retrospective clinical study we included 79 patients. In the group of 41 patients (group ST pouch was constructed using 50-70 cm of the ileum (standard technique. In the group of 38 patients (group MT pouch was constructed using 25-35 cm of the ileum (modified technique. Postoperatively, PVR and pouch capacity were measured using ultrasound in a 3-, 6- and 12-month period. Results. Postoperatively, an increase in PVR and pouch capacity was noticed in both groups. Twelve months postoperatively, PVR was significantly smaller in the group MT than in the group ST [23 (0-90 mL vs 109 (0-570 mL, p < 0,001]. In the same period the pouch capacity was significantly smaller in the MT group than in the ST group [460 (290-710 mL vs 892 (480-2 050 mL, p < 0.001]. Conclusion. Postoperatively, an increase in PVR and pouch capacity was noticed during a 12-month period. A year following the operation the pouch created from a shorter ileal segment reached capacity of the 'normal' bladder with small PVR. The pouch created by standard technique developed an unnecessary large PVR and capacity.

  14. Selective poisoning of Li-air batteries for increased discharge capacity

    Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-01-01

    The main discharge product at the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries is insulating Li2O2 and its poor electronic conduction is a main limiting factor in the battery performance. Here, we apply density functional theory calculations (DFT) to investigate the potential of circumventing...... accessible battery capacity at the expense of a limited increase in the overpotentials....

  15. A New Model of Clinical Education to Increase Student Placement Availability: The Capacity Development Facilitator Model

    Fairbrother, Michele; Nicole, Madelyn; Blackford, Julia; Nagarajan, Srivalli Vilapakkam; McAllister, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a trial of a new model of clinical education designed to increase student clinical placement availability and address workforce constraints on supervision. The University of Sydney deployed the Capacity Development Facilitators (CDF) in selected Sydney hospitals to work with staff to expand student clinical placement…

  16. Establishment of evaluation system for oxidation/anti-oxidation in living organisms using radiation irradiation and its practical application

    Umegaki, Keizo

    2000-01-01

    Basic study on the degree of oxidation damages after X-ray irradiation and changes in the anti-oxidative defense action was made using the rat. In addition, amplification of trace DNA damages by X-ray irradiation was investigated with human lymphocytes. Wistar rats were exposed to X-ray at 3 Gy under no anesthetization and killed after various time after the irradiation. The content of vitamin C, an anti-oxidant vitamin C in the bone marrow was markedly reduced by X-ray irradiation and the content after 24 hours from the irradiation was about 2% of that of the unexposed group. The content of vitamin E in the bone marrow was ca. 43% of that of the unexposed group. However, the contents of these anti-oxidant vitamins gradually recovered from 3-4 days after the irradiation. On the other hand, the content of 4-hydroxynonenal among the aldehydes that were tested as the indicator for oxidation damage of lipid was significantly increased one day after the irradiation and the contents of hexanal and TBARS reached the maximum level 3 days after. However, daily administration of about 100-fold larger amount of vitamin E (α-tocopherol at 460 mg/kg) for 3 days before the irradiation resulted in an increase in its content in the bone marrow, but significant decreases in the vitamin E and C levels in the bone marrow 24 hours after X-ray irradiation and aldehyde contents were increased, suggesting that pre-irradiation administration of vitamin E has no effects on the damages of bone marrow cells. As an indicator of DNA damages, the rate of appearance for lymphocytes having micronuclei was determined. The number of such lymphocytes was not significantly changed by exercise, but the number after irradiation at 1.5 Gy was dose dependently increased. These results suggested that trace DNA oxidation damages produced by severe exercise were markedly amplified by X-ray irradiation in not-trained subjects. (M.N.)

  17. Influence of γ ionizing radiation on anti-oxidative effect of vegetables polyphenolic parts

    Stuyck, S.; Connaulte, J.; Lesgards, G.; Prost, M.; Raffi, J.

    1998-01-01

    Ionizing radiation of vegetables is a cleaning up and preservation physical treatment which consists in submitting them to γ radiation, X radiation or electrons beam. This study deals with the influence of γ radiation on anti-oxidative effect of vegetables polyphenolic parts. In that purpose, we use a simple biological test based on erythrocytes hemolysis. (authors)

  18. Biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant) of fractions ...

    Biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant) of fractions and methanolic extract of Philonotis hastate (Duby Wijk & MargaDant). ... The fractions and methanolic extract exhibited moderate antioxidant potentials with various models. The flavonoid contents of the methanol extract and fractions ranged between 1.70 ...

  19. Evaluation of Anti-Oxidant Activity of Lavandula angustifolia using DPPH Method

    Masoud Soheili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Stress oxidative factors are known to causes diseases resulting from metabolic disorders. Therefore, preventing, or at least decreasing the amount of these factors may have a positive impact on prevention or improvement of the metabolic problems. Recently, the herbal medicines are more considered due to more effectiveness. We designed the present study to evaluate anti-oxidant effect of aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia. Materials and Methods: For extract preparation, the dry aerial part of lavender mixed with boiling water for 4 hours and then the container was filtered and condensed in a bain marie. Finally, the extract was powdered by freeze dryer. The anti-oxidant activities of the herbal medicine samples in 5, 10, 20 and 40 ppm concentrations were determined via DPPH method. This method is based on free radical scavenging of 2, 2- dipheny L-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH reflected in the color and absorbance changes in spectrophotometery method in 520 nm. Finally the IC50 was calculated and compared with that of for vitamin C as a standard. Results: All doses of the aqueous extract of the lavender showed dose- dependent potent anti-oxidant activity, So that, their differences were significant compared to control sample. The IC50 of the herbal medicine was 24.66 ppm that was less than the vitamin C of 2.3 ppm. Conclusion: As a potent anti-oxidant, the lavender aqueous extract can be effective in treatment of metabolic diseases.

  20. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber Officinale on ...

    This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus using alloxan and insulin resistance. Aqueous extracts of raw ginger was administered orally at a chosen dose of 500mg/ml for a period of 4 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic ...

  1. Antidiabetic, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Fadogia ancylantha extracts from Malawi

    Nyirenda, KK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available , cold and hot aqueous extracts of the herbal tea was evaluated for its effect on glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle and Chang cell lines. Metformin and insulin were used as positive controls. The anti-oxidant activity, based on neutralisation of DPPH free...

  2. Considerations for increasing unit 1 spent fuel pool capacity at the Laguna Verde station

    Vera, A.

    1992-01-01

    To increase the spent fuel storage capacity at the Laguna Verde Station in a safe and economical manner and assure a continuous operation of the first Mexican Nuclear Plant, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), the Nation's Utility, seeked alternatives considering the overall world situation, the safety and licensing aspects, as well as the economics and the extent of the nuclear program of Mexico. This paper describes the alternatives considered, their evaluation and how the decision taken by CFE in this field, provides the Laguna Verde Station with a maximum of 37 years storage capacity plus full core reserve

  3. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Kusunoki, Chisato, E-mail: yosizaki@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nishio, Yoshihiko [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ({omega}3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of {omega}3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with {omega}3-PUFA prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  4. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Kusunoki, Chisato; Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. ► EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. ► Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of ω3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with ω3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). ω3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with ω3-PUFA prevented H 2 O 2 -induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  5. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    Jensen, T; Richter, E A; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal...... urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg/24 h), group 2 comprised 10 with incipient diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion 30-300 mg/24 h, and group 3 comprised 10 with clinical diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion greater than 300 mg/24 h). Ten non-diabetic subjects matched for sex...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...

  6. Semantic and functional relationships among objects increase the capacity of visual working memory.

    O'Donnell, Ryan E; Clement, Andrew; Brockmole, James R

    2018-04-12

    Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity of approximately 3-4 visual objects. Current theories of VWM propose that a limited pool of resources can be flexibly allocated to objects, allowing them to be represented at varying levels of precision. Factors that influence the allocation of these resources, such as the complexity and perceptual grouping of objects, can thus affect the capacity of VWM. We sought to identify whether semantic and functional relationships between objects could influence the grouping of objects, thereby increasing the functional capacity of VWM. Observers viewed arrays of 8 to-be-remembered objects arranged into 4 pairs. We manipulated both the semantic association and functional interaction between the objects, then probed participants' memory for the arrays. When objects were semantically related, participants' memory for the arrays improved. Participants' memory further improved when semantically related objects were positioned to interact with each other. However, when we increased the spacing between the objects in each pair, the benefits of functional but not semantic relatedness were eliminated. These findings suggest that action-relevant properties of objects can increase the functional capacity of VWM, but only when objects are positioned to directly interact with each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Increased Hydrologic Connectivity: Consequences of Reduced Water Storage Capacity in the Delmarva Peninsula (U.S.)

    Mclaughlin, D. L.; Jones, C. N.; Evenson, G. R.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Alexander, L. C.; Lang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Combined geospatial and modeling approaches are required to fully enumerate wetland hydrologic connectivity and downstream effects. Here, we utilized both geospatial analysis and hydrologic modeling to explore drivers and consequences of modified surface water connectivity in the Delmarva Peninsula, with particular focus on increased connectivity via pervasive wetland ditching. Our geospatial analysis quantified both historical and contemporary wetland storage capacity across the region, and suggests that over 70% of historical storage capacity has been lost due to this ditching. Building upon this analysis, we applied a catchment-scale model to simulate implications of reduced storage capacity on catchment-scale hydrology. In short, increased connectivity (and concomitantly reduced wetland water storage capacity) decreases catchment inundation extent and spatial heterogeneity, shortens cumulative residence times, and increases downstream flow variation with evident effects on peak and baseflow dynamics. As such, alterations in connectivity have implications for hydrologically mediated functions in catchments (e.g., nutrient removal) and downstream systems (e.g., maintenance of flow for aquatic habitat). Our work elucidates such consequences in Delmarva Peninsula while also providing new tools for broad application to target wetland restoration and conservation. Views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect policies of the US EPA or US FWS.

  8. Adaptive Capacity Mapping of Semarang Offshore Territory by the Increasing of Water Level and Climate Change

    Ifan Ridlo Suhelm

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tidal inundation, flood and land subsidence are the problems faced by Semarang city related to climate change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC predicted the increase of sea level rise 18-59 cm during 1990-2100 while the temperature increase 0,6°C to 4°C during the same period. The Semarang coastal city was highly vulnerable to sea level rise and it increased with two factors, topography and land subsidence. The purpose of this study was to map the adaptive capacity of coastal areas in the face of the threat of disasters caused by climate change. The parameters used are Network Number, Employee based educational background, Source Main Livelihoods, Health Facilities, and Infrastructure Road. Adaptive capacity of regions classified into 3 (three classes, namely low, medium and high. The results of the study showed that most of the coastal area of Semarang have adaptive capacities ranging from low to moderate, while the village with low capacity totaling 58 villages (58.62% of the total coastal district in the city of Semarang.

  9. Just-in-Time Compound Pooling Increases Primary Screening Capacity without Compromising Screening Quality.

    Elkin, L L; Harden, D G; Saldanha, S; Ferguson, H; Cheney, D L; Pieniazek, S N; Maloney, D P; Zewinski, J; O'Connell, J; Banks, M

    2015-06-01

    Compound pooling, or multiplexing more than one compound per well during primary high-throughput screening (HTS), is a controversial approach with a long history of limited success. Many issues with this approach likely arise from long-term storage of library plates containing complex mixtures of compounds at high concentrations. Due to the historical difficulties with using multiplexed library plates, primary HTS often uses a one-compound-one-well approach. However, as compound collections grow, innovative strategies are required to increase the capacity of primary screening campaigns. Toward this goal, we have developed a novel compound pooling method that increases screening capacity without compromising data quality. This method circumvents issues related to the long-term storage of complex compound mixtures by using acoustic dispensing to enable "just-in-time" compound pooling directly in the assay well immediately prior to assay. Using this method, we can pool two compounds per well, effectively doubling the capacity of a primary screen. Here, we present data from pilot studies using just-in-time pooling, as well as data from a large >2-million-compound screen using this approach. These data suggest that, for many targets, this method can be used to vastly increase screening capacity without significant reduction in the ability to detect screening hits. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity

    Forsstrom, J.; Pursiheimo, E.; Kekkonen, V.; Honkatukia, J.

    2010-04-01

    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  11. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Liying; Ma, Zhongsu; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-12-23

    Corn silk is a well-known ingredient frequently used in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of crude flavonoids extracted from corn silk (CSFs) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results revealed that treatment with 300 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg of CSFs significantly reduced the body weight loss, water consumption, and especially the blood glucose (BG) concentration of diabetic mice, which indicated their potential anti-diabetic activities. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays were also performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant effects. Besides, several serum lipid values including total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were reduced and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C) was increased. The anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the CSFs suggest a potential therapeutic treatment for diabetic conditions.

  12. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Yan Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn silk is a well-known ingredient frequently used in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of crude flavonoids extracted from corn silk (CSFs on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. The results revealed that treatment with 300 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg of CSFs significantly reduced the body weight loss, water consumption, and especially the blood glucose (BG concentration of diabetic mice, which indicated their potential anti-diabetic activities. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA assays were also performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant effects. Besides, several serum lipid values including total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were reduced and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C was increased. The anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the CSFs suggest a potential therapeutic treatment for diabetic conditions.

  13. Tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Inoue, Teruo; Komoda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Toshihiko; Node, Koichi

    2008-10-01

    Oxidative stress as well as inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Although, various anti-oxidative dietary supplements have been evaluated for their ability to prevent atherosclerosis, no effective ones have been determined at present. "Camu-camu" (Myrciaria dubia) is an Amazonian fruit that offers high vitamin C content. However, its anti-oxidative property has not been evaluated in vivo in humans. To assess the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of camu-camu in humans, 20 male smoking volunteers, considered to have an accelerated oxidative stress state, were recruited and randomly assigned to take daily 70 ml of 100% camu-camu juice, corresponding to 1050 mg of vitamin C (camu-camu group; n=10) or 1050 mg of vitamin C tablets (vitamin C group; n=10) for 7 days. After 7 days, oxidative stress markers such as the levels of urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (P<0.05) and total reactive oxygen species (P<0.01) and inflammatory markers such as serum levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (P<0.05), interleukin (IL)-6 (P<0.05), and IL-8 (P<0.01) decreased significantly in the camu-camu group, while there was no change in the vitamin C group. Our results suggest that camu-camu juice may have powerful anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, compared to vitamin C tablets containing equivalent vitamin C content. These effects may be due to the existence of unknown anti-oxidant substances besides vitamin C or unknown substances modulating in vivo vitamin C kinetics in camu-camu.

  14. Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report

    Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

    2008-05-01

    With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or

  15. An essential role of Nrf2 in American ginseng-mediated anti-oxidative actions in cardiomyocytes.

    Li, Jinqing; Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Jin, Yu; Hofseth, Lorne J; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Windust, Anthony; Cui, Taixing

    2010-07-20

    Ginseng has been used as a folk medicine for thousands of years in Asia, and has become a popular herbal medicine world-wide. Recent studies have revealed that ginseng, including American ginseng, exerts antioxidant effects in the cardiovascular system; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, we investigated role of Nrf2, a master transcription factor of endogenous anti-oxidative defense systems, in the regulation of American ginseng-mediated anti-oxidative actions in cardiomyocytes. A standardized crude extract of American ginseng was supplied by the National Research Council of Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards. H9C2 cells, a rat cardiomyocyte cell line, were exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) to induce oxidative stress that was examined by measuring formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Oxidative stress-induced cell death was induced by exogenous addition of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Proteins were measured by Western blot and mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real time PCR. Nrf2-driven transcriptional activity was assessed by antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter assay. Direct Nrf2 binding to its target gene promoters was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Adenoviral over-expression of Nrf2 shRNA was utilized to knock down Nrf2 in H9C2 cells. Immunochemical staining was applied for Nrf2 expression in the heart. American ginseng induced dramatic increases in Nrf2 protein expression, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, Nrf2 transcriptional activity, direct Nrf2 binding to its target gene promoters, and expression of a group of anti-oxidative genes driven by Nrf2 in H9C2 cells. In addition, American ginseng inhibited Ang II- or TNFalpha-induced free radical formation and H(2)O(2)-induced cell death in H9C2 cells over-expressed with control shRNA but not in the cells over-expressed with Nrf2 shRNA. Finally, oral

  16. Anti-oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by fly ash particles and carbon black in lung epithelial cells

    Diabate, Silvia; Plaumann, Diana; Uebel, Caroline; Weiss, Carsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bergfeldt, Britta [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Technical Chemistry, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Combustion-derived nanoparticles as constituents of ambient particulate matter have been shown to induce adverse health effects due to inhalation. However, the components inducing these effects as well as the biological mechanisms are still not fully understood. The fine fraction of fly ash particles collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a municipal solid waste incinerator was taken as an example for real particles with complex composition released into the atmosphere to study the mechanism of early biological responses of BEAS-2B human lung epithelial cells. The studies include the effects of the water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of the fly ash and the well-studied carbon black nanoparticles were used as a reference. Fly ash induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the total cellular glutathione (tGSH) content. Carbon black also induced ROS generation; however, in contrast to the fly ash, it decreased the intracellular tGSH. The fly ash-induced oxidative stress was correlated with induction of the anti-oxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 and increase of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Carbon black was not able to induce HO-1. ROS generation, tGSH increase and HO-1 induction were only induced by the insoluble fraction of the fly ash, not by the water-soluble fraction. ROS generation and HO-1 induction were markedly inhibited by pre-incubation of the cells with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine which confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress. Both effects were also reduced by the metal chelator deferoxamine indicating a contribution of bioavailable transition metals. In summary, both fly ash and carbon black induce ROS but only fly ash induced an increase of intracellular tGSH and HO-1 production. Bioavailable transition metals in the solid water-insoluble matrix of the fly ash mostly contribute to the effects. (orig.)

  17. Design and analysis of truck body for increasing the payload capacity

    Vamshi Krishna, K.; Yugandhar Reddy, K.; Venugopal, K.; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    Truck industry is a major source of transportation in India. With an average truck travelling about 300 kilometers per day [1], every kilogram of truck weight is of concern to the industry in order to get the best out of the truck. The main objective of this project is to increase the payload capacity of automotive truck body. Every kilogram of increased vehicle weight will decrease the vehicle payload capacity in turn increasing the manufacturing cost and reducing the fuel economy by increase the fuel consumption. With the intension of weight reduction, standard truck body has been designed and analyzed in ANSYS software. C-cross section beams were used instead of conventional rectangular box sections to reduce the weight of the body. Light-weight Aluminum alloy Al 6061 T6 is used to increase the payload capacity. The strength of the Truck platform is monitored in terms of deformation and stress concentration. These parameters will be obtained in structural analysis test condition environment. For reducing the stress concentration the concept of beams of uniform strength is used. Accordingly necessary modifications are done so that the optimized model has a better stress distribution and much lesser weight compared to the conventional model. The results obtained by analyzing the modified model are compared with the standard model.

  18. Hippocampal and posterior parietal contributions to developmental increases in visual short-term memory capacity.

    von Allmen, David Yoh; Wurmitzer, Karoline; Klaver, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Developmental increases in visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity have been associated with changes in attention processing limitations and changes in neural activity within neural networks including the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). A growing body of evidence suggests that the hippocampus plays a role in VSTM, but it is unknown whether the hippocampus contributes to the capacity increase across development. We investigated the functional development of the hippocampus and PPC in 57 children, adolescents and adults (age 8-27 years) who performed a visuo-spatial change detection task. A negative relationship between age and VSTM related activity was found in the right posterior hippocampus that was paralleled by a positive age-activity relationship in the right PPC. In the posterior hippocampus, VSTM related activity predicted individual capacity in children, whereas neural activity in the right anterior hippocampus predicted individual capacity in adults. The findings provide first evidence that VSTM development is supported by an integrated neural network that involves hippocampal and posterior parietal regions.

  19. Novel curcumin analogue 14p protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury through Nrf2-activating anti-oxidative activity

    Li, Weixin [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wu, Mingchai [Department of Pharmacy, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzou, Zhejiang (China); Tang, Longguang; Pan, Yong; Liu, Zhiguo [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zeng, Chunlai [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Jingying [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wei, Tiemin, E-mail: lswtm@sina.com [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Liang, Guang, E-mail: wzmcliangguang@163.com [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Alleviating the oxidant stress associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion has been demonstrated as a potential therapeutic approach to limit ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac damage. Curcumin, a natural compound with anti-oxidative activity, exerts beneficial effect against cardiac I/R injury, but poor chemical and metabolic stability. Previously, we have designed and synthesized a series of mono-carbonyl analogues of curcumin (MACs) with high stability. This study aims to find new anti-oxidant MACs and to demonstrate their effects and mechanisms against I/R-induced heart injury. Methods: H9c2 cells challenged with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or TBHP were used for in vitro bio-screening and mechanistic studies. The MDA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and SOD levels in H9C2 cells were determined, and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Myocardial I/R mouse models administrated with or without the compound were used for in vivo studies. Results: The in vitro cell-based screening showed that curcumin analogues 8d and 14p exhibited strong anti-oxidative effects. Pre-treatment of H9c2 cells with 14p activated Nrf2 signaling pathway, attenuated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-increased MDA and SOD level, followed by the inhibition of TBHP-induced cell death and Bax/Bcl-2–caspase-3 pathway activation. Silencing Nrf2 significantly reversed the protective effects of 14p. In in vivo animal model of myocardial I/R, administration of low dose 14p (10 mg/kg) reduced infarct size and myocardial apoptosis to the same extent as the high dose curcumin (100 mg/kg). Conclusion: These data support the novel curcumin analogue 14p as a promising antioxidant to decrease oxidative stress and limit myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via activating Nrf2. - Highlights: • Mono-carbonyl analogue of curcumin, 14p, exhibited better chemical stability. • Compound 14p inhibited TBHP-induced apoptosis through activating Nrf2 in vitro. • Compound 14p limited myocardial ischemia

  20. Supplementation of xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid peroxidation in hens and chicks.

    Gao, Yu-Yun; Xie, Qing-Mei; Ma, Jing-Yun; Zhang, Xiang-Bin; Zhu, Ji-Mei; Shu, Ding-Ming; Sun, Bao-Li; Jin, Ling; Bi, Ying-Zuo

    2013-03-28

    The present study investigated the effects of xanthophyll supplementation on production performance, antioxidant capacity (measured by glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and reduced glutathione:oxidised glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG)) and lipid peroxidation (measured by malondialdehyde (MDA)) in breeding hens and chicks. In Expt 1, 432 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Blood samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d of the trial. Liver and jejunal mucosa were sampled at 35 d. Both xanthophyll groups improved serum SOD at 21 and 28 d, serum T-AOC at 21 d and liver T-AOC, and serum GSH:GSSG at 21, 28 and 35 d and liver GSH:GSSG. Xanthophylls also decreased serum MDA at 21 d in hens. Expt 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg in ovo xanthophyll/kg diet of hens were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg xanthophyll/kg diet. Liver samples were collected at 0, 7, 14 and 21 d after hatching. Blood samples were also collected at 21 d. In ovo-deposited xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver mainly within 1 week after hatching. Maternal effects gradually vanished during 1-2 weeks after hatching. Dietary xanthophylls increased antioxidant capacity and decreased MDA in the liver and serum mainly from 2 weeks onwards. Data suggested that xanthophyll supplementation enhanced antioxidant capacity and reduced lipid peroxidation in different tissues of hens and chicks.

  1. Who does not want an increase of the nuclear capacity - Remarkable convergence's

    Prevot, Henri

    2010-01-01

    In France, the capacity to generate nuclear electricity, although relatively substantial, will have to be increased significantly in order to divide by two or three France's emissions o carbon dioxide at a reasonable cost. However a consensus seems to have been tacitly emerged that is seeking to practically maintain the status quo. This article examines seven different groupings that would prefer to see no additional nuclear generating capacity. Among them, they are the historical opponents, the electricity producers - even the nuclear electricity producers plus those who believe that they can use technical, economic or moral arguments, along- with those who will owe their prosperity to a continuous increase of the 'cost of carbon': These factions are finding surprising convergencies, even 'objective alliances' that not only seem unnatural, but also hardly serve the interests of consumers and do not consolidate the position of our country in a world where the energy and the fight against emissions will be major concerns

  2. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...... the characteristic low compressibility and high friction giving much better conditions for root penetration increasing yield potentials. Furthermore, risk of drought in dry periods, and nutrient losses in wet periods in coarser soil types is also reduced...

  3. Anti-Oxidative, Metal Chelating and Radical Scavenging Effects of ...

    ... (8): 1349-1355. ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... 3 kDa fraction against oxidative protein damage were comparable to that of reduced glutathione. ... optimum temperatures of each protease, namely .... exhibited concentration-dependent increase in .... Ability of Ethanol Extracts of Hypericum Scabrum L.

  4. Opportunities and Benefits for Increasing Transmission Capacity between the US Eastern and Western Interconnections

    Figueroa-Acevedo, Armando L.

    Historically, the primary justification for building wide-area transmission lines in the US and around the world has been based on reliability and economic criteria. Today, the influence of renewable portfolio standards (RPS), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, transmission needs, load diversity, and grid flexibility requirements drives interest in high capacity wide-area transmission. By making use of an optimization model to perform long-term (15 years) co-optimized generation and transmission expansion planning, this work explored the benefits of increasing transmission capacity between the US Eastern and Western Interconnections under different policy and futures assumptions. The model assessed tradeoffs between investments in cross-interconnection HVDC transmission, AC transmission needs within each interconnection, generation investment costs, and operational costs, while satisfying different policy compliance constraints. Operational costs were broken down into the following market products: energy, up-/down regulation reserve, and contingency reserve. In addition, the system operating flexibility requirements were modeled as a function of net-load variability so that the flexibility of the non-wind/non-solar resources increases with increased wind and solar investment. In addition, planning reserve constraints are imposed under the condition that they be deliverable to the load. Thus, the model allows existing and candidate generation resources for both operating reserves and deliverable planning reserves to be shared throughout the interconnections, a feature which significantly drives identification of least-cost investments. This model is used with a 169-bus representation of the North American power grid to design four different high-capacity wide-area transmission infrastructures. Results from this analysis suggest that, under policy that imposes a high-renewable future, the benefits of high capacity transmission between the Eastern and

  5. The Potential for Energy Storage to Provide Peaking Capacity in California under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics: Report Summary

    Denholm, Paul L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-12

    Opportunities to provide peaking capacity with low-cost energy storage are emerging. But adding storage changes the ability of subsequent storage additions to meet peak demand. Increasing photovoltaic (PV) deployment also affects storage's ability to provide peak capacity. This study examines storage's potential to replace conventional peak capacity in California.

  6. Increasing chronic disease research capacity in Guatemala through a mentoring program.

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Monzon, Jose C; Colditz, Graham A

    2013-09-12

    The Chronic Disease Research Fellowship Program (RFP) aims to build the research capacity of recent medical graduates to support the development of chronic disease control strategies. Guatemala is undergoing an epidemiologic transition. However, given the way universities and the health care system are structured, it lacks an environment that fosters research careers and generates the required knowledge to implement sound public health policies and clinical strategies. The RFP was implemented at the Cardiovascular Unit of Guatemala. This 4-year Program recruited two one-year fellows and provided funding to define a research topic, write a protocol and implement the research. Strong emphasis is placed on developing skills in knowledge translation and exchange to bridge the "know-do" gap. Close mentoring relationships between the Principal Investigator and former and current fellows are fostered through the Program. The mentoring Program has generated strategic data to support the implementation of sound chronic disease control strategies, mainly related to tobacco control. Results have been presented nationally and internationally. Research training has included principles of biostatistics and epidemiology, and a journal club. The Program is increasingly generating interest among medical graduates to pursue further research training abroad and is building local research capacity. Fellows and research assistants have created a research network in Guatemala and abroad. The main obstacle the Program faces is ensuring long-term sustainability. A mentoring program can lead to an increase in research interest and capacity in a low-income country with little research infrastructure.

  7. Increase in swimming endurance capacity of mice by capsaicin-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion.

    Kim, K M; Kawada, T; Ishihara, K; Inoue, K; Fushiki, T

    1997-10-01

    Increase in endurance swimming capacity caused by capsaicin (CAP), a pungent component of red pepper, -induced increase of fat metabolism in mice was investigated using an adjustable-current water pool. The mice administered CAP via a stomach tube, showed longer swimming time until exhaustion than the control group of mice, in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal effect was observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg while more than 15 mg/kg had no effect. The increase of endurance was observed only when CAP was administered two hours before swimming. After the administration of CAP, the serum glucose concentration rapidly increased and then decreased within 60 min, while the concentration of serum-free fatty acids gradually increased through 3 hours. The residual glycogen concentration of the gastrocnemius muscle after 30 min of swimming was significantly higher in the CAP-administered mice than in control mice, suggesting that use of the serum free fatty acids spared muscle glycogen consumption. The serum adrenaline concentration significantly increased with twin peaks at 30 min and two hours after administration of CAP. An experiment using adrenalectomized mice was done to confirm that the effect of CAP is due to increased energy metabolism through the secretion of adrenaline from the adrenal gland. The swimming endurance capacity of the adrenalectomized mice was not increased by CAP administration, although adrenaline injection induced a 58% increase in the endurance time. These results suggest that the increase of swimming endurance induced by CAP in mice is caused by an increase in fatty acid utilization due to CAP-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion.

  8. Increased of the capacity integral bridge with reinforced concrete beams for single span

    Setiati, N. Retno

    2017-11-01

    Sinapeul Bridge that was built in 2012 in Sumedang is a bridge type using a full integral system. The prototype of integral bridge with reinforced concrete girder and single span 20 meters until this year had decreased capacity. The bridge was conducted monitoring of strain that occurs in the abutment in 2014. Monitoring results show that based on the data recorded, the maximum strain occurs at the abutment on the location of the integration of the girder of 10.59 x 10-6 tensile stress of 0.25 MPa (smaller than 150 x 10-6) with 3 MPa tensile stress as limit the occurrence of cracks in concrete. Sinapeul bridge abutment with integral system is still in the intact condition. Deflection of the bridge at the time of load test is 1.31 mm. But this time the bridge has decreased exceeded permission deflection (deflection occurred by 40 mm). Besides that, the slab also suffered destruction. One cause of the destruction of the bridge slab is the load factor. It is necessary for required effort to increase the capacity of the integral bridge with retrofitting. Retrofitting method also aims to restore the capacity of the bridge structure due to deterioration. Retrofitting can be done by shortening of the span or using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRC). Based on the results obtained by analysis of that method of retrofitting with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRC) is more simple and effective. Retrofitting with FRP can increase the capacity of the shear and bending moment becomes 41% of the existing bridge. Retrofitting with FRP method does not change the integral system on the bridge Sinapeul become conventional bridges.

  9. Anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective activities of total flavonoids of Indocalamus latifolius

    Juan Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoids of Indocalamus latifolius were evaluated in term of their anti-oxidant and hepatoprotective activities. The results showed that in vitro hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities of total flavonoids at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively, were comparable to those of the known hepatoprotective drug silymarin at 100 mg/kg. These data were supplemented with histopathological studies of rat liver sections. Seven of the main flavonoid compounds purified by column chromatography using silica gel, sephadex LH-20 and develosil ODS, and determined to be vitexin, orientin, isovitexin, homoorientin, tricin, tricin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside.

  10. Medicaid Expansion And Grant Funding Increases Helped Improve Community Health Center Capacity.

    Han, Xinxin; Luo, Qian; Ku, Leighton

    2017-01-01

    Through the expansion of Medicaid eligibility and increases in core federal grant funding, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) sought to increase the capacity of community health centers to provide primary care to low-income populations. We examined the effects of the ACA Medicaid expansion and changes in federal grant levels on the centers' numbers of patients, percentages of patients by type of insurance, and numbers of visits from 2012 to 2015. In the period after expansion (2014-15), health centers in expansion states had a 5 percent higher total patient volume, larger shares of Medicaid patients, smaller shares of uninsured patients, and increases in overall visits and mental health visits, compared to centers in nonexpansion states. Increases in federal grant funding levels were associated with increases in numbers of patients and of overall, medical, and preventive service visits. If federal grant levels are not sustained after 2017, there could be marked reductions in health center capacity in both expansion and nonexpansion states. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Overexpression of PGC-1α Increases Fatty Acid Oxidative Capacity of Human Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Nataša Nikolić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α overexpression on the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle cells ex vivo. PGC-1α overexpression increased the oxidation rate of palmitic acid and mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in human myotubes. Basal and insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake were decreased, possibly due to upregulation of PDK4 mRNA. Expression of fast fiber-type gene marker (MHCIIa was decreased. Compared to skeletal muscle in vivo, PGC-1α overexpression increased expression of several genes, which were downregulated during the process of cell isolation and culturing. In conclusion, PGC-1α overexpression increased oxidative capacity of cultured myotubes by improving lipid metabolism, increasing expression of genes involved in regulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, and decreasing expression of MHCIIa. These results suggest that therapies aimed at increasing PGC-1α expression may have utility in treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  12. Study of anti-oxidation and scavenging effects on free radicals of quercetin

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Lao Qinhua; Shao Yuan

    1999-01-01

    The effects of Quercetin on the contents of lipid peroxides (LPO) in the mice caused by γ-whole-body irradiation by method of the modified spectrophotometry of TBA, and the scavenging effects of Quercetin on the free radicals of DNA induced by radiation exposure by means of ESR technique were investigated. The results demonstrates that Quercetin has a good anti-oxidation effect and is very effective in scavenging of free radicals

  13. Anti-oxidation and scavenging effects of some extracts from Chinese medicines on free radicals

    Wang Chongdao; Qiang Yizhong; Lao Qinhua; Cui Fengmei; Shao Yuan; Sun Cunpu

    1999-11-01

    The inhibiting effects of Chinonin, Quercetin and Tannic Acid on the lipid oxidation induced by radiation exposure were investigated by means of a modified TBA spectrophotometry. The scavenging effects on free radicals caused by γ-irradiation exposure of the three active principles were observed by technique of ESR. The results showed that anti-oxidation effects of Chinonin and Quercetin were better than that of Tannic Acid, while the scavenging effects of the three active principles on free radicals were similar

  14. Implications of chronic daily anti-oxidant administration on the inflammatory response to intracortical microelectrodes

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Stewart, Wade G.; Tomaszewski, William H.; Wong, Chun T.; Meador, William D.; Ziats, Nicholas P.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Oxidative stress events have been implicated to occur and facilitate multiple failure modes of intracortical microelectrodes. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a sustained concentration of an anti-oxidant and to reduce oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration for the application of intracortical microelectrodes. Approach. Non-functional microelectrodes were implanted into the cortex of male Sprague Dawley rats for up to sixteen weeks. Half of the animals received a daily intraperitoneal injection of the natural anti-oxidant resveratrol, at 30 mg kg-1. The study was designed to investigate the biodistribution of the resveratrol, and the effects on neuroinflammation/neuroprotection following device implantation. Main results. Daily maintenance of a sustained range of resveratrol throughout the implantation period resulted in fewer degenerating neurons in comparison to control animals at both two and sixteen weeks post implantation. Initial and chronic improvements in neuronal viability in resveratrol-dosed animals were correlated with significant reductions in local superoxide anion accumulation around the implanted device at two weeks after implantation. Controls, receiving only saline injections, were also found to have reduced amounts of accumulated superoxide anion locally and less neurodegeneration than controls at sixteen weeks post-implantation. Despite observed benefits, thread-like adhesions were found between the liver and diaphragm in resveratrol-dosed animals. Significance. Overall, our chronic daily anti-oxidant dosing scheme resulted in improvements in neuronal viability surrounding implanted microelectrodes, which could result in improved device performance. However, due to the discovery of thread-like adhesions, further work is still required to optimize a chronic anti-oxidant dosing regime for the application of intracortical microelectrodes.

  15. Study of burahol (Stelechocarpus burahol (Blume Hook & Thomson as an anti-oxidative compounds containing fruit

    DJADJAT TISNADJAJA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Burahol (Stelechocarpus burahol (Blume Hook & Thomson is one of fruit tree that originally was founded in Indonesia. Traditionally burahol is used as natural deodorance, but due to low economic value, the cultivation program of this plant species is almost abandoned. Regarding to this situation, currently this plant species could be categorized as one of endangered species. At present, economic value of this fruit is almost neglected and this is the main reason why not many people interested to cultivate this plant. In order to change the people opinion on this plant and to improve it economic value, study on the chemical content of this plant had been carried out. From the research work, it was founded that burahol fruit have a significant content of anti-oxidative compound. From the anti-oxidative analysis using DPPH (1,1-diphinil pycril hidrazil method, the lowest IC50 was showed by n-buthanol extract of flower (22.44 ppm and ethyl acetate extract of fruit (29.12 ppm. Flower part also showed low IC50 of ethyl acetate extract (35.07 ppm. Further purification through fractionation process of the plant extract was surprisingly followed by the decrease of anti-oxidative activity.

  16. Maintaining a balanced electricity supply favours increased nuclear capacity in Finland

    Ahti, Toivola

    2001-01-01

    Finland's electricity supply is based on a balanced mix of energy sources to maximize the security of supply and to keep the volatility of electricity price at a minimum. One third of electricity is obtained from domestic sources hydro, wood and peat. Nuclear power provides one quarter and fossil fuels slightly over one fifth. Electricity imports from neighbour countries cover the rest of the consumption. It is important to maintain this balanced structure also when electricity supply is being increased. Domestic renewable sources are not enough to cover the predicted future needs, and increasing imports would risk the security of supply. Increasing the proportion of fossil fuels is not a generally desired option. Therefore, balanced increase of nuclear capacity has to be included among the choices of future electricity generation. (author)

  17. Evaluation of empowerment program to increase production capacity of fishery processing business in Semarang City, Indonesia

    Swastawati, F.; Roessali, W.; Wijayanti, I.; Anggo, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the empowerment program to increase the production capacity of fishery product processing. Empowerment program was the implementation and utilization of science and technology in the area (IPTEKDA) LIPI Indonesia for Higher Education. Activity carried out in 2016 on fish processing industry “Lumintu Group”. Implementation of activities includes the transfer of technology to increase production capacity, business capital assistance in the form of production equipment, production assistance, and business management. This study uses qualitative, descriptive analysis, data collection with observation, interviews, and questionnaires. The results showed that the total number of active members was 24 people, 50% of the members specially cultivated the smoked fish that is the type of Catfish (Arius thalassinus) and Stingray (Dasyatis sp), while 45.83% of members processed boneless milkfish, and 4,17% produce salted fish. Increased average production scale of 31.82% in smoked fish business, 12.4% in boneless milkfish and 38.89% in salted fish business. Willingness to return capital in the good category, meaning that all members were able to carry out the schedule of relative payback on time. Approximately 83.3% of the group members felt that the program that followed had greatly assisted in increasing the scale of business but hoped to improve skills in terms of processing and marketing.

  18. Distribution System Augmented by DC Links for Increasing the Hosting Capacity of PV Generation

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Demirok, Erhan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a concept of enhancing the photovoltaic (PV) power generation hosting capacity of distribution networks. Distribution network serving electrical energy to farm settlements was selected as an example for their large roof area available for PV installation. Further, they are cha......This paper presents a concept of enhancing the photovoltaic (PV) power generation hosting capacity of distribution networks. Distribution network serving electrical energy to farm settlements was selected as an example for their large roof area available for PV installation. Further......, they are characterized by long radial feeders. Such feeders suffer from voltage rise and transformer overloading problems as the total number and capacity of the PV installations increase. The distribution network can be augmented by dc distribution links with power electronic converter interfaces to the traditional ac...... distribution systems. It is shown here that the dc links can be used to interconnect the different radial feeders and the excess power thus could be transferred to the nearby industrial load-center....

  19. Leveraging modern climatology to increase adaptive capacity across protected area networks

    Davison, J.E.; Graumlich, L.J.; Rowland, E.L.; Pederson, G.T.; Breshears, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Human-driven changes in the global environment pose an increasingly urgent challenge for the management of ecosystems that is made all the more difficult by the uncertain future of both environmental conditions and ecological responses. Land managers need strategies to increase regional adaptive capacity, but relevant and rapid assessment approaches are lacking. To address this need, we developed a method to assess regional protected area networks across biophysically important climatic gradients often linked to biodiversity and ecosystem function. We plot the land of the southwestern United States across axes of historical climate space, and identify landscapes that may serve as strategic additions to current protected area portfolios. Considering climate space is straightforward, and it can be applied using a variety of relevant climate parameters across differing levels of land protection status. The resulting maps identify lands that are climatically distinct from existing protected areas, and may be utilized in combination with other ecological and socio-economic information essential to collaborative landscape-scale decision-making. Alongside other strategies intended to protect species of special concern, natural resources, and other ecosystem services, the methods presented herein provide another important hedging strategy intended to increase the adaptive capacity of protected area networks. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Increased maternal and fetal cholesterol efflux capacity and placental CYP27A1 expression in preeclampsia.

    Mistry, Hiten D; Kurlak, Lesia O; Mansour, Yosef T; Zurkinden, Line; Mohaupt, Markus G; Escher, Geneviève

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition that leads to increased cardiovascular risk in later life. A decrease in cholesterol efflux capacity is linked to CVD. We hypothesized that in preeclampsia there would be a disruption of maternal/fetal plasma to efflux cholesterol, as well as differences in the concentrations of both placental sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) and apoA1 binding protein (AIBP). Total, HDL-, and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol effluxes were performed with maternal and fetal plasma from women with preeclampsia and normotensive controls (both n = 17). apoA1 and apoE were quantified by chemiluminescence, and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) by GC-MS. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine placental expression/localization of CYP27A1, AIBP, apoA1, apoE, and SRB1. Maternal and fetal total and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacities were increased in preeclampsia (by 10-20%), but ABCA1-mediated efflux was decreased (by 20-35%; P preeclampsia. Fetal plasma 27-OHC levels were decreased in preeclamptic samples ( P preeclampsia ( P = 0.04). Placental 27-OHC concentrations were also raised in preeclampsia ( P preeclampsia, to remove cholesterol from cells to limit lipid peroxidation and increase placental angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Quantitative combination of natural anti-oxidants prevents metabolic syndrome by reducing oxidative stress.

    Gao, Mingjing; Zhao, Zhen; Lv, Pengyu; Li, YuFang; Gao, Juntao; Zhang, Michael; Zhao, Baolu

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance and abdominal obesity are present in the majority of people with the metabolic syndrome. Antioxidant therapy might be a useful strategy for type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant states. The combination of vitamin C (Vc) and vitamin E has synthetic scavenging effect on free radicals and inhibition effect on lipid peroxidation. However, there are few studies about how to define the best combination of more than three anti-oxidants as it is difficult or impossible to test the anti-oxidant effect of the combination of every concentration of each ingredient experimentally. Here we present a math model, which is based on the classical Hill equation to determine the best combination, called Fixed Dose Combination (FDC), of several natural anti-oxidants, including Vc, green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract proanthocyanidin (GSEP). Then we investigated the effects of FDC on oxidative stress, blood glucose and serum lipid levels in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats which serve as obesity model, and KK-ay mice as diabetic model. The level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the treated rats was studied and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining or Oil red slices of liver and adipose tissue in the rats were examined as well. FDC shows excellent antioxidant and anti-glycation activity by attenuating lipid peroxidation. FDC determined in this investigation can become a potential solution to reduce obesity, to improve insulin sensitivity and be beneficial for the treatment of fat and diabetic patients. It is the first time to use the math model to determine the best ratio of three anti-oxidants, which can save much more time and chemical materials than traditional experimental method. This quantitative method represents a potentially new and useful strategy to screen all possible combinations of many natural anti-oxidants, therefore may help develop novel therapeutics with the potential to ameliorate the worldwide metabolic

  2. Anti-oxidative effect of turmeric on frying characteristics of soybean oil.

    Banerjee, Anindita; Ghosh, Santinath; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, is known to act as an anti-oxidant, anti-mutagen and anti-carcinogen. This study aimed to find out the thermal and oxidative stability of soybean oil when potatoes marinated with turmeric were deep fried in the oil. Two sets of experiment were carried out. In one set, 1 L of oil was heated for 24 h (8 h daily for 3 consecutive days) and 200 g of potato chips without any marination were fried each time twice daily. Foods were fried in batches to replicate the commercial practice of the food industries. The temperature maintained during the whole experiment was at 180-190 °C i.e. at the frying temperature. About 50 ml of the oil sample was collected after every 4 h. In the second set, another 1 L of soybean oil was heated for 24 h in the similar manner and potato chips marinated with turmeric was fried twice daily. Oil samples were collected as before and comparative studies were done. The chemical parameters like acid value, peroxide value, content of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) and fatty acid composition for all the oil samples of each set were determined. The comparative studies on peroxide value and content of HNE revealed that the antioxidant property of curcumin in turmeric helped in reducing the oxidation of the oil initially, but with increase in duration of time, the antioxidant potency got gradually reduced. The loss of unsaturated fatty acids were calculated from the fatty acid composition and it was found that loss of unsaturation in soybean oil where turmeric marinated potatoes were fried was 6.37 % while the controlled one showed 7.76 % loss after 24 h of heating. These results indicated higher thermal and oxidative stability of the soybean oil in presence of turmeric. However, the antioxidant effect gradually decreased with increase in duration of heating.

  3. Chemical analysis, antimicrobial and anti-oxidative properties of Daucus gracilis essential oil and its mechanism of action

    Meriem El Kolli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: D. gracilis EO showed potent antimicrobial and anti-oxidative activities and had acted on the cytoplasm membrane. These activities could be exploited in the food industry for food preservation.

  4. Dual n-back training increases the capacity of the focus of attention.

    Lilienthal, Lindsey; Tamez, Elaine; Shelton, Jill Talley; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2013-02-01

    Working memory (WM) training has been reported to benefit abilities as diverse as fluid intelligence (Jaeggi et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105:6829-6833, 2008) and reading comprehension (Chein & Morrison, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17:193-199, 2010), but transfer is not always observed (for reviews, see Morrison & Chein, Psychonomics Bulletin & Review, 18:46-60, 2011; Shipstead et al., Psychological Bulletin, 138:628-654, 2012). In contrast, recent WM training studies have consistently reported improvement on the trained tasks. The basis for these training benefits has received little attention, however, and it is not known which WM components and/or processes are being improved. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to investigate five possible mechanisms underlying the effects of adaptive dual n-back training on working memory (i.e., improvements in executive attention, updating, and focus switching, as well as increases in the capacity of the focus of attention and short-term memory). In addition to a no-contact control group, the present study also included an active control group whose members received nonadaptive training on the same task. All three groups showed significant improvements on the n-back task from pretest to posttest, but adaptive training produced larger improvements than did nonadaptive training, which in turn produced larger improvements than simply retesting. Adaptive, but not nonadaptive, training also resulted in improvements on an untrained running span task that measured the capacity of the focus of attention. No other differential improvements were observed, suggesting that increases in the capacity of the focus of attention underlie the benefits of adaptive dual n-back training.

  5. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  6. Platelet-released growth factors can accelerate tenocyte proliferation and activate the anti-oxidant response element.

    Tohidnezhad, M; Varoga, D; Wruck, C J; Brandenburg, L O; Seekamp, A; Shakibaei, M; Sönmez, T T; Pufe, Thomas; Lippross, S

    2011-05-01

    Little is know about the pathophysiology of acute and degenerative tendon injuries. Although most lesions are uncomplicated, treatment is long and unsatisfactory in a considerable number of cases. Besides the common growth factors that were shown to be relevant for tendon integrity more recently protection against oxidative stress was shown to promote tendon healing. To improve tendon regeneration, many have advocated the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a thrombocyte concentrate that can serve as an autologous source of growth factors. In this study, we investigated the effect of platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) on tenocytes. Tenocytes were isolated from the Achilles tendon of postnatal rats. Tenocyte cell cultures were stimulated with PRGF. We used a CyQuant assay and WST assay to analyse tendon cell growth and viability in different concentrations of PRGF. Migration and proliferation of cells grown in PRGF were assessed by a scratch test. A dual-luciferase assay was used to demonstrate the activation of the anti-oxidant response element (ARE) in tenocytes. A positive effect of PRGF could be shown on tendon cell growth and migratory capacity. PRGF activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Here, we provide evidence of a biological effect of PRGF on tenocytes by the promotion of tenocyte growth and activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. This is a novel aspect of the action of platelet concentrates on tendon growth.

  7. Increasing the capacity of the NEAG natural gas processing plants; Kapazitaetssteigerung der Erdgasaufbereitungsanlagen der NEAG

    Rest, W.; Weiss, A. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The fact that new deposits of sour natural gas were found in the concessions at Scholen/Wesergebirgsvorland and that a sour gas pipeline was built from the BEB-operated field in South-Oldenburg increased the sour gas volume handled by the North German Natural Gas Processing Company (NEAG) so much, that capacities had to be stepped up. This paper describes the measures taken to increase capacities. Various interesting process engineering methods employed to remove bottlenecks in the parts of the plant are described in detail. These refer to the modification of the baffle plates in the high-pressure absorber of the Purisolwashers NEAG I, as well as in the expansion tank and the purified gas waher of the NEAG III washing plant as well as comprehensive modifications of the MODOP-flue gas scrubber NEAG III (orig.) [Deutsch] Neue Sauergasfunde in den Konzessionen Scholen/Wiehengebirgsvorland sowie der Bau der Sauergasverbindungsleitung aus dem von BEB operierten Feldesbereich Sued-Oldenburg haben die der Norddeutschen Erdgas-Aufbereitungsgesellschaft (NEAG) in Voigtei angebotenen Sauergasmengen soweit erhoeht, dass eine Kapazitaetserhoehung notwendig wurde. Im Rahmen des Vortrages werden die Massnahmen zur Kapazitaetssteigerung vorgestellt. Einige verfahrenstechnisch besonders interessante Loesungen zur Beseitigung von Engpaessen in Anlagenteilen werden detailliert beschrieben. Es handelt sich hierbei um die Modifikation der Einbauten im Hochdruckabsorber der Purisolwaesche NEAG I, im Entspannungsbehaelter und Reingaswaescher der Waesche NEAG III sowie umfangreiche Aenderungen im Bereich der MODOP-Abgasreinigungsanlage NEAG III. (orig.)

  8. Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study

    Stavros A. Kavouras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in total antioxidant capacity (TAC. A random sample of 1514 men and 1528 women was selected from Attica region. Physical activity was assessed with a translated version of the validated “International Physical Activity Questionnaire” (iPAQ, and dietary intake through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore that incorporated the inherent characteristics of this diet. TAC was positively correlated with the degree of physical activity (P<.05. TAC was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (r=0.24, P<.001. Stratified analysis by diet status revealed that the most beneficial results were observed to highly active people as compared to inactive, who also followed the Mediterranean diet (288  ±  70 μmol/L, 230  ±  50 μmol/L, resp., after adjusting for various confounders. Increased physical activity and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with increased total antioxidant capacity.

  9. One hundred fold increase in current carrying capacity in a carbon nanotube-copper composite

    Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Yamada, Takeo; Kobashi, Kazufumi; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Futaba, Don N.; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    Increased portability, versatility and ubiquity of electronics devices are a result of their progressive miniaturization, requiring current flow through narrow channels. Present-day devices operate close to the maximum current-carrying-capacity (that is, ampacity) of conductors (such as copper and gold), leading to decreased lifetime and performance, creating demand for new conductors with higher ampacity. Ampacity represents the maximum current-carrying capacity of the object that depends both on the structure and material. Here we report a carbon nanotube-copper composite exhibiting similar conductivity (2.3-4.7 × 105Scm-1) as copper (5.8 × 105Scm-1), but with a 100-times higher ampacity (6 × 108Acm-2). Vacuum experiments demonstrate that carbon nanotubes suppress the primary failure pathways in copper as observed by the increased copper diffusion activation energy (~2.0eV) in carbon nanotube-copper composite, explaining its higher ampacity. This is the only material with both high conductivity and high ampacity, making it uniquely suited for applications in microscale electronics and inverters.

  10. Functional residual capacity increase during laparoscopic surgery with abdominal wall lift

    Hiroshi Ueda

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: The number of laparoscopic surgeries performed is increasing every year and in most cases the pneumoperitoneum method is used. One alternative is the abdominal wall lifting method and this study was undertaken to evaluate changes of functional residual capacity during the abdominal wall lift procedure. Methods: From January to April 2013, 20 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a single institution. All patients were anesthetized using propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. FRC was measured automatically by Engstrom Carestation before the abdominal wall lift and again 15 minutes after the start of the procedure. Results: After abdominal wall lift, there was a significant increase in functional residual capacity values (before abdominal wall lift 1.48 × 103 mL, after abdominal wall lift 1.64 × 103 mL (p < 0.0001. No complications such as desaturation were observed in any patient during this study. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgery with abdominal wall lift may be appropriate for patients who have risk factors such as obesity and respiratory disease.

  11. The stiffness change and the increase in the ultimate capacity for a stiff pile resulting from a cyclic loading

    Lada, Aleksandra; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nicolai, Giulio

    In the paper the experimental results of small-scale tests on a stiff monopile are presented to outline the change in stiffness during the cyclic loading and the change in the ultimate pile capacity. The results confirm the increase of stiffness and the increase in bearing capacity resulting from...

  12. Effects of whole-body γ-irradiation on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzymes in the liver of N-nitrosodiethylamine-treated mice

    Grudzinski, I.P.; Frankiewicz-Jozko, A; Gajewska, J.; Szczypka, M.; Szymanski, A.

    2000-01-01

    B6c3F1 mice were treated per os with either normal saline or N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg body weight) daily for 21 days. On day 22 nd of the experiment , the animals were whole-body γ-irradiated (10 Gy) and examined at 3.5 days post-radiation exposure. Pretreatment of mice with NDEA at the lowest dosage (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg) increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase (CAT) activity in the liver. Since the agent at the highest doses (1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) did not have any effects on TBARS, it was associated with the selective increase of thiol (SH) groups and GSH-linked anti-oxidant enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX), transferase (GST) and reductase (GR). γ-irradiation decreased TBARS and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GPX activity in NDEA-treated mice. Simultaneously, γ-rays did not have any effects on GST and GR enzymes, and it slightly decreased SH groups and CAT activity. Results of the present study indicate that NDEA can promote lipid peroxidation in mice liver. γ-irradiation of mice at a dose of 10 Gy modifies the activity of hepatic anti-oxidant enzymes, which in turn can lead to the reduction of NDEA-induced lipid peroxidation and/or pro-oxidant shift(s). The anti-oxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPX are suggested to be mainly involved in this process. (author)

  13. Increasing Sucrose Uptake Capacity of Wheat Grains Stimulates Storage Protein Synthesis1[W

    Weichert, Nicola; Saalbach, Isolde; Weichert, Heiko; Kohl, Stefan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hause, Bettina; Varshney, Alok; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Kumlehn, Jochen; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Increasing grain sink strength by improving assimilate uptake capacity could be a promising approach toward getting higher yield. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) sucrose transporter HvSUT1 (SUT) was expressed under control of the endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO). Compared with the wild type, transgenic HOSUT grains take up more sucrose (Suc) in vitro, showing that the transgene is functional. Grain Suc levels are not altered, indicating that Suc fluxes are influenced rather than steady-state levels. HOSUT grains have increased percentages of total nitrogen and prolamins, which is reflected in increased levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and leucine at late grain development. Transcript profiling indicates specific stimulation of prolamin gene expression at the onset of storage phase. Changes in gene expression and metabolite levels related to carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis suggest deregulated carbon-nitrogen balance, which together indicate carbon sufficiency and relative depletion of nitrogen. Genes, deregulated together with prolamin genes, might represent candidates, which respond positively to assimilate supply and are related to sugar-starch metabolism, cytokinin and brassinosteroid functions, cell proliferation, and sugar/abscisic acid signaling. Genes showing inverse expression patterns represent potential negative regulators. It is concluded that HvSUT1 overexpression increases grain protein content but also deregulates the metabolic status of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, accompanied by up-regulated gene expression of positive and negative regulators related to sugar signaling and assimilate supply. In HOSUT grains, alternating stimulation of positive and negative regulators causes oscillatory patterns of gene expression and highlights the capacity and great flexibility to adjust wheat grain storage metabolism in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:20018590

  14. Rules for congestion management. Evaluation of available of capacity and possibilities for increased counter trade

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    In the Nordic electricity market, congestion is currently managed using two methods: a combination of price areas (market splitting) and counter-trade. In the planning phase (one day ahead) the main method employed is market splitting, although moving internal bottlenecks to the country border and domestic counter-trade are also used to some degree. Congestion is solved through counter- trade in the operating phase (during the day). In spring 2002, Nordel published a report with proposals for possible changes in Nordic congestion management. The main proposal was to introduce new price areas in the spot market and let the borders of price areas coincide with the physical borders of congestion in the transmission network to a greater degree. It was also proposed to increase the use of counter-trade. Based on feedback from Nordic market players, Nordel decided to carry on the work with congestion management in a new ad hoc group. The group's mandate was a Nordic harmonization of rules and practices for congestion management and a socio-economically efficient utilisation of the transmission grid capacity. Furthermore, the group was asked to investigate how to ensure optimal availability of capacity and to look into the possibilities of increasing usage of counter-trade. The ad hoc working group results are presented in this report. Among the conclusions drawn from the investigations are: 1) A limited increase of counter-trade in the planning phase is feasible for temporary congestion in order to reduce the area price risks for the market players, 2) Market participants should be consulted to get their views on whether and to what extent counter-trade should be increased taking benefits and costs into account. The extent of counter-trade could e.g. be decided as a percentage of NCT with intact grid, 3) Nordel should consider a practice where counter-trading is used to prevent reductions in cross-border capacity due to maintenance, 4) The use of counter-trade in

  15. Rules for congestion management. Evaluation of availability of capacity and possibilities for increased counter trade

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    In the Nordic electricity market, congestion is currently managed using two methods: a combination of price areas (market splitting) and counter-trade. In the planning phase (one day ahead) the main method employed is market splitting, although moving internal bottlenecks to the country border and domestic counter-trade are also used to some degree. Congestion is solved through counter- trade in the operating phase (during the day). In spring 2002, Nordel published a report with proposals for possible changes in Nordic congestion management. The main proposal was to introduce new price areas in the spot market and let the borders of price areas coincide with the physical borders of congestion in the transmission network to a greater degree. It was also proposed to increase the use of counter-trade. Based on feedback from Nordic market players, Nordel decided to carry on the work with congestion management in a new ad hoc group. The group's mandate was a Nordic harmonization of rules and practices for congestion management and a socio-economically efficient utilisation of the transmission grid capacity. Furthermore, the group was asked to investigate how to ensure optimal availability of capacity and to look into the possibilities of increasing usage of counter-trade. The ad hoc working group results are presented in this report. Among the conclusions drawn from the investigations are: 1) A limited increase of counter-trade in the planning phase is feasible for temporary congestion in order to reduce the area price risks for the market players, 2) Market participants should be consulted to get their views on whether and to what extent counter-trade should be increased taking benefits and costs into account. The extent of counter-trade could e.g. be decided as a percentage of NCT with intact grid, 3) Nordel should consider a practice where counter-trading is used to prevent reductions in cross-border capacity due to maintenance, 4) The use of counter-trade in

  16. Rules for congestion management. Evaluation of availability of capacity and possibilities for increased counter trade

    2004-08-01

    In the Nordic electricity market, congestion is currently managed using two methods: a combination of price areas (market splitting) and counter-trade. In the planning phase (one day ahead) the main method employed is market splitting, although moving internal bottlenecks to the country border and domestic counter-trade are also used to some degree. Congestion is solved through counter- trade in the operating phase (during the day). In spring 2002, Nordel published a report with proposals for possible changes in Nordic congestion management. The main proposal was to introduce new price areas in the spot market and let the borders of price areas coincide with the physical borders of congestion in the transmission network to a greater degree. It was also proposed to increase the use of counter-trade. Based on feedback from Nordic market players, Nordel decided to carry on the work with congestion management in a new ad hoc group. The group's mandate was a Nordic harmonization of rules and practices for congestion management and a socio-economically efficient utilisation of the transmission grid capacity. Furthermore, the group was asked to investigate how to ensure optimal availability of capacity and to look into the possibilities of increasing usage of counter-trade. The ad hoc working group results are presented in this report. Among the conclusions drawn from the investigations are: 1) A limited increase of counter-trade in the planning phase is feasible for temporary congestion in order to reduce the area price risks for the market players, 2) Market participants should be consulted to get their views on whether and to what extent counter-trade should be increased taking benefits and costs into account. The extent of counter-trade could e.g. be decided as a percentage of NCT with intact grid, 3) Nordel should consider a practice where counter-trading is used to prevent reductions in cross-border capacity due to maintenance, 4) The use of counter-trade in the

  17. The Effects of Increasing the Capacity of Admission in Emergency Ward in increasing the Rate of Patient Acceptance at the Time of Crisis

    S Geravandi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The emergency ward at the time of a disaster is the most important ward for providing therapy service to the injured. The purpose of this research study was to study of the effects of increasing the capacity of admission in emergency ward in increasing the rate of patient acceptance at the time of crisis at Razi Educational Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. Methods: The present interventional study was performed to determine role of the increase of capacity to emergency ward in increase rate of patient acceptance at the time of disaster. After one year a re-evaluation of the capacity of the emergency department was conducted. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The results of this study showed that the capacity to accept patients was 16 injured in time of disasters at the emergency ward before reform measures. After performing reforms, this capacity increased to 42 patients. The findings also showed that the implementation of appropriate capacity building increased 2.6 times, thus led to increasing the readiness and service delivery in times of crisis and emergency department of the disaster. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it could be concluded that planning and action to be carried out in hospital emergency departments by the crisis committee increased the admission capacity of the injured during the crisis.

  18. Decreased total antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative stress in passive smoker infants and their mothers.

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    Smoking has many adverse health effects in infants and adults. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on oxidative and antioxidative status of plasma in passive smoker infants and their mothers and to compare with those of non-smokers. Subjects were randomly chosen from infants aged 8-26 weeks and their mothers aged 20-34 years. Passive smoker infants (n = 29) and their mothers (n = 29) were defined as having other family members who smoked six or more cigarettes per day continually for at least 8 weeks. Non-smokers were defined as infants (n = 30) and their mothers (n = 24) who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma were perused by measuring the total antioxidant capacity. Oxidative status was evaluated by predicating total peroxide level, oxidative stress index, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in passive smoker infants and their mothers than non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. However, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress index were remarkably higher in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. There were significant correlations between the oxidative and antioxidative parameters of the passive smoker infants and their mothers. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-smokers. Passive smoker infants and their mothers are exposed to potent oxidative stress.

  19. Hydrodynamic analysis of potential groundwater extraction capacity increase: case study of 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci

    Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis of the groundwater regime undertaken to assess the potential for expanding the 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci, or developing a new groundwater source for a future baby food factory, including the quantification of the impact on the production wells of the nearby 'Pepsi' groundwater source, is presented in the paper. The existing Nelt source is comprised of three active production wells that tap a subartesian aquifer formed in sands and gravelly sands; however, the analysis considers only the two nearest wells. A long-term group pumping test was con-ducted of production wells N-1 and N2 (Nelt source and production wells B-1 and B-2 (Pepsi source, while the piezometric head in the vicinity of these wells was monitored at observation well P-1, which is located in the area considered for Nelt source expansion. Data were collected at maximum pumping capacity of all the production wells. A hydrodynamic model of groundwater flow in the extended area of the Nelt source was generated for the purposes of the comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis. Hydrodynamic prognostic calculations addressed two solution alternatives for the capacity increase over a period of ten years. Licensed Visual MODFLOW Pro software, deemed to be at the very top in this field, was used for the calculations.

  20. Manipulating the antioxidant capacity of halophytes to increase their cultural and economic value through saline cultivation.

    Boestfleisch, Christian; Wagenseil, Niko B; Buhmann, Anne K; Seal, Charlotte E; Wade, Ellie Merrett; Muscolo, Adele; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-08-13

    Halophytes, salt-tolerant plants, are a source of valuable secondary metabolites with potential economic value. The steady-state pools of many stress-related metabolites are already enhanced in halophytes when compared with glycophytes, but growth under conditions away from the optimum can induce stress and consequently result in changes to secondary metabolites such as antioxidants. However, direct evidence for increasing the concentration of valuable secondary metabolites as a consequence of altering the salinity of the growing environment still remains equivocal. To address this, we analysed a range of metabolites with antioxidant capacity (including total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbate, reduced/oxidized glutathione and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes) in seedlings and plants from different families (Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rhizophoraceae) and habitats grown under different salt concentrations. We show that it is possible to manipulate the antioxidant capacity of plants and seedlings by altering the saline growing environment, the length of time under saline cultivation and the developmental stage. Among the species studied, the halophytes Tripolium pannonicum, Plantago coronopus, Lepidium latifolium and Salicornia europaea demonstrated the most potential as functional foods or nutraceuticals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  1. Exploring the therapeutic potential of Ayahuasca: acute intake increases mindfulness-related capacities.

    Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Franquesa, Alba; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Pascual, Juan C; Riba, Jordi

    2016-03-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant tea used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. In the last two decades, its use has expanded worldwide. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties. Acute administration induces an introspective dream-like experience characterized by visions and autobiographic and emotional memories. Studies of long-term users have suggested its therapeutic potential, reporting that its use has helped individuals abandon the consumption of addictive drugs. Furthermore, recent open-label studies in patients with treatment-resistant depression found that a single ayahuasca dose induced a rapid antidepressant effect that was maintained weeks after administration. Here, we conducted an exploratory study of the psychological mechanisms that could underlie the beneficial effects of ayahuasca. We assessed a group of 25 individuals before and 24 h after an ayahuasca session using two instruments designed to measure mindfulness capacities: The Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). Ayahuasca intake led to significant increases in two facets of the FFMQ indicating a reduction in judgmental processing of experiences and in inner reactivity. It also led to a significant increase in decentering ability as measured by the EQ. These changes are classic goals of conventional mindfulness training, and the scores obtained are in the range of those observed after extensive mindfulness practice. The present findings support the claim that ayahuasca has therapeutic potential and suggest that this potential is due to an increase in mindfulness capacities.

  2. Efficient Control of Active Transformers for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Degner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . The potential interferences between the operation of active transformers and the reactive power absorption by PV inverters are investigated, and a voltage droop control approach is proposed for the efficient control of these transformers during high PV generation periods. The proposed method can potentially...... increase the PV hosting capacity of the grid, while eliminating the need for a complex and centralized controller. The voltages of specific locations or the grid state estimations provide adequate data for adjustments of the droop parameters. The simulations and field test results associated...... with the implementation of the proposed method to a newly developed active LV grid with high PV penetration in Felsberg, Germany, confirm the efficiency of the proposed method....

  3. Engineering program in order to increase the irradiated fuel storage capacity in pool facilities of Juragua

    Rodriguez R, J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, a technical program in the spent fuel storage area of Nuclear Plant Juragua was launched. Such a program tries to carry out an engineering assessment of the possibility of increasing the spent fuel storage capacity in pool storage facilities by using high density racks (re-racking) instead of the original (non-compact) ones. The purpose of the above-mentioned program is to evaluate possible solutions that can be applied to the construction works prior to plant operation. The first stage of the program for the 1994-95 period is an ongoing Engineering-Economic Feasibility Study (EEFS), which endeavors to examine the capabilities of the reloading pool in Unit-1 Reactor building and long-term storage pool in auxiliary building in high density storage conditions. Technical details of the EEFS and reached results and difficulties are described. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  4. Increased distractibility in schizotypy: Independent of individual differences in working memory capacity?

    Marsh, John E; Vachon, François; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia typically show increased levels of distractibility. This has been attributed to impaired working memory capacity (WMC), since lower WMC is typically associated with higher distractibility, and schizophrenia is typically associated with impoverished WMC. Here, participants performed verbal and spatial serial recall tasks that were accompanied by to-be-ignored speech tokens. For the few trials wherein one speech token was replaced with a different token, impairment was produced to task scores (a deviation effect). Participants subsequently completed a schizotypy questionnaire and a WMC measure. Higher schizotypy scores were associated with lower WMC (as measured with operation span, OSPAN), but WMC and schizotypy scores explained unique variance in relation to the mean magnitude of the deviation effect. These results suggest that schizotypy is associated with heightened domain-general distractibility, but that this is independent of its relationship with WMC.

  5. A review of recent wake vortex research for increasing airport capacity

    Hallock, James N.; Holzäpfel, Frank

    2018-04-01

    This paper is a brief review of recent wake vortex research as it affects the operational problem of spacing aircraft to increase airport capacity and throughput. The paper addresses the questions of what do we know about wake vortices and what don't we know about wake vortices. The introduction of Heavy jets in the late 1960s stimulated the study of wake vortices for safety reasons and the use of pulsed lidars and the maturity of computational fluid dynamics in the last three decades have led to extensive data collection and analyses which are now resulting in the development and implementation of systems to safely decrease separations in the terminal environment. Although much has been learned about wake vortices and their behavior, there is still more to be learned about the phenomena of aircraft wake vortices.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells increase antioxidant capacity in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion damage.

    Inan, M; Bakar, E; Cerkezkayabekir, A; Sanal, F; Ulucam, E; Subaşı, C; Karaöz, E

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may have beneficial effects in reversing intestinal damage resulting from circulatory disorders. The hypothesis of this study is that MSCs increase antioxidant capacity of small bowel tissue following intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) damage. A total of 100 rats were used for the control group and three experimental groups, as follows: the sham control, local MSC, and systemic MSC groups. Each group consisted of 10 animals on days 1, 4, and 7 of the experiment. Ischemia was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 45min; following this, reperfusion was carried out for 1, 4, and 7days in all groups. In the local and systemic groups, MSCs were administered intravenously and locally just after the ischemia, and they were investigated after 1, 4, and 7days. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and total protein levels, were measured. Histopathological analysis was performed using light and electron microscopy. The indicators of proliferation from the effects of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. MDA was increased (Pcytokines interleukin-1β (IL1β), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), IL6, MIP2, and MPO decreased (Pcytokines EP3 and IL1ra increased (poxygen radicals, suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica.

    Mohan, C G; Deepak, M; Viswanatha, G L; Savinay, G; Hanumantharaju, V; Rajendra, C E; Halemani, Praveen D

    2013-04-13

    To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica in in vitro conditions. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were used to evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities respectively. Methanolic extract (MEMI), successive water extract (SWMI) and ethyl acetate fraction (EMEMI), n-butanol fraction (BMEMI) and water soluble fraction (WMEMI) of methanolic extract were evaluated along with respective reference standards. In in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have offered significant antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 13.37, 3.55 and 14.19 μg/mL respectively. Gallic acid, a reference standard showed significant antioxidant activity with IC(50) value of 1.88 and found to be more potent compared to all the extracts and fractions. In in vitro LOX inhibition assay, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have showed significant inhibition of LOX enzyme activity with IC(50) values of 96.71, 63.21 and 107.44 μg/mL respectively. While, reference drug Indomethacin also offered significant inhibition against LOX enzyme activity with IC(50) of 57.75. Furthermore, MEMI was found to more potent than SWMI and among the fractions EMEMI was found to possess more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These findings suggest that the MEMI and EMEMI possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro conditions. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Increase in data capacity utilising dimensions of wavelength, space, time, polarisation and multilevel modulation using a single laser

    Clausen, Anders; Hu, Hao; Ye, Feihong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the capacity of optical networks while have the objective of lowering the total consumed energy per bit is challenging. By exploiting several dimensions, i.e. wavelength, space, time, polarisation and multilevel modulation simultaneously, a single laser can offer formidable capacity pe...... performance with potentially reduced energy consumption per bit. Up to 43 Tbit/s has been demonstrated....

  9. Caffeine stimulates voluntary wheel running in mice without increasing aerobic capacity.

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Wi, Kristianna; Van, Lindsay; Garland, Theodore

    2017-03-01

    The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines. HR mice also have higher endurance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) during forced treadmill exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that Gatorade or Red Bull might cause or allow mice to increase their voluntary wheel running. On days 5 and 6 of 6days of wheel access, as is used to select breeders, HR mice ran 3.3-fold more than C, and females ran 1.2-fold more than males, with no linetype by sex interaction. On day 7, mice were administered Gatorade, Red Bull or tap water. During the subsequent 19-hour period, Gatorade had no statistical effect on running, but Red Bull significantly increased distance run by both sexes and in both HR and C lines. The increase in distance run caused by Red Bull was attributable to time spent running, not an increase in mean (or maximum) speed. As previous studies have found that sucrose alone does not generally increase wheel running, we tested two other active ingredients in Red Bull, caffeine and taurine, in Experiment 2. With a similar testing protocol, caffeine alone and caffeine+taurine increased running by about half the magnitude of Red Bull. In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that Red Bull or caffeine alone can increase physiological performance ability during aerobic exercise, measured as VO 2

  10. Visual Working Memory Capacity Can Be Increased by Training on Distractor Filtering Efficiency.

    Li, Cui-Hong; He, Xu; Wang, Yu-Juan; Hu, Zhe; Guo, Chun-Yan

    2017-01-01

    It is generally considered that working memory (WM) capacity is limited and that WM capacity affects cognitive processes. Distractor filtering efficiency has been suggested to be an important factor in determining the visual working memory (VWM) capacity of individuals. In the present study, we investigated whether training in visual filtering efficiency (FE) could improve VWM capacity, as measured by performance on the change detection task (CDT) and changes of contralateral delay activity (CDA) (contralateral delay activity) of different conditions, and evaluated the transfer effect of visual FE training on verbal WM and fluid intelligence, as indexed by performance on the verbal WM span task and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) test, respectively. Participants were divided into high- and low-capacity groups based on their performance in a CDT designed to test VWM capacity, and then the low-capacity individuals received 20 days of FE training. The training significantly improved the group's performance in the CDT, and their CDA models of different conditions became more similar with high capacity group, and the effect generalized to improve verbal WM span. These gains were maintained at a 3-month follow-up test. Participants' RSPM scores were not changed by the training. These findings support the notion that WM capacity is determined, at least in part, by distractor FE and can be enhanced through training.

  11. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A tool to increase information-processing capacity for consumer water meter data

    Heinz E. Jacobs

    2012-06-01

    Objective: The objective of this research article was to describe the development of Swift, a locally developed software tool for analysing water meter data from an information management perspective, which engineers in the water field generally use, and to assess critically the influence of Swift on published research and industry. This article focuses on water usage and the challenge of data interchange and extraction as issues that various industries face. Method: This article presents the first detailed report on Swift. It uses a detailed knowledge review and presents and summarises the findings chronologically. Results: The water meter data flow path used to be quite simple. The risk of breaches in confidentiality was limited. Technological advances over the years have led to additional knowledge coming from the same water meter readings with subsequent research outputs. However, there are also complicated data flow paths and increased risks. Users have used Swift to analyse more than two million consumers’ water meter readings to date. Studies have culminated in 10 peer-reviewed journal articles using the data. Seven of them were in the last five years. Conclusion: Swift-based data was the basis of various research studies in the past decade. Practical guidelines in the civil engineering fraternity for estimating water use in South Africa have incorporated knowledge from these studies. Developments after 1995 have increased the information processing capacity for water meter data.

  13. Cold acclimation increases mitochondrial oxidative capacity without inducing mitochondrial uncoupling in goldfish white skeletal muscle

    Reinaldo Sousa Dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Goldfish have been used for cold acclimation studies, which have focused on changes in glycolytic and oxidative enzymes or alterations in lipid composition in skeletal muscle. Here we examine the effects of cold acclimation on the functional properties of isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers from goldfish white skeletal muscle, focusing on understanding the types of changes that occur in the mitochondrial respiratory states. We observed that cold acclimation promoted a significant increase in the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates. Western blot analysis showed that UCP3 was raised by ∼1.5-fold in cold-acclimated muscle mitochondria. Similarly, we also evidenced a rise in the adenine nucleotide translocase content in cold-acclimated muscle mitochondria compared to warm-acclimated mitochondria (0.96±0.05 vs 0.68±0.02 nmol carboxyatractyloside mg−1 protein. This was followed by a 2-fold increment in the citrate synthase activity, which suggests a higher mitochondrial content in cold-acclimated goldfish. Even with higher levels of UCP3 and ANT, the effects of activator (palmitate and inhibitors (carboxyatractyloside and GDP on mitochondrial parameters were similar in both warm- and cold-acclimated goldfish. Thus, we propose that cold acclimation in goldfish promotes an increase in functional oxidative capacity, with higher mitochondrial content without changes in the mitochondrial uncoupling pathways.

  14. Hospital-based pandemic influenza preparedness and response: strategies to increase surge capacity.

    Scarfone, Richard J; Coffin, Susan; Fieldston, Evan S; Falkowski, Grace; Cooney, Mary G; Grenfell, Stephanie

    2011-06-01

    In the spring of 2009, the first patients infected with 2009 H1N1 virus were arriving for care in hospitals in the United States. Anticipating a second wave of infection, our hospital leaders initiated multidisciplinary planning activities to prepare to increase capacity by expansion of emergency department (ED) and inpatient functional space and redeployment of medical personnel. During the fall pandemic surge, this urban, tertiary-care children's hospital experienced a 48% increase in ED visits and a 12% increase in daily peak inpatient census. However, several strategies were effective in mitigating the pandemic's impact including using a portion of the hospital's lobby for ED waiting, using a subspecialty clinic and a 24-hour short stay unit to care for ED patients, and using physicians not board certified in pediatric emergency medicine and inpatient-unit medical nurses to care for ED patients. The average time patients waited to be seen by an ED physician and the proportion of children leaving the ED without being seen by a physician was less than for the period when seasonal influenza peaked in the winter of 2008-2009. Furthermore, the ED did not go on divert status, no elective medical or surgical admissions required cancellation, and there were no increases in serious patient safety events. Our health center successfully met the challenges posed by the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. The intent in sharing the details of our planning and experience is to allow others to determine which elements of this planning might be adapted for managing a surge of patients in their setting.

  15. Anti-oxidant activity and attenuation of bladder hyperactivity by the flavonoid compound kaempferol.

    Huang, Yaw-Bin; Lin, Ming-Wei; Chao, Yun; Huang, Chi-Te; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of the flavonoid compound, kaempferol, and to examine its role in the suppression of oxidative stress and attenuation of bladder hyperactivity in a rat model of bladder injury. The anti-oxidative activity of kaempferol was examined in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages by using flow cytometry. For in vivo studies, rats were pretreated with kaempferol or vehicle for 24 h. The rat urothelium was injured by the administration of protamine sulfate for 1.5 h and irritated by the subsequent infusion of potassium chloride for 4 h. Oxidative stress in the bladder tissue was assessed using chemiluminescence assay, and the bladder pressure was determination by cystomertrogram. Kaempferol significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced reactive oxygen species production in RAW264.7 rat macrophages. Exposure of the rat bladder to sequential infusion of protamine sulfate and potassium chloride induced bladder hyperactivity. Pretreatment with kaempferol, prevented the formation of reactive oxygen species and prolonged the intercontraction interval. Kaempferol suppresses oxidative stress and attenuates bladder hyperactivity caused by potassium chloride after protamine sulfate-induced bladder injury. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  16. Activation of anti-oxidant Nrf2 signaling by enone analogues of curcumin.

    Deck, Lorraine M; Hunsaker, Lucy A; Vander Jagt, Thomas A; Whalen, Lisa J; Royer, Robert E; Vander Jagt, David L

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are common in many chronic diseases. Targeting signaling pathways that contribute to these conditions may have therapeutic potential. The transcription factor Nrf2 is a major regulator of phase II detoxification and anti-oxidant genes as well as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective genes. Nrf2 is widespread in the CNS and is recognized as an important regulator of brain inflammation. The natural product curcumin exhibits numerous biological activities including ability to induce the expression of Nrf2-dependent phase II and anti-oxidant enzymes. Curcumin has been examined in a number of clinical studies with limited success, mainly owing to limited bioavailability and rapid metabolism. Enone analogues of curcumin were examined with an Nrf2 reporter assay to identify Nrf2 activators. Analogues were separated into groups with a 7-carbon dienone spacer, as found in curcumin; a 5-carbon enone spacer with and without a ring; and a 3-carbon enone spacer. Activators of Nrf2 were found in all three groups, many of which were more active than curcumin. Dose-response studies demonstrated that a range of substituents on the aromatic rings of these enones influenced not only the sensitivity to activation, reflected in EC 50 values, but also the extent of activation, which suggests that multiple mechanisms are involved in the activation of Nrf2 by these analogues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in skeletal muscle from rats with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia

    Larsen, Steen; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Whitesell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    the groups when evaluating the more physiol. complex I and II linked OXPHOS capacity. These findings indicate that chronic hyperglycemia results in an elevated intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in both soleus and, at varying degree, plantaris muscle, findings that are consistent with human T1DM...

  18. Smart trick at the border. Latitudinal control transformer increases import capacity

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Starting in June 2002, energy consumers in the Netherlands can get more electric power from abroad. Without expensive system extensions, TenneT now has some 1000 MW of extra capacity available. And that is not all. Two latitudinal control transformers are able to control the capacity of the link as desired: 16 positions for import, and 16 for export [nl

  19. Liquid films on shake flask walls explain increasing maximum oxygen transfer capacities with elevating viscosity.

    Giese, Heiner; Azizan, Amizon; Kümmel, Anne; Liao, Anping; Peter, Cyril P; Fonseca, João A; Hermann, Robert; Duarte, Tiago M; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    In biotechnological screening and production, oxygen supply is a crucial parameter. Even though oxygen transfer is well documented for viscous cultivations in stirred tanks, little is known about the gas/liquid oxygen transfer in shake flask cultures that become increasingly viscous during cultivation. Especially the oxygen transfer into the liquid film, adhering on the shake flask wall, has not yet been described for such cultivations. In this study, the oxygen transfer of chemical and microbial model experiments was measured and the suitability of the widely applied film theory of Higbie was studied. With numerical simulations of Fick's law of diffusion, it was demonstrated that Higbie's film theory does not apply for cultivations which occur at viscosities up to 10 mPa s. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the maximum oxygen transfer capacity OTRmax increases in shake flasks when viscosity is increased from 1 to 10 mPa s, leading to an improved oxygen supply for microorganisms. Additionally, the OTRmax does not significantly undermatch the OTRmax at waterlike viscosities, even at elevated viscosities of up to 80 mPa s. In this range, a shake flask is a somehow self-regulating system with respect to oxygen supply. This is in contrary to stirred tanks, where the oxygen supply is steadily reduced to only 5% at 80 mPa s. Since, the liquid film formation at shake flask walls inherently promotes the oxygen supply at moderate and at elevated viscosities, these results have significant implications for scale-up. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Anti-Oxidative and Antibacterial Self-Healing Edible Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Film in Fresh-Cut Fruits.

    Liu, Xuefan; Han, Wei; Zhu, Yanxi; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Zhang, Jianhao; Ge, Liqin

    2018-04-01

    The consumption of fresh-cut fruits is limited because of the oxidation browning and pathogenic bacteria's growth on the fruit surface. Besides, crack of the fresh-keeping film may shorten the preservation time of fruit. In this work, polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film was fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) electrostatic deposition method. The film was made by carboxy methylcellulose sodium (CMC) and chitosan (CS). The as-prepared PEM film had good anti-oxidative and antibacterial capability. It inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and the antibacterial rate was more than 95%. The stratified structure and linear increase of the absorbance in the film verified a linear increase of film thickness. The slight scratched film could self-heal rapidly after the stimulation of water whatever the layer number was. Moreover, the film could heal cracks whose width was far bigger than the thickness. The application of PEM film on fresh-cut apples showed that PEM film had good browning, weight loss and metabolic activity inhibition ability. These results showed that the PEM film is a good candidate as edible film in fresh-cut fruits applications.

  1. Enhanced anti-oxidative activity and lignocellulosic ethanol production by biotin addition to medium in Pichia guilliermondii fermentation.

    Qi, Kai; Xia, Xiao-Xia; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation requires its high titer, but the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation during the bioprocess damaged the cells and compromised this goal. To improve the cellular anti-oxidative activity during non-detoxified corncob residue hydrolysate fermentation, seed cells were prepared to possess a higher level of intracellular biotin pool (IBP), which facilitated the biosyntheses of catalase and porphyrin. As a result, the catalase activity increased by 1.3-folds compared to control while the ROS level reduced by 50%. Cell viability in high-IBP cells was 1.7-folds of control and the final ethanol titer increased from 31.2 to 41.8 g L(-1) in batch fermentation. The high-IBP cells were further used for repeated-batch fermentation in the non-detoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate, and the highest titer and average productivity of ethanol reached 63.7 g L(-1) and 1.2 g L(-1)h(-1). The results were favorable to future industrial application of this lignocellulosic bioethanol process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential requirement for nitric oxide in IGF-1-induced anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and anti-atherosclerotic effects

    Sukhanov, Sergiy; Higashi, Yusuke; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Blackstock, Christopher; Galvez, Sarah; Vaughn, Charlotte; Titterington, Jane; Delafontaine, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We have shown previously that insulin like-growth factor I (IGF-1) suppressed atherosclerosis in Apoe−/− mice and activated endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase. To determine whether IGF-1-induced atheroprotection depends on NO, IGF-1- or saline-infused mice were treated with L-NAME, the pan-NO synthase inhibitor or with D-NAME (control). IGF-1 reduced atherosclerosis in both the D-NAME and L-NAME groups suggesting that IGF-1’s anti-atherogenic effect was NO-independent. IGF-1 increased plaque smooth muscle cells, suppressed cell apoptosis and downregulated lipoprotein lipase and these effects were also NO-independent. On the contrary, IGF-1 decreased oxidative stress and suppressed TNF-α levels and these effects were blocked by L-NAME. Thus IGF-1’s anti-oxidant effect is dependent on its ability to increase NO but is distinct from its anti-atherosclerotic effect which is NO-independent. PMID:21872589

  3. Free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative activities of an ethanol-soluble pigment extract prepared from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea.

    Fan, Jiang Ping; Fan, Chong; Dong, Wen Min; Gao, Bin; Yuan, Wei; Gong, Jia Shun

    2013-09-01

    An ethanol-soluble pigment extract was separated from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea. The compositions of the ethanol soluble pigment extract were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). The extract was prepared into a series of ethanol solutions and analyzed for free radical-scavenging activities (against two free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO)) and in vitro anti-oxidative properties. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed that the peaks of DPPH and TEMPO decreased with increasing extract concentration, suggesting that the extract had excellent free radical-scavenging activities. In vitro cell culture suggested that, at 50-200 mg/L, the extract had no measurable effect on the viability of vascular endothelial cells (ECV340) but produced significant protective effects for cells that underwent oxidative injuries due to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) treatment. Compared with the H₂O₂ treatment alone cells group, 200 mg/L of the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cells by 397.3%, and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of lactate acid dehydrogenase (LDH) by 47.8% and 69.6%, respectively. These results suggest that the extract has excellent free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing capacity for innovation in bureaucratic primary care organizations: a whole system participatory action research project.

    Thomas, Paul; McDonnell, Juliet; McCulloch, Janette; While, Alison; Bosanquet, Nick; Ferlie, Ewan

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to identify what organizational features support innovation in Primary Care Groups (PCGs). Our study used a whole system participatory action research model. Four research teams provided complementary insights. Four case study PCGs were analyzed. Two had an intervention to help local facilitators reflect on their work. Data included 70 key informant interviews, observations of clinical governance interventions and committee meetings, analysis of written materials, surveys and telephone interviews of London Primary Care Organizations, interviews with 20 nurses, and interviews with 6 finance directors. A broad range of stakeholders reviewed data at annual conferences and formed conclusions about trustworthy principles. Sequential research phases were refocused in the light of these conclusions and in response to the changing political context. Five features were associated with increased organizational capacity for innovation: (1) clear structures and a vision for corporate and clinical governance; (2) multiple opportunities for people to reflect and learn at all levels of the organization, and connections between these "learning spaces"; (3) both clinicians and managers in leadership roles that encourage participation; (4) the right timing for an initiative and its adaptation to the local context; and (5) external facilitation that provides opportunities for people to make sense of their experiences. Low morale was commonly attributed to 3 features: (1) overwhelming pace of reform, (2) inadequate staff experience and supportive infrastructure, and (3) financial deficits. These features together may support innovation in other primary care bureaucracies. The research methodology enabled people from different backgrounds to make sense of diverse research insights.

  5. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity.

    Rauckhorst, Adam J; Gray, Lawrence R; Sheldon, Ryan D; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D; Feddersen, Charlotte R; Dupuy, Adam J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Taylor, Eric B

    2017-11-01

    Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. The goal of this investigation was to test whether hepatocyte MPC disruption provides sustained protection from hyperglycemia during long-term HFD and the differential effects of hepatocyte MPC disruption on TCA cycle metabolism in NCD versus HFD conditions. We utilized long-term high fat feeding, serial measurements of postabsorptive blood glucose and metabolomic profiling and 13 C-lactate/ 13 C-pyruvate tracing to investigate the contribution of the MPC to hyperglycemia and altered hepatic TCA cycle metabolism during HFD-induced obesity. Hepatocyte MPC disruption resulted in long-term attenuation of hyperglycemia induced by HFD. HFD increased hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate utilization and TCA cycle capacity in an MPC-dependent manner. Furthermore, MPC disruption decreased progression of fibrosis and levels of transcript markers of inflammation. By contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, fibrosis, and TCA cycle expansion, the hepatocyte MPC is a key mediator of the pathophysiology induced in the HFD model of T2D. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. A tool to increase information-processing capacity for consumer water meter data

    Heinz E. Jacobs

    2012-02-01

    increased the information processing capacity for water meter data.

  7. The Effects of Drought Stress on Yield, Yield Components and Anti-oxidant of Two Garlic (Allium sativum L. Ecotypes with Different Planting Densities

    shiva akbari

    2016-07-01

    Drought stress decreased bulb yield and dry matter percentage significantly. Planting density had significant effects on bulb yield and the yield of planting density of 50 plants m-2 were significantly higher than two other densities. The interaction of drought stress and ecotype factors affected the dry matter percentage. Drought stress decreased fresh and dry weight, length of bulbs and the bulb diameter significantly. Drought stress decreased fresh and dry weight, diameter, length and number of cloves significantly as well. Drought stress is an important limiting factor at the initial phase of plant growth and establishment. It affects both elongation and expansion growth (Shao et al., 2008. Fresh and dry weight and length of cloves were significantly higher in Toroud ecotype. In contrast, the number of cloves in the bulb was significantly higher in Tabas. Studying the correlation coefficients showed that the bulb yield per unit area was significantly and positively correlated with diameter, weight and length of cloves and bulbs and also the dry matter percentage at P≤0.001. The maximum correlation belonged to yield at the unit area and weight of the bulb (r=0.72. In other words, any bulb-weight-increasing factor did have the highest effect on increasing the yield per unit area as well. Drought stress, increased leaf non-enzymatic anti-oxidant significantly. Anti-oxidants plays significant roles in ROS scavenging and influences cellular ROS balance. Activation of antioxidant system helps the plants to tolerate stress form induced damage. The effect of ecotype was significant on anti-oxidant content and the value were significantly higher in Toroud ecotype. Toroud ecotype showed resisting reactions against higher levels of drought stress by increasing the non-enzymatic anti-oxidant content and created tolerating mechanisms versus stress. Conclusion Drought stress reduced yield and yield parameters and increased non-enzymatic anti-oxidant content of garlic. The

  8. Actovegin, a non-prohibited drug increases oxidative capacity in human skeletal muscle

    Søndergård, Stine D; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn W

    2016-01-01

    Actovegin, a deproteinized haemodialysate of calf blood, is suggested to have ergogenic properties, but this potential effect has never been investigated in human skeletal muscle. To investigate this purported ergogenic effect, we measured the mitochondrial respiratory capacity in permeabilized h...

  9. Anti-oxidative feedback and biomarkers in the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica induced by exposure to copper, lead and cadmium

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the potential influences of anthropogenic pollutants, we evaluated the responses of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to three heavy metals: copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Z. japonica was exposed to various concentrations of Cu, Pb , and Cd (0, 0.5, 5, 50 μM) over seven days. The effects were then analyzed using the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and lipid peroxidation measured using malondialdehyde (MDA) as proxy. Metal accumulation in the above-ground tissues and phenotypic changes were also investigated. Our results revealed that heavy metal concentration increased in seagrass exposed to high levels of metals. Z. japonica has great potential for metal accumulation and a suitable candidate for the decontamination of moderately Cu contaminated bodies of water and can also potentially enhanced efforts of environmental decontamination, either through phytoextraction abilities or by functioning as an indicator for monitoring programs that use SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers. - Highlights: • Anti-oxidative feedback of Zostera japonica to the heavy metals Cu, Pb, and Cd was determined. • The endangered intertidal seagrass Z. japonica had a high metal accumulation potential. • Z. japonica might be a potential indicator in monitoring programs using SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers.

  10. Hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative potential of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol fed rats.

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Abdul Hussain, Shaik; Kumar, Anuj; Kapila, Suman; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. A contingency safe, responsible, economic, increased capacity spent nuclear fuel (SNF) advance fuel cycle

    Levy, S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to have an Advanced Light Water (LWR) fuel cycle and an associated development program to provide a contingency plan to the current DOE effort to license once-through spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel for disposition at Yucca Mountain (YM). The intent is to fully support the forthcoming June 2008 DOE submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) based upon the latest DOE draft DOE/EIS-0250F-SID dated October 2007 which shows that the latest DOE YM doses would readily satisfy the anticipated NRC and Environmental Protection Agency (EP) standards. The proposed Advance Fuel Cycle can offer potential resolution of obstacles that might arise during the NRC review and, particularly, during the final hearings process to be held in Nevada. Another reason for the proposed concept is that a substantial capacity growth of the YM repository will be necessary to accommodate the SNF of Advance Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) currently under consideration for United States (U.S.) electricity production (1) and the results of the recently issued study by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to reduce CO 2 emissions (2). That study predicts that by 2030 U.S. nuclear power generation would grow by 64 Gigawatt electrical (GWe) and account for 25.5 percent of the overall U.S. electrical generation. The current annual SNF once-through fuel cycle accumulation would rise from 2000-2100 MT (Metric Tons) to about 3480 MT in 2030 and the total SNF inventory, would reach nearly 500,000 MT by 2100 if U. S. nuclear power continues to grow at 1.1 percent per year after 2030. That last projection does not account for any SNF reduction due to increased fuel burnup or any increased capacity needed 'to establish supply Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP,) arrangements among nations to provide nuclear fuel and taking back spent fuel for recycling without spreading enrichment and reprocessing technologies' (3). The anticipated capacity of 120 MT

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Ramadan, Gamal; Al-Kahtani, Mohammed Ali; El-Sayed, Wael Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    Turmeric (rich in curcuminoids) and ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Ayurveda/Chinese medicine since antiquity. Here, we compared the anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant activity of these two plants in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Both plants (at dose 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed (but with different degrees) the incidence and severity of arthritis by increasing/decreasing the production of anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, and activating the anti-oxidant defence system. The anti-arthritic activity of turmeric exceeded that of ginger and indomethacin (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug), especially when the treatment started from the day of arthritis induction. The percentage of disease recovery was 4.6-8.3% and 10.2% more in turmeric compared with ginger and indomethacin (P turmeric over ginger and indomethacin, which may have beneficial effects against rheumatoid arthritis onset/progression as shown in AIA rat model.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Yan, Xiang; Lei, Fang; Hu, Yajie; Nie, Lihong; Jia, Qingyi; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Fusheng; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H 2 S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) and NaHS groups. All the tests were performed with corresponding neonatal rats. Nissl staining revealed that NaHS treatment ameliorated neuronal chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus resulted from prenatal CSE. Moreover, NaHS eliminated decrease of glutathione level, increase of malondialdehyde content and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity within neonatal rat medulla oblongata caused by prenatal CSE. NaHS also relieved the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in the medulla oblongata of the neonatal CSE rats. These results suggest that H 2 S can alleviate prenatal CSE-induced injuries of neonatal rat medulla oblongata through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux.

  15. Visual working memory capacity increases between ages 3 and 8 years, controlling for gains in attention, perception, and executive control.

    Pailian, Hrag; Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2016-08-01

    Research in adults has aimed to characterize constraints on the capacity of Visual Working Memory (VWM), in part because of the system's broader impacts throughout cognition. However, less is known about how VWM develops in childhood. Existing work has reached conflicting conclusions as to whether VWM storage capacity increases after infancy, and if so, when and by how much. One challenge is that previous studies did not control for developmental changes in attention and executive processing, which also may undergo improvement. We investigated the development of VWM storage capacity in children from 3 to 8 years of age, and in adults, while controlling for developmental change in exogenous and endogenous attention and executive control. Our results reveal that, when controlling for improvements in these abilities, VWM storage capacity increases across development and approaches adult-like levels between ages 6 and 8 years. More generally, this work highlights the value of estimating working memory, attention, perception, and decision-making components together.

  16. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus leaves.

    Das, Biplab Kumar; Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Chowdhury, Nusrat Nabila; Majumder, Md Fakhar Uddin; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Pavel, Md Adit Muktadir

    2015-03-01

    Our present study was carried out to explore the potential role of the methanol extract from the leavesof Phlogocanthus thyrsiflorus (PT) Nees. in central and peripheral analgesic activities using hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing methods. We also tested the antiinflammatory effects and anti-oxidant activity using carrageenan-induced paw edema and the DPPH method, respectively. Methanol extracts of PT leaves were prepared using 500 g powder in 1.8 L methanol by percolation method, followed by evaporation in a rotary evaporator under controlled temperature and pressure. The crude methanol extract was dried by freeze drier and preserved at 4 °C. Oral administration of PT significantly (p methanol extract which could be correlated with its observed biological activities.

  17. SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF INCREASING THE CAPACITY OF POWER SYSTEM BY USING THE MATLAB MODELING

    Mshvidobadze, T.

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of power system was constructed. It included eight types of electric power plants essential for covering a deficit and bringing the generating capacities of the power system to the level which would provide its normal operation. The restrictions were stated in terms of inequalities, the efficiency function was chosen and the corresponding problem was solved by using the Matlab system. The obtained values of variables represented the values of generated capacities of appropriate power plants providing the minimum value of the efficiency function. (author)

  18. Increased bladder wall thickness is associated with severe symptoms and reduced bladder capacity in patients with bladder pain syndrome

    Shu-Yu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: There are obvious differences in bladder CT scans of patients with symptoms of bladder pain due to different etiology. Increased BWT was associated with increased pain scores and decreased bladder capacity in patients with KC and IC. BWT on a CT scan might be considered a marker for the severity of bladder inflammation.

  19. Quantifying the increase in lateral capacity of monopiles in sand due to cyclic loading

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo; O'Loughlin, Conleth

    2017-01-01

    and centrifuge tests. The agreement between the model test data and the predictions is typically within 2%. Application of the method shows that the moment capacity of a monopile in dense sand, for the conditions tested here, is up to 36% higher after cycling. This contrasts with a 10% reduction that would...

  20. Range extension and channel capacity increase in impulse-radio ultra-wideband communications

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Yu, Xianbin; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the channel capacity of a 5th-order Gaussian pulse-based ultra-wideband (UWB) system and experimentally demonstrate 2 Gbit/s UWB-over-fiber transmission systems incorporating wireless transmission. Both electrical and photonic UWB pulse generation methods are employed...

  1. Implementing an innovative intervention to increase research capacity for enhancing early psychosis care in Indonesia.

    Renwick, L; Irmansyah; Keliat, B A; Lovell, K; Yung, A

    2017-11-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE TOPIC?: In low- and middle-income settings (LMICs) such as Indonesia, the burden from psychotic illness is significant due to large gaps in treatment provision Mental health workers and community nurses are a growing workforce requiring new evidence to support practice and enhanced roles and advanced competencies among UK mental health nurses also requires greater research capacity Research capacity building projects can strengthen research institutions, enhance trial capacity, improve quality standards and improve attitudes towards the importance of health research. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: Delivering innovative, cross-cultural workshops to enhance research capacity to multidisciplinary, early career researchers in Indonesia and the UK are rated highly by attendees Supporting people in this way helps them to gain competitive grant funding to complete their own research which can improve the health of the population To our knowledge, there are no other studies reporting the attainment of grant income as a successful outcome of international research partnerships for mental health nursing so our finding is novel. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This method could be implemented to improve networking and collaboration between UK academics and early career researchers in other lower- and middle-income settings This strategy can also strengthen existing partnerships among early career researchers in the UK to meet the demands for greater research mentorship and leadership among mental health nurses and enhance nurses capabilities to contribute to evidence for practice. Aim To strengthen research capacity for nurses and early career researchers in Indonesia and the UK to develop a local evidence base in Indonesia to inform policy and improve the nation's health. These strategies can strengthen research institutions, enhance trial capacity, improve quality standards and improve attitudes towards the importance of health research. Methods Four

  2. Characterization of the organoleptic properties, vitamin C levels and anti-oxidant contents of Californian grown persimmons (abstract)

    California is the largest U.S. producer of persimmons (Diospyros kaki). Consumer demand for persimmons is driven by their organoleptic and nutritional properties (vitamin C and anti-oxidant contents). Most commercial production is divided between a small number of astringent “Hachiya” and non-astri...

  3. Anti-oxidant effect of extracts of kinnow rind, pomegranate rind and seed powders in cooked goat meat patties.

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Narsaiah, K; Borah, A

    2010-05-01

    To overcome the disadvantages of using synthetic anti-oxidants in meat products, an investigation was carried out to evaluate the anti-oxidant effect of extracts of fruit by-products viz., kinnow rind powder (KRP), pomegranate rind powder (PRP) and pomegranate seed powder (PSP) in goat meat patties. Total phenolics content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and effect of these extracts on instrumental color, sensory attributes and TBARS values during storage (4+/-1 degrees C) of goat meat patties were evaluated. Results showed that these extracts are rich sources of phenolic compounds having free radical scavenging activity. Hunter Lab L value significantly (Pgoat meat patties was observed in PRP, PSP and KRP as compared to control patties. Average TBARS values (mg/kg meat) during refrigerated storage (4+/-1 degrees C) were significantly lower in PRP, followed by PSP and KRP as compared to control. The overall anti-oxidant effect was in the order of PRP>PSP>KRP. It was concluded that extracts of above fruits by-product powders have potential to be used as natural anti-oxidants in meat products. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of herbal preparation EM 1201 in adjuvant arthritic rats

    Laimis Akramas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study suggests that EM 1201 has protective activity against arthritis and demonstrated its potential beneficiary effect analogical to diclofenac. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of EM 1201 in rats with AA support the need of further investigations by using it as supplementary agent alone or together with other anti-arthritic drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. GC-MS analysis, evaluation of phytochemicals, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of Exacum bicolor

    Appaji Mahesh Ashwini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the GC-MS analysis, phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of leaves of Exacum bicolor. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of alcohol, phenols, alkanes, aromatic compounds, aldehyde and ethers. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of eight phyto-constituents. The total phenol, flavonoid and alkaloid contents were 18.0 ± 0.2 mg/GAE/g, 13.1 ± 0.4 mg QE/g and 108.0 ± 1.2 mg AE/g respectively. The DPPH assay exhibited potent anti-oxidant abilities with IC50 8.8 µg/mL. Significant thrombolytic activity was demonstrated by clot lysis method (45.1 ± 0.8%. The methanol extract showed significant membrane stabilization on human red blood cell with IC50 value of 37.4 µg/mL. There was a significant correlation (R2>0.98 with total phenolic content versus anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The above results confirmed that E. bicolor could be a promising anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  6. The Potential for Energy Storage to Provide Peaking Capacity in California Under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Denholm, Paul L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-14

    In this report, we examine the potential for replacing conventional peaking capacity in California with energy storage, including analysis of the changing technical potential with increased storage deployment and the effect of PV deployment. We examine nine years of historic load data, a range of storage durations (2-8 hours), and a range of PV penetration levels (0%-30%). We demonstrate how PV increases the ability of storage to reduce peak net demand. In the scenarios analyzed, the expected penetration of PV in California in 2020 could more than double the potential for 4-hour energy storage to provide capacity services.

  7. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities

  8. Management of Surface Drying Temperature to Increase Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme Leaf Extracts (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    RODRIGUEZ CORTINA, JADER; Melo, E.C.; Mulet Pons, Antonio; Bon Corbín, José

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Thyme leaves are an important source of essential oils with antioxidant activity; these compounds are located in trichomes on the leaf surface. The drying conditions affect not only the drying time but also the antioxidant activity. In the literature, a drying temperature of 70 ºC appears to be the best for drying thyme leaves according to their antioxidant capacity. Considering drying periods at different temperature also could be quality beneficial. From these considerations, the goal ...

  9. Color relations increase the capacity of visual short-term memory.

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sulman, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Do color relations such as similarity or harmony influence the ease with which colored patterns can be perceived and held in mind? We tested the influence of a relation supported in research on color harmony--similarity of hue--on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) for colors in patterns. Palettes of 4 similar-hue colors were rated as more pleasant (harmonious) than dissimilar-color palettes. The palettes were used in a VSTM color task. Patterns of 9 to 15 colored squares were presented, and accuracy of color change detection was measured. Memory performance was higher overall for similar-color palettes than for dissimilar-color palettes (experiments 1 and 3). Is this due to color similarity per se, or due to the harmony between colors in similar palettes? A final experiment provided strong support for the importance of color similarity as opposed to harmony. Overall, the advantages for color similarity, in terms of number of color squares held in memory (memory capacity) were 26% to 45% over dissimilar colors. The results indicate that color relations can have a strong impact on the capacity for perceiving and retaining color patterns.

  10. Increasing community capacity to prevent childhood obesity: challenges, lessons learned and results from the Romp & Chomp intervention

    de Groot Florentine P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health issue; however, only limited evidence is available about effective ways to prevent obesity, particularly in early childhood. Romp & Chomp was a community-wide obesity prevention intervention conducted in Geelong Australia with a target group of 12,000 children aged 0-5 years. The intervention had an environmental and capacity building focus and we have recently demonstrated that the prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower in intervention children, post-intervention. Capacity building is defined as the development of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, systems and leadership to enable effective health promotion and the aim of this study was to determine if the capacity of the Geelong community, represented by key stakeholder organisations, to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children was increased after Romp & Chomp. Methods A mixed methods evaluation with three data sources was utilised. 1 Document analysis comprised assessment of the documented formative and intervention activities against a capacity building framework (five domains: Partnerships, Leadership, Resource Allocation, Workforce Development, and Organisational Development; 2 Thematic analysis of key informant interviews (n = 16; and 3 the quantitative Community Capacity Index Survey. Results Document analysis showed that the majority of the capacity building activities addressed the Partnerships, Resource Allocation and Organisational Development domains of capacity building, with a lack of activity in the Leadership and Workforce Development domains. The thematic analysis revealed the establishment of sustainable partnerships, use of specialist advice, and integration of activities into ongoing formal training for early childhood workers. Complex issues also emerged from the key informant interviews regarding the challenges of limited funding, high staff turnover, changing governance structures

  11. Increasing community capacity to prevent childhood obesity: challenges, lessons learned and results from the Romp & Chomp intervention.

    de Groot, Florentine P; Robertson, Narelle M; Swinburn, Boyd A; de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M

    2010-08-31

    Obesity is a major public health issue; however, only limited evidence is available about effective ways to prevent obesity, particularly in early childhood. Romp & Chomp was a community-wide obesity prevention intervention conducted in Geelong Australia with a target group of 12,000 children aged 0-5 years. The intervention had an environmental and capacity building focus and we have recently demonstrated that the prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower in intervention children, post-intervention. Capacity building is defined as the development of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, systems and leadership to enable effective health promotion and the aim of this study was to determine if the capacity of the Geelong community, represented by key stakeholder organisations, to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children was increased after Romp & Chomp. A mixed methods evaluation with three data sources was utilised. 1) Document analysis comprised assessment of the documented formative and intervention activities against a capacity building framework (five domains: Partnerships, Leadership, Resource Allocation, Workforce Development, and Organisational Development); 2) Thematic analysis of key informant interviews (n = 16); and 3) the quantitative Community Capacity Index Survey. Document analysis showed that the majority of the capacity building activities addressed the Partnerships, Resource Allocation and Organisational Development domains of capacity building, with a lack of activity in the Leadership and Workforce Development domains. The thematic analysis revealed the establishment of sustainable partnerships, use of specialist advice, and integration of activities into ongoing formal training for early childhood workers. Complex issues also emerged from the key informant interviews regarding the challenges of limited funding, high staff turnover, changing governance structures, lack of high level leadership and unclear

  12. Thymosin beta 4 protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by targeting anti-oxidative enzymes and anti-apoptotic genes.

    Chuanyu Wei

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. The mechanism by which Tβ4 modulates cardiac protection under oxidative stress is not known. The purpose of this study is to dissect the cardioprotective mechanism of Tβ4 on H(2O(2 induced cardiac damage.Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes with or without Tβ4 pretreatment were exposed to H(2O(2 and expression of antioxidant, apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. ROS levels were estimated by DCF-DA using fluorescent microscopy and fluorimetry. Selected antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic genes were silenced by siRNA transfections in neonatal cardiomyocytes and effect of Tβ4 on H(2O(2-induced cardiac damage was evaluated.Pre-treatment of Tβ4 resulted in reduction of the intracellular ROS levels induced by H(2O(2 in cardiomyocytes. Tβ4 pretreatment also resulted in an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins and reduction of Bax/BCl(2 ratio in the cardiomyocytes. Pretreatment with Tβ4 resulted in stimulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes copper/zinc SOD and catalase in cardiomyocytes at both transcription and translation levels. Tβ4 treatment resulted in the increased expression of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory genes. Silencing of Cu/Zn SOD and catalase gene resulted in apoptotic cell death in the cardiomyocytes which was prevented by treatment with Tβ4.This is the first report that demonstrates the effect of Tβ4 on cardiomyocytes and its capability to selectively upregulate anti-oxidative enzymes, anti-inflammatory genes, and antiapoptotic enzymes in the neonatal cardiomyocytes thus preventing cell death thereby protecting the myocardium. Tβ4 treatment resulted in decreased oxidative stress and inflammation in the myocardium under oxidative stress.

  13. ROS-mediated inhibition of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase contributes to the activation of anti-oxidative mechanisms

    Izabella Kovacs

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO has emerged as a signaling molecule in plants being involved in diverse physiological processes like germination, root growth, stomata closing and response to biotic and abiotic stress. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO as a biological NO donor has a very important function in NO signaling since it can transfer its NO moiety to other proteins (trans-nitrosylation. Such trans-nitrosylation reactions are equilibrium reactions and depend on GSNO level. The breakdown of GSNO and thus the level of S-nitrosylated proteins are regulated by GSNO-reductase (GSNOR. In this way, this enzyme controls S-nitrosothiol levels and regulates NO signaling. Here we report that Arabidopsis thaliana GSNOR activity is reversibly inhibited by H2O2 in-vitro and by paraquat-induced oxidative stress in-vivo. Light scattering analyses of reduced and oxidized recombinant GSNOR demonstrated that GSNOR proteins form dimers under both reducing and oxidizing conditions. Moreover, mass spectrometric analyses revealed that H2O2-treatment increased the amount of oxidative modifications on Zn2+-coordinating Cys47 and Cys177. Inhibition of GSNOR results in enhanced levels of S-nitrosothiols followed by accumulation of glutathione. Moreover, transcript levels of redox-regulated genes and activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes are increased in gsnor-ko plants, which may contribute to the enhanced resistance against oxidative stress. In sum, our results demonstrate that ROS-dependent inhibition of GSNOR is playing an important role in activation of anti-oxidative mechanisms to damping oxidative damage and imply a direct crosstalk between ROS- and NO-signaling.

  14. Increased cross-bridge recruitment contributes to transient increase in force generation beyond maximal capacity in human myocardium.

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Chung, Jae-Hoon; Canan, Benjamin D; Fedorov, Vadim V; Whitson, Bryan A; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L

    2018-01-01

    Cross-bridge attachment allows force generation to occur, and rate of tension redevelopment (k tr ) is a commonly used index of cross-bridge cycling rate. Tension overshoots have been observed briefly after a slack-restretch k tr maneuver in various species of animal models and humans. In this study, we set out to determine the properties of these overshoots and their possible underlying mechanism. Utilizing human cardiac trabeculae, we have found that tension overshoots are temperature-dependent and that they do not occur at resting states. In addition, we have found that myosin cross-bridge cycle is vital to these overshoots as inhibition of the cycle results in the blunting of the overshoots and the magnitude of the overshoots are dependent on the level of myofilament activation. Lastly, we show that the number of cross-bridges transiently increase during tension overshoots. These findings lead us to conclude that tension overshoots are likely due to a transient enhancement of the recruitment of myosin heads into the cross-bridge cycling, regulated by the myocardium, and with potential physiological significance in determining cardiac output. We show that isolated human myocardium is capable of transiently increasing its maximal force generation capability by increasing cross-bridge recruitment following slack-restretch maneuver. This process can potentially have important implications and significance in cardiac contraction in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlorine Doping of Amorphous TiO2 for Increased Capacity and Faster Li+-Ion Storage

    Moitzheim, S.; Balder, J.E.; Poodt, P.; Unnikrishnan, S.; Gendt, S. de; Vereecken, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Titania (TiO2) offers a high theoretical capacity of 336 mAh g-1 with the insertion of one Li per Ti unit. Unfortunately, the poor ionic and electronic conductivity of bulk TiO2 electrodes limits its practical implementation. Nanosizing titania below ∼20 nm has shown to increase the rate performance

  16. Increased charge storage capacity of titanium nitride electrodes by deposition of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    Meijs, Suzan; McDonald, Matthew; Sørensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of depositing a thin layer of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) on titanium nitride (TiN) coated electrodes and the effect this has on charge injection properties. The charge storage capacity increased by applying the B-NCD film...

  17. Negative Offset Operation of Four-Transistor CMOS Image Pixels for Increased Well Capacity and Suppressed Dark Current

    Mheen, B.; Song, Y.J.; Theuwissen, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents an electrical method to reduce dark current as well as increase well capacity of four-transistor pixels in a CMOS image sensor, utilizing a small negative offset voltage to the gate of the transfer (TX) transistor particularly only when the TX transistor is off. As a result,

  18. VeA of Aspergillus niger increases spore dispersing capacity by impacting conidiophore architecture.

    Wang, Fengfeng; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wyatt, Timon; Wösten, Han A B; Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus species are highly abundant fungi worldwide. Their conidia are among the most dominant fungal spores in the air. Conidia are formed in chains on the vesicle of the asexual reproductive structure called the conidiophore. Here, it is shown that the velvet protein VeA of Aspergillus niger maximizes the diameter of the vesicle and the spore chain length. The length and width of the conidiophore stalk and vesicle were reduced nearly twofold in a ΔveA strain. The latter implies a fourfold reduced surface area to develop chains of spores. Over and above this, the conidial chain length was approximately fivefold reduced. The calculated 20-fold reduction in formation of conidia by ΔveA fits the 8- to 17-fold decrease in counted spore numbers. Notably, morphology of the ΔveA conidiophores of A. niger was very similar to that of wild-type Aspergillus sydowii. This suggests that VeA is key in conidiophore architecture diversity in the fungal kingdom. The finding that biomass formation of the A. niger ΔveA strain was reduced twofold shows that VeA not only impacts dispersion capacity but also colonization capacity of A. niger.

  19. Negative Offset Operation of Four-Transistor CMOS Image Pixels for Increased Well Capacity and Suppressed Dark Current

    Mheen, B.; Song, Y.J.; Theuwissen, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents an electrical method to reduce dark current as well as increase well capacity of four-transistor pixels in a CMOS image sensor, utilizing a small negative offset voltage to the gate of the transfer (TX) transistor particularly only when the TX transistor is off. As a result, using a commercial pixel in a 0.18 ?m CMOS process, the voltage drop due to dark current of the pinned photodiode (PPD) is reduced by 6.1 dB and the well capacity is enhanced by 4.4 dB, which is attri...

  20. Increasing Absorptive Capacity to Improve Internal and External Knowledge Transfer in Multinational Companies: A Multiple Case Study Approach

    Béla-Gergely RÁCZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the absorptive capacity could be increased to improve internal and external knowledge transfer in subsidiaries of multinational companies. We look at the way in which the literature on absorptive capacity has evolved, and how it links the internal and external knowledge transfer. Based on 3 case studies conducted at Romanian subsidiaries of multinational companies, we find some patterns, which could explain how the successful knowledge flows should be managed within the multinational company and outside of it, in the supply chain network.

  1. Protective effect of anti-oxidants on endothelial function in young Korean-Asians compared to Caucasians

    Yim, Jongeun; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Moss, Abigail; Cavalcanti, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Previous studies show that Asians have an impaired blood flow response (BFR) to occlusion after a single high fat (HF) meal. The mechanism is believed to be the presence and susceptibility to high free radicals in their blood. The free radical concentration after a HF meal has not been examined in Asians. Further the BFR to heat after a single HF meal in Koreans has not been measured. Material/Methods This study evaluated postprandial endothelial function by measuring the BFR to vascular occlusion and local heat before and after a HF meal and the interventional effects of anti-oxidant vitamins on improving endothelial function in young Korean-Asians (K) compared to Caucasians (C) with these assessments. Ten C and ten K participated in the study (mean age 25.3±3.6 years old). BFR to vascular occlusion and local heat and oxidative stress were assessed after a single low fat (LF) and HF meal at 2 hours compared to baseline. After administration of vitamins (1000 mg of vitamin C, 800 IU of vitamin E, and 300 mg of Coenzyme Q-10) for 14 days, the same measurements were made. Results This study showed that the skin BFR to vascular occlusion and local heat following a HF meal significantly decreased and free radicals significantly increased at 2 hours compared to baseline in K (pvitamins were given, the BFR to vascular occlusion and local heat before and after HF meal were not significantly different in K and C. Conclusions These findings suggest that even a single HF meal can reduce endothelial response to stress through an oxidative stress mechanism but can be blocked by antioxidants, probably through scavenging free radicals in K. Since endothelial function improved even before a HF meal in K, endothelial damage from an Americanized diet may be reduced in K by antioxidants. PMID:22847195

  2. Synthetic polymeric substrates as potent pro-oxidant versus anti-oxidant regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling and cell apoptosis.

    Sung, Hak-Joon; Chandra, Prafulla; Treiser, Matthew D; Liu, Er; Iovine, Carmine P; Moghe, Prabhas V; Kohn, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell signal transduction pathways emanating from engineered cell substrates remains unclear. To elucidate the role, polymers derived from the amino acid L-tyrosine were used as synthetic matrix substrates. Variations in their chemical properties were created by co-polymerizing hydrophobic L-tyrosine derivatives with uncharged hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mw = 1,000 Da), and negatively charged desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT). These substrates were characterized for their intrinsic ability to generate ROS, as well as their ability to elicit Saos-2 cell responses in terms of intracellular ROS production, actin remodeling, and apoptosis. PEG-containing substrates induced both exogenous and intracellular ROS production, whereas the charged substrates reduced production of both types, indicating a coupling of exogenous ROS generation and intracellular ROS production. Furthermore, PEG-mediated ROS induction caused nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and an increase in caspase-3 activity, confirming a link with apoptosis. PEG-rich pro-oxidant substrates caused cytoskeletal actin remodeling through beta-actin cleavage by caspase-3 into fractins. The fractins co-localized to the mitochondria and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. The remnant cytosolic beta-actin was polymerized and condensed, events consistent with apoptotic cell shrinkage. The cytoskeletal remodeling was integral to the further augmentation of intracellular ROS production. Conversely, the anti-oxidant DT-containing charged substrates suppressed the entire cascade of apoptotic progression. We demonstrate that ROS activity serves an important role in "outside-in" signaling for cells grown on substrates: the ROS activity couples exogenous stress, driven by substrate composition, to changes in intracellular signaling. This signaling causes cell apoptosis, which is mediated by actin remodeling.

  3. Structure-activity relationships of novel salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH analogs: iron chelation, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic properties.

    Eliška Potůčková

    Full Text Available Salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH is a lipophilic, tridentate iron chelator with marked anti-oxidant and modest cytotoxic activity against neoplastic cells. However, it has poor stability in an aqueous environment due to the rapid hydrolysis of its hydrazone bond. In this study, we synthesized a series of new SIH analogs (based on previously described aromatic ketones with improved hydrolytic stability. Their structure-activity relationships were assessed with respect to their stability in plasma, iron chelation efficacy, redox effects and cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, studies assessed the cytotoxicity of these chelators and their ability to afford protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The ligands with a reduced hydrazone bond, or the presence of bulky alkyl substituents near the hydrazone bond, showed severely limited biological activity. The introduction of a bromine substituent increased ligand-induced cytotoxicity to both cancer cells and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. A similar effect was observed when the phenolic ring was exchanged with pyridine (i.e., changing the ligating site from O, N, O to N, N, O, which led to pro-oxidative effects. In contrast, compounds with long, flexible alkyl chains adjacent to the hydrazone bond exhibited specific cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells and low toxicity against H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Hence, this study highlights important structure-activity relationships and provides insight into the further development of aroylhydrazone iron chelators with more potent and selective anti-neoplastic effects.

  4. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity; Ydinvoimahankkeiden periaatepaeaetoekseen liittyvaet energia- ja kansantaloudelliset selvitykset

    Forsstrom, J.; Pursiheimo, E.; Kekkonen, V.; Honkatukia, J.

    2010-04-15

    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  5. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  6. Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers' perception of satiating capacity.

    Marcano, J; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2015-02-01

    Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples' satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.

  7. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling...... and the relative workload at which it occurred (FatMax) were higher in PO and O than in C. During arm cranking, peak fat oxidation was higher in O than in C, and FatMax was higher in O than in PO and C. Similar fibre-type composition was found between groups. Plasma adiponectin was higher in PO than in C and O...

  8. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Formal Education: the Role of Schooling for Increasing Societies' Adaptive Capacities in El Salvador and Brazil

    Christine Wamsler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With a worldwide increase in disasters, the effects of climate change are already being felt, and it is the urban poor in developing countries who are most at risk. There is an urgent need to better understand the factors that determine people's capacity to cope with and adapt to adverse climate conditions. This paper examines the influence of formal education in determining the adaptive capacity of the residents of two low-income settlements: Los Manantiales in San Salvador (El Salvador and Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, where climate-related disasters are recurrent. In both case study areas, it was found that the average levels of education were lower for households living at high risk, as opposed to residents of lower risk areas. In this context, the influence of people's level of education was identified to be twofold due to (a its direct effect on aspects that reduce risk, and (b its mitigating effect on aspects that increase risk. The results further suggest that education plays a more determinant role for women than for men in relation to their capacity to adapt. In light of these results, the limited effectiveness of institutional support identified by this study might also relate to the fact that the role of formal education has so far not been sufficiently explored. Promoting (improved access to and quality of formal education as a way to increase people's adaptive capacity is further supported with respect to the negative effects of disasters on people's level of education, which in turn reduce their adaptive capacity, resulting in a vicious circle of increasing risk.

  9. Increase in short-term memory capacity induced by down-regulating individual theta frequency via transcranial alternating current stimulation.

    Vosskuhl, Johannes; Huster, René J; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) supposedly rely on the phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) of neural oscillations in the theta and gamma frequency ranges. The ratio between the individually dominant gamma and theta frequencies is believed to determine an individual's memory capacity. The aim of this study was to establish a causal relationship between the gamma/theta ratio and WM/STM capacity by means of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). To achieve this, tACS was delivered at a frequency below the individual theta frequency. Thereby the individual ratio of gamma to theta frequencies was changed, resulting in an increase of STM capacity. Healthy human participants (N = 33) were allocated to two groups, one receiving verum tACS, the other underwent a sham control protocol. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured before stimulation and analyzed with regard to the properties of PAC between theta and gamma frequencies to determine individual stimulation frequencies. After stimulation, EEG was recorded again in order to find after-effects of tACS in the oscillatory features of the EEG. Measures of STM and WM were obtained before, during and after stimulation. Frequency spectra and behavioral data were compared between groups and different measurement phases. The tACS- but not the sham stimulated group showed an increase in STM capacity during stimulation. WM was not affected in either groups. An increase in task-related theta amplitude after stimulation was observed only for the tACS group. These augmented theta amplitudes indicated that the manipulation of individual theta frequencies was successful and caused the increase in STM capacity.

  10. Increase in short-term memory capacity induced by down-regulating individual theta frequency via transcranial alternating current stimulation

    Johannes eVosskuhl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM and short-term memory (STM supposedly rely on the phase-amplitude coupling of neural oscillations in the theta and gamma frequency ranges. The ratio between the individually dominant gamma and theta frequencies is believed to determine an individual’s memory capacity. The aim of this study was to establish a causal relationship between the gamma/theta ratio and WM/STM capacity by means of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS. To achieve this, tACS was delivered at a frequency below the individual theta frequency. Thereby the individual ratio of gamma to theta frequencies was changed, resulting in an increase of STM capacity. Healthy human participants (N=33 were allocated to two groups, one receiving verum tACS, the other underwent a sham control protocol. The electroencephalogram (EEG was measured before stimulation and analyzed with regard to the properties of phase-amplitude coupling between theta and gamma frequencies to determine individual stimulation frequencies. After stimulation, EEG was recorded again in order to find after-effects of tACS in the oscillatory features of the EEG. Measures of STM and WM were obtained before, during and after stimulation. Frequency spectra and behavioral data were compared between groups and different measurement phases. The tACS- but not the sham stimulated group showed an increase in STM capacity during stimulation. WM was not affected in either groups. An increase in task-related theta amplitude after stimulation was observed only for the tACS group. These augmented theta amplitudes indicated that the manipulation of individual theta frequencies was successful and caused the increase in STM capacity.

  11. X-box binding protein 1 is essential for the anti-oxidant defense and cell survival in the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Yimin Zhong

    Full Text Available Damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an early event in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1 is a key transcription factor that regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis and cell survival. This study aimed to delineate the role of endogenous XBP1 in the RPE. Our results show that in a rat model of light-induced retinal degeneration, XBP1 activation was suppressed in the RPE/choroid complex, accompanied by decreased anti-oxidant genes and increased oxidative stress. Knockdown of XBP1 by siRNA resulted in reduced expression of SOD1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione synthase and sensitized RPE cells to oxidative damage. Using Cre/LoxP system, we generated a mouse line that lacks XBP1 only in RPE cells. Compared to wildtype littermates, RPE-XBP1 KO mice expressed less SOD1, SOD2, and catalase in the RPE, and had increased oxidative stress. At age 3 months and older, these mice exhibited apoptosis of RPE cells, decreased number of cone photoreceptors, shortened photoreceptor outer segment, reduced ONL thickness, and deficit in retinal function. Electron microscopy showed abnormal ultrastructure, Bruch's membrane thickening, and disrupted basal membrane infolding in XBP1-deficient RPE. These results indicate that XBP1 is an important gene involved in regulation of the anti-oxidant defense in the RPE, and that impaired activation of XBP1 may contribute to RPE dysfunction and cell death during retinal degeneration and AMD.

  12. Reduced anti-oxidative stress activities of DJ-1 mutants found in Parkinson's disease patients

    Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Niki, Takeshi; Taira, Takahiro; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M.M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2004-01-01

    DJ-1 is a multi-functional protein that plays roles in transcriptional regulation and anti-oxidative stress, and loss of its function is thought to result in onset of Parkinson's disease. We have previously reported that L166P, a mutant DJ-1 found in Parkinson's disease patients, had no activity to prevent hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cell death. In this study, we analyzed other mutants of DJ-1 found in Parkinson's disease patients, including M26I, R98Q, and D149A, as well as L166P. We first found that all of the mutants made heterodimers with wild-type DJ-1, while all of the mutants except for L166P made homodimers. We then found that M26I and L166P, both of which are derived from homozygous mutations of the DJ-1 gene, were unstable and that their stabilities were recovered, in part, in the presence of proteasome inhibitor, MG132. NIH3T3 cell lines stably expressing these mutants of DJ-1 showed that cell lines of L166P and C106S, a mutant for protease activity (-) of DJ-1, had no activity to scavenge even endogenously producing reactive oxygen species. These cell lines also showed that all of the mutants had reduced activities to eliminate exogenously added H 2 O 2 and that these activities, except for that of D149A, were parallel to those preventing H 2 O 2 -induced cell death

  13. Anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities of Hieracium pilosella L. extracts

    LJILJANA P. STANOJEVIC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities of different extracts from Hieracium pilosella L. (Asteraceae whole plant were investigated. The total dry extracts were determined for all the investigated solvents: methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane:methanol (9:1. It was found that the highest yield was obtained by extraction with methanol (12.9 g/100 g of dry plant material. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed by the HPLC method, using external standards. Chlorogenic acid, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and umbelliferone were detected in the highest quantity in the extracts. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the extracts depends on the solvent used. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in the methanolic extract, both with and without incubation, EC50 = 0.012 and EC50 = 0.015 mg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts towards the bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were determined by the disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined for all the investigated extracts against all the mentioned microorganisms.

  14. Improving Asphalt Mixtures Performance by Mitigating Oxidation Using Anti-Oxidants Additives

    Dessouky, Samer; Diaz, Manuel

    Polymer modified additives are typically used to improve rheological properties of asphalt binder as well as mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mix. In this study, polymer-modified binder PG70-22 is mixing with two co-polymers enhanced with anti-oxidant agents namely; Solution Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SSBR) and Solution Ethylene-Butylene/Styrene (SEBS). The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of those additives into the rheological properties of the asphalt binder using temperature sweep test and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes. The aging index is determined to evaluate the role of additives to reduce brittleness after aging of the binder. The performance of asphalt mixes were characterized by Hamburg Wheel Tracking Test for moisture damage, Beam Fatigue Test for fatigue properties and Flow Number Test for rutting performance. It is found that the asphalt mixes with enhanced binders are improving its rutting and moisture resistance but decreased its fatigue life compared to the control mix.

  15. Novel vanillin derivatives: Synthesis, anti-oxidant, DNA and cellular protection properties.

    Scipioni, Matteo; Kay, Graeme; Megson, Ian; Kong Thoo Lin, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants have been the subject of intense research interest mainly due to their beneficial properties associated with human health and wellbeing. Phenolic molecules, such as naturally occurring Resveratrol and Vanillin, are well known for their anti-oxidant properties, providing a starting point for the development of new antioxidants. Here we report, for the first time, the synthesis of a number of new vanillin through the reductive amination reaction between vanillin and a selection of amines. All the compounds synthesised, exhibited strong antioxidant properties in DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays, with compounds 1b and 2c being the most active. The latter also demonstrated the ability to protect plasmid DNA from oxidative damage in the presence of the radical initiator AAPH. At cellular level, neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were protected from oxidative damage (H 2 O 2 , 400 μM) with both 1b and 2c. The presence of a tertiary amino group, along with the number of vanillin moieties in the molecule contribute for the antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the delocalization of the electron pair of the nitrogen and the presence of an electron donating substituent to enhance the antioxidant properties of this new class of compounds. In our opinion, vanillin derivatives 1b and 2c described in this work can provide a viable platform for the development of antioxidant based therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaction with bovine serum albumin of an anti-oxidative pectic arabinogalactan from Andrographis paniculata.

    Chatterjee, Udipta R; Ray, Sayani; Micard, Valérie; Ghosh, Debjani; Ghosh, Kanika; Bandyopadhyay, Shruti S; Ray, Bimalendu

    2014-01-30

    A pectic arabinogalactan was obtained from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata by aqueous extraction followed by α-amylase treatment, deproteination, and anion exchange chromatography. Methylation analysis, Smith degradation, and NMR spectroscopy indicated that it was a highly branched arabinogalactan containing a (1→3)-linked β-d-Galp main chain, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp side chains. The latter residues were substituted at O-3 by (1→5)- and (1→3)-linked α-l-Araf chains, and non reducing end-units of α-l-Araf and β-d-Galp. This homogeneous arabinogalactan (36 kDa), which contained phenolic acids, showed dose-dependent anti-oxidative properties. The phenolic acid moieties might be the functional sites. This arabinogalactan can form a complex with bovine serum albumin having binding constant K=6.48 × 10(6)/M. Thus, this study is an important step forward to investigate the involvement of arabinogalactan in processes including interaction with biologically important transport proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Methylation and Anti-Oxidant on Discoloration of Weathered Wood Plastic Composites

    Peivand Darabi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the outdoor application of Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs become more widespread, the resistance of these products against weathering, particularly ultraviolet (UV light becomes more important. When WPCs are exposed to outdoor ultraviolet light, rain, snow and atmosphere pollution, they will be degraded which can be indicated by color fade. To investigate the effects of methylation and Anti-Oxidant separately and together on discoloration of weathered wood plastic composites, composites of poplar wood flour and high density polyethylene.Were made according to the ASTMD 2565, samples were placed in Atlas Xenon apparatus for 250 and 2000 hours. Discoloration and FT-IR spectra of the samples were measured and compared. The results have shown that methylation in short term and long term can relatively reduce the discoloration of weathered samples and also in short term can hinder the photodegradation. FT-IR spectra showed that, in long term, neither of the treatments could protect lignin from irradiation within wood flour. But methylation limited the depth of penetration of weathering. The Antioxidant did not have an influence on color change in a long period of time, but was able to relatively decrease it in short term.

  18. 25 CFR 166.307 - Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not...

    2010-04-01

    ... § 166.307 Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not... trust or non-trust rangeland in common with the permitted land. Grazing capacity will be established... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze...

  19. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  20. Low robustness of increasing reservoir capacity for adaptation to climate change: A case study for an agricultural river basin

    Kim, Daeha; Eum, Hyung-Il

    2017-04-01

    With growing concerns of the uncertain climate change, investments in water infrastructures are considered as adaptation policies for water managers and stakeholders despite their negative impacts on the environment. Particularly in regions with limited water availability or conflicting demands, building reservoirs and/or augmenting their storage capacity were already adopted for alleviating influences of the climate change. This study provides a probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts on water scarcity in a river system regulated by an agricultural reservoir in South Korea, which already increased its storage capacity for water supply. For the assessment, we developed the climate response functions (CRFs) defined as relationships between bi-decadal system performance indicators (reservoir reliability and vulnerability) and corresponding climatic conditions, using hydrological models with 10,000-year long stochastic generation of daily precipitation and temperatures. The climate change impacts were assessed by plotting 52 downscaled climate projections of general circulation models (GCMs) on the CRFs. Results indicated that augmented reservoir capacity makes the reservoir system more sensitive to changes in long-term averages of precipitation and temperatures despite improved system performances. Increasing reservoir capacity is unlikely to be "no regret" adaptation policy for the river system. On the other hand, converting the planting strategy from transplanting to direct sowing (i.e., a demand control) could be a more robust to bi-decadal climatic changes based on CRFs and thus could be good to be a no-regret policy.

  1. Prolonged administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases submaximal performance more than maximal aerobic capacity

    Thomsen, J J; Rentsch, R L; Robach, P

    2007-01-01

    HuEpo treatment VO2max increased (Ptime-to-exhaustion (80% VO2max) was increased by 54.0 and 54.3% (Ptime point...... week 11), TTE was decreased by 26.8% as compared to pre rHuEpo administration. In conclusion, in healthy non-athlete subjects rHuEpo administration prolongs submaximal exercise performance by about 54% independently of the approximately 12% increase in VO2max....

  2. Cardiac rehabilitation increases physical capacity but not mental health after heart valve surgery

    Sibilitz, Kirstine L.; Berg, Selina K.; Rasmussen, Trine B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The evidence for cardiac rehabilitation after valve surgery remains sparse. Current recommendations are therefore based on patients with ischaemic heart disease. The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effects of cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care after heart......-educational consultations (intervention) versus usual care without structured physical exercise or psycho-educational consultations (control). Primary outcome was physical capacity measured by VO2 peak and secondary outcome was self-reported mental health measured by Short Form-36. Results: 76% were men, mean age 62 years......, with aortic (62%), mitral (36%) or tricuspid/pulmonary valve surgery (2%). Cardiac rehabilitation compared with control had a beneficial effect on VO2 peak at 4 months (24.8 mL/kg/min vs 22.5 mL/kg/min, p=0.045) but did not affect Short Form-36 Mental Component Scale at 6 months (53.7 vs 55.2 points, p=0...

  3. Increased cerebral oxygen extraction capacity in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Gyldensted, Louise; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban

    Vascular risk factors are suspected to play a role in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, a model that relates capillary dysfunction to the development of AD was proposed [1]. The model predicts that increased capillary dysfunction leads to increased oxygen extraction in order to support...

  4. Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+, K+-ATPase/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-Oxidative Mechanism

    Siddaraju M. Nanjundaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinger officinale has been used as a traditional source against gastric disturbances from time immemorial. The ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome (GRAE belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is reported in the present study. GRAE at 200 mg kg−1 b.w. protected up to 86% and 77% for the swim stress-/ethanol stress-induced ulcers with an ulcer index (UI of 50 ± 4.0/46 ± 4.0, respectively, similar to that of lansoprazole (80% at 30 mg kg−1 b.w. Increased H+, K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were observed in ulcer-induced rats, while GRAE fed rats showed normalized levels and GRAE also normalized depleted/amplified anti-oxidant enzymes in swim stress and ethanol stress-induced animals. Gastric mucin damage was recovered up to 77% and 74% in swim stress and ethanol stress, respectively after GRAE treatment. GRAE also inhibited the growth of H. pylori with MIC of 300 ± 38 μg and also possessed reducing power, free radical scavenging ability with an IC50 of 6.8 ± 0.4 μg mL−1 gallic acid equivalent (GAE. DNA protection up to 90% at 0.4 μg was also observed. Toxicity studies indicated no lethal effects in rats fed up to 5 g kg−1 b.w. Compositional analysis favored by determination of the efficacy of individual phenolic acids towards their potential ulcer-preventive ability revealed that between cinnamic (50% and gallic (46% phenolic acids, cinnamic acid appear to contribute to better H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity, while gallic acid contributes significantly to anti-oxidant activity.

  5. Human airway eosinophils exhibit preferential reduction in STAT signaling capacity and increased CISH expression.

    Burnham, Mandy E; Koziol-White, Cynthia J; Esnault, Stephane; Bates, Mary E; Evans, Michael D; Bertics, Paul J; Denlinger, Loren C

    2013-09-15

    Allergic asthma, a chronic respiratory disorder marked by inflammation and recurrent airflow obstruction, is associated with elevated levels of IL-5 family cytokines and elevated numbers of eosinophils (EOS). IL-5 family cytokines elongate peripheral blood EOS (EOS(PB)) viability, recruit EOS(PB) to the airways, and, at higher concentrations, induce degranulation and reactive oxygen species generation. Although airway EOS (EOS(A)) remain signal ready in that GM-CSF treatment induces degranulation, treatment of EOS(A) with IL-5 family cytokines no longer confers a survival advantage. Because the IL-5 family receptors have common signaling capacity, but are uncoupled from EOS(A) survival, whereas other IL-5 family induced endpoints remain functional, we tested the hypothesis that EOS(A) possess a JAK/STAT-specific regulatory mechanism (because JAK/STAT signaling is critical to EOS survival). We found that IL-5 family-induced STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation is attenuated in EOS(A) relative to blood EOS from airway allergen-challenged donors. However, IL-5 family-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation is not altered between EOS(A) and EOS from airway allergen-challenged donors. These observations suggest EOS(A) possess a regulatory mechanism for suppressing STAT signaling distinct from ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, we found, in EOS(PB), IL-5 family cytokines induce members of the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) genes, CISH and SOCS1. Additionally, following allergen challenge, EOS(A) express significantly more CISH and SOCS1 mRNA and CISH protein than EOS(PB) counterparts. In EOS(PB), long-term pretreatment with IL-5 family cytokines, to varying degrees, attenuates IL-5 family-induced STAT5 phosphorylation. These data support a model in which IL-5 family cytokines trigger a selective downregulation mechanism in EOS(A) for JAK/STAT pathways.

  6. Human Airway Eosinophils Exhibit Preferential Reduction in STAT Signaling Capacity and Increased CISH Expression1

    Burnham, Mandy E.; Koziol-White, Cynthia J.; Esnault, Stephane; Bates, Mary E.; Evans, Michael D.; Bertics, Paul J.; Denlinger, Loren C.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic asthma, a chronic respiratory disorder marked by inflammation and recurrent airflow obstruction, is associated with elevated levels of Interleukin-5 (IL-5) family cytokines, and elevated numbers of eosinophils (EOS). IL-5 family cytokines elongate peripheral blood EOS (EOSPB) viability, recruit EOSPB to the airways, and at higher concentrations, induce degranulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. While, EOSA remain signal ready in that GM-CSF treatment induces degranulation, treatment of EOSA with IL-5 family cytokines no longer confers a survival advantage. Since the IL-5 family receptors have common signaling capacity, but are uncoupled from EOSA survival while other IL-5 family induced endpoints remain functional, we tested the hypothesis that EOSA possess a JAK/STAT specific regulatory mechanism (since JAK/STAT signaling is critical to EOS survival). We found that IL-5 family-induced STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation is attenuated in EOSA relative to blood EOS from airway allergen-challenged donors (EOSCPB). However, IL-5 family induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation is not altered between EOSA and EOSCPB. These observations suggest EOSA possess a regulatory mechanism for suppressing STAT signaling distinct from ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, we found, in EOSPB, IL-5 family cytokines induce members of the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) genes, CISH and SOCS1. Additionally, following allergen challenge, EOSA express significantly more CISH and SOCS1 mRNA and CISH protein than EOSPB counterparts. In EOSPB, long-term pretreatment with IL-5 family cytokines, to varying degrees, attenuates IL-5 family induced STAT5 phosphorylation. These data support a model wherein IL-5 family cytokines trigger a selective down-regulation mechanism in EOSA for JAK/STAT pathways. PMID:23956426

  7. An increase in visceral fat is associated with a decrease in the taste and olfactory capacity.

    Jose Carlos Fernandez-Garcia

    Full Text Available Sensory factors may play an important role in the determination of appetite and food choices. Also, some adipokines may alter or predict the perception and pleasantness of specific odors. We aimed to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females with different weights and relate them with fat and fat-free mass, visceral fat, and several adipokines.179 females with different weights (from low weight to morbid obesity were studied. We analyzed the relation between fat, fat-free mass, visceral fat (indirectly estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis with visceral fat rating (VFR, leptin, adiponectin and visfatin. The smell and taste assessments were performed through the "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips" respectively.We found a lower score in the measurement of smell (TDI-score (Threshold, Discrimination and Identification in obese subjects. All the olfactory functions measured, such as threshold, discrimination, identification and the TDI-score, correlated negatively with age, body mass index (BMI, leptin, fat mass, fat-free mass and VFR. In a multiple linear regression model, VFR mainly predicted the TDI-score. With regard to the taste function measurements, the normal weight subjects showed a higher score of taste functions. However a tendency to decrease was observed in the groups with greater or lesser BMI. In a multiple linear regression model VFR and age mainly predicted the total taste scores.We show for the first time that a reverse relationship exists between visceral fat and sensory signals, such as smell and taste, across a population with different body weight conditions.

  8. SOAR Online Course Increases Capacity for Assisting Individuals with Disabilities in the US

    Kristin eLupfer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For adults with disabilities who are experiencing homelessness, chances of being approved for Social Security disability benefits are very low without assistance. Assisting with the SSI/SSDI application process can be challenging for case managers who lack capacity and expertise. Training caseworkers to document disability and submit complete, high-quality applications using the SSI/SSDI Outreach, Access and Recovery (SOAR model improves efficiency and outcomes. Nationally, 65% of applications using the SOAR model are approved, with decisions received in an average of 81 days in 2015. The SOAR Online Course was created to expand training opportunities for individuals to learn how to effectively assist with SSI/SSDI applications for individuals experiencing or at risk for homelessness. From October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015, 1049 individuals from 49 states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico successfully completed the SOAR online course. The course is a unique public health training model, in that it incorporates a realistic and multimodal practice SSI/SSDI application with comprehensive feedback provided by experts. Local SOAR leaders around the county are trained to facilitate and guide groups through the course. This study evaluated data on online course usage, user experience, and the translation from learning to practice for online course trainees. We found that successful course completions were most concentrated in areas that had local SOAR Leaders, trainees through the online course had higher data entry rates about case outcomes in the SOAR Online Application Tracking (OAT system, and that trainees reported a high satisfaction rate with the course and comprehensive feedback. The evaluation found that key success factors for online training models include the integration of a practice case component (or other generative learning activity, support from local facilitators, and feedback and technical assistance for trainees.

  9. Application of MV/LV Transformers with OLTC for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity Of LV Grids

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Heckmann, Wolfram; Geibel, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in low voltage (LV) grids also raises concern regarding the effects of these new generation units on the grid operation. Overvoltage in LV grids during high PV generation periods is one of the well-known effects caused by PV systems......) and the reactive power absorption by PV inverters, are investigated using field test results and simulations performed on the mentioned LV grid. The results show that the application of OLTC can effectively increase the PV hosting capacity of the grid......., which potentially can decrease the PV hosting capacity of electric grids. This paper presents the applications of medium voltage to low voltage (MV/LV) transformers with on-load tap changers (OLTCs) to prevent overvoltage in high PV penetration conditions. Autonomous methods for controlling...

  10. A novel technique to increase the capacity of code division multiple ...

    user

    accommodate more number of users than the processing gain of the system. .... dimensional vector space causing an increase in modulation complexity and reduced ...... The simulation results of the proposed scheme implemented in MATLAB ...

  11. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2010-01-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingr...... without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded....

  12. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2010-01-01

    a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution...... without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded....

  13. Blunted angiogenesis and hypertrophy are associated with increased fatigue resistance and unchanged aerobic capacity in old overloaded mouse muscle.

    Ballak, Sam B; Busé-Pot, Tinelies; Harding, Peter J; Yap, Moi H; Deldicque, Louise; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T; Degens, Hans

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesize that the attenuated hypertrophic response in old mouse muscle is (1) partly due to a reduced capillarization and angiogenesis, which is (2) accompanied by a reduced oxidative capacity and fatigue resistance in old control and overloaded muscles, that (3) can be rescued by the antioxidant resveratrol. To investigate this, the hypertrophic response, capillarization, oxidative capacity, and fatigue resistance of m. plantaris were compared in 9- and 25-month-old non-treated and 25-month-old resveratrol-treated mice. Overload increased the local capillary-to-fiber ratio less in old (15 %) than in adult (59 %) muscle (P muscles of old mice had a higher succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity (P < 0.05) and a slower fiber type profile (P < 0.05), the isometric fatigue resistance was similar in 9- and 25-month-old mice. In both age groups, the fatigue resistance was increased to the same extent after overload (P < 0.01), without a significant change in SDH activity, but an increased capillary density (P < 0.05). Attenuated angiogenesis during overload may contribute to the attenuated hypertrophic response in old age. Neither was rescued by resveratrol supplementation. Changes in fatigue resistance with overload and aging were dissociated from changes in SDH activity, but paralleled those in capillarization. This suggests that capillarization plays a more important role in fatigue resistance than oxidative capacity.

  14. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis.

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S

    2017-09-23

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were parameterized to identify agricultural land areas meeting crop-specific growing requirements for monthly precipitation and temperature; soil depth and type; cropland availability; and proximity to existing production centers. The results of these analyses demonstrate that crop production can be expanded by nearly 144,000 ha within existing national production centers, generating an additional 0.05 cup-equivalents of fruits and vegetables per capita per day, representing a 1.7% increase above current total F&V availability. Expanding the size of national crop production centers can further increase the availability of all F&V by 2.5%-5.4%, which is still less than the recommended amount. Challenges to increasing F&V production in the US include lack of labor availability, barriers to adoption among producers, and threats to crop yields from environmental concerns.

  15. Hyperthyroidism results in increased glycolytic capacity in the rat heart. A 31P-NMR study.

    Seymour, A M; Eldar, H; Radda, G K

    1990-11-12

    We have investigated the metabolic adaptations that occur in the thyroxine-treated rat heart. Rats were made hyperthyroid by daily intra-peritoneal injections of thyroxine (35 micrograms/100 g body weight) over seven days. 31P-NMR investigations of isolated glucose-perfused isometric hearts showed that thyroxine treatment caused an increase in Pi (from 4.9 mumols.(g dry wt.)-1 in control hearts to 11.7 mumols.(g dry wt.)-1 in hyperthyroid hearts), a decrease in phosphocreatine (from 36.5 mumols.(g dry wt.)-1 to 21.8 mumols.(g dry wt.)-1) with no change in ATP or ADP concentrations under the same conditions of cardiac work. The unidirectional exchange flux Pi----ATP was measured by saturation transfer NMR in hyperthyroid rat hearts. This exchange (which has been shown to contain a significant glycolytic component) increased by 2.2-fold in thyroxine-treated hearts in comparison to control hearts (to 3.6 mumols.(g dry wt.)-1.s-1, from 1.6 mumols.(g dry wt.)-1.s-1). In parallel experiments, NMR analysis of extracts from hyperthyroid rat hearts showed significantly elevated levels of glucose 6-phosphate, and fructose 6-phosphate. Measurements of enzyme activities isolated from hyperthyroid and control tissue showed a 40% increase in phosphofructokinase activity. These data together with the increased concentration of Pi show that both glycolytic and glycogenolytic fluxes are increased in the hyperthyroid rat heart. This metabolic adaptation may be necessary to cope with the increased number and activity of Na+/K(+)-ATPase pumps that occur in response to thyroxine treatment.

  16. Antioxidant activity for spice oils (1) anti oxidative stability of thyme and caraway oil extracts under UV-irradiation

    Atef Ghazy, M.; Shaker, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    The anti oxidative activity for some spice essential oils have been investigated using thiocyanate method and compared with common natural antioxidant. The antioxidant activity for nine spice oils has been measured at 500 ppm after 13 days. The most potent one was the lemon grass (99.8), followed by orange peel, thyme, and caraway. The activities for these four oils were higher than that for Alpha-tocopherol (87.7%). Petitgrain, and geranium oils have marched activity but less than that for Alpha-tocopherol. No obvious has been found for citronella. fennel, and cardamon oils. The aqueous, butanoic, methanolic and hexanoic extracts for thyme and caraway oil exhibit effective anti oxidative activities under UV irradiation (254 nm) for 6 and 10 hr compared with that for alpha-tocopherol. The anti oxidative effect of thyme and caraway oil extracts were found to be strong and stable towards UV-irradiation, and equal to that for Alpha-tocopherol. Thyme's aqueous and caraway's hexanal extracts were the most potent extracts under the same conditions

  17. In vitro thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum leaves

    Antara Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium indicum is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in Bangladesh as a folkloric treatment. The current study was undertaken to evaluate thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic properties with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of X. indicum leaves. The analysis of phytochemical screening confirmed the existence of phytosetrols and diterpenes. In thrombolytic assay, a significant clot lysis was observed at four concentrations of plant extract compare to the positive control streptokinase (30,000 IU, 15,000 IU and negative control normal saline. The extract revealed potent anthelmintic activity at different concentrations. In anti-oxidant activity evaluation by two potential experiments namely total phenolic content determination and free radical scavenging assay by 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the leaves extract possess good anti-oxidant property. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the crude extract showed potent (LC50 1.3 μg/mL cytotoxic activity compare to the vincristine sulfate as a positive control (LC50 0.8 μg/mL.

  18. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

    Puiyan Lam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  19. Patients with sepsis exhibit increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity in peripheral blood immune cells

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Morota, Saori; Persson, Johan Mikael

    2013-01-01

    to 7). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), cytochrome c (Cyt c), and citrate synthase (CS) were measured as indicators of cellular mitochondrial content. RESULTS: In intact PBICs with endogenous substrates, a gradual increase in cellular respiration reached 173% of controls after 1 week (P = 0......INTRODUCTION: In sepsis, mitochondria have been associated with both initial dysfunction and subsequent upregulation (biogenesis). However, the evolvement of mitochondrial function in sepsis over time is largely unknown, and we therefore investigated mitochondrial respiration in peripheral blood.......001). In permeabilized cells, respiration using substrates of complex I, II, and IV were significantly increased days 1 to 2, reaching 137%, 130%, and 173% of controls, respectively. In parallel, higher levels of CS activity, mtDNA, and Cyt c content in PBICs (211%, 243%, and 331% of controls for the respective...

  20. Hydropower: a vital asset in a power system with increased need for flexibility and firm capacity

    Weisrock, Ghislain

    2016-02-01

    In a power system with increased need for flexibility, wind and solar power are characterised by considerable volatility across different scales and their output cannot be predicted with certainty. In order to deal with the resulting variations and forecast errors, system operators as well as electricity markets will need to have access to increasing volumes of flexibility as the penetration of wind and solar power grows. Due to their flexibility and size, hydropower plants are perfectly suited for supplying these capabilities to current and future electricity markets and power systems. Storage as well as pump storage plants can be quickly started within a few minutes and adjust their output within seconds. Consequently, hydropower plants are able to follow even major variations in real time. (author)

  1. Increasing the Capacity of Existing Bridges by Using Unbonded Prestressing Technology: A Case Study

    Antonino Recupero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available External posttensioning or unbonded prestressing was found to be a powerful tool for retrofitting and for increasing the life extension of existing structures. Since the 1950s, this technique of reinforcement was applied with success to bridge structures in many countries, and was found to provide an efficient and economic solution for a wide range of bridge types and conditions. Unbonded prestressing is defined as a system in which the post-tensioning tendons or bars are located outside the concrete cross-section and the prestressing forces are transmitted to the girder through the end anchorages, deviators, or saddles. In response to the demand for a faster and more efficient transportation system, there was a steady increase in the weight and volume of traffic throughout the world. Besides increases in legal vehicle loads, the overloading of vehicles is a common problem and it must also be considered when designing or assessing bridges. As a result, many bridges are now required to carry loads significantly greater than their original design loads; and their deck results still deteriorated by cracking of concrete, corrosion of rebars, snapping of tendons, and so forth. In the following, a case study about a railway bridge retrofitted by external posttensioning technique will be illustrated.

  2. Tocotrienols and Whey Protein Isolates Substantially Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Diet -Induced Obese Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Aguila, Jay; McConell, Glenn K.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Mathai, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity and impairments in metabolic health are associated with reductions in exercise capacity. Both whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) exert favorable effects on obesity-related metabolic parameters. This research sought to determine whether these supplements improved exercise capacity and increased glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats. Methods Six week old male rats (n = 35) weighing 187 ± 32g were allocated to either: Control (n = 9), TCT (n = 9), WPI (n = 8) or TCT + WPI (n = 9) and placed on a high-fat diet (40% of energy from fat) for 10 weeks. Animals received 50mg/kg body weight and 8% of total energy intake per day of TCTs and/or WPIs respectively. Food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, skeletal muscle glycogen content and oxidative enzyme activity were determined. Results Both TCT and WPI groups ran >50% longer (2271 ± 185m and 2195 ± 265m respectively) than the Control group (1428 ± 139m) during the run to exhaustion test (Pexercise endurance (2068 ± 104m). WPIs increased the maximum in vitro activity of beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA in the soleus muscle (Pexercise endurance by 50% in sedentary, diet-induced obese rats. These positive effects of TCTs and WPIs were independent of body weight, adiposity or glucose tolerance. PMID:27058737

  3. Increasing health worker capacity through distance learning: a comprehensive review of programmes in Tanzania

    Kisimbo Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania, like many developing countries, faces a crisis in human resources for health. The government has looked for ways to increase the number and skills of health workers, including using distance learning in their training. In 2008, the authors reviewed and assessed the country's current distance learning programmes for health care workers, as well as those in countries with similar human resource challenges, to determine the feasibility of distance learning to meet the need of an increased and more skilled health workforce. Methods Data were collected from 25 distance learning programmes at health training institutions, universities, and non-governmental organizations throughout the country from May to August 2008. Methods included internet research; desk review; telephone, email and mail-in surveys; on-site observations; interviews with programme managers, instructors, students, information technology specialists, preceptors, health care workers and Ministry of Health and Social Welfare representatives; and a focus group with national HIV/AIDS care and treatment organizations. Results Challenges include lack of guidelines for administrators, instructors and preceptors of distance learning programmes regarding roles and responsibilities; absence of competencies for clinical components of curricula; and technological constraints such as lack of access to computers and to the internet. Insufficient funding resulted in personnel shortages, lack of appropriate training for personnel, and lack of materials for students. Nonetheless, current and prospective students expressed overwhelming enthusiasm for scale-up of distance learning because of the unique financial and social benefits offered by these programs. Participants were retained as employees in their health care facilities, and remained in their communities and supported their families while advancing their careers. Space in health training institutions was freed up

  4. Seventy years of continuous encroachment substantially increases 'blue carbon' capacity as mangroves replace intertidal salt marshes.

    Kelleway, Jeffrey J; Saintilan, Neil; Macreadie, Peter I; Skilbeck, Charles G; Zawadzki, Atun; Ralph, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Shifts in ecosystem structure have been observed over recent decades as woody plants encroach upon grasslands and wetlands globally. The migration of mangrove forests into salt marsh ecosystems is one such shift which could have important implications for global 'blue carbon' stocks. To date, attempts to quantify changes in ecosystem function are essentially constrained to climate-mediated pulses (30 years or less) of encroachment occurring at the thermal limits of mangroves. In this study, we track the continuous, lateral encroachment of mangroves into two south-eastern Australian salt marshes over a period of 70 years and quantify corresponding changes in biomass and belowground C stores. Substantial increases in biomass and belowground C stores have resulted as mangroves replaced salt marsh at both marine and estuarine sites. After 30 years, aboveground biomass was significantly higher than salt marsh, with biomass continuing to increase with mangrove age. Biomass increased at the mesohaline river site by 130 ± 18 Mg biomass km(-2)  yr(-1) (mean ± SE), a 2.5 times higher rate than the marine embayment site (52 ± 10 Mg biomass km(-2) yr(-1) ), suggesting local constraints on biomass production. At both sites, and across all vegetation categories, belowground C considerably outweighed aboveground biomass stocks, with belowground C stocks increasing at up to 230 ± 62 Mg C km(-2) yr(-1) (± SE) as mangrove forests developed. Over the past 70 years, we estimate mangrove encroachment may have already enhanced intertidal biomass by up to 283 097 Mg and belowground C stocks by over 500 000 Mg in the state of New South Wales alone. Under changing climatic conditions and rising sea levels, global blue carbon storage may be enhanced as mangrove encroachment becomes more widespread, thereby countering global warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Increased Regenerative Capacity of the Olfactory Epithelium in Niemann–Pick Disease Type C1

    Anja Meyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Niemann–Pick disease type C1 (NPC1 is a fatal neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder. The mutation of the NPC1 protein affects the homeostasis and transport of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids from late endosomes/lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Since olfactory impairment is one of the earliest symptoms in many neurodegenerative disorders, we focused on alterations of the olfactory epithelium in an NPC1 mouse model. Previous findings revealed severe morphological and immunohistochemical alterations in the olfactory system of NPC1−/− mutant mice compared with healthy controls (NPC1+/+. Based on immunohistochemical evaluation of the olfactory epithelium, we analyzed the impact of neurodegeneration in the olfactory epithelium of NPC1−/− mice and observed considerable loss of mature olfactory receptor neurons as well as an increased number of proliferating and apoptotic cells. Additionally, after administration of two different therapy approaches using either a combination of miglustat, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and allopregnanolone or a monotherapy with HPβCD, we recorded a remarkable reduction of morphological damages in NPC1−/− mice and an up to four-fold increase of proliferating cells within the olfactory epithelium. Numbers of mature olfactory receptor neurons doubled after both therapy approaches. Interestingly, we also observed therapy-induced alterations in treated NPC1+/+ controls. Thus, olfactory testing may provide useful information to monitor pharmacologic treatment approaches in human NPC1.

  6. Exercise increases the frequency of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells, but reduces hematopoietic colony-forming capacity.

    Kroepfl, Julia Maria; Pekovits, Karin; Stelzer, Ingeborg; Fuchs, Robert; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Hofmann, Peter; Sedlmayr, Peter; Dohr, Gottfried; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Domej, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolfram

    2012-11-01

    Circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) may be triggered by physical exercise and/or normobaric hypoxia from the bone marrow. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise and normobaric hypoxia on CPC number and functionality in the peripheral blood as well as the involvement of oxidative stress parameters as possibly active agents. Ten healthy male subjects (25.3±4.4 years) underwent a standardized cycle incremental exercise test protocol (40 W+20 W/min) under either normoxic (FiO2 ∼0.21) or hypoxic conditions (FiO2exercise. The number of CPCs in the peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry (CD34/CD45-positive cells). The functionality of cells present was addressed by secondary colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) assays. To determine a possible correlation between the mobilization of CPCs and reactive oxygen species, parameters for oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were obtained. Data showed a significant increase of CPC release under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions after 10 min of recovery (Pexercise (Pexercise, possibly due to the influence of increased oxidative stress levels.

  7. Nrf2-inducing anti-oxidation stress response in the rat liver--new beneficial effect of lansoprazole.

    Yamashita, Yasunobu; Ueyama, Takashi; Nishi, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuta; Kawakoshi, Akatsuki; Sunami, Shogo; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ueda, Kazuki; Ito, Takao; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Lansoprazole is a potent anti-gastric ulcer drug that inhibits gastric proton pump activity. We identified a novel function for lansoprazole, as an inducer of anti-oxidative stress responses in the liver. Gastric administration of lansoprazole (10-100 mg/kg) to male Wistar rats produced a dose-dependent increase in hepatic mRNA levels of nuclear factor, erythroid-derived 2, -like 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive transcription factor, at 3 h and Nrf2 immunoreactivity (IR) in whole hepatic lysates at 6 h. Conversely, the levels of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap1), which sequesters Nrf2 in the cytoplasm under un-stimulated conditions, were unchanged. Translocation of Nrf2 into the nuclei of hepatocytes was observed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Expression of mRNAs for Nrf2-dependent antioxidant and phase II enzymes, such as heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), NAD (P) H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (Nqo1), glutathione S-transferase A2 (Gsta2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family polypeptide A6 (Ugt1a6), were dose-dependently up-regulated at 3 h. Furthermore, the levels of HO-1 IR were dose-dependently increased in hepatocytes at 6 h. Subcutaneous administration of lansoprazole (30 mg/kg/day) for 7 successive days resulted in up-regulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 IR in hepatocytes and up-regulation of HO-1 IR in the liver. Pretreatment with lansoprazole attenuated thioacetamide (500 mg/kg)-induced acute hepatic damage via both HO-1-dependent and -independent pathways. Up-stream networks related to Nrf2 expression were investigated using microarray analysis, followed by data mining with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Up-regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 (Cyp1a1) pathway was associated with up-regulation of Nrf2 mRNA. In conclusion, lansoprazole might have an alternative indication in the prevention and treatment of oxidative hepatic damage through the induction of both phase I and phase

  8. Nrf2-Inducing Anti-Oxidation Stress Response in the Rat Liver - New Beneficial Effect of Lansoprazole

    Yamashita, Yasunobu; Ueyama, Takashi; Nishi, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuta; Kawakoshi, Akatsuki; Sunami, Shogo; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ueda, Kazuki; Ito, Takao; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Lansoprazole is a potent anti-gastric ulcer drug that inhibits gastric proton pump activity. We identified a novel function for lansoprazole, as an inducer of anti-oxidative stress responses in the liver. Gastric administration of lansoprazole (10–100 mg/kg) to male Wistar rats produced a dose-dependent increase in hepatic mRNA levels of nuclear factor, erythroid-derived 2, -like 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive transcription factor, at 3 h and Nrf2 immunoreactivity (IR) in whole hepatic lysates at 6 h. Conversely, the levels of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap1), which sequesters Nrf2 in the cytoplasm under un-stimulated conditions, were unchanged. Translocation of Nrf2 into the nuclei of hepatocytes was observed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Expression of mRNAs for Nrf2-dependent antioxidant and phase II enzymes, such as heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), NAD (P) H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (Nqo1), glutathione S-transferase A2 (Gsta2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family polypeptide A6 (Ugt1a6), were dose-dependently up-regulated at 3 h. Furthermore, the levels of HO-1 IR were dose-dependently increased in hepatocytes at 6 h. Subcutaneous administration of lansoprazole (30 mg/kg/day) for 7 successive days resulted in up-regulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 IR in hepatocytes and up-regulation of HO-1 IR in the liver. Pretreatment with lansoprazole attenuated thioacetamide (500 mg/kg)-induced acute hepatic damage via both HO-1-dependent and -independent pathways. Up-stream networks related to Nrf2 expression were investigated using microarray analysis, followed by data mining with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Up-regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 (Cyp1a1) pathway was associated with up-regulation of Nrf2 mRNA. In conclusion, lansoprazole might have an alternative indication in the prevention and treatment of oxidative hepatic damage through the induction of both phase I and

  9. Baking loss of bread with special emphasis on increasing water holding capacity.

    Kotoki, D; Deka, S C

    2010-01-01

    Potato flour (PF), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and honey were used as baking agents and their effects on baking loss and sensory quality were studied. PF at 1, 2 and 4% levels decreased baking loss followed by HPMC and honey. Water absorption was substantially high with the HPMC (70.8-80.8%) and PF (61.7-71.7%) compared to honey and normal standard bread. PF incorporation increased shelf-life (6-7 days) as compared to HPMC and honey. HPMC incorporated bread had higher moisture content (36.8-38.0%) followed by PF (34.5-35.8%) and honey (34.7%). The ash content was in the order of PF (1%) > honey (4%) > PF (2%) > normal bread > HPMC (0.5 g) > PF (4%) > HPMC (1 g) > HPMC (1.5 g). PF incorporated bread had sensorily highest acceptance followed by HPMC and honey.

  10. Murine Lung Cancer Increases CD4+ T Cell Apoptosis and Decreases Gut Proliferative Capacity in Sepsis.

    Lyons, John D; Mittal, Rohit; Fay, Katherine T; Chen, Ching-Wen; Liang, Zhe; Margoles, Lindsay M; Burd, Eileen M; Farris, Alton B; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    Mortality is significantly higher in septic patients with cancer than in septic patients without a history of cancer. We have previously described a model of pancreatic cancer followed by sepsis from Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in which cancer septic mice have higher mortality than previously healthy septic mice, associated with increased gut epithelial apoptosis and decreased T cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this represents a common host response by creating a new model in which both the type of cancer and the model of sepsis are altered. C57Bl/6 mice received an injection of 250,000 cells of the lung cancer line LLC-1 into their right thigh and were followed three weeks for development of palpable tumors. Mice with cancer and mice without cancer were then subjected to cecal ligation and puncture and sacrificed 24 hours after the onset of sepsis or followed 7 days for survival. Cancer septic mice had a higher mortality than previously healthy septic mice (60% vs. 18%, p = 0.003). Cancer septic mice had decreased number and frequency of splenic CD4+ lymphocytes secondary to increased apoptosis without changes in splenic CD8+ numbers. Intestinal proliferation was also decreased in cancer septic mice. Cancer septic mice had a higher bacterial burden in the peritoneal cavity, but this was not associated with alterations in local cytokine, neutrophil or dendritic cell responses. Cancer septic mice had biochemical evidence of worsened renal function, but there was no histologic evidence of renal injury. Animals with cancer have a significantly higher mortality than previously healthy animals following sepsis. The potential mechanisms associated with this elevated mortality differ significantly based upon the model of cancer and sepsis utilized. While lymphocyte apoptosis and intestinal integrity are both altered by the combination of cancer and sepsis, the patterns of these alterations vary greatly depending on the models used.

  11. Murine Lung Cancer Increases CD4+ T Cell Apoptosis and Decreases Gut Proliferative Capacity in Sepsis.

    John D Lyons

    Full Text Available Mortality is significantly higher in septic patients with cancer than in septic patients without a history of cancer. We have previously described a model of pancreatic cancer followed by sepsis from Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in which cancer septic mice have higher mortality than previously healthy septic mice, associated with increased gut epithelial apoptosis and decreased T cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this represents a common host response by creating a new model in which both the type of cancer and the model of sepsis are altered.C57Bl/6 mice received an injection of 250,000 cells of the lung cancer line LLC-1 into their right thigh and were followed three weeks for development of palpable tumors. Mice with cancer and mice without cancer were then subjected to cecal ligation and puncture and sacrificed 24 hours after the onset of sepsis or followed 7 days for survival.Cancer septic mice had a higher mortality than previously healthy septic mice (60% vs. 18%, p = 0.003. Cancer septic mice had decreased number and frequency of splenic CD4+ lymphocytes secondary to increased apoptosis without changes in splenic CD8+ numbers. Intestinal proliferation was also decreased in cancer septic mice. Cancer septic mice had a higher bacterial burden in the peritoneal cavity, but this was not associated with alterations in local cytokine, neutrophil or dendritic cell responses. Cancer septic mice had biochemical evidence of worsened renal function, but there was no histologic evidence of renal injury.Animals with cancer have a significantly higher mortality than previously healthy animals following sepsis. The potential mechanisms associated with this elevated mortality differ significantly based upon the model of cancer and sepsis utilized. While lymphocyte apoptosis and intestinal integrity are both altered by the combination of cancer and sepsis, the patterns of these alterations vary greatly depending on

  12. Image based Digitisation of Entomology Collections: Leveraging volunteers to increase digitization capacity

    Paul Flemons

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the Australian Museum commenced a project to explore and develop ways for engaging volunteers to increase the rate of digitising natural history collections. The focus was on methods for image-based digitising of dry pinned entomology collections. With support from the Atlas of Living Australia, the Australian Museum developed a team of volunteers, training materials and processes and procedures.Project officers were employed to coordinate the volunteer workforce. Digitising workstations were established with the aim of minimising cost whilst maximising productivity and ease of use. Database management and curation of material before digitisation, were two areas that required considerably more effort than anticipated.Productivity of the workstations varied depending on the species group being digitised. Fragile groups took longer, and because digitising rates vary among the volunteers, the average hourly rate for digitising pinned entomological specimens (cicadas, leafhoppers, moths, beetles, flies varied between 15 to 20 per workstation per hour, which compares with a direct data entry rate of 18 per hour from previous trials.Four specimen workstations operated four days a week, five hours a day, by a team of over 40 volunteers. Over 5 months, 16,000 specimens and their labels were imaged and entered as short records into the museum’s collection management database.

  13. Increased capacity for sustained locomotion at low temperature in parthenogenetic geckos of hybrid origin.

    Kearney, Michael; Wahl, Rebecca; Autumn, Kellar

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of parthenogenesis is typically associated with hybridization and polyploidy. These correlates of parthenogenesis may have important physiological consequences that need be taken into account in understanding the relative merits of sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction. We compared the thermal sensitivity of aerobically sustained locomotion in hybrid/triploid parthenogenetic races of the gecko Heteronotia binoei and their diploid sexual progenitors. Endurance times at low temperature (10 degrees , 12.5 degrees , and 15 degrees C, 0.05 km h(-1)) were significantly greater in parthenogenetic females than in sexual females. Comparison of oxygen consumption rates during sustained locomotion at increasing speeds (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 km h(-1), 25 degrees C) indicated that parthenogenetic lizards have higher maximum oxygen consumption rates and maximum aerobic speeds than do female sexual geckos. In addition, parthenogenetic geckos showed greater levels of voluntary activity at 15 degrees C than did sexual geckos, although this pattern appears strongest in comparison to male sexual forms. Parthenogenetic lineages of Heteronotia thus have an advantage over sexual lineages in being capable of greater aerobic activity. This result is opposite of that found in prior studies of parthenogenetic teiid lizards (genus Cnemidophorus) and highlights the idiosyncratic nature of phenotypic evolution in parthenogens of hybrid origin.

  14. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  15. Increasing Communities Capacity to Effectively Address Climate Change Through Education, Civic Engagement and Workforce Development

    Niepold, F., III; Ledley, T. S.; Stanton, C.; Fraser, J.; Scowcroft, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the causes, effects, risks, and developing the social will and skills for responses to global change is a major challenge of the 21st century that requires coordinated contributions from the sciences, social sciences, humanities, arts, and beyond. There have been many effective efforts to implement climate change education, civic engagement and related workforce development programs focused on a multitude of audiences, topics and in multiple regions. This talk will focus on how comprehensive educational efforts across our communities are needed to support cities and their primary industries as they prepare for, and embrace, a low-carbon economy and develop the related workforce.While challenges still exist in identifying and coordinating all stakeholders, managing and leveraging resources, and resourcing and scaling effective programs to increase impact and reach, climate and energy literacy leaders have developed initiatives with broad input to identify the understandings and structures for climate literacy collective impact and to develop regional/metropolitan strategy that focuses its collective impact efforts on local climate issues, impacts and opportunities. This Climate Literacy initiative envisions education as a central strategy for community's civic actions in the coming decades by key leaders who have the potential to foster the effective and innovative strategies that will enable their communities to seize opportunity and prosperity in a post-carbon and resilient future. This talk discusses the advances and collaborations in the Climate Change Education community over the last decade by U.S. federal and non-profit organization that have been made possible through the partnerships of the Climate Literacy & Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN), U.S. National Science Foundation funded Climate Change Education Partnership (CCEP) Alliance, and the Tri-Agency Climate Change Education Collaborative.

  16. Left atrial enlargement increases the risk of major adverse cardiac events independent of coronary vasodilator capacity

    Koh, Angela S. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gayed, Peter; Bruyere, John; Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wu, Justina [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, and the Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Division of Cardiology, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Section, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Longstanding uncontrolled atherogenic risk factors may contribute to left atrial (LA) hypertension, LA enlargement (LAE) and coronary vascular dysfunction. Together they may better identify risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic LA hypertension as assessed by LAE modifies the relationship between coronary vascular function and MACE. In 508 unselected subjects with a normal clinical {sup 82}Rb PET/CT, ejection fraction ≥40 %, no prior coronary artery disease, valve disease or atrial fibrillation, LAE was determined based on LA volumes estimated from the hybrid perfusion and CT transmission scan images and indexed to body surface area. Absolute myocardial blood flow and global coronary flow reserve (CFR) were calculated. Subjects were systematically followed-up for the primary end-point - MACE - a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease progression or revascularization. During a median follow-up of 862 days, 65 of the subjects experienced a composite event. Compared with subjects with normal LA size, subjects with LAE showed significantly lower CFR (2.25 ± 0.83 vs. 1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.01). LAE independently and incrementally predicted MACE even after accounting for clinical risk factors, medication use, stress left ventricular ejection fraction, stress left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and CFR (chi-squared statistic increased from 30.9 to 48.3; p = 0.001). Among subjects with normal CFR, those with LAE had significantly worse event-free survival (risk adjusted HR 5.4, 95 % CI 2.3 - 12.8, p < 0.0001). LAE and reduced CFR are related but distinct cardiovascular adaptations to atherogenic risk factors. LAE is a risk marker for MACE independent of clinical factors and left ventricular volumes; individuals with LAE may be at risk of MACE despite normal coronary vascular function. (orig.)

  17. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

    Hirotaka Yamamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders.

  18. Left atrial enlargement increases the risk of major adverse cardiac events independent of coronary vasodilator capacity.

    Koh, Angela S; Murthy, Venkatesh L; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gayed, Peter; Bruyere, John; Wu, Justina; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2015-09-01

    Longstanding uncontrolled atherogenic risk factors may contribute to left atrial (LA) hypertension, LA enlargement (LAE) and coronary vascular dysfunction. Together they may better identify risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic LA hypertension as assessed by LAE modifies the relationship between coronary vascular function and MACE. In 508 unselected subjects with a normal clinical (82)Rb PET/CT, ejection fraction ≥40 %, no prior coronary artery disease, valve disease or atrial fibrillation, LAE was determined based on LA volumes estimated from the hybrid perfusion and CT transmission scan images and indexed to body surface area. Absolute myocardial blood flow and global coronary flow reserve (CFR) were calculated. Subjects were systematically followed-up for the primary end-point - MACE - a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease progression or revascularization. During a median follow-up of 862 days, 65 of the subjects experienced a composite event. Compared with subjects with normal LA size, subjects with LAE showed significantly lower CFR (2.25 ± 0.83 vs. 1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.01). LAE independently and incrementally predicted MACE even after accounting for clinical risk factors, medication use, stress left ventricular ejection fraction, stress left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and CFR (chi-squared statistic increased from 30.9 to 48.3; p = 0.001). Among subjects with normal CFR, those with LAE had significantly worse event-free survival (risk adjusted HR 5.4, 95 % CI 2.3 - 12.8, p < 0.0001). LAE and reduced CFR are related but distinct cardiovascular adaptations to atherogenic risk factors. LAE is a risk marker for MACE independent of clinical factors and left ventricular volumes; individuals with LAE may be at risk of MACE despite normal coronary vascular function.

  19. Differential expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata (Gould) selected for disease resistance.

    Green, Timothy J; Dixon, Tom J; Devic, Emilie; Adlard, Robert D; Barnes, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) selectively bred for disease resistance (R) and wild-caught control oysters (W) were exposed to a field infection of disseminating neoplasia. Cumulative mortality of W oysters (31.7%) was significantly greater than R oysters (0.0%) over the 118 days of the experiment. In an attempt to understand the biochemical and molecular pathways involved in disease resistance, differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between R and W S. glomerata hemocytes were identified using the PCR technique, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Sequencing of 300 clones from two SSH libraries revealed 183 distinct sequences of which 113 shared high similarity to sequences in the public databases. Putative function could be assigned to 64 of the sequences. Expression of nine ESTs homologous to genes previously shown to be involved in bivalve immunity was further studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The base-line expression of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) and a small heat shock protein (sHsP) were significantly increased, whilst peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and interferon inhibiting cytokine factor (IK) were significantly decreased in R oysters. From these results it was hypothesised that R oysters would be able to generate the anti-parasitic compound, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) faster and to higher concentrations during respiratory burst due to the differential expression of genes for the two anti-oxidant enzymes of ecSOD and Prx6. To investigate this hypothesis, protein extracts from hemolymph were analysed for oxidative burst enzyme activity. Analysis of the cell free hemolymph proteins separated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) failed to detect true superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by assaying dismutation of superoxide anion in zymograms. However, the ecSOD enzyme appears to generate hydrogen peroxide, presumably via another process, which is yet to be elucidated. This

  20. After more than a decade of soil moisture deficit, tropical rainforest trees maintain photosynthetic capacity, despite increased leaf respiration.

    Rowland, Lucy; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel L; Christoffersen, Bradley O; Melém, Eliane A; Kruijt, Bart; Vasconcelos, Steel S; Domingues, Tomas; Binks, Oliver J; Oliveira, Alex A R; Metcalfe, Daniel; da Costa, Antonio C L; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Meir, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Determining climate change feedbacks from tropical rainforests requires an understanding of how carbon gain through photosynthesis and loss through respiration will be altered. One of the key changes that tropical rainforests may experience under future climate change scenarios is reduced soil moisture availability. In this study we examine if and how both leaf photosynthesis and leaf dark respiration acclimate following more than 12 years of experimental soil moisture deficit, via a through-fall exclusion experiment (TFE) in an eastern Amazonian rainforest. We find that experimentally drought-stressed trees and taxa maintain the same maximum leaf photosynthetic capacity as trees in corresponding control forest, independent of their susceptibility to drought-induced mortality. We hypothesize that photosynthetic capacity is maintained across all treatments and taxa to take advantage of short-lived periods of high moisture availability, when stomatal conductance (gs ) and photosynthesis can increase rapidly, potentially compensating for reduced assimilate supply at other times. Average leaf dark respiration (Rd ) was elevated in the TFE-treated forest trees relative to the control by 28.2 ± 2.8% (mean ± one standard error). This mean Rd value was dominated by a 48.5 ± 3.6% increase in the Rd of drought-sensitive taxa, and likely reflects the need for additional metabolic support required for stress-related repair, and hydraulic or osmotic maintenance processes. Following soil moisture deficit that is maintained for several years, our data suggest that changes in respiration drive greater shifts in the canopy carbon balance, than changes in photosynthetic capacity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Variant at serotonin transporter gene predicts increased imitation in toddlers: relevance to the human capacity for cumulative culture.

    Schroeder, Kari Britt; Asherson, Philip; Blake, Peter R; Fenstermacher, Susan K; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2016-04-01

    Cumulative culture ostensibly arises from a set of sociocognitive processes which includes high-fidelity production imitation, prosociality and group identification. The latter processes are facilitated by unconscious imitation or social mimicry. The proximate mechanisms of individual variation in imitation may thus shed light on the evolutionary history of the human capacity for cumulative culture. In humans, a genetic component to variation in the propensity for imitation is likely. A functional length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene, the short allele at 5HTTLPR, is associated with heightened responsiveness to the social environment as well as anatomical and activational differences in the brain's imitation circuity. Here, we evaluate whether this polymorphism contributes to variation in production imitation and social mimicry. Toddlers with the short allele at 5HTTLPR exhibit increased social mimicry and increased fidelity of demonstrated novel object manipulations. Thus, the short allele is associated with two forms of imitation that may underlie the human capacity for cumulative culture. The short allele spread relatively recently, possibly due to selection, and its frequency varies dramatically on a global scale. Diverse observations can be unified via conceptualization of 5HTTLPR as influencing the propensity to experience others' emotions, actions and sensations, potentially through the mirror mechanism. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. A synchronous increase in hydraulic conductive capacity and mechanical support in conifers with relatively uniform xylem structure.

    Jagels, Richard; Visscher, George E

    2006-02-01

    The dual function provided by longitudinal tracheids in conifers has led to a generally held trade-off concept that increasing wall thickness and/or volume of latewood tracheids improves mechanical support, while increasing cell diameter and/or volume of earlywood tracheids enhances conductive potential. Yet, some conifers have either uniform cell structure across the growth ring or, at most, a small amount of latewood. How do these trees accomplish the needs for increasing support and conduction with height growth? We examined Metasequoia glyptostroboides, a species that we previously demonstrated improves its mechanical properties with increasing age without a change in specific gravity or secondary wall microfibril angle. In this paper, we showed that lignin and extractive contents are not contributing factors, and through composite structure analysis, we eliminated a role for tracheid length. Using micromorphometric analysis, we demonstrated that as cell diameter increases, total primary wall decreases, secondary wall increases, and strength and conductive capacity increase with no change in specific gravity. Meta-analysis using other species of Cupressaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Araucariaceae provided strong corroborative evidence for this design strategy.

  3. Increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity of grazing Japanese Black heifers and cows in forestland in Japan.

    Haga, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Nakao, Seiji; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kitagawa, Miya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kariya, Yoshihiro

    2014-02-01

    Blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has become a key bio-marker for animal health. Forest-grazing cattle are known to forage various native plants that have high TAC. This study evaluated differences of plasma TAC between forest-grazing (FG) and pasture-grazing cattle (PG). Experiment 1 monitored the plasma TAC levels of 32 Japanese Black cattle. The level in PG did not change throughout the grazing period. However, that in FG, which increased from summer, was significantly higher than that in PG through fall (P trees consumed by FG were higher than those in pasture grasses. Results of this study show that plasma TAC of grazing Japanese Black cattle in forestland increase from summer through fall. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Study of phytochemical, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii.

    Bhandari, Jaya; Muhammad, BushraTaj; Thapa, Pratiksha; Shrestha, Bhupal Govinda

    2017-02-08

    There is growing interest in the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of cancer. Medicinal plants are currently being evaluated as source of promising anticancer agents. In this paper, we have investigated the anticancer potential of plant Allium wallichii, a plant native to Nepal and growing at elevations of 2300-4800 m. This is the first study of its kind for the plant mentioned. The dried plant was extracted in aqueous ethanol. Phytochemical screening, anti-microbial assay, anti-oxidant assay, cytotoxicity assay and the flow-cytometric analysis were done for analyzing different phytochemicals present, anti-microbial activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii. We observed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, reducing sugars and glycosides in the plant extract and the plant showed moderate anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity. The IC 50 values of Allium wallichii in different cancer cell lines are 69.69 μg/ml for Prostate cancer (PC3) cell line, 55.29 μg/ml for Breast Cancer (MCF-7) cell line and 46.51 μg/ml for cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line as compared to Doxorubicin (0.85 μg/ml). The cell viability assay using FACS showed that the IC 50 value of Allium wallichii for Burkitt's lymphoma (B-Lymphoma) cell line was 3.817 ± 1.99 mg/ml. Allium wallichii can be an important candidate to be used as an anticancer agent. Separation of pure compounds with bioassay guided extraction, spectrometric analysis and subsequent cytotoxicity assay of the pure bioactive compounds from Allium wallichii is highly recommended as the crude extract itself showed promising cytotoxicity.

  5. Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal

    J.B.Baon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations.

  6. Comparative screening of the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sempervivum marmoreum L. extracts obtained by various extraction techniques

    SASA S. STOJICEVIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in extracts obtained from houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L. leaves by the classical (maceration, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction (CE, UE and SE, respectively. The extract obtained by the CE contained higher amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained using other two techniques. All the extracts, independent of the extraction technique applied, showed antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans only but not against the tested bacteria.

  7. GC-MS analysis, evaluation of phytochemicals, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of Exacum bicolor

    Appaji Mahesh Ashwini; Latha Puttarudrappa; Belagumba Vijaykumar Ravi; Mala Majumdar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the GC-MS analysis, phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of leaves of Exacum bicolor. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of alcohol, phenols, alkanes, aromatic compounds, aldehyde and ethers. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of eight phyto-constituents. The total phenol, flavonoid and alkaloid contents were 18.0 ± 0.2 mg/GAE/g, 13.1 ± 0.4 mg QE/g and 108.0 ± 1.2 mg AE/g re...

  8. Improved lipid profile and increased serum antioxidant capacity in healthy volunteers after Sambucus ebulus L. fruit infusion consumption.

    Ivanova, Diana; Tasinov, Oskan; Kiselova-Kaneva, Yoana

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to establish the effect of Sambucus ebulus L. (SE) ripe fruit infusion on body weight, blood pressure, glucose levels, lipid profile and antioxidant markers in healthy volunteers in respect of its possible protective activity against cardiovascular diseases and other oxidative stress-related diseases. The study involved 21 healthy volunteers, aged between 20 and 59, BMI 23.12 ± 1.31, who consumed 200 ml SE infusion/day for a period of 30 d. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of the intervention. Significant decrease in triglycerides (14.92%), total cholesterol (15.04%) and LDL-C (24.67%) was established at the end of the study. In addition, HDL-C/LDL-C ratio increased by 42.77%. Improved serum antioxidant capacity and total thiol levels were also established. The results presented in this first human intervention study with SE fruit infusion indicate the potential of the plant to improve lipid profile and serum antioxidant capacity in humans.

  9. Graphene-on-diamond devices with increased current-carrying capacity: carbon sp2-on-sp3 technology.

    Yu, Jie; Liu, Guanxiong; Sumant, Anirudha V; Goyal, Vivek; Balandin, Alexander A

    2012-03-14

    Graphene demonstrated potential for practical applications owing to its excellent electronic and thermal properties. Typical graphene field-effect transistors and interconnects built on conventional SiO(2)/Si substrates reveal the breakdown current density on the order of 1 μA/nm(2) (i.e., 10(8) A/cm(2)), which is ~100× larger than the fundamental limit for the metals but still smaller than the maximum achieved in carbon nanotubes. We show that by replacing SiO(2) with synthetic diamond, one can substantially increase the current-carrying capacity of graphene to as high as ~18 μA/nm(2) even at ambient conditions. Our results indicate that graphene's current-induced breakdown is thermally activated. We also found that the current carrying capacity of graphene can be improved not only on the single-crystal diamond substrates but also on an inexpensive ultrananocrystalline diamond, which can be produced in a process compatible with a conventional Si technology. The latter was attributed to the decreased thermal resistance of the ultrananocrystalline diamond layer at elevated temperatures. The obtained results are important for graphene's applications in high-frequency transistors, interconnects, and transparent electrodes and can lead to the new planar sp(2)-on-sp(3) carbon-on-carbon technology. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  10. Treatment of HIV infection with a raltegravir-based regimen increases LDL levels, but improves HDL cholesterol efflux capacity.

    Funderburg, Nicholas T; Xu, Dihua; Playford, Martin P; Joshi, Aditya A; Andrade, Adriana; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lederman, Michael M; Mehta, Nehal N

    2017-01-01

    Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. We report results from 39 ART-naive participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir, emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks after ART initiation. We performed advanced lipid phenotyping using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Liposcience, Raleigh, NC, USA) for lipid particle size and number, and examined high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function measuring reverse cholesterol transport using J774 macrophages. We report significant increases in total cholesterol (13 mg/dl; PLDL; 8 mg/dl; P=0.03), with no change in triglycerides and without an increase in LDL particle number (P>0.1 all time points). HDL levels were increased over baseline levels at all time points (PLDL (oxLDL) levels decreased by week 12, but rose subsequently, and were not different from baseline at later time points. HDL increases were associated with increases in beneficial HDL particles and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, which may reduce future CVD events. Persistent inflammation in these HIV+ participants, may be a cause or consequence of oxLDL levels, and may contribute to declining levels of HDL over time. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00660972.

  11. Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammation Activities of Pork Extracts.

    Gil, Juae; Kim, Dongwook; Yoon, Seok-Ki; Ham, Jun-Sang; Jang, Aera

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of boiled pork powder (BPP) and hot water extract powder (HWEP) from 4 cuts of meat from Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc (LYD). The highest DPPH radical scavenging activities determined were from BPP of Boston butt (13.65 M TE) and HWEP of loin (19.40 M TE) and ham (21.45 M TE). The 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of BPP from shoulder ham (39.28 M TE) and ham (39.43 M TE) were higher than those of other meat cuts, while HWEP of ham exhibited the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity. A higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity was determined for BPP from ham (198.35 M TE) and in HWEP from loin (204.07 M TE), Boston butt (192.85 M TE), and ham (201.36 M TE). Carnosine content of BPP and HWEP from loin and were determined to be 106.68 and 117.77 mg/g on a dry basis, respectively. The anserine content of BPP (5.26 mg/g, dry basis) and HWEP (6.79 mg/g, dry basis) of shoulder ham exhibited the highest value as compared to the extracts from the other meat cuts. The viability of RAW 264.7 cells was increased with increasing HWEP from loin and ham treatment. In addition, the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly reduced by HWEP from loin and ham, in a dose dependent manner. These results suggested that boiled pork and hot water extract of pork have antioxidative and cytokine inhibitory effects.

  12. Remediation of incomplete nitrification and capacity increase of biofilters at different drinking water treatment plants through copper dosing.

    Wagner, Florian B; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2018-04-01

    Drinking water treatment plants based on groundwater may suffer from incomplete ammonium removal, which deteriorates drinking water quality and constrains water utilities in the operation of their plants. Ammonium is normally removed through nitrification in biological granular media filters, and recent studies have demonstrated that dosing of copper can stimulate the removal of ammonium. Here, we investigated if copper dosing could generically improve ammonium removal of biofilters, at treatment plants with different characteristics. Copper was dosed at ≤1.5 μg Cu/L to biofilters at 10 groundwater treatment plants, all of which had displayed several years of incomplete nitrification. Plants exceeded the Danish national water quality standard of 0.05 mg NH 4 + /L by a factor of 2-12. Within only 2-3 weeks of dosing, ammonium removal rates increased significantly (up to 150%). Nitrification was fully established, with ammonium effluent concentrations of plants, regardless of the differences in raw water chemistry, ammonium loading rates, filter design and operation, or treatment plant configuration. However, for filters without primary filtration, it took longer time to reach complete ammonium removal than for filters receiving prefiltered water, likely due to sorption of copper to iron oxides, at plants without prefiltration. With complete ammonium removal, we subjected two plants to short-term loading rate upshifts, to examine the filters' ability to cope with loading rate variations. After 2 months of dosing and an average loading rate of 1.0 g NH 4 + -N/m 3 filter material/h, the loading rate was upshifted by 50%. Yet, a filter managed to completely remove all the influent ammonium, showing that with copper dosing the filter had extra capacity to remove ammonium even beyond its normal loading rates. Depth sampling revealed that the ammonium removal rate of the filter's upper 10 cm increased more than 7-fold from 0.67 to 4.90 g NH 4 + -N/m 3 /h, and

  13. PEGylated bilirubin nanoparticle as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory demulcent in pancreatic islet xenotransplantation.

    Kim, Min Jun; Lee, Yonghyun; Jon, Sangyong; Lee, Dong Yun

    2017-07-01

    Transplanted islets suffer hypoxic stress, which leads to nonspecific inflammation. This is the major cause of islet graft failure during the early stage of intrahepatic islet transplantation. Although bilirubin has shown potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions, its clinical applications have been limited due to its insolubility and short half-life. To overcome this problem, novel amphiphilic bilirubin nanoparticles are designed. Hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is conjugated to the hydrophobic bilirubin molecule. Then, the PEG-bilirubin conjugates form nanoparticles via self-assembly, i.e., so-called to BRNPs. BRNPs can protect islet cells not only from chemically induced oxidative stress by scavenging reactive oxygen species molecules, but also from activated macrophages by suppressing cytokine release. Importantly, in vivo experiments demonstrate that BRNP treatment can dramatically and significantly prolong islet graft survival compared to bilirubin treatment. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis shows BRNPs have potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capabilities. Collectively, novel BRNPs can be a new potent remedy for successful islet transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of plant response to ionising radiation. Exploration of the glucosinolate role in the anti-oxidative response

    Gicquel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms are exposed to low doses of ionising radiation from natural or anthropogenic sources. The major effects of the radiations are due to DNA deterioration and water radiolysis which generates an oxidative stress by free radical production. Plants constitute good models to study the effects of ionising radiations and the search of antioxidant molecules because of their important secondary metabolism. Thus this thesis, funded by the Brittany region, characterized the physiological and molecular response of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to low (10 Gy) and moderate (40 Gy) doses of ionising radiation, and was therefore interested in glucosinolates, characteristic compounds of the Brassicaceae family. The global proteomic and transcriptomic studies carried out on this model revealed (1) a common response for both doses dealing with the activation of DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle regulation and protection of cellular structures; (2) an adjustment of the energetic metabolism and an activation of secondary compounds biosynthesis (i.e. glucosinolates and flavonoids) after the 10 Gy dose; (3) an induction of enzymatic control of ROS, the regulation of cellular components recycling and of programmed cell death after the 40 Gy dose. The potential anti-oxidative role of glucosinolates was then explored. The in vitro anti-oxidative power of some glucosinolates and their derivative products were demonstrated. Their modulating effects against irradiation-induced damages were then tested in vivo by simple experimental approaches. The importance of the glucosinolate level to give a positive or negative effect was demonstrated. (author)

  15. Extraction of Lepidium apetalum Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Anti-Oxidant Activity of the Extracted Oil

    Xuchong Tang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Lepidium apetalum seed oil and its anti-oxidant activity were studied. The SFE process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM with a central composite design (CCD. Independent variables, namely operating pressure, temperature, time and flow rate were evaluated. The maximum extraction of Lepidium apetalum seed oil by SFE-CO2 (about 36.3% was obtained when SFE-CO2 extraction was carried out under the optimal conditions of 30.0 MPa of pressure, 70 °C of temperature, 120 min of extraction time and 25.95 L/h of flow rate. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of four fatty acids in Lepidium apetalum seed oil, with a high content (91.0% of unsaturated fatty acid. The anti-oxidant activity of the oil was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging assay and 2,2′-azino- bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS test. Lepidium apetalum seed oil possessed a notable concentration-dependent antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 1.00 and 3.75 mg/mL, respectively.

  16. Biochar increased water holding capacity but accelerated organic carbon leaching from a sloping farmland soil in China.

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Honglan; Tang, Xiangyu; Guan, Zhuo; Reid, Brian J; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Ok, Yong Sik; Sun, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A hydrologically contained field study, to assess biochar (produced from mixed crop straws) influence upon soil hydraulic properties and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaching, was conducted on a loamy soil (entisol). The soil, noted for its low plant-available water and low soil organic matter, is the most important arable soil type in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River catchment, China. Pore size distribution characterization (by N2 adsorption, mercury intrusion, and water retention) showed that the biochar had a tri-modal pore size distribution. This included pores with diameters in the range of 0.1-10 μm that can retain plant-available water. Comparison of soil water retention curves between the control (0) and the biochar plots (16 t ha(-1) on dry weight basis) demonstrated biochar amendment to increase soil water holding capacity. However, significant increases in DOC concentration of soil pore water in both the plough layer and the undisturbed subsoil layer were observed in the biochar-amended plots. An increased loss of DOC relative to the control was observed upon rainfall events. Measurements of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence indicated the DOC increment originated primarily from the organic carbon pool in the soil that became more soluble following biochar incorporation.

  17. Melatonin Promotes the In Vitro Development of Microinjected Pronuclear Mouse Embryos via Its Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Apoptotic Effects.

    Tian, Xiuzhi; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Lu; Ji, Pengyun; Wang, Jing; Lv, Dongying; Li, Guangdong; Chai, Menglong; Lian, Zhengxing; Liu, Guoshi

    2017-05-05

    CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) combined with pronuclear microinjection has become the most effective method for producing transgenic animals. However, the relatively low embryo developmental rate limits its application. In the current study, it was observed that 10 -7 M melatonin is considered an optimum concentration and significantly promoted the in vitro development of murine microinjected pronuclear embryos, as indicated by the increased blastocyst rate, hatching blastocyst rate and blastocyst cell number. When these blastocysts were implanted into recipient mice, the pregnancy rate and birth rate were significantly higher than those of the microinjected control, respectively. Mechanistic studies revealed that melatonin treatment reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cellular apoptosis during in vitro embryo development and improved the quality of the blastocysts. The implantation of quality-improved blastocysts led to elevated pregnancy and birth rates. In conclusion, the results revealed that the anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities of melatonin improved the quality of microinjected pronuclear embryos and subsequently increased both the efficiency of embryo implantation and the birth rate of the pups. Therefore, the melatonin supplementation may provide a novel alternative method for generating large numbers of transgenic mice and this method can probably be used in human-assisted reproduction and genome editing.

  18. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA Producing Bacteria on Rumen Fermentation, Biogenic Amine Production and Anti-oxidation Using Corn Meal as Substrate

    Bum Seung Ku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects and significance of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA producing bacteria (GPB on in vitro rumen fermentation and reduction of biogenic amines (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, and tyramine using corn meal as a substrate were determined. Ruminal samples collected from ruminally fistulated Holstein cows served as inoculum and corn was used as substrate at 2% dry matter (DM. Different inclusion rates of GPB and GABA were evaluated. After incubation, addition of GPB had no significant effect on in vitro fermentation pH and total gas production, but significantly increased the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and reduced the total biogenic amines production (p<0.05. Furthermore, antioxidation activity was improved as indicated by the significantly higher concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px among treated samples when compared to the control (p<0.05. Additionally, 0.2% GPB was established as the optimum inclusion level. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of utilizing GPB as feed additives to improve growth performance in ruminants by reducing biogenic amines and increasing anti-oxidation.

  19. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    Van Hoeck, Arne [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    frond have been implemented in a dosimetric model derived from ERICA tool. This enabled a reliable comparison of dose-dependent endpoints between gamma- and beta radiation. Dose rates varied from 15 and 1500 mGy/hr, and 19 from 19000 μGy/hr for gamma- and beta radiation respectively. The classic growth related endpoints, like biomass and frond area, were measured and compared with biochemical and molecular endpoints. Therefore, DNA modifications were analyzed to evaluate biological DNA damage and ROS accumulation in plants together with activities of anti-oxidative enzymes to evaluate oxidative stress response. A dose-response curve with 60 percent growth inhibition was determined for gamma radiation and morphological growth effects in root system were observed for beta radiation. Preliminary results showed similar responses in peroxidase activities between both radiation types. These results and ongoing investigations will help to unravel the differences and similarities in response mechanisms for various radiation types in plant systems. As multiple levels in biological organisation of the organism were considered, and also different dose rates taken into account, this approach allows a better understanding the toxic mode of action of radiation stress in higher plants. This research was supported by the European Commission Contract Fission-2010-3.5.1-269672 to Strategy for Allied Radioecology (www.star-radioecology.org) and a project of the Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen, G.A040.11N) (authors)

  20. Anti-glycation and anti-oxidation properties of Capsicum frutescens and Curcuma longa fruits: possible role in prevention of diabetic complication.

    Khan, Ibrar; Ahmad, Haroon; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycationend products (AGE's) in the body, due to the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is associated with several pathological conditions like aging and diabetes mellitus. Hence a plant having anti-glycation and anti-oxidation potentials may serve as therapeutic agent for diabetic complications and aging. In this study the anti-glycation and anti-oxidation properties of crude methanolic extracts of fruits of Capsicum frutescens and Curcuma longa were investigated. Among the two C. frutescens had more anti-glycation ability with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 90βg/mLas compared to 324βg/mL MIC50 of C. longa. Curcuma longa had the more anti-oxidation potential i.e. 35.01, 30.83 and 28.08% at 0.5mg, 0.25mg and 0.125mg respectively.

  1. Optimization of a model of red blood cells for the study of anti-oxidant drugs, in terms of concentration of oxidant and phosphate buffer.

    Bureau, A; Lahet, J-J; Lenfant, F; Bouyer, F; Petitjean, M; Chaillot, B; Freysz, M

    2005-08-01

    The aggression of erythrocytes by an oxidative stress induces hemolysis. This paper aims to valid a model of erythrocytes in terms of composition of the phosphate buffer solution and of concentration of a well-known oxidant, AAPH. Three compositions of phosphate buffer solution are mixed with three concentrations of oxidant. The influence of these two parameters on hemolysis is independently studied by a variance analysis and a Kruskal-Wallis test when ANOVA is not available. The hemolysis rate increases with time at fixed oxidant concentration, but is not influenced by the composition of the buffer solution. The highest hemolysis rate, 90%, was only measured within 2 h with the highest oxidant concentration. If we retain this concentration of oxidant, the lower concentration of the buffer can by eliminated by a significant less hemolysis and the highest concentration of the buffer can by chosen in regard of the better precision for a similar hemolysis compared to the mean buffer. We hope to study the effect of anti-oxidant agent with such a model of erythrocytes.

  2. HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC AND ANTI-OXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF GERMINATED BROWN RICE (GBR IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA-INDUCED RATS

    Froilan Bernard Matias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia, as one of the causes of obesity, affects vital organs in the body, such as the liver and kidney, resulting to oxidative stress. Germinated Brown Rice (GBR as a food-based solution in dealing with this condition is highly recommended. In this study, the effects of GBR on hypercholesterolemia-induced rats were evaluated by measuring and analyzing the changes on body weight, serum lipid profiles (TC, TG, LDL and HDL, liver function (ALT and AST, kidney function (Crea and Urea and its antioxidant capacity (MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Thirty (30 SD male rats were divided into 5 groups (6 rats per group; Group A was given normal basal diet, Group B (hypercholesterolemic group was given a high fat diet, while Groups C, D, and E were given 12.5%, 25% and 50% GBR, respectively. Groups C, D and E were fed with high fat diet for 4 weeks, then fed with the GBR feeds, accordingly, for another 5 weeks. Sera and liver samples were collected for testing and evaluation. Hypercholesterolemia was successfully induced in Groups B, C, D, and E after 4 weeks. Noticeable responses were observed in groups fed with GBR after 5 weeks. Group E fed with 50% GBR showed the satisfactory results (significant at p<0.05 in weight gain, serum lipid profiles, liver function enzymes, creatinine, urea and oxidative stress markers compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties of GBR were found to have a dose-response effect where higher percentage of GBR showed acceptable results as compared to the normal and hypercholesterolemic groups. GBR showed to effectively lessen TC, TG and LDL while increases HDL. It effectively protects the liver while its kidney protective ability was associated to its hypocholesterolemic properties. Oxidative stress was reduced as shown by a decline in lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidant production. In addition, the abovementioned GBR‘s properties are combined effects of its

  3. Climate Change Adaptation in a Mediterranean Semi-Arid Catchment: Testing Managed Aquifer Recharge and Increased Surface Reservoir Capacity

    Nicolas Guyennon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among different uses of freshwater, irrigation is the most impacting groundwater resource, leading to water table depletion and possible seawater intrusion. The unbalance between the availability of water resources and demand is currently exacerbated and could become worse in the near future in accordance with climate change observations and scenarios provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. In this context, Increasing Maximum Capacity of the surface reservoir (IMC and Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR are adaptation measures that have the potential to enhance water supply systems resiliency. In this paper, a multiple-users and multiple-resources-Water Supply System (WSS model is implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of these two adaptation strategies in a context of overexploited groundwater under the RCP 4.5 and the RCP 8.5 IPCC scenarios. The presented a case study that is located in the Puglia, a semi-arid region of South Italy characterized by a conspicuous water demand for irrigation. We observed that, although no significant long-term trend affects the proposed precipitation scenarios, the expected temperature increase highly impacts the WSS resources due to the associated increase of water demand for irrigation purposes. Under the RCP 4.5 the MAR scenario results are more effective than the IMC during long term wet periods (typically 5 years and successfully compensates the impact on the groundwater resources. Differently, under RCP 8.5, due to more persistent dry periods, both adaptation scenarios fail and groundwater resource become exposed to massive sea water intrusion during the second half of the century. We conclude that the MAR scenario is a suitable adaptation strategy to face the expected future changes in climate, although mitigation actions to reduce green-house gases are strongly required.

  4. Capacity to adapt to environmental change: evidence from a network of organizations concerned with increasing wildfire risk

    A. Paige. Fischer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Because wildfire size and frequency are expected to increase in many forested areas in the United States, organizations involved in forest and wildfire management could arguably benefit from working together and sharing information to develop strategies for how to adapt to this increasing risk. Social capital theory suggests that actors in cohesive networks are positioned to build trust and mutual understanding of problems and act collectively to address these problems, and that actors engaged with diverse partners are positioned to access new information and resources that are important for innovation and complex problem solving. We investigated the patterns of interaction within a network of organizations involved in forest and wildfire management in Oregon, USA, for evidence of structural conditions that create opportunities for collective action and learning. We used descriptive statistical analysis of social network data gathered through interviews to characterize the structure of the network and exponential random graph modeling to identify key factors in the formation of network ties. We interpreted our findings through the lens of social capital theory to identify implications for the network's capacity to engage in collective action and complex problem-solving about how to adapt to environmental change. We found that tendencies to associate with others with similar management goals, geographic emphases, and attitudes toward wildfire were strong mechanisms shaping network structure, potentially constraining interactions among organizations with diverse information and resources and limiting opportunities for learning and complex problem-solving needed for adaptation. In particular, we found that organizations with fire protection and forest restoration goals comprised distinct networks despite sharing concern about the problem of increasing wildfire risk.

  5. IrOx-carbon nanotube hybrids: a nanostructured material for electrodes with increased charge capacity in neural systems.

    Carretero, Nina M; Lichtenstein, Mathieu P; Pérez, Estela; Cabana, Laura; Suñol, Cristina; Casañ-Pastor, Nieves

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructured iridium oxide-carbon nanotube hybrids (IrOx-CNT) deposited as thin films by dynamic electrochemical methods are suggested as novel materials for neural electrodes. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) serve as scaffolds for growing the oxide, yielding a tridimensional structure with improved physical, chemical and electrical properties, in addition to high biocompatibility. In biological environments, SWCNT encapsulation by IrOx makes more resistant electrodes and prevents the nanotube release to the media, preventing cellular toxicity. Chemical, electrochemical, structural and surface characterization of the hybrids has been accomplished. The high performance of the material in electrochemical measurements and the significant increase in cathodal charge storage capacity obtained for the hybrid in comparison with bare IrOx represent a significant advance in electric field application in biosystems, while its cyclability is also an order of magnitude greater than pure IrOx. Moreover, experiments using in vitro neuronal cultures suggest high biocompatibility for IrOx-CNT coatings and full functionality of neurons, validating this material for use in neural electrodes. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Use of Lean Six Sigma Methodology in Increasing Capacity of a Chemical Production Facility at DSM.

    Meeuwse, Marco

    2018-03-30

    Lean Six Sigma is an improvement method, combining Lean, which focuses on removing 'waste' from a process, with Six Sigma, which is a data-driven approach, making use of statistical tools. Traditionally it is used to improve the quality of products (reducing defects), or processes (reducing variability). However, it can also be used as a tool to increase the productivity or capacity of a production plant. The Lean Six Sigma methodology is therefore an important pillar of continuous improvement within DSM. In the example shown here a multistep batch process is improved, by analyzing the duration of the relevant process steps, and optimizing the procedures. Process steps were performed in parallel instead of sequential, and some steps were made shorter. The variability was reduced, giving the opportunity to make a tighter planning, and thereby reducing waiting times. Without any investment in new equipment or technical modifications, the productivity of the plant was improved by more than 20%; only by changing procedures and the programming of the process control system.

  7. Evaluation of the increased load bearing capacity of steel beams strengthened with pre-stressed FRP laminates

    S. Bennati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the problem of a simply supported steel beam subjected to uniformly distributed load, strengthened with a pre-stressed fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP laminate. We assume that the laminate is first put into tension, then bonded to the beam bottom surface, and finally fixed at both its ends by suitable connections. The beam and laminate are modelled according to classical beam theory. The adhesive is modelled as a cohesive interface with a piecewise linear constitutive law defined over three intervals (elastic response, softening response, debonding. The model is described by a set of differential equations with suitable boundary conditions. An analytical solution to the problem is determined, including explicit expressions for the internal forces and interfacial stresses. As an application, we consider the standard IPE series for the steel beam and the Sika® CarboDur® system for the adhesive and laminate. For each considered cross section, we first carry out a preliminary design of the unstrengthened steel beam. Then, we imagine to apply the FRP strengthening and calculate the loads corresponding to the elastic limit states in the steel beam, adhesive, and laminate. Lastly, we take into account the ultimate limit state corresponding to the plasticisation of the mid-span steel cross section and evaluate the increased load bearing capacity of the strengthened beam

  8. Pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, through increased kinase activity, produce enlarged lysosomes with reduced degradative capacity and increase ATP13A2 expression.

    Henry, Anastasia G; Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Samaroo, Harry; Chen, Yi; Mou, Kewa; Needle, Elie; Hirst, Warren D

    2015-11-01

    Lysosomal dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Several genes linked to genetic forms of PD, including leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), functionally converge on the lysosomal system. While mutations in LRRK2 are commonly associated with autosomal-dominant PD, the physiological and pathological functions of this kinase remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that LRRK2 regulates lysosome size, number and function in astrocytes, which endogenously express high levels of LRRK2. Expression of LRRK2 G2019S, the most common pathological mutation, produces enlarged lysosomes and diminishes the lysosomal capacity of these cells. Enlarged lysosomes appears to be a common phenotype associated with pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, as we also observed this effect in cells expressing other LRRK2 mutations; R1441C or Y1699C. The lysosomal defects associated with these mutations are dependent on both the catalytic activity of the kinase and autophosphorylation of LRRK2 at serine 1292. Further, we demonstrate that blocking LRRK2's kinase activity, with the potent and selective inhibitor PF-06447475, rescues the observed defects in lysosomal morphology and function. The present study also establishes that G2019S mutation leads to a reduction in lysosomal pH and increased expression of the lysosomal ATPase ATP13A2, a gene linked to a parkinsonian syndrome (Kufor-Rakeb syndrome), in brain samples from mouse and human LRRK2 G2019S carriers. Together, these results demonstrate that PD-associated LRRK2 mutations perturb lysosome function in a kinase-dependent manner, highlighting the therapeutic promise of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors in the treatment of PD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Towards an Informed Mexican and Mexican-American Citizenry: Bridging the Gap to Increase Human Capacity and Information Dissemination

    Ramirez, M. D.; Ramirez, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    The research translation and community outreach goal of The University of Arizona's (UA) Superfund Basic Research Program and U.S.-Mexico Binational Center for Environmental Sciences and Toxicology is to increase human capacity and information dissemination to diverse stakeholders, including federal, state, and local government agencies as well as northern Mexican and border community stakeholders. Due to Arizona's demographic characteristics and the UA's proximity to the U.S. - Mexico border, activities target primarily Mexican and Mexican-American populations. With this in mind, a model has been established that pulls from human capital, community-based participatory research and public participation theories. The theories applied to our target population have resulted in the creation of a successful model that is used in both research translation and community outreach work. The model contains four components: community needs (participation), science translation (information), engagement (outreach), and training (education). Examples of how this model operates for various stakeholders involved in environmental science and health issues will be discussed. A case in point of how this model has been applied effectively is the partnership with promotoras (community health advocates) to do environmental science and health trainings to increase the knowledge base of specific populations disproportionately exposed to contaminants of concern. Additional case studies and methodologies used to develop innovative communicative tools (that takes into consideration cultural idiosyncrasies) for stakeholders at all levels in Arizona, the border, and Mexico will be highlighted, such as: 1) information sheets regarding local environmental issues for communities neighboring contaminated sites, 2) SciTransfer Bulletins targeting professional level stakeholders such as Project Managers, Community Involvement Coordinators and the general public, 3) coordinating technical and

  10. Enhanced photosynthetic capacity increases nitrogen metabolism through the coordinated regulation of carbon and nitrogen assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Otori, Kumi; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruyama, Toshiki; Sato, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Tamoi, Masahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    Plant growth and productivity depend on interactions between the metabolism of carbon and nitrogen. The sensing ability of internal carbon and nitrogen metabolites (the C/N balance) enables plants to regulate metabolism and development. In order to investigate the effects of an enhanced photosynthetic capacity on the metabolism of carbon and nitrogen in photosynthetically active tissus (source leaves), we herein generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants (ApFS) that expressed cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in their chloroplasts. The phenotype of ApFS plants was indistinguishable from that of wild-type plants at the immature stage. However, as plants matured, the growth of ApFS plants was superior to that of wild-type plants. Starch levels were higher in ApFS plants than in wild-type plants at 2 and 5 weeks. Sucrose levels were also higher in ApFS plants than in wild-type plants, but only at 5 weeks. On the other hand, the contents of various free amino acids were lower in ApFS plants than in wild-type plants at 2 weeks, but were similar at 5 weeks. The total C/N ratio was the same in ApFS plants and wild-type plants, whereas nitrite levels increased in parallel with elevations in nitrate reductase activity at 5 weeks in ApFS plants. These results suggest that increases in the contents of photosynthetic intermediates at the early growth stage caused a temporary imbalance in the free-C/free-N ratio and, thus, the feedback inhibition of the expression of genes involved in the Calvin cycle and induction of the expression of those involved in nitrogen metabolism due to supply deficient free amino acids for maintenance of the C/N balance in source leaves of ApFS plants.

  11. Do producers apply a capacity cutting strategy to increase prices? The case of the England and Wales electricity market

    Lízal, L. M.; Tashpulatov, Sherzod N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, May (2014), s. 114-124 ISSN 0140-9883 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : capacity bids * electricity prices * uniform price auction Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2014

  12. Do producers apply a capacity cutting strategy to increase prices? The case of the England and Wales electricity market

    Lízal, L. M.; Tashpulatov, Sherzod N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, May (2014), s. 114-124 ISSN 0140-9883 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : capacity bids * electricity prices * uniform price auction Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2014

  13. How far can various control options take us in terms of increased hydraulic capacity under wet weather conditions?

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Guildal, T.; Thomsen, H. A. R.

    Many modelling studies have demonstrated that the hydraulic capacity of the WWTP can be improved by introducing various real time control options, however few studies have demonstrated how effective these controls are in the real world....

  14. Poly herbal formulation with anti-elastase and anti-oxidant properties for skin anti-aging.

    Kalyana Sundaram, Induja; Sarangi, Deepika Deeptirekha; Sundararajan, Vignesh; George, Shinomol; Sheik Mohideen, Sahabudeen

    2018-01-29

    Skin forms an important part of human innate immune system. Wrinkles, thinning and roughening of skin are some of the symptoms that affect the skin as it ages. Reactive oxygen species induced oxidative stress plays a major role in skin aging by modulating the elastase enzyme level in the skin. Extrinsic factors that affect skin aging such as UV radiation can also cause malignant melanoma. Here we selected four medicinal plant materials, namely, leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, unripe and ripe Aegle marmelos fruit pulp and the terminal meristem of Musa paradisiaca flower and investigated their anti-aging properties and cytotoxicity in vitro individually as well as in a poly herbal formulation containing the four plant extracts in different ratios. The phytochemical contents of the plant extracts were investigated for radical scavenging activity and total reducing power. Based upon its anti-oxidant properties, a poly herbal formulation containing leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, unripe and ripe fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos, and the terminal meristem of Musa paradisiaca flower in the ratio 6:2:1:1 (Poly Herbal Formulation 1) and 1:1:1:1 (Poly Herbal Formulation 2), respectively were formulated. It has been observed that the Poly Herbal Formulation 1 was more potent than Poly Herbal Formulation 2 due to better anti-oxidant and anti-elastase activities in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. In addition Poly Herbal formulation 1 also had better anti-cancer activity in human malignant melanoma cells. Based on these results these beneficial plant extracts were identified for its potential application as an anti-aging agent in skin creams as well as an anti-proliferation compound against cancer cells.

  15. Preparation of anti-oxidative SiC/SiO2 coating on carbon fibers from vinyltriethoxysilane by sol–gel method

    Xia Kedong; Lu Chunxiang; Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The SiC/SiO 2 coating was prepared on carbon fibers by the sol–gel method. ► Nano-crystallites with an average diameter of 130 nm were aligned along the fiber axis uniformly. ► The oxidation resistant property of coated carbon fiber was increased with the increase of sol concentration and the heat treatment temperature. ► The oxidation activation energy of the coated carbon fiber was increased by 23% in comparison with uncoated carbon fiber. - Abstract: The anti-oxidative SiC/SiO 2 coating was prepared on carbon fibers by a sol–gel process using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) as the single source precursor. The derived coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The oxidation resistant properties of the carbon fiber with and without coating were studied by isothermal oxidation. The results indicated that the carbothermal reduction reaction led to the decrease of SiO 2 phase and the increase of SiC phase at 1500 °C. The uniform SiC/SiO 2 coating prepared from a sol concentration of 4 wt% and heat treated at 1500 °C showed the optimal oxidation resistant property. The oxidation resistance of the carbon fiber was improved by the SiC/SiO 2 coating, and the oxidation activation energy was increased by about 23% as compared with uncoated carbon fiber.

  16. Increasing Research Capacity in Underserved Communities: Formative and Summative Evaluation of the Mississippi Community Research Fellows Training Program (Cohort 1

    Danielle Fastring

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Mississippi Community Research Fellows Training Program (MSCRFTP is a 15-week program conducted in Jackson, MS, USA consisting of training in the areas of evidence-based public health, research methods, research ethics, and cultural competency. The purpose of the program was to increase community knowledge and understanding of public health research, develop community-based projects that addressed health disparity in the participants’ community, increase individual and community capacity, and to engage community members as equal partners in the research process.MethodsA comprehensive evaluation of the MSCRFTP was conducted that included both quantitative and qualitative methods. All participants were asked to complete a baseline, midterm, and final assessment as part of their program requirements. Knowledge gained was assessed by comparing baseline assessment responses to final assessment responses related to 27 key content areas addressed in the training sessions. Assessments also collected participants’ attitudes toward participating in research within their communities, their perceived influence over community decisions, and their perceptions of community members’ involvement in research, satisfaction with the program, and the program’s impact on the participants’ daily practice and community work.ResultsTwenty-one participants, the majority of which were female and African-American, completed the MSCRFTP. Knowledge of concepts addressed in 15 weekly training sessions improved significantly on 85.2% of 27 key areas evaluated (p < 0.05. Two mini-grant community based participatory research projects proposed by participants were funded through competitive application. Most participants agreed that by working together, the people in their community could influence decisions that affected the community. All participants rated their satisfaction with the overall program as “very high” (76.2%, n = 16 or

  17. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  18. Using a social learning configuration to increase Vietnamese smallholder farmers’ adaptive capacity to respond to climate change

    Phuong, Le Thi Hong; Wals, Arjen; Sen, Le Thi Hoa; Hoa, Nguyen Quoc; Lu, Van Phan; Biesbroek, Robbert

    2018-01-01

    Social learning is crucial for local smallholder farmers in developing countries to improve their adaptive capacity and to adapt to the current and projected impacts of climate change. While it is widely acknowledged that social learning is a necessary condition for adaptation, few studies have

  19. Dietary Probiotic Bacillus subtilis Strain fmbj Increases Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stability of Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    Bai, Wen Kai; Zhang, Fei Jing; He, Tian Jin; Su, Peng Wei; Ying, Xiong Zhi; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to measure the dietary effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis strain fmbj (BS fmbj) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat during storage. Treatment groups were fed the basal diet with BS fmbj at 0 g/kg (CON), 0.2 g/kg (BS-1), 0.3 g/kg (BS-2), or 0.4 g/kg (BS-3) doses without antibiotics. During 8 days of storage at 4°C, BS-2 group showed a significant improvement (P Cooking loss, Shear force, color L*, a*, b*), free radical scavenging activity (DPPH, ABTS+, H2O2), tissues antioxidant enzyme capacity (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH, T-SH), mitochondria antioxidant enzyme capacity (MnSOD, GPx, GSH), mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, HO-1, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and mitochondrial function genes (avUCP, NRF1, NRF2, TFAM, PGC-1α), oxidative damage index (MDA, ROS, PC, 8-OHdG), and MMP level in chicken breast meat as compared to the CON group. These results indicate that dietary BS fmbj in broiler diets can protect breast meat against the storage-induced oxidative stress by improving their free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity during 8 days of storage at 4°C. PMID:27907152

  20. Happiness increases verbal and spatial working memory capacity where sadness does not: Emotion, working memory and executive control.

    Storbeck, Justin; Maswood, Raeya

    2016-08-01

    The effects of emotion on working memory and executive control are often studied in isolation. Positive mood enhances verbal and impairs spatial working memory, whereas negative mood enhances spatial and impairs verbal working memory. Moreover, positive mood enhances executive control, whereas negative mood has little influence. We examined how emotion influences verbal and spatial working memory capacity, which requires executive control to coordinate between holding information in working memory and completing a secondary task. We predicted that positive mood would improve both verbal and spatial working memory capacity because of its influence on executive control. Positive, negative and neutral moods were induced followed by completing a verbal (Experiment 1) or spatial (Experiment 2) working memory operation span task to assess working memory capacity. Positive mood enhanced working memory capacity irrespective of the working memory domain, whereas negative mood had no influence on performance. Thus, positive mood was more successful holding information in working memory while processing task-irrelevant information, suggesting that the influence mood has on executive control supersedes the independent effects mood has on domain-specific working memory.

  1. Policymakers' experience of a capacity-building intervention designed to increase their use of research: a realist process evaluation.

    Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Redman, Sally; Williamson, Anna; Makkar, Steve R; Gallego, Gisselle; Butow, Phyllis

    2017-11-23

    An intervention's success depends on how participants interact with it in local settings. Process evaluation examines these interactions, indicating why an intervention was or was not effective, and how it (and similar interventions) can be improved for better contextual fit. This is particularly important for innovative trials like Supporting Policy In health with Research: an Intervention Trial (SPIRIT), where causal mechanisms are poorly understood. SPIRIT was testing a multi-component intervention designed to increase the capacity of health policymakers to use research. Our mixed-methods process evaluation sought to explain variation in observed process effects across the six agencies that participated in SPIRIT. Data collection included observations of intervention workshops (n = 59), purposively sampled interviews (n = 76) and participant feedback forms (n = 553). Using a realist approach, data was coded for context-mechanism-process effect configurations (retroductive analysis) by two authors. Intervention workshops were very well received. There was greater variation of views regarding other aspects of SPIRIT such as data collection, communication and the intervention's overall value. We identified nine inter-related mechanisms that were crucial for engaging participants in these policy settings: (1) Accepting the premise (agreeing with the study's assumptions); (2) Self-determination (participative choice); (3) The Value Proposition (seeing potential gain); (4) 'Getting good stuff' (identifying useful ideas, resources or connections); (5) Self-efficacy (believing 'we can do this!'); (6) Respect (feeling that SPIRIT understands and values one's work); (7) Confidence (believing in the study's integrity and validity); (8) Persuasive leadership (authentic and compelling advocacy from leaders); and (9) Strategic insider facilitation (local translation and mediation). These findings were used to develop tentative explanatory propositions and to revise the

  2. Overexpression of Endogenous Anti-Oxidants with Selenium Supplementation Protects Trophoblast Cells from Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Apoptosis in a Bcl-2-Dependent Manner.

    Khera, Alisha; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Holland, Olivia; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-06-01

    The human placenta provides life support for the developing foetus, and a healthy placenta is a prerequisite to a healthy start to life. Placental tissue is subject to oxidative stress which can lead to pathological conditions of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and intrauterine growth restriction. Up-regulation of endogenous anti-oxidants may alleviate placental oxidative stress and provide a therapy for these complications of pregnancy. In this study, selenium supplementation, as inorganic sodium selenite (NaSel) or organic selenomethionine (SeMet), was used to increase the protein production and cellular activity of the important redox active proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red). Placental trophoblast cell lines, BeWo, JEG-3 and Swan-71, were cultured in various concentrations of NaSel or SeMet for 24 h and cell extracts prepared for western blots and enzyme assays. Rotenone and antimycin were used to stimulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induce apoptosis. Trophoblast cells supplemented with 100 nM NaSel and 500 nM SeMet exhibited significantly enhanced expression and activity of both GPx and Thx-Red. Antimycin and rotenone were found to generate ROS when measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) assay, and selenium supplementation was shown to reduce ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. Rotenone, 100 μM treatment for 4 h, caused trophoblast cell apoptosis as evidenced by increased Annexin V binding and decreased expression of Bcl-2. In both assays of apoptosis, selenium supplementation was able to prevent apoptosis, preserve Bcl-2 expression and protect trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress. This data suggests that selenoproteins such as GPx and Thx-Red have an important role in protecting trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress and that selenium supplementation may be important in treating some placental pathologies.

  3. Computational simulation and lean thinking as tools of process management: an assessment of different alternatives to increase capacity in a manufacturing company of aluminum electrical cables

    Tiago Augusto Amarante de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the production chain of a manufacturing company of aluminum electrical conductors is analyzed, in order to select the best strategy for increasing its production capacity. The company´s production systems and flows are highly complex and have high variability in their production flows. A quantitative modeling methodology was proposed to simulate those systems, and to analyze them in a simpler manner. The simulation model considered two different strategies related to production increase: “Lean Thinking” and Machinery/Equipment Purchase. From the current context and the results obtained from the simulation study, it was possible to conclude that the best scenario for increasing production capacity for the company was using the Lean Thinking strategy on the critical processes.The gains in capacity are higher and the implementing costs involved are lower than the ones observed in the other strategy considered.

  4. Effect of nutrition, vitamin, grains, and temperature on the mycelium growth and antioxidant capacity of Cordyceps militaris (strains AG-1 and PSJ-1

    Hung-Ngoc Dang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of subculture conditions on the mycelium growth and antioxidant capacity assessment of Cordyceps militaris trains AG-1 and PSJ-1 were carried out in laboratory during the autumn-winter season of 2015. Different temperature regimes and nutrition, vitamins levels, grain in substrate were evaluated for optimization on mycelium growth. The results showed that two strains AG-1 and PSJ-1 can grow the maximum mycelium radial at the temperature of 24 °C. The mycelium growth was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, dextrose, fructose, and maltose at 30 g/L concentration. Whereas glucose achieved the highest value of mycelium colony diameter in strains AG-1 and PSJ-1. Vitamins B1 concentrations at 0.03 g/L also gave the great values in mycelium colony diameter of both strains AG-1 and PSJ-1. The studies depicted that a substrate mixed with various grains sources (brown rice, white rice, and wheat, black glutinous rice Vietnam, and corn cultured at 24 °C, for 12 days supported maximum mycelia growth of the two strains AG-1 and PSJ-1 of C. militaris. The effect of liquid culture medium (MYPS and PD with mycelium on the anti-oxidation capacity was assessed. The results showed that the increasing of DPPH radical scavenging capacity with the extract concentration exist a proportional relation and Fe2+-chelating capacity as well. The cultured Cordyceps mycelium of two strains AG-1 and PSJ-1had the equally strong antioxidant capacity. Keywords: Cordyceps militaris, Mycelium growth, Nutritional condition, Temperature, Vitamins, Anti-oxidation activity

  5. Numerical Evaluation on the Different Shapes of Gravelly Sand Columns to Increase the Loading Capacity of Soft Clay

    Meghzili Sif Allah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on soft clay by the installation of stone column is one of the most popular methods followed worldwide. Different analytical and numerical solutions have already been developed for understanding the load transfer mechanism of soft soil reinforced with stone column. This study investigated a bearing capacity of the gravelly sand column, installed in soft clay bed at 15kpa of undrained shear strength. The column variable of length and diameter ratio at 7, 8 and 9 were evaluated. On top of that, the combination of two diameters in single column was tested and the uniform diameter was used as a control. In the numerical analysis, Mohrcoulomb model was adopted in the idealization of the behaviour of the gravelly sand column and soft clay materials. The results revealed that the optimum design that gave the highest loading capacity of the combination 11=12 of column diameter was the length and diameter ratio of 8.

  6. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  7. Comparison of Effect of Two-Hour Exposure to Forest and Urban Environments on Cytokine, Anti-Oxidant, and Stress Levels in Young Adults

    Su Geun Im

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two-hour exposure to a forest environment on cytokine, anti-oxidant and stress levels among university students and to compare the results to those measured in urban environments. Forty-one subjects were recruited. For our crossover design, subjects were divided into two groups based on similar demographic characteristics. Group A remained in the urban environment and was asked to perform regular breathing for 2 h. Blood samples were collected and the serum levels of cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were examined. Subjects were moved to a small town in a rural area for an equal amount of time to exclude carryover effects, and then remained for another 2 h in a forest environment. The second set of blood samples was collected to assess the effect of exposure to the forest environment. Using the same method, Group B was first exposed to the forest environment, followed by exposure to the urban environment. Blood samples collected after the subjects were exposed to the forest environment showed significantly lower levels of IL-8 and TNF-α compared to those in samples collected after urban environment exposure (10.76 vs. 9.21, t = 4.559, p < 0.001, and 0.97 vs. 0.87, t = 4.130, p < 0.001. The GPx concentration increased significantly after exposure to the forest environment (LnGPx = 5.09 vs. LnGPx = 5.21, t = −2.039, p < 0.05.

  8. FLAVONOIDS AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY MEDIATED GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTION OF LEATHERY MURDAH, TERMINALIA CORIACEA (ROXB. WIGHT & ARN. LEAF METHANOLIC EXTRACT IN RATS

    Mohammed Safwan ALI KHAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. from family Combretaceae is used in Ayurveda and Siddha traditional systems of medicine to heal ulcers. OBJECTIVE The present study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective effect and understand the fundamental mechanism of action of Leathery Murdah, Terminalia coriacea (Roxb. Wight & Arn. Leaf Methanolic Extract. METHODS The test extract was screened for anti-ulcer activity by Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses - 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. using Ranitidine 50 mg/kg and Misoprostol 100 μg/kg as standard drug in respective models. Seven parameters were carefully examined, that is, ulcer index, total protein, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels and histopathology. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic - Ultra Violet profiling and Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectral analysis of crude Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract were carried out as a part of chemical characterization to identify bioactive compounds. RESULTS All the test doses exhibited significant gastroprotective function, particularly the higher doses demonstrated improved action. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and Mucin with reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also illustrated the gastroprotective effect of Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract. CONCLUSION Terminalia coriacea leaves methanolic extract exhibited strong anti-oxidant and anti-secretory activities mediated gastroprotection besides inducing the gastric mucosal production. The observed pharmacological response can be attributed to the flavonoidal compounds namely - Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside, Myricetin hexoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, Isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnosylglucoside and

  9. Association of increased total antioxidant capacity and anovulation in nonobese infertile patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Verit, Fatma Ferda; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2007-08-01

    To investigate whether total antioxidant capacity (TAC) could predict the response to ovulation induction to clomiphene citrate (CC) in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Prospective longitudinal follow-up study. Academic hospital. Fifty-five nonobese, oligomenorrheic women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal indices of insulin sensitivity. None. Standard clinical examinations and ultrasonographic and endocrine screening, including FSH, LH, E(2), P, total T, sex hormone-binding globulin, DHEAS, and TAC were performed before initiation of CC medication. Within the total group, 27 (49%) of the patients did not ovulate at the end of follow-up. TAC, free androgen index, and ovarian volume were all significantly different in CC nonresponders from those in responders. Total antioxidant capacity was found to be the best predictor in univariate analysis (odds ratio, 171.55; 95% confidence interval, 10.61-2,772.93), and it had the highest area in the receiver operating characteristics analysis (0.91). In a multivariate prediction model, TAC, free androgen index, and ovarian volume showed good predictive power, with Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test of 0.80. Total antioxidant capacity was the strongest predictor of ovarian response during CC induction of ovulation in these patients. It can be concluded that TAC can be used as a routine screening test.

  10. A Method for Increasing the Operating Limit Capacity of Wind Farms Using Battery Energy Storage Systems with Rate of Change of Frequency

    Dae-Hee Son

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the appropriate rated power of battery energy storage system (BESS and the operating limit capacity of wind farms are determined considering power system stability, and novel output control methods of BESS and wind turbines are proposed. The rated power of BESS is determined by correlation with the kinetic energy that can be released from wind turbines and synchronous generators when a disturbance occurs in the power system. After the appropriate rated power of BESS is determined, a novel control scheme for quickly responding to disturbances should be applied to BESS. It is important to compensate the insufficient power difference between demand and supply more quickly after a disturbance, and for this purpose, BESS output is controlled using the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF. Generally, BESS output is controlled by the frequency droop control (FDC, however if ROCOF falls below the threshold, BESS output increases sharply. Under this control for BESS, the power system’s stability can be improved and the operating limit capacity of wind farms can be increased. The operating limit capacity is determined as the smaller of technical limit and dynamic limit capacity. The technical limit capacity is calculated by the difference between the maximum power of the generators connected to the power system and the magnitude of loads, and the dynamic limit capacity is determined by considering dynamic stability of a power system frequency when the wind turbines drop out from a power system. Output of the dynamic model developed for wind turbine is based on the operating limit capacity and is controlled by blade pitch angle. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method, different case studies are conducted, with simulations for BESS and wind turbine using Power System Simulation for Engineering (PSS/E.

  11. Decreased transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair capacity is associated with increased p53- and MLH1-independent apoptosis in response to cisplatin

    Stubbert, Lawton J; Smith, Jennifer M; McKay, Bruce C

    2010-01-01

    One of the most commonly used classes of anti-cancer drugs presently in clinical practice is the platinum-based drugs, including cisplatin. The efficacy of cisplatin therapy is often limited by the emergence of resistant tumours following treatment. Cisplatin resistance is multi-factorial but can be associated with increased DNA repair capacity, mutations in p53 or loss of DNA mismatch repair capacity. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to reduce the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) capacity of several prostate and colorectal carcinoma cell lines with specific defects in p53 and/or DNA mismatch repair. The effect of small inhibitory RNAs designed to target the CSB (Cockayne syndrome group B) transcript on TC-NER and the sensitivity of cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis was determined. These prostate and colon cancer cell lines were initially TC-NER proficient and RNAi against CSB significantly reduced their DNA repair capacity. Decreased TC-NER capacity was associated with an increase in the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, even in p53 null and DNA mismatch repair-deficient cell lines. The present work indicates that CSB and TC-NER play a prominent role in determining the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin even in the absence of p53 and DNA mismatch repair. These results further suggest that CSB represents a potential target for cancer therapy that may be important to overcome resistance to cisplatin in the clinic

  12. Therapeutic implications of curcumin in the prevention of diabetic retinopathy via modulation of anti-oxidant activity and genetic pathways

    Aldebasi, Yousef H; Aly, Salah M; Rahmani, Arshad H

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus that affects the blood vessels of the retina, leading to blindness. The current approach of treatment based on anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis drugs and laser photocoagulation are effective but also shows adverse affect in retinal tissues and that can even worsen the visual abilities. Thus, a safe and effective mode of treatment is needed to control or delaying the DR. Based on the earlier evidence of the potentiality of natural products as anti-oxidants, anti-diabetic and antitumor, medicinal plants may constitute a good therapeutic approach in the prevention of DR. Curcumin, constituents of dietary spice turmeric, has been observed to have therapeutic potential in the inhibition or slow down progression of DR. In this review, we summarize the therapeutic potentiality of curcumin in the delaying the DR through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth and nuclear transcription factors. The strength of involvement of curcumin in the modulation of genes action creates a strong optimism towards novel therapeutic strategy of diabetic retinopathy and important mainstay in the management of diabetes and its complications DR. PMID:24379904

  13. Large-scale synthesis of Ni-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with magnetic, optical and anti-oxidation properties

    Lee, Chung-Che; Chen, Dong-Hwang [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-14

    The large-scale synthesis and characterization of Ni-core/Ag-shell (Ni at Ag) nanoparticles by the successive hydrazine reduction of nickel chloride and silver nitrate in ethylene glycol using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a protective agent are described. The resultant Ni at Ag nanoparticles had a mean core diameter of 6.2 nm and a shell thickness of 0.85 nm, without significant change in the nickel concentration of 0.25-25 mM for the Ag coating. Also, both Ni cores and Ag nanoshells had an fcc structure and PEI was capped on the particle surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the Ni cores were fully covered by Ag nanoshells. In addition, the Ni at Ag nanoparticles exhibited a characteristic absorption band at 430 nm and were nearly superparamagnetic. Based on the weight of Ni cores, the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) were obtained as 17.2 emu g{sup -1}, 4.0 emu g{sup -1} and 81 Oe, respectively. Furthermore, the resultant Ni at Ag nanoparticles exhibited better anti-oxidation properties than Ni nanoparticles did due to the protection of the Ag nanoshells.

  14. Study on The Potency of Methanol Extracts From Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld As Natural Anti Oxidant by Thiobarbituric Acid Method

    Devi Ratnawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld (the Purple yam was selected as experimental material. This plant was collected from Rejang Lebong region, Bengkulu Province. Methanol extract 96% from stem of purple yam was studied its anti-oxidant activity in various concentrations with α-tocopherol (200 ppm as standard of antioxidant. Antioxidant activity was determined using Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA method. Linoleic acid was oxidized at 40 ºC for seven days with or without extract and the final product malondialdehyde (MDA was reacted with thiostembituric acid to be of red colored complex (MDA-TBA and was then measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometer at λ 532 nm. Stem extract of purple yam with concentration of 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm and 300 ppm respectively had the inhibition of 19.32%, 21.85%, 29.47%, and 31.05%. α-Tocopherol as positive control which showed inhibition ability of 85.14% at 200 ppm. Based on the result obtained in this study, the stem’s extract of Purpel yam plant showed that antioxidant activity was lower than α-tocopherol.

  15. Metabolome classification of Brassica napus L. organs via UPLC-QTOF-PDA-MS and their anti-oxidant potential.

    Farag, Mohamed A; Sharaf Eldin, Mohamed G; Kassem, Hanaa; Abou el Fetouh, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Brassica napus L. is a crop widely grown for its oil production and other nutritional components in the seed. In addition to the seed, other organs contain a wide range of phenolic metabolites although they have not been investigated to the same extent as in seeds. To define and compare the phytochemical composition of B. napus L. organs, namely the root, stem, leaf, inflorescence and seeds. Non-targeted metabolomic analysis via UPLC-QTOF-MS was utilised in order to localise compounds belonging to various chemical classes (i.e. oxygenated fatty acids, flavonols, phenolic acids and sinapoyl choline derivatives). The vast majority of identified metabolites were flavonol glycosides that accumulated in most of the plant organs. Whereas other classes were detected predominantly in specific organs, i.e. sinapoyl cholines were present uniquely in seeds. Furthermore, variation in the accumulation pattern of metabolites from the same class was observed, particularly in the case of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin flavonols. Anti-oxidant activity, based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl analysis was observed for all extracts, and correlated to some extent with total flavonoid content. This study provides the most complete map for polyphenol composition in B. napus L. organs. By describing the metabolites profile in B. napus L., this study provides the basis for future investigations of seeds for potential health and/or medicinal use. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of the flavonol anti-oxidants, alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin and isoquercitrin, for genotoxic potential.

    Hobbs, Cheryl A; Koyanagi, Mihoko; Swartz, Carol; Davis, Jeffrey; Kasamoto, Sawako; Maronpot, Robert; Recio, Leslie; Hayashi, Shim-Mo

    2018-03-01

    Quercetin and its glycosides possess potential benefits to human health. Several flavonols are available to consumers as dietary supplements, promoted as anti-oxidants; however, incorporation of natural quercetin glycosides into food and beverage products has been limited by poor miscibility in water. Enzymatic conjugation of multiple glucose moieties to isoquercitrin to produce alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin (AGIQ) enhances solubility and bioavailability. AGIQ is used in Japan as a food additive and has been granted generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. However, although substantial genotoxicity data exist for quercetin, there is very little available data for AGIQ and isoquercitrin. To support expanded global marketing of food products containing AGIQ, comprehensive testing of genotoxic potential of AGIQ and isoquercitrin was conducted according to current regulatory test guidelines. Both chemicals tested positive in bacterial reverse mutation assays, and exposure to isoquercitrin resulted in chromosomal aberrations in CHO-WBL cells. All other in vitro mammalian micronucleus and chromosomal aberration assays, micronucleus and comet assays in male and female B6C3F1 mice and Sprague Dawley rats, and Muta™ Mouse mutation assays evaluating multiple potential target tissues, were negative for both chemicals. These results supplement existing toxicity data to further support the safe use of AGIQ in food and beverage products. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. New Alcamide and Anti-oxidant Activity of Pilosocereus gounellei A. Weber ex K. Schum. Bly. ex Rowl. (Cactaceae).

    Maciel, Jéssica K S; Chaves, Otemberg S; Brito Filho, Severino G; Teles, Yanna C F; Fernandes, Marianne G; Assis, Temilce S; Fernandes, Pedro Dantas; de Andrade, Alberício Pereira; Felix, Leonardo P; Silva, Tania M S; Ramos, Nathalia S M; Silva, Girliane R; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei

    2015-12-22

    The Cactaceae family is composed by 124 genera and about 1438 species. Pilosocereus gounellei, popularly known in Brazil as xique-xique, is used in folk medicine to treat prostate inflammation, gastrointestinal and urinary diseases. The pioneering phytochemical study of P. gounellei was performed using column chromatography and HPLC, resulting in the isolation of 10 substances: pinostrobin (1), β-sitosterol (2), a mixture of sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside/stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3a/3b), 13²-hydroxyphaeophytin a (4), phaeophytin a (5), a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (6a/6b), kaempferol (7), quercetin (8), 7'-ethoxy-trans-feruloyltyramine (mariannein, 9) and trans-feruloyl tyramine (10). Compound 9 is reported for the first time in the literature. The structural characterization of the compounds was performed by analyses of 1-D and 2-D NMR data. In addition, a phenolic and flavonol total content assay was carried out, and the anti-oxidant potential of P. gounellei was demonstrated.

  18. New Alcamide and Anti-oxidant Activity of Pilosocereus gounellei A. Weber ex K. Schum. Bly. ex Rowl. (Cactaceae

    Jéssica K. S. Maciel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cactaceae family is composed by 124 genera and about 1438 species. Pilosocereus gounellei, popularly known in Brazil as xique-xique, is used in folk medicine to treat prostate inflammation, gastrointestinal and urinary diseases. The pioneering phytochemical study of P. gounellei was performed using column chromatography and HPLC, resulting in the isolation of 10 substances: pinostrobin (1, β-sitosterol (2, a mixture of sitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside/stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3a/3b, 132-hydroxyphaeophytin a (4, phaeophytin a (5, a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (6a/6b, kaempferol (7, quercetin (8, 7′-ethoxy-trans-feruloyltyramine (mariannein, 9 and trans-feruloyl tyramine (10. Compound 9 is reported for the first time in the literature. The structural characterization of the compounds was performed by analyses of 1-D and 2-D NMR data. In addition, a phenolic and flavonol total content assay was carried out, and the anti-oxidant potential of P. gounellei was demonstrated.

  19. Combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol supplementation for 12 wk increases mitochondrial capacity and fat oxidation, but not insulin sensitivity, in obese humans: a randomized controlled trial

    Most, Jasper; Timmers, S.; Warnke, I.; Jocken, J.J.W.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Groot, de Philip; Bendik, Igor; Schrauwen, Patrick; Goossens, Gijs H.; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The obese insulin-resistant state is characterized by
    impairments in lipid metabolism.We previously showed that 3-d supplementation
    of combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol
    (EGCG+RES) increased energy expenditure and improved the
    capacity to switch from fat

  20. Design assessment for the Melton Valley Storage Tanks capacity increase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    1995-11-01

    This project was initiated to find ways to increase storage capacity for the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) requirement for the transfer of LLW from existing tank systems not in full FFA compliance

  1. Anti-oxidant vitamins, nitric oxide and acute phase proteins in ...

    It is established that there is increased risk of developing heart disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer and infections in cigarette smokers. However specific mechanisms whereby cigarette smoking causes these are not fully understood. The present study provided information to explain above observation by ...

  2. Assessment of Potential Capacity Increases at Combined Heat and Power Facilities Based on Available Corn Stover and Forest Logging Residues

    Donald L. Grebner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Combined Heat and Power (CHP production using renewable energy sources is gaining importance because of its flexibility and high-energy efficiency. Biomass materials, such as corn stover and forestry residues, are potential sources for renewable energy for CHP production. In Mississippi, approximately 4.0 MT dry tons of woody biomass is available annually for energy production. In this study, we collected and analyzed 10 years of corn stover data (2001–2010 and three years of forest logging residue data (1995, 1999, and 2002 in each county in Mississippi to determine the potential of these feed stocks for sustainable CHP energy production. We identified six counties, namely Amite, Copiah, Clarke, Wayne, Wilkinson and Rankin, that have forest logging residue feedstocks to sustain a CHP facility with a range of capacity between 8.0 and 9.8 MW. Using corn stover alone, Yazoo and Washington counties can produce 13.4 MW and 13.5 MW of energy, respectively. Considering both feedstocks and based on a conservative amount of 30% available forest logging residue and 33% corn stover, we found that 20 counties have adequate supply for a CHP facility with a capacity of 8.3 MW to 19.6 MW.

  3. Data demonstrating the role of peroxiredoxin 2 as important anti-oxidant system in lung homeostasis

    Enrica Federti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research paper entitled “peroxiredoxin-2 plays a pivotal role as multimodal cytoprotector in the early phase of pulmonary hypertension” (Federti et al., 2017 [1]. Data show that the absence of peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2 is associated with increased lung oxidation and pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction. Prx2−/− mice displayed activation of the redox-sensitive transcriptional factors, NF-kB and Nrf2, and increased expression of cytoprotective system such as heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1. We also noted increased expression of both markers of vascular activation and extracellular matrix remodeling. The administration of the recombinant fusion protein PEP Prx2 reduced the activation of NF-kB and Nrf2 and was paralleled by a decrease in HO-1 and in vascular endothelial abnormal activation. Prolonged hypoxia was used to trigger pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH. Prx2−/− precociously developed PAH compared to wildtype animals.

  4. Utilization of Collaborative Practice Agreements between Physicians and Pharmacists as a Mechanism to Increase Capacity to Care for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

    Merten, Julianna A.; Shapiro, Jamie F.; Gulbis, Alison M.; Rao, Kamakshi V.; Bubalo, Joseph; Lanum, Scott; Engemann, Ashley Morris; Shayani, Sepideh; Williams, Casey; Leather, Helen; Walsh-Chocolaad, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Survival following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has improved and the number of allogeneic HSCTs performed annually in the United States is expected to reach 10,000 by 2015. The National Marrow Donor Program created the System Capacity Initiative to formulate mechanisms to care for the growing number of HSCT recipients. One proposed method to increase capacity is utilization of pharmacists to manage drug therapy via collaborative practice agreements (CPAs). Pharmacists have managed drug therapy in oncology patients with CPAs for decades; however, there are limited HSCT centers that employ this practice. Engaging in collaborative practice and billing agreements with credentialed pharmacists to manage therapeutic drug monitoring, chronic medical conditions and supportive care in HSCT recipients may be cost-effective and enable physicians to spend more time on new or more complex patients. The goal of this paper is to provide a framework for implementation of a CPA and address how it may improve HSCT program capacity. PMID:23419976

  5. Molecular characterization of Clonorchis sinensis secretory myoglobin: Delineating its role in anti-oxidative survival

    2014-01-01

    Background Clonorchiasis is a globally important, neglected food-borne disease caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), and it is highly related to cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Increased molecular evidence has strongly suggested that the adult worm of C. sinensis continuously releases excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs), which play important roles in the parasite-host interactions, to establish successful infection and ensure its own survival. Myoglobin, a hemoprotein, is present in high concentrations in trematodes and ESPs. To further understand the biological function of CsMb and its putative roles in the interactions of C. sinensis with its host, we explored the molecular characterization of CsMb in this paper. Methods We expressed CsMb and its mutants in E. coli BL21 and identified its molecular characteristics using bioinformatics analysis and experimental approaches. Reverse transcription PCR analysis was used to measure myoglobin transcripts of C. sinensis with different culture conditions. The peroxidase activity of CsMb was confirmed by spectrophotometry. We co-cultured RAW264.7 cells with recombinant CsMb (rCsMb), and we then measured the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in addition to the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in activated RAW264.7 cells. Results In the in vitro culture of adult worms, the transcripts of CsMb increased with the increase of oxygen content. Oxidative stress conditions induced by H2O2 increased the levels of CsMb transcripts in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CsMb catalyzed oxidation reactions in the presence of H2O2, and amino acid 34 of CsMb played an essential role in its reaction with H2O2. In addition, CsMb significantly reduced H2O2 and NO levels in LPS-activated macrophages, and CsMb downregulated iNOS and SOD expression in activated macrophages. Conclusion The present study

  6. Cooking methods employing natural anti-oxidant food additives effectively reduced concentration of nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids in contaminated food grains.

    Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Wong, Yee-Lam; Chan, K K Jason; Chan, Ho Wai; Chan, Wan

    2018-10-30

    Emerging evidence suggests that aristolochic acids (AA) produced naturally by a common weed Aristolochia clematitis in the cultivation fields is contaminating the food products in Balkan Peninsula and acting as the etiological agent in the development of Balkan endemic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the combined use of natural anti-oxidative "food additives" and different cooking methods to find a solution for the widespread contamination of AA in food products. The results indicated that the addition of healthy dietary supplements (such as cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, citric acid and magnesium) during cooking, is a highly efficient method in lowering the concentration of AA in the final food products. Because previous observation indicated one of the toxicological mechanisms by which AA exert its toxicity is to induce oxidative stress in internal organs, it is anticipated that these added anti-oxidants will also help to attenuate the nephrotoxicity of AA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise restores decreased physical activity levels and increases markers of autophagy and oxidative capacity in myostatin/activin-blocked mdx mice.

    Hulmi, Juha J; Oliveira, Bernardo M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Hoogaars, Willem M H; Pasternack, Arja; Kainulainen, Heikki; Ritvos, Olli

    2013-07-15

    The importance of adequate levels of muscle size and function and physical activity is widely recognized. Myostatin/activin blocking increases skeletal muscle mass but may decrease muscle oxidative capacity and can thus be hypothesized to affect voluntary physical activity. Soluble activin receptor IIB (sActRIIB-Fc) was produced to block myostatin/activins. Modestly dystrophic mdx mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS with or without voluntary wheel running exercise for 7 wk. Healthy mice served as controls. Running for 7 wk attenuated the sActRIIB-Fc-induced increase in body mass by decreasing fat mass. Running also enhanced/restored the markers of muscle oxidative capacity and autophagy in mdx mice to or above the levels of healthy mice. Voluntary running activity was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc during the first 3-4 wk correlating with increased body mass. Home cage physical activity of mice, quantified from the force plate signal, was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc the whole 7-wk treatment in sedentary mice. To understand what happens during the first weeks after sActRIIB-Fc administration, when mice are less active, healthy mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS for 2 wk. During the sActRIIB-Fc-induced rapid 2-wk muscle growth period, oxidative capacity and autophagy were reduced, which may possibly explain the decreased running activity. These results show that increased muscle size and decreased markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy during the first weeks of myostatin/activin blocking are associated with decreased voluntary activity levels. Voluntary exercise in dystrophic mice enhances the markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy to or above the levels of healthy mice.

  8. Effects of Socio demographic factors on plasma ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol anti oxidants during pregnancy

    Sylvester, I.E.; Paul, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the plasma levels of vitamins C and E at the various stages of pregnancy and to correlate their plasma levels with the socio-demographic factors of pregnant Nigerians. Methodology: The pregnant cases (n=180) were randomly selected according to gestational ages. And the controls (n=20) were non-pregnant women of the same age. Plasma levels of both vitamins were assayed with well established laboratory methods. Results: The mean plasma vitamins C and E in the pregnant cases was lower (by 17-23%) than controls across the three trimesters, p<0.0001. The correlation of vitamin C versus maternal age was significant; r = - 0.59, p<0.05; the mean plasma level of vitamin C declined by 57% as the maternal age increases from 22-37 years. Conclusion: The mean plasma Ascorbic acid and Alpha-tocopherol are reduced during pregnancy and socio-demographic factors have mild effects on the plasma levels of these vitamins. (author)

  9. Mixed Pro- and Anti-Oxidative Effects of Pomegranate Polyphenols in Cultured Cells

    Danesi, Francesca; Kroon, Paul A.; Saha, Shikha; de Biase, Dario; D’Antuono, Luigi Filippo; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of scientific papers concerning pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) and its health properties has increased greatly, and there is great potential for the use of bioactive-rich pomegranate extracts as ingredients in functional foods and nutraceuticals. To translate this potential into effective strategies it is essential to further elucidate the mechanisms of the reported bioactivity. In this study HepG2 cells were supplemented with a pomegranate fruit extract or with the corresponding amount of pure punicalagin, and then subjected to an exogenous oxidative stress. Overall, upon the oxidative stress the gene expression and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes appeared reduced in supplemented cells, which were more prone to the detrimental effects than unsupplemented ones. No differences were detected between cells supplemented with the pomegranate juice or the pure punicalagin. Although further studies are needed due to the gaps existing between in vitro and in vivo studies, our results suggest caution in the administration of high concentrations of nutraceutical molecules, particularly when they are administered in concentrated form. PMID:25350111

  10. Anti-oxidant effects of pomegranate juice on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell growth.

    Aslan, Abdullah; Can, Muhammed İsmail; Boydak, Didem

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate juice has a number of positive effects on both human and animal subjects. Four groups were used in this study. i: Control group, ii: H2O2 group, iii: Pomegranate juice (PJ) group and iv: PJ + H2O2 group. Following the sterilization method for pomegranate juice (10%) and H2O2 (6% v/v), Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures were added and the cultivation incubated at 35°C for 72 hours. Fatty acids and vitamin concentrations were measured using HPLC and GC and the total protein bands profile were determined by SDS-PAGE. According to our results statistically significant differences have been determined among the study groups in terms of fatty acids and vitamin (pPomegranate juice increased vitamins, fatty acids and total protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in comparison with the control. Pomegranate juice has a positive effect on fatty acid, vitamin and protein synthesis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Accordingly, we believe that it has significantly decreased oxidative damage thereby making a positive impact on yeast development.

  11. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    Cazzola, Martina; Corazzari, Ingrid; Prenesti, Enrico; Bertone, Elisa; Vernè, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H2O2 highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  12. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    Cazzola, Martina [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Corazzari, Ingrid [Università degli Studi di Torino, Department of Chemistry, Via Pietro Giuria 7, Torino 10125 (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale “G. Scansetti” per lo studio degli amianti e di altri particolati nocivi, Via Pietro Giuria 9, 10125 Torino (Italy); Prenesti, Enrico [Università degli Studi di Torino, Department of Chemistry, Via Pietro Giuria 7, Torino 10125 (Italy); Bertone, Elisa [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Vernè, Enrica, E-mail: enrica.verne@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Ferraris, Sara [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface functionalization of bioactive glass with biomolecules has been optimized. • Biomolecules are present and active on the glass surface after functionalization. • Biomolecules affect deposition kinetics and morphology of hydroxyapatite. • Free radical scavenging activity is seen for the first time on bioactive glasses. - Abstract: Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  13. Influence of the growth phenophases on the phenolic composition and anti-oxidant properties of Roscoea procera Wall. in western Himalaya.

    Rawat, Sandeep; Jugran, Arun K; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S

    2018-02-01

    Roscoea procera Wall. is one of the important Himalayan medicinal plant used in traditional as well as in modern health care system. The present study aimed to find out the influence of different phenophases on the phenolic compounds and anti-oxidant properties by analysing after every week for over 4 months from shoot bud initiation to the preparation of senescence. Concentration of total phenolic content were found to be about 1.5 times higher in preparation of senescence phase (6.10 mg GAE/g dry weight or dw) as compared to vegetative growth phase. Similarly, total flavonoid concentration ranged from 4.36 to 5.65 mg querectin equivalents/g dw. The concentration of selected phenolic compounds, i.e., gallic acid, catechin and p -coumaric acid was quantified by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography and varied significantly among the different phenophases. While, anti-oxidant activity was found 2-3 times higher in preparation of senescence phase as compared to vegetative phase. Thus, these results concluded that in R. procera , November month (preparation of senescence phase) could be recommended for extracting optimum level of total phenolics, flavonoids and anti-oxidant activity. These results will be further helpful for obtaining maximum benefits from the species and to reduce pressure on reproductive phase while ensuring its conservation.

  14. Utilizing a Pediatric Disaster Coalition Model to Increase Pediatric Critical Care Surge Capacity in New York City.

    Frogel, Michael; Flamm, Avram; Sagy, Mayer; Uraneck, Katharine; Conway, Edward; Ushay, Michael; Greenwald, Bruce M; Pierre, Louisdon; Shah, Vikas; Gaffoor, Mohamed; Cooper, Arthur; Foltin, George

    2017-08-01

    A mass casualty event can result in an overwhelming number of critically injured pediatric victims that exceeds the available capacity of pediatric critical care (PCC) units, both locally and regionally. To address these gaps, the New York City (NYC) Pediatric Disaster Coalition (PDC) was established. The PDC includes experts in emergency preparedness, critical care, surgery, and emergency medicine from 18 of 25 major NYC PCC-capable hospitals. A PCC surge committee created recommendations for making additional PCC beds available with an emphasis on space, staff, stuff (equipment), and systems. The PDC assisted 15 hospitals in creating PCC surge plans by utilizing template plans and site visits. These plans created an additional 153 potential PCC surge beds. Seven hospitals tested their plans through drills. The purpose of this article was to demonstrate the need for planning for disasters involving children and to provide a stepwise, replicable model for establishing a PDC, with one of its primary goals focused on facilitating PCC surge planning. The process we describe for developing a PDC can be replicated to communities of any size, setting, or location. We offer our model as an example for other cities. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:473-478).

  15. Silver nanoparticles: green synthesis using Phoenix dactylifera fruit extract, characterization, and anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities

    Shaikh, Anas Ejaz; Satardekar, Kshitij Vasant; Khan, Rummana Rehman; Tarte, Nanda Amit; Barve, Siddhivinayak Satyasandha

    2018-03-01

    Hydro-alcoholic (2:8 v/v) extract of the pulp of Phoenix dactylifera fruit pulp obtained using Soxhlet extraction (70 °C, 6 h) was found to contain alkaloids, sterols, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, proteins, and carbohydrates. An aqueous solution (20% v/v) of the extract led to the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from 0.01 M AgNO3 solution as confirmed by the surface plasmon resonance at 445 nm determined using UV-visible spectroscopy after 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be mostly spherical and complexed with phytochemicals from the extract. The size of AgNPs ranged from 12.2-140.2 nm with mean diameter of 47.0 nm as characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elemental composition of the AgNPs complexed with the phytochemicals was found to be 80.49% silver (Ag), 15.21% carbon (C), and 4.30% oxygen (O) on a weight basis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Using the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, an anti-oxidant activity of 89.15% for 1 µg L-1 ultrasonically homogenized ethanolic solution of complexed AgNPs was obtained (equivalent to 0.20 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution), while methanolic solution of plant extract possessed an EC50 value of 3.45% (v/v) (equivalent to 0.11 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution). The plant-nanosilver broth was also found to possess effective anti-microbial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 as assessed by the disc diffusion assay. However, the plant extract showed negligible anti-microbial activity.

  16. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts

    B N Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer′s disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. Objective: The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Results: Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Conclusions: Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer′s disease.

  17. Decreased transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair capacity is associated with increased p53- and MLH1-independent apoptosis in response to cisplatin

    Smith Jennifer M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most commonly used classes of anti-cancer drugs presently in clinical practice is the platinum-based drugs, including cisplatin. The efficacy of cisplatin therapy is often limited by the emergence of resistant tumours following treatment. Cisplatin resistance is multi-factorial but can be associated with increased DNA repair capacity, mutations in p53 or loss of DNA mismatch repair capacity. Methods RNA interference (RNAi was used to reduce the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER capacity of several prostate and colorectal carcinoma cell lines with specific defects in p53 and/or DNA mismatch repair. The effect of small inhibitory RNAs designed to target the CSB (Cockayne syndrome group B transcript on TC-NER and the sensitivity of cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis was determined. Results These prostate and colon cancer cell lines were initially TC-NER proficient and RNAi against CSB significantly reduced their DNA repair capacity. Decreased TC-NER capacity was associated with an increase in the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, even in p53 null and DNA mismatch repair-deficient cell lines. Conclusion The present work indicates that CSB and TC-NER play a prominent role in determining the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin even in the absence of p53 and DNA mismatch repair. These results further suggest that CSB represents a potential target for cancer therapy that may be important to overcome resistance to cisplatin in the clinic.

  18. New technologies application to increase the transmission capacity in power systems; Aplicacao de novas tecnologias para aumentar a capacidade de transmissao em sistemas de potencia

    Figueiredo, Erli Ferreira [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: erli@openlink.com.br

    2001-07-01

    The deregulation and the Brazilian electric sector new formulation associated to the growth of the electric energy market, has been contributing to increase the power flows through located transmission lines in one same region, as well as in different regions. This increase of flow will require the construction of new transmission lines, in general associated to eventual efforts in the system. However, due to environmental restrictions and to difficulties for acquisition of free soil bands for transmission lines, in this article new technologies of transmission in order to increase the capacity of the existing and future power systems are presented, with the purpose of preventing or postponing the construction of new transmission lines.

  19. Skeletal muscle-specific expression of PGC-1α-b, an exercise-responsive isoform, increases exercise capacity and peak oxygen uptake.

    Miki Tadaishi

    Full Text Available Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max predicts mortality and is associated with endurance performance. Trained subjects have a high VO(2max due to a high cardiac output and high metabolic capacity of skeletal muscles. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a nuclear receptor coactivator, promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, a fiber-type switch to oxidative fibers, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Because exercise training increases PGC-1α in skeletal muscle, PGC-1α-mediated changes may contribute to the improvement of exercise capacity and VO(2max. There are three isoforms of PGC-1α mRNA. PGC-1α-b protein, whose amino terminus is different from PGC-1α-a protein, is a predominant PGC-1α isoform in response to exercise. We investigated whether alterations of skeletal muscle metabolism by overexpression of PGC-1α-b in skeletal muscle, but not heart, would increase VO(2max and exercise capacity.Transgenic mice showed overexpression of PGC-1α-b protein in skeletal muscle but not in heart. Overexpression of PGC-1α-b promoted mitochondrial biogenesis 4-fold, increased the expression of fatty acid transporters, enhanced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle 1.4 to 2.7-fold, and promoted exercise capacity (expressed by maximum speed by 35% and peak oxygen uptake by 20%. Across a broad range of either the absolute exercise intensity, or the same relative exercise intensities, lipid oxidation was always higher in the transgenic mice than wild-type littermates, suggesting that lipid is the predominant fuel source for exercise in the transgenic mice. However, muscle glycogen usage during exercise was absent in the transgenic mice.Increased mitochondrial biogenesis, capillaries, and fatty acid transporters in skeletal muscles may contribute to improved exercise capacity via an increase in fatty acid utilization. Increases in PGC-1α-b protein or function might be a useful strategy for sedentary subjects to perform exercise

  20. Temporal variations in the gene expression levels of cyanobacterial anti-oxidant enzymes through geological history: implications for biological evolution during the Great Oxidation Event

    Harada, M.; Furukawa, R.; Yokobori, S. I.; Tajika, E.; Yamagishi, A.

    2016-12-01

    A significant rise in atmospheric O2 levels during the GOE (Great Oxidation Event), ca. 2.45-2.0 Ga, must have caused a great stress to biosphere, enforcing life to adapt to oxic conditions. Cyanobacteria, oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that had been responsible for the GOE, are at the same time one of the organisms that would have been greatly affected by the rise of O2 level in the surface environments. Knowledge on the evolution of cyanobacteria is not only important to elucidate the cause of the GOE, but also helps us to better understand the adaptive evolution of life in response to the GOE. Here we performed phylogenetic analysis of an anti-oxidant enzyme Fe-SOD (iron superoxide dismutase) of cyanobacteria, to assess the adaptive evolution of life under the GOE. The rise of O2 level must have increased the level of toxic reactive oxygen species in cyanobacterial cells, thus forced them to change activities or the gene expression levels of Fe-SOD. In the present study, we focus on the change in the gene expression levels of the enzyme, which can be estimated from the promoter sequences of the gene. Promoters are DNA sequences found upstream of protein encoding regions, where RNA polymerase binds and initiates transcription. "Strong" promoters that efficiently interact with RNA polymerase induce high rates of transcription, leading to high levels of gene expression. Thus, from the temporal changes in the promoter sequences, we can estimate the variations in the gene expression levels during the geological time. Promoter sequences of Fe-SOD at each ancestral node of cyanobacteria were predicted from phylogenetic analysis, and the ancestral promoter sequences were compared to the promoters of known highly expressed genes. The similarity was low at the time of the emergence of cyanobacteria; however, increased at the branching nodes diverged 2.4 billon years ago. This roughly coincided with the onset of the GOE, implying that the transition from low to high gene

  1. Serotonin-mediated central fatigue underlies increased endurance capacity in mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Thompson, Zoe; Barber, Curtis; Garland, Theodore

    2016-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is implicated in central fatigue, and 5-HT1A pharmaceuticals are known to influence locomotor endurance in both rodents and humans. We studied the effects of a 5-HT1A agonist and antagonist on both forced and voluntary exercise in the same set of mice. This cohort of mice was taken from 4 replicate lines of mice that have been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (HR) as compared with 4 non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice run voluntarily on wheels about 3× as many revolutions per day as compared with C, and have greater endurance during forced treadmill exercise. We hypothesized that drugs targeting serotonin receptors would have differential effects on locomotor behavior of HR and C mice. Subcutaneous injections of a 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100,635), a combination of 5-HT1A agonist and a 5-HT1A/1B partial agonist (8-OH-DPAT+pindolol), or physiological saline were given to separate groups of male mice before the start of each of three treadmill trials. The same manipulations were used later during voluntary wheel running on three separate nights. WAY-100,635 decreased treadmill endurance in HR but not C mice (dose by linetype interaction, P=0.0014). 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol affected treadmill endurance (PWheel running was reduced in HR but not C mice at the highest dose of 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol (dose by linetype, P=0.0221), but was not affected by WAY-100,635 treatment. These results provide further evidence that serotonin signaling is an important determinant of performance during both forced and voluntary exercise. Although the elevated wheel running of HR mice does not appear related to alterations in serotonin signaling, their enhanced endurance capacity does. More generally, our results indicate that both forced and voluntary exercise can be affected by an intervention that acts (primarily) centrally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature Increase Negatively Affects the Fatty Acid Bioconversion Capacity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Linseed Oil-Based Diet.

    Mellery, Julie; Geay, Florian; Tocher, Douglas R; Kestemont, Patrick; Debier, Cathy; Rollin, Xavier; Larondelle, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet. Fish were fed two diets formulated with fish oil (FO) or linseed oil (LO) as only added lipid source at the optimal water temperature of 15°C or at the increased water temperature of 19°C for 60 days. We observed that a temperature increase close to the upper limit of the species temperature tolerance range negatively affected the feed efficiency of rainbow trout fed LO despite a higher feed intake. The negative impact of increased water temperature on fatty acid bioconversion capacity appeared also to be quite clear considering the reduced expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 in liver and intestine and the reduced Δ6 desaturase enzymatic activity in intestinal microsomes. The present results also highlighted a negative impact of increased temperature on the apparent in vivo enzymatic activity of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases of fish fed LO. Interestingly, this last parameter appeared less affected than those mentioned above. This study highlights that the increased temperature that rainbow trout may face due to global warming could reduce their fatty acid bioconversion capacity. The unavoidable replacement of finite fish oil by more sustainable, readily available and economically viable alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds should take this undeniable environmental issue on aquaculture productivity into account.

  3. Obesity augments the age-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity for H(2) O(2) release in Zucker fatty rats

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Jeppesen, Jacob; Madsen, K

    2012-01-01

    determined and related to citrate synthase activity to determine intrinsic mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial-specific super-oxide dismuthase (MnSOD) protein content was determined in isolated mitochondria and muscle homogenate. Catalase protein content was determined in muscle homogenate. Results: Young...... was associated with increased mitochondrial hydrogenperoxide release. MnSOD tended to be higher in the obese strain in the isolated mitochondria. Regardless of age, catalase protein content was significantly lower in the obese rats. Conclusions: This study shows that the augmented increase in obesity and insulin...

  4. Four Weekly Ayahuasca Sessions Lead to Increases in “Acceptance” Capacities: A Comparison Study With a Standard 8-Week Mindfulness Training Program

    Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Dominguez-Clavé, Elisabeth; Pascual, Juan C.; Feilding, Amanda; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; García-Campayo, Javier; Riba, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a) participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b) participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), with the specific goal of improving these skills. Methods: Participants of two independent groups completed two self-report instruments: The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). The MINDSENS Composite Index was also calculated, including those EQ and FFMQ items that have proven to be the most sensitive to meditation practice. Group A (n = 10) was assessed before and after the last of four closely spaced consecutive ayahuasca sessions. Group B (n = 10) was assessed before and after completion of a standard 8-week MBSR course. Results: MBSR training led to greater increases in overall mindfulness scores after the 8-week period. MBSR but not ayahuasca led to increases in the MINDSENS Composite Index. However, the ayahuasca sessions induced comparable increases in the Non-Judging subscale of the FFMQ, specifically measuring “acceptance.” Improving this capacity allows for a more detached and less judgmental stance toward potentially distressing thoughts and emotions. Results: The present findings suggest that a small number of ayahuasca sessions can be as effective at improving acceptance as more lengthy and costly interventions. Future studies should address the benefits of

  5. Four Weekly Ayahuasca Sessions Lead to Increases in "Acceptance" Capacities: A Comparison Study With a Standard 8-Week Mindfulness Training Program.

    Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Dominguez-Clavé, Elisabeth; Pascual, Juan C; Feilding, Amanda; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; García-Campayo, Javier; Riba, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N- dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a) participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b) participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), with the specific goal of improving these skills. Methods: Participants of two independent groups completed two self-report instruments: The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). The MINDSENS Composite Index was also calculated, including those EQ and FFMQ items that have proven to be the most sensitive to meditation practice. Group A ( n = 10) was assessed before and after the last of four closely spaced consecutive ayahuasca sessions. Group B ( n = 10) was assessed before and after completion of a standard 8-week MBSR course. Results: MBSR training led to greater increases in overall mindfulness scores after the 8-week period. MBSR but not ayahuasca led to increases in the MINDSENS Composite Index. However, the ayahuasca sessions induced comparable increases in the Non-Judging subscale of the FFMQ, specifically measuring "acceptance." Improving this capacity allows for a more detached and less judgmental stance toward potentially distressing thoughts and emotions. Results: The present findings suggest that a small number of ayahuasca sessions can be as effective at improving acceptance as more lengthy and costly interventions. Future studies should address the benefits of

  6. Four Weekly Ayahuasca Sessions Lead to Increases in “Acceptance” Capacities: A Comparison Study With a Standard 8-Week Mindfulness Training Program

    Joaquim Soler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR, with the specific goal of improving these skills.Methods: Participants of two independent groups completed two self-report instruments: The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ. The MINDSENS Composite Index was also calculated, including those EQ and FFMQ items that have proven to be the most sensitive to meditation practice. Group A (n = 10 was assessed before and after the last of four closely spaced consecutive ayahuasca sessions. Group B (n = 10 was assessed before and after completion of a standard 8-week MBSR course.Results: MBSR training led to greater increases in overall mindfulness scores after the 8-week period. MBSR but not ayahuasca led to increases in the MINDSENS Composite Index. However, the ayahuasca sessions induced comparable increases in the Non-Judging subscale of the FFMQ, specifically measuring “acceptance.” Improving this capacity allows for a more detached and less judgmental stance toward potentially distressing thoughts and emotions.Results: The present findings suggest that a small number of ayahuasca sessions can be as effective at improving acceptance as more lengthy and costly interventions. Future studies should address the

  7. Mechanisms of Change in the ARC Organizational Strategy: Increasing Mental Health Clinicians' EBP Adoption Through Improved Organizational Culture and Capacity.

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip

    2017-03-01

    The development of efficient and scalable implementation strategies in mental health is restricted by poor understanding of the change mechanisms that increase clinicians' evidence-based practice (EBP) adoption. This study tests the cross-level change mechanisms that link an empirically-supported organizational strategy for supporting implementation (labeled ARC for Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity) to mental health clinicians' EBP adoption and use. Four hundred seventy-five mental health clinicians in 14 children's mental health agencies were randomly assigned to the ARC intervention or a control condition. Measures of organizational culture, clinicians' intentions to adopt EBPs, and job-related EBP barriers were collected before, during, and upon completion of the three-year ARC intervention. EBP adoption and use were assessed at 12-month follow-up. Multilevel mediation analyses tested changes in organizational culture, clinicians' intentions to adopt EBPs, and job-related EBP barriers as linking mechanisms explaining the effects of ARC on clinicians' EBP adoption and use. ARC increased clinicians' EBP adoption (OR = 3.19, p = .003) and use (81 vs. 56 %, d = .79, p = .003) at 12-month follow-up. These effects were mediated by improvement in organizational proficiency culture leading to increased clinician intentions to adopt EBPs and by reduced job-related EBP barriers. A combined mediation analysis indicated the organizational culture-EBP intentions mechanism was the primary carrier of ARC's effects on clinicians' EBP adoption and use. ARC increases clinicians' EBP adoption and use by creating proficient organizational cultures that increase clinicians' intentions to adopt EBPs.

  8. Mechanisms of change in the ARC organizational strategy: Increasing mental health clinicians’ EBP adoption through improved organizational culture and capacity

    Williams, Nathaniel J.; Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of efficient and scalable implementation strategies in mental health is restricted by poor understanding of the change mechanisms that increase clinicians’ evidence-based practice (EBP) adoption. This study tests the cross-level change mechanisms that link an empirically-supported organizational strategy for supporting implementation (labeled ARC for Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity) to mental health clinicians’ EBP adoption and use. Method Four hundred seventy five mental health clinicians in 14 children’s mental health agencies were randomly assigned to the ARC intervention or a control condition. Measures of organizational culture, clinicians’ intentions to adopt EBPs, and job-related EBP barriers were collected before, during, and upon completion of the three-year ARC intervention. EBP adoption and use were assessed at 12-month follow-up. Multilevel mediation analyses tested changes in organizational culture, clinicians’ intentions to adopt EBPs, and job-related EBP barriers as linking mechanisms explaining the effects of ARC on clinicians’ EBP adoption and use. Results ARC increased clinicians’ EBP adoption (OR = 3.19, p = .003) and use (81% vs. 56%, d = .79, p = .003) at 12-month follow-up. These effects were mediated by improvement in organizational proficiency culture leading to increased clinician intentions to adopt EBPs and by reduced job-related EBP barriers. A combined mediation analysis indicated the organizational culture-EBP intentions mechanism was the primary carrier of ARC’s effects on clinicians’ EBP adoption and use. Conclusions ARC increases clinicians’ EBP adoption and use by creating proficient organizational cultures that increase clinicians’ intentions to adopt EBPs. PMID:27236457

  9. Aloperine attenuated neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury via anti-oxidation activity and suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway

    Xu, Ya-Qiong [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Jin, Shao-Ju [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Luohe Medical College, Luohe 462002, Henan Province (China); Liu, Ning [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Li, Yu-Xiang [College of Nursing, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Zheng, Jie [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Ma, Lin [Ningxia Key Lab of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Du, Juan; Zhou, Ru [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Zhao, Cheng-Jun [Key Laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance of Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Niu, Yang [Key Laboratory of Hui Ethnic Medicine Modernization, Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Sun, Tao [Ningxia Key Lab of Craniocerebral Diseases of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004 (China); Yu, Jian-Qiang, E-mail: Yujq910315@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical university, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Luohe Medical College, Luohe 462002, Henan Province (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Aloperine has anti-nociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced CCI. • Aloperine reduces ROS in neuropathic pain mice. • Aloperine down-regulates the expression of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuropathic pain mice. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether aloperine (ALO) has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury, whether ALO reduces ROS against neuropathic pain, and what are the mechanisms involved in ALO attenuated neuropathic pain. Methods: Mechanical and cold allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal thermal hyperalgesia were estimated by behavior methods such as Von Frey filaments, cold-plate, radiant heat, paw pressure and tail immersion on one day before surgery and days 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14 after surgery, respectively. In addition, T-AOC, GSH-PX, T-AOC and MDA in the spinal cord (L4/5) were measured to evaluate anti-oxidation activity of ALO on neuropathic pain. Expressions of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in the spinal cord (L4/5) were analyzed by using Western blot. Results: Administration of ALO (80 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased paw withdrawal threshold, paw pressure, paw withdrawal latencies, tail-curling latencies, T-AOC, GSH-PX and T-SOD concentration, reduced the numbers of paw lifts and MDA concentration compared to CCI group. ALO attenuated CCI induced up-regulation of expressions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β at the dose of 80 mg/kg (i.p.). Pregabalin produced similar effects serving as positive control at the dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusion: ALO has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by CCI. The antinociceptive effects of ALO against neuropathic pain is related to reduction of ROS, via suppression of NF-κB pathway.

  10. Aloperine attenuated neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury via anti-oxidation activity and suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway

    Xu, Ya-Qiong; Jin, Shao-Ju; Liu, Ning; Li, Yu-Xiang; Zheng, Jie; Ma, Lin; Du, Juan; Zhou, Ru; Zhao, Cheng-Jun; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Yu, Jian-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aloperine has anti-nociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced CCI. • Aloperine reduces ROS in neuropathic pain mice. • Aloperine down-regulates the expression of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuropathic pain mice. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether aloperine (ALO) has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury, whether ALO reduces ROS against neuropathic pain, and what are the mechanisms involved in ALO attenuated neuropathic pain. Methods: Mechanical and cold allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal thermal hyperalgesia were estimated by behavior methods such as Von Frey filaments, cold-plate, radiant heat, paw pressure and tail immersion on one day before surgery and days 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14 after surgery, respectively. In addition, T-AOC, GSH-PX, T-AOC and MDA in the spinal cord (L4/5) were measured to evaluate anti-oxidation activity of ALO on neuropathic pain. Expressions of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in the spinal cord (L4/5) were analyzed by using Western blot. Results: Administration of ALO (80 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased paw withdrawal threshold, paw pressure, paw withdrawal latencies, tail-curling latencies, T-AOC, GSH-PX and T-SOD concentration, reduced the numbers of paw lifts and MDA concentration compared to CCI group. ALO attenuated CCI induced up-regulation of expressions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β at the dose of 80 mg/kg (i.p.). Pregabalin produced similar effects serving as positive control at the dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusion: ALO has antinociceptive effects on neuropathic pain induced by CCI. The antinociceptive effects of ALO against neuropathic pain is related to reduction of ROS, via suppression of NF-κB pathway

  11. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Betz, Matthias J; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Mauracher, Brigitte; Abplanalp, William; Müller, Hans-Helge; Pieper, Korbinian; Ramisch, Juliane; Tschöp, Matthias H; Beuschlein, Felix; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Slawik, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7). Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience) and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint), explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by increased adaptive thermogenesis in BAT.

  12. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Matthias J Betz

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein: control (64.3/16.7/19, LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5, LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1, and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7. RESULTS: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint, explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. CONCLUSION: All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by

  13. Failure to increase insulin secretory capacity during pregnancy-induced insulin resistance is associated with ethnicity and gestational diabetes.

    Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne K; Sletner, Line; Vårdal, Mari H; Waage, Christin W; Nakstad, Britt; Vangen, Siri; Birkeland, Kåre I

    2012-10-01

    To assess changes in insulin resistance and β-cell function in a multiethnic cohort of women in Oslo, Norway, from early to 28 weeks' gestation and 3 months post partum and relate the findings to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Population-based cohort study of 695 healthy pregnant women from Western Europe (41%), South Asia (25%), Middle East (15%), East Asia (6%) and elsewhere (13%). Blood samples and demographics were recorded at mean 15 (V1) and 28 (V2) weeks' gestation and 3 months post partum (V3). Universal screening was by 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at V2, GDM with modified IADPSG criteria (no 1-h measurement): fasting plasma glucose (PG) ≥5.1 or 2-h PG ≥8.5 mmol/l. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-β (β-cell function) and HOMA-IR (insulin resistance) were calculated from fasting glucose and C-peptide. Characteristics were comparable across ethnic groups, except age (South Asians: younger, Pinsulin resistant than Western Europeans at V1. From V1 to V2, the increase in insulin resistance was similar across the ethnic groups, but the increase in β-cell function was significantly lower for the East and South Asians compared with Western Europeans. GDM women compared with non-GDM women were more insulin resistant at V1; from V1 to V2, their β-cell function increased significantly less and the percentage increase in β-cell function did not match the change in insulin resistance. Pregnant women from East Asia and South Asia were more insulin resistant and showed poorer HOMA-β-cell function than Western Europeans.

  14. Ammonium intensifies CAM photosynthesis and counteracts drought effects by increasing malate transport and antioxidant capacity in Guzmania monostachia.

    Pereira, Paula Natália; Gaspar, Marília; Smith, J Andrew C; Mercier, Helenice

    2018-04-09

    Guzmania monostachia (Bromeliaceae) is a tropical epiphyte capable of up-regulating crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in its photosynthetic tissues in response to changing nutrient and water availability. Previous studies have shown that under drought there is a gradient of increasing CAM expression from the basal (youngest) to the apical (oldest) portion of the leaves, and additionally that nitrogen deficiency can further increase CAM intensity in the leaf apex of this bromeliad. The present study investigated the inter-relationships between nitrogen source (nitrate and/or ammonium) and water deficit in regulating CAM expression in G. monostachia leaves. The highest CAM activity was observed under ammonium nutrition in combination with water deficit. This was associated with enhanced activity of the key enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, elevated rates of ATP- and PPi-dependent proton transport at the vacuolar membrane in the presence of malate, and increased transcript levels of the vacuolar malate channel-encoding gene, ALMT. Water deficit was consistently associated with higher levels of total soluble sugars, which were maximal under ammonium nutrition, as were the activities of several antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). Thus, ammonium nutrition, whilst associated with the highest degree of CAM induction in G. monostachia, also mitigates the effects of water deficit by osmotic adjustment and can limit oxidative damage in the leaves of this bromeliad under conditions that may be typical of its epiphytic habitat.

  15. Demand elasticity increase for reducing social welfare losses due to transfer capacity restriction: A test case on Italian cross-border imports

    Bruno, Sergio; De Benedictis, Michele; La Scala, Massimo; Wangensteen, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    The paper is aimed at showing how demand-side policies for increasing inner demand elasticity could help in reducing market inefficiencies generated by transfer limits on interconnections, with a special regard to energy imports dependent countries. In order to develop the studies in a realistic environment, a model for the Italian electricity market has been developed. Test results show effects of variations in demand elasticity on the national social surplus and congestion costs. It will be shown how an increase of demand elasticity can counterbalance the need of additional transfer capacity in reducing cross-border congestions. (author)

  16. Improving iSC performance through outsourcing - Considerations for using third-party service providers to increase innovation, capacity and efficiency.

    Wright, Martin; Forster, Gary; Beale, John

    2017-04-19

    Development partners and donors have encouraged and incentivized governments in developing countries to explore ways of working with third-party service suppliers to reduce costs and increase service delivery capacity. The distribution of vaccines and medicines has for a long time shown demand for outsourcing but public health systems have struggled to develop the expertise and capital assets necessary to manage such ventures. Existing transport and logistics capacity within public health systems, in particular, is well documented as being insufficient to support existing, let alone future immunization needs. Today, a number of countries are contracting party logistics providers (3PLs) to supplement the in-house distribution operations of public health systems. This commentary reflects on recent, leading examples of outsourcing initiatives to address critical gaps in transport and logistics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Reconstruction actions in order to achieve and increase the designed nominal heat capacity of a hot-water block boiler with two flame pipes

    Ninevski, Gjorgji; Sekovanikj, Ivica; Kirovski, Hristo

    2000-01-01

    All companies which are occupied with some kind of useful energy production, must realize two very important things: firstly, maximum utilization of projecting capacities of energetic plants, in condition when specific investment for projecting and erecting of new plants allude use of prominent financial capital, and secondly, the energy must be produced economically, i.e. with the highest possible coefficient of efficiency and the lowest impact of combustion process to the environment. This paper presents the chronology of reconstruction activities of a block hot water boiler with two flame tubes type BKG 200 with 16.28 MWth (made by TPK Zagreb) in order to acquire and increase its thermal capacity app. 11 % (Authors)

  18. Facilitated Learning to Advance Geriatrics: Increasing the Capacity of Nurse Faculty to Teach Students About Caring for Older Adults.

    Krichbaum, Kathleen; Kaas, Merrie J; Wyman, Jean F; Van Son, Catherine R

    2015-06-01

    The Facilitated Learning to Advance Geriatrics program (FLAG) was designed to increase the numbers of nurse faculty in prelicensure programs with basic knowledge about aging and teaching effectiveness to prepare students to provide safe, high quality care for older adults. Using a framework to improve transfer of learning, FLAG was designed to include: (a) a workshop to increase basic knowledge of aging and common geriatric syndromes, and effective use of evidence-based teaching/learning strategies; (b) a year-long mentoring program to support application of workshop learning and leading change in participants' schools to ensure that geriatrics is a priority. Both formative and summative evaluation methods were used, and included self-assessment of objectives, program satisfaction, and teaching self-efficacy. FLAG achieved its overall purpose by enrolling 152 participants from 19 states including 23 faculty from associate degree programs and 102 from baccalaureate programs. Self-rated teaching effectiveness improved significantly from pre- to post-workshop each year. Achievement of learning objectives was rated highly as was satisfaction. Transfer of learning was evidenced by implementation of educational projects in home schools supported by mentoring. The FLAG program provided opportunities for nurse educators to learn to teach geriatrics more effectively and to transfer learning to their work environment. Future FLAG programs will be offered in a shortened format, incorporating online content and strategies, adding other health professionals to the audience with the same goal of increasing the knowledge and abilities of educators to prepare learners to provide competent care for older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The Arnot capacity increase project - An integrated boiler and turbine retrofit by Alstom - Implementation and operational experience

    Davies, Mike; Stephen, Don; Rich, Glyn; Mills, Jeff; Allen, Steve

    2010-09-15

    In cooperation with South African utility giant Eskom, Alstom has undertaken an ambitious project to upgrade the six-unit Arnot Power Station. The objective was to retrofit major plant components in a cost effective manner in order to extend plant life and increase output. This paper will consider the implementation of the project, the challenges overcome and the operational experience subsequently gained. Lessons learned will be identified. Conclusions will be drawn concerning the effectiveness of a comprehensive feasibility study prior to project implementation and the ability of modern design and manufacturing techniques to retrofit older machines, thus releasing latent potential.

  20. Remediation of incomplete nitrification and capacity increase of biofilters at different drinking water treatment plants through copper dosing

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Borch Nielsen, Peter; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants based on groundwater may suffer from incomplete ammonium removal, which deteriorates drinking water quality and constrains water utilities in the operation of their plants. Ammonium is normally removed through nitrification in biological granular media filters...... groundwater treatment plants, all of which had displayed several years of incomplete nitrification. Plants exceeded the Danish national water quality standard of 0.05 mg NH4+/L by a factor of 2–12. Within only 2-3 weeks of dosing, ammonium removal rates increased significantly (up to 150%). Nitrification...... was fully established, with ammonium effluent concentrations of water chemistry, ammonium loading rates, filter design and operation, or treatment plant configuration. However, for filters without primary filtration, it took longer time...

  1. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Herbivory by an Outbreaking Moth Increases Emissions of Biogenic Volatiles and Leads to Enhanced Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Capacity.

    Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Copolovici, Lucian; Kännaste, Astrid; Noe, Steffen; Blande, James D; Mikkonen, Santtu; Klemola, Tero; Pulkkinen, Juha; Virtanen, Annele; Laaksonen, Ari; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Niinemets, Ülo; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-11-01

    In addition to climate warming, greater herbivore pressure is anticipated to enhance the emissions of climate-relevant biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from boreal and subarctic forests and promote the formation of secondary aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. We evaluated the effects of Epirrita autumnata, an outbreaking geometrid moth, feeding and larval density on herbivore-induced VOC emissions from mountain birch in laboratory experiments and assessed the impact of these emissions on SOA formation via ozonolysis in chamber experiments. The results show that herbivore-induced VOC emissions were strongly dependent on larval density. Compared to controls without larval feeding, clear new particle formation by nucleation in the reaction chamber was observed, and the SOA mass loadings in the insect-infested samples were significantly higher (up to 150-fold). To our knowledge, this study provides the first controlled documentation of SOA formation from direct VOC emission of deciduous trees damaged by known defoliating herbivores and suggests that chewing damage on mountain birch foliage could significantly increase reactive VOC emissions that can importantly contribute to SOA formation in subarctic forests. Additional feeding experiments on related silver birch confirmed the SOA results. Thus, herbivory-driven volatiles are likely to play a major role in future biosphere-vegetation feedbacks such as sun-screening under daily 24 h sunshine in the subarctic.

  3. Increasing Bellevue School District's elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science: Using ideas from contemporary learning theory to inform professional development

    Maury, Tracy Anne

    This Capstone project examined how leaders in the Bellevue School District can increase elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science through the use of professional learning activities that are grounded in ideas from human learning theory. A framework for professional development was constructed and from that framework, a set of professional learning activities were developed as a means to support teacher learning while project participants piloted new curriculum called the Isopod Habitat Challenge. Teachers in the project increased their understanding of the learning theory principles of preconceptions and metacognition. Teachers did not increase their understanding of the principle of learning with understanding, although they did articulate the significance of engaging children in student-led inquiry cycles. Data from the curriculum revision and professional development project coupled with ideas from learning theory, cognition and policy implementation, and learning community literatures suggest Bellevue's leaders can encourage peer-to-peer interaction, link professional development to teachers' daily practice, and capitalize on technology as ways to increase elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science. These lessons also have significance for supporting teacher learning and efficacy in other subject areas and at other levels in the system.

  4. Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil

    Mohamed, Badr A.; Ellis, Naoko; Kim, Chang Soo; Bi, Xiaotao; Emam, Ahmed El-raie

    2016-01-01

    Engineered biochars produced from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass have been evaluated in terms of their ability on improving water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and fertility of loamy sand soil. The addition of K 3 PO 4 , clinoptilolite and/or bentonite as catalysts during the pyrolysis process increased biochar surface area and plant nutrient contents. Adding biochar produced with 10 wt.% K 3 PO 4 + 10 wt.% clinoptilolite as catalysts to the soil at 2 wt% load increased soil WHC by 98% and 57% compared to the treatments without biochar (control) and with 10 wt.% clinoptilolite, respectively. Synergistic effects on increased soil WHC were manifested for biochars produced from combinations of two additives compared to single additive, which may be the result of increased biochar microporosity due to increased microwave heating rate. Biochar produced from microwave catalytic pyrolysis was more efficient in increasing the soil WHC due to its high porosity in comparison with the biochar produced from conventional pyrolysis at the same conditions. The increases in soil CEC varied widely compared to the control soil, ranging from 17 to 220% for the treatments with biochars produced with 10 wt% clinoptilolite at 400 °C, and 30 wt% K 3 PO 4 at 300 °C, respectively. Strong positive correlations also exist among soil WHC with CEC and biochar micropore area. Biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis appears to be a novel approach for producing biochar with high sorption affinity and high CEC. These catalysts remaining in the biochar product would provide essential nutrients for the growth of bioenergy and food crops. - Highlights: • High quality biochar was made by catalytic pyrolysis in a microwave reactor. • High heating rate and good biochar quality were achieved using K 3 PO 4 and clinoptilolite mixture. • Biochars showed significant increase in soil WHC and CEC. • Microwave catalytic pyrolysis can produce

  5. Studying anti-oxidative properties of inclusion complexes of α-lipoic acid with γ-cyclodextrin in single living fission yeast by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    Noothalapati, Hemanth; Ikarashi, Ryo; Iwasaki, Keita; Nishida, Tatsuro; Kaino, Tomohiro; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Terao, Keiji; Nakata, Daisuke; Ikuta, Naoko; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Kawamukai, Makoto; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2018-05-01

    α-lipoic acid (ALA) is an essential cofactor for many enzyme complexes in aerobic metabolism, especially in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells where respiration takes place. It also has excellent anti-oxidative properties. The acid has two stereo-isomers, R- and S- lipoic acid (R-LA and S-LA), but only the R-LA has biological significance and is exclusively produced in our body. A mutant strain of fission yeast, Δdps1, cannot synthesize coenzyme Q10, which is essential during yeast respiration, leading to oxidative stress. Therefore, it shows growth delay in the minimal medium. We studied anti-oxidant properties of ALA in its free form and their inclusion complexes with γ-cyclodextrin using this mutant yeast model. Both free forms R- and S-LA as well as 1:1 inclusion complexes with γ-cyclodextrin recovered growth of Δdps1 depending on the concentration and form. However, it has no effect on the growth of wild type fission yeast strain at all. Raman microspectroscopy was employed to understand the anti-oxidant property at the molecular level. A sensitive Raman band at 1602 cm-1 was monitored with and without addition of ALAs. It was found that 0.5 mM and 1.0 mM concentrations of ALAs had similar effect in both free and inclusion forms. At 2.5 mM ALAs, free forms inhibited the growth while inclusion complexes helped in recovered. 5.0 mM ALA showed inhibitory effect irrespective of form. Our results suggest that the Raman band at 1602 cm-1 is a good measure of oxidative stress in fission yeast.

  6. Reduction in cardiolipin decreases mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity and increases glucose transport into and across human brain cerebral microvascular endothelial cells.

    Nguyen, Hieu M; Mejia, Edgard M; Chang, Wenguang; Wang, Ying; Watson, Emily; On, Ngoc; Miller, Donald W; Hatch, Grant M

    2016-10-01

    Microvessel endothelial cells form part of the blood-brain barrier, a restrictively permeable interface that allows transport of only specific compounds into the brain. Cardiolipin is a mitochondrial phospholipid required for function of the electron transport chain and ATP generation. We examined the role of cardiolipin in maintaining mitochondrial function necessary to support barrier properties of brain microvessel endothelial cells. Knockdown of the terminal enzyme of cardiolipin synthesis, cardiolipin synthase, in hCMEC/D3 cells resulted in decreased cellular cardiolipin levels compared to controls. The reduction in cardiolipin resulted in decreased mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, increased pyruvate kinase activity, and increased 2-deoxy-[(3) H]glucose uptake and glucose transporter-1 expression and localization to membranes in hCMEC/D3 cells compared to controls. The mechanism for the increase in glucose uptake was an increase in adenosine-5'-monophosphate kinase and protein kinase B activity and decreased glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta activity. Knockdown of cardiolipin synthase did not affect permeability of fluorescent dextran across confluent hCMEC/D3 monolayers grown on Transwell(®) inserts. In contrast, knockdown of cardiolipin synthase resulted in an increase in 2-deoxy-[(3) H]glucose transport across these monolayers compared to controls. The data indicate that in hCMEC/D3 cells, spare respiratory capacity is dependent on cardiolipin. In addition, reduction in cardiolipin in these cells alters their cellular energy status and this results in increased glucose transport into and across hCMEC/D3 monolayers. Microvessel endothelial cells form part of the blood-brain barrier, a restrictively permeable interface that allows transport of only specific compounds into the brain. In human adult brain endothelial cell hCMEC/D3 monolayers cultured on Transwell(®) plates, knockdown of cardiolipin synthase results in decrease in mitochondrial

  7. Breakdown of lung framework and an increase in pores of Kohn as initial events of emphysema and a cause of reduction in diffusing capacity.

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Sato, Shuntaro; Tanaka, Tomonori; Hashisako, Mikiko; Kashima, Yukio; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Junya

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is the pathological prototype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is also associated with other lung diseases. We considered that observation with different approaches may provide new insights for the pathogenesis of emphysema. We reviewed tissue blocks of the lungs of 25 cases with/without emphysema and applied a three-dimensional observation method to the blocks. Based on the three-dimensional characteristics of the alveolar structure, we considered one face of the alveolar polyhedron as a structural unit of alveoli and called it a framework unit (FU). We categorized FUs based on their morphological characteristics and counted their number to evaluate the destructive changes in alveoli. We also evaluated the number and the area of pores of Kohn in FUs. We performed linear regression analysis to estimate the effect of these data on pulmonary function tests. In multivariable regression analysis, a decrease in the number of FUs without an alveolar wall led to a significant decrease in the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and DLCO per unit alveolar volume, and an increase in the area of pores of Kohn had a significant effect on an increase in residual capacity. A breakdown in the lung framework and an increase in pores of Kohn are associated with a decrease in DLCO and DLCO per unit alveolar volume with/without emphysema.

  8. Corn cob biochar increases soil culturable bacterial abundance without enhancing their capacities in utilizing carbon sources in Biolog Eco-plates

    JIANG Lin-lin; HAN Guang-ming; LAN Yu; LIU Sai-nan; GAO Ji-ping; YANG Xu; MENG Jun; CHEN Wen-fu

    2017-01-01

    addition of biochar can increase culturable microbial abundance and shift bacterial genetic structure without enhancing their capacities in utilizing C sources in Biolog Eco-plates,which could be associated with the porous structure and nutrients from biochar.

  9. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    Amy G. Tsai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC; in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.

  10. Evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees

    Arifullah, Mohmmed; Namsa, Nima Dandu; Mandal, Manabendra; Chiruvella, Kishore Kumar; Vikrama, Paritala; Gopal, Ghanta Rama

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity of andrographolide (AND) and echiodinin (ECH) of Andrographis paniculata. Methods In this study, an attempt has been made to demonstrate the anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of isolated AND and ECH by broth micro-dilution method and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. Structure elucidation was determined by electro-spray ionization-MSD, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR spectra. Results AND was effective against most of the strains tested including Mycobacterium smegmatis, showing broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity with Minimum inhibitory concentration values against Staphylococcus aureus (100 µg/mL), Streptococcus thermophilus (350 µg/mL) Bacillus subtilis (100 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (50 µg/mL), Mycobacterium smegmatis (200 µg/mL), Klebsiella pneumonia (100 µg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (200 µg/mL). ECH showed specific anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration higher than 225 µg/mL. Both AND and ECH were not effective against the two yeast strains, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested in this study. Conclusion This preliminary study showed promising anti-bacterial activity and moderate free radical scavenging activity of AND and ECH, and it may provide the scientific rationale for its popular folklore medicines. PMID:23905016

  11. Chemical analysis of phenolic compounds and determination of anti-oxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts of Pinus coulteri

    Soumia Merah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available New bioactive natural products, the phenolic composition and the biological activities of organic extracts from the needles of the Algerian Pinus coulteri were investigated. The analysis by HPLC-DAD of crude extract revealed the presence of 10 phenolic acids and nine flavonoids. In vitro anti-oxidant activities were performed using four different tests. The greatest antiradical activity was found in the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 3.2 ± 0.3 µg/mL, whereas the diethyl ether fraction had the higher contents of total phenolics and flavonoids and exhibited a highest activity in reducing power and β-carotene–linoleic acid tests with EC50= 67.1 ± 0.4 μg/mL and 71.5 ± 0.2% of inhibition, respectively. Furthermore, a low to moderate antimicrobial activity according to all extracts was revealed against eight bacteria tested. The MIC value of chloroform fraction showed a strong degree of antibacterial activity (<0.09 mg/mL. The crude extract was found toxic with LC50 value of 15.2 μg/mL by brine shrimp toxicity assay. The needle extract of P. coulteri is rich in valuable biologically active compounds and could represent a new resource of anti-oxidant agents for the treatment of diseases.

  12. Effects of curcumin on angiotensin-converting enzyme gene expression, oxidative stress and anti-oxidant status in thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Fazal, Yumna; Fatima, Syeda Nuzhat; Shahid, Syed Muhammad; Mahboob, Tabassum

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of curcumin on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression, oxidative stress and anti-oxidant status in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Total 32 albino Wistar rats (male, 200-250 g) were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: untreated controls; Group 2: received TAA (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.); i.p.) for 12 weeks; Group 3: received curcumin (75 mg/kg b.w.) for 24 weeks; Group 4: received TAA (200 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) for 12 weeks+curcumin (75 mg/kg b.w.) for 12 weeks. A significantly higher ACE gene expression was observed in TAA-induced groups as compared with control, indicating more synthesis of ACE proteins. Treatment with curcumin suppressed ACE expression in TAA liver and reversed the toxicity produced. TAA treatment results in higher lipid peroxidation and lower GSH, SOD and CAT than the normal, and this produces oxidative stress in the liver. Cirrhotic conditions were confirmed by serum enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) as well as histopathological observations. Curcumin treatment reduced oxidative stress in animals by scavenging reactive oxygen species, protecting the anti-oxidant enzymes from being denatured and reducing the oxidative stress marker lipid peroxidation. Curcumin treatment restores hepatocytes, damaged by TAA, and protects liver tissue approaching cirrhosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity remains stable despite a comprehensive and sustained increase in insulin sensitivity in obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery

    Lund, M T; Larsen, S; Hansen, M

    2018-01-01

    will correlate with a corresponding change in mitochondrial respiratory capacity over the same time period. METHODS: Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity was evaluated by high-resolution respirometry...

  14. Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil

    Mohamed, Badr A. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Agricultural Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ellis, Naoko [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Kim, Chang Soo [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 14 gil 5 Hwarang-no Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bi, Xiaotao, E-mail: tony.bi@ubc.ca [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Emam, Ahmed El-raie [Agricultural Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-10-01

    Engineered biochars produced from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass have been evaluated in terms of their ability on improving water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and fertility of loamy sand soil. The addition of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, clinoptilolite and/or bentonite as catalysts during the pyrolysis process increased biochar surface area and plant nutrient contents. Adding biochar produced with 10 wt.% K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} + 10 wt.% clinoptilolite as catalysts to the soil at 2 wt% load increased soil WHC by 98% and 57% compared to the treatments without biochar (control) and with 10 wt.% clinoptilolite, respectively. Synergistic effects on increased soil WHC were manifested for biochars produced from combinations of two additives compared to single additive, which may be the result of increased biochar microporosity due to increased microwave heating rate. Biochar produced from microwave catalytic pyrolysis was more efficient in increasing the soil WHC due to its high porosity in comparison with the biochar produced from conventional pyrolysis at the same conditions. The increases in soil CEC varied widely compared to the control soil, ranging from 17 to 220% for the treatments with biochars produced with 10 wt% clinoptilolite at 400 °C, and 30 wt% K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} at 300 °C, respectively. Strong positive correlations also exist among soil WHC with CEC and biochar micropore area. Biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis appears to be a novel approach for producing biochar with high sorption affinity and high CEC. These catalysts remaining in the biochar product would provide essential nutrients for the growth of bioenergy and food crops. - Highlights: • High quality biochar was made by catalytic pyrolysis in a microwave reactor. • High heating rate and good biochar quality were achieved using K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and clinoptilolite mixture. • Biochars showed significant increase in soil WHC and CEC.

  15. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation increases the rate of oxygen consumption and enhances the spare respiratory capacity of mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Xun, Zhiyin; Lee, Do-Yup; Lim, James; Canaria, Christie A; Barnebey, Adam; Yanonne, Steven M; McMurray, Cynthia T

    2012-04-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is used in differentiation therapy to treat a variety of cancers including neuroblastoma. The contributing factors for its therapeutic efficacy are poorly understood. However, mitochondria (MT) have been implicated as key effectors in RA-mediated differentiation process. Here we utilize the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line as a model to examine how RA influences MT during the differentiation process. We find that RA confers an approximately sixfold increase in the oxygen consumption rate while the rate of glycolysis modestly increases. RA treatment does not increase the number of MT or cause measurable changes in the composition of the electron transport chain. Rather, RA treatment significantly increases the mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We propose a competition model for the therapeutic effects of RA. Specifically, the high metabolic rate in differentiated cells limits the availability of metabolic nutrients for use by the undifferentiated cells and suppresses their growth. Thus, RA treatment provides a selective advantage for the differentiated state. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (p<0.05); nevertheless, sPLA2 concentrations were not significantly modified. After a fat-enriched diet added with red wine, TAC increased as compared to the same diet supplemented with rum, brandy, vodka or the control (water with sugar) (p<0.05). Moderate red wine intake, but not other alcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, anti-oxidant like 1 protein (AOP-1 and synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP-25 in the cerebella of dogs naturally infected with spontaneous canine distemper

    Tereza C. Cardoso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In most viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS, the integrity of brain extracelluar matrix (ECM, oxidative stress and dysfunction in neuronal transmission may contribute to the observed pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of these factors in demyelinating canine distemper virus (CDV infections. Regardless of ECM integrity, the expression of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 was visualized in microglial-like cells, whereas the expression of anti-oxidant like-1 (AOP-1 and synaptosomal associated protein (SNAP-25 was frequently detected in Purkinje cells (r2 = 0.989; p < 0.05, regardless of whether the lesions were classified as acute or chronic. Increased numbers of immunolabeled microglia-like cells and reactive gliosis were observed in advanced cases of demyelinating CDV, suggesting that the expression of AOP-1 and SNAP-25 is correlated with the ultimate death of affected cells. Our findings bring a new perspective to understanding the role of the AOP-1, MMP-9 and SNAP-25 proteins in mediating chronic leukoencephalitis caused by CDV. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 41–48

  18. Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Dong, Fang; Lei, Gui Jie [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd reduces endogenous auxin levels in Arabidopsis. • Exogenous applied auxin NAA increases Cd accumulation in the roots but decreases in the shoots. • NAA increases cell wall hemicellulose 1 content. • Hemicellulose 1 retains Cd and makes it difficult to be translocated to shoots. • NAA rescues Cd-induced chlorosis. -- Abstract: Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd{sup 2+} concentration and rescued Cd{sup 2+}-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd{sup 2+} stress conditions, NAA increased Cd{sup 2+} retention in the roots and most Cd{sup 2+} in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd{sup 2+}, whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd{sup 2+} retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd{sup 2+} concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd{sup 2+} or NAA + Cd{sup 2+} treatment for 1 to 7 d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd{sup 2+} in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd{sup 2+} toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd{sup 2+} fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd{sup 2+} from roots to shoots.

  19. Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Wang, Zhi Wei; Dong, Fang; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd reduces endogenous auxin levels in Arabidopsis. • Exogenous applied auxin NAA increases Cd accumulation in the roots but decreases in the shoots. • NAA increases cell wall hemicellulose 1 content. • Hemicellulose 1 retains Cd and makes it difficult to be translocated to shoots. • NAA rescues Cd-induced chlorosis. -- Abstract: Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd 2+ ) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd 2+ concentration and rescued Cd 2+ -induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd 2+ stress conditions, NAA increased Cd 2+ retention in the roots and most Cd 2+ in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd 2+ , whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd 2+ retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd 2+ concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd 2+ or NAA + Cd 2+ treatment for 1 to 7 d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd 2+ in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd 2+ toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd 2+ fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd 2+ from roots to shoots

  20. Expression of salt-induced 2-Cys peroxiredoxin from Oryza sativa increases stress tolerance and fermentation capacity in genetically engineered yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2013-04-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), also termed thioredoxin peroxidases (TPXs), are a family of thiol-specific antioxidant enzymes that are critically involved in cell defense and protect cells from oxidative damage. In this study, a putative chloroplastic 2-Cys thioredoxin peroxidase (OsTPX) was identified by proteome analysis from leaf tissue samples of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings exposed to 0.1 M NaCl for 3 days. To investigate the relationship between the OsTPX gene and the stress response, OsTPX was cloned into the yeast expression vector p426GPD under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) promoter, and the construct was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. OsTPX expression was confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. OsTPX contained two highly conserved cysteine residues (Cys114 and Cys236) and an active site region (FTFVCPT), and it is structurally very similar to human 2-Cys Prx. Heterologous OsTPX expression increased the ability of the transgenic yeast cells to adapt and recover from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stresses, such as a reduction of cellular hydroperoxide levels in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and menadione, by improving redox homeostasis. OsTPX expression also conferred enhanced tolerance to tert-butylhydroperoxide, heat shock, and high ethanol concentrations. Furthermore, high OsTPX expression improved the fermentation capacity of the yeast during glucose-based batch fermentation at a high temperature (40 °C) and at the general cultivation temperature (30 °C). The alcohol yield in OsTPX-expressing transgenic yeast increased by approximately 29 % (0.14 g g(-1)) and 21 % (0.12 g g(-1)) during fermentation at 40 and 30 °C, respectively, compared to the wild-type yeast. Accordingly, OsTPX-expressing transgenic yeast showed prolonged cell survival during the environmental stresses produced during fermentation. These

  1. Breakdown of lung framework and an increase in pores of Kohn as initial events of emphysema and a cause of reduction in diffusing capacity

    Yoshikawa A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Akira Yoshikawa,1 Shuntaro Sato,2,3 Tomonori Tanaka,1 Mikiko Hashisako,1,4 Yukio Kashima,5,6 Tomoshi Tsuchiya,7 Naoya Yamasaki,7 Takeshi Nagayasu,7 Hiroshi Yamamoto,2 Junya Fukuoka1,6 1Nagasaki Educational and Diagnostic Center of Pathology (NEDCP, Department of Pathology, 2Clinical Research Center, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, 3Division of Biostatistics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, 4Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 5Department of Pathology, Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Medical Center, Sumoto, 6Department of Pathology, 7Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan Purpose: Pulmonary emphysema is the pathological prototype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is also associated with other lung diseases. We considered that observation with different approaches may provide new insights for the pathogenesis of emphysema. Patients and methods: We reviewed tissue blocks of the lungs of 25 cases with/without emphysema and applied a three-dimensional observation method to the blocks. Based on the three-dimensional characteristics of the alveolar structure, we considered one face of the alveolar polyhedron as a structural unit of alveoli and called it a framework unit (FU. We categorized FUs based on their morphological characteristics and counted their number to evaluate the destructive changes in alveoli. We also evaluated the number and the area of pores of Kohn in FUs. We performed linear regression analysis to estimate the effect of these data on pulmonary function tests. Results: In multivariable regression analysis, a decrease in the number of FUs without an alveolar wall led to a significant decrease in the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO and DLCO per unit alveolar volume, and an increase in the area of

  2. Using information communication technologies to increase the institutional capacity of local health organisations in Africa: a case study of the Kenya Civil Society Portal for Health.

    Juma, Charles; Sundsmo, Aaron; Maket, Boniface; Powell, Richard; Aluoch, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the healthcare components of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals is significantly premised on effective service delivery by civil society organisations (CSOs). However, many CSOs across Africalack the necessary capacity to perform this role robustly. This paper reports on an evaluation of the use, and perceived impact, of aknowledge management tool upon institutional strengthening among CSOs working in Kenya's health sector. Three methods were used: analytics data; user satisfaction surveys; and a furtherkey informant survey. Satisfaction with the portal was consistently high, with 99% finding the quality and relevance of the content very good or good for institutional strengthening standards, governance, and planning and resource mobilisation. Critical facilitators to the success of knowledge management for CSO institutional strengthening were identified as people/culture (developed resources and organisational narratives) and technology (easily accessible, enabling information exchange, tools/resources available, access to consultants/partners). Critical barriers were identified as people/culture (database limitations, materials limitations, and lack of active users), and process (limited access, limited interactions, and limited approval process). This pilot study demonstrated the perceived utility of a web-based knowledge management portal among developing nations' CSOs, with widespread satisfaction across multiple domains, which increased over time. Providing increased opportunities for collective mutual learning, promoting a culture of data use for decision making, and encouraging all health organisations to be learning institutions should be a priority for those interested in promoting sustainable long-term solutions for Africa.

  3. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity.

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect.

  4. Some peculiarities of lipides peroxide oxidation and anti oxidation therapy of duodenal peptic ulcer in the persons who stayed in the zone of the Chernobyl accident

    Babak, O.Ya.; Chernyak, A.M.; Goncharova, L.Yi.; Pasyijeshvyilyi, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have studied the links of lipides peroxide oxidation (LPO) in the blood plasma, i.e. the level of antioxidant protection at duodenal peptic ulcer (DPU) in the persons who stayed in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station. LPO intensification takes place at the expense of the primary stages (spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide induced chemo luminescence) in the liquidators with DPU, when compared with the patients having DPU who did not stay in the zone of the accident. It suggests of exhaustion of cell membranes anti-oxidate protection level which provides atypical course of inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract mucous membrane. The peculiarities of blood plasma LPO changes suggest that it would be reasonable to include antioxidants (Unithiolum) to the complex treatment of the liquidators

  5. Increasing Working Memory Load Reduces Processing of Cross-Modal Task-Irrelevant Stimuli Even after Controlling for Task Difficulty and Executive Capacity.

    Simon, Sharon S; Tusch, Erich S; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2016-01-01

    The classic account of the load theory (LT) of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC) and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM) load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual) and task-irrelevant modality (auditory). Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models.

  6. Increasing working memory load reduces processing of cross-modal task-irrelevant stimuli even after controlling for task difficulty and executive capacity

    Sharon Sanz Simon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The classic account of the Load Theory (LT of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual and task-irrelevant modality (auditory. Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models.

  7. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.

  8. Effects of an anti-oxidative ACAT inhibitor on apoptosis/necrosis and cholesterol accumulation under oxidative stress in THP-1 cell-derived foam cells.

    Miike, Tomohiro; Shirahase, Hiroaki; Jino, Hiroshi; Kunishiro, Kazuyoshi; Kanda, Mamoru; Kurahashi, Kazuyoshi

    2008-01-02

    THP-1 cell-derived foam cells were exposed to oxidative stress through combined treatment with acetylated LDL (acLDL) and copper ions (Cu2+). The foam cells showed caspase-dependent apoptotic changes on exposure to oxidative stress for 6 h, and necrotic changes with the leakage of LDH after 24 h. KY-455, an anti-oxidative ACAT inhibitor, and ascorbic acid (VC) but not YM-750, an ACAT inhibitor, prevented apoptotic and necrotic changes. These preventive effects of KY-455 and VC were accompanied by the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in culture medium containing acLDL and Cu2+, suggesting the involvement of oxidized acLDL in apoptosis and necrosis. Foam cells accumulated esterified cholesterol (EC) for 24 h in the presence of acLDL without Cu2+, which was suppressed by KY-455 and YM-750. Foam cells showed necrotic changes and died in the presence of acLDL and Cu2+. KY-455 but not YM-750 prevented cell death and reduced the amount of EC accumulated. The foam cells treated with VC further accumulated EC without necrotic changes for 24 h even in the presence of acLDL and Cu2+. YM-750 as well as KY-455 inhibited lipid accumulation when co-incubated with VC in foam cells exposed to oxidative stress. It is concluded that an anti-oxidative ACAT inhibitor or the combination of an antioxidant and an ACAT inhibitor protects foam cells from oxidative stress and effectively reduces cholesterol levels, which would be a promising approach in anti-atherosclerotic therapy.

  9. Capacity Building

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  10. A strategy to improve nitrogen utilization, reduce environmental impact, and increase performance and antioxidant capacity of fattening lambs using pomegranate peel extract.

    Rajabi, M; Rouzbehan, Y; Rezaei, J

    2017-01-01

    Dietary natural plant secondary metabolites (PSM) extracted from a pomegranate peel (PP) byproduct have the potential to improve milk yield and the milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. This experiment was performed to assess the influence of different dietary levels of PP extract (PPE) on feedlot performance, ruminal status, nutrient utilization, and antioxidant status in fattening Moghani lambs. Thirty-two lambs (initial BW of 22 ± 1.2 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with a 72-d period and 4 treatments: PPE0 (no extract), PPE15 (15 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), PPE30 (30 mL PPE/kg of diet DM), and PPE45 (45 mL PPE/kg of diet DM). Feed intake, lamb growth, diet digestibility, microbial nitrogen (N) synthesis (MNS), N retention, rumen parameters, and blood metabolites were determined. The addition of PPE to the diet of lambs had no effect on DMI (linear [L], = 0.96; quadratic [Q], = 0.65). In vivo digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, and Ash-free NDF were not affected (L, ≥ 0.28; Q, ≥ 0.26) by different levels of PPE, but it increased ADG (L, = 0.045; Q, = 0.19) and G:F (L, = 0.046; Q, = 0.20). Rumen pH, VFA concentrations, and acetate-to-propionate ratio were not affected (L, ≥ 0.14; Q, ≥ 0.23) by PPE supplementation. Dietary inclusion of PPE decreased the ruminal concentration of ammonia N (L, = 0.014; Q, = 0.67), total protozoa enumeration (L, concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, or albumin-to-globulin ratio. Blood urea N (L, = 0.021; Q, = 0.32) decreased with dietary addition of PPE, while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the rumen fluid (L, = 0.032; Q, = 0.64) and TAC in the blood (L, = 0.041; Q, = 0.51) increased. Overall, dietary inclusion of PPE, up to 45 mL/kg of diet DM, linearly improved animal growth, N retention, and antioxidant capacities of the blood and rumen fluid. The PPE is a safe natural additive for use in sheep diets that can help to reduce environmental pollution by reducing

  11. Long-Term Expansion in Platelet Lysate Increases Growth of Peripheral Blood-Derived Endothelial-Colony Forming Cells and Their Growth Factor-Induced Sprouting Capacity.

    Tasev, Dimitar; van Wijhe, Michiel H; Weijers, Ester M; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Efficient implementation of peripheral blood-derived endothelial-colony cells (PB-ECFCs) as a therapeutical tool requires isolation and generation of a sufficient number of cells in ex vivo conditions devoid of animal-derived products. At present, little is known how the isolation and expansion procedure in xenogeneic-free conditions affects the therapeutical capacity of PB-ECFCs. The findings presented in this study indicate that human platelet lysate (PL) as a serum substitute yields twice more colonies per mL blood compared to the conventional isolation with fetal bovine serum (FBS). Isolated ECFCs displayed a higher proliferative ability in PL supplemented medium than cells in FBS medium during 30 days expansion. The cells at 18 cumulative population doubling levels (CPDL) retained their proliferative capacity, showed higher sprouting ability in fibrin matrices upon stimulation with FGF-2 and VEGF-A than the cells at 6 CPDL, and displayed low β-galactosidase activity. The increased sprouting of PB-ECFCs at 18 CPDL was accompanied by an intrinsic activation of the uPA/uPAR fibrinolytic system. Induced deficiency of uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) or uPAR (uPA receptor) by siRNA technology completely abolished the angiogenic ability of PB-ECFCs in fibrin matrices. During the serial expansion, the gene induction of the markers associated with inflammatory activation such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 did not occur or only to limited extent. While further propagation up to 31 CPDL proceeded at a comparable rate, a marked upregulation of inflammatory markers occurred in all donors accompanied by a further increase of uPA/uPAR gene induction. The observed induction of inflammatory genes at later stages of long-term propagation of PB-ECFCs underpins the necessity to determine the right time-point for harvesting of sufficient number of cells with preserved therapeutical potential. The presented isolation method and subsequent cell expansion in platelet lysate

  12. Long-Term Expansion in Platelet Lysate Increases Growth of Peripheral Blood-Derived Endothelial-Colony Forming Cells and Their Growth Factor-Induced Sprouting Capacity.

    Dimitar Tasev

    Full Text Available Efficient implementation of peripheral blood-derived endothelial-colony cells (PB-ECFCs as a therapeutical tool requires isolation and generation of a sufficient number of cells in ex vivo conditions devoid of animal-derived products. At present, little is known how the isolation and expansion procedure in xenogeneic-free conditions affects the therapeutical capacity of PB-ECFCs.The findings presented in this study indicate that human platelet lysate (PL as a serum substitute yields twice more colonies per mL blood compared to the conventional isolation with fetal bovine serum (FBS. Isolated ECFCs displayed a higher proliferative ability in PL supplemented medium than cells in FBS medium during 30 days expansion. The cells at 18 cumulative population doubling levels (CPDL retained their proliferative capacity, showed higher sprouting ability in fibrin matrices upon stimulation with FGF-2 and VEGF-A than the cells at 6 CPDL, and displayed low β-galactosidase activity. The increased sprouting of PB-ECFCs at 18 CPDL was accompanied by an intrinsic activation of the uPA/uPAR fibrinolytic system. Induced deficiency of uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator or uPAR (uPA receptor by siRNA technology completely abolished the angiogenic ability of PB-ECFCs in fibrin matrices. During the serial expansion, the gene induction of the markers associated with inflammatory activation such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 did not occur or only to limited extent. While further propagation up to 31 CPDL proceeded at a comparable rate, a marked upregulation of inflammatory markers occurred in all donors accompanied by a further increase of uPA/uPAR gene induction. The observed induction of inflammatory genes at later stages of long-term propagation of PB-ECFCs underpins the necessity to determine the right time-point for harvesting of sufficient number of cells with preserved therapeutical potential.The presented isolation method and subsequent cell expansion in platelet

  13. Assessing the Moderating Effect of the End User in Consumer Behavior: The Acceptance of Technological Implants to Increase Innate Human Capacities.

    Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Reinares-Lara, Eva; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Garcia-Sierra, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Today, technological implants are being developed to increase innate human capacities, such as memory or calculation speed, and to endow us with new ones, such as the remote control of machines. This study's aim was two-fold: first, to introduce a Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model of technology acceptance to explain the intention to use this technology in the field of consumer behavior; and second, to analyze the differences in the intention to use it based on whether the intended implant recipient is oneself or one's child (i.e., the moderating effect of the end user). A multi-group analysis was performed to compare the results between the two groups: implant "for me" (Group 1) and implant "for my child" (Group 2). The model largely explains the intention to use the insideable technology for the specified groups [variance explained (R (2)) of over 0.70 in both cases]. The most important variables were found to be "positive emotions" and (positive) "subjective norm." This underscores the need to broaden the range of factors considered to be decisive in technology acceptance to include variables related to consumers' emotions. Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the "for me" and "for my child" models for "perceived ease of use (PEU)" and "subjective norm." These findings confirm the moderating effect of the end user on new insideable technology acceptance.

  14. Assessing the moderating effect of the end user in consumer behavior: the acceptance of technological implants to increase innate human capacities

    Jorge ePelegrín-Borondo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, technological implants are being developed to increase innate human capacities, such as memory or calculation speed, and to endow us with new ones, such as the remote control of machines. This study’s aim was twofold: first, to introduce a Cognitive-Affective-Normative model of technology acceptance to explain the intention to use this technology in the field of consumer behavior; and second, to analyze the differences in the intention to use it based on whether the intended implant recipient is oneself or one’s child (i.e., the moderating effect of the end user. A multi-group analysis was performed to compare the results between the two groups: implant for me (Group 1 and implant for my child (Group 2. The model largely explains the intention to use the insideable technology for the specified groups (variance explained (R2 of over 0.70 in both cases. The most important variables were found to be positive emotions and (positive subjective norm. This underscores the need to broaden the range of factors considered to be decisive in technology acceptance to include variables related to consumers’ emotions. Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the for me and for my child models for perceived ease of use and subjective norm. These findings confirm the moderating effect of the end user on new insideable technology acceptance.

  15. Air capacity for Sydney

    Forsyth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  16. Association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in British adults: results from the national diet and nutrition survey rolling programme years 1-4.

    McGeoghegan, L; Muirhead, C R; Almoosawi, S

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in the national diet and nutrition survey (NDNS) rolling programme years 1-4. A total of 1531 survey members provided dietary data. Reduced Rank Regression (RRR) was used to derive an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma carotenoids were selected as response variables and markers of inflammation and antioxidant status, respectively. Overall, 52 survey members had diabetes. The derived anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern was inversely related to CRP and positively to carotenoids. It was associated with lower odds of diabetes (multivariate adjusted OR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 0.17; 95%CI: 0.04-0.73; p for linear trend = 0.013). In conclusion, an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern is inversely related to diabetes. Further research is required to understand the overall framework within which foods and nutrients interact to affect metabolic pathways related to diabetes risk.

  17. Incorporated Woodchips as a Novel Intervention to Support Plant Growth through Increased Water Holding Capacity and Nutrient Retention in Sandy Degraded Soils

    Menzies, E.; Schneider, R.; Walter, T.

    2017-12-01

    According to the World Wildlife Federation's most recent Plow Print report 53 million acres of temperate, water limited, grasslands across the Great Plains have been converted to agriculture since 2009. This conversion very often begins the process of soil degradation which can lead to desertification and the necessity to convert more land to agriculture. The most common solution to this problem is improved crop efficiency to reduce conversion of grasslands to agriculture while still producing enough food for us all. We suggest that while that may be the beginning of the solution, degraded soils need to be rehabilitated and brought back into production to adequately provide food crops for the increasing population of the globe. Incorporated woodchips can be used to improve the soils' water holding capacity and nutrient (N and P) retention. In a previous study we observed an increase in the gravimetric water content and a decrease in soluble N and P losses when fertilizers were applied in liquid form in soil columns with incorporated woodchips (see attached figure). In this study we examine the availability of the retained water and nutrients to grasses to determine the extent to which this intervention might be used to reestablish plant growth in degraded sandy soils. We also begin examining the quantity of woodchips necessary to retain sufficient water and nutrients to sustain the growth of grasses over the course of a growing season. A laboratory soil column study is currently underway to examine these questions; the results of this study will be presented at the Fall Meeting.

  18. Coffee Consumption Increases the Antioxidant Capacity of Plasma and Has No Effect on the Lipid Profile or Vascular Function in Healthy Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Agudelo-Ochoa, Gloria M; Pulgarín-Zapata, Isabel C; Velásquez-Rodriguez, Claudia M; Duque-Ramírez, Mauricio; Naranjo-Cano, Mauricio; Quintero-Ortiz, Mónica M; Lara-Guzmán, Oscar J; Muñoz-Durango, Katalina

    2016-03-01

    Coffee, a source of antioxidants, has controversial effects on cardiovascular health. We evaluated the bioavailability of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in 2 coffees and the effects of their consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC), the serum lipid profile, and the vascular function in healthy adults. Thirty-eight men and 37 women with a mean ± SD age of 38.5 ± 9 y and body mass index of 24.1 ± 2.6 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a control group that did not consume coffee or a placebo and 2 groups that consumed 400 mL coffee/d for 8 wk containing a medium (MCCGA; 420 mg) or high (HCCGA; 780 mg) CGA content. Both were low in diterpenes (0.83 mg/d) and caffeine (193 mg/d). Plasma caffeic and ferulic acid concentrations were measured by GC, and the plasma AC was evaluated with use of the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method. The serum lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO) plasma metabolites, vascular endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation; FMD), and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated. After coffee consumption (1 h and 8 wk), caffeic and ferulic acid concentrations increased in the coffee-drinking groups, although the values of the 2 groups were significantly different (P consumption, the plasma AC in the control group was significantly lower than the baseline value (-2%) and significantly increased in the MCCGA (6%) and HCCGA (5%) groups (P profile, FMD, BP, or NO plasma metabolites. This trial was registered at registroclinico.sld.cu as RPCEC00000168. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Increasing capacity to deliver diabetes self-management education: results of the DESMOND lay educator non-randomized controlled equivalence trial.

    Carey, M E; Mandalia, P K; Daly, H; Gray, L J; Hale, R; Martin Stacey, L; Taub, N; Skinner, T C; Stone, M; Heller, S; Khunti, K; Davies, M J

    2014-11-01

    To develop and test a format of delivery of diabetes self-management education by paired professional and lay educators. We conducted an equivalence trial with non-randomized participant allocation to a Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 diabetes (DESMOND) course, delivered in the standard format by two trained healthcare professional educators (to the control group) or by one trained lay educator and one professional educator (to the intervention group). A total of 260 people with Type 2 diabetes diagnosed within the previous 12 months were referred for self-management education as part of routine care and attended either a control or intervention format DESMOND course. The primary outcome measure was change in illness coherence score (derived from the Diabetes Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised) between baseline and 4 months after attending education sessions. Secondary outcome measures included change in HbA1c level. The trial was conducted in four primary care organizations across England and Scotland. The 95% CI for the between-group difference in positive change in coherence scores was within the pre-set limits of equivalence (difference = 0.22, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52). Equivalent changes related to secondary outcome measures were also observed, including equivalent reductions in HbA1c levels. Diabetes education delivered jointly by a trained lay person and a healthcare professional educator with the same educator role can provide equivalent patient benefits. This could provide a method that increases capacity, maintains quality and is cost-effective, while increasing access to self-management education. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  20. Phytochemically evaluation and net anti-oxidant activity of Tunisian Melia azedarach leaves extract from their ProAntidex parameter

    Maroua Akacha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is a discipline which is interested in the design, the preparation and the interpretation of structure activity relationship of the natural bioactive molecules. In this context, ethanolic leaves extract of Melia azedarach L. was phytochemically analysed on the bases of HPLC and by GC–MS. Extract wase tested for his in vitro antioxidant activities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, H2O2, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Ferric Reducing Power (FRP and Ferrous ion chelating abilities methods. The antioxidant activity of the extract was analyzed simultaneously with their pro-oxidant capacity. The ratio of pro-oxidant to the antioxidant activity (ProAntidex represents a useful index of the net free radical scavenging potential of the synthesized compounds. Tested extract showed significant antioxidant activity with a moderate ProAntidex.

  1. Saturated Fats from Butter but Not from Cheese Increase HDL-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Capacity from J774 Macrophages in Men and Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    Brassard, Didier; Arsenault, Benoît J; Boyer, Marjorie; Bernic, Daniela; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Talbot, Denis; Tremblay, Angelo; Levy, Emile; Asztalos, Bela; Jones, Peter J H; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2018-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and coronary artery disease risk varies according to food sources. How SFAs from butter and cheese influence HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), a key process in reverse cholesterol transport, is currently unknown. In a predefined secondary analysis of a previously published trial, we have examined how diets rich in SFAs from either cheese or butter influence HDL-mediated CEC, compared with diets rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a randomized crossover controlled consumption trial, 46 men and women with abdominal obesity consumed 5 isocaloric diets, each for 4 wk. Two diets were rich in SFAs either from cheese (CHEESE) or butter (BUTTER) [12.4-12.6% of energy (%E) as SFAs, 32%E as fat, 52%E as carbohydrates]. In 2 other diets, SFAs (5.8%E) were replaced with either MUFAs from refined olive oil (MUFA) or PUFAs from corn oil (PUFA). Finally, a lower fat and carbohydrate diet was used as a control (5.8%E as SFAs, 25.0%E as fat, 59%E as carbohydrates; CHO). Post-diet HDL-mediated CEC was determined ex vivo using radiolabelled J774 macrophages incubated with apolipoprotein B-depleted serum from the participants. Mean (±SD) age was 41.4 ± 14.2 y, and waist circumference was 107.6 ± 11.5 cm in men and 94.3 ± 12.4 cm in women. BUTTER and MUFA increased HDL-mediated CEC compared with CHEESE (+4.3%, P = 0.026 and +4.7%, P = 0.031, respectively). Exploring the significant diet × sex interaction (P = 0.044) revealed that the increase in HDL-mediated CEC after BUTTER compared with CHEESE was significant among men (+6.0%, P = 0.047) but not women (+2.9%, P = 0.19), whereas the increase after MUFA compared with CHEESE was significant among women (+9.1%, P = 0.008) but not men (-0.6%, P = 0.99). These results provide evidence of a food matrix effect modulating the impact of dairy SFAs on HDL

  2. Describing the implementation of an innovative intervention and evaluating its effectiveness in increasing research capacity of advanced clinical nurses: using the consolidated framework for implementation research.

    McKee, Gabrielle; Codd, Margaret; Dempsey, Orla; Gallagher, Paul; Comiskey, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    ; experiential learning opportunities; focused and with needs based educational sessions, is an intervention that can both increase research outputs and capacity of clinically based nurses. Interventions to further enhance nursing research and their evaluation are crucial if we are to address the deficit of nurse-led patient-centred research in the literature.

  3. Increasing research capacity and changing the culture of primary care towards reflective inquiring practice: the experience of the West London Research Network (WeLReN).

    Thomas, P; While, A

    2001-05-01

    A number of primary care research networks were set up throughout England in 1998 in order to (1) improve the quality of primary care research (2) increase the research capacity of primary care, and (3) change the culture of primary care towards reflective inquiring practice (NHSE, 2000b). It is not clear how best to operate a network to achieve these diverse aims. This paper describes the first 30 months of a network that adopted a whole system approach in the belief that this would offer the best chance of simultaneously achieving the three aims. A cycle of activity was designed to facilitate the formation of multidisciplinary coalitions of interest for research with complementary 'top down' and 'bottom up' programmes of work co-existing. At least 330 people participated in the generation of research questions of whom one third (33%) were general practitioners, 16% community nurses, 6% practice managers and other primary care practitioners. Over two fifths (43%) were 'key allies'--academics, health authority staff, community workers and project workers. One fifth (110) of all practices (500) in the WeLReN area have collaborated in at least one research project. The ratio of doctor:nurse participation in the 24 research project teams was markedly different in the supported coalitions (2:1) compared to projects devised and led by more experienced researchers (6:1). The evidence suggests that it is possible to operate a primary care research network in a way that develops coalitions of interest from different parts of the health care system as well as both 'top down' and 'bottom up' led projects. It is too early to tell if the approach will be able to achieve its aims in the long-term but the activity data are encouraging. There is a need for more research on the theoretical basis of network operation.

  4. Warburg effect increases steady-state ROS condition in cancer cells through decreasing their antioxidant capacities (anticancer effects of 3-bromopyruvate through antagonizing Warburg effect).

    El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Mahmoud, Ahmed Alamir; El Sawy, Samer Ahmed; Abdelaal, Esam Abdelrahim; Fouad, Amira Murad; Yousif, Reda Salah; Hashim, Marwa Shaban; Hemdan, Shima Badawy; Kadry, Zainab Mahmoud; Abdelmoaty, Mohamed Ahmed; Gabr, Adel Gomaa; Omran, Faten M; Nabo, Manal Mohamed Helmy; Ahmed, Nagwa Sayed

    2013-11-01

    Cancer cells undergo an increased steady-state ROS condition compared to normal cells. Among the major metabolic differences between cancer cells and normal cells is the dependence of cancer cells on glycolysis as a major source of energy even in the presence of oxygen (Warburg effect). In Warburg effect, glucose is catabolized to lactate that is extruded through monocarboxylate transporters to the microenvironment of cancer cells, while in normal cells, glucose is metabolized into pyruvate that is not extruded. Pyruvate is a potent antioxidant, while lactate has no antioxidant effect. Pyruvate in normal cells may be further metabolized to acetyl CoA and then through Krebs cycle with production of antioxidant intermediates e.g. citrate, malate and oxaloacetate together with the reducing equivalents (NADH.H+). Through activity of mitochondrial transhydrogenase, NADH.H+ replenishes NADPH.H+, coenzyme of glutathione reductase which replenishes reduced form of glutathione (potent antioxidant). This enhances antioxidant capacities of normal cells, while cancer cells exhibiting Warburg effect may be deprived of all that antioxidant capabilities due to loss of extruded lactate (substrate for Krebs cycle). Although intrinsic oxidative stress in cancer cells is high, it may be prevented from reaching progressively increasing levels that are cytotoxic to cancer cells. This may be due to some antioxidant effects exerted by hexokinase II (HK II) and NADPH.H+ produced through HMP shunt. Glycolytic phenotype in cancer cells maintains a high non-toxic oxidative stress in cancer cells and may be responsible for their malignant behavior. Through HK II, glycolysis fuels the energetic arm of malignancy, the mitotic arm of malignancy (DNA synthesis through HMP shunt pathway) and the metastatic arm of malignancy (hyaluronan synthesis through uronic acid pathway) in addition to the role of phosphohexose isomerase (autocrine motility factor). All those critical three arms start with the

  5. Metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway enhances the antioxidant capacity of Saussurea involucrata.

    Jian Qiu

    Full Text Available The rare wild species of snow lotus Saussurea involucrata is a commonly used medicinal herb with great pharmacological value for human health, resulting from its uniquely high level of phenylpropanoid compound production. To gain information on the phenylpropanid biosynthetic pathway genes in this critically important medicinal plant, global transcriptome sequencing was performed. It revealed that the phenylpropanoid pathway genes were well represented in S. involucrata. In addition, we introduced two key phenylpropanoid pathway inducing transcription factors (PAP1 and Lc into this medicinal plant. Transgenic S. involucrata co-expressing PAP1 and Lc exhibited purple pigments due to a massive accumulation of anthocyanins. The over-expression of PAP1 and Lc largely activated most of the phenylpropanoid pathway genes, and increased accumulation of several phenylpropanoid compounds significantly, including chlorogenic acid, syringin, cyanrine and rutin. Both ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid and FRAP (ferric reducing anti-oxidant power assays revealed that the antioxidant capacity of transgenic S. involucrata lines was greatly enhanced over controls. In addition to providing a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, our results potentially enable an alternation of bioactive compound production in S. involucrata through metabolic engineering.

  6. Restoration of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression in renal cancer cells downregulates oncoproteins and affects key metabolic pathways as well as anti-oxidative system.

    Popławski, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Rijntjes, Eddy; Richards, Keith; Rybicka, Beata; Köhrle, Josef; Piekiełko-Witkowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO1) contributes to deiodination of 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (thyroxine, T4) yielding of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), a powerful regulator of cell differentiation, proliferation, and metabolism. Our previous work showed that loss of DIO1 enhances proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells. However, the global effects of DIO1 expression in various tissues affected by cancer remain unknown. Here, the effects of stable DIO1 re-expression were analyzed on the proteome of renal cancer cells, followed by quantitative real-time PCR validation in two renal cancer-derived cell lines. DIO1-induced changes in intracellular concentrations of thyroid hormones were quantified by L-MS/MS and correlations between expression of DIO1 and potential target genes were determined in tissue samples from renal cancer patients. Stable re-expression of DIO1, resulted in 26 downregulated proteins while 59 proteins were overexpressed in renal cancer cells. The 'downregulated' group consisted mainly of oncoproteins (e.g. STAT3, ANPEP, TGFBI, TGM2) that promote proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, DIO1 re-expression enhanced concentrations of two subunits of thyroid hormone transporter (SLC7A5, SLC3A2), enzymes of key pathways of cellular energy metabolism (e.g. TKT, NAMPT, IDH2), sex steroid metabolism and anti-oxidative response (AKR1C2, AKR1B10). DIO1 expression resulted in elevated intracellular concentration of T4. Expression of DIO1-affected genes strongly correlated with DIO1 transcript levels in tissue samples from renal cancer patients as well as with their poor survival. This first study addressing effects of deiodinase re-expression on proteome of cancer cells demonstrates that induced DIO1 re-expression in renal cancer robustly downregulates oncoproteins, affects key metabolic pathways, and triggers proteins involved in anti-oxidative protection. This data supports the notion that suppressed DIO1 expression and changes

  7. Restoration of type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression in renal cancer cells downregulates oncoproteins and affects key metabolic pathways as well as anti-oxidative system.

    Piotr Popławski

    Full Text Available Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO1 contributes to deiodination of 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (thyroxine, T4 yielding of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, a powerful regulator of cell differentiation, proliferation, and metabolism. Our previous work showed that loss of DIO1 enhances proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells. However, the global effects of DIO1 expression in various tissues affected by cancer remain unknown. Here, the effects of stable DIO1 re-expression were analyzed on the proteome of renal cancer cells, followed by quantitative real-time PCR validation in two renal cancer-derived cell lines. DIO1-induced changes in intracellular concentrations of thyroid hormones were quantified by L-MS/MS and correlations between expression of DIO1 and potential target genes were determined in tissue samples from renal cancer patients. Stable re-expression of DIO1, resulted in 26 downregulated proteins while 59 proteins were overexpressed in renal cancer cells. The 'downregulated' group consisted mainly of oncoproteins (e.g. STAT3, ANPEP, TGFBI, TGM2 that promote proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, DIO1 re-expression enhanced concentrations of two subunits of thyroid hormone transporter (SLC7A5, SLC3A2, enzymes of key pathways of cellular energy metabolism (e.g. TKT, NAMPT, IDH2, sex steroid metabolism and anti-oxidative response (AKR1C2, AKR1B10. DIO1 expression resulted in elevated intracellular concentration of T4. Expression of DIO1-affected genes strongly correlated with DIO1 transcript levels in tissue samples from renal cancer patients as well as with their poor survival. This first study addressing effects of deiodinase re-expression on proteome of cancer cells demonstrates that induced DIO1 re-expression in renal cancer robustly downregulates oncoproteins, affects key metabolic pathways, and triggers proteins involved in anti-oxidative protection. This data supports the notion that suppressed DIO1 expression

  8. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M.

    1984-01-01

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation. (Auth.)

  9. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Neurobiology)

    1984-07-23

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation.

  10. C-Phycocyanin protects against acute tributyltin chloride neurotoxicity by modulating glial cell activity along with its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory property: A comparative efficacy evaluation with N-acetyl cysteine in adult rat brain.

    Mitra, Sumonto; Siddiqui, Waseem A; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2015-08-05

    Spirulina is a widely used health supplement and is a dietary source of C-Phycocyanin (CPC), a potent anti-oxidant. We have previously reported the neurotoxic potential of tributyltin chloride (TBTC), an environmental pollutant and potent biocide. In this study, we have evaluated the protective efficacy of CPC against TBTC induced neurotoxicity. To evaluate the extent of neuroprotection offered by CPC, its efficacy was compared with the degree of protection offered by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (a well known neuroprotective drug, taken as a positive control). Male Wistar rats (28 day old) were administered with 20mg/kg TBTC (oral) and 50mg/kg CPC or 50mg/kg NAC (i.p.), alone or in combination, and various parameters were evaluated. These include blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage; redox parameters (ROS, GSH, redox pathway associated enzymes, oxidative stress markers); inflammatory, cellular, and stress markers; apoptotic proteins and in situ cell death assay (TUNEL). We observed increased CPC availability in cortical tissue following its administration. Although BBB associated proteins like claudin-5, p-glycoprotein and ZO-1 were restored, CPC/NAC failed to protect against TBTC induced overall BBB permeability (Evans blue extravasation). Both CPC and NAC remarkably reduced oxidative stress and inflammation. NAC effectively modulated redox pathway associated enzymes whereas CPC countered ROS levels efficiently. Interestingly, CPC and NAC were equivalently capable of reducing apoptotic markers, astroglial activation and cell death. This study illustrates the various pathways involved in CPC mediated neuroprotection against this environmental neurotoxicant and highlights its capability to modulate glial cell activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils

    Hsiao-Fen Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power (RP, β-carotene bleaching (BCB activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%, thymol (14.36% and carvacrol (12.33%, and eugenol (0.87%, respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability.

  12. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils.

    Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Keh-Feng

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power (RP), β-carotene bleaching (BCB) activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS) ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%), thymol (14.36%) and carvacrol (12.33%), and eugenol (0.87%), respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effect of repeated oral administration of bifenthrin on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant parameters in Wistar rats.

    Dar, Muneer Ahmad; Khan, Adil Mehraj; Raina, Rajinder; Verma, Pawan Kumar; Sultana, Mudasir

    2013-07-01

    The oxidative stress-inducing potential of the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, was evaluated in rats at 5.8 mg/kg body weight once daily for 20 or 30 days. Bifenthrin treated animals showed significantly increased lipid peroxidation, evidenced by increased blood malondialdehyde levels. Blood glutathione levels and activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased significantly in the bifenthrin treated animals after both 20 and 30 days of treatment, whereas, the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase decreased significantly only on the 30th day. In conclusion, bifenthrin has a potential to induce severe oxidative stress in rats exposed to sublethal concentrations.

  14. Cycle oxidation behavior and anti-oxidation mechanism of hot-dipped aluminum coating on TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with network microstructure.

    Li, X T; Huang, L J; Wei, S L; An, Q; Cui, X P; Geng, L

    2018-04-10

    Controlled and compacted TiAl 3 coating was successfully fabricated on the network structured TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by hot-dipping aluminum and subsequent interdiffusion treatment. The network structure of the composites was inherited to the TiAl 3 coating, which effectively reduces the thermal stress and avoids the cracks appeared in the coating. Moreover, TiB reinforcements could pin the TiAl 3 coating which can effectively improve the bonding strength between the coating and composite substrate. The cycle oxidation behavior of the network structured coating on 873 K, 973 K and 1073 K for 100 h were investigated. The results showed the coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation resistance of the TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites. The network structure was also inherited to the Al 2 O 3 oxide scale, which effectively decreases the tendency of cracking even spalling about the oxide scale. Certainly, no crack was observed in the coating after long-term oxidation due to the division effect of network structured coating and pinning effect of TiB reinforcements. Interfacial reaction between the coating and the composite substrate occurred and a bilayer structure of TiAl/TiAl 2 formed next to the substrate after oxidation at 973 K and 1073 K. The anti-oxidation mechanism of the network structured coating was also discussed.

  15. Seaweed Polysaccharides (Laminarin and Fucoidan as Functional Ingredients in Pork Meat: An Evaluation of Anti-Oxidative Potential, Thermal Stability and Bioaccessibility

    Natasha C. Moroney

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The anti-oxidative potential of laminarin (L, fucoidan (F and an L/F seaweed extract was measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, in 25% pork (longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL homogenates (TBARS (3 and 6 mg/mL and in horse heart oxymyoglobin (OxyMb (0.1 and 1 mg/mL. The DPPH activity of fresh and cooked minced LTL containing L (100 mg/g; L100, F100 and L/F100,300, and bioaccessibility post in vitro digestion (L/F300, was assessed. Theoretical cellular uptake of antioxidant compounds was measured in a transwell Caco-2 cell model. Laminarin displayed no activity and fucoidan reduced lipid oxidation but catalysed OxyMb oxidation. Fucoidan activity was lowered by cooking while the L/F extract displayed moderate thermal stability. A decrease in DPPH antioxidant activity of 44.15% and 36.63%, after 4 and 20 h respectively, indicated theoretical uptake of L/F antioxidant compounds. Results highlight the potential use of seaweed extracts as functional ingredients in pork.

  16. XYLITOL IMPROVES ANTI-OXIDATIVE DEFENSE SYSTEM IN SERUM, LIVER, HEART, KIDNEY AND PANCREAS OF NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MODEL OF RATS.

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Shahidul

    2017-05-01

    The present study investigated the anti-oxidative effects of xylitol both in vitro and in vivo in normal and type 2 diabetes (T2D) rat model. Free radical scavenging and ferric reducing potentials of different concentrations of xylitol were investigated in vitro. For in vivo study, six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Normal Xylitol (NXYL) and Diabetic Xylitol (DXYL). T2D was induced in the DBC and DXYL groups. After the confirmation of diabetes, a 10% xylitol solution was supplied instead of drinking water to NXYL and DXYL, while normal drinking water was supplied to NC and DBC ad libitum. After five weeks intervention period, the animals were sacri- ficed and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities were determined in the liver, heart, kidney, pancreatic tissues and serum samples. Xylitol exhibited significant (p foods and food products.

  17. Seaweed Polysaccharides (Laminarin and Fucoidan) as Functional Ingredients in Pork Meat: An Evaluation of Anti-Oxidative Potential, Thermal Stability and Bioaccessibility

    Moroney, Natasha C.; O’Grady, Michael N.; Lordan, Sinéad; Stanton, Catherine; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    The anti-oxidative potential of laminarin (L), fucoidan (F) and an L/F seaweed extract was measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, in 25% pork (longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL)) homogenates (TBARS) (3 and 6 mg/mL) and in horse heart oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) (0.1 and 1 mg/mL). The DPPH activity of fresh and cooked minced LTL containing L (100 mg/g; L100), F100 and L/F100,300, and bioaccessibility post in vitro digestion (L/F300), was assessed. Theoretical cellular uptake of antioxidant compounds was measured in a transwell Caco-2 cell model. Laminarin displayed no activity and fucoidan reduced lipid oxidation but catalysed OxyMb oxidation. Fucoidan activity was lowered by cooking while the L/F extract displayed moderate thermal stability. A decrease in DPPH antioxidant activity of 44.15% and 36.63%, after 4 and 20 h respectively, indicated theoretical uptake of L/F antioxidant compounds. Results highlight the potential use of seaweed extracts as functional ingredients in pork. PMID:25903283

  18. Comparison of Effect of Two-Hour Exposure to Forest and Urban Environments on Cytokine, Anti-Oxidant, and Stress Levels in Young Adults.

    Im, Su Geun; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Song, Min-Kyu; Kim, Won; Woo, Jong-Min

    2016-06-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two-hour exposure to a forest environment on cytokine, anti-oxidant and stress levels among university students and to compare the results to those measured in urban environments. Forty-one subjects were recruited. For our crossover design, subjects were divided into two groups based on similar demographic characteristics. Group A remained in the urban environment and was asked to perform regular breathing for 2 h. Blood samples were collected and the serum levels of cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were examined. Subjects were moved to a small town in a rural area for an equal amount of time to exclude carryover effects, and then remained for another 2 h in a forest environment. The second set of blood samples was collected to assess the effect of exposure to the forest environment. Using the same method, Group B was first exposed to the forest environment, followed by exposure to the urban environment. Blood samples collected after the subjects were exposed to the forest environment showed significantly lower levels of IL-8 and TNF-α compared to those in samples collected after urban environment exposure (10.76 vs. 9.21, t = 4.559, p forest environment (LnGPx = 5.09 vs. LnGPx = 5.21, t = -2.039, p < 0.05).

  19. Multi-Response Extraction Optimization Based on Anti-Oxidative Activity and Quality Evaluation by Main Indicator Ingredients Coupled with Chemometric Analysis on Thymus quinquecostatus Celak.

    Chang, Yan-Li; Shen, Meng; Ren, Xue-Yang; He, Ting; Wang, Le; Fan, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiu-Huan; Li, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yi; Sui, Hong; She, Gai-Mei

    2018-04-19

    Thymus quinquecostatus Celak is a species of thyme in China and it used as condiment and herbal medicine for a long time. To set up the quality evaluation of T. quinquecostatus , the response surface methodology (RSM) based on its 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was introduced to optimize the extraction condition, and the main indicator components were found through an UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS n method. The ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction time on optimum conditions were 42.32%, 1:17.51, and 1.8 h, respectively. 35 components having 12 phenolic acids and 23 flavonoids were unambiguously or tentatively identified both positive and negative modes to employ for the comprehensive analysis in the optimum anti-oxidative part. A simple, reliable, and sensitive HPLC method was performed for the multi-component quantitative analysis of T. quinquecostatus using six characteristic and principal phenolic acids and flavonoids as reference compounds. Furthermore, the chemometrics methods (principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA)) appraised the growing areas and harvest time of this herb closely relative to the quality-controlled. This study provided full-scale qualitative and quantitative information for the quality evaluation of T. quinquecostatus , which would be a valuable reference for further study and development of this herb and related laid the foundation of further study on its pharmacological efficacy.

  20. Melatonin and schistosomal antigens ameliorate the anti-oxidative and biochemical response to Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamster

    Omema SALAH

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of melatonin as an antioxidant separately or in combination with antigens (cercarial; CAP or soluble worm; SWAP against Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamsters. Each hamster was sensitized with an initial immunization of 0.6 ml of the extracted antigen (30 μg protein/mL. After four days, a second injection of 0.4 mL was given (20 μg protein/mL. Then, each hamster was exposed to 260 ± 20 S.mansoni cercariae followed with melatonin treatment (3.5 mg/kg for thirty days from the 1st day of post infection. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO products, catalase (CAT activity, hepatic glutathione (GSH and biochemical changes in the liver and kidneys functions were investigated. The results revealed a high significant increasing of LPO and decreasing of CAT and GSH in liver of infected hamsters. Biochemical observations showed severe damage in the liver enzyme activities and increasing cholesterol level in infected animals. Melatonin co-treatment with antigen to the infected-hamster attenuated the increase of LPO and restored the activity of CAT and levels of hepatic GSH. Also, the biochemical damages in the liver and kidneys functions were reduced. The present study suggests that melatonin may be useful in combating free radical-induced damage due to infection toxicity. The immunization with previous antigens resulted in a remarkable improvement on the liver enzyme activities, which were increased after infection. Thus, vaccination of hamsters with antigens (both CAP and SWAP and melatonin treatment has more potent effect on the enhancement of antioxidant and biochemical of S. mansoni infected-hamster than each treatment separately. Immunization of the hamster with SWAP followed by melatonin was the best way among the other regime treatments to improve the biochemical and antioxidant parameters of the infected-hamsters

  1. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups and serum levels of anti-oxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis

    Fernandez-Moreno Mercedes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. To prevent this, the chondrocytes possess a well-coordinated enzymatic antioxidant system. Besides, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups are associated with the OA disease. Thus, the main goal of this work is to assess the incidence of the mtDNA haplogroups on serum levels of two of the main antioxidant enzymes, Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (Mn-SOD or SOD2 and catalase, and to test the suitability of these two proteins for potential OA-related biomarkers. Methods We analyzed the serum levels of SOD2 and catalase in 73 OA patients and 77 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups J, U and H, by ELISA assay. Knee and hip radiographs were classified according to Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L scoring from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to test the effects of clinical variables, including gender, body mass index (BMI, age, smoking status, diagnosis, haplogroups and radiologic K/L grade on serum levels of these enzymes. Results Serum levels of SOD2 appeared statistically increased in OA patients when compared with healthy controls (p Conclusions The increased levels of SOD2 in OA patients indicate an increased oxidative stress OA-related, therefore this antioxidant enzyme could be a suitable candidate biomarker for diagnosis of OA. Mitochondrial haplogroups significantly correlates with serum levels of catalase

  2. Thymidine kinase deficient human cells have increased UV sensitivity in their capacity to support herpes simplex virus but normal UV sensitivity for colony formation

    Rainbow, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    A thymidine kinase deficient (tk - ) and two thymidine kinase proficient (tk + ) human cell lines were compared for UV sensitivity using colony-forming ability as well as their capacity to support the plaque formation of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1).The tk - line (143 cells) was a derivative of one of the tk + lines (R970-5), whereas the other tk + line (AC4 cells) was a derivative of the 143 cells obtained by transfection with purified sheared HSV-2 DNA encoding the viral tk gene. 143, R970-5 and AC4 cells showed a similar UV sensitivity for colony-forming ability. In contrast, the capacity to support HSV-1 plaque formation immediately (within 1 h) afte UV-irradiation was reduced to a greater extent in the 143 cells compared to the R970-5 and AC4 cells. Capacity curves for plaque formation of the HSV-1: KOS wild-type (tk + ) strain were similar to those for the HSV-1: PTK3B mutant (tk - ) strain were similar to those for the HSV-1: PTK3B mutant (tk - ) strain in the 3 cell strains, indicating that the viral tk gene does not influence the ability of HSV-1 to form plaques in UV-irradiated compared to unirradiated human cells. Cellular capacity for HSV-1 plaque formation was found to recover in both tk - and tk + cells for cultures infected 24 h after UV-irradiation. These results suggest that repair of UV-damaged DNA takes place to a similar extent in both tk - and tk + human cells, but the kinetics of repair are initially slower in tk - compared to tk + human cells. (author). 33 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Increases thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase by fusion of cellulose binding domain derived from Trichoderma reesei

    Thongekkaew, Jantaporn; Ikeda, Hiroko; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The CSLP and fusion enzyme were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris. ► The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 °C for 120-min. ► The fusion enzyme was responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. ► The fusion enzyme has an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase (CSLP), the cellulose-binding domain originates from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I was engineered into C-terminal region of the CSLP (CSLP-CBD). The CSLP and CSLP-CBD were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris using the strong methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and the secretion signal sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (α factor). The recombinant CSLP and CSLP-CBD were secreted into culture medium and estimated by SDS–PAGE to be 22 and 27 kDa, respectively. The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 °C and retained more than 80% of its activity after 120-min incubation at this temperature. Our results also found that the fusion of fungal exoglucanase cellulose-binding domain to CSLP is responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. This attribute should make it an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization.

  4. Increases thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase by fusion of cellulose binding domain derived from Trichoderma reesei

    Thongekkaew, Jantaporn, E-mail: jantaporn_25@yahoo.com [Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ubon-Ratchathani University, Warinchumrab, Ubon-Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand); Ikeda, Hiroko; Iefuji, Haruyuki [Application Research Division, National Research Institute of Brewing, 3-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CSLP and fusion enzyme were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C for 120-min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme was responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion enzyme has an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization. -- Abstract: To improve the thermal stability and cellulose-binding capacity of Cryptococcus sp. S-2 lipase (CSLP), the cellulose-binding domain originates from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I was engineered into C-terminal region of the CSLP (CSLP-CBD). The CSLP and CSLP-CBD were successfully expressed in the Pichia pastoris using the strong methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and the secretion signal sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ({alpha} factor). The recombinant CSLP and CSLP-CBD were secreted into culture medium and estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 22 and 27 kDa, respectively. The fusion enzyme was stable at 80 Degree-Sign C and retained more than 80% of its activity after 120-min incubation at this temperature. Our results also found that the fusion of fungal exoglucanase cellulose-binding domain to CSLP is responsible for cellulose-binding capacity. This attribute should make it an attractive applicant for enzyme immobilization.

  5. Oxidative and Anti-Oxidative Stress Markers in Chronic Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Benoist d’Azy, Cédric; Pereira, Bruno; Chiambaretta, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Chronic glaucoma is a multifactorial disease among which oxidative stress may play a major pathophysiological role. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the levels of oxidative and antioxidative stress markers in chronic glaucoma compared with a control group. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched for studies reporting oxidative and antioxidative stress markers in chronic glaucoma and in healthy controls using the following keywords: “oxidative stress” or “oxidant stress” or “nitrative stress” or “oxidative damage” or “nitrative damage” or “antioxidative stress” or “antioxidant stress” or “antinitrative stress” and “glaucoma”. We stratified our meta-analysis on the type of biomarkers, the type of glaucoma, and the origin of the sample (serum or aqueous humor). We included 22 case-control studies with a total of 2913 patients: 1614 with glaucoma and 1319 healthy controls. We included 12 studies in the meta-analysis on oxidative stress markers and 19 on antioxidative stress markers. We demonstrated an overall increase in oxidative stress markers in glaucoma (effect size = 1.64; 95%CI 1.20–2.09), ranging from an effect size of 1.29 in serum (95%CI 0.84–1.74) to 2.62 in aqueous humor (95%CI 1.60–3.65). Despite a decrease in antioxidative stress marker in serum (effect size = –0.41; 95%CI –0.72 to –0.11), some increased in aqueous humor (superoxide dismutase, effect size = 3.53; 95%CI 1.20–5.85 and glutathione peroxidase, effect size = 6.60; 95%CI 3.88–9.31). The differences in the serum levels of oxidative stress markers between glaucoma patients and controls were significantly higher in primary open angle glaucoma vs primary angle closed glaucoma (effect size = 12.7; 95%CI 8.78–16.6, P stress increased in glaucoma, both in serum and aqueous humor. Malonyldialdehyde seemed the best biomarkers of oxidative stress in serum. The increase of some

  6. Monitoring the Therapeutic and Protective Role of the Anti oxidative Nutritional Factor β Carotene in gamma-Irradiated Rats

    Tawfik, S.S.; Mansour, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are those substances, synthesized, only in plants that serve to protect the plants from free radicals. β-carotene, one of the carotenoids, has been thought to be of value to humans and other species, not only as precursors to vitamin A, but also for having excellent antioxidant properties. Four groups of rats were used to gain insight into the protective action of carotenes: control, β-carotene treated (30 mg/ kg body wt for 10 days), irradiated (4 fractions, each of 1.5 Gy gamma-rays during 10 days) and protracted group: rats received the same fractionated gamma-rays at the same time gavaged with β-carotene along the 10 days. Irradiated rats revealed significant decreases in p-carotene and glutathione (GSH) concentrations and significant increases in the activities of blood alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), catalase and contents of blood thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). In liver , tissue, TBARS content and catalase activity were raised while GSH was declined. The oral intake of β-carotene to irradiated rats was found to maintain the parameters measured near the control mean levels; i.e., increased content of blood β-carotene and GSH and modulated activities of ALP, ACP, ALT, GGT, catalase and TBARS level. It also, modulated the alterations of liver TBARS, catalase and GSH. Conclusion: β-carotene therapy significantly modulates oxidative damage induced by ionising radiation in rats

  7. Synthesis of gold nano particles with enlargement size by gamma Co-60 irradiation and investigation of anti oxidation effect

    Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Dang Van Phu; Le Anh Quoc; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with size in the range of 10-53 nm were synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation using water-soluble chitosan (WSC) as stabilizer and size enlargement by seed approach. Absorption wavelength (λ max ) was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy and particle size was determined from TEM images. Results showed that value of λ max increased from 523 nm (seed particles) to 525, 537 and 549 nm and the size of AuNPs increased from 10 nm (seed particles) to 20, 38 and 53 nm, respectively, for concentration ratio of Au 3+ /Au 0 (seed) of 2.5, 5 and 10. Antioxidant effect of AuNPs with size of 10, 20, 38 and 53 nm was investigated using free radical 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS .+ ). Results indicated that the smaller the particle size was (10 nm) the stronger the antioxidant effect attained. Thus, AuNPs/WSC synthesis by gamma Co-60 irradiation are promising for applications as antioxidants in cosmetics and in other fields as well. (author)

  8. Station Capacity

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  9. Anti-oxidative effects of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis on immobilization-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    In-Sun Hong

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic psychological stress may be related to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS or free radicals, and thus, long-term exposure to high levels of oxidative stress may cause the accumulation of oxidative damage and eventually lead to many neurodegenerative diseases. Compared with other organs, the brain appears especially susceptible to excessive oxidative stress due to its high demand for oxygen. In the case of excessive ROS production, endogenous defense mechanisms against ROS may not be sufficient to suppress ROS-associated oxidative damage. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to protect neurons against a variety of experimental neurodegenerative conditions. In particular, Rooibos tea might be a good source of antioxidants due to its larger proportion of polyphenolic compounds. An optimal animal model for stress should show the features of a stress response and should be able to mimic natural stress progression. However, most animal models of stress, such as cold-restraint, electric foot shock, and burn shock, usually involve physical abuse in addition to the psychological aspects of stress. Animals subjected to chronic restraint or immobilization are widely believed to be a convenient and reliable model to mimic psychological stress. Therefore, in the present study, we propose that immobilization-induced oxidative stress was significantly attenuated by treatment with Rooibos tea. This conclusion is demonstrated by Rooibos tea's ability to (i reverse the increase in stress-related metabolites (5-HIAA and FFA, (ii prevent lipid peroxidation (LPO, (iii restore stress-induced protein degradation (PD, (iv regulate glutathione metabolism (GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, and (v modulate changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT.

  10. The anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of nebivolol and zofenopril in a model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

    Uzar, Ertuğrul; Acar, Abdullah; Evliyaoğlu, Osman; Fırat, Uğur; Kamasak, Kağan; Göçmez, Cüneyt; Alp, Harun; Tüfek, Adnan; Taşdemir, Nebahat; Ilhan, Atilla

    2012-01-10

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether nebivolol and zofenopril have protective effects against oxidative damage and apoptosis induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). There were seven groups of rats, with each containing eight rats. The groups were: the control group, I/R group, I/R plus zofenopril, I/R plus nebivolol, I/R plus nebivolol and zofenopril, zofenopril only and nebivolol only. Cerebral I/R was induced by clamping the bilateral common carotid artery and through hypotension. The rats were sacrificed 1h after ischemia, and histopathological and biochemical analyses were carried out on their brains. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by using an automated and colorimetric measurement method developed by Erel. I/R produced a significant increase in the levels of total oxidant status and malondialdehyde levels, the number of caspase-3 immunopositive cells and activities of prolidase and paraoxonase in brain when compared with the control group (ptotal antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide levels were found in I/R group when compared with the control group (ptotal antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide levels, produced by I/R in the brain (ptotal oxidant status, malondialdehyde levels, activities of paraoxonase and prolidase from increasing in brains of rats exposed to I/R (p<0.05). In conclusion, both nebivolol and zofenopril protected rats from ischemia-induced brain injury. The protection may be due to the indirect prevention of oxidative stress and apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nordic Walking Can Be Incorporated in the Exercise Prescription to Increase Aerobic Capacity, Strength, and Quality of Life for Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Bullo, Valentina; Gobbo, Stefano; Vendramin, Barbara; Duregon, Federica; Cugusi, Lucia; Di Blasio, Andrea; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Zaccaria, Marco; Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize and analyze the effects of Nordic Walking on physical fitness, body composition, and quality of life in the elderly. Keyword "Nordic Walking" associated with "elderly" AND/OR "aging" AND/OR "old subjects" AND/OR "aged" AND/OR "older adults" were used in the online database MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Only studies written in English language and published in peer-reviewed journals were considered. A meta-analysis was performed and effect sizes calculated. Fifteen studies were identified; age of participants ranged from 60 to 92 years old. Comparing with a sedentary group, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking was able to improve dynamic balance (0.30), functional balance (0.62), muscle strength of upper (0.66) and lower limbs (0.43), aerobic capacity (0.92), cardiovascular outcomes (0.23), body composition (0.30), and lipid profile (0.67). It seemed that Nordic Walking had a negative effect on static balance (-0.72). Comparing with a walking (alone) training, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking improved the dynamic balance (0.30), flexibility of the lower body (0.47), and quality of life (0.53). Walking training was more effective in improving aerobic capacity (-0.21). Comparing Nordic Walking with resistance training, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking improved dynamic balance (0.33), muscle strength of the lower body (0.39), aerobic capacity (0.75), flexibility of the upper body (0.41), and the quality of life (0.93). Nordic Walking can be considered as a safe and accessible form of aerobic exercise for the elderly population, able to improve cardiovascular outcomes, muscle strength, balance ability, and quality of life.

  12. Analysis of anti-bacterial and anti oxidative activity of Azadirachta indica bark using various solvents extracts

    Raid Al Akeel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medications have been used for relief of symptoms of disease. Regardless of the great advances observed in current medicine in recent decades, plants still make a significant contribution to health care. An alarming increase in bacterial strains resistant to a number of antimicrobial agents demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to or less sensitive to current antibiotics. Anti-bacterial activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark was tested against pathogenic Salmonella paratyphi and Salmonella typhi using various solvent extracts. The in vitro anti-bacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method and the results were expressed as the average diameter of zone of inhibition of bacterial growth around the well. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed better anti-bacterial activity with zone of inhibition (20–25 mm when compared with other tested extracts and standard antibiotic Erythromycin (15 mcg with zone of inhibition (13–14 mm. Using Fisher’s exact test of significance difference was found between two Salmonella strains sensitivity patterns against tested extracts (P ⩽ 0.035. Extracts of A. indica stem bark also exhibited significant antioxidant activity, thus establishing the extracts as an antioxidant. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the A. indica stem bark for further investigation of compounds and in future could be used as drug.

  13. Increased productivity in construction of civil and mining tunnels through the use of high-capacity tunnel-boring machines and continuous belt conveyor muck haulage

    Beatty, J.G.; Ganey, R.J.; Killingsworth, J.E. [Perini Corp., Chicago, IL (United States). US Heavy Division

    1994-12-31

    The use of a large diameter high production tunnel boring machine interfaced with a high capacity continuous belt conveyor system provides a highly productive and cost effective construction system for both civil and mining tunnels. Continuous advance of the tunnel boring machine for a distance of 1,000 feet (305 m) allows for very efficient operation of the system. The available cost reductions will likely prove that this approach to waste handling will make marginally viable projects economically feasible. 9 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Increasing the general level of academic capacity in general practice: introducing mandatory research training for general practitioner trainees through a participatory research process

    Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Hansen, Lars Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    skills, and through the development and implementation of the mandatory programme to gradually empower the GP community to achieve academic capacity by creating a link between the GP researchers and the GP training community. This was done by developing a faculty, giving teaching skills to GP academics...... of the planning phase. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2009, we built a teaching faculty of 25 teachers among clinical GPs and GP academics; developed the training programme; and delivered the programme to 95 GP trainees. Some of the GP trainees later showed an interest in more substantial research projects, and GP...... and teaching. There is, however, a generic barrier in the regulation of academia itself....

  15. Effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum anti-oxidant enzymes and vitamins of albino rats

    Benedict C. Eke, BSc, MSc

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum antioxidant enzymes and vitamins in albino rats was investigated. In the study, thirty two (32 male wistar albino rats were obtained and grouped into four groups (A, B, C and D of eight animals each. The animals were acclimatized for 7 days on commercial rat feed. The animals in groups B, C and D were all fed ad libitum with porridge yam, porridge beans and jellof rice with meat/fish reheated for 2 min, 4 min and 6 min for groups B, C and D respectively for 42 days. Group A was fed with un-microwaved food and water for the duration of the study (42 days and served as control. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT activities, vitamins A and E concentrations were determined using standard methods. Result obtained from the study showed that microwaved food consumption resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in SOD and CAT activity in rats fed with the microwaved food. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity were more significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in rats exposed to food microwaved for 6 min compared to the control group (A. Also, serum vitamins A and E concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in rats fed with food exposed to microwaves for 6 min as compared to the control group. Microwaves and increased microwaving time resulted to a significant reduction in SOD, CAT, vitamin A and E in fed rats. Therefore our study demonstrated that consumption of microwaved foods resulted in a significant decrease in antioxidant protection and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress and degenerative diseases.

  16. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Robert Musundire

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS and coupled gas chromatography (GC-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1 at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  17. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  18. Evaluation of the anti-oxidant ethylene diurea (EDU) as a protectant against ozone effects on crops (Growth chamber trials)

    Archambault, D.J.; Li, X. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada). Environmental Technologies

    2003-02-01

    A field study conducted during the summer of 2000 showed that when the antioxidant ethylene diurea (EDU) was applied to crops there was an increase in several parameters. The authors designed a series of controlled-environment trials to test the following: were the effects of EDU the result of EDU-mediated protection against ozone (O{sub 3}) or were they from the plant growth promoting effects of EDU independent of O{sub 3}. The three major objectives were: (1) to modify an existing gas exposure system to expose plants to O{sub 3} and to test the stability and reliability of the system, (2) to perform O{sub 3} exposure trials using wheat, barley, field pea and canola to observe the effects of O{sub 3}, and (3) to test whether the effects of EDU could be attributed to protection against O{sub 3} injury or to the plant growth promoting effects independent of O{sub 3}. The modification to the gas exposure system involved the installation of an O{sub 3} delivery system and a monitoring system. Stability of the system was tested using radish plants. The symptoms of O{sub 3} injury on radish leaves began after two weeks of exposure. It appeared as mottled bleached areas which became red. Mottled chlorotic areas appeared on wheat and barley, which led to complete chlorosis, necrosis and eventually abscission. After two weeks of exposure, field pea developed tendril curl, and canola plants displayed no visible signs of injury from O{sub 3} exposure. The results of the study indicated that the effects of EDU can be species- and cultivar-specific. 15 refs., 11 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Prospects for OPEC capacity

    Adelman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    OPEC capacity is not exogenous, but responds to demand. Price increases have not been caused by capacity shortages. OPEC nations find it hard to set aside even very small portions of their revenues for oil investment, despite its extreme profitability. Foreign investors face high risks. Production sharing makes their after-tax return even more unstable. (author)

  20. L-cysteine efflux in erythrocytes as a function of human age: correlation with reduced glutathione and total anti-oxidant potential.

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Thiol compounds such as cysteine (Cys) and reduced glutathione (GSH) play an important role in human aging and age-related diseases. In erythrocytes, GSH is synthesized by glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine, but the rate of GSH synthesis is determined only by the availability of L-cysteine. Cysteine supplementation has been shown to ameliorate several parameters that are known to degenerate during human aging. We have studied L-cysteine efflux in vitro in human erythrocytes as a function of age by suspending cells in solution containing 10 mM L-cysteine for uptake; later cells were re-suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-glucose to allow efflux. Change in the free sulfhydryl (-SH) concentration was then measured to calculate the rate of efflux. The GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio was taken as a control to study the oxidation/reduction state of the erythrocyte. The total anti-oxidant potential of plasma was measured in terms of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) values. We have shown a significant (pL-cysteine in erythrocytes during human aging, and the GSH/GSSG ratio decreases as a function of human age. The decline in L-cysteine efflux during aging correlates with the decrease in GSH and the FRAP value. This finding may help to explain the shift in the redox status and low GSH concentration that might determine the rate of L-cysteine efflux observed in erythrocytes and an important factor in the development of oxidative stress in erythrocytes during aging.

  1. Phyto-assisted synthesis of bio-functionalised silver nanoparticles and their potential anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and wound healing activities.

    Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Biswas, Kunal; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Jaya; De, Debashis; Jayabalan, Rasu; Bastia, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Bio- synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was made by using the aqueous leaf extract of Ardisia solanacea. Rapid formation of AgNPs was observed from silver nitrate upon treatment with the aqueous extract of A. solanacea leaf. The formation and stability of the AgNPs in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The mean particle diameter of AgNPs was calculated from the DLS with an average size ∼4 nm and ∼65 nm. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of alcohols, aldehydes, flavonoids, phenols and nitro compounds in the leaf which act as the stabilizing agent. Antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs was performed using agar well diffusion and broth dilution method against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Further, robust anti-oxidative potential was evaluated by DPPH assay. The highest antimicrobial activity of synthesized AgNPs was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.2 ± 0.52 mm) whereas moderate activity was found against Bacillus subtilis (16.1 ± 0.76), Candida kruseii (13.0 ± 1.0), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.6 ± 1.52). Moreover, the potential wound healing activity was observed against the BJ-5Ta normal fibroblast cell line. Current research revealed that A. solanacea was found to be a suitable source for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of anti-oxidant vitamins plus zinc treatment to prevent the progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration. A Singapore perspective.

    Saxena, Nakul; George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tock Han; Yong, Shao Onn

    2015-06-01

    To determine if providing high dose anti-oxidant vitamins and zinc treatment age-related eye disease study (AREDS formulation) to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) aged 40-79 years from Singapore is cost-effective in preventing progression to wet AMD. A hypothetical cohort of category 3 and 4 AMD patients from Singapore was followed for 5 calendar years to determine the number of patients who would progress to wet AMD given the following treatment scenarios: (a) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by ranibizumab (as needed) for wet AMD. (b) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by bevacizumab (monthly) for wet AMD. (c) AREDS formulation or placebo followed by aflibercept (VIEW I and II trial treatment regimen). Costs were estimated for the above scenarios from the providers' perspective, and cost-effectiveness was measured by cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted with a disability weight of 0.22 for wet AMD. The costs were discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Over 5400 patients could be prevented from progressing to wet AMD cumulatively if AREDS formulation were prescribed. AREDS formulation followed by ranibizumab was cost-effective compared to placebo-ranibizumab or placebo-aflibercept combinations (cost per DALY averted: SGD$23,662.3 and SGD$21,138.8, respectively). However, bevacizumab (monthly injections) alone was more cost-effective compared to AREDS formulation followed by bevacizumab. Prophylactic treatment with AREDS formulation for intermediate AMD patients followed by ranibizumab or for patients who progressed to wet AMD was found to be cost-effective. These findings have implications for intermediate AMD screening, treatment and healthcare planning in Singapore.

  3. The Roles of 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana on the Nrf2-Anti-Oxidant System and the Cell Cycle in Breast Cancer Cells.