WorldWideScience

Sample records for included study design

  1. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Conceptual design studies of a V/STOL civil lift fan transport including effect of size and fan pressure ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of V/STOL Lift Fan Commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The remote lift fan configurations with a variation in fan pressure ratio from 1.2 to 1.5 were investigated. Also studied were variation in stage length from 200 nautical miles to 800 nautical miles and cruise Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.85. These results indicate a four engine configuration was feasible. The 95 PNdb noise footprint would be approximately 45 acres and the DOC's would be about 60% greater than conventional transports.

  3. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris M Heid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2 in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345, including general population (GP studies, population-based studies with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP, and obesity studies (OB. We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213 combining the different study designs did not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27. The I(2 measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015 indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2 measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33 and an OR of 1.10 (p-value = 0.015. Regarding the five hypotheses, our data showed (a some difference between GP and HP studies (p-value = 0.012 and (b an association in extreme comparisons (BMI> or =32.5, 35.0, 37.5, 40.0 kg/m(2 versus BMI<25 kg/m(2 yielding ORs of 1.16, 1.18, 1.22, or 1.27 (p-values 0.001 to 0.003, which was also underscored by significantly increased CC-genotype frequencies across BMI categories (10.4% to 12.5%, p-value for trend = 0.0002. We did not find evidence for differential ORs (c among studies with higher than average obesity prevalence compared to lower, (d among studies with BMI assessment after the year 2000 compared to those before, or (e among studies from older populations compared to younger. Analysis of non-Caucasian adults (n = 4889 or children (n = 3243 yielded ORs of 1.01 (p-value = 0.94 or 1.15 (p-value = 0.22, respectively. There was no evidence for overall association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity. Our data suggested an association with extreme degrees of obesity, and consequently heterogeneous effects from different study designs may

  4. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heid, Iris M; Huth, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J F

    2009-01-01

    with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP), and obesity studies (OB). We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213) combining the different study designs did......The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345), including general population (GP) studies, population-based studies...... not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27). The I(2) measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015) indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2) measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33) and an OR of 1.10 (p...

  5. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three 'all-comer' studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings. NCT02156401. Published by the

  6. Gradually including potential users: A tool to counter design exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitkus, Emilene; Langdon, Patrick; Clarkson, P John

    2018-01-01

    The paper describes an iterative development process used to understand the suitability of different inclusive design evaluation tools applied into design practices. At the end of this process, a tool named Inclusive Design Advisor was developed, combining data related to design features of small appliances with ergonomic task demands, anthropometric data and exclusion data. When auditing a new design the tool examines the exclusion that each design feature can cause, followed by objective recommendations directly related to its features. Interactively, it allows designers or clients to balance design changes with the exclusion caused. It presents the type of information that enables designers and clients to discuss user needs and make more inclusive design decisions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Include Your Patrons in Web Design. Computers in Small Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Successful Web publishing requires not only technical skills but also a refined sense of taste, a good understanding of design, and strong writing abilities. When designing a library Web page, a person must possess all of these talents and be able to market to a broad spectrum of patrons. As a result, library sites vary widely in their style and…

  8. Should Intelligent Design Be Included in Today's Public School Curriculums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, Kevin C.; Killins, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The controversial concept of evolution makes up only a small part of the science curriculum stated in Arkansas. During the past few years, the curriculum topic of "Intelligent Design" has caught the attention of many science teachers in the public schools. The Intelligent Design Movement has been successful in attracting the attention of…

  9. When users cannot be included in inclusive design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive Design (ID) methods place a strong emphasis on user participation in designing mainstream products. In recent years researchers in the field of assistive technology (AT) have drawn on and contributed to the ID approach. There are good grounds for this association. However, the linkage....... In the case of a student design project it was necessary to focus on a super-user, use prototyping as a creative tool and to use improvised ergonomic simulation. In a second case a consultancy was required to place more emphasis on ethnographic, observational methods and personas where co-creation and co...

  10. When users cannot be included in inclusive design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive Design (ID) methods place a strong emphasis on user participation in designing mainstream products. In recent years researchers in the field of assistive technology (AT) have drawn on and contributed to the ID approach. There are good grounds for this association. However, the linkage....... In the case of a student design project it was necessary to focus on a super-user, use prototyping as a creative tool and to use improvised ergonomic simulation. In a second case a consultancy was required to place more emphasis on ethnographic, observational methods and personas where co-creation and co...... elides the differences in methods that are available and appropriate to designers in the respective fields. The demands required by strategies such as co-creation, focus groups, cultural probes and even simple interviewing can be above the capacities of the users of AT. Yet the impairments of ill...

  11. Advanced Propulsor Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Report No. CG-D-1-86 ADVANCED PROPULSOR DESIGN STUDIES BY WALTER S. GEARHART 00 DTIC ;00 ELECTE MAR 4 S86 B II This document is available to the U;S...Organization Code Advanced Propulsor Design Studies _.__________ 0. Performing Orgoni ation Report No.7. A’jthoart g) Walter S. Gearhart 9. Performing...USCG Hulls Considered in the Preliminary Design Studies . . . . . . * 2 Preliminary Design Investigation . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 3

  12. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  13. Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse ⋯ What to include and what not to include?

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    This study discussed a proposed process to prioritize chemicals for reclaimed water monitoring programs, selection of analytical methods required for their quantification, toxicological relevance of chemicals of emerging concern regarding human health, and related issues. Given that thousands of chemicals are potentially present in reclaimed water and that information about those chemicals is rapidly evolving, a transparent, science-based framework was developed to guide prioritization of which compounds of emerging concern (CECs) should be included in reclaimed water monitoring programs. The recommended framework includes four steps: (1) compile environmental concentrations (e.g., measured environmental concentration or MEC) of CECs in the source water for reuse projects; (2) develop a monitoring trigger level (MTL) for each of these compounds (or groups thereof) based on toxicological relevance; (3) compare the environmental concentration (e.g., MEC) to the MTL; CECs with a MEC/MTL ratio greater than 1 should be prioritized for monitoring, compounds with a ratio less than \\'1\\' should only be considered if they represent viable treatment process performance indicators; and (4) screen the priority list to ensure that a commercially available robust analytical method is available for that compound. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  14. Designing satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...... satisfaction studies are given....

  15. TS Fuzzy Model-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Including Nonsmooth Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising......This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... TS modeling of the nonlinear dynamics with signum functions is proposed. This model can exactly represent the original nonlinear system with hard nonlinearity while the discontinuous signum functions are not approximated. Based on the bounded-input-bounded-output stability scheme and L₁ performance...

  16. Interactions between the Design and Operation of Shale Gas Networks, Including CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifzadeh Mahdi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for energy continues to increase, shale gas, as an unconventional source of methane (CH4, shows great potential for commercialization. However, due to the ultra-low permeability of shale gas reservoirs, special procedures such as horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, periodic well shut-in, and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection may be required in order to boost gas production, maximize economic benefits, and ensure safe and environmentally sound operation. Although intensive research is devoted to this emerging technology, many researchers have studied shale gas design and operational decisions only in isolation. In fact, these decisions are highly interactive and should be considered simultaneously. Therefore, the research question addressed in this study includes interactions between design and operational decisions. In this paper, we first establish a full-physics model for a shale gas reservoir. Next, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of important design and operational decisions such as well length, well arrangement, number of fractures, fracture distance, CO2 injection rate, and shut-in scheduling in order to gain in-depth insights into the complex behavior of shale gas networks. The results suggest that the case with the highest shale gas production may not necessarily be the most profitable design; and that drilling, fracturing, and CO2 injection have great impacts on the economic viability of this technology. In particular, due to the high costs, enhanced gas recovery (EGR using CO2 does not appear to be commercially competitive, unless tax abatements or subsidies are available for CO2 sequestration. It was also found that the interactions between design and operational decisions are significant and that these decisions should be optimized simultaneously.

  17. Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The demands on nuclear fuel have recently been increasing, and include transient regimes, higher discharge burnup and longer fuel cycles. This has resulted in an increase of loads on fuel and core internals. In order to satisfy these demands while ensuring compliance with safety criteria, new national and international programmes have been launched and advanced modelling codes are being developed. The Fukushima Daiichi accident has particularly demonstrated the need for adequate analysis of all aspects of fuel performance to prevent a failure and also to predict fuel behaviour were an accident to occur.This publication presents the Proceedings of the Technical Meeting on Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents, which was hosted by the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) in Chengdu, China, following the recommendation made in 2013 at the IAEA Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology. This recommendation was in agreement with IAEA mid-term initiatives, linked to the post-Fukushima IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan, as well as the forthcoming Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Fuel Modelling in Accident Conditions. At the technical meeting in Chengdu, major areas and physical phenomena, as well as types of code and experiment to be studied and used in the CRP, were discussed. The technical meeting provided a forum for international experts to review the state of the art of code development for modelling fuel performance of nuclear fuel for water cooled reactors with regard to steady state and transient conditions, and for design basis and early phases of severe accidents, including experimental support for code validation. A round table discussion focused on the needs and perspectives on fuel modelling in accident conditions. This meeting was the ninth in a series of IAEA meetings, which reflects Member States’ continuing interest in nuclear fuel issues. The previous meetings were held in 1980 (jointly with

  18. A study of helicopter stability and control including blade dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A linearized model of rotorcraft dynamics has been developed through the use of symbolic automatic equation generating techniques. The dynamic model has been formulated in a unique way such that it can be used to analyze a variety of rotor/body coupling problems including a rotor mounted on a flexible shaft with a number of modes as well as free-flight stability and control characteristics. Direct comparison of the time response to longitudinal, lateral and directional control inputs at various trim conditions shows that the linear model yields good to very good correlation with flight test. In particular it is shown that a dynamic inflow model is essential to obtain good time response correlation, especially for the hover trim condition. It also is shown that the main rotor wake interaction with the tail rotor and fixed tail surfaces is a significant contributor to the response at translational flight trim conditions. A relatively simple model for the downwash and sidewash at the tail surfaces based on flat vortex wake theory is shown to produce good agreement. Then, the influence of rotor flap and lag dynamics on automatic control systems feedback gain limitations is investigated with the model. It is shown that the blade dynamics, especially lagging dynamics, can severly limit the useable values of the feedback gain for simple feedback control and that multivariable optimal control theory is a powerful tool to design high gain augmentation control system. The frequency-shaped optimal control design can offer much better flight dynamic characteristics and a stable margin for the feedback system without need to model the lagging dynamics.

  19. Approach to include load sequence effects in the design of an offshore wind turbine substructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragt, R.C.; Allaix, D.L.; Maljaars, J.; Tuitman, J.T.; Salman, Y.; Otheguy, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the main design drivers for offshore wind substructures. Using Fracture Mechanics methods, load sequence effects such as crack growth retardation due to large load peaks can be included in the fatigue damage estimation. Due to the sequence dependency, a method is required that

  20. Optimal design of power system stabilizer for power systems including doubly fed induction generator wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derafshian, Mehdi; Amjady, Nima

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm-based approach for optimal design of power system stabilizer (PSS) for multi-machine power systems that include doubly fed induction generator wind turbines. The proposed evolutionary algorithm is an improved particle swarm optimization named chaotic particle swarm optimization with passive congregation (CPSO-PC) applied for finding the optimal settings of PSS parameters. Two different eigenvalue-based objectives are combined as the objective function for the optimization problem of tuning PSS parameters. The first objective function comprises the damping factor of lightly damped electro-mechanical modes and the second one includes the damping ratio of these modes. The effectiveness of the proposed method to design PSS for the power systems including DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) is extensively demonstrated through eigenvalue analysis and time-domain simulations and also by comparing its simulation results with the results of other heuristic optimization approaches. - Highlights: • A new optimization model for design of PSS in power systems including DFIG is proposed. • A detailed and realistic modeling of DFIG is presented. • A new evolutionary algorithm is suggested for solving the optimization problem of designing PSS

  1. Script of Healthcare Technology: Do Designs of Robotic Beds Exclude or Include Users?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser Grith Kragh; Hansen, Meiken; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    of assistive technologies as design of socio-material assemblies , which include an analysis of the products already used in relation to multiple users, their practices and wishes. In the article we focus on the challenges in the implementation of two types of robotic beds used for disability care...... in a municipality in Denmark. We follow both the caregivers and disabled people’s daily practices. By using Actor Network Theory we explore the socio-material settings and the design challenges. The theoretical concept of ‘script’ is used to investigate how the artifacts (beds) and the multiple users go through...

  2. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  3. Design and Optimization of Capacitated Supply Chain Networks Including Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents (1 a novel capacitated model for supply chain network design which considers manufacturing, distribution, and quality costs (named SCND-COQ model and (2 five combinatorial optimization methods, based on nonlinear optimization, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, which are used to solve realistic instances of practical size. The SCND-COQ model is a mixed-integer nonlinear problem which can be used at a strategic planning level to design a supply chain network that maximizes the total profit subject to meeting an overall quality level of the final product at minimum costs. The SCND-COQ model computes the quality-related costs for the whole supply chain network considering the interdependencies among business entities. The effectiveness of the proposed solution approaches is shown using numerical experiments. These methods allow solving more realistic (capacitated supply chain network design problems including quality-related costs (inspections, rework, opportunity costs, and others within a reasonable computational time.

  4. Optimal design of pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Leon; Ogungbenro, Kayode

    2010-03-01

    Experimental design is fundamental to successful scientific investigation. Poorly designed experiments lead to the loss of information, which is costly and potentially unethical. Experiments can be designed in an optimal fashion to maximize the amount of information they provide. Optimal design theory uses prior information about the model and parameter estimates to optimize a function of the Fisher information matrix to obtain the best combination of the design factors. In the case of population pharmacokinetic experiments, this involves the selection and a careful balance of a number of design factors, including the number and location of measurement times and the number of subjects to include in the study. It is expected that as the awareness about the benefits of this approach increases, more people will embrace it and ultimately will lead to more efficient population pharmacokinetic experiments and can also help to reduce both cost and time during drug development. This MiniReview provides an introduction to optimal design using examples taken from different pharmacokinetic experiments.

  5. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    criticism. Generating unique variance in irony detection, ironic praise can be postulated as worthwhile to include in future studies—especially when studying the role of mental ability, personality, and humor in irony detection.

  7. Design of A District Heating System Including The Upgrading of Residual Industrial Waste Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcao, P.W.; Mesbah, A.; Suherman, M.V.; Wennekes, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a waste heat stream from DSM for a District Heating System. A conceptual design was carried out with emphasis on the unit for upgrading the residual waste heat. Having reviewed heat pump technology, mechanical heat pump was found to be the

  8. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  9. A comprehensive approach to the design of ethanol supply chains including carbon trading effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Sara; Shah, Nilay; Bezzo, Fabrizio

    2012-03-01

    The optimal design of biofuels production systems is a key component in the analysis of the environmental and economic performance of new sustainable transport systems. In this paper a general mixed integer linear programming modelling framework is developed to assess the design and planning of a multi-period and multi-echelon bioethanol upstream supply chain under market uncertainty. The optimisation design process of biofuels production systems aims at selecting the best biomass and technologies options among several alternatives according to economic and environmental (global warming potential) performance. A key feature in the proposed approach is the acknowledgement of an economic value to the overall GHG emissions, which is implemented through an emissions allowances trading scheme. The future Italian biomass-based ethanol production is adopted as a case study. Results show the effectiveness of the model as a decision making-tool to steer long-term decisions and investments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulation tool for optical design of PET detector modules including scintillator material and sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatekos, B.; Erdei, G.; Lorincz, E. [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics, Dept. of Atomic Physics, Budafoki ut 8, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-07-01

    The appearance of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in the field of PET detector modules made it necessary to apply more complex optical design methods to refine the performance of such assemblies. We developed a combined simulation tool that is capable to model complex detector structures including scintillation material, light guide, light collection optics and sensor, correctly taking into account the statistical behavior of emission of scintillation light and its absorbance in SPADs. As a validation we compared simulation results obtained by our software and another optical design program. Calculations were performed for a simple PET detector arrangement used for testing purposes. According to the results, deviation of center of gravity coordinates between the two simulations is 0.0195 mm, the average ratio of total counts 1.0052. We investigated the error resulting from finite sampling in wavelength space and we found that 20 nm pitch is sufficient for the simulation in case of the given spectral dependencies. (authors)

  11. CEPC booster design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Tianjian; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Chuang; Cui, Xiao-Hao; Wang, Yi-Wei; Bai, Sha; Su, Feng; Wang, Dou; Cai, Yun-Hai; Koratzinos, Michael

    2017-12-01

    In September 2012, Chinese scientists proposed a Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) in China at 240 GeV center-of-mass energy for Higgs studies. The booster provides 120 GeV electron and positron beams to the CEPC collider for top-up injection at 0.1 Hz. The design of the full energy booster ring of the CEPC is a challenge. The ejected beam energy is 120 GeV and the injected beam energy is 6 GeV. In this paper we describe two alternative schemes, the wiggler bend scheme and the normal bend scheme. For the wiggler bend scheme, we propose to operate the booster ring as a large wiggler at low energy and as a normal ring at high energy to avoid the problem of very low dipole magnet fields. For the normal bend scheme, we implement the orbit correction to correct the earth field.

  12. BWID System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness

  13. A structural design and analysis of a piping system including seismic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The structural design/analysis of a piping system at a nuclear fuel facility is used to investigate some aspects of current design procedures. Specifically the effect of using various stress measures including ASME Boiler ampersand Pressure Vessel (B ampersand PV) Code formulas is evaluated. It is found that large differences in local maximum stress values may be calculated depending on the stress criterion used. However, when the global stress maximum for the entire system are compared the differences are much smaller, being nevertheless, for some load combinations, of the order of 50 percent. The effect of using an Equivalent Static Method (ESM) analysis is also evaluated by comparing its results with those obtained from a Response Spectrum Method (RSM) analysis with the modal responses combined by using the absolute summation (ABS), by using the square root of the squares (SRSS), and by using the 10 percent method (10PC). It is shown that for a spectrum amplification factor (equivalent static coefficient greater than unity) of at least 1.32 must be used in the current application of the ESM analysis in order to obtain results which are conservative in all aspects relative to an RSM analysis based on ABS. However, it appears that an adequate design would be obtained from the ESM approach even without the use of a spectrum amplification factor. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Studies in Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  15. Study on 'Tannix' an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ''Tannix'' was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ''Tannix'' was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  16. Study on `Tannix` an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasuo [Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ``Tannix`` was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ``Tannix`` was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  17. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences

  18. Peace psychology should include the study of peaceful individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden L

    2014-09-01

    The selection of topics for the special issue on peace psychology (October 2013) probably gave readers the impression that peace psychology should be defined as the study of conflict and peace at intergroup, societal, and global levels. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Architecture as Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1989-01-01

    Explores the use of analogies in architectural design, the importance of Gestalt theory and aesthetic cannons in understanding and being sensitive to architecture. Emphasizes the variation between public and professional appreciation of architecture. Notes that an understanding of architectural process enables students to improve the aesthetic…

  20. HYPER system design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won S.; Han, Seok J.; Song, Tae Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    KAERI is developing ADS, named HYPER for the transmutation of nuclear waste. HYPER is designed to produce 1000 MWth with the subcriticality of 0.97. HYPER adopts a hollow cylinder type metal fuel and require 1.0GeV, 16mA proton beams. Pb-Bi is used as coolant and the inlet and outlet temperatures are 340 deg C, 510 deg C, respectively. In addition, Pb-Bi coolant is used as spallation target also. HYPER is expected to incinerate about 380 kg of TRU a year, which is corresponding to the support ratio 5 {approx} 6. 23 refs., 50 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  1. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark

    2016-12-01

    People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.

  2. Designing verbal autopsy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibuya Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy analyses are widely used for estimating cause-specific mortality rates (CSMR in the vast majority of the world without high-quality medical death registration. Verbal autopsies -- survey interviews with the caretakers of imminent decedents -- stand in for medical examinations or physical autopsies, which are infeasible or culturally prohibited. Methods and Findings We introduce methods, simulations, and interpretations that can improve the design of automated, data-derived estimates of CSMRs, building on a new approach by King and Lu (2008. Our results generate advice for choosing symptom questions and sample sizes that is easier to satisfy than existing practices. For example, most prior effort has been devoted to searching for symptoms with high sensitivity and specificity, which has rarely if ever succeeded with multiple causes of death. In contrast, our approach makes this search irrelevant because it can produce unbiased estimates even with symptoms that have very low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the new method is optimized for survey questions caretakers can easily answer rather than questions physicians would ask themselves. We also offer an automated method of weeding out biased symptom questions and advice on how to choose the number of causes of death, symptom questions to ask, and observations to collect, among others. Conclusions With the advice offered here, researchers should be able to design verbal autopsy surveys and conduct analyses with greatly reduced statistical biases and research costs.

  3. Seismic hazard analyses for Taipei city including deaggregation, design spectra, and time history with excel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Pin; Huang, Duruo; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Shao, Kuo-Shin; Wu, Yuan-Chieh; Chang, Chih-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Given the difficulty of earthquake forecast, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has been a method to best estimate site-specific ground motion or response spectra in earthquake engineering and engineering seismology. In this paper, the first in-depth PSHA study for Taipei, the economic center of Taiwan with a six-million population, was carried out. Unlike the very recent PSHA study for Taiwan, this study includes the follow-up hazard deaggregation, response spectra, and the earthquake motion recommendations. Hazard deaggregation results show that moderate-size and near-source earthquakes are the most probable scenario for this city. Moreover, similar to the findings in a few recent studies, the earthquake risk for Taipei should be relatively high and considering this city's importance, the high risk should not be overlooked and a potential revision of the local technical reference would be needed. In addition to the case study, some innovative Excel applications to PSHA are introduced in this paper. Such spreadsheet applications are applicable to geosciences research as those developed for data reduction or quantitative analysis with Excel's user-friendly nature and wide accessibility.

  4. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  5. When users can´t be included in inclusive design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive Design (ID) methods place a strong emphasis on user participation in designing mainstream products. In recent years researchers in the field of assistive technology (AT) have drawn on and contributed to the ID approach. There are good grounds for this association. However, the linkage...... and disabled users make the need for useability and pleasurability even more important since alternative products are comparatively few. This paper examines the workarounds two teams of designers have used to reduce the demands placed on emphysema patients and elderly users during inclusive design processes....... In the case of a student design project it was necessary to focus on a super-user, use prototyping as a creative tool and to use improvised ergonomic simulation. In a second case a consultancy was required to place more emphasis on ethnographic, observational methods and personas where co-creation and co...

  6. Fusion Advanced Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Guebaly, Laila [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Henderson, Douglass [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilson, Paul [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Blanchard, Jake [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-03-24

    During the January 1, 2013 – December 31, 2015 contract period, the UW Fusion Technology Institute personnel have actively participated in the ARIES-ACT and FESS-FNSF projects, led the nuclear and thermostructural tasks, attended several project meetings, and participated in all conference calls. The main areas of effort and technical achievements include updating and documenting the nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT1, performing nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT2, performing thermostructural analysis for ARIES divertor, performing disruption analysis for ARIES vacuum vessel, and developing blanket testing strategy and Materials Test Module for FNSF.

  7. Modified Design of Hydroturbine Wicket Gates to Include Liquid Control Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Bryan; Cimbala, John; Wouden, Alex

    2013-11-01

    With the ever-increasing penetration of alternative electricity generation, it is becoming more common to operate hydroturbines under off-design conditions in order to maintain stability in the electric power grid. Improving the off-design performance of these turbines is therefore of significant importance. As the runner blades of a Francis hydroturbine pass though the wakes created by the upstream guide vanes (wicket gates and stay vanes), they experience significant changes in the instantaneous values of absolute velocity, flow angle, and pressure. The concept of adding water jets to the trailing edge of the guide vanes is proposed as a method for reducing the dynamic load on the hydroturbine runner blades, as well as modifying the flow angle of the water entering the runner to improve turbine efficiency during off-design operation. In order to add water jets that are capable of turning the flow, a modified beveled trailing edge design is presented. Computational experiments show that a +/-5° change in swirl angle is achievable with the new design, as well as up to 4% improvement in turbine efficiency during off-design operation. This correlates to an overall improvement in machine efficiency of up to 2%, when the losses through the jet channels are taken into account. Funding for this work was provided by the DOD, through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, and the DOE, through the Penn State Hydropower Research Grant.

  8. 77 FR 67399 - Hewlett-Packard Company, Design Delivery Organization (DDO), Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett-Packard Company, Design Delivery Organization (DDO), Including...; Hewlett-Packard Company, Ink Jet & Web Services, World Wide Design Group, Vancouver, WA; Amended... workers of Hewlett-Packard Company, Design Delivery Organization (DDO), Corvallis, Oregon. The Department...

  9. Design Optimization of Transformerless Grid-Connected PV Inverters Including Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimal design of transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters targeting a cost-effective deployment of grid-connected PV systems. The optimal switching frequency as well as the optimal values and types of the PV inverter components is calculated...... that compared to the nonoptimized PV inverter structures, the PV inverters designed using the proposed optimization methodology exhibit lower total manufacturing and lifetime maintenance cost and inject more energy into the electric-grid and by that minimizing LCOE....

  10. Design optimization of transformerless grid-connected PV inverters including reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimal design of transformerless Photovoltaic (PV) inverters targeting a cost-effective deployment of grid-connected PV systems. The optimal values and types of the PV inverter components are calculated such that the PV inverter Levelized Cost...... to the non-optimized PV inverter structures, the PV inverters designed using the proposed optimization methodology exhibit lower total manufacturing and lifetime maintenance cost and inject more energy into the electric-grid and by that minimizing LCOE....

  11. DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Jun; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-04-10

    In recent years, various herbal products adulterated with synthetic cannabinoids have been distributed worldwide via the Internet. These herbal products are mostly sold as incense, and advertised as not for human consumption. Although their labels indicate that they contain mixtures of several potentially psychoactive plants, and numerous studies have reported that they contain a variety of synthetic cannabinoids, their exact botanical contents are not always clear. In this study, we investigated the origins of botanical materials in 62 Spice-like herbal products distributed on the illegal drug market in Japan, by DNA sequence analyses and BLAST searches. The nucleotide sequences of four regions were analyzed to identify the origins of each plant species in the herbal mixtures. The sequences of "Damiana" (Turnera diffusa) and Lamiaceae herbs (Mellissa, Mentha and Thymus) were frequently detected in a number of products. However, the sequences of other plant species indicated on the packaging labels were not detected. In a few products, DNA fragments of potent psychotropic plants were found, including marijuana (Cannabis sativa), "Diviner's Sage" (Salvia divinorum) and "Kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa). Their active constituents were also confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), although these plant names were never indicated on the labels. Most plant species identified in the products were different from the plants indicated on the labels. The plant materials would be used mainly as diluents for the psychoactive synthetic compounds, because no reliable psychoactive effects have been reported for most of the identified plants, with the exception of the psychotropic plants named above. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutel, T; Schwerter, M; Büttgenbach, S; Leester-Schädel, M; Sattler, S; El Sayed, Y; Radespiel, R; Zander, M; Sinapius, M; Wierach, P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development. (technical note)

  13. Human factors design of nuclear power plant control rooms including computer-based operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Felkel, L.; Becker, G.; Bohr, E.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific handling of human factors problems in control rooms began around 1970 on the basis of safety considerations. Some recent research work deals with the development of computerized systems like plant balance calculation, safety parameter display, alarm reduction and disturbance analysis. For disturbance analysis purposes it is necessary to homogenize the information presented to the operator according to the actual plant situation in order to supply the operator with the information he most urgently needs at the time. Different approaches for solving this problem are discussed, and an overview is given on what is being done. Other research projects concentrate on the detailed analysis of operators' diagnosis strategies in unexpected situations, in order to obtain a better understanding of their mental processes and the influences upon them when such situations occur. This project involves the use of a simulator and sophisticated recording and analysis methods. Control rooms are currently designed with the aid of mock-ups. They enable operators to contribute their experience to the optimization of the arrangement of displays and controls. Modern control rooms are characterized by increasing use of process computers and CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) displays. A general concept for the integration of the new computerized system and the conventional control panels is needed. The technical changes modify operators' tasks, and future ergonomic work in nuclear plants will need to consider the re-allocation of function between man and machine, the incorporation of task changes in training programmes, and the optimal design of information presentation using CRTs. Aspects of developments in control room design are detailed, typical research results are dealt with, and a brief forecast of the ergonomic contribution to be made in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  14. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  15. Design rationalization and the logic of design: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of the reasoning involved in justifying a decision chain from a given design brief (of an architectural competition on site planning) to a given solution (the winning entry). A logical method of analysis is presented and applied to the case data; the resulting findings include var...

  16. Three-dimensional cross point readout detector design for including depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Baek, Cheol-Ha

    2018-04-01

    We designed a depth-encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector using a cross point readout method with wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers. To evaluate the characteristics of the novel detector module and the PET system, we used the DETECT2000 to perform optical photon transport in the crystal array. The GATE was also used. The detector module is made up of four layers of scintillator arrays, the five layers of WLS fiber arrays, and two sensor arrays. The WLS fiber arrays in each layer cross each other to transport light to each sensor array. The two sensor arrays are coupled to the forward and left sides of the WLS fiber array, respectively. The identification of three-dimensional pixels was determined using a digital positioning algorithm. All pixels were well decoded, with the system resolution ranging from 2.11 mm to 2.29 mm at full width at half maximum (FWHM).

  17. Trajectory design strategies applied to temporary comet capture including Poincaré maps and invariant manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, A. F.; Howell, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    Temporary satellite capture (TSC) of Jupiter-family comets has been a focus of investigation within the astronomy community for decades. More recently, TSC has been approached from the perspective of dynamical systems theory, within the context of the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP). Thus, this problem serves as a testbed for exploring techniques that support trajectory design in similar dynamical regimes. In particular, an association between the invariant manifolds of libration point orbits and the paths of comets that experience TSC has been explored. In this investigation, TSC is further examined from the perspective of transit, that is, transition through the gateways associated with the collinear libration points, in the three-body problem. Periapsis Poincaré maps, previously employed for trajectory design in several investigations, are used to deliver insight into the nature of transit trajectories for energy levels near those associated with several Jupiter-family comets. The evolution of transit trajectories with increasing energy is explored, and the existence of solutions with similar characteristics to the paths of comets P/1996 R2, 82P/Gehrels 3, and 147P/Kushida-Muramatsu is demonstrated within the context of the planar CR3BP using planar periapsis maps. During TSC, the path of comet 111P/Helin-Roman-Crockett is highly inclined with respect to Jupiter; the motion of this comet is examined relative to invariant manifolds in the spatial CR3BP. A method to display the information contained in higher-dimensional Poincaré maps is also demonstrated, and is employed to locate a trajectory possessing the same qualitative characteristics as the path of 111P/Helin-Roman-Crockett.

  18. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis

  19. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis. (MOW)

  20. Thermal enhanced vapor extraction systems: Design, application and performance prediction including contaminant behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    Soil heating technologies have been proposed as a method to accelerate contaminant removal from subsurface soils. These methods include the use of hot air, steam, conductive heaters, in-situ resistive heating and in-situ radiofrequency heating (Buettner et.al., EPA, Dev et.al., Heath et.al.). Criteria for selection of a particular soil heating technology is a complex function of contaminant and soil properties, and efficiency in energy delivery and contaminant removal technologies. The work presented here seeks to expand the understanding of the interactions of subsurface water, contaminant, heat and vacuum extraction through model predictions and field data collection. Field demonstration will involve the combination of two soil heating technologies (resistive and dielectric) with a vacuum vapor extraction system and will occur during the summer of 1994

  1. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  2. Design and development of a workflow for microbial spray formulations including decision criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ana; Sauer, Ursula; Preininger, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we present a workflow for the development of talc-based microbial inoculants for foliar spray consisting of four steps. These include together with decision-making criteria (1) the selection of additives based on their capability to wet juvenile maize leaves, (2) their adhesion on the plant, (3) their interaction with the biological systems, and (4) the choice of thickener for good dispersion stability. In total, 29 additives including polysaccharides and proteins, polyols, glycosides, oils, waxes, and surfactants (e.g., chitosan, gelatin, glycerol, saponin, castor oil, polyethylene, rhamnolipid) were evaluated. Contact angle and spreading index measurements revealed that the use of 5% Geloil, 1% rhamnolipid, or suitable combinations of Geloil + rhamnolipid and Nurture Yield S 2002 + rhamnolipid enhanced wetting of hydrophobic maize leaves and adherence, similarly to the commercial wetting agents recommended for plant protection 1% Prev B2 and 1% Trifolio S Forte. Interaction of additives with biological systems was based on biocompatibility and phytotoxicity assays, and cell viability monitoring using the endophytic Gram-negative bacterium Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN. Results from biocompatibility assays indicated that in contrast to rhamnolipid and Prev B2 Geloil, Nurture Yield S 2002 and Trifolio S Forte fully supported bacterial growth within a concentration range of 1 to 5%. Dose-dependent phytotoxicity was observed in plants treated with rhamnolipid. Most efficient formulation was composed of PsJN, talc, xanthan, and Geloil. Beyond that, the proposed workflow is expected to generally provide guidance for the development of spray formulations and help other researchers to optimize their choices in this area.

  3. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  4. Global optimization of masks, including film stack design to restore TM contrast in high NA TCC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbluth, Alan E.; Melville, David; Tian, Kehan; Lai, Kafai; Seong, Nakgeuon; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Colburn, Matthew

    2007-03-01

    We provide an expanded description of the global algorithm for mask optimization introduced in our earlier papers, and discuss auxiliary optimizations that can be carried out in the problem constraints and film stack. Mask optimization tends inherently to be a problem with non-convex quadratic constraints, but for small problems we can mitigate this difficulty by exploiting specialized knowledge that applies in the lithography context. If exposure latitude is approximated as maximization of edge slope between image regions whose intensities must print with opposite polarity, we show that the solution space can be approximately divided into regions that contain at most one local minimum. Though the survey of parameter space to identify these regions requires an exhaustive grid search, this search can be accelerated using heuristics, and is not the rate-limiting step at SRAM scale or below. We recover a degree of generality by using a less simplified objective function when we actually assess the local minima. The quasi-binary specialization of lithographic targets is further exploited by searching only in the subspace formed by the dominant joint eigenvectors for dark region intensity and bright region intensity, typically reducing problem dimensionality to less than half that of the full set of frequency-domain variables (i.e. collected diffraction orders). Contrast in this subspace across the bright/dark edge will approximately reflect exposure latitude when we apply the standard fixed edge-placement constraints of lithography. However, during an exploratory stage of optimization we can define preliminary tolerances which more explicitly reflect constraints on devices, e.g. as is done with compactor codes for design migration. Our algorithm can handle vector imaging in a general way, but for the special case of unpolarized illumination and a lens having radial symmetry (but arbitrary source shape) we show that the bilinear function which describes vector

  5. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: addressing design and sampling issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-08-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances on ELIC Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, S. Alex; Bogacz, S.; Chevtsov, P.; Derbenev, Ya.; Evtushenko, P.; Krafft, G.; Hutton, A.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Musson, J.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Sayed, H.; Qiang, J.

    2008-06-16

    A conceptual design of a ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF with a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 has been proposed at JLab to fulfil science requirements. Here, we summarize design progress including collider ring and interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation. Electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring, stacking of ion beams in an accumulator-cooler ring, beam-beam simulations and a faster kicker for the circulator electron cooler ring are also discussed.

  7. Advances on ELIC Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S. Alex; Bogacz, S.; Chevtsov, P.; Derbenev, Ya.; Evtushenko, P.; Krafft, G.; Hutton, A.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Musson, J.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Sayed, H.; Qiang, J.

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual design of a ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF with a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 has been proposed at JLab to fulfill science requirements. Here, we summarize design progress including collider ring and interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation. Electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring, stacking of ion beams in an accumulator-cooler ring, beam-beam simulations and a faster kicker for the circulator electron cooler ring are also discussed

  8. A computational method for designing diverse linear epitopes including citrullinated peptides with desired binding affinities to intravenous immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Rob; Norel, Raquel; Prill, Robert J; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lorenz, Peter; Steinbeck, Felix; Ziems, Bjoern; Luštrek, Mitja; Barbarini, Nicola; Tiengo, Alessandra; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-04-08

    Understanding the interactions between antibodies and the linear epitopes that they recognize is an important task in the study of immunological diseases. We present a novel computational method for the design of linear epitopes of specified binding affinity to Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg). We show that the method, called Pythia-design can accurately design peptides with both high-binding affinity and low binding affinity to IVIg. To show this, we experimentally constructed and tested the computationally constructed designs. We further show experimentally that these designed peptides are more accurate that those produced by a recent method for the same task. Pythia-design is based on combining random walks with an ensemble of probabilistic support vector machines (SVM) classifiers, and we show that it produces a diverse set of designed peptides, an important property to develop robust sets of candidates for construction. We show that by combining Pythia-design and the method of (PloS ONE 6(8):23616, 2011), we are able to produce an even more accurate collection of designed peptides. Analysis of the experimental validation of Pythia-design peptides indicates that binding of IVIg is favored by epitopes that contain trypthophan and cysteine. Our method, Pythia-design, is able to generate a diverse set of binding and non-binding peptides, and its designs have been experimentally shown to be accurate.

  9. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  10. Longitudinal data driven study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Hauke; Gerth, Sven; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Fegeler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for processing EHR data into a longitudinal data model and examples for using this model to identify patients cross-sectionally and longitudinally as well as testing study designs retrospectively. Our data model describes measurements on four dimensions: the associated patient, observed feature, data source and time of survey. The transformation of structured source data into our model is defined by rules written in XML. To showcase the flexibility of the proposed longitudinal data model, we present an evolution of a retrospective study design as well as an example for interpreting biomarkers in emergency situations. With the proposed longitudinal data model complex queries can be performed, study designs tested and optimized.

  11. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Don [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas

  12. Compact ignition tokamak design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Viewgraphs are given on the following objectives of the design study: (1) develop core module concept, (2) develop a method to apply preload, (3) perform sufficient analysis to demonstrate total concept is structurally sound, (4) develop component fit-up and assembly scheme, and (5) minimize size and cost

  13. Study designs may influence results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Andreasen, Anne-Marie Serena

    2017-01-01

    Glioma is a rare brain tumour with a very poor prognosis and the search for modifiable factors is intense. We reviewed the literature concerning risk factors for glioma obtained in case-control designed epidemiological studies in order to discuss the influence of this methodology on the observed...

  14. Nonrandomized studies are not always found even when selection criteria for health systems intervention reviews include them: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Mayhew, Alain; Scheel, Inger; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews within the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) can include both randomized and nonrandomized study designs. We explored how many EPOC reviews consider and identify nonrandomized studies, and whether the proportion of nonrandomized studies identified is linked to the review topic. We recorded the study designs considered in 65 EPOC reviews. For reviews that considered nonrandomized studies, we calculated the proportion of identified studies that were nonrandomized and explored whether there were differences in the proportion of nonrandomized studies according to the review topic. Fifty-one (78.5%) reviews considered nonrandomized studies. Forty-six of these reviews found nonrandomized studies, but the proportion varied a great deal (median, 33%; interquartile range, 25--50%). Reviews of health care delivery interventions had lower proportions of nonrandomized studies than those of financial and governance interventions. Most EPOC reviews consider nonrandomized studies, but the degree to which they find them varies. As nonrandomized studies are believed to be at higher risk of bias and their inclusion entails a considerable effort, review authors should consider whether the benefits justify the inclusion of these designs. Research should explore whether it is more useful to consider nonrandomized studies in reviews of some intervention types than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. LCFI vertex detector design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstene, C.; Sopczak, A.

    2005-12-01

    A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies CCD detectors for quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

  16. A pre-feasibility case study on integrated resource planning including renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Hakan Hocaoglu, M.; Konukman, Alp Er S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, economical and environmental constraints force governments and energy policy decision-makers to change the prominent characteristics of the electricity markets. Accordingly, depending on local conditions on the demand side, usage of integrated resource planning approaches in conjunction with renewable technologies has gained more importance. In this respect, an integrated resource planning option, which includes the design and optimization of grid-connected renewable energy plants, should be evaluated to facilitate a cost-effective and green solution to a sustainable future. In this paper, an integrated resource planning case is studied for an educational campus, located in Gebze, Turkey. It is found that for the considered campus, the integrated resource planning scenario that includes renewables as a supply-side option with existing time-of-use tariff may provide a cost-effective energy production, particularly for the high penetration level of the renewables. (author)

  17. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1997-01-31

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  18. A Student Experiment Method for Learning the Basics of Embedded Software Technologies Including Hardware/Software Co-design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Hidetoshi; Mitsui, Hiroyasu; Endo, Satoshi; Koizumi, Hisao

    The applications of embedded system technologies have spread widely in various products, such as home appliances, cellular phones, automobiles, industrial machines and so on. Due to intensified competition, embedded software has expanded its role in realizing sophisticated functions, and new development methods like a hardware/software (HW/SW) co-design for uniting HW and SW development have been researched. The shortfall of embedded SW engineers was estimated to be approximately 99,000 in the year 2006, in Japan. Embedded SW engineers should understand HW technologies and system architecture design as well as SW technologies. However, a few universities offer this kind of education systematically. We propose a student experiment method for learning the basics of embedded system development, which includes a set of experiments for developing embedded SW, developing embedded HW and experiencing HW/SW co-design. The co-design experiment helps students learn about the basics of embedded system architecture design and the flow of designing actual HW and SW modules. We developed these experiments and evaluated them.

  19. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  20. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are

  1. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...... on spirometry embedded in “Check your health Prevention Program, CHPP” from 2015-16. CHPP is a house-hold cluster randomized controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30-49 year olds in a Danish municipality during the years 2012 through to 2017 (n= 26,216), carried out in collaboration between...

  2. AASHTO mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide parametric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This study focuses on assessing the robustness of the AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG v 1.1) for rigid pavement : design projects in Wisconsin. The primary tasks conducted in this study included performing sensitivity analys...

  3. Advances on ELIC Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir; Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir; Chevtsov, Pavel; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Evtushenko, Pavel; Hutton, M.; Krafft, Geoffrey; Li, Rui; Merminga, Nikolitsa; Musson, John; Yunn, Byung; Zhang, Yuhong; Qiang, Yi; Sayed Abdalghaffar, Hisham

    2008-07-01

    An electron-ion collider of a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 with both beams highly polarized is essential for exploring the new QCD frontier of strong color fields in nuclear and precisely imaging the sea-quarks and gluons in the nucleon. A conceptual design of a ring-ring collider based on CEBAF (ELIC) with energies up to 9 GeV for electrons/positrons and up to 225 GeV for protons and 100 GeV/u for ions has been proposed to fulfill the science desire and to serve as the next step for CEBAF after the planned 12 GeV energy upgrade of the fixed target program. Here, we summarize recent design progress for the ELIC complex with four interaction points (IP); including interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation scheme and complete lattices for the Figure-8 collider rings. Further optimization of crab crossing angles at the IPs, simulations of beam-beam interactions and electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring and its matching at

  4. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  5. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  6. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  7. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  8. Designs for mechanical circulatory support device studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaton, James D; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Gelijns, Annetine; Starling, Randall C; Mann, Douglas L; Konstam, Marvin A

    2007-02-01

    There is increased interest in mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs), such as implantable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), as "destination" therapy for patients with advanced heart failure. Because patient availability to evaluate these devices is limited and randomized trials have been slow in enrolling patients, a workshop was convened to consider designs for MCSD development including alternatives to randomized trials. A workshop was jointly planned by the Heart Failure Society of America and the US Food and Drug Administration and was convened in March 2006. One of the panels was asked to review different designs for evaluating new MCSDs. Randomized trials have many advantages over studies with no controls or with nonrandomized concurrent or historical controls. These advantages include the elimination of bias in the assignment of treatments and the balancing, on average, of known and unknown baseline covariates that influence response. These advantages of randomization are particularly important for studies in which the treatments may not differ from one another by a large amount (eg, a head-to-head study of an approved LVAD with a new LVAD). However, researchers have found it difficult to recruit patients to randomized studies because the number of clinical sites that can carry out the studies is not large. Also, there is a reluctance to randomize patients when the control device is considered technologically inferior. Thus ways of improving the design of randomized trials were discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of alternative designs were considered. The panel concluded that designs should include a randomized component. Randomized designs might be improved by allowing the control device to be chosen before randomization, by first conducting smaller vanguard studies, and by allowing crossovers in trials with optimal medical management controls. With use of data from completed trials, other databases, and registries, alternative

  9. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator-design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses the restriction of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) solutions to the algebraic Riccati Equation to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical systems. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist. Some examples of simple spring mass systems are shown to illustrate key points.

  10. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb3Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb3Sn magnet make...

  11. Design and Co-design of Project-organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engagement......, self-awareness, mutual evaluation, reflection, and critical and creative thinking....

  12. Design and Co-design of Project-organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engageme......, self-awareness, mutual evaluation, reflection, and critical and creative thinking....

  13. Study designs in dermatology: Practical applications of study designs and their statistics in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of study designs and related statistical methodology is necessary for clinical dermatologists to critically read scientific literature and incorporate this information into clinical practice. This review focuses on how to identify the appropriate use of study designs and the statistical methodology used therein. Topics covered include population sampling and generalizability, power and sample size calculations, correction for multiple statistical testing, and how to identify the appropriate use of statistics. The impact of improved study designs in previously controversial topics in dermatology will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Case Studies in Systems Chemistry. Final Report. [Includes Complete Case Study, Carboxylic Acid Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, George

    This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry. The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC computer systems, and with a programmable electronic calculator, in a variety of educational settings. The text attempts to present computer…

  15. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Lilford, Richard; Girling, Alan J

    2015-01-30

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are being used with increasing frequency in health service evaluation. Conventionally, these studies are cross-sectional in design with equally spaced steps, with an equal number of clusters randomised at each step and data collected at each and every step. Here we introduce several variations on this design and consider implications for power. One modification we consider is the incomplete cross-sectional SW-CRT, where the number of clusters varies at each step or where at some steps, for example, implementation or transition periods, data are not collected. We show that the parallel CRT with staggered but balanced randomisation can be considered a special case of the incomplete SW-CRT. As too can the parallel CRT with baseline measures. And we extend these designs to allow for multiple layers of clustering, for example, wards within a hospital. Building on results for complete designs, power and detectable difference are derived using a Wald test and obtaining the variance-covariance matrix of the treatment effect assuming a generalised linear mixed model. These variations are illustrated by several real examples. We recommend that whilst the impact of transition periods on power is likely to be small, where they are a feature of the design they should be incorporated. We also show examples in which the power of a SW-CRT increases as the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) increases and demonstrate that the impact of the ICC is likely to be smaller in a SW-CRT compared with a parallel CRT, especially where there are multiple levels of clustering. Finally, through this unified framework, the efficiency of the SW-CRT and the parallel CRT can be compared. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Study of the Radiotherapy Techniques for the Breast Including Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyoung Keun; Shim, Su Jung; You, Sei Hwan; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Dae; Suh, Chang Ok [Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study was designed to determine the optimum radiotherapy technique for internal mammary node (IMN) irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. We selected ten cases of early stage partial mastectomy for plan comparison. Five of the patients were treated to the right-side breast and the rest of the patients were treated to the left-side breast. For each case, four different treatment plans were made to irradiate the entire breast, IMNs and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLs). The four planning techniques include a standard tangential field (STF), wide tangential field (WTF), partially wide tangential field (PWT) and a photon-electron mixed field (PEM). We prescribed a dose of 50.4 Gy to the SCL field at a 3 cm depth and isocenter of the breast field. The dose distribution showed clear characteristics depending on the technique used. All of the techniques covered the breast tissue well. IMN coverage was also good, except for the STF, which was not intended to cover IMNs. For the cases of the left-side breasts, the volume of the heart that received more than 30 Gy was larger (in order) for the WTF, PWT, PEM and STF. For radiation pneumonitis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the PWT showed the best results followed by the STF. Despite the variety of patient body shapes, the PWT technique showed the best results for coverage of IMNs and for reducing the lung and heart dose.

  17. A Study of the Radiotherapy Techniques for the Breast Including Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyoung Keun; Shim, Su Jung; You, Sei Hwan; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Dae; Suh, Chang Ok

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the optimum radiotherapy technique for internal mammary node (IMN) irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. We selected ten cases of early stage partial mastectomy for plan comparison. Five of the patients were treated to the right-side breast and the rest of the patients were treated to the left-side breast. For each case, four different treatment plans were made to irradiate the entire breast, IMNs and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLs). The four planning techniques include a standard tangential field (STF), wide tangential field (WTF), partially wide tangential field (PWT) and a photon-electron mixed field (PEM). We prescribed a dose of 50.4 Gy to the SCL field at a 3 cm depth and isocenter of the breast field. The dose distribution showed clear characteristics depending on the technique used. All of the techniques covered the breast tissue well. IMN coverage was also good, except for the STF, which was not intended to cover IMNs. For the cases of the left-side breasts, the volume of the heart that received more than 30 Gy was larger (in order) for the WTF, PWT, PEM and STF. For radiation pneumonitis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the PWT showed the best results followed by the STF. Despite the variety of patient body shapes, the PWT technique showed the best results for coverage of IMNs and for reducing the lung and heart dose

  18. Adaptive fuzzy neural network control design via a T-S fuzzy model for a robot manipulator including actuator dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Yang, Zhi-Wei

    2008-10-01

    This paper focuses on the development of adaptive fuzzy neural network control (AFNNC), including indirect and direct frameworks for an n-link robot manipulator, to achieve high-precision position tracking. In general, it is difficult to adopt a model-based design to achieve this control objective due to the uncertainties in practical applications, such as friction forces, external disturbances, and parameter variations. In order to cope with this problem, an indirect AFNNC (IAFNNC) scheme and a direct AFNNC (DAFNNC) strategy are investigated without the requirement of prior system information. In these model-free control topologies, a continuous-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) dynamic fuzzy model with online learning ability is constructed to represent the system dynamics of an n-link robot manipulator. In the IAFNNC, an FNN estimator is designed to tune the nonlinear dynamic function vector in fuzzy local models, and then, the estimative vector is used to indirectly develop a stable IAFNNC law. In the DAFNNC, an FNN controller is directly designed to imitate a predetermined model-based stabilizing control law, and then, the stable control performance can be achieved by only using joint position information. All the IAFNNC and DAFNNC laws and the corresponding adaptive tuning algorithms for FNN weights are established in the sense of Lyapunov stability analyses to ensure the stable control performance. Numerical simulations and experimental results of a two-link robot manipulator actuated by dc servomotors are given to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed methodologies. In addition, the superiority of the proposed control schemes is indicated in comparison with proportional-differential control, fuzzy-model-based control, T-S-type FNN control, and robust neural fuzzy network control systems.

  19. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    of the machinery system. The wet sulphuric acid process has shown to be an effective way of removing sulphur oxides from flue gas of land-based coal fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper is aimed at designing...... consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal and an advanced waste heat recovery system including a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an organic Rankine cycle. The results are compared with those of a state-of-the-art machinery system featuring a two......-stroke diesel engine and a conventional waste heat recovery system. The results suggest that an organic Rankine cycle placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase power generation from waste heat by 32...

  20. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...... and modeling of a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. The system consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal, a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an ORC. Results of numerical modeling efforts suggest...... that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...

  1. Screening design for model sensitivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, James P.; Koenig, George G.; Bruce, Dorothy

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes a different approach to sensitivity studies for environmental, including atmospheric, physics models. The sensitivity studies were performed on a multispectral environmental data and scene generation capability. The capability includes environmental physics models that are used to generate data and scenes for simulation of environmental materials, features, and conditions, such as trees, clouds, soils, and snow. These studies were performed because it is difficult to obtain input data for many of the environmental variables. The problem to solve is to determine which of the 100 or so input variables, used by the generation capability, are the most important. These sensitivity studies focused on the generation capabilities needed to predict and evaluate the performance of sensor systems operating in the infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The sensitivity study approach described uses a screening design. Screening designs are analytical techniques that use a fraction of all of the combinations of the potential input variables and conditions to determine which are the most important. Specifically a 20-run Plackett-Burman screening design was used to study the sensitivity of eight data and scene generation capability computed response variables to 11 selected input variables. This is a two-level design, meaning that the range of conditions is represented by two different values for each of the 11 selected variables. The eight response variables used were maximum, minimum, range, and mode of the model-generated temperature and radiance values. The result is that six of the 11 input variables (soil moisture, solar loading, roughness length, relative humidity, surface albedo, and surface emissivity) had a statistically significant effect on the response variables.

  2. Adoption of Modern Newspaper Design Practices: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gerald C.; And Others

    Using data from a previous study, this study investigated the adoption of modern graphic design techniques by daily newspapers. A scale of modern design was constructed from available literature and tested for internal validity by determining what design practices were included in sample papers. The scale was then used to test assumptions about…

  3. Parametric study for design of thermal sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.B.; Mehra, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal sleeves are used inside nozzle in many reactor components. Basic aim in design of thermal sleeve is to arrive at a set of dimensions for gap and annulus length, which will give rise to minimum thermal gradient in the base metal of the associated nozzle. Study includes the minimisation of the thermal gradient in the crotch zone by suitable choice of gap and annulus length. Three different geometries of nozzle radii 50.00 mm., 100 mm. and 200.0 mm. are studied for single and two concentric thermal sleeves model. The paper also presents effect of parameters like velocity of flow, temperature of fluid, materials etc. on the design of thermal sleeves. (orig.)

  4. Preliminary aerosol generator design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, J. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The design and construction of a prototype vaporization generator for highly dispersed sodium chloride aerosols is described. The aerosol generating system is to be used in the Science Simulator of the Cloud Physics Laboratory Project and as part of the Cloud Physics Laboratory payload to be flown on the shuttle/spacelab.

  5. [Characteristics and cardiovascular events in a general population included in the RICARTO (RIesgo CARdiovascular TOledo) study: Data from the first 1,500 individuals included in the study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roca, G C; Segura-Fragoso, A; Villarín-Castro, A; Alonso-Moreno, F J; Rodríguez-Padial, L; Rodríguez-García, M L; Fernández-Conde, J A; Rojas-Martelo, G A; Menchén-Herreros, A; Escobar-Cervantes, C; Fernández-Martín, J; Artigao-Rodenas, L M; Carbayo-Herencia, J A; Hernández-Moreno, J

    2017-08-28

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk (CVR) by investigating the prevalence of CVR factors (CVRF), target organ damage (TOD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general population of the health area of Toledo, Spain. Epidemiological and observational study that analysed a sample from the general population aged 18years or older, randomly selected from a database of health cards stratified by age and gender. Clinical history, physical examination, and complementary tests were performed. Total blood and serum samples were frozen at -85°C to evaluate genetic studies in the future. Standard statistical analysis was performed. CVR was assessed by the SCORE scale calibrated for the Spanish population, and the Framingham Heart Study scale. A total of 1,500 individuals (mean age 49.1±15.8years, 55.6% women) were included. Prevalences: dyslipidaemia 56.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 54.3-59.4), hypertension 33.0% (95%CI: 30.6-35.4), diabetes mellitus 8.6% (95%CI: 7.17-10.1), smoking 24.2% (95%CI; 122.0-26.4), obesity 25.3% (95%CI; 23.1-27.5), and sedentary life-style 39.4% (95%CI; 36.9-41.8). No CVRF was reported in 21.1% of cases, and 18.6% had 3-5 CVRF. TOD: electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, 4.3%, peripheral artery disease, 10.1% (Doppler ultrasound), and 15.3% (oscillometric device), microalbuminuria, 4.3%, sub-clinical renal disease, 3.2%, and nephropathy in 3.8% (CKD-EPI). At least one CVD was reported in 9.2% of cases. A low CVR (SCORE) was present in 44.6% of individuals. Dyslipidaemia was found in 60% of individuals, 40% had a sedentary life-style, 30% with hypertension, 20% smoked, 20% obesity, and almost 10% with diabetes. More than a half of individuals have a moderate-high-very high risk. The prevalence of TOD and CVD are significant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimum Design of Braced Steel Space Frames including Soil-Structure Interaction via Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse T. Daloglu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum design of braced steel space frames including soil-structure interaction is studied by using harmony search (HS and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithms. A three-parameter elastic foundation model is used to incorporate the soil-structure interaction effect. A 10-storey braced steel space frame example taken from literature is investigated according to four different bracing types for the cases with/without soil-structure interaction. X, V, Z, and eccentric V-shaped bracing types are considered in the study. Optimum solutions of examples are carried out by a computer program coded in MATLAB interacting with SAP2000-OAPI for two-way data exchange. The stress constraints according to AISC-ASD (American Institute of Steel Construction-Allowable Stress Design, maximum lateral displacement constraints, interstorey drift constraints, and beam-to-column connection constraints are taken into consideration in the optimum design process. The parameters of the foundation model are calculated depending on soil surface displacements by using an iterative approach. The results obtained in the study show that bracing types and soil-structure interaction play very important roles in the optimum design of steel space frames. Finally, the techniques used in the optimum design seem to be quite suitable for practical applications.

  7. Including severe accidents in the design basis of nuclear power plants: An organizational factors perspective after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, M.A.B.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The Fukushima accident was man-made and not caused by natural phenomena. • Vulnerabilities were known by regulator and licensee but measures were not taken. • There was lack of independence and transparency of the regulatory body. • Laws and regulations have not been updated to international standards. • Organizational failures have played an important role in the Fukushima accident. - Abstract: The Fukushima accident was clearly an accident made by humans and not caused by natural phenomena as was initially thought. Vulnerabilities were known by both regulators and operator but they postponed measures. The emergency plan was not effective in protecting the public, because the involved parties were not sufficiently prepared to make the right decisions. The shortcomings and faults mentioned above resulted from the lack of independence and transparency of the regulatory body. Even laws and regulations, and technical standards, have not been upgraded to international standards. Regulators have not defined requirements and left for the operator to decide what would be more appropriate. In this aspect, there was clearly a lack of independence between these bodies and operator’s lobby power. The above situation raised the question of urgent updating of institutions, in particular those responsible for nuclear safety. The above evidences show that several nuclear safety principles were not followed. This paper intends to highlight some existing safety criteria that were developed from the operational experience of the severe accidents that occurred at TMI and Chernobyl that should be incorporated in the design of new nuclear power plants and to provide appropriate design changes (backfittings) for reactors that belong to the previous generation prior to the occurrence of these accidents, through the study of design vulnerabilities. Furthermore, the main criteria that define an effective regulatory agency are also discussed. Although these

  8. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used

  9. Preclinical study design for rAAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotte, Terence R; Conlon, Thomas J; Mueller, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The process of moving a novel drug such as an adeno-associated viral vector from the bench top to bedside is an arduous process requiring coordination and skill from multiple laboratories and regulatory agencies. Proceeding to a phase I safety trial in humans after most of the proof-of-concept data have been acquired may take several years. During this time, agencies including the FDA, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA), and Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) along with the investigator's team will develop a series of preclinical toxicology and biodistribution studies in order to develop a safety profile for the intended novel drug. In this chapter, key features of the pharm-tox study design and conduct will be discussed. Highlighted features include choosing a sufficient animal number and species to use in testing, dose determination, typical toxicological assays performed, the use of Standard Operating Procedures in respect to good laboratory practices compliancy, and role of the Quality Assurance Unit.

  10. Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and... reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information...5.3.1 Air cushion __________________________________________________ 8 5.3.2 Hydrofoils ___________________________________________________ 8 5.3.3

  11. Parametric Design Studies on a Direct Liquid Feed Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Nakamura, B.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric design studies were carried out on a direct methanol liquid feed fuel cell employing 1 M MeOH fuel, air and oxygen as oxidant in a 2 inch x 2 inch cell employing polymeric electrolyte membranes. Measurements include voltage-current output parameters, methanol crossover rate, and impedance as a function of several design and operational variables. Design variables are described.

  12. A design study of VOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deen, P. P.; Vickery, Anette; Andersen, K. H.

    2015-01-01

    VOR, the versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer, is designed to probe dynamic phenomena that are currently inaccessible for inelastic neutron scattering due to flux limitations. VOR is a short instrument by the standards of the European Spallation Source (ESS), 30.2m moderator to sample......, and provides instantaneous access to a broad dynamic range, 1-120 meV within each ESS period. The short instrument length combined with the long ESS pulse width enables a quadratic flux increase, even at longer wavelengths, by relaxing energy resolution from ΔE/E = 1% up to ΔE/E = 7%. This is impossible both...... with equivalent counting statistics. The characteristics of VOR make it a unique instrument with capabilities to access small, limited-lifetime samples and transient phenomena with inelastic neutron scattering....

  13. Collective design in 3D printing: A large scale empirical study of designs, designers and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study of a collective design platform (Thingiverse); with the aim of understanding the phenomenon and investigating how designs concurrently evolve through the large and complex network of designers. The case study is based on the meta-data collected from 158 489...... designs and 247 768 users; and it reveals that (i) Designs can be shared and quickly evolved into other designs through a distributed network of designers, (ii) only a small portion of the users are designers and (iv) collective design has deep and strong evolutionary roots. Better understanding...... of collective design platforms can help design practitioners to identify lead users in their respective domains and to discover latent needs that stem from different sub-communities or geographic regions....

  14. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  15. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem

  17. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's (RWMC's) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendices. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Quapp, W.J.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume 2. Volumes 3 through 7 contain detailed descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume 8 contains the appendixes. 23 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  19. California Education in Environmental Design and Urban Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lawrence B.

    The purpose of the study was to examine California's needs in the broad field of environmental design and urban studies. Chapter 1 discusses the purposes, methods, and sources of the study. Chapter 2 deals with the Environmental Design Professions which include: architecture, landscape architecture, city planning, and their educational systems.…

  20. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  1. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  2. Conceptual Design Studies of Composite AMST

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    TR-74-164 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDIES OF COMPOSITE AMST MCDONNELL DOUGLAS CORPORATION _ DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA 90846 OCTOBER...COVERED Final Technical Report of Work Pet orTied CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDIES OF COMPOSITE AMST between 29 May 1973 and 23 May 1974 4 PERFORMING ORG...bases for the composite design studies , structural analyses, and cost estimating. The latter airplane was initially rusized to meet the basic

  3. TLEP design study forges ahead

    CERN Multimedia

    Alain Blondel & Mike Koratzinos

    2013-01-01

    As the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is launched, one of its component parts, TLEP, enjoys a successful workshop at CERN. The FCC study looks at all options for a future circular collider with the emphasis on a hadron machine with TLEP as a possible intermediate step.   The poster of the sixth TLEP workshop that took place at CERN. Japanese artist Kazuya Akimoto kindly agreed to the use of one of his works as the basis for the poster’s backdrop. October 16 to 18 saw a three-day workshop on TLEP, the sixth in the series. The workshop took place at CERN and was well attended, informative and stimulating. To name just one of the influential people present, Herwig Schopper, ex-Director General of CERN and instrumental in the approval, construction and success of LEP, was among the participants. But what exactly is TLEP? The name was, somehow serendipitously, coined from future lepton collider option studies and stands for triple-LEP, a machine three times the size of LEP. But th...

  4. 75 FR 38129 - Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Hardware/Software Design and Manufacturing A Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,689] Freescale Semiconductor..., 2010, applicable to workers of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Hardware/Software Design and... subject firm. The workers are engaged in employment related to the production of semiconductors. The...

  5. Revision of Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program to Include CAD/D (Computer-Aided Drafting/Design). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Nancy V.

    North Seattle Community College decided to integrate computer-aided design/drafting (CAD/D) into its Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program. This choice necessitated a redefinition of the program through new curriculum and course development. To initiate the project, a new industrial advisory council was formed. Major electronic and recruiting firms…

  6. HCLL TBM for ITER-design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampal, G. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: gilles.rampal@cea.fr; Li Puma, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Poitevin, Y. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rigal, E. [CEA Grenoble, DTEN/S3ME, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Szczepanski, J. [CONCEPT-21, F-91420 Morangis (France); Boudot, C. [FRAMATOME/ANP, Centre Technique, F-71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2005-11-15

    Within the scope of the design and qualification of a helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) blanket module for DEMO, test blanket modules (TBM), have to be designed and inserted in ITER for testing. Several different TBMs will be tested in order to achieve the different testing objectives, according to the ITER operating scenario. This paper aims at presenting the design status of the so-called 'integral-TBM (IN-TBM)', which will include all main features of the corresponding DEMO blanket module, such as design architectures, Eurofer structural material, functional parameters, and all relevant manufacturing processes.

  7. Designing and recruiting to UK autism spectrum disorder research databases: do they include representative children with valid ASD diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R

    2015-09-04

    (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Dasl(n)e), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2-16 years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals' reports about their children. 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30 months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Dasl(n)e, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. Published by the BMJ

  8. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  9. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study

  10. Ethics in psychiatric research: study design issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    To identify and discuss ethical aspects of study design issues in psychiatric research. We conducted a literature review and conceptual analysis of study design in psychiatric research focusing on placebo, medication tapering and withdrawal (washout), and symptom provocation (challenge) designs. While advances in the care and treatment of persons with psychiatric disorders are crucial to the improved well-being of this stigmatized and often forgotten population, past abuses demonstrate the importance of the thoughtful application of ethical principles in the conduct of research. Some ethical issues have particular relevance to psychiatric research arising primarily from the specific vulnerabilities of those with mental illness and the risks posed by some research methodologies. Accordingly, sensitivity is required in the design of psychiatric research. Placebo, challenge, and washout study designs can present particular risks in the population of persons with mental illness. These issues are described and suggestions offered to promote the ethical design of psychiatric research.

  11. Consumption of peptide-included and free tryptophan induced by peroxyl radicals: A kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, E; López-Alarcón, C

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that tryptophan residues are efficiently oxidized by peroxyl radicals, generating kynurenine, and N-formyl kynurenine as well as hydroperoxide derivatives as products. In the present work we studied the kinetic of such reaction employing free and peptide-included tryptophan. Two azocompounds were used to produce peroxyl radicals: AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) and ABCVA (4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid)), which generate cationic and anionic peroxyl radicals, respectively. Tryptophan consumption was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the reactions were carried out in phosphate buffer (75mM, pH 7.4) at 45°C. Only a slight effect of the peroxyl radical charge was evidenced on the consumption of free tryptophan and the dipeptide Gly-Trp. Employing AAPH as peroxyl radical source, at low free tryptophan concentrations (1-10µM) near 0.3 mol of tryptophan were consumed per each mol of peroxyl radicals introduced into the system. However, at high free tryptophan concentrations (100µM-1mM) such stoichiometry increased in a tryptophan concentration-way. At 1mM three moles of tryptophan were consumed per mol of AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals, evidencing the presence of chain reactions. A similar behavior was observed when di and tri-peptides (Gly-Trp, Trp-Gly, Gly-Trp-Gly, Trp-Ala, Ala-Trp-Ala) were studied. Nonetheless, at low initial concentration (5µM), the initial consumption rate of tryptophan included in the peptides was two times higher than free tryptophan. In contrast, at high concentration (1mM) free and peptide-included tryptophan showed similar initial consumption rates. These results could be explained considering a disproportionation process of tryptophanyl radicals at low free tryptophan concentrations, a process that would be inhibited when tryptophan is included in peptides. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Design and Synthesis of a Series of L-trans-4-Substituted Prolines as Selective Antagonists for the Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Including Functional and X-ray Crystallographic Studies of New Subtype Selective Kainic Acid Receptor Subtype 1 (GluK1) Antagonist (2S,4R)-4-(2-Carboxyphenoxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Delgar, Claudia; Koch, Karina

    2017-01-01

    to the structure with glutamate, consistent with 1b being an antagonist. A structure-activity relationship study showed that the chemical nature of the tethering atom (C,O, or S) linking the pyrrolidine ring and the phenyl ring plays a key role in the receptor selectivity profile and that substituents...

  13. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  14. Fusion reactor blanket/shield design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Harkness, S.D.

    1979-07-01

    A joint study of tokamak reactor first-wall/blanket/shield technology was conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC). The objectives of this program were the identification of key technological limitations for various tritium-breeding-blanket design concepts, establishment of a basis for assessment and comparison of the design features of each concept, and development of optimized blanket designs. The approach used involved a review of previously proposed blanket designs, analysis of critical technological problems and design features associated with each of the blanket concepts, and a detailed evaluation of the most tractable design concepts. Tritium-breeding-blanket concepts were evaluated according to the proposed coolant. The ANL effort concentrated on evaluation of lithium- and water-cooled blanket designs while the MDAC effort focused on helium- and molten salt-cooled designs. A joint effort was undertaken to provide a consistent set of materials property data used for analysis of all blanket concepts. Generalized nuclear analysis of the tritium breeding performance, an analysis of tritium breeding requirements, and a first-wall stress analysis were conducted as part of the study. The impact of coolant selection on the mechanical design of a tokamak reactor was evaluated. Reference blanket designs utilizing the four candidate coolants are presented

  15. Fusion reactor blanket/shield design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Harkness, S.D.

    1979-07-01

    A joint study of tokamak reactor first-wall/blanket/shield technology was conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC). The objectives of this program were the identification of key technological limitations for various tritium-breeding-blanket design concepts, establishment of a basis for assessment and comparison of the design features of each concept, and development of optimized blanket designs. The approach used involved a review of previously proposed blanket designs, analysis of critical technological problems and design features associated with each of the blanket concepts, and a detailed evaluation of the most tractable design concepts. Tritium-breeding-blanket concepts were evaluated according to the proposed coolant. The ANL effort concentrated on evaluation of lithium- and water-cooled blanket designs while the MDAC effort focused on helium- and molten salt-cooled designs. A joint effort was undertaken to provide a consistent set of materials property data used for analysis of all blanket concepts. Generalized nuclear analysis of the tritium breeding performance, an analysis of tritium breeding requirements, and a first-wall stress analysis were conducted as part of the study. The impact of coolant selection on the mechanical design of a tokamak reactor was evaluated. Reference blanket designs utilizing the four candidate coolants are presented.

  16. Design data and safety features of commercial nuclear power plants including cumulative index for Volumes I--VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    Design data, safety features, and site characteristics are summarized for 12 nuclear power units in 6 power stations in the United States. Six pages of data are presented for each station, consisting of thermal-hydraulic and nuclear factors, containment features, emergency-core-cooling systems, site features, circulating water system data, and miscellaneous factors. In addition, an aerial perspective is presented for each plant. This volume covers plants with docket numbers 50-553 through 50-569 (Phipps Bend, Black Fox, Yellow Creek, and NEP) and two earlier plants not previously reported--Hope Creek (50-354, 50-355) and WPPSS 1 and 4 (50-460, 50-513). Indexes for this volume and the five earlier volumes are presented in three forms--by docket number, by plant name, and by participating utility

  17. Design data and safety features of commercial nuclear power plants including cumulative index for Volumes I--VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1977-05-13

    Design data, safety features, and site characteristics are summarized for 12 nuclear power units in 6 power stations in the United States. Six pages of data are presented for each station, consisting of thermal-hydraulic and nuclear factors, containment features, emergency-core-cooling systems, site features, circulating water system data, and miscellaneous factors. In addition, an aerial perspective is presented for each plant. This volume covers plants with docket numbers 50-553 through 50-569 (Phipps Bend, Black Fox, Yellow Creek, and NEP) and two earlier plants not previously reported--Hope Creek (50-354, 50-355) and WPPSS 1 and 4 (50-460, 50-513). Indexes for this volume and the five earlier volumes are presented in three forms--by docket number, by plant name, and by participating utility.

  18. Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program including the adjunct programs of design reconstitution and material condition and aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This standard presents program criteria and implementation guidance for an operational configuration management program for DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities in the operational phase. Portions of this standard are also useful for other DOE processes, activities, and programs. This Part 1 contains foreword, glossary, acronyms, bibliography, and Chapter 1 on operational configuration management program principles. Appendices are included on configuration management program interfaces, and background material and concepts for operational configuration management

  19. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design

  20. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  1. DEMO port plug design and integration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossetti, G.; Boccaccini, L. V.; Cismondi, F.; Del Nevo, A.; Fischer, U.; Franke, T.; Granucci, G.; Hernández, F.; Mozzillo, R.; Strauß, D.; Tran, M. Q.; Vaccaro, A.; Villari, R.

    2017-11-01

    The EUROfusion Consortium established in 2014 and composed by European Fusion Laboratories, and in particular the Power Plant Physics and Technology department aims to develop a conceptual design for the Fusion DEMOnstration Power Plant, DEMO. With respect to present experimental machines and ITER, the main goals of DEMO are to produce electricity continuously for a period of about 2 h, with a net electrical power output of a few hundreds of MW, and to allow tritium self-sufficient breeding with an adequately high margin in order to guarantee its planned operational schedule, including all planned maintenance intervals. This will eliminate the need to import tritium fuel from external sources during operations. In order to achieve these goals, extensive engineering efforts as well as physics studies are required to develop a design that can ensure a high level of plant reliability and availability. In particular, interfaces between systems must be addressed at a very early phase of the project, in order to proceed consistently. In this paper we present a preliminary design and integration study, based on physics assessments for the EU DEMO1 Baseline 2015 with an aspect ratio of 3.1 and 18 toroidal field coils, for the DEMO port plugs. These aim to host systems like electron cyclotron heating launchers currently developed within the Work Package Heating and Current Drive that need an external radial access to the plasma and through in-vessel systems like the breeder blanket. A similar approach shown here could be in principle followed by other systems, e.g. other heating and current drive systems or diagnostics. The work addresses the interfaces between the port plug and the blanket considering the helium-cooled pebble bed and the water cooled lithium lead which are two of four breeding blanket concepts under investigation in Europe within the Power Plant Physics and Technology Programme: the required openings will be evaluated in terms of their impact onto the

  2. Studying Design Engineers Use Of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Studying information usage by design engineers involves considering technical, social, cognitive and volitional factors. This makes it challenging, especially for researchers without a cognitive psychology background. This paper presents a summary of key findings in researching information use...... and processing in design, discusses important issues on the selection of a research strategy and sums up the important variables that need to be controlled for....

  3. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented

  4. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  5. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  6. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  7. [Histopathological characteristics of genital and breast cancer included in epidemiologic study cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Mioara; Azoicăi, Doina

    2009-01-01

    The correct management of genitals and breast cancers and the improving of the preventional and therapeutical successes ratio involve the knowledge of the histopathological features of these nosological entities which have different origins, different risk factors, different simptomatology and also different prognosis. The descriptive evaluation of the histopathological features of the genitals and breast cancers to women from North-Eastern region of Romania. We have been included in the study 96 women (age range 23-77 years, mean 54,49) diagnosed with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancer at the hospital admission, residency in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics within 23 months. The following main parameters were assessed: histological types, stage at diagnosis, Pap test. After data collection, these have been codified and included in a MS Excel Database, in order to be processed with SPSS 16 and EpiInfo 3.5.1. (2008) Softwares. The following cases' repartition on diagnostic types was observed: breast cancer (44 cases), cervical cancer (24 cases), endometrial cancer (16 cases) and ovarian cancer (12 cases). In our study, the most affected range of age was 40-69 years for breast cancer, 30-59 years for cervical cancer, over 6 years for endometrial cancer and 50-59 years for ovarian cancer. For the cervical neoplasia, 40% of analyzed cases were in incipient stages (in situ to IB stage lessions). More than 50% of breast cancer cases have been diagnosed in advances stages (IIB to IIIC stages). For the endometrium carcinoma, 45% of cases have been identified in incipient stages (in situ to IC). The ovarian neoplasia cases have been detected, most frequently, in advanced stages (III and IV). 25% of women which participated in our study had showed cervical changes. From a histopathological point of view, for cervical neoplasia, squamous carcinoma was the most frequent type (87%), for breast neoplasia--invasive ductal carcinoma (80

  8. Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates from 40% to 99%. In the second case study, systemic design helped the clean energy and natural resources group within the Government of Alberta to design a more efficient and effective resource management system and shift the way that natural resource departments work together. This resulted in the formation of a standing systemic design team and contributed to the creation of an integrated resource management system. A comparative analysis of the two projects identifies a shared set of core principles for systemic design as well as areas of differentiation that reveal potential for learning across methodologies. Together, these case studies demonstrate the complementarity of systems thinking and design thinking, and show how they may be integrated to guide positive change within complex sociotechnical systems.

  9. Neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreas: a clinicopathological study of nine cases including six insulinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaiem, F; Arfa, N; Ben Hassen, E; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S

    2014-06-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNET) are relatively uncommon, accounting for 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. They are characterised by varying clinical presentation, tumour biology and prognosis. To provide an updated overview on clinicopathological features, treatment and outcome of pNET. In our retrospective study, we reviewed 9 cases of pNET that were diagnosed at the Pathology Department of Mongi Slim Hospital over an 11-year period (2003- 2013). Relevant clinical information and microscopic slides were available in all cases and were retrospectively reviewed. The latest WHO classification (2010) was adopted. Our study group included 3 men and 6 women (M/F ratio 0.5) with an age between 20 and 75 years (mean = 52 years). Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours ranged in size from 0.5 to 10 cm (mean 4 cm). The sites of pNET were the head of the pancreas (n = 4), the body of the pancreas (n = 3) and the tail of the pancreas (n = 2). Enucleation of the tumour was performed in five cases, Three patients underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, whereas only one patient had central pancreatectomy. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen coupled with immunohistochemical study established a diagnosis of pNET grade 1 (G1) in seven cases and grade 2 (G2) in two cases. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct tumour genetics, biology and clinicopathological features. Accurate clinical and pathologic diagnosis is an important first step in developing an appropriate management plan.

  10. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  11. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-01

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  12. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  13. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela; Granata, Claudio; Matranga, Domenica; Salerno, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest–abdomen–pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen–pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen–pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). • Radiation dose associated with multidetector CT (MDCT) is an important health issue. • This national survey assessed dose exposures of 5,668 patients undergoing MDCT. • Dose indices correlate with BMI, voltage, rotation time, pitch and tube current. • These results may contribute to an update of national diagnostic reference levels.

  14. ECH system developments including the design of an intelligent fault processor on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.; Lohr, J.; Tooker, J.F.; O'Neill, R.C.; Moeller, C.P.; Doane, J.L.; Noraky, S.; Dubovenko, K.; Gorelov, Y.A.; Cengher, M.; Penaflor, B.G.; Ellis, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A new generation fault processor is in development which is intended to increase fault handling flexibility and reduce the number of incomplete DIII-D shots due to gyrotron faults. The processor, which is based upon a field programmable gate array device, will analyze signals for aberrant operation and ramp down high voltage to try to avoid hard faults. The processor will then attempt to ramp back up to an attainable operating point. The new generation fault processor will be developed during an expansion of the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) areas that will include the installation of a depressed collector gyrotron and associated equipment. Existing systems will also be upgraded. Testing of real-time control of the ECH launcher poloidal drives by the DIII-D plasma control system will be completed. The ECH control system software will be upgraded for increased scalability and to increase operator productivity. Resources permitting, all systems will receive an extra layer of interlocks for the filament and magnet power supplies, added shielding for the tank electronics, programmable filament boost shape for long pulses, and electronics upgrades for the installation of the advanced fault processor.

  15. Nacelle design studies for advanced transport aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, M. B.; Gunnarson, D. W.; Edwards, P.

    1972-01-01

    Results are given of several analytical studies of nacelles suitable for advanced subsonic commercial transport aircraft. The impact on the nacelle of reduced aircraft noise and increased cruise Mach number is emphasized and initially developed in terms of the individual nacelle components: inlet, fan cowl, nozzle, etc. This is achieved by relating the noise and cruise speed constraints to which the aircraft system must be designed to specific limitations on the individual nacelle components. Performance assessments are then made (separately for each nacelle component) of competitive design concepts. Overall nacelle designs, synthesized on the basis of the individual component studies, are briefly discussed.

  16. Conceptual design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FY87FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor(FER) which has been proposed to be the next step fusion device has been conducted by JAERI Reactor System Laboratory since 1982 and by FER design team since 1984. This is the final report of the FER design team program and describes the results obtained in FY1987 (partially in FY1986) activities. The contents of this report consist of the reference design which is based on the guideline in FY1986 by the Subcomitees set up in Nuclear Fusion Council of Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, the Low-Physics-Risk reactor design for achieving physics mission more reliably and the system study of FER design candidates including above two designs. (author)

  17. Including the online feedback site, Patient Opinion, in the nursing curriculum: Exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray; Young, Kim; Munro, James; Miller, Heather; Brelsford, Stephanie; Aronsson, Jennie; Goodman, Benny; Peters, Jane

    2017-10-01

    Globally, universities aim to involve people who use health services to enrich the nursing curriculum for students, but there can be barriers to this involvement. Many also want students to contribute to local communities. Online communication can help connect students to service users to achieve these aims. The online British patient feedback site, Patient Opinion, gathers comments from service users about services and encourages service responses to the comments. To explore the feasibility and acceptability of five ways of including Patient Opinion in the undergraduate nursing curriculum. Five case studies using mixed data collection methods. British University with nursing students across two campuses, accustomed to using webinars, video presentations and social media. Students from different years participated in the five approaches of making use of Patient Opinion in the curriculum; 18 students took part in an online forum to discuss Patient Opinion in the curriculum. We trialled timetabled webinars, video-linked lectures, optional enhanced access for self-study, optional audit of service user comments for two local hospitals, and optional Twitter and Tweetchat. Students discussed the aims and approaches in an online forum. Of the five approaches trialled, webinars seemed effective in ensuring that all nursing students engaged with the topic. Video-linked lectures provided an alternative when timetabling did not allow webinars, but were less interactive. The three optional approaches (Tweetchats, audit exercise, self-directed study) provided opportunities for some students to enhance their learning but students needed guidance. Sending a summary of student reviews of patients' feedback to local hospitals illustrated how students might be agents of change in local health services. Experience from these case studies suggests that webinars followed by use of Patient Opinion preparing for placements may be a sustainable way of embedding feedback sites in the

  18. Design Options Study. Volume III. Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    included as part of the operating environment assumptions. However, Cu, 60 010 A. S 00 0 0 Ca.. 6 0C thinking of them as design features and...military viewpoint is a lessening of the ACI4A’s possible adverse enviromental impact and eliminating the potential program delays associated with such

  19. Design-build agreements : a case study review of the included handover requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Road infrastructure is a key component of any regions transportation system. It allows : unprecedented levels of mobility, accessibility, and economic growth. On the other hand, the cost : associated with inadequate road infrastructure can amount ...

  20. [Baseline clinical characteristics and management of patients included in IBERICAN study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Escobar, C; Llisterri, J L; Rodríguez Roca, G; Badimón, J J; Vergara, J; Prieto, M Á; Serrano, A; Cinza, S; Murillo, C

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in Spain, as well as the quality of the follow-up in clinical practice. In this study the baseline data of the first interim analysis of IBERICAN are shown (n=830). IBERICAN is a multicenter, longitudinal and observational population-based study of patients daily attended in primary care setting according to clinical practice in Spain. Subjects between 18 and 85 years daily attended in primary care setting are being included consecutively. Treatment of patients will be performed according only to clinical criteria of investigators. Blood pressure control was defined according to 2013 European guidelines of hypertension; LDL-cholesterol control was defined according to 2012 European guidelines of cardiovascular prevention; diabetes control was defined as HbA1ccardiovascular risk factors with a poor control. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (pheadache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (pheadaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Current status of hyphenated mass spectrometry in studies of the metabolism of drugs of abuse, including doping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews scientific contributions on the identification and/or quantification of metabolites of drugs of abuse in in vitro assays or various body samples using hyphenated mass spectrometry. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approaches are considered and discussed if they have been reported in the last five years and are relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology or doping control. Workup and artifact formation are discussed, and typical examples of studies of the metabolism of designer drugs, doping agents, herbal drugs, and synthetic cannabinoids are provided. Procedures for quantifying metabolites in body samples for pharmacokinetic studies or in enzyme incubations for enzyme kinetic studies are also reviewed. In conclusion, the reviewed papers showed that both GC-MS and LC-MS still have important roles to play in research into the metabolism of drugs of abuse, including doping agents.

  3. Should abdominal sequences be included in prostate cancer MR staging studies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, S.H., E-mail: sineadhmcevoy@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Lavelle, L.P.; Purcell, Y.M. [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Quinlan, D.M. [Department of Urology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Skehan, S.J.; Collins, C.D.; McMahon, C.J. [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • ESUR guideline that abdominal MR sequences are reserved for high-risk prostate cancer is tested. • Routine abdominal sequences are of low yield in prostate cancer MR staging. • Routine abdominal staging sequences frequently result in incidental findings. • Abdominal staging sequences should be reserved for high-risk prostate cancer cases. - Abstract: Objectives: Prostate cancer staging MR examinations commonly include abdominal sequences to assess for non-regional (common iliac or para-aortic) nodal metastasis. In our experience the diagnostic yield of this is limited, but incidental findings are frequent, often necessitating further investigations. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of abdominal sequences in routine prostate cancer MR staging studies. Methods: Findings on abdominal sequences of consecutive MRI prostate studies performed for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer between September 2011 and September 2013 were reviewed with respect to adenopathy and additional incidental findings. Results were correlated with Gleason grade and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in each case. Results: 355 MRI prostate examinations were reviewed. 4 (1.1%) showed enlarged non-regional lymph nodes. Incidental findings were found in 82(23.1%) cases, neccessitating further investigation in 45 (12.7%) cases. Enlarged non-regional nodes were associated with higher PSA level and Gleason grade (p = 0.007, p = 0.005 respectively). With a combined threshold of PSA > 20 ng/mL and/or Gleason grade ≥8 the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 100, 60, 3 and 100% respectively for predicting the presence of non-regional adenopathy. Conclusions: Routine abdominal sequences are of very low yield in routine prostate cancer MR staging, frequently resulting in incidental findings requiring further work-up and should be reserved for high-risk cases. Our experience supports the use of an abdominal staging sequence in high

  4. Design optimization studies using COSMIC NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Bharatram, G.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create, test and document a procedure to integrate mathematical optimization algorithms with COSMIC NASTRAN. This procedure is very important to structural design engineers who wish to capitalize on optimization methods to ensure that their design is optimized for its intended application. The OPTNAST computer program was created to link NASTRAN and design optimization codes into one package. This implementation was tested using two truss structure models and optimizing their designs for minimum weight, subject to multiple loading conditions and displacement and stress constraints. However, the process is generalized so that an engineer could design other types of elements by adding to or modifying some parts of the code.

  5. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  6. United Kingdom nationwide study of avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Palmer, N O A; Lowe, D; Randall, C

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to record all new patients who presented to departments of oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral and maxillofacial surgery, and to dental hospitals in the UK, with avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis (BRONJ) over a 2-year period (1 June 2009-31 May 2011). They were eligible irrespective of age, cause, or coexisting conditions. Data on incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and coexisting conditions were collected. A total of 383 cases were registered: 369 were described as BRONJ, 5 as avascular necrosis, and 9 were unknown. Bisphosphonates had been given orally in 207 (56%), intravenously in 125 (34%), both orally and intravenously in 27 (7%), and was unknown in 9 (2%); one had been given denosumab. The main risk factor was dental extraction, and the mandible was commonly affected. The median duration of administration until onset of BRONJ was 3 years in those treated intravenously and 4 years in those treated orally. Levels of engagement with the study varied between regions, and extrapolation from the 2 most involved (Merseyside and Northern Ireland) found around 8.2-12.8 cases/million/year, which is 508-793 patients/year across the UK. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to estimate national rates of BRONJ. It confirms that the risk and incidence are low. With changes in trends for antiresorptive bone medication, and increasing numbers of elderly people, it would be useful to repeat the registration in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  8. Extrap conceptual fusion reactor design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eninger, J.E; Lehnert, B.

    1987-12-01

    A study has recently been initiated to asses the fusion reactor potential of the Extrap concept. A reactor model is defined that fulfills certain economic and environmental criteria. This model is applied to Extrap and a reference reactor is outlined. The design is optimized by varying parameters subject to both physics and engineering constraints. Several design options are examined and key engineering issues are identified and addressed. Some preliminary results and conclusions of this work are summarized. (authors)

  9. Research designs and making causal inferences from health care studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the major types of research designs used in healthcare research, including experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies. Observational studies are divided into survey studies (descriptive and correlational studies), case-studies and analytic studies, the last of which are commonly used in epidemiology: case-control, retrospective cohort, and prospective cohort studies. Similarities and differences among the research designs are described and the relative strength of evidence they provide is discussed. Emphasis is placed on five criteria for drawing causal inferences that are derived from the writings of the philosopher John Stuart Mill, especially his methods or canons. The application of the criteria to experimentation is explained. Particular attention is given to the degree to which different designs meet the five criteria for making causal inferences. Examples of specific studies that have used various designs in chaplaincy research are provided.

  10. Rhetorical Design Studies: The Art of Making Design Choices Explicit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per L.

    2017-01-01

    . However, these are predominantly concerned with the phases to go through in a design process and the steps to take rather than informing design practitioners of how to explore their arguments of why. Concepts and theories from rhetoric are employed here to explain how designers can develop a process where......Design has the potential to affect the situations we are in, the choices we make and the beliefs we live by. Being such an affective field, one might expect that canonized design thinking models and methods would be much concerned with how designers can discover arguments for their design choices...... choices, which is concerned with not only the making of things but with affecting of situations, actions and systems. In area one, the designers reframe the problem by means of epideictic topoi—meaning that they look for values to celebrate. This leads to deliberation about values to praise...

  11. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs.

  12. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong.

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs

  13. [Links between life events, traumatism and dementia; an open study including 565 patients with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, E; Bouby-Serieys, V; Thomas, P; Clément, J-P

    2006-10-01

    Ageing is due to a progressive loss of the person's adaptation capability, whereas during this period environmental aggression increases. In the elderly, life events re-present a psychological traumatism that overwhelms the old person and related family, disrupting and fragilising homeostatic balance. A number of authors have suggested a possible link between life traumatisms and the dementia processes. The aim of this study is to reveal the presence of life traumatisms preceding the apparition of the dementia syndrome. This is a retrospective and comparative work based on the PIXEL study on complaints and demands from the principle informal caregivers of Alzheimer patients. It includes 565 patients presenting the criterion of dementia as defined by the DSM IV, and questionnaires filled out by the principle caregivers. One item of the questionnaire referred to life events which could have played a part in the development of the disorder. In a second stage, the reported events were classified into 4 distinct categories: loss, repeated or prolonged stress, psychotraumatism and depression-inducing events. The statistics were produced using SAS and Stat 10 software. Student's test, ANOVA and chi2-test were used. 372 caregivers answered the first item (65%); 76 of them believed there was no event while 296 related the disorder to one or several life events (79% of responders, 52% of the sample). These results confirm Persson and Clement's study which evidenced a higher frequency of stressing life events for subjects afflicted with dementia as compared with older people without any psychic disorder. Reported events and their respective frequency: spouse death (15.39%), parents' death (15%), familial difficulty (10.08%), anaesthesia (8.49%), child's death (4.42%), somatic disturbance (4%), depression (3.89%), retirement (3.89%), financial problems (2.65%), loneliness (2.65%), removal (1.76%), fall (1%), alcohol (0.8%), traumatism (0.53%), spouse care (0.35%), leaving for

  14. Configuration interaction studies on the spectroscopic properties of PbO including spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luo; Rui, Li; Zhiqiang, Gai; RuiBo, Ai; Hongmin, Zhang; Xiaomei, Zhang; Bing, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin-orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg) + O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm-1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ-, and their spin-orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18 Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+ and 13Σ+ are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ to X1Σ+ and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ states are evaluated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404180 and 11574114), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A2015010), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015095), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150101003JC).

  15. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  16. Design and Phenomenology of the FEBSTAT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lewis, Darrell V; Moshé, Solomon L; Nordli, Douglas R; Pellock, John M; MacFall, James; Shinnar, Ruth C; Masur, David; Frank, L Matthew; Epstein, Leon G; Litherland, Claire; Seinfeld, Syndi; Bello, Jacqueline A; Chan, Stephen; Bagiella, Emilia; Sun, Shumei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Febrile status epilepticus (FSE) has been associated with hippocampal injury and subsequent hipppocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy. The FEBSTAT study was designed to prospectively examine the association between prolonged febrile seizures and development of HS and associated temporal lobe epilepsy, one of the most controversial issues in epilepsy. We report on the baseline phenomenology of the final cohorts as well as detailed aims and methodology. Methods The “Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood” (FEBSTAT) study is a prospective, multicenter study. Enrolled are children, aged 1 month to 6 years, presenting with a febrile seizure lasting 30 minutes or more based upon ambulance, emergency department, and hospital records, and parental interview. At baseline, procedures included an MRI and EEG done within 72 hours of FSE, and a detailed history and neurological examination. Baseline development and behavior are assessed at one month. The baseline assessment is repeated, with age- appropriate developmental testing at one and five years after enrollment as well as at the development of epilepsy and one year after that. Telephone calls every three months document further seizures. Two other groups of children are included: a ‘control’ group consisting of children with a first febrile seizure ascertained at Columbia University and with almost identical baseline and one year follow-up examinations and a pilot cohort of FSE from Duke University. Key findings The FEBSTAT cohort consists of 199 children with a median age at baseline of 16.0 months (Interquartile range (IQR)=12.0–24.0) and a median duration of FSE of 70.0 minutes (IQR=47.0–110.0). Seizures were continuous in 57.3% and behaviorally intermittent (without recovery in between) in 31.2%; most were partial (4;2.0%) or secondary generalized (65.8%), and almost all (98.0%) culminated in a generalized tonic clonic seizure. Of the 199 children, 86.4% had normal

  17. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  18. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150 degrees C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases

  19. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 1: Design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study and selection of practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for two specific future cryogenic space vehicles, an advanced cryogenic space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system and an advanced space propulsion module is reported. A supporting laboratory scale experimental program was also conducted to provide design information critical to concept finalization and selection. Designs using localized pressure isolated surface tension screen devices were selected for each application and preliminary designs were generated. Based on these designs, large scale acquisition prototype hardware was designed and fabricated to be compatible with available NASA-MSFC feed system hardware.

  20. Initial DEMO tokamak design configuration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Christian, E-mail: christian.bachmann@efda.org [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aiello, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Arbeiter, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Aubert, J. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Boccaccini, L.; Carloni, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Federici, G. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kovari, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Loving, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maione, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Mattei, M. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Mazzone, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Meszaros, B. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Riccardo, V. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A definition of main DEMO requirements. • A description of the DEMO tokamak design configuration. • A description of issues yet to be solved. - Abstract: To prepare the DEMO conceptual design phase a number of physics and engineering assessments were carried out in recent years in the frame of EFDA concluding in an initial design configuration of a DEMO tokamak. This paper gives an insight into the identified engineering requirements and constraints and describes their impact on the selection of the technologies and design principles of the main tokamak components. The EU DEMO program aims at making best use of the technologies developed for ITER (e.g., magnets, vessel, cryostat, and to some degree also the divertor). However, other systems in particular the breeding blanket require design solutions and advanced technologies that will only partially be tested in ITER. The main differences from ITER include the requirement to breed, to extract, to process and to recycle the tritium needed for plasma operation, the two orders of magnitude larger lifetime neutron fluence, the consequent radiation dose levels, which limit remote maintenance options, and the requirement to use low-activation steel for in-vessel components that also must operate at high temperature for efficient energy conversion.

  1. Including an Autistic Middle School Child in General Physical Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…

  2. Combining Antidepressants in Acute Treatment of Depression: A Meta-Analysis of 38 Studies Including 4511 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssler, Jonathan; Bschor, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Combining antidepressants (ADs) for therapy of acute depression is frequently employed, but randomized studies have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at determining efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases were systematically searched through March 2014 for controlled studies comparing combinations of ADs with AD monotherapy in adult patients suffering from acute depression. The prespecified primary outcome was standardized mean difference (SMD), secondary outcomes were response, remission, and dropouts. Results: Among 8688 articles screened, 38 studies were eligible, including 4511 patients. Combination treatment was statistically, significantly superior to monotherapy (SMD 0.29; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.42). During monotherapy, slightly fewer patients dropped out due to adverse events (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.53). Studies were heterogeneous (I2 = 63%), and there was indication of moderate publication bias (fail-safe N for an effect of 0.1:44), but results remained robust across prespecified secondary outcomes and subgroups, including analyses restricted to randomized controlled trials and low risk of bias studies. Meta-regression revealed an association of SMD with difference in imipramine-equivalent dose. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors was superior to other combinations. Conclusion: Combining ADs seems to be superior to monotherapy with only slightly more patients dropping out. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors seems to be significantly more effective than other combinations. Overall, our search revealed a dearth of well-designed studies. PMID:27582451

  3. Combining Antidepressants in Acute Treatment of Depression: A Meta-Analysis of 38 Studies Including 4511 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssler, Jonathan; Bschor, Tom; Baethge, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Combining antidepressants (ADs) for therapy of acute depression is frequently employed, but randomized studies have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at determining efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases were systematically searched through March 2014 for controlled studies comparing combinations of ADs with AD monotherapy in adult patients suffering from acute depression. The prespecified primary outcome was standardized mean difference (SMD), secondary outcomes were response, remission, and dropouts. Among 8688 articles screened, 38 studies were eligible, including 4511 patients. Combination treatment was statistically, significantly superior to monotherapy (SMD 0.29; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.42). During monotherapy, slightly fewer patients dropped out due to adverse events (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.53). Studies were heterogeneous (I(2) = 63%), and there was indication of moderate publication bias (fail-safe N for an effect of 0.1:44), but results remained robust across prespecified secondary outcomes and subgroups, including analyses restricted to randomized controlled trials and low risk of bias studies. Meta-regression revealed an association of SMD with difference in imipramine-equivalent dose. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors was superior to other combinations. Combining ADs seems to be superior to monotherapy with only slightly more patients dropping out. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors seems to be significantly more effective than other combinations. Overall, our search revealed a dearth of well-designed studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Resu...

  5. Modular Stellarator Reactor conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  6. Modular stellarator reactor conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the Modular Stellarator Reactor is summarized. The physics basis of the approach is elucidated with emphasis on magnetics performance optimization. Key engineering features of the fusion power core are described. Comparisons with an analogous continuous-helical-coil (torsatron) system are made as the basis of a technical and economic assessment

  7. ARTS III/Parallel Processor Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    It was the purpose of this design study to investigate the feasibility, suitability, and cost-effectiveness of augmenting the ARTS III failsafe/failsoft multiprocessor system with a form of parallel processor to accomodate a large growth in air traff...

  8. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  9. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  10. Design and analysis of biomedical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær

    been allocated this field. It is utterly important to utilize these ressources responsibly and efficiently by constantly striving to ensure high-quality biomedical studies. This involves the use of a sound statistical methodology regarding both the design and analysis of biomedical studies. The focus...... for the statistical power of studies with a hierarchical structure to guide biomedical researchers designing future studies of this type. Upon model fitting it is important to examine if the model assumptions are met to avoid that spurious conclusions are drawn. While the range of diagnostic methods is extensive...... for models assuming a normal response it is generally more limited for non-normal models. An R package providing diagnostic tools suitable for examining the validity of binomial regression models have been developed. The binom Tools package is publicly available at the CRAN repository....

  11. Tokamak blanket design study, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    A cylindrical module concept was developed, analyzed, and incorporated in a tokamak blanket system that includes piping systems, vacuum boundary sealing, and support structures. The design is based on the use of state-of-the-art structural materials (20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel), lithium as the breeding material, and pressurized helium as the coolant. The module design consists of nested concentric cylinders (with an outer diameter of 10 cm) and features direct wall cooling by helium flowing between the outer (first-wall) cylinder and the inner (lithium-containing) cylinder. Each cylinder can withstand full coolant pressure, thus enhancing reliability. Results show that stainless steel is a viable material for a first wall subjected to a neutron wall loading of 4 MW/m 2 and a particle heat flux of 1 MW/m 2 . Lifetime analysis shows that the first-wall design meets the goal of operating at 20-min cycles with 95% duty for 100,000 cycles. To reduce system complexity, a larger 20-cm-diam module also was analyzed for incorporation in the blanket assembly. Reliability assessment indicates that it may be possible to double the module in size from 10 to 20 cm in diameter. With a modest increase in coolant pumping power, a blanket assembly comprising 20-cm-diam modules can still achieve 100,000 operating cycles - equivalent to a 3.6-year design lifetime - with only one or two helium coolant leaks into the plasma

  12. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungsook; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-Jung

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m(2)) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10(-7), rs1040675; 2.3 × 10(-6)) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10(-5), rs10786764; 6.57 × 10(-5)). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate.

  13. THERMOHALINE INSTABILITIES INSIDE STARS: A SYNTHETIC STUDY INCLUDING EXTERNAL TURBULENCE AND RADIATIVE LEVITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauclair, Sylvie; Theado, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.vauclair@irap.omp.eu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP and CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2012-07-01

    We have derived a new expression for the thermohaline mixing coefficient in stars, including the effects of radiative levitation and external turbulence, by solving Boussinesq equations in a nearly incompressible stratified fluid with a linear approximation. It is well known that radiative levitation of individual elements can lead to their accumulation in specific stellar layers. In some cases, it can induce important effects on the stellar structure. Here we confirm that this accumulation is moderated by thermohaline convection due to the resulting inverse {mu}-gradient. The new coefficient that we have derived shows that the effect of radiative accelerations on the thermohaline instability itself is small. This effect must however be checked in all computations. We also confirm that the presence of large horizontal turbulence can reduce or even suppress the thermohaline convection. These results are important as they concern all the cases of heavy element accumulation in stars. Computations of radiative diffusion must be revisited to include thermohaline convection and its consequences. It may be one of the basic reasons for the fact that the observed abundances are always smaller than those predicted by pure atomic diffusion. In any case, these processes have to compete with rotation-induced mixing, but this competition is more complex than previously thought due to their mutual interaction.

  14. A study of everyday repair: informing interaction design

    OpenAIRE

    Maestri, Leah Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Repair is typically seen in design as the restoration of broken objects to their original state. Repair by non-experts, or everyday repair, can often lead to novel forms of repair resulting in the creative repurposing of objects that are often unforeseen by designers. Using a grounded theory approach, this study describes key aspects of repair including: the techniques non-experts employ for repairing their objects; the motivations that prompt acts of repair; and the outcomes that result fr...

  15. Sustainable Innovation for Queensland's Housing Design: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Johnston; Mirko Guaralda; Sukanlaya Sawang

    2014-01-01

    This research provides an assessment tool that assists the selection process of sustainability in detached suburban housing. It investigates the implications of using different design and construction methods including architecturally designed houses, developer housing and prefabricated houses. The study simulates one example of the three types of houses that have been chosen to fulfil a real client brief on a real site on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia. Criteria for sustainability ...

  16. Design study on metal fuel FBR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoo, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Ogata, T.

    1991-01-01

    A design approach for metal fuel FBR core to maintain fuel integrity during transient events by limiting eutectic/liquid phase formation is proposed based on the current status of metallic fuel development. Its impact as the limitation on the core outlet temperature is assessed through its application to two of CRIEPI's core concepts, high linear power 1000 MWe homogeneous design and medium linear power 300 MWe radially heterogeneous design. SESAME/SALT code is used in this study to analyze steady state and transient fuel behavior. SE2-FA code is developed based on SUPERENERGY-2 and used to analyze core thermal-hydraulics with uncertainties. As the result, the core outlet temperatures of both designs are found to be limited to ≤500degC if it is required to prevent eutectic/liquid phase formation during operational transients in order to guarantee the fuel integrity. Additional assessment is made assuming an advanced limiting condition that allows small liquid phase formation based on the liquid phase penetration rate derived from existing experimental results. The result indicates possibility of raising core outlet temperature to ∼ 530degC. Also, it is found that core design technology improvements such as hot spot factors reduction can contribute to the core outlet temperature extension by 10 ∼ 20degC. (author)

  17. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  18. Thermodynamic studies for drug design and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2012-04-01

    A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 - 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development toward an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in the design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  19. Evidence Clearinghouses and Registries: Methods for Locating and Including Studies in Evidence Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lisa; LaSota, Robin; Yeide, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to report about study identification practices across evidence-based registries and clearinghouses in social policy fields, which serve as a resource for scientific, evidence-based decision-making about practices about desired outcomes in these social policy fields. The information retrieval procedures of the…

  20. Public Participation UK Case Studies -Schemes and Strategies including costs of partcipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarises the main issues arising from a review of approaches to engaging stakeholders in flood risk management undertaken as part of the ComCoast project. The UK Environment Agency selected a sample of six experiences for review from the east of England. The detailed case studies are

  1. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  2. Integrated wastewater management reporting at tourist areas for recycling purposes, including the case study of Hersonissos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borboudaki, K E; Paranychianakis, N V; Tsagarakis, K P

    2005-10-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities in tourist areas, in comparison to other municipal facilities, require specific configurations and additional management actions in order to achieve a reliable and cost-effective treatment. For example, the same facility operates during winter with minimum flows and in summer with peak flows. Moreover, careful effluent management is required to minimize environmental impact and health effects on tourists. In this study, effluent management data, including quantitative and qualitative effluent characteristics, reuse, and economic aspects of the Hersonissos Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) in Greece, are discussed. It has been designed to treat both municipal wastewater from the Hersonissos Municipality and septage from the wider area. Analysis of effluent quantitative data showed two flow peaks in the summer period and only one in winter. The WTP was found to provide a reliable level of treatment in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (95.9%), total suspended solids (97.2%), and total nitrogen (87.7%) removal, but increased numbers of fecal coliforms were measured at some peak flow periods, suggesting the need for additional management strategies. Effluent is reused mainly for agricultural irrigation; secondary uses include fire protection and landscape irrigation. Economic analysis showed that for each cubic meter treated, the total annual economic cost for treatment, filtration, and reuse infrastructure was 1.07 euro, 0.05 euro, and 0.08 euro, respectively.

  3. Service Design, insights from nine case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gijbels; C. van Gessel; Dr. Ir. Remko van der Lugt; Tanja Enninga; Sjoukje Sleeswijk Visser; Fenne Verhoeven; Berit Godfroij; M.M. Manschot

    2013-01-01

    Service design is literally the design of services. Service designers improve existing services or design completely new ones. Nothing new so far. Services have been around for centuries, and every service was conceived and designed by someone. However, service design takes a different angle; a

  4. Two phase formation of massive elliptical galaxies: study through cross-correlation including spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Soumita; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Area of study is the formation mechanism of the present-day population of elliptical galaxies, in the context of hierarchical cosmological models accompanied by accretion and minor mergers. The present work investigates the formation and evolution of several components of the nearby massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) through cross-correlation function (CCF), using the spatial parameters right ascension (RA) and declination (DEC), and the intrinsic parameters mass (M_{*}) and size. According to the astrophysical terminology, here these variables, namely mass, size, RA and DEC are termed as parameters, whereas the unknown constants involved in the kernel function are called hyperparameters. Throughout this paper, the parameter size is used to represent the effective radius (Re). Following Huang et al. (2013a), each nearby ETG is divided into three parts on the basis of its Re value. We study the CCF between each of these three components of nearby massive ETGs and the ETGs in the high redshift range, 0.5work (De et al. 2014) suggesting other possibilities for the formation of the outermost part. A probable cause of this improvement is the inclusion of the spatial effects in addition to the other parameters in the study.

  5. HRTEM study of α-AlMnSi crystals including non-crystallographic projection axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, G.L.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of α-AlMnSi is examined by atomic resolution high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and computer-based image matching techniques. Six distinct zone axes are examined; including both normal crystallographic and non-crystallographic zones axes of the structural motifs, which have m3-bar 5 icosahedral symmetry. The results provide a sound basis for understanding HRTEM images of the quasicrystalline alloy i-AlMnSi; thus it was examined to what extent the requirements for obtaining so-called structure images of complex alloy structures may be met experimentally and define when the images may be reliably interpreted on the basis of computer simulation and image-matching at about 0.17nm resolution. Most difficulty was experienced in obtaining the experimental images, especially for the non-crystallographic zones, which are very sensitive to slight changes in orientation off the desired zone axis or projection, the rate at which the crystal thickness is increasing (wedge-angle) and the orientation of the surfaces of the specimen. Surface amorphous layers due to oxidation and/or electron-induced irradiation damage also limit the efficiency of the HRTEM analysis. For the thin specimens used for HRTEM, both the electron diffraction patterns and the HRTEM images are characteristic of Im3-bar space group symmetry. It is suggested that this Im3-bar symmetry may be an example of a statistical symmetry, where the local symmetry is close to Pm3-bar but the average symmetry is Im3-bar. The transition from Pm3-bar to Im3-bar may be understood in terms of an analysis of small changes in the outer shells of the large icosahedral structural elements which are located at the corners and body-centers of the cubic unit cell. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  6. White matter microstructural changes in adolescent anorexia nervosa including an exploratory longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488

  7. Structural Design Feasibility Study for the Global Climate Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin,K.F.; Nagy, J.

    2008-12-01

    Neon, Inc. is proposing to establish a Global Change Experiment (GCE) Facility to increase our understanding of how ecological systems differ in their vulnerability to changes in climate and other relevant global change drivers, as well as provide the mechanistic basis for forecasting ecological change in the future. The experimental design was initially envisioned to consist of two complementary components; (A) a multi-factor experiment manipulating CO{sub 2}, temperature and water availability and (B) a water balance experiment. As the design analysis and cost estimates progressed, it became clear that (1) the technical difficulties of obtaining tight temperature control and maintaining elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels within an enclosure were greater than had been expected and (2) the envisioned study would not fit into the expected budget envelope if this was done in a partially or completely enclosed structure. After discussions between NEON management, the GCE science team, and Keith Lewin, NEON, Inc. requested Keith Lewin to expand the scope of this design study to include open-field exposure systems. In order to develop the GCE design to the point where it can be presented within a proposal for funding, a feasibility study of climate manipulation structures must be conducted to determine design approaches and rough cost estimates, and to identify advantages and disadvantages of these approaches including the associated experimental artifacts. NEON, Inc requested this design study in order to develop concepts for the climate manipulation structures to support the NEON Global Climate Experiment. This study summarizes the design concepts considered for constructing and operating the GCE Facility and their associated construction, maintenance and operations costs. Comparisons and comments about experimental artifacts, construction challenges and operational uncertainties are provided to assist in selecting the final facility design. The overall goal

  8. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer-a comparative study including radical prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Liam; Papa, Nathan; Perera, Marlon; Katelaris, Nikolas; Weerakoon, Mahesha; Chin, Kwang; Harewood, Laurence; Bolton, Damien M; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic and staging ability of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) compared to radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens after dissemination of this technology to several centres. mpMRI is an evolving technique aiming to improve upon the diagnostic sensitivity of prostate biopsy for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Differences in interpretation, expertise and application of mpMRI are responsible for the range of reported results. This retrospective clinical study was conducted with consecutive patients through an electronic database of tertiary hospitals and adjacent private urology practices in Australia. Patients having undergone RP were assessed for the presence of a pre-operative mpMRI performed between 2013 and 2015 which was evaluated against the reference standard of the RP whole-mount specimen. MRI reports were evaluated using the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS). In our cohort of 152 patients, the sensitivity and specificity of mpMRI (PI-RADS ≥ 4) for prostate cancer (Gleason ≥ 4 + 3) detection were 83 and 47%, respectively. For the identification of extraprostatic disease, the sensitivity and specificity were 29 and 94%, respectively. These results represent a 'real-world' approach to mpMRI and appear comparable to other single-centre studies. MRI staging information should be interpreted in context with other risk factors for extraprostatic disease. mpMRI has a useful role as an adjunct for prostate cancer diagnosis and directing management towards improving patient outcomes.

  9. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comprehensive study in the inhibitory effect of berberine on gene transcription, including TATA box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yugang; Kheir, Michael M; Chai, Yushuang; Hu, Jun; Xing, Dongming; Lei, Fan; Du, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is an established natural DNA intercalator with numerous pharmacological functions. However, currently there are neither detailed reports concerning the distribution of this alkaloid in living cells nor reports concerning the relationship between BBR's association with DNA and the function of DNA. Here we report that the distribution of BBR within the nucleus can be observed 30 minutes after drug administration, and that the content of berberine in the nucleus peaks at around 4 µmol, which is twelve hours after drug administration. The spatial conformation of DNA and chromatin was altered immediately after their association with BBR. Moreover, this association can effectively suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems and cell-free systems. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated further that BBR can inhibit the association between the TATA binding protein (TBP) and the TATA box in the promoter, and this finding was also attained in living cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Based on results from this study, we hypothesize that berberine can suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems, especially suppressing the association between TBP and the TATA box by binding with DNA and, thus, inhibiting TATA box-dependent gene expression in a non-specific way. This novel study has significantly expanded the sphere of knowledge concerning berberine's pharmacological effects, beginning at its paramount initial interaction with the TATA box.

  11. Conceptual design studies for surface infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufkin, Ann L.; Jones, William R., II

    1986-01-01

    The utimate design of a manned Mars base will be the result of considerable engineering analysis and many trade studies to optimize the configuration. Many options and scenarios are available and all need to be considered at this time. Initial base elements, two base configuration concepts, internal space architectural concerns, and two base set-up scenarios are discussed. There are many variables as well as many unknowns to be reckoned with before people set foot on the red planet.

  12. Sustainable Innovation for Queensland's Housing Design: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Johnston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research provides an assessment tool that assists the selection process of sustainability in detached suburban housing. It investigates the implications of using different design and construction methods including architecturally designed houses, developer housing and prefabricated houses. The study simulates one example of the three types of houses that have been chosen to fulfil a real client brief on a real site on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia. Criteria for sustainability assessment are formulated based on literature reviews, exemplar designs and similar research projects for which the houses can be adequately evaluated. This criterion covers aspects including energy use, materials and thermal performance. The data is collected using computer models and sustainability assessment software to compare and draw conclusions on the success of each house.Our study indicates that architecturally designed housing with prefabricated building techniques are a better alternative to generic developer style housing. Our research provides an insight into the implications of three key elements of sustainability including energy use, materials and thermal performance. Designers, builders, developers and home-buyers are given an insight into some options currently available on the housing market and how the choices made during early design stages can provide a more positive environmental impact.  

  13. Sustainable Innovation for Queensland's Housing Design: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Johnston

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research provides an assessment tool that assists the selection process of sustainability in detached suburban housing. It investigates the implications of using different design and construction methods including architecturally designed houses, developer housing and prefabricated houses. The study simulates one example of the three types of houses that have been chosen to fulfil a real client brief on a real site on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland Australia. Criteria for sustainability assessment are formulated based on literature reviews, exemplar designs and similar research projects for which the houses can be adequately evaluated. This criterion covers aspects including energy use, materials and thermal performance. The data is collected using computer models and sustainability assessment software to compare and draw conclusions on the success of each house. Our study indicates that architecturally designed housing with prefabricated building techniques are a better alternative to generic developer style housing. Our research provides an insight into the implications of three key elements of sustainability including energy use, materials and thermal performance. Designers, builders, developers and home-buyers are given an insight into some options currently available on the housing market and how the choices made during early design stages can provide a more positive environmental impact.

  14. Innovative Offshore Wind Plant Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, William L. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Nordstrom, Charles J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Morrison, Brent J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-12-18

    Technological advancements in the Glosten PelaStar floating wind turbine system have led to projected cost of energy (COE) reductions from today’s best-in-class offshore wind systems. The PelaStar system is projected to deliver a COE that is 35% lower than that delivered by the current offshore wind plants. Several technology developments have been achieved that directly target significant cost of energy reductions. These include: Application of state-of-the-art steel construction materials and methods, including fatigue-resistant welding techniques and technologies, to reduce hull steel weight; Advancements in synthetic fiber tendon design for the mooring system, which are made possible by laboratory analysis of full-scale sub-rope specimens; Investigations into selected anchor technologies to improve anchor installation methods; Refinement of the installation method, specifically through development of the PelaStar Support Barge design. Together, these technology developments drive down the capital cost and operating cost of offshore wind plants and enable access to superb wind resources in deep water locations. These technology developments also reduce the uncertainty of the PelaStar system costs, which increases confidence in the projected COE reductions.

  15. A Preliminary Study on Gender Differences in Studying Systems Analysis and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fion S. L.; Wong, Kelvin C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Systems analysis and design is a crucial task in system development and is included in a typical information systems programme as a core course. This paper presented a preliminary study on gender differences in studying a systems analysis and design course of an undergraduate programme. Results indicated that male students outperformed female…

  16. Designing for Nomadic Play: A case study of participatory design with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Ludvigsen, Martin

    This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted...... a participatory design workshop cycle where children were encouraged to envision and virtually play with not-yet-invented future technology. Findings include qualitative characterizations of children’s activities (e.g. ‘play’ culture, use of digital media, age and gender differences, relation to space...

  17. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  18. Immunization of cattle against Schistosome bovis (including pathophysiological studies on schistosome infection in bovines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.F.

    1978-12-01

    Bovine schistosomiasis caused by S. bovis constitutes a serious veterinary problem in the Sudan, yet very little is known about the epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunology of the disease. Over the past 5 years, work on these aspects has been conducted at Khartoum and several outlying areas of the White Nile Province in Sudan. In studies involving over 1,000 cattle, it was found that almost 100% of animals are infected by 2 years of age but that the prevalence falls to less than 60% over the following 7 years. There was also a marked reduction in the intensity of infection with increasing age, indicating the development of a high degree of acquired resistance. This was confirmed experimentally by challenging animals from an endemic area with massive numbers of cercariae. These animals completely resisted the challenge whereas animals never previously exposed either died or became moribund due to the severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea resulting from the passage of schistosome eggs through the gut wall. Attempts were made to vaccinate calves using irradiated organisms. These gave 70-80% protection against a challenge infection and this was sufficient to allow these animals to gain weight and remain clinically healthy. Animals not given the vaccine deteriorated. The efficacy of the vaccine was then tested under field conditions and found to give a high level of protection against S. bovis. These animals were also less susceptible to intercurrent infections

  19. Risk Factor Analysis for AKI Including Laboratory Indicators: a Nationwide Multicenter Study of Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Nie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Risk factor studies for acute kidney injury (AKI in China are lacking, especially those regarding non-traditional risk factors, such as laboratory indicators. Methods: All adult patients admitted to 38 tertiary and 22 secondary hospitals in China in any one month between July and December 2014 were surveyed. AKI patients were screened according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes’ definition of AKI. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for AKI, and Cox regression was used to analyze the risk of in-hospital mortality for AKI patients; additionally, a propensity score analysis was used to reconfirm the risk factors among laboratory indicators for mortality. Results: The morbidity of AKI was 0.97%. Independent risk factors for AKI were advancing age, male gender, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. All-cause mortality was 16.5%. The predictors of mortality in AKI patients were advancing age, tumor, higher uric acid level and increases in Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. The hazard ratio (HR for mortality with uric acid levels > 9.1 mg/dl compared with ≤ 5.2 mg/dl was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.58 for the AKI patients as a group, and was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.24 to 2.42 for a propensity score-matched set. Conclusion: In addition to traditional risk factors, uric acid level is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality after AKI.

  20. Study on the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR including fluid-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, K.; Ito, T.; Fujita, K.; Kurihara, C.; Sawada, Y.; Sakurai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR with fluid-structure interaction. The reactor vessel has bottom support arrangement, the same core support system as Super-Phenix in France. Due to the bottom support arrangement, the level of core support is lower than that of the side support arrangement. So, in this reactor vessel, the displacement of the core top tends to increase because of the core's rocking. In this study, we investigated the vibration and seismic response characteristics of the reactor vessel. Therefore, the seismic experiments were carried out using one-eighth scale model and the seismic response including FSI and sloshing were investigated. From this study, the effect of liquid on the vibration characteristics and the seismic response characteristics of reactor vessel were clarified and sloshing characteristics were also clarified. It was confirmed that FEM analysis with FSI can reproduce the seismic behavior of the reactor vessel and is applicable to seismic design of the pool type LMFBR with bottom support arrangement. (author). 5 refs, 14 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Conflicts Management Model in School: A Mixed Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the reasons for conflicts occurring in school according to perceptions and views of teachers and resolution strategies used for conflicts and to build a model based on the results obtained. In the research, explanatory design including quantitative and qualitative methods has been used. The quantitative part…

  2. Design study of a flexible diaphragm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whatley, M E; Morgan, J G

    1982-10-01

    A design study was made to meet the requirements for a diaphragm for a rotary seal at the discharge end of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program`s prototypic voloxidizer. Using a computer program called NEPSAP, the study examined thickness, outer radius, corrugation wavelength and corrugation amplitude as variables, and established the general effect of each on stiffness and stresses. The result comprises a basis for the selection of diaphragms for similar applications. Limited experimental measurements of stress validate the stress values calculated by NEPSAP.

  3. Quantitative methods for studying design protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kan, Jeff WT

    2017-01-01

    This book is aimed at researchers and students who would like to engage in and deepen their understanding of design cognition research. The book presents new approaches for analyzing design thinking and proposes methods of measuring design processes. These methods seek to quantify design issues and design processes that are defined based on notions from the Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) design ontology and from linkography. A linkograph is a network of linked design moves or segments. FBS ontology concepts have been used in both design theory and design thinking research and have yielded numerous results. Linkography is one of the most influential and elegant design cognition research methods. In this book Kan and Gero provide novel and state-of-the-art methods of analyzing design protocols that offer insights into design cognition by integrating segmentation with linkography by assigning FBS-based codes to design moves or segments and treating links as FBS transformation processes. They propose and test ...

  4. Incomplete by Design: A Study of a Design-in-Use Approach to Systems Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2017-01-01

    In complex work settings the design of a system, including the associated work practices, must be completed in use to derive full benefit from the system. We investigate the introduction of an electronic whiteboard throughout a hospital in which management substituted a local design-in-use process......, driven by super users, for a centrally organized implementation process. The aim of this study is to investigate the design-in-use approach to systems implementation with respect to the tension that ensued between hospital management’s expectations to the process and the goals pursued in the individual...... the tension. We discuss the circumstances under which a local design-in-use process may, partly, replace conventional systems implementation....

  5. Preliminary design study of a large scale graphite oxidation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epel, L.G.; Majeski, S.J.; Schweitzer, D.G.; Sheehan, T.V.

    1979-08-01

    A preliminary design study of a large scale graphite oxidation loop was performed in order to assess feasibility and to estimate capital costs. The nominal design operates at 50 atmospheres helium and 1800 F with a graphite specimen 30 inches long and 10 inches in diameter. It was determined that a simple single walled design was not practical at this time because of a lack of commercially available thick walled high temperature alloys. Two alternative concepts, at reduced operating pressure, were investigated. Both were found to be readily fabricable to operate at 1800 F and capital cost estimates for these are included. A design concept, which is outside the scope of this study, was briefly considered

  6. Lessons Learned from Applying Design Thinking in a NASA Rapid Design Study in Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria; Bakula, Casey; Castner, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    In late 2015, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an experiment in rapid design and rapid teaming to explore new approaches to solving challenging design problems in aeronautics in an effort to cultivate and foster innovation. This report summarizes several lessons learned from the rapid design portion of the study. This effort entailed learning and applying design thinking, a human-centered design approach, to complete the conceptual design for an open-ended design challenge within six months. The design challenge focused on creating a capability to advance experimental testing of autonomous aeronautics systems, an area of great interest to NASA, the US government as a whole, and an entire ecosystem of users and developers around the globe. A team of nine civil servant researchers from three of NASA's aeronautics field centers with backgrounds in several disciplines was assembled and rapidly trained in design thinking under the guidance of the innovation and design firm IDEO. The design thinking process, while used extensively outside the aerospace industry, is less common and even counter to many practices within the aerospace industry. In this report, several contrasts between common aerospace research and development practices and design thinking are discussed, drawing upon the lessons learned from the NASA rapid design study. The lessons discussed included working towards a design solution without a set of detailed design requirements, which may not be practical or even feasible for management to ascertain for complex, challenging problems. This approach allowed for the possibility of redesigning the original problem statement to better meet the needs of the users. Another lesson learned was to approach problems holistically from the perspective of the needs of individuals that may be affected by advances in topic area instead of purely from a technological feasibility viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of the design team also

  7. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  8. Fuel pin design algorithm for conceptual design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uselman, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Two models are available which are currently verified by part of the requirements and which are adaptable as algorithms for the complete range. Fuel thermal performance is described by the HEDL SIEX model. Cladding damage and total deformation are determined by the GE GRO-II structural analysis code. A preliminary fuel pin performance model for analysis of (U, P/sub U/)O 2 pins in the COROPT core conceptual design system has been constructed by combining the key elements of SIEX and GRO-II. This memo describes the resulting pin performance model and its interfacing with COROPT system. Some exemplary results are presented

  9. A Study of Landscape Architecture Design Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lidy, Christopher James

    2006-01-01

    How do different methods employed by landscape architects impact the design outcome? This paper identifies and defines design methods in landscape architecture that may be classified as part of four internal and external connections and structures categories. Methods are further examined through two design exercises. In the first design exercise, the identified methods are individually applied to the same simple design which is used as a control. The only variable changed is the method used ...

  10. The household contact study design for genetic epidemiological studies of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eStein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most genetic epidemiological study designs fall into one of two categories: family-based and population-based (case-control. However, recent advances in statistical genetics call for study designs that combine these two approaches. We describe the household contact study design as we have applied it in our several years of study of the epidemiology of tuberculosis. Though we highlight its applicability for genetic epidemiological studies of infectious diseases, there are many facets of this design that are appealing for modern genetic studies, including the simultaneous enrollment of related and unrelated individuals, closely and distantly related individuals, collection of extensive epidemiologic and phenotypic data, and evaluation of effects of shared environment and gene by environment interaction. These study design characteristics are particularly appealing for current sequencing studies.

  11. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  12. Nuclear reactors design study and parameters calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, H.N.

    2002-01-01

    the nuclear design a reactor core needs to determine a set of system parameters which will lead to safe, reliable and economical reactor operation at the rated power level over the desired core lifetime. the principal tools used in this task consist of a number of models of neutron behavior in the reactor that are implemented by a multiplicity of computer programs or codes used to simulate the nuclear behavior of the reactor core. the study of the interaction of the core power distributions with the time-dependent production or depletion of nuclei in the core is known as depletion or burn up analysis the main objective of the present thesis is to study the fuel depletion analysis under different reactor operating regimes and their influence on the build up of actinides and fission products (F P). therefore, one can estimate the optimum reactor-operating regime at which the accumulation of certain actinide isotope can reach maximum

  13. Gas recombination device design and cost study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Under a contract with Argonne National Laboratory, VARTA Batterie AG. conducted a design and cost study of hydrogen-oxygen recombination devices (HORD) for use with utility load-leveling lead-acid cells. Design specifications for the devices, through extensive calculation of the heat-flow conditions of the unit, were developed. Catalyst and condenser surface areas were specified. The exact dimensions can, however, be adjusted to the cell dimension and the space available above the cell. Design specifications were also developed for additional components required to ensure proper function of the recombination device, including metal hydride compound decomposer, aerosol retainer, and gas storage component. Costs for HORD were estimated to range from $4 to $10/kWh cell capacity for the production of a large number of units (greater than or equal to 10,000 units). The cost is a function of cell size and positive grid design. 21 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Core design studies for advanced burner test reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.S.; Kim, T.K.; Hill, R.N. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the core design and performance characteristics of 250 MWt Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) designs. A phased approach was adopted with initial startup using conventional enrichment plutonium-based fuel and gradual transition to full core loading of transmutation fuel after its qualification phase. Reference core designs were developed for ternary metal alloy and mixed oxide fuels based on weapons-grade plutonium feed. The transuranics (TRU) transmutation fuel tests can be accommodated in the designated test assemblies, and if fully developed, core conversion to TRU transmutation fuel can be envisioned. For the startup core designs, the calculated TRU conversion ratio is 0.65 for the metal fuel core and 0.64 for the oxide fuel core. The metal fuel core requires an average TRU enrichment of 18.8% and has a TRU loading of 732 kg. Compared to the metal fuel core, the lower density oxide fuel core requires an average TRU enrichment of 21.8%, which results in a 780 kg TRU loading despite a {approx} 9% smaller heavy metal inventory. Alternative designs were also studied for a light water reactor spent fuel TRU feed and a low conversion ratio, including the recycle of the ABTR spent fuel TRU. Reactor performance characteristics were evaluated in detail, including equilibrium cycle core parameters, mass flow rates, power distributions, kinetic parameters, reactivity feedback coefficients, and reactivity control requirements and shutdown margins. (authors)

  15. Large Coil Program magnetic system design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, S.D.; Johnson, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting coils to provide a basis for the design principles, materials, and fabrication techniques proposed for the toroidal magnets for the THE NEXT STEP (TNS) and other future tokamak devices. This paper documents a design study of the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) in which the structural response of the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils and the supporting structure was evaluated under simulated reactor conditions. The LCP test facility structural system consists of six TF Coils, twelve coil-to-coil torsional restraining beams (torque rings), a central bucking post with base, and a Pulse Coil system. The NASTRAN Finite Element Structural Analysis computer Code was utilized to determine the distribution of deflections, forces, and stresses for each of the TF Coils, torque rings, and the central bucking post. Eleven load conditions were selected to represent probable test operations. Pulse Coils suspended in the bore of the test coil were energized to simulate the pulsed field environment characteristic of the TNS reactor system. The TORMAC Computer Code was utilized to develop the magnetic forces in the TF Coils for each of the eleven loading conditions examined, with or without the Pulse Coils energized. The TORMAC computer program output forces were used directly as input load conditions for the NASTRAN analyses. Results are presented which demonstrate the reliability of the LCTF under simulated reactor operating conditions

  16. Second Generation Waste Package Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.; Misra, M.; Kar, Piyush

    2007-01-01

    The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 023 ''Second Generation Waste Package Design Study'' under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion test environments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A588 weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno(UNR). The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments (humidity, liquid composition and temperature) at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2. Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity

  17. A study into the design of steerable microphone arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Chiong Ching; Leung, Yee Hong

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the design formulations for broadband beamformer targeting nearfield and farfield sources. The book content includes background information on the acoustic environment, including propagation medium, the array geometries, signal models and basic beamformer designs. Subsequently it introduces design formulation for nearfield, farfield and mixed nearfield-farfield beamformers and extends the design formulation into electronically steerable beamformers. In addition, a robust formulation is introduced for all the designs mentioned.

  18. FEL Design Studies at LBNL: Activities and Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, John N.; Fawley, W.; Lidia, S.; Padmore, H.; Penn, G.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Wan, W.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.

    2007-01-01

    LBNL staff are currently pursuing R and D for future x-ray FELs, and participate in two FEL construction projects. Our strategy is to address the most fundamental challenges, which are the cost-drivers and performance limitations of FEL facilities. An internally funded R and D program is aimed at investigating accelerator physics and technologies in three key areas: (1) Theoretical study, modeling, and experimental development of low emittance, high quantum efficiency cathodes; (2) Design studies of electron beam delivery systems, including emittance manipulations, high-resolution modeling of 6-D phase space, and low-emittance beam transport; and (3) Design studies of optical manipulations of electron beams for seeded and SASE FELs, providing short x-ray pulses of variable duration, synchronous with the seed and pump laser sources, and also long transform-limited pulses with a narrow bandwidth. Design studies of means for production of attosecond x-ray pulses at various wavelengths. We are collaborators in the FERMI(at)Elettra seeded FEL facility under construction at Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy, participating in accelerator design and FEL physics studies, and mechanical and electrical engineering. We are participating in the LCLS project at SLAC, implementing our design of stabilized timing and synchronization systems. Here we outline our long-term objectives, and current activities

  19. FEL Design Studies at LBNL: Activities and Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, John N.; Fawley, W.; Lidia, S.; Padmore, H.; Penn, G.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Wan, W.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.

    2007-03-01

    LBNL staff are currently pursuing R&D for future x-ray FELs, and participate in two FEL construction projects. Our strategy is to address the most fundamental challenges, which are the cost-drivers and performance limitations of FEL facilities. An internally funded R&D program is aimed at investigating accelerator physics and technologies in three key areas: (1) Theoretical study, modeling, and experimental development of low emittance, high quantum efficiency cathodes; (2) Design studies of electron beam delivery systems, including emittance manipulations, high-resolution modeling of 6-D phase space, and low-emittance beam transport; and (3) Design studies of optical manipulations of electron beams for seeded and SASE FELs, providing short x-ray pulses of variable duration, synchronous with the seed and pump laser sources, and also long transform-limited pulses with a narrow bandwidth. Design studies of means for production of attosecond x-ray pulses at various wavelengths. We are collaborators in the FERMI{at}Elettra seeded FEL facility under construction at Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy, participating in accelerator design and FEL physics studies, and mechanical and electrical engineering. We are participating in the LCLS project at SLAC, implementing our design of stabilized timing and synchronization systems. Here we outline our long-term objectives, and current activities.

  20. Study design and patient recruitment for the Japan Polyp Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano Y

    2014-05-01

    , Japan Background: The Japan Polyp Study (JPS Workgroup was established in 2000 to evaluate colonoscopic follow-up surveillance strategies. The JPS was a multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate follow-up surveillance strategies in patients who had undergone two complete colonoscopies for control of colorectal cancer, with removal of all detected polyps. The aim of the present analysis was to assess the patient recruitment and whether the clinical characteristics were adequate for enrollment at the participating centers. Materials and methods: Among referrals for colonoscopy at the eleven participating centers, all patients who were 40–69 years old, without a family or personal history of familial polyposis, Lynch syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, or a personal history of polypectomy with unknown histology, and had no invasive colorectal cancer or colectomy, were considered for inclusion from February 2003. Results: Among 4,752 referrals, a total of 3,926 patients with a mean age of 57.3 (range 40–69 years, including 2,440 (62% males, were included in the JPS. The participation rate was 83%. Among them, a total of 2,757 patients who had undergone two complete colonoscopies with removal of all detected polyps were eligible, giving an eligibility rate of 70% (2,757 of 3,926. Among the eligible patients, 2,166 were assigned to randomized groups, and 591 patients to a nonrandomized group. The last steps of data lock, analysis, and complete histopathological assessment based on a pathology review are ongoing. Conclusion: Eligible patients recruited for the JPS were successfully assigned on the basis of the expected sample-size calculation. Keywords: colonoscopy, follow-up surveillance strategies, Japan Polyp Study (JPS, study design, multicenter randomized controlled trial

  1. Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Microphone arrays have attracted a lot of interest over the last few decades since they have the potential to solve many important problems such as noise reduction/speech enhancement, source separation, dereverberation, spatial sound recording, and source localization/tracking, to name a few. However, the design and implementation of microphone arrays with beamforming algorithms is not a trivial task when it comes to processing broadband signals such as speech. Indeed, in most sensor arrangements, the beamformer tends to have a frequency-dependent response. One exception, perhaps, is the family of differential microphone arrays (DMAs) that have the promise to form frequency-independent responses. Moreover, they have the potential to attain high directional gains with small and compact apertures. As a result, this type of microphone arrays has drawn much research and development attention recently. This book is intended to provide a systematic study of DMAs from a signal processing perspective. The primary obj...

  2. Including sustainability issues in nurse education: A comparative study of first year student nurses' attitudes in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, Fabienne; Grose, Jane; Huss, Norma; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, Isabel M; Schweizer, Angélick

    2016-02-01

    Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited research on student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability and no comparison of attitudes towards sustainability and its inclusion in the nursing curriculum across Europe. This project aims to assess student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability, its relevance to nursing and its inclusion in the nursing curricula. 1. To assess base-line attitudes at the start of nursing and midwifery training; 2. To compare sustainability awareness between students participating in training in a number of European universities. A comparative survey design using the Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey (SANS_2) questionnaire. Nursing classes of Universities and Nursing Schools in four European countries were investigated using a questionnaire consisting of five sustainability-related items. 916 nursing students (UK: 450, Germany: 196, Spain: 124, Switzerland: 146). Standard descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to establish psychometric quality (Principal Components Analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlations) and compare student nurses from the four countries. The reliability of SANS_2 was good (Cronbach's alpha=.82) and the five items loaded on a single factor which explained 58% of variance. ANOVA of the SANS_2 total score showed significant differences between countries with German nursing students showing more sustainability awareness than students from the UK and Spain. SANS_2 is a reliable instrument to assess nursing students' sustainability awareness; there are significant differences in sustainability awareness of students of different European countries. Limitations of the study include non-random sampling, possible method effects and social desirability effects

  3. Youth in the Netherlands Study (JOiN): Study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); K. Greaves-Lord (Kirstin); B.E. Evans (Brittany); A.S. Euser (Anja); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Adolescence is a critical developmental period regarding exposure to substances. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify those adolescents who are most vulnerable to substance abuse in the (near) future. The JOiN study was specifically designed to examine two

  4. Feasibility design study. Land-based OTEC plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, J. H.; Minor, J.; Jacobs, R.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been to determine the feasibility of installing 10 MWe (MegaWatt-electric) and 40 MWe land-based OTEC demonstration power plants at two specific sites: Keahole Point on the western shore of the island of Hawaii; and Punta Tuna, on the southeast coast of the main island of Puerto Rico. In addition, the study has included development of design parameters, schedules and budgets for the design, construction and operation of these plants. Seawater systems (intake and discharge pipes) were to be sized so that flow losses were equivalent to those expected with a platform-based OTEC power plant. The power module (components and general arrangement was established based on the TRW design. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  5. Safety in the ARIES Tokamak Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J.S.; Wong, C.P.-C.; Cheng, E.T.; Grotz, S.

    1989-01-01

    Safety is one of the primary goals of the ARIES Tokamak Design Study. Public safety goals are the achievement passive safety which is demonstrable in tests that could precede operation and the assurance that releases from accidents be passively limited such that no evacuation plan in necessary. Strategies for safety of the plant investment are factory fabrication, short construction times and a design such that no off-normal operational transient results in damage which could not be repaired in routine maintenance. ARIES-I, the first of three 'visions' of potential tokamak reactors, will use He at 5 MPa as a blanket coolant and SiC/composite ceramic for the first wall and blanket materials. Both the coolant and the structural material were chosen for their low activation, both in the short term after accidents and for long term waste management. The breeder, Li 4 SiO 4 , was also chosen for low activation. Contemporary plasma physics and aggressive technology are used in ARIES-I, which results in very high toroidal fields (24 T maximum at the coil). The stored TF energy will be about 130 GJ. A central concern is the safe discharge of this stored energy under electrical fault conditions and prevention of a failure in the magnet set from propagating into systems containing radioactive inventories. The TF coil system consists of 16 coils, each containing two separate windings powered by two independent power supplies. Arcs and shorts between the two power supply systems and across individual windings have been modeled. In addition, delay or failure in circuit breaker opening has been modeled. The safety impacts of LOCA, LOFA and disruptive events have also been evaluated. 8 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  6. A case study in value design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinclair

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of a special type of valve gave rise to a problem which lead the mechanical engineers who designed the valve to call in the help of the author. The final solution to the problem may not be mathematically sophisticated (in fact, it may seem trivial to some readers, but the steps through which the design team struggled and the final approach which resulted in a practically feasible solution may be of interest to other practitioners.

  7. SeisCORK Engineering Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    cost Data acquisition module Fabricate 10" I.D. pressure WHOI new case design Design and build WHOI new electronics chassis design PC/104 computer - WHOI...require a power supply to be attached to the seismometer string that can supply enough power to retract the geophone anchors. Recovery will then be...require a power supply be attached to the seismometer string that can supply enough power to retract the geophone anchors. Recovery will then be dependent

  8. Standard mirror fusion reactor design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the work of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Division's reactor study group during FY 1976 on the standard mirror reactor. The ''standard'' mirror reactor is characterized as a steady state, neutral beam sustained, D-T fusioning plasma confined by a Yin-Yang magnetic mirror field. The physics parameters are obtained from the same physics model that explains the 2XIIB experiment. The model assumes that the drift cyclotron loss cone mode occurs on the boundary of the plasma, and that it is stabilized by warm plasma with negligible energy investment. The result of the study was a workable mirror fusion power plant, steady-state blanket removal made relatively simple by open-ended geometry, and no impurity problem due to the positive plasma potential. The Q (fusion power/injected beam power) turns out to be only 1.1 because of loss out the ends from Coulomb collisions, i.e., classical losses. This low Q resulted in 77% of the gross electrical power being used to power the injectors, thereby causing the net power cost to be high. The low Q stimulated an intensive search for Q-enhancement concepts, resulting in the LLL reactor design effort turning to the field reversal mirror and the tandem mirror, each having Q of order 5

  9. Development and Formative Evaluation of Multimedia Case Studies for Instructional Design and Technology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development of three case studies that included a combination of multimedia production and instructional design skills within a particular setting. These case studies incorporated real-life incidents from 47 professional instructional designers. These instructional designers described a total of 146 activities involving…

  10. Sustainable Design Approach: A case study of BIM use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhameed Wael

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology of this design approach through BIM strategies adopted in design creation. Case studies of architectural designs are used to highlight the details and benefits of this proposed approach.

  11. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  12. Software design studies emphasizing Project LOGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The results of a research project on the development of computer software are presented. Research funds of $200,000 were expended over a three year period for software design and projects in connection with Project LOGOS (computer-aided design and certification of computing systems). Abstracts of theses prepared during the project are provided.

  13. Studying the Creation of Design Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher J.; Hevner, Ala n R.; Weber, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    and information systems represents a highly interconnected locus in which both the generative processes of building design artifacts and articulating constructs used to evaluate their quality take place. We address this interconnectedness with an extended process-oriented research design enabling multi...

  14. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    operational status of Hydro Static Bearing (HSB) system and stow lock pins. In order to find a practical solution, design optimization study for seismic risk mitigation was carried out extensively, including the performing of dynamic response analyses of the STR system under the time dependent acceleration profile of seven major earthquakes. The work is now moving to the final design phase from April 2014 for two years.

  15. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chen-yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Both nurture (environmental and nature (genetic factors play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the “-omics” era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed.

  16. Savannah River Site reactor hardware design modification study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.E.

    1990-03-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the merits of proposed design modifications to the SRS reactors. The evaluation was based on the responses calculated by the RELAP5 systems code to double-ended guillotine break loss-of-coolant-accidents (DEGB LOCAs). The three concepts evaluated were (a) elevated plenum inlet piping with a guard vessel and clamshell enclosures, (b) closure of both rotovalves in the affected loop, and (c) closure of the pump suction valve in the affected loop. Each concept included a fast reactor shutdown (to 65% power in 100 ms) and a 2-s ac pump trip. For the elevated piping design, system recovery was predicted for breaks in the plenum inlet or pump suction piping; response to the pump discharge break location did not show improvement compared to the present system configuration. The rotovalve closure design improved system response to plenum inlet or pump discharge breaks; recovery was not predicted for pump suction breaks. The pump suction valve closure design demonstrated system recovery for all break locations downstream of the valve. A combination of features is recommended to ensure liquid inventory recovery for all break locations. The elevated piping design performance during pump discharge breaks would be improved with addition of a dc pump trip in the affected loop. Valve closure design performance for a break location in the short section of piping between the reactor concrete shield and the pump suction valve would benefit from the clamshell enclosing that section of piping. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conceptual design option study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Melvin; Olson, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Results are given of a study to explore options for the development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for a future Space Station. In addition, study results will benefit the design of other facilities such as the Life Sciences Research Facility, a ground-based CELSS demonstrator, and will be useful in planning longer range missions such as a lunar base or manned Mars mission. The objectives were to develop weight and cost estimates for one CELSS module selected from a set of preliminary plant growth unit (PGU) design options. Eleven Space Station CELSS module conceptual PGU designs were reviewed, components and subsystems identified and a sensitivity analysis performed. Areas where insufficient data is available were identified and divided into the categories of biological research, engineering research, and technology development. Topics which receive significant attention are lighting systems for the PGU, the use of automation within the CELSS system, and electric power requirements. Other areas examined include plant harvesting and processing, crop mix analysis, air circulation and atmosphere contaminant flow subsystems, thermal control considerations, utility routing including accessibility and maintenance, and nutrient subsystem design.

  18. Design studies of continuously variable transmissions for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. J.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Fischer, G. K.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed on four continuously variable transmission (CVT) concepts for use with a flywheel equipped electric vehicle of 1700 kg gross weight. Requirements of the CVT's were a maximum torque of 450 N-m (330 lb-ft), a maximum output power of 75 kW (100 hp), and a flywheel speed range of 28,000 to 14,000 rpm. Efficiency, size, weight, cost, reliability, maintainability, and controls were evaluated for each of the four concepts which included a steel V-belt type, a flat rubber belt type, a toroidal traction type, and a cone roller traction type. All CVT's exhibited relatively high calculated efficiencies (68 percent to 97 percent) over a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. Estimated weight and size of these transmissions were comparable to or less than equivalent automatic transmission. The design of each concept was carried through the design layout stage.

  19. Architecture and Design for Virtual Conferences: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sempere

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the design issues facing a large multi-format virtual conference. The conference took place twice in two different years, each time using an avatar-based 3D world with spatialized audio including keynote, poster and social sessions. Between year 1 and 2, major adjustments were made to the architecture and design of the space, leading to improvement in the nature of interaction between the participants. While virtual meetings will likely never supplant the effectiveness of face-to-face meetings, this paper seeks to outline a few design principles learned from this experience, which can be applied generally to make computer mediated collaboration more effective.

  20. How system designers think: a study of design thinking in human factors engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantonopoulos, Sotiris

    2004-11-01

    The paper presents a descriptive study of design thinking in human factors engineering. The objective of the study is to analyse the role of interpretation in design thinking and the role of design practice in guiding interpretation. The study involved 10 system designers undertaking the allocation of cognitive functions in three production planning and control task scenarios. Allocation decisions were recorded and verbal protocols of the design process were collected to elicit the subjects' thought processes. Verbal protocol analysis showed that subjects carried out the design of cognitive task allocation as a problem of applying a selected automation technology from their initial design deliberations. This design strategy stands in contrast to the predominant view of system design that stipulates that user requirements should be thoroughly analysed prior to making any decisions about technology. Theoretical frameworks from design research and ontological design showed that the system design process may be better understood by recognizing the role of design hypotheses in system design, as well as the diverse interactions between interpretation and practice, means and ends, and design practice and the designer's pre-understanding which shape the design process. Ways to balance the bias exerted on the design process were discussed.

  1. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, Christopher J [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL; Hobbs, Randall W [ORNL; Owens, R Steven [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  2. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa; Honda, Tsutomu.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the study on safety for FER(Fusion Experimental Reactor) which has been designed as a next step machine to the JT-60. Though the final purpose of this study is to have an image of design base accident, maximum credible accident and to assess their risk or probability, etc., as FER plant system, the emphasis of this years study is placed on fuel-gas circulation system where the tritium inventory is maximum. This report consists of two chapters. The first chapter of this report summaries the FER system and describes FMEA(Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) and related accident progression sequence for FER plant system as a whole. The second chapter of this report is focused on fuel-gas circulation system including the purification, isotope separation system and storage system. Here, probability of risk is assessed by the probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) procedure based on FMEA, ETA and FTA. (author)

  3. Study on advanced structural design for commercialized fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Aoto, Kazumi; Kasahara, Naoto; Asayama, Tai

    2003-05-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the structural design technology. The research scope was identified as (1) FDS (FBR Design Standard), (2) Standardization of new material, and (3) System Based Code for Integrity, and the results of this year's studies are summarized as follows. (1) FDS (FBR Design Standard). R and D policy of Phase II study considering to the newest needs demanded for structural design were clarified, and R and D items were settled concretely. As for failure criteria, preliminary ratcheting-fatigue tests were conducted with rational methods, and Negligible Creep curves that settle creep designing region rationally were expanded their applying condition. R and D policy and items of guideline for inelastic analysis were clarified, and analyzing methodologies were studied. Summering up exemplification of thermal load prediction methodologies were progressed. To predict thermal striping loads, advanced frequency response function of thermal stress, and fatigue evaluation methodology were studied. (2) Standardization of new material. As for candidate 12-chromium stainless steel (added tungsten, non-added tungsten), that is expected to improve strength of components of commercialized FR, short and medium-term material tests, and creep-fatigue tests at small strain range were conducted. As for above candidate steel, TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding method was recommended. Requirements to standardize new materials and index to select new materials were studied

  4. Design studies of cardiac valve prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, D

    1985-03-01

    This paper indicates the vital importance of considering prosthesis articulation in the design of cardiac valves. The prosthesis articulation interrelates with the fixed and the movable prosthetic components. Two basic physiological hemodynamic principles are reviewed: [List: see text] A bileaflet, free-tilting, swivelling prosthesis with a central articular mechanism is undergoing investigation. The four articulations have their own perennial preserving mechanisms to prevent potential failure mode by collecting blood elements in the valve tilting design.

  5. Conceptual design study of the K-DEMO magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keeman; Oh, Sangjun; Park, Jong Sung; Lee, Chulhee; Im, Kihak; Kim, Hyung Chan; Lee, Gyung-Su; Neilson, George; Brown, Thomas; Kessel, Charles; Titus, Peter; Zhai, Yuhu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Perform a preliminary conceptual study for a steady-state Korean DEMO reactor. • Present a preliminary design of TF (toroidal field) magnet. • Present a preliminary design of CS (central solenoid) magnet. • Present a preliminary design of PF (toroidal field) magnet. - Abstract: As the ITER is being constructed, there is a growing anticipation for an earlier realization of fusion energy. A major design philosophy for the initiated conceptual design study for a steady-state Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) is engineering feasibility. A two-staged development plan is envisaged. K-DEMO is designed not only to demonstrate a net electricity generation and a self-sustained tritium cycle, but also to be used, in its initial stage, as a component test facility. Then, in its second stage, a major upgrade is carried out by replacing in-vessel components in order to show a net electricity generation on the order of 500 MWe. After a thorough 0-D system analysis, the major radius and minor radius are chosen to be 6.8 m and 2.1 m, respectively. In order to minimize wave deflection, a top-launch high frequency (>200 GHz) electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) system will be the key system for the current profile control. For matching the high frequency ECCD, a high toroidal field (TF) is required and can be achieved by using high current density Nb 3 Sn superconducting conductor. The peak magnetic field reaches to 16 T with the magnetic field at the plasma center above 7 T. Key features of the K-DEMO magnet system include the use of two TF coil winding packs, each of a different conductor design, to reduce the construction cost and save the space for the magnet structure material.

  6. Computational Studies and Designs for Fast Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Sakagami, H.; Mima, K.

    2006-12-01

    The fast ignition scheme is one of the most fascinating and feasible ignition schemes for the inertial fusion energy. At ILE Osaka University, FIREX (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) project is in progress. Implosion experiments of the cryogenic target are scheduled in near future. There are two key issues for the fast ignition. One is controlling the implosion dynamics to form high density core plasma in non-spherical implosion, and the other is heating the core plasma efficiently by the short pulse high intense laser. The time and space scale in the fast ignition scheme vary widely from initial laser irradiation to solid target, to relativistic laser plasma interaction and final fusion burning. The numerical simulation plays an important role in demonstrating the performance of the fast ignition, designing the targets, and optimizing laser pulse shapes for the scheme. These all the physics are desired to be self-consistently described. In order to study these physics of FI, we have developed "Fast Ignition Integrated Interconnecting code" (FI3), which consists of collective Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code (FISCOF1D/2D), Relativistic Fokker-Planck with hydro code (FIBMET), and 2-dimensional Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) radiation hydrodynamics code (PINOCO). Those codes are sophisticated in each suitable plasma parameters, and boundaries conditions and initial conditions for them are imported/exported to each other by way of DCCP, a simple and compact communication tool which enable these codes to communicate each others under executing different machines. We show the feature of the FI3 code, and numerical results of whole process of fast ignition. Individual important physics behind the FI are explained with the numerical results also.

  7. Conceptual design studies of 1985 commercial VTOL transports that utilized rotors, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R.; Alexander, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of conceptual design studies of tilt rotor and tandem helicopter aircraft for a 200 nautical mile commercial short haul transport mission are presented. The trade study data used in selecting the design point aircraft and technology details necessary to support the design conclusions are included.

  8. A study on the automated design system for gear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H. Y.; Nam, G. J.; Oh, B. K. [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    A computer aided design system for spur, helical, bevel and worm gears by using AutoCAD system and its AutoLISP computer language was newly developed in this study. Two methods are available for a designer to draw a gear. The first method needs the gear design parameters such as pressure, module, number of tooth, shaft angle, velocity, materials, etc. When the gear design parameters are inputted, a gear is drawn in AutoCAD system and maximum allowable power and shaft diameter are calculated additionally. The second method calculates all dimensions and gear design parameters to draw a gear when the information such as transmission, reduction ratio, rpm, materials and pressure are inputted. The system includes four programs. Each program is composed of a data input module, a database module, a strength calculation module, a drawing module, a text module and a drawing edit module. In conclusion, the CAD system would be widely used in companies to find the geometric data and manufacturing course.

  9. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Since 1980 the design study has been conducted at JAERI for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which has been proposed to be the next machine to JT-60 in the Japanese long term program of fusion reactor development. During two years from 1984 to 1985 FER concept was reviewed and redesigned. This report is the summary of the results obtained in the review and redesign activities in 1984 and 85. In the first year FER concept was discussed again and its frame work was reestablished. According to the new frame work the major reactor components of FER were designed. In the second year the whole plant system design including plant layout plan was conducted as well as the more detailed design analysis of the reactor conponents. The newly established frame for FER design is as follows: 1) Plasma : Self-ignition. 2) Operation scenario : Quasi-steady state operation with long burn pulse. 3) Neutron fluence on the first wall : 0.3 MWY/M 2 . 4) Blanket : Non-tritium breeding blanket with test modules for breeding blanket development. 5) Magnets : Superconducting Magnets. (author)

  10. The study and design of tension controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, G.; Lamei, X.

    2018-02-01

    Tension control is a wide used technology in areas such as textiles, paper and plastic films. In this article, the tension control system release and winding process is analyzed and the mathematical model of tension control system is established, and a high performance tension controller is designed. In hardware design, STM32F130 single chip microcomputer is used as the control core, which has the characteristics of fast running speed and rich peripheral features. In software design, μC/OS-II operating system is introduced to improve the efficiency of single chip microcomputer, and enhance the independence of each module, and make development and maintenance more convenient. The taper tension control is adopted in the winding part, which can effectively solve the problem of rolling shrinkage. The results show that the tension controller has the characteristics of simple structure, easy operation and stable performance.

  11. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  12. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  14. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  16. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

  17. Experiences of Students with Specific Learning Disorder (Including ADHD) in Online College Degree Programs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Seleta LeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in online degree programs is rapidly expanding due to the convenience and affordability offered to students and improvements in technology. The purpose of this hermeneutical phenomenological study was to understand the shared experiences of students with documented specific learning disorders (including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity…

  18. Conceptual design studies for a CEPC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S. V.; Demarteau, M.

    2016-11-30

    The physics potential of the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) can be significantly strengthened by two detectors with complementary designs. A promising detector approach based on the Silicon Detector (SiD) designed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is presented. Several simplifications of this detector for the lower energies expected at the CEPC are proposed. A number of cost optimizations of this detector are illustrated using full detector simulations. We show that the proposed changes will enable one to reach the physics goals at the CEPC.

  19. Detector design studies for Turkish Accelerator Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Burçin; Piliçer, Ercan

    2017-02-01

    The proposed Particle Factory detector at Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC-PF) aims to search for charm physics, CP violation and mixing of D0 mesons as well as new physics effects by investigating head-on collisions of 1 GeV electron from Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with 3.56 GeV positrons from synchrotron storage ring. In this work, we constructed the TAC-PF detector design by using a recently developed framework namely Detector Description for High Energy Physics (DD4hep). The baseline TAC-PF detector design and its qualifications were summarized, followed by a general description.

  20. Conceptual Design Studies for a CEPC Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekanov, S. V.; Demarteau, M.

    The physics potential of the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) can be significantly strengthened by two detectors with complementary designs. A promising detector approach based on the Silicon Detector (SiD) designed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is presented. Several simplifications of this detector for the lower energies expected at the CEPC are proposed. A number of cost optimizations of this detector are illustrated using full detector simulations. We show that the proposed changes will enable one to reach the physics goals at the CEPC.

  1. Ocean Acoustic Tomography Mooring Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    simulations to model mooring mechanics (CHHABRA 1973, CHHABRA 1976, CHHABRA 1977A). These programs have been verified experimentally (ChhABRA 1974, CHHABRA...Steel spheres are either models marketed by ORE or are our own hypothetical designs (see Appendix D). Drag coefficient used for these spheres is 0.05...rAcT c FoAM 8uoYANcy - -- -- CoST 4o4 0 CoST t 4zo . . . . . 4’ --- 00 0 ozo 4o 60 o 10o FIGURE 24 Cost vs. excursion, depth for mooring design AR1 under

  2. Study on design of proton linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang

    2000-01-01

    Two important directions in the development of proton linacs are high-current proton linacs (mainly applied in nuclear power field) and compact proton linacs (for proton therapy). There are some common characteristics in them: (1) Employment of the novel accelerating structures, which are combination and evolution of the conventional ones; (2) Accelerating beam with small emittance; (3) Requirement for high reliability. The construction of the former is, however, much more difficult because it still needs low beam lose rate and as high power transformation efficiency as possible. Some important problems in the design of these accelerators are discussed and some schemes designed are presented

  3. Satellite Servicing in Mission Design Studies at the NASA GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Several NASA missions in various stages of development have undergone one-week studies in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC), mostly in preparation for proposals. The possible role of satellite servicing has been investigated for several of these missions, applying the lessons learned from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing, taking into account the current state of the art, projecting into the future, and implementing NASA long-range plans, and is presented here. The general benefits and costs of injecting satellite servicing are detailed, including components such as mission timeline, mass, fuel, spacecraft design, risk abatement, life extension, and improved performance. The approach taken in addressing satellite servicing during IMDC studies is presented.

  4. On study design in neuroimaging heritability analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Mary Ellen; Li, Bo; Jahanshad, Neda; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Glahn, David C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Blangero, John; Nichols, Thomas E.; Kochunov, Peter; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging genetics is an emerging methodology that combines genetic information with imaging-derived metrics to understand how genetic factors impact observable structural, functional, and quantitative phenotypes. Many of the most well-known genetic studies are based on Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), which use large populations of related or unrelated individuals to associate traits and disorders with individual genetic factors. Merging imaging and genetics may potentially lead to improved power of association in GWAS because imaging traits may be more sensitive phenotypes, being closer to underlying genetic mechanisms, and their quantitative nature inherently increases power. We are developing SOLAR-ECLIPSE (SE) imaging genetics software which is capable of performing genetic analyses with both large-scale quantitative trait data and family structures of variable complexity. This program can estimate the contribution of genetic commonality among related subjects to a given phenotype, and essentially answer the question of whether or not the phenotype is heritable. This central factor of interest, heritability, offers bounds on the direct genetic influence over observed phenotypes. In order for a trait to be a good phenotype for GWAS, it must be heritable: at least some proportion of its variance must be due to genetic influences. A variety of family structures are commonly used for estimating heritability, yet the variability and biases for each as a function of the sample size are unknown. Herein, we investigate the ability of SOLAR to accurately estimate heritability models based on imaging data simulated using Monte Carlo methods implemented in R. We characterize the bias and the variability of heritability estimates from SOLAR as a function of sample size and pedigree structure (including twins, nuclear families, and nuclear families with grandparents).

  5. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  6. Design of the integration interface between the EU HCPB TBM and the ITER TBM port plug including hot cell operations for connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, H.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Roccella, R.

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the EU Breeder Blanket Programme and of the Test Blanket Working Group, the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module- (HCPB-TBM) System is developed. The TBM test schedule foresees four different campaigns for simulation of DEMO relevant conditions, campaign requires a dedicate TBM. Therefore a concept for TBM integration into ITER is designed with attention to simplify the mounting/dismounting operations. This paper presents the status of this concept with regard to the operations in hot cell required to install a new TBM into an equatorial TBM Port Plug (PP). This includes the establishment of the connection for the attachment, supply- and diagnostic lines in the environment of the interface (IF 1) between the TBM rear part and the PP backside shield. The connection of IF 1 has to be designed to cope with a temperature difference between TBM and PP (∝200 K) and the EM-loads during normal operation and disruption scenarios. The reference attachment concept based on shear keys and flexible cartridges is revised to cope with new conditions on the load and at the interface to the PP. According to the latest results of EM analysis, a radial component of the Maxwell forces (due to the ferromagnetic structural material) has been identified as an additional challenging load for the attachment. Furthermore, the replacing operations at IF 1 are influenced by the design of the PP; the recent ITER proposal based on a removable back side shield allows access to the IF 1 from the periphery after the frame of the PP surrounding the TBM is removed. As for the mechanical attachment, the tools and operations for connection of the TBM supply lines (Helium-, Purge- and measurement lines for different purpose depending on the test schedule) are strongly influenced by the restrictions to access IF 1, too. Dismantling of the frame would allow direct access to the interface by e.g. orbital welding tools. The concept for connection of the TBM

  7. Argonne Tau-charm factory collider design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.; Crosbie, E.A.; Norem, J.

    1995-01-01

    The design approach and design principles for a Tau-charm Factory at Argonne were studied. These studies led to a set of preliminary parameters and tentative component features as presented in this paper

  8. Design study of plastic film heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, E. C.; Brownell, D. L.

    1986-02-01

    This report presents the results of an effort to develop and design a unique thermoplastic film heat exchanger for use in an industrial heat pump evaporator system and other energy recovery applications. The concept for the exchanger is that of individual heat exchange elements formed by two adjoining and freely hanging plastic films. Liquid flows downward in a regulated fashion between the films due to the balance of hydrostatic and frictional forces. The fluid stream on the outside of film may be a free-falling liquid film, a condensing gas, or a noncondensing gas. The flow and structural principles are similar to those embodied in an earlier heat exchange system developed for use in waste water treatment systems (Sanderson). The design allows for high heat transfer rates while working within the thermal and structural limitations of thermoplastic materials. The potential of this new heat exchanger design lies in the relatively low cost of plastic film and the high inherent corrosion and fouling resistance. This report addresses the selection of materials, the potential heat transf er performance, the mechanical design and operation of a unit applied in a low pressure steam recovery system, and the expected selling price in comparison to conventional metallic shell and tube heat exchangers.

  9. Statistical Design Features of the Healthy Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Warren J; Sroka, Christopher J; Frongillo, Edward A; Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Leifer, Eric S; Wu, Colin O; Patrick, Heather; Fishbein, Howard A; John, Lisa V

    2015-10-01

    The Healthy Communities Study is designed to assess relationships between characteristics of community programs and policies targeting childhood obesity and children's BMI, diet, and physical activity. The study involved a complex data collection protocol implemented over a 2-year period (2013-2015) across a diverse sample of 130 communities, defined as public high school catchment areas. The protocol involved baseline assessment within each community that included in-person or telephone interviews regarding community programs and policies and in-home collection of BMI, nutritional, and physical activity outcomes from a sample of up to 81 children enrolled in kindergarten through eighth grade in public schools. The protocol also involved medical record reviews to establish a longitudinal trajectory of BMI for an estimated 70% of participating children. Staged sampling was used to collect less detailed measures of physical activity and nutrition across the entire sample of children, with a subset assessed using more costly, burdensome, and detailed measures. Data from the Healthy Community Study will be analyzed using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models that account for the complex design and correct for measurement error and bias using a likelihood-based Markov-chain Monte Carlo methodology. This methods paper provides insights into the complex design features of the Healthy Communities Study and may serve as an example for future large-scale studies that assess the relationship between community-based programs and policies and health outcomes of community residents. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal design of studies of influenza transmission in households. I: case-ascertained studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, B; Leung, G M; Cowling, B J

    2012-01-01

    Case-ascertained household transmission studies, in which households including an 'index case' are recruited and followed up, are invaluable to understanding the epidemiology of influenza. We used a simulation approach parameterized with data from household transmission studies to evaluate alternative study designs. We compared studies that relied on self-reported illness in household contacts vs. studies that used home visits to collect swab specimens for virological confirmation of secondary infections, allowing for the trade-off between sample size vs. intensity of follow-up given a fixed budget. For studies estimating the secondary attack proportion, 2-3 follow-up visits with specimens collected from all members regardless of illness were optimal. However, for studies comparing secondary attack proportions between two or more groups, such as controlled intervention studies, designs with reactive home visits following illness reports in contacts were most powerful, while a design with one home visit optimally timed also performed well.

  11. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Asadi, Heshmatollah; Mohseni, Mohammad; Takbiri, Afsaneh; Moosavi, Ahmad; Garavand, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran's ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website.

  12. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMADBEIK, Mahnaz; ASADI, Heshmatollah; MOHSENI, Mohammad; TAKBIRI, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Ahmad; GARAVAND, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran’s ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Results: Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). Conclusion: This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website. PMID:28451562

  13. New design studies for TRIUMF's ARIEL High Resolution Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. A.; Baartman, R.; Marchetto, M.

    2016-06-01

    As part of its new Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory (ARIEL), TRIUMF is designing a novel High Resolution Separator (HRS) (Maloney et al., 2015) to separate rare isotopes. The HRS has a 180° bend, separated into two 90° magnetic dipoles, bend radius 1.2 m, with an electrostatic multipole corrector between them. Second order correction comes mainly from the dipole edge curvatures, but is intended to be fine-tuned with a sextupole component and a small octupole component in the multipole. This combination is designed to achieve 1:20,000 resolution for a 3 μm (horizontal) and 6 μm (vertical) emittance. A design for the HRS dipole magnets achieves both radial and integral flatness goals of <10-5. A review of the optical design for the HRS is presented, including the study of limiting factors affecting separation, matching and aberration correction. Field simulations from the OPERA-3D (OPERA) [2] models of the dipole magnets are used in COSY Infinity (COSY) (Berz and Makino, 2005) [3] to find and optimize the transfer maps to 3rd order and study residual nonlinearities to 8th order.

  14. Design of an electromagnetic accelerator for turbulent hydrodynamic mix studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Morrison, J.J.; Dimonte, G.; Remington, B.A.

    1994-03-01

    An electromagnetic accelerator in the form of a linear electric motor (LEM) has been designed to achieve controlled acceleration profiles of a carriage containing hydrodynamically unstable fluids for the investigation of the development of turbulent mix. Key features of the design include: (1) independent control of acceleration, deceleration and augmentation currents to provide a variety of acceleration-time profiles, (2) a robust support structure to minimized deflection and dampen vibration which could create artifacts in the data interfering with the intended study and (3) a compliant, non-arcing solid armature allowing optimum electrical contact. Electromagnetic modeling codes were used to optimize the rail and augmentation coil positions within the support structure framework. Design of the driving armature and the dynamic electromagnetic braking system is based on results of contemporary studies for non-arcing sliding contact of solid armatures. A 0.6MJ electrolytic capacitor bank is used for energy storage to drive the LEM. This report will discuss a LEM and armature design which will accelerate masses of up to 3kg to a maximum of about 3000g o , where g o is acceleration due to gravity

  15. Developing a weighting strategy to include mobile phone numbers into an ongoing population health survey using an overlapping dual-frame design with limited benchmark information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margo L; Ferguson, Raymond A; Hughes, Phil J; Steel, David G

    2014-09-04

    In 2012 mobile phone numbers were included into the ongoing New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) using an overlapping dual-frame design. Previously in the NSWPHS the sample was selected using random digit dialing (RDD) of landline phone numbers. The survey was undertaken using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The weighting strategy needed to be significantly expanded to manage the differing probabilities of selection by frame, including that of children of mobile-only phone users, and to adjust for the increased chance of selection of dual-phone users. This paper describes the development of the final weighting strategy to properly combine the data from two overlapping sample frames accounting for the fact that population benchmarks for the different sampling frames were not available at the state or regional level. Estimates of the number of phone numbers for the landline and mobile phone frames used to calculate the differing probabilities of selection by frame, for New South Wales (NSW) and by stratum, were obtained by apportioning Australian estimates as none were available for NSW. The weighting strategy was then developed by calculating person selection probabilities, selection weights, applying a constant composite factor to the dual-phone users sample weights, and benchmarking to the latest NSW population by age group, sex and stratum. Data from the NSWPHS for the first quarter of 2012 was used to test the weighting strategy. This consisted of data on 3395 respondents with 2171 (64%) from the landline frame and 1224 (36%) from the mobile frame. However, in order to calculate the weights, data needed to be available for all core weighting variables and so 3378 respondents, 2933 adults and 445 children, had sufficient data to be included. Average person weights were 3.3 times higher for the mobile-only respondents, 1.3 times higher for the landline-only respondents and 1.7 times higher for dual-phone users in the mobile frame

  16. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyib Olaniyan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. Methods/design A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR. Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop. Discussion This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air

  17. Design characteristics and case study of KALIMER reactor support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; You, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, six design alternatives to the preliminary design concept of the reactor support structure of which shape is support arm type were presented and the comparative study has been carried out considering design adequacy, simplicity, in-service-inspection, and interface requirements qualitatively. The structural analyses using ANSYS code have been performed with respect to three different design concepts selected from qualitative comparison study. It is concluded that the support ring attached to the reactor head(6th design alternative) is the most appropriate conceptual design shape considering both design characteristics and structural integrity

  18. Status of the Neutrino Factory accelerator design studies

    CERN Document Server

    Prior, Gersende

    2013-01-01

    This document is a review of the present status of the Neutrino Factory design study, after the publication of the Interim Design Report and before the publication of the Reference Design Report. The different components of the accelerator as well as their current design stage and future tasks are described here.

  19. A Literature Study on Usage of and Satisfaction Levels with Combined Treatment Including Oriental and Western Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Jung-Hun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to summarize and analyze the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine. Methods: We searched studies on the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine over the past 10 yrs (2001-2011 from 3 Korean databases (National Assembly Library, Research Information Service System, and National Discovery for Science Leaders. The reviewers also conducted a summarizing analysis by sampling the literature according to the type of study, study period, region, study subjects, sample size, type of sampling, research method, data analysis, study instruments, main results, etc. Results: When the main results of six studies on combined treatment usage and satisfaction levels were considered together, the most important decisive factor in determining the usage of combined treatment was the illness of the patient, followed by the patient’s occupation, sex, age, education, marital status, religion, treatment cost, and treatment results. In addition, the most important factor that determined satisfaction levels with combined treatment was age, followed by education, religion, income, health status, treatment procedures, staff attitude, and cleanliness. Conclusions: Elderly patients with musculoskeletal, cerebro-vascular, and circulatory system illnesses are more likely to prefer combined treatment over independent Oriental or Western treatment and are more likely to request specialized, adjusted medical care.

  20. Designing for disability - a Danish case study on DR BYEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2005-01-01

    Corporation) in Copenhagen, which is under construction at the moment. The project in-cludes 130.000 sq. m divided into 4 parts, which have been designed by 4 different de-sign teams. The complex has several areas with public access; including a concert hall and various studios. The paper provides...

  1. Design Study: ELENA Bending Magnet Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Schoerling, D

    2013-01-01

    The ELENA bending magnet prototype shall prove that the proposed design meets the requirements set by the ELENA beam dynamics. The following points will be discussed in detail: (i) production process of a magnetic yoke diluted with stainless steel plates, (ii) the stability and repeatability of the field homogeneity of such a yoke over the full working range, (iii) choice of soft magnetic steel, (iv) hysteresis effects, (v) mechanical deformations, (vi) thermal insulation to intercept heat load from baking for activation of NEG coating in the vacuum chamber, (vii) end shim design. In order to verify these points the following measurements will be performed: (i) Hall probe scanning, (ii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (DC), (iii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (AC).

  2. Youth in the Netherlands Study (JOiN: study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizink Anja C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a critical developmental period regarding exposure to substances. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify those adolescents who are most vulnerable to substance abuse in the (near future. The JOiN study was specifically designed to examine two endophenotypes of adolescent substance use in a normal risk (NR and high risk (HR sample of adolescents: (1 behavioural disinhibition, and (2 individual differences in stress sensitivity. Methods The NR adolescents were part of a longitudinal general population study at the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands of children and adolescents initially aged 6 to 18 years old. Three assessment waves have been nearly completed, and data are available of N = 711 participants for stress sensitivity measures, and of a subsample of N = 110 for electroencephalography (EEG measures. Added to this study, HR adolescents who had at least one parent with a substance use disorder and who were treated by an outpatient clinic of a primary addiction care provider were approached via their parent(s. In total, N = 83 adolescents formed this HR sample. NR and HR adolescents participated in standardized stress procedure and EEG procedures in our laboratory. Questionnaires were filled out on background variables, behavioural and emotional problems, and substance use, and a diagnostic interview was conducted with adolescents and parents to assess psychopathology symptoms. DNA was collected through saliva or blood samples. Discussion The design of the JOiN study is optimal for examining the predictive role of endophenotypes of adolescent substance use. The combination of different methods, i.e. stress physiology, electrophysiology, genetics, and questionnaire data from several informants on a range of behaviours and environmental factors enables the investigation of the multifactorial nature of adolescent substance use.

  3. User Systems Architectures - Two studies in design and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainsh, Michael

    2018-04-01

    The concept of User System Architectures (USA) is introduced as part of the overall systems architecture. A USA is defined as a set of ergonomics information and knowledge assembled to represent system structure and content. It is described in the context of the system development lifecycle. The characteristics associated with a USA are outlined. These include layers of description, viewpoints, coherency and traceability. The concept of coherency between layers and the techniques for tracing the design characteristics back to the requirements (i.e. traceability) are discussed with their implications for ergonomics. Two studies (one design and one assessment) are used to demonstrate the use of USA techniques. The benefits, shortfalls and costs of using the USA technique are outlined for each case, and in a more general range of applications. The validity and reliability of the representations are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Design studies for the electron storage ring EUTERPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Boling.

    1995-01-01

    The 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is under construction at Eindhoven University of Technology. The ring is to be used as an experimental tool for accelerator physics studies and synchroton radiation applications. The main task of the current research work is the electron optical design of the ring. Lattice design is a basis for machine design as a whole. Design aspects regarding the basic lattice, based on single particle dynamics, include determination of the equilibrium beam size and bunch length, design of achromatic bending sections, selection of tune values, correction of chromaticity, and minimization of the natural emittance in the ring. The basic lattice designed for the EUTERPE ring has a high flexibility so that different electron optical modes can be realized easily. In low energy storage rings with a high beam current, collective effects can cause a significant change in the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime. In order to ensure a good optical performance for the ring, the choice of suitable parameters concerning the vacuum and RF system are essential as far as collective effects are concerned. An estimation of the collective effects in the ring is given. The injector for EUTERPE is a 75 MeV racetrack microtron which is injected from a 10 MeV linac. In order to get sufficient beam current in the ring, a special procedure of continuous injection with an adjustable locally shifted closed orbit has been presented. Details of the injection procedure and numerical simulations are given. (orig./HSI)

  5. Design studies for the electron storage ring EUTERPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Boling

    1995-05-18

    The 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is under construction at Eindhoven University of Technology. The ring is to be used as an experimental tool for accelerator physics studies and synchroton radiation applications. The main task of the current research work is the electron optical design of the ring. Lattice design is a basis for machine design as a whole. Design aspects regarding the basic lattice, based on single particle dynamics, include determination of the equilibrium beam size and bunch length, design of achromatic bending sections, selection of tune values, correction of chromaticity, and minimization of the natural emittance in the ring. The basic lattice designed for the EUTERPE ring has a high flexibility so that different electron optical modes can be realized easily. In low energy storage rings with a high beam current, collective effects can cause a significant change in the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime. In order to ensure a good optical performance for the ring, the choice of suitable parameters concerning the vacuum and RF system are essential as far as collective effects are concerned. An estimation of the collective effects in the ring is given. The injector for EUTERPE is a 75 MeV racetrack microtron which is injected from a 10 MeV linac. In order to get sufficient beam current in the ring, a special procedure of continuous injection with an adjustable locally shifted closed orbit has been presented. Details of the injection procedure and numerical simulations are given. (orig./HSI).

  6. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Designing a mixed methods study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Fetters, Michael D; Ivankova, Nataliya V

    2004-01-01

    Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research.

  8. A hingeless rotor XV-15 design integration feasibility study. Volume 1: Engineering design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    A design integration feasibility study was carried out to investigate what modifications to the basic XV-15 were necessary to accomplish a flight demonstration of the XV-15 with a Boeing hingeless rotor. Also investigated were additional modifications which would exploit the full capability provided by the combination of the new rotor and the existing T53 engine. An evaluation of the aircraft is presented and the data indicate improved air vehicle performance, acceptable aeroelastic margins, lower noise levels and improved flying qualities compared with the XV-15 aircraft. Inspection of the rotor system data provided shows an essentially unlimited life rotor for the flight spectrum anticipated for the XV-15.

  9. Fuel assembly design study for a reactor with supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, J. [RWE Power AG, Huyssenallee 2, D-45128 Essen (Germany); Waata, C. [ANSYS Germany GmbH, Staudenfeldweg 12, D-83624 Otterfing (Germany); Starflinger, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schulenberg, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: thomas.schulenberg@iket.fzk.de; Laurien, E. [University of Stuttgart, Institute for Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    The European concept of the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) differs from current light water reactors in a higher system pressure beyond the critical point of water, as well as a higher heat-up of the coolant within the core and thus higher core outlet temperatures, leading to a significant increase in turbine power and thermal efficiency of the power plant. The motivation to develop a novel fuel assembly for the HPLWR is caused by the high variation of coolant density in the core by more than a factor of seven. A systematic design study shows that a square fuel assembly with two rows of fuel rods and a central moderator box is best to minimize the structural material, to optimize the moderator to fuel ratio and to reduce differences of fuel rod power. Using neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses, a detailed mechanical design of a fuel assembly of the HPLWR has been worked out. Moreover, concepts for the head piece, the foot piece, the steam plenum and the lower mixing plenum, including the lower core plate, have been developed to account for the individual flow paths of this reactor. These allow a leak-tight counter current flow of moderator water and coolant as well as uniform mixing of different mass flows. The assembly design concept can be used as a general key component for any advanced core design of this reactor.

  10. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of bending strength of spinal pedicle screws, including cylindrical, conical, dual core and double dual core designs using numerical simulations and mechanical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaritsakul, Yongyut; Chao, Ching-Kong; Lin, Jinn

    2014-09-01

    Pedicle screws are used for treating several types of spinal injuries. Although several commercial versions are presently available, they are mostly either fully cylindrical or fully conical. In this study, the bending strengths of seven types of commercial pedicle screws and a newly designed double dual core screw were evaluated by finite element analyses and biomechanical tests. All the screws had an outer diameter of 7 mm, and the biomechanical test consisted of a cantilever bending test in which a vertical point load was applied using a level arm of 45 mm. The boundary and loading conditions of the biomechanical tests were applied to the model used for the finite element analyses. The results showed that only the conical screws with fixed outer diameter and the new double dual core screw could withstand 1,000,000 cycles of a 50-500 N cyclic load. The new screw, however, exhibited lower stiffness than the conical screw, indicating that it could afford patients more flexible movements. Moreover, the new screw produced a level of stability comparable to that of the conical screw, and it was also significantly stronger than the other screws. The finite element analysis further revealed that the point of maximum tensile stress in the screw model was comparable to the point at which fracture occurred during the fatigue test. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Glenton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allowing a broader range of trained health workers to deliver services can be an important way of improving access to safe abortion care. However, the expansion of health worker roles may be challenging to implement. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the implementation of role expansion strategies for non-physician providers to include the delivery of abortion care. Methods We conducted a multi-country case study synthesis in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa and Uruguay, where the roles of non-physician providers have been formally expanded to include the provision of abortion care. We searched for documentation from each country related to non-physician providers, abortion care services and role expansion through general internet searches, Google Scholar and PubMed, and gathered feedback from 12 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis of the data, drawing on categories from the SURE Framework of factors affecting the implementation of policy options. Results Several factors appeared to affect the successful implementation of including non-physician providers to provide abortion care services. These included health workers’ knowledge about abortion legislation and services; and health workers’ willingness to provide abortion care. Health workers’ willingness appeared to be influenced by their personal views about abortion, the method of abortion and stage of pregnancy and their perceptions of their professional roles. While managers’ and co-workers’ attitudes towards the use of non-physician providers varied, the synthesis suggests that female clients focused less on the type of health worker and more on factors such as trust, privacy, cost, and closeness to home. Health systems factors also played a role, including workloads and incentives, training, supervision and support, supplies, referral systems, and monitoring and evaluation. Strategies used, with varying success, to address

  13. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Sorhaindo, Annik M; Ganatra, Bela; Lewin, Simon

    2017-09-21

    Allowing a broader range of trained health workers to deliver services can be an important way of improving access to safe abortion care. However, the expansion of health worker roles may be challenging to implement. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the implementation of role expansion strategies for non-physician providers to include the delivery of abortion care. We conducted a multi-country case study synthesis in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa and Uruguay, where the roles of non-physician providers have been formally expanded to include the provision of abortion care. We searched for documentation from each country related to non-physician providers, abortion care services and role expansion through general internet searches, Google Scholar and PubMed, and gathered feedback from 12 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis of the data, drawing on categories from the SURE Framework of factors affecting the implementation of policy options. Several factors appeared to affect the successful implementation of including non-physician providers to provide abortion care services. These included health workers' knowledge about abortion legislation and services; and health workers' willingness to provide abortion care. Health workers' willingness appeared to be influenced by their personal views about abortion, the method of abortion and stage of pregnancy and their perceptions of their professional roles. While managers' and co-workers' attitudes towards the use of non-physician providers varied, the synthesis suggests that female clients focused less on the type of health worker and more on factors such as trust, privacy, cost, and closeness to home. Health systems factors also played a role, including workloads and incentives, training, supervision and support, supplies, referral systems, and monitoring and evaluation. Strategies used, with varying success, to address some of these issues in the study countries included values

  14. Infusing Technology Driven Design Thinking in Industrial Design Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubin, Omar; Novoa, Mauricio; Al Mahmud, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper narrates a case study on design thinking-based education work in an industrial design honours program. Student projects were developed in a multi-disciplinary setting across a Computing and Engineering faculty that allowed promoting technologically and user-driven innovation strategies. Design/methodology/approach: A renewed…

  15. User Design: A Case Study on Corporate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Raymond S.; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Lohmann, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implementing user design strategies within the corporate culture. Using a case study design approach, this article explores the change process within a "Fortune" 100 company in which users were given significant decision-making powers. The main focus is on the unique nature of user design in…

  16. Techniques for Conducting Effective Concept Design and Design-to-Cost Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Concept design plays a central role in project success as its product effectively locks the majority of system life cycle cost. Such extraordinary leverage presents a business case for conducting concept design in a credible fashion, particularly for first-of-a-kind systems that advance the state of the art and that have high design uncertainty. A key challenge, however, is to know when credible design convergence has been achieved in such systems. Using a space system example, this paper characterizes the level of convergence needed for concept design in the context of technical and programmatic resource margins available in preliminary design and highlights the importance of design and cost evaluation learning curves in determining credible convergence. It also provides techniques for selecting trade study cases that promote objective concept evaluation, help reveal unknowns, and expedite convergence within the trade space and conveys general practices for conducting effective concept design-to-cost studies.

  17. Dry Well Storage Facility conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The Dry Well Storage Facility described is assumed to be located adjacent to or near a Spent Fuel Receiving and Packaging Facility and/or a Packaged Fuel Transfer Facility. Performance requirements, quality levels and codes and standards, schedule and methods of performance, special requirements, quality assurance program, and cost estimate are discussed. Appendices on major mechanical equipment and electric power requirements are included

  18. Dry Well Storage Facility conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Dry Well Storage Facility described is assumed to be located adjacent to or near a Spent Fuel Receiving and Packaging Facility and/or a Packaged Fuel Transfer Facility. Performance requirements, quality levels and codes and standards, schedule and methods of performance, special requirements, quality assurance program, and cost estimate are discussed. Appendices on major mechanical equipment and electric power requirements are included.

  19. Patient experienced continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system-a study including immigrants, refugees and ethnic danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Johansen, Katrine Schepelern; Kastrup, Marianne; Krasnik, Allan; Norredam, Marie

    2014-09-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes). Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups.

  20. Patient Experienced Continuity of Care in the Psychiatric Healthcare System—A Study Including Immigrants, Refugees and Ethnic Danes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasja Koitzsch Jensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. Method: The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes. Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Results: Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. Conclusions: The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups.

  1. MuSR Beam Line Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, W. W. [Weirich Consulting Services, Inc. Hunterville, NC (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-12-13

    When a substance is implanted with positive muons the precession of their magnetic moments can be used to sample the magnetic properties of the material. The information obtained is complementary to that from NMR, ESR, and neutron scattering. To date, only four user facilities exist in the world but none in the US. We explore the possibility of using the AGS complex at BNL for a μSR facility for the production of positive surface muons. With an incident proton intensity of 1014 protons per second hitting a 200 mm long 0.5 mm thick graphite target, our preliminary design of the beam line could produce low momentum surface muons (24–30 MeV/c) with a flux of 0.9 MHz/cm2 for experiments.

  2. Conceptual design study of IFMIF target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Ida, M.; Maekawa, H.; Katsuta, H.; Hua, T.; Cevolani, S.

    1997-01-01

    IFMIF-CDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - Conceptual Design Activity) had been carried out during 1995 and 1996, under the auspices of the IEA. The mission of this facility is to provide an accelerator based deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to test the candidate materials of radiation - resistant and low - activation materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. The neutrons of about 14 MeV are obtained by the stripping reaction of the deuteron of Max. 40 MeV with target lithium. Total deuteron beam current is about 250 mA and beam footprint is 20 cm x 5 cm on the free surface of lithium jet. In this report general characteristics of the target lithium system and the results of thermal and flow analysis for the target lithium jet are described. (author)

  3. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  4. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: an international methodological pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Honor; Költő, András; Reis, Marta; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Moreau, Nathalie; Burke, Lorraine; Cosma, Alina; Windlin, Béat; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-05

    This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people's sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania) with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95). The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ 2  = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117). Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data), understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures) and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the simplification has significantly reduced the proportion of missing data

  5. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC Study: an international methodological pilot investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honor Young

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people’s sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. Methods An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95. Results The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ2 = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117. Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. Conclusions These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data, understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the

  6. TRIZ Innovative Technology of Design Used in the Development of a Technology Roadmap for Space Soil Penetrator Probes Including a Mini Air Bag Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusiu, Julian O.

    1997-01-01

    Many Future NASA missions will be designed to robotically explore planets, moons and asteroids by collecting soil samples and conducting in-situ analyses to establish ground composition and look for the presence of specific components.

  7. Retrospective cohort study shows that the risks for retinopathy of prematurity included birth age and weight, medical conditions and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliaa A; Gomaa, Nancy A S; Awadein, Ahmed R; Al-Hayouti, Huda H; Hegazy, Ahmed I

    2017-12-01

    This study described the characteristics and risk factors of neonates who developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe treatable ROP in two Egyptian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This retrospective cohort study comprised 108 preterm neonates who were screened for ROP after being admitted to the two NICUs run by Cairo University Hospital from June 2014 to May 2015. Patients were examined using digital fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed if ROP was detected. Retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 75 patients. Late-onset sepsis, ventilation and hypercapnia were independently associated with ROP. Patients who developed severe treatable ROP had a younger gestational age (GA) than patients who did not develop ROP or developed mild or moderate ROP (29 weeks, range 27-33 weeks versus 32 weeks, range 28-36 weeks, p = 0.002) and a lower birthweight (1200 g, range 980-1590 g versus 1460 g, range 770-2475 g, p = 0.029). The risk factors associated with severe treatable ROP included the duration of admission, the duration of incubator oxygen, late-onset sepsis, intraventricular haemorrhage, total parenteral nutrition and the duration of caffeine citrate therapy. This study showed that the risks for ROP were wide-ranging and included GA and weight, medical conditions and treatment. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  9. A case study of collaborative facilities in engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pugmire, David [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe the use of visualization tools and facilities in the collaborative design of a replacement weapons system, the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW). We used not only standard collaboration methods but also a range of visualization software and facilities to bring together domain specialists from laboratories across the country to collaborate on the design and integrate this disparate input early in the design. This was the first time in U.S. weapons history that a weapon had been designed in this collaborative manner. Benefits included projected cost savings, design improvements and increased understanding across the project.

  10. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  11. User Studies and Systems Design: Bridging the Gap (SIGs USE, HCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, David

    2000-01-01

    Presents an abstract for a planned session on the need to coordinate user studies and information retrieval system design research. Topics include human-based research and system-based research; children's information use; usability and cartographic information systems; and ethnomethodology and system design. Panelists included: Nick Belkin, Dania…

  12. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  13. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. Volume 7, Subsystem concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  14. Experimental design from user studies to psychophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    This book explains the basic terminology used to discuss experiments and takes a brief look at the more than 150 year history has in psychology. It covers how to generalize from a few people to the whole population. The largest part of the book is dedicated to the most flexible, and arguably the most central, aspect of an experiment: What do the participants do? Each chapter follows the same structure and includes two examples, one from traditional psychophysics and on using computer animated facial expressions as stimuli.

  15. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane index most primary studies but not abstracts included in orthopedic meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobogean, Gerard P; Verma, Ashim; Giustini, Dean; Slobogean, Bronwyn L; Mulpuri, Kishore

    2009-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that all primary studies used in orthopedic meta-analyses are indexed in MEDLINE or EMBASE. Using MEDLINE from 1995 to 2005, we retrieved all published meta-analyses of orthopedic surgical interventions. The primary studies in each meta-analysis were defined as the "gold standard" set. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for each primary study, and a recall rate was calculated. Secondary searches were performed using Web of Science (WoS), the Cochrane databases, and CINAHL. High recall rates were achieved searching MEDLINE (90%) and EMBASE (81%) for the gold standard set, and the combined search retrieved 91%. Titles not indexed by MEDLINE or EMBASE included 45 abstracts, eight journal articles, and three unpublished studies. Searching the Cochrane databases yielded 36 titles not in MEDLINE or EMBASE. Using all three databases produced 97% recall of the primary studies; WoS and CINAHL did not increase the recall rate. These results suggest that a very high percentage of primary research in orthopedics can be found using the major databases. Additional database searches are unlikely to increase the yield of published manuscripts; however, conference proceedings and journal supplements should still be searched to ensure that relevant remaining reports are identified.

  16. 280 GHz Gyro-BWO design study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of a design study of a 280 GHz Gyro-BWO tunable source. The purpose of this study is to identify and propose viable design alternatives for any significant technological risk associated with building an operational BWO system. The tunable Gyro-BWO system will have three major components: a Gyro-BWO microwave tube, a superconducting magnet, and a power supply/modulator. The design tasks for this study in order of decreasing importance are: design and specification of the superconducting magnet; preliminary design and layout of a Gyro-BWO microwave tube; and specification for the power supply/modulator. 2 refs., 4 figs

  17. Design studies for the next generation electron ion colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [BNL; Bogacz, Slawomir A. [JLAB; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [JLAB

    2014-04-01

    The next generation Electron Ion Collider (EIC) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) utilizes a figure-8 shaped ion and electron rings. EIC has the ability to preserve the ion polarization during acceleration, where the electron ring matches in footprint with a figure-8 ion ring. The electron ring is designed to deliver a highly polarized high luminous electron beam at interaction point (IP). The main challenges of the electron ring design are the chromaticity compensation and maintaining high beam polarization of 70% at all energies 3–11 GeV without introducing transverse orbital coupling before the IP. The very demanding detector design limits the minimum distance between the final focus quadrupole and the interaction point to 3.5 m which results in a large β function inside the final focus quadrupoles leading to increased beam chromaticity. In this paper, we present a novel chromaticity compensation scheme that mitigates IP chromaticity by a compact chromaticity compensation section with multipole magnet components. In addition, a set of spin rotators are utilized to manipulate the polarization vector of the electron beam in order to preserve the beam polarization. The spin rotator solenoids introduce undesired coupling between the horizontal and vertical betatron motion of the beam. We introduce a compact and modular orbit decoupling insert that can fit in the limited space of the straight section in the figure-8 ring. We show a numerical study of the figure-8 ring design with the compact straight section, which includes the interaction region, chromaticity compensation section, and the spin rotators, the figure-8 design performance is evaluated with particle tracking.

  18. Detention basin alternative outlet design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the outlets structures CDOT has historically employed to drain water quality treatment detention basins and flood control basins, presents two new methods of metering the water quality capture volume (WQCV), namely 1) the Elliptic...

  19. Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment: design studies based on superconducting and hybrid toroidal field coils. Design overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    This document is a design overview that describes the scoping studies and preconceptual design effort performed in FY 1983 on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) class of device. These studies focussed on devices with all-superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils and on devices with superconducting TF coils supplemented with copper TF coil inserts located in the bore of the TF coils in the shield region. Each class of device is designed to satisfy the mission of ignition and long pulse equilibrium burn. Typical design parameters are: major radius = 3.75 m, minor radius = 1.0 m, field on axis = 4.5 T, plasma current = 7.0 MA. These designs relay on lower hybrid (LHRH) current rampup and heating to ignition using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). A pumped limiter has been assumed for impurity control. The present document is a design overview; a more detailed design description is contained in a companion document.

  20. A comparative study of mouse embryo freeze-preservation including the examination of a thermoelectric freezing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Schmidt, P M; Wildt, D E

    1987-06-01

    In Study 1 over 2000 4- to 8-cell mouse embryos were randomly pooled and assigned to 1 of 12 treatment groups. A 2 X 2 X 3 factorial design was used to analyze two types of cryoprotectant/post-thaw (PT) dilutions (dimethyl sulfoxide [Me2SO]/stepwise dilution versus glycerol/sucrose dilution), two storage containers (glass ampoules versus plastic straws), and three cooling treatments. Two commercial, controlled-rate freezing machines were examined, employing either nitrogen gas (Planer) or thermoelectric (Glacier) cooling. Embryos were cooled slowly (0.5 degrees C/min) to -35 or -80 degrees C and then cooled rapidly by transfer into liquid nitrogen (LN2). Thawed embryos were cultured for 24 hr after which developmental stage, post-thaw survival (PTS), embryo degeneration rate (EDR), quality grade (QG), and fluorescein diacetate viability grade (VG) were assessed. Overall, PTS and EDR were similar (P greater than 0.05) among the three freezing unit/plunge temperature treatments. Cumulative results of container and cryoprotectant/PT dilution treatments consistently demonstrated greater PTS, QG, and VG ratings and lower EDR values when embryos were frozen in ampoules using glycerol/sucrose dilution. Embryos treated with Me2SO/stepwise dilution were particularly sensitive to freezing damage when stored in plastic straws and plunged into LN2 at -35 degrees C. Study 2 was directed at determining whether Study 1 methods for diluting Me2SO-protected embryos markedly affected PTS rates. Post-thaw culture percentages were no different (P greater than 0.05) for four- to eight-cell Me2SO-treated embryos frozen in ampoules (using the forced-LN2 device), thawed, and diluted either conventionally in reduced concentrations of Me2SO or in the sucrose treatment normally accorded glycerolated embryos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Scaffolding Preservice Teachers' WebQuest Design: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how participating preservice teachers reported their perceptions and use of different scaffolds provided to support their WebQuest design. Sixteen preservice teachers participated in a succession of course activities designed to guide WebQuest design and development. Results indicated that while participants followed, adapted,…

  2. Embracing Wicked Problems: The Turn to Design in Composition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marback, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Recent appeal to the concept of design in composition studies benefits teaching writing in digital media. Yet the concept of design has not been developed enough to fully benefit composition instruction. This article develops an understanding of design as a matter of resolving wicked problems and makes a case for the advantages of this…

  3. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; van den Enk, L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; van den Berg, Henderikus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from

  4. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis. Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-25

    The results of the design trade-off studies and the sensitivity analysis of Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) Program are presented. The effects of variations in the design of the vehicle body, propulsion systems, and other components on vehicle power, weight, cost, and fuel economy and an optimized hybrid vehicle design are discussed. (LCL)

  5. Effects of study design and trends for EVAR versus OSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hopkins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert Hopkins1, James Bowen1, Kaitryn Campbell1, Gord Blackhouse4, Guy De Rose2,3, Teresa Novick2, Daria O’Reilly1,4, Ron Goeree1,4, Jean-Eric Tarride1,41Programs for the Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH Research Institute, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics; 2Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada; 3Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaPurpose: To investigate if study design factors such as randomization, multi-centre versus single centre evidence, institutional surgical volume, and patient selection affect the outcomes for endovascular repair (EVAR versus open surgical repair (OSR. Finally, we investigate trends over time in EVAR versus OSR outcomes.Methods: Search strategies for comparative studies were performed individually for: OVID’s MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, HAPI, and Evidence Based Medicine (EBM Reviews (including Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE and CCTR, limited to 1990 and November 2006.Results: Identified literature: 84 comparative studies pertaining to 57,645 patients. These include 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs, plus 2 RCTs with long-term follow-up. The other 78 comparative studies were nonrandomized with 75 reporting perioperative outcomes, of which 16 were multi-centre, and 59 single-centre studies. Of the single-centre studies 31 were low-volume and 28 were high-volume centres. In addition, 5 studies had all patients anatomically eligible for EVAR, and 8 studies included high-risk patients only. Finally, 25 long term observational studies reported outcomes up to 3 years.Outcomes: Lower perioperative mortality and rates of complications for EVAR versus OSR varied across study designs and patient

  6. Study and Redefining Beneficiary Participation in Process Of House Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monshizadeh Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since housing has a special place in human life and his physical, psychological and interactions, so in addition the unity of humans, multiplicity and diversity of them must be considered. This possible only by beneficiary participation in the design process, but because society has different economic and social texture and classes; and settling suit because of the time and place of special indexes are entitled, so prepare a comprehensive model includes the testimony and circumstances; identify factors influencing participation optimum need to selection population and certain species of private construction. Standard tool to study topic does not exist, so in order to produce tools using qualitative research methods; interpretation - historical correlation to extract components and variables and their effects on each other and enjoyed target table Content consisting of four domains of general knowledge - specialized knowledge of participation - participation mechanisms and factors influencing participation achieved. Extracted factors are: the initial formation of partnership - partnership executive process - the role of participant - optimal participation; by study and analyze the theoretical model. Due to history and social aspects; cultural participation in Shiraz; promote scientific and participatory approach designed to make operating housing; bed and new horizons of development of facilities and areas in the design of residential environment created and due consultation and decision making in addition to beneficiary participation to promote optimum utility of space; mutual flexibility and utilization of space; increase fixation and motivation will lead beneficiary reside” and the main question: “how is the model of scientific position optimal participation planning instrument in private housing in the city of Shiraz, in the process of design, implementation and use”.

  7. Laser fusion system design study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The following studies were completed: (1) The synthesis of a pointing/control system compatible with existing and advanced laser opto-mechanical configurations. (2) Attainment of the required pointing angle, longitudinal focus, and differential pathlength accuracies. (3) Maximum modularization of the sensor and gimbal assemblies to provide the required accuracies at minimum cost. Detailed information is given on each. (MOW)

  8. The Elements and Principles of Design: A Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Critical to the discipline, both professionally and academically, are the fundamentals of interior design. These fundamentals include the elements and principles of interior design: the commonly accepted tools and vocabulary used to create and communicate successful interior environments. Research indicates a lack of consistency in both the…

  9. Santa Ana River Design Memorandum Number 1. Phase 2. GDM on the Santa Ana River Mainstem Including Santiago Creek. Volume 1. Seven Oaks Dam. Appendixes B Through G

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Bieniawski (1979), in "Tunnel Design by Rock Mass Classification," shows a relationship between the in situ modulus of deformation and th; rock mass...and the more recent Rock Mass Rating System (RNR) developed by Bieniawski , and on general experience from previous tunnel projects. (2) Tzagbi. The

  10. Feasibility study on floating nuclear power plant (2). Safety design study of FNPP. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Shimazaki, Junya; Ochiai, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Toshio

    2001-02-01

    In the previous report of 'Conceptual Design Study of FNPP (Floating Nuclear Power Plant)', a design study on a concept for FNPP, which is sited off the sea coast on the open sea with water depth of 20m and it is moored on protected sea by the breakwater was conducted and the floating platform guarded by the breakwater was found to be stable enough to install the nuclear power plant from analysis simulating the movement of the platform due to sea wave or wind. In this report, studies on a basic safety design concept of the FNPP, setting natural phenomena for design condition, required safety functions and a review on dynamic analysis of the large floating structure are presented. The studies revealed that the stability of the floating platform is an essential issue for the FNPP soundness, and the design base natural phenomena such as S1 and S2-class storm including S1 and S2-class earthquake should be considered in evaluation of the stability of the floating platform, and it is one of key technical subjects how to set the magnitude of these storm in application of design evaluation on each FNPP case. (J.P.N.)

  11. Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies: a case study for Birmingham, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornes John E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heatwaves present a significant health risk and the hazard is likely to escalate with the increased future temperatures presently predicted by climate change models. The impact of heatwaves is often felt strongest in towns and cities where populations are concentrated and where the climate is often unintentionally modified to produce an urban heat island effect; where urban areas can be significantly warmer than surrounding rural areas. The purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to integrate remotely sensed urban heat island data alongside commercial social segmentation data via a spatial risk assessment methodology in order to highlight potential heat health risk areas and build the foundations for a climate change risk assessment. This paper uses the city of Birmingham, UK as a case study area. Results When looking at vulnerable sections of the population, the analysis identifies a concentration of "very high" risk areas within the city centre, and a number of pockets of "high risk" areas scattered throughout the conurbation. Further analysis looks at household level data which yields a complicated picture with a considerable range of vulnerabilities at a neighbourhood scale. Conclusions The results illustrate that a concentration of "very high" risk people live within the urban heat island, and this should be taken into account by urban planners and city centre environmental managers when considering climate change adaptation strategies or heatwave alert schemes. The methodology has been designed to be transparent and to make use of powerful and readily available datasets so that it can be easily replicated in other urban areas.

  12. Conceptual design studies of 1985 commercial VTOL transports that utilized rotors, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R. D.; Alexander, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    Results of conceptual design studies of commercial rotary wing transport aircraft for the 1985 time period are presented. Two aircraft configurations, a tandem helicopter and a tilt rotor, were designed for a 200 nautical mile short haul mission with an upper limit of 100 passengers. In addition to the baseline aircraft two further designs of each configuration are included to assess the impact of external noise design criteria on the aircraft size, weight, and cost.

  13. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  14. A study on the quantitative evaluation for the software included in digital systems of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. K.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    In general, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) has been used as one of the most important methods to evaluate the safety of NPPs. The PSA, because most of NPPs have been installed and used analog I and C systems, has been performed based on the hardware perspectives. In addition, since the tendency to use digital I and C systems including software instead of analog I and C systems is increasing, the needs of quantitative evaluation methods so as to perform PSA are also increasing. Nevertheless, several reasons such as software did not aged and it is very perplexed to estimate software failure rate due to its non-linearity, make the performance of PSA difficult. In this study, in order to perform PSA including software more efficiently, test-based software reliability estimation methods are reviewed to suggest a preliminary procedure that can provide reasonable guidances to quantify software failure rate. In addition, requisite activities to enhance applicability of the suggested procedure are also discussed. 67 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  15. Numerical and experimental study of a radiotherapy treatment planning system including Monte Carlo calculations: heterogeneities and small beams applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Bouchra

    2009-09-01

    Improvements relative to the MC dose calculation speed have been made within the European project MAESTRO by the development of the fast MC code PENFAST and within the TELEDOS project by the parallelization of this code. This PhD work, based on these two projects, focuses on the evaluation of the technical and dosimetric performances of the MC code. These issues are crucial before the use of the MC code in clinical applications. First, variance reduction techniques included in the MC code as well as the parallelization of the calculation have been validated and evaluated in terms of gain in the computing time. The second part of this work has exposed a new, fast and accurate method to determine the initial energy spectrum of the accelerator. This spectrum is required for the MC dose calculation. Afterwards, dose calculations with the fast MC code PENFAST have been evaluated under metrological and clinical conditions. The results showed the ability of the MC code to quickly calculate an accurate dose in both photon and electron modes, even in electronic disequilibrium situations. However, this study revealed an uncertainty, in the TPS-MC, in the conversion of the CT image to voxelized geometry which is used for MC dose calculation. The quality of this voxelization may be improved through an artefacts correction software and by including additional materials in the database of the code. (author)

  16. A 1H NMR spectroscopic study on the tryptophan residues of lysozyme included by glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki; Kobayashi, Teruya; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Matsui, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Aso, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    A 1H NMR spectroscopic study showed that the side chains of Trp residues of chicken egg white lysozyme in an aqueous solution are included by Glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin (G1-β-CD). The 1H NMR signals due to Trp residues shifted with the addition of G1-β-CD. The addition of methyl α- D-glucopyranoside, which has no inclusion ability, gave different effect on the shift of 1H NMR signals. The 1H NMR signals due to Cys64 and Ile98 were also influenced to a considerable extent with the addition of G1-β-CD, suggesting that these hydrophobic amino acid residues are also included by the CD. The chemical shift values of 1H NMR signals, due to indole rings of tryptophan residues, changed more with the addition of G1-β-CD. The magnitudes of the chemical shift change were different depending on their locations in the protein. The chemical shift values of 1H NMR signals, due to those Trp residues in the active site of the lysozyme were smaller than those locating at relatively near the surface of the protein.

  17. GFR Sub-Assembly Shielding Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Parry

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the methodology and results for a preliminary study for Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) subassembly fast neutron shielding configurations. The purpose of the shielding in the subassembly is to protect reactor components from fast (E>0.1 MeV) neutrons. The subassembly is modeled in MCNP version 5 release 1.30. Parametric studies were performed varying the thickness of the shielding and calculating the fast neutron flux at the vessel head and the core grid plate. This data was used to determine the minimum thickness needed to protect the vessel head and the core grid plate. These thicknesses were used to analyze different shielding configurations incorporating coolant passages and also to estimate the neutron and photon energy deposition in the shielding material.

  18. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles (θ 12 , θ 23 , θ 13 ) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, θ 13 is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of ∝80% from the currently allowed θ 13 region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at ∝150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse β-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of them receiving signals from half of the photomultipliers. A third trigger board

  19. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-07-24

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  20. Electron spin resonance studies of radiation effects. Final report, 1964-1979 (including annual progress reports for 1978 and 1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, M.T.

    1979-07-01

    The discovery of new free radicals, largely in irradiated single crystals of nonmetallic solids, and the determination of the molecular and electronic structures of these paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, have been carried out using a wide variety of organic and inorganic materials. The mechanisms of production of radicals in solids, their motions, and their reactions have been investigated and some applicable general principles deduced. Emphasis has been on aliphatic free radicals from irradiated carboxylic acids and amides and their halogen-substituted derivatives, organometallic radicals and substituted cyclic hydrocarbon radicals; inorganic radicals studied include V centers, hypervalent radicals and electron adducts. Extensive investigations of paramagnetic transition metal complexes, particularly cyanides and fluorides, have been made. In all cases quantum mechanical calculations have been employed as far as possible in interpreting the data. An improved method for analyzing experimental ESR spectra of single crystals has been developed and a number of crystal structures have been determined to supplement the ESR studies. Applications of nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy to the study of structure and bonding in inorganic solids have been made and a method for using nuclear magnetic relaxation data for estimating quadrupole coupling constants in liquids has been developed.

  1. Types of coeliac trunk branching including accessory hepatic arteries: a new point of view based on cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olewnik, Łukasz; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Polguj, Michał; Waśniewska, Anna; Jankowski, Mateusz; Topol, Mirosław

    2017-06-14

    The coeliac trunk is major visceral branch of the abdominal aorta. Familiarity with anatomic variations of the coeliac trunk is relevant for planning radiological and surgical procedures. The aim of our research was determining variations of the coeliac trunk, including the occurrence of accessory hepatic arteries. 40 cadavers were studied. Six patterns of coeliac trunk branching were observed in this study. Accessory hepatic arteries were observed in seven specimens (17.5%). The most prevalent variation was normal trifurcation, accounting for 62.5% of cases. The rarest variation was absence of the coeliac trunk, with an incidence of 2.5%. In this variant the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, and the splenic artery branched directly off the abdominal aorta. The study material allowed to distinguish two coeliac tunk branching patterns which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported before. It was a type with four branches originating from the coeliac trunk: the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, the splenic artery, and right accessory hepatic artery. The other previously unreported pattern variant was also a coeliac trunk which gave off the coeliac trunk gave off three branches: the common hepatic artery, the splenic artery and right accessory hepatic artery. The average distance between the aortic hiatus and the coeliac trunk calculated for all the cadavers amounted to 54 mm (SD = 11.85 mm). The average distance between the coeliac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery was 11.1 mm (SD = 7.7 mm).

  2. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  3. Is Serum Hypovitaminosis D Associated with Chronic Widespread Pain Including Fibromyalgia? A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Hung, Chen-Yu; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a global musculoskeletal disorder leading to disability and a reduced quality of life. Low levels of serum vitamin D has long been proposed to be associated with CWP, but previous research remains inconclusive. To determine whether hypovitaminosis D was independently associated with CWP. Meta-analysis of observational study. Electronic databases were searched for studies published up to November 2014 comparing the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and serum vitamin D levels between participants with and without CWP. The crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of hypovitaminosis D with CWP were calculated. Subgroup analysis according to gender, threshold of hypovitaminosis, and definition of patients was performed, as well as meta-regression to test the linear relationship between crude ORs and the latitude of study locations. Twelve studies were included, comprising 1,854 patients with CWP. The patient group showed a significantly higher risk of hypovitaminosis D than the control group (crude OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.20-2.23). The association was slightly attenuated after adjusting confounders, with a pooled adjusted OR of 1.41 (95% CI, 1.00-2.00). There was an increase in ORs of hypovitaminosis D using a lower diagnostic value of serum vitamin D (8 and 10 ng/mL). The subgroup analysis according to gender and definition of CWP did not reveal significant between-group differences. The meta-regression showed no linear relationship between latitude and the crude ORs. There was a positive crude association between hypovitaminosis D and CWP, and the association was likely to remain after adjusting confounding factors. Use of a cut-off value of hypovitaminosis D (8-10 ng/mL) could better define the population with and without CWP. Further prospective follow-up studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between hypovitaminosis D and CWP.

  4. Synthetic, 119Sn NMR spectroscopic, electrochemical, and reactivity study of organotin A3 corrolates including chiral and ferrocenyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Olga G; Kim, Byung-Kwon; Luu, Tuong Loan; Kwak, Juhyoun; Churchill, David G

    2013-02-18

    Various R/Ar-functionalized tin 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrolate derivatives are reported herein including the first ferrocenyltin corrolate species. The isopropyl, sec-butyl-, 2-methyl-n-butyl-, phenyl-, 2-thienyl-, and ferrocenyltin species have been prepared and characterized through (1)H, (13)C, and (119)Sn HMQC NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, UV-vis and photoluminescent spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry studies. J(C/H-Sn) NMR spectroscopic couplings and ring-current effects (upfield shifting) were determined for the R-Sn axial hydrogen and carbon atoms. This report adds to older conceptually similar reports, by, i.e., Janson et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1969, 91, 5210) and Walker et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc.1983, 105, 6923-6929), as discussed herein. Such NMR spectroscopic aspects are discussed for these model systems. Compound Sn-Ph bond cleavage was achieved by treatment with I(2).

  5. Computational wing design studies relating to natural laminar flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Edgar G.

    1986-01-01

    Two research studies are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wing planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first study supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second study. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs.

  6. The majority of genes in the pathogenic Neisseria species are present in non-pathogenic Neisseria lactamica, including those designated as 'virulence genes'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Nigel J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neisseria meningitidis causes the life-threatening diseases meningococcal meningitis and meningococcal septicemia. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is closely related to the meningococcus, but is the cause of the very different infection, gonorrhea. A number of genes have been implicated in the virulence of these related yet distinct pathogens, but the genes that define and differentiate the species and their behaviours have not been established. Further, a related species, Neisseria lactamica is not associated with either type of infection in normally healthy people, and lives as a harmless commensal. We have determined which of the genes so far identified in the genome sequences of the pathogens are also present in this non-pathogenic related species. Results Thirteen unrelated strains of N. lactamica were investigated using comparative genome hybridization to the pan-Neisseria microarray-v2, which contains 2845 unique gene probes. The presence of 127 'virulence genes' was specifically addressed; of these 85 are present in N. lactamica. Of the remaining 42 'virulence genes' only 11 are present in all four of the sequenced pathogenic Neisseria. Conclusion Assessment of the complete dataset revealed that the vast majority of genes present in the pathogens are also present in N. lactamica. Of the 1,473 probes to genes shared by all four pathogenic genome sequences, 1,373 hybridize to N. lactamica. These shared genes cannot include genes that are necessary and sufficient for the virulence of the pathogens, since N. lactamica does not share this behaviour. This provides an essential context for the interpretation of gene complement studies of the pathogens.

  7. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 9: Design approaches. CAES. Appendix E: Electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The design approaches provided the basis for development of the preliminary plant design. The electrical systems described include the plant power system, switchyard and electrical motor starting system. The design approaches presented are based on the design criteria presented in the Project Design criteria - CAES. Selection of the preferred approach reflect the Task 3 study results and conform to the greatest extent possible with PEPCO's standard practices.

  8. Design and rationale for the PREVAIL study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hirth, Asle

    2012-01-01

    Intensive exercise may be an important part of rehabilitation in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, performing regular physical exercise is challenging for many adolescent patients. Consequently, effective exercise encouragements may be needed. Little is known on the effect of e......-Health encouragements on physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life in adolescents. This trial is a nationwide interactive e-Health rehabilitation study lasting 1 year, centered on interactive use of mobile phone and Internet technology. We hypothesize that e-Health encouragements...... and interactive monitoring of intensive exercise for 1 year can improve physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life. Two hundred sixteen adolescents (age, 13-16 years) with surgically corrected complex CHD but without significant hemodynamic residual defects and no restrictions...

  9. Search for design intelligence: A field study on the role of emotional intelligence in architectural design studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Nazidizaji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The design studio is the core of the architecture curriculum. Interpersonal interactions have a key role during the processes of design and critique. The influence of emotional intelligence (EQ on interpersonal communication skills has been widely proven. This study examines the correlation between EQ and architectural design competence. To achieve this, 78 architecture students were selected via a simple random sampling method and tested using an EQ test questionnaire developed by Bradbury and Greaves (2006. The scores of five architectural design studio courses (ADS-1, ADS-2, ADS-3, ADS-4, and ADS-5 were used as indicators of the progress in design of the students. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods were both employed to analyze the research data. The methods included correlation analysis, mean comparison t-test for independent samples, and single sample t-test. Findings showed no significant relationship between EQ and any of the indicators.

  10. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  11. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. METHODS We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research. PMID:15053277

  12. Interim Design Report for the International Design Study for a Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, S.; Gandhi, R.; Goswami, S.; /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; /Brookhaven; Ellis, M.; /Brunel U. /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Fermilab /Geneva U. /Glasgow U. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Imperial Coll., London /Jefferson Lab /Saha Inst.

    2011-10-01

    The starting point for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was the output of the earlier International Scoping Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS). The accelerator facility described in section 2 incorporates the improvements that have been derived from the substantial amount of work carried out within the Accelerator Working Group. Highlights of these improvements include: (1) Initial concepts for the implementation of the proton driver at each of the three example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL; (2) Detailed studies of the energy deposition in the target area; (3) A reduction in the length of the muon beam phase-rotation and bunching systems; (4) Detailed analyses of the impact of the risk that stray magnetic field in the accelerating cavities in the ionization cooling channel will reduce the maximum operating gradient. Several alternative ionization-cooling lattices have been developed as fallback options to mitigate this technical risk; (5) Studies of particle loss in the muon front-end and the development of strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of such losses; (6) The development of more complete designs for the muon linac and re-circulating linacs; (7) The development of a design for the muon FFAG that incorporates insertions for injection and extraction; and (8) Detailed studies of diagnostics in the decay ring. Other sub-systems have undergone a more 'incremental' evolution; an indication that the design of the Neutrino Factory has achieved a degree of maturity. The design of the neutrino detectors described in section 3 has been optimized and the Detector Working Group has made substantial improvements to the simulation and analysis of the Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) resulting in an improvement in the overall neutrino-detection efficiency and a reduction in the neutrino-energy threshold. In addition, initial consideration of the engineering of the MIND has

  13. Interim Design Report for the International Design Study for a Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choubey, S.; Gandhi, R.; Goswami, S.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; Ellis, M.

    2011-01-01

    The starting point for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was the output of the earlier International Scoping Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS). The accelerator facility described in section 2 incorporates the improvements that have been derived from the substantial amount of work carried out within the Accelerator Working Group. Highlights of these improvements include: (1) Initial concepts for the implementation of the proton driver at each of the three example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL; (2) Detailed studies of the energy deposition in the target area; (3) A reduction in the length of the muon beam phase-rotation and bunching systems; (4) Detailed analyses of the impact of the risk that stray magnetic field in the accelerating cavities in the ionization cooling channel will reduce the maximum operating gradient. Several alternative ionization-cooling lattices have been developed as fallback options to mitigate this technical risk; (5) Studies of particle loss in the muon front-end and the development of strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of such losses; (6) The development of more complete designs for the muon linac and re-circulating linacs; (7) The development of a design for the muon FFAG that incorporates insertions for injection and extraction; and (8) Detailed studies of diagnostics in the decay ring. Other sub-systems have undergone a more 'incremental' evolution; an indication that the design of the Neutrino Factory has achieved a degree of maturity. The design of the neutrino detectors described in section 3 has been optimized and the Detector Working Group has made substantial improvements to the simulation and analysis of the Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) resulting in an improvement in the overall neutrino-detection efficiency and a reduction in the neutrino-energy threshold. In addition, initial consideration of the engineering of the MIND has generated a

  14. The epidemiologic principles underlying traffic safety study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June H; Mooney, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the epidemiological principles underlying four observational study designs commonly used to assess traffic safety: the case-control, case-crossover, culpability and quasi-induced exposure designs. We focus in particular on the specific challenges for preventing bias using each design. Whereas recruiting controls representative of the source population poses a special challenge in case-control traffic safety studies, case-crossover designs are prone to recall bias, and culpability and quasi-induced exposure studies can be undermined by difficulties assigning crash responsibility. Using causal diagrams and worked examples, we provide a simple way to teach traffic safety designs to epidemiologists and to encourage proper application of epidemiological principles among researchers designing traffic safety studies. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  15. Design of Orion Soil Impact Study using the Modern Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Two conventional One Factor At a Time (OFAT) test matrices under consideration for an Orion Landing System subscale soil impact study are reviewed. Certain weaknesses in the designs, systemic to OFAT experiment designs generally, are identified. An alternative test matrix is proposed that is based in the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), which achieves certain synergies by combining the original two test matrices into one. The attendant resource savings are quantified and the impact on uncertainty is discussed.

  16. Design and interpretation of clinical research studies in oral medicine: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J C; Clark, D B

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this short review is to help researchers improve the designs of their clinical studies. Also included is a discussion of the level of evidence provided by the various clinical research study designs. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Jodi; Choh, Vivian; Bharadwaj, Shrikant; Padmanabhan, Varuna; Modilevsky, Laura; Jovanovich, Elizabeth; Yeh, Brenda; Zhang, Zhan; Guan, Huanxian; Payne, W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2007-10-01

    Albinism is associated with a variety of ocular anomalies including refractive errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular development of an albino chick line. The ocular development of both albino and normally pigmented chicks was monitored using retinoscopy to measure refractive errors and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial ocular dimensions. Functional tests included an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm to assess visual acuity, and flash ERGs to assess retinal function. The underlying genetic abnormality was characterized using a gene microarray, PCR and a tyrosinase assay. The ultrastructure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. PCR confirmed that the genetic abnormality in this line is a deletion in exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase gene expression in isolated RPE cells was minimally detectable, and there was minimal enzyme activity in albino feather bulbs. The albino chicks had pink eyes and their eyes transilluminated, reflecting the lack of melanin in all ocular tissues. All three main components, anterior chamber, crystalline lens and vitreous chamber, showed axial expansion over time in both normal and albino animals, but the anterior chambers of albino chicks were consistently shallower than those of normal chicks, while in contrast, their vitreous chambers were longer. Albino chicks remained relatively myopic, with higher astigmatism than the normally pigmented chicks, even though both groups underwent developmental emmetropization. Albino chicks had reduced visual acuity yet the ERG a- and b-wave components had larger amplitudes and shorter than normal implicit times. Developmental emmetropization occurs in the albino chick but is impaired, likely because of functional abnormalities in the RPE and/or retina as well as optical factors. In very young chicks the underlying genetic mutation may also contribute to refractive error and eye shape abnormalities.

  18. Developing the FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies: Classification and description of technology use (including ICT) in falls prevention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Elisabeth; Hawley-Hague, Helen; Vereijken, Beatrix; Clifford, Amanda; Guldemond, Nick; Pfeiffer, Klaus; Hall, Alex; Chesani, Federico; Mellone, Sabato; Bourke, Alan; Todd, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Recent Cochrane reviews on falls and fall prevention have shown that it is possible to prevent falls in older adults living in the community and in care facilities. Technologies aimed at fall detection, assessment, prediction and prevention are emerging, yet there has been no consistency in describing or reporting on interventions using technologies. With the growth of eHealth and data driven interventions, a common language and classification is required. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies was developed as a tool for those in the field of biomedical informatics to classify and characterise components of studies and interventions. The Taxonomy Development Group (TDG) comprised experts from across Europe. Through face-to-face meetings and contributions via email, five domains were developed, modified and agreed: Approach; Base; Components of outcome measures; Descriptors of technologies; and Evaluation. Each domain included sub-domains and categories with accompanying definitions. The classification system was tested against published papers and further amendments undertaken, including development of an online tool. Six papers were classified by the TDG with levels of consensus recorded. Testing the taxonomy with papers highlighted difficulties in definitions across international healthcare systems, together with differences of TDG members' backgrounds. Definitions were clarified and amended accordingly, but some difficulties remained. The taxonomy and manual were large documents leading to a lengthy classification process. The development of the online application enabled a much simpler classification process, as categories and definitions appeared only when relevant. Overall consensus for the classified papers was 70.66%. Consensus scores increased as modifications were made to the taxonomy. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies presents a common language, which should now be adopted in the field of biomedical informatics. In developing the taxonomy as an

  19. Large scale breeder reactor plant prototype mechanical pump conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    This final report is a complete conceptual design study of a mechanical pump for a large scale breeder reactor plant. The pumps are located in the cold leg side of the loops. This makes the net positive suction head available - NPSHA - low, and is, in fact, a major influencing factor in the design. Where possible, experience gained from the Clinch River Project and the FFTF is used in this study. Experience gained in the design, manufacturer, and testing of pumps in general and sodium pumps in particular is reflected in this report. The report includes estimated cost and time schedule for design, manufacture, and testing. It also includes a recommendation for development needs.

  20. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Evidence from an updated meta-analysis including 35 studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haigang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR variants, C677T and A1298C, have been reported to be associated with decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. However, results derived from individually underpowered studies are conflicting. We carried out an updated meta-analysis on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and ALL risk. Methods Relevant publications were searched through PUBMED and EMBASE databases. The associations between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of ALL were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs. The heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential sources of heterogeneity. Results C677T polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (allele contrast: ORRE = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99. Subgroup analysis showed MTHFR C677T variant was associated with decreased susceptibility to ALL in children and Caucasians. Meta-regression showed the logOR for the association between T allele and ALL increased as sex ratio (M/F in the case group increased (P = 0.01. Regarding A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed (allele contrast: ORRE = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.91-1.11. There was no publication bias for C677T or A1298C polymorphism. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that the C677T polymorphism, not A1298C, in MTHFR gene is associated with a decreased risk of ALL, particularly among children and Caucasians subjects. Our findings suggest that the influence of the C677T polymorphism on ALL susceptibility is modified by sex ratio in cases (M/F. Since folate intake may be a possible confounding factor, including this factor in future prospective studies is warranted. Further meta-analysis studies should be at least stratified for folate levels and gender to give more powerful and informative results.

  1. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Evidence from an updated meta-analysis including 35 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variants, C677T and A1298C, have been reported to be associated with decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, results derived from individually underpowered studies are conflicting. We carried out an updated meta-analysis on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and ALL risk. Methods Relevant publications were searched through PUBMED and EMBASE databases. The associations between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of ALL were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs). The heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential sources of heterogeneity. Results C677T polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (allele contrast: ORRE = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99). Subgroup analysis showed MTHFR C677T variant was associated with decreased susceptibility to ALL in children and Caucasians. Meta-regression showed the logOR for the association between T allele and ALL increased as sex ratio (M/F) in the case group increased (P = 0.01). Regarding A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed (allele contrast: ORRE = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.91-1.11). There was no publication bias for C677T or A1298C polymorphism. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that the C677T polymorphism, not A1298C, in MTHFR gene is associated with a decreased risk of ALL, particularly among children and Caucasians subjects. Our findings suggest that the influence of the C677T polymorphism on ALL susceptibility is modified by sex ratio in cases (M/F). Since folate intake may be a possible confounding factor, including this factor in future prospective studies is warranted. Further meta-analysis studies should be at least stratified for folate levels and gender to give more powerful and informative results. PMID:22943282

  2. [Hernia recurrence long term follow-up after open procedures of abdominal wall plasty-prospective study including 142 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureşan, Mircea; Mureşan, Simona; Bara, Tivadar; Neagoe, Radu; Sala, Daniela; Suciu, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The incisional hernia continues to be a frequent complication of laparotomies. The purpose of study is the analysis of hernia disease relapse after one year after different open plasties methods of the abdominal wall. A prospective longitudinal study was performed that included 142 patients. An analysis was performed on the individual data, the level of obesity, intra-surgical variations in intra-abdominal pressure, the intensity of post-surgical pain, the post-surgical complications, and the types of plasties of abdominal wall, simple and with polypropylene mesh. The analysis of studied group showed a general rate of relapse of 16.9%, and within the 4 procedures, 40.74% in the case of simple plasties, of 16.07% after the only plasties, 6.97% after the retro-muscular plasties, and 6.25% after the full substitution of parietal defect. On analysing the collected, hernia relapse was statistically significantly related to the level of obesity, variations in intra-abdominal pressure, post-surgical pain, and the type of procedure performed. Hernia is a frequent complication of laparotomies. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of simple plasties. Among the mesh procedures, the onlay plasty showed a higher rate of relapse and post-surgical complications. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of variations of intra-abdominal pressure, and with increased post-surgical pain. The use of an echography examination may increase the accuracy of the presence of hernia disease. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. All rights reserved.

  3. A case study on topology optimized design for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebisa, A. W.; Lemu, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    Topology optimization is an optimization method that employs mathematical tools to optimize material distribution in a part to be designed. Earlier developments of topology optimization considered conventional manufacturing techniques that have limitations in producing complex geometries. This has hindered the topology optimization efforts not to fully be realized. With the emergence of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, the technology that builds a part layer upon a layer directly from three dimensional (3D) model data of the part, however, producing complex shape geometry is no longer an issue. Realization of topology optimization through AM provides full design freedom for the design engineers. The article focuses on topologically optimized design approach for additive manufacturing with a case study on lightweight design of jet engine bracket. The study result shows that topology optimization is a powerful design technique to reduce the weight of a product while maintaining the design requirements if additive manufacturing is considered.

  4. Capturing Design Rationales in Enterprise Architecture: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Plataniotis, G.; Kinderen, S.; Proper, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We aim for rationalizing Enterprise Architecture, supplementing models that express EA designs with models that express the decision making behind the designs. In our previous work we introduced the EA Anamnesis approach for architectural rationalization, and illustrated it with a fictitious case study.In this paper we evaluate our approach in terms of its ability to capture design rationales in the context of a real life case study. Together with stakeholders from the...

  5. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    SAMADBEIK, Mahnaz; ASADI, Heshmatollah; MOHSENI, Mohammad; TAKBIRI, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Ahmad; GARAVAND, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran?s ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (H...

  6. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  7. Industry Experiences of Environmentally Conscious Design Integration: An Exploratory Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    1998-01-01

    considerations into the design process.The findings in this thesis emerged from one in-depth study and a transatlantic industry survey, interviewing twenty four practitioners. A framework of factors affecting environmentally conscious design was derived from this research and a model of environmentally conscious......This research has explored environmentally conscious design in the electrical/electronics industry sector. In this new and rapidly evolving field, existing research has not yet sought to understand the causes of success and the problems experienced when companies have integrated environmental...... design integration developed which describes the industry’s experience of integrating environmental considerations into the design processes....

  8. Core Design Studies for a 600 MWe TRU Burner Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Sang Ji; Kim, Yeong Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The conceptual core design for a 600-MWe sodium cooled fast reactor(SFR) for TRU burning is being developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) under the frame of the Gen-IV SFR development program. The KALIMER-600 has been adopted as a reference SFR system by the Gen-IV International Forum. Therefore, the development of the core design concept for a 600-MWe SFR for TRU burning has been implemented based on the design feature of the KALIMER-600. In this paper, a new core design concept for use of a single-enrichment fuel is described for a reference core. In this concept, power flattering is achieved by using the core region-wise cladding thickness. After the reference core design, a progressive design change of 600 MWe for TRU burning is performed for optimization. The core performance, including the reactivity coefficients, are analyzed and inter-compared.

  9. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  10. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060

  11. Core design studies for advanced burner test reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. government announced in February 2006 the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) based on a fast spectrum is one of the three major technologies to be demonstrated in GNEP. In FY06, a pre-conceptual design study was performed to develop an advanced burner test reactor (ABTR) that supports development of a prototype full-scale ABR, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR were (1) to demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics (TRU) as part of an advanced fuel cycle, (2) to qualify the TRU-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR, (3) to support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Based on these objectives, core design and fuel cycle studies were performed to develop ABTR core designs, which can accommodate the expected changes of the TRU feed and the conversion ratio. Various option and trade-off studies were performed to determine the appropriate power level and conversion ratio. Both ternary metal alloy (U-TRU-10Zr) and mixed oxide (UO{sub 2}-TRUO{sub 2}) fuel forms have been considered with TRU feeds from weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) and TRU recovered from light water reactor spent fuel (LWR-SF). Reactor performances were evaluated in detail including equilibrium cycle core parameters, mass flow, power distribution, kinetic parameters, reactivity feedback coefficient, reactivity control requirements and shutdown margins, and spent fuel characteristics. Trade-off studies on power level suggested that about 250 MWt is a reasonable compromise to allow a low project cost, at the same time providing a reasonable prototypic irradiation environment for demonstrating

  12. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design Fixation and Cooperative Learning in Elementary Engineering Design Project: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders' design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP), was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes.…

  14. Microdeletions Including FMR1 in Three Female Patients with Intellectual Disability – Further Delineation of the Phenotype and Expression Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, A.M.; Wohlleber, E.; Engels, H.; Rødningen, O.K.; Ravn, K.; Heilmann, S.; Rehnitz, J.; Katzorke, N.; Kraus, C.; Blichfeldt, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Reutter, H.; Brockschmidt, F.F.; Kreiß-Nachtsheim, M.; Vogt, P.H.; Prescott, T.E.; Tümer, Z.; Lee, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common causes of intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), especially in males. It is caused most often by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions, and less frequently by point mutations and partial or full deletions of the FMR1 gene. The wide clinical spectrum of affected females partly depends on their X-inactivation status. Only few female ID/DD patients with microdeletions including FMR1 have been reported. We describe 3 female patients with 3.5-, 4.2- and 9.2-Mb de novo microdeletions in Xq27.3-q28 containing FMR1. X-inactivation was random in all patients, yet they presented with ID/DD as well as speech delay, macrocephaly and other features attributable to FXS. No signs of autism were present. Here, we further delineate the clinical spectrum of female patients with microdeletions. FMR1 expression studies gave no evidence for an absolute threshold below which signs of FXS present. Since FMR1 expression is known to be highly variable between unrelated females, and since FMR1 mRNA levels have been suggested to be more similar among family members, we further explored the possibility of an intrafamilial effect. Interestingly, FMR1 mRNA levels in all 3 patients were significantly lower than in their respective mothers, which was shown to be specific for patients with microdeletions containing FMR1. PMID:24715853

  15. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  16. Should Intelligent Design Be Taught in Social Studies Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Diana E.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author examines whether the very reasons that explain why intelligent design is controversial in the science curriculum also apply to social studies. She reports what teachers at a recent democratic education conference said about four different lessons on intelligent design that could fit into social studies courses. She…

  17. Cultural study in design : In search of a meaningful approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boeijen, A.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Does the Circuit of Culture help design students to do a cultural study that is meaningful for their design project? Indeed, it provides a good view on the phenomenon culture, its complexity and how contemporary cultures can be studied, providing an overview and structure of the processes that

  18. 300 GeV Up-dated design study

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    The 'Report on the Design Study of a 300 GeV Proton Synchrotron' (document CERN/ 563) was issued in November 1964. An Addendum (document CERN/702) to this Design Study was issued on 30 May as one of the up-to-date set of documents and relevant costs presented to the June Council Meeting.

  19. ASIPP remotely operated vehicle design (ROV) and feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xuanchen; Wang, Lei; Pan, Hongtao; Zheng, Lei; Cheng, Yong; Wu, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The ROV is an important device for studying the underwater world. Thus, the ASIPP ROV is designed to meet this demand by ASIPP RH team. Through adding the wireless vision module, the performance of the robot is promoted in motion control, image collecting and so on. The rationality of the design and the effectiveness of the controller are validated by simulation and experimental study.

  20. Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…

  1. [Strengthening the methodology of study designs in scientific researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ze-qin

    2010-06-01

    Many problems in study designs have affected the validity of scientific researches seriously. We must understand the methodology of research, especially clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, and recognize the urgency in selection and implement of right study design. Thereafter we can promote the research capability and improve the overall quality of scientific researches.

  2. Design studies of lift fan engines suitable for use in civilian VTOL aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelke, R. J.; Zigan, S.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary engine design studies have been made of two general types of low-pressure-ratio lift fan engines that are receiving increasing attention as a means to provide low-speed lift for large civilian VTOL transports. The two engine types are integral fans and remote powered fans. A portion of the results of these design studies is summarized, including the crucial engine requirements, and some of the characteristics of the emerging engine designs of each type.

  3. Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-05-01

    Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.

  4. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Tiwaa Marfo

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4-87 year-old. Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5-69 year-old; the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5-78 year-old. N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum, followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb, however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb, but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, not quantified and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified. Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified, and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb. Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb. The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5-57. Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

  5. 23 CFR 650.117 - Content of design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....117 Content of design studies. (a) The detail of studies shall be commensurate with the risk associated with the encroachment and with other economic, engineering, social or environmental concerns. (b...

  6. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  7. Fusion reactor design studies: standard accounts for cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.; Young, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The fusion reactor design studies--standard accounts for cost estimates provides a common format from which to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept costs estimates and also provide policymakers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concept may be economically promising. The format sets forth a categorization and accounting procedure to be used when estimating fusion reactor busbar energy cost that can be easily and consistently applied. Reasons for developing the procedure, explanations of the procedure, justifications for assumptions made in the procedure, and the applicability of the procedure are described in this document. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising design concepts thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  8. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  9. Study on design method for seismically isolated FBR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Kazuta; Yabana, Shuichi; Ohtori, Yasuki; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Shiojiri; Hiroo; Mazda, Taiji

    1998-01-01

    CRIEPI conducted 'Demonstration test on FBR seismic isolation system' from 1987 to 1996 under contract with Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan. In the demonstration test, base isolation technologies are prepared and demonstrated to apply to FBR and the design guidelines are proposed. In this report overall contents of the design guidelines entitled Design guidelines for seismically base isolated FBR plants' are included. The design guidelines, as a rule, are limited to apply to FBR plants where entire reactor building is isolated in the horizontal direction using laminated rubber bearings as isolators. The design guidelines and its concepts, however, will be useful for the development of similar guidelines for other isolation systems using different type of isolation methods and other nuclear facilities. The design guidelines consist of three parts and appendices. The first part is 'Policy for Safety Design of Base Isolated FBR Plants' specifying the principles and the requirements in the planning and the design for the safety of base isolated FBR plants. The second part is Policy for Seismic Design of Base Isolated FBR' describing the principles and the requirements in the seismic design and the evaluation of safety for base isolated FBR plants. The third part is 'Design Methods for Seismic Isolated FBR Plants' detailing the methods, procedures and parameters to be used in the design and the evaluation of safety fro base isolated FBR plants. In appendices examples of design procedures for base isolated reactor building and laminated rubber bearings as well as various test data on laminated rubber bearings, etc. are shown. (author)

  10. Vegetation response to invasive Tamarix control in southwestern U.S. rivers: a collaborative study including 416 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A; Anderson, Robert M; Bay, Robin F; Bean, Daniel W; Bissonnete, Gabriel J; Bourgeois, Bérenger; Cooper, David J; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L; Makarick, Lori J; Ostoja, Steven M; Reynolds, Lindsay V; Robinson, W Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B

    2017-09-01

    Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil, and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. states. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments. Biocontrol by a defoliating beetle (treatment 1) reduced the abundance of Tamarix less than active removal by mechanically using hand and chain-saws (2), heavy machinery (3) or burning (4). Tamarix abundance also decreased with lower temperatures, higher precipitation, and follow-up treatments for Tamarix resprouting. Native cover generally increased over time in active Tamarix removal sites, however, the increases observed were small and was not consistently increased by active revegetation. Overall, native cover was correlated to permanent stream flow, lower grazing pressure, lower soil salinity and temperatures, and higher precipitation. Species diversity also increased where Tamarix was removed. However, Tamarix treatments, especially those generating the highest disturbance (burning and heavy machinery), also often promoted secondary invasions of exotic forbs. The abundance of hydrophytic species was much lower in treated than in reference sites, suggesting that management of southwestern U.S. rivers has focused too much on weed control, overlooking restoration of fluvial processes that provide habitat for hydrophytic and floodplain vegetation. These results can help inform future management of Tamarix-infested rivers to restore hydrogeomorphic processes, increase native biodiversity and reduce abundance of noxious species. © 2017 by the

  11. Clinical situation of the coronal part of the teeth including restorations types placed prior to endodontic treatment - a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekyatan, H; Willershausen, B; Kasaj, A; Briseño, B

    2005-10-18

    In the present retrospektive study the situation of the natural crown as well as the restoration types placed prior to endodontic treatment was examined. A total of 782 teeth from 545 patients (54.3% men; 45.7% women; mean age: 49.9 +/- 12.1 years) were investigated. In addition to the evaluation of the medical history of the patients, x-rays and a clinical investigation were carried out in order to assess the clinical condition of the crown as well as the restoration types. Of special interest were: carious lesions, composite fillings, amalgam, ceramic or gold crowns and/or bridge restorations. 305 of the examined teeth were located in the mandible and 477 in the maxilla. 26.3% of the teeth were anteriors, 31.2% were premolars and 42.5% were molars. 24.2% of the teeth were restored with metal ceramic crowns, 15.1% were restored with gold cast crowns or served as abutment teeth for bridgework; untreated caries was found in 21.1%, and composite fillings were found in 13.7% of the cases. 23.8% of the front teeth, 26.6% of the premolars and 22.6% of the molars showed a metal ceramic restoration. 21% of all carious defects were found in the maxilla as well as in the mandible. In addition to the high number of untreated carious lesions, the presence of metal ceramics restorations was significantly higher than other restorations types. Carious lesions are main aetiological factors for endodontic measures, but also ceramic restorations including premature contacts have to be considered as causal factors for pulpal irritations.

  12. Optimal design strategies for sibling studies with binary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; McKeague, Ian W; Lumey, Lambert H

    2014-01-01

    Sibling studies have become increasingly popular because they provide better control over confounding by unmeasured family-level risk factors than can be obtained in standard cohort studies. However, little attention has been devoted to the development of efficient design strategies for sibling studies in terms of optimizing power. We here address this issue in commonly encountered types of sibling studies, allowing for continuous and binary outcomes and varying numbers of exposed and unexposed siblings. For continuous outcomes, we show that in families with sibling pairs, optimal study power is obtained by recruiting discordant (exposed-control) pairs of siblings. More generally, balancing the exposure status within each family as evenly as possible is shown to be optimal. For binary outcomes, we elucidate how the optimal strategy depends on the variation of the binary response; as the within-family correlation increases, the optimal strategy tends toward only recruiting discordant sibling pairs (as in the case of continuous outcomes). R code for obtaining the optimal strategies is included.

  13. Preliminary study of an expert system for mechanical design of a pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasmuri, N.H.; Md Som, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study of an expert system for mechanical design of a pressure vessel. The system supports the framework for the conceptual mechanical design from the initial stages within the design procedures. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII Division 1 were applied as a design rule. The proposed methodology facilitates the development of knowledge base acquisition, knowledge base construction and the prototype implementation. This study characterizes a knowledge base (procedure) of mechanical design of a pressure vessel subjected to internal pressure including all design parameters; i.e. temperature, shell thickness, selection of materials of constructions, stress analysis procedure, support and ancillary items. The rationalization of the mechanical design is shown in the form of a schematic flow diagram. A Kappa PC expert system shell is used as a tool to develop the prototype software. It provides graphical representation for creating objects, hierarchies and rules for knowledge base used in pressure vessel design. (Author)

  14. Design thinking for website optimization. A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somoza Sanchez, Vella Veronica; Andersen, Frederik; Schneider-Kamp, Peter

    of potential customers and, consequently, improve their user experience. The case considered in this study focuses on a company from the retail banking industry offering loans through comparison websites. First, to find a solution to this wicked problem we adapt the process of design thinking to the context...... studied, i.e., to the design optimization of retail banking web sites. Second, we provide insights in how big data can aid the development of a website design that optimizes the user experience of the customers. As the creation of these user-centric websites is a never confronted task for this type......This paper presents results from a pilot study, which is part of a larger research project where we study the process innovation of website optimization as a service through the use of big data. Over a process of design thinking we investigate which type of website design best addresses the needs...

  15. Improving Creativity Training: A Study of Designer Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder; Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    .g. [Scott et al. 2004], [Robbinsand Kegley 2010]. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how individual creativity skills influence the creative process of design teams working within the fuzzy front end (as defined in [Koenet al. 2002]) of innovation; an important first step in identifying...... which individual creativity skills shouldbe trained in designers. An exploratory study was designed, using participatory observation of two design teams in a six-month case study in two major organizations, with individual skills being the unit of analysis. The focus of the study was to observe...... the process the teams operated within and its progresswhen individuals applied their creativity skills to advance its progress, while the intent was not to assessthe creative product or output as such.Design is a collaborative effort and creativity has to be understood both on an individual and on a team...

  16. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Nobuharu; Iida, Fumio; Suzuki, Shohei; Wachi, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Katsuyoshi; Hashizume, Takashi; Konno, Masayuki.

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes the FER magnet design which was conducted last year (1986). Main objective of the new FER design is to have better cost performance of the machine. The physics assumptions are reviewed to reduce risks. Optimization of the physics design and improvements of the engineering design have been done without changing missions of the device. After a preliminary investigation for the optimization and improvements, six FER concepts have been developed to establish the improved design point, and have been studied in more detail. In the magnet design, the improvements of superconducting magnet design were mainly investigated to reduce the reactor size. A normal conductor was studied as an alternative option for appling to the special poloidal field coils that were located on the interior to the toroidal field coils. Some improvements were made on the superconducting magnet design. Based on the preliminary investigation, the magnet design specifications have been modified somewhat. The conceptual design of the magnet system components have been done for the candidate FER concepts. (author)

  17. Deployment of pollution prevention during design -- a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mar, R.A.; Ambalam, T.T.

    1997-08-01

    Traditionally, pollution prevention (P2) assessments have been performed on existing facilities and ongoing operations, well after the completion of design and construction. It has been theorized that more success can be achieved by moving P2 upstream into the design process, where an estimated 70% of a project's total life cycle costs are initially fixed. Decisions made during design to prevent or minimize the amount of waste generated can reap benefits for many years to come. This is especially true when designing systems for handling hazardous and radioactive wastes for treatment, storage, and disposal. P2 assessments performed during design of such projects can uncover significant savings to be reaped during project construction, operations, and/or decommissioning. However, many project managers are still reluctant to include some type of P2 review or assessment as part of the design effort, because the immediate payback to the design entity is difficult to quantify. This paper presents the results of a P2 assessment performed on a design project at Hanford which identified close to $500,000 in construction savings while minimizing low-level and mixed radioactive waste generation. This paper describes the process used to per-form the assessment, discusses its results, and provides lessons-learned for future P2 design assessments

  18. Trajectory-oriented Bayesian experiment design versus Fisher A-optimal design: an in depth comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Patrick; Kramer, Andrei; Dingler, Clemens; Radde, Nicole

    2012-09-15

    Experiment design strategies for biomedical models with the purpose of parameter estimation or model discrimination are in the focus of intense research. Experimental limitations such as sparse and noisy data result in unidentifiable parameters and render-related design tasks challenging problems. Often, the temporal resolution of data is a limiting factor and the amount of possible experimental interventions is finite. To address this issue, we propose a Bayesian experiment design algorithm to minimize the prediction uncertainty for a given set of experiments and compare it to traditional A-optimal design. In an in depth numerical study involving an ordinary differential equation model of the trans-Golgi network with 12 partly non-identifiable parameters, we minimized the prediction uncertainty efficiently for predefined scenarios. The introduced method results in twice the prediction precision as the same amount of A-optimal designed experiments while introducing a useful stopping criterion. The simulation intensity of the algorithm's major design step is thereby reasonably affordable. Besides smaller variances in the predicted trajectories compared with Fisher design, we could also achieve smaller parameter posterior distribution entropies, rendering this method superior to A-optimal Fisher design also in the parameter space. Necessary software/toolbox information are available in the supplementary material. The project script including example data can be downloaded from http://www.ist.uni-stuttgart.de/%7eweber/BayesFisher2012. patrick.weber@ist.uni-stuttgart.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

    2008-10-13

    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

  20. DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESTAURANT : A CASE STUDY IN SHIRAZ

    OpenAIRE

    RAJAEI, Bahareh; ESMAILI, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. As climate change and global warming effects have increased worldwide, sustainability becomes the main aspect for constructing new buildings and conserving existing ones.Sustainable design should be applied in all phases of the life cycle of a building, including programming, design, building construction, building operation, and finally demolition.  Sustainability is not yet a term which is described in the building decree. However, it is a very important theme of this moment .The ...

  1. Sustainable Design Approach: A case study of BIM use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Wael

    2017-11-01

    alternative's consequences. The architect would settle down and proceed in the alternative design of the best sustainable analysis. In later design stages, using the sustainable types of materials such as insulation, cladding, etc., and applying sustainable building components such as doors, windows, etc. would add more improvements and enhancements in reaching better values and metrics. The paper describes the methodology of this design approach through BIM strategies adopted in design creation. Case studies of architectural designs are used to highlight the details and benefits of this proposed approach.

  2. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Basis Capacity Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLEVELAND, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study of the design basis capacity of process systems was prepared by Fluor Federal Services for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The evaluation uses a summary level model of major process sub-systems to determine the impact of sub-system interactions on the overall time to complete fuel removal operations. The process system model configuration and time cycle estimates developed in the original version of this report have been updated as operating scenario assumptions evolve. The initial document released in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 varied the number of parallel systems and transport systems over a wide range, estimating a conservative design basis for completing fuel processing in a two year time period. Configurations modeling planned operations were updated in FY 1998 and FY 1999. The FY 1998 Base Case continued to indicate that fuel removal activities at the basins could be completed in slightly over 2 years. Evaluations completed in FY 1999 were based on schedule modifications that delayed the start of KE Basin fuel removal, with respect to the start of KW Basin fuel removal activities, by 12 months. This delay resulted in extending the time to complete all fuel removal activities by 12 months. However, the results indicated that the number of Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) stations could be reduced from four to three without impacting the projected time to complete fuel removal activities. This update of the design basis capacity evaluation, performed for FY 2000, evaluates a fuel removal scenario that delays the start of KE Basin activities such that staffing peaks are minimized. The number of CVD stations included in all cases for the FY 2000 evaluation is reduced from three to two, since the scenario schedule results in minimal time periods of simultaneous fuel removal from both basins. The FY 2000 evaluation also considers removal of Shippingport fuel from T Plant storage and transfer to the Canister Storage Building for storage

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Basis Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLEVELAND, K.J.

    2000-08-17

    This study of the design basis capacity of process systems was prepared by Fluor Federal Services for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The evaluation uses a summary level model of major process sub-systems to determine the impact of sub-system interactions on the overall time to complete fuel removal operations. The process system model configuration and time cycle estimates developed in the original version of this report have been updated as operating scenario assumptions evolve. The initial document released in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 varied the number of parallel systems and transport systems over a wide range, estimating a conservative design basis for completing fuel processing in a two year time period. Configurations modeling planned operations were updated in FY 1998 and FY 1999. The FY 1998 Base Case continued to indicate that fuel removal activities at the basins could be completed in slightly over 2 years. Evaluations completed in FY 1999 were based on schedule modifications that delayed the start of KE Basin fuel removal, with respect to the start of KW Basin fuel removal activities, by 12 months. This delay resulted in extending the time to complete all fuel removal activities by 12 months. However, the results indicated that the number of Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) stations could be reduced from four to three without impacting the projected time to complete fuel removal activities. This update of the design basis capacity evaluation, performed for FY 2000, evaluates a fuel removal scenario that delays the start of KE Basin activities such that staffing peaks are minimized. The number of CVD stations included in all cases for the FY 2000 evaluation is reduced from three to two, since the scenario schedule results in minimal time periods of simultaneous fuel removal from both basins. The FY 2000 evaluation also considers removal of Shippingport fuel from T Plant storage and transfer to the Canister Storage Building for storage.

  4. Electric-powered passenger vehicle design study program. Task 1. Tradeoff studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlett, B.H.

    1976-09-16

    Using the baseline vehicle and power system design established previously to meet the performance goals of the program, three power system computer simulation programs were prepared for the basic vehicle tradeoff studies. These programs simulate the performance of the power system and vehicle over different types of driving conditions such as maximum power acceleration, deceleration, city driving cycles, and hill climbing, and permit accurate determination of the benefits of the unique hybrid power system, the total energy required for the suburban city driving cycle, and the extremes of the operating envelopes of the components so that component design options can be defined and studied. Component design tradeoff studies were conducted, including sensitivity studies to show the criticality of the various losses and unknowns in the analytical models. Also, preliminary vehicle layout studies were performed to determine the best locations of the power system and the batteries. Three basic design options are identified for further study. Economic studies were initiated using analytical models to establish the complete vehicle weight and cost breakdowns. Preliminary reliability and safety studies were completed, and maintainability and safety certification criteria established. The detailed analysis of the power system has verified the feasibility of the system and of the performance expectations. Also, the feasibility of energy recovery from regenerative braking has been confirmed. The sensitivity analysis of the power system shows that sufficient margin for unknown design variables is provided. The preliminary economic analysis indicates that the most difficult objective of the study will be the selection of the cost and weight relationships which are required to achieve the overall cost objectives.

  5. A genome wide association study for backfat thickness in Italian Large White pigs highlights new regions affecting fat deposition including neuronal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontanesi Luca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass fatness is an important trait in most pig breeding programs. Following market requests, breeding plans for fresh pork consumption are usually designed to reduce carcass fat content and increase lean meat deposition. However, the Italian pig industry is mainly devoted to the production of Protected Designation of Origin dry cured hams: pigs are slaughtered at around 160 kg of live weight and the breeding goal aims at maintaining fat coverage, measured as backfat thickness to avoid excessive desiccation of the hams. This objective has shaped the genetic pool of Italian heavy pig breeds for a few decades. In this study we applied a selective genotyping approach within a population of ~ 12,000 performance tested Italian Large White pigs. Within this population, we selectively genotyped 304 pigs with extreme and divergent backfat thickness estimated breeding value by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and performed a genome wide association study to identify loci associated to this trait. Results We identified 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms with P≤5.0E-07 and additional 119 ones with 5.0E-07 Conclusions Further investigations are needed to evaluate the effects of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with backfat thickness on other traits as a pre-requisite for practical applications in breeding programs. Reported results could improve our understanding of the biology of fat metabolism and deposition that could also be relevant for other mammalian species including humans, confirming the role of neuronal genes on obesity.

  6. Alternative Design Study Report: WindPACT Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study; November 1, 2000 -- February 28, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poore, R.; Lettenmaier, T.

    2003-08-01

    This report presents the Phase I results of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study. Global Energy Concepts, LLC performed this work under a subcontract with NREL. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy (COE) from wind turbines to be reduced. Other parts of the WindPACT project have examined blade and logistics scaling, balance-of-station costs, and rotor design. This study was designed to investigate innovative drive train designs.

  7. Concussion Awareness Education: A Design and Development Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilbeam, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    This research study looks at the design and development of an online concussion awareness education module. The Keep Your Head in the Game: Concussion Awareness Training for High School Athletes, or Brainbook, is a stand-alone e-learning module designed to run for fifty minutes and to be highly interactive using short video clips with associated…

  8. Thinking about "Design Thinking": A Study of Teacher Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retna, Kala S.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are continuously looking for new ways of enhancing student learning to equip students with skills that would enable them to cope with twenty-first century demands. One promising approach focuses on design thinking. This study examines teacher's perceptions, experiences and challenges faced in adopting design thinking. There is a lack of…

  9. Meaning Making Using New Media: Learning by Design Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses a study of three Australian middle-years teachers who deployed Learning by Design principles and practice to support multiliteracies learning through students' production of digital/multimodal texts. The aim of the research was to develop an understanding of how three teachers embraced new e-learning pedagogical designs for…

  10. A Shape Optimization Study for Tool Design in Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogomolny, Michael; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply shape optimization tools for design of resistance welding electrodes. The numerical simulation of the welding process has been performed by a simplified FEM model implemented in COMSOL. The design process is formulated as an optimization problem where...

  11. A preliminary study on the relevancy of sustainable building design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study aims to explore the relationship between sustainable building design paradigms and commercial property depreciation, to assist in the understanding of sustainable building design impact towards commercial building value and rental de employs the qualitative method and analyses valuers' current ...

  12. Engaging Struggling Early Readers to Promote Reading Success: A Pilot Study of Reading by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Linda M. Raffaele; Pelzmann, Catherine A.; Frank, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we piloted a Tier 2 intervention designed to improve reading skills among struggling early readers using an intervention that included SRA Reading Mastery, listening-while-reading activities, strategies to increase motivation and engagement in reading, and parent involvement in reading homework. The study included 6 students in…

  13. Transformation: Structure/space studies in bionics and space design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Petra; Imhof, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    This paper discusses the architectural design project "Transformation Structure Space", which was carried out at the Department of Building Construction HB2 in 2004. The goal of the study was to find innovative solutions for space system design through the application of bionic (biomimetic) approaches. Using specific research both fields as the foundation, five different architectural projects based on a scientific-technological concept were developed. The introduction of natural role models into the design process and the development of the application in space and the respective setting proved to be a difficult task within the timeframe of a design program, nonetheless all of the projects show very innovative aspects.

  14. Neutronic design studies for an unattended, low power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.G.; Durkee, J.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is involved in the design and demonstrations of a small, long-lived nuclear heat and electric power source for potential applications at remote sites where alternate fossil energy systems would not be cost effective. This paper describes the neutronic design analysis that was performed to arrive at two conceptual designs, one using thermoelectric conversion, the other using an organic Rankine cycle. To meet the design objectives and constraints a number of scoping and optimization studies were carried out. The results of calculations of control worths, temperature coefficients of reactivity and fuel depletion effects are reported

  15. A new design approach to innovative spectrometers. Case study: TROPOLITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatier, Jean-Baptiste; Baümer, Stefan; Kruizinga, Bob; Vink, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Designing a novel optical system is a nested iterative process. The optimization loop, from a starting point to final system is already mostly automated. However this loop is part of a wider loop which is not. This wider loop starts with an optical specification and ends with a manufacturability assessment. When designing a new spectrometer with emphasis on weight and cost, numerous iterations between the optical- and mechanical designer are inevitable. The optical designer must then be able to reliably produce optical designs based on new input gained from multidisciplinary studies. This paper presents a procedure that can automatically generate new starting points based on any kind of input or new constraint that might arise. These starting points can then be handed over to a generic optimization routine to make the design tasks extremely efficient. The optical designer job is then not to design optical systems, but to meta-design a procedure that produces optical systems paving the way for system level optimization. We present here this procedure and its application to the design of TROPOLITE a lightweight push broom imaging spectrometer.

  16. Design study on gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji; Takizuka, Takakazu; Nakata, Tetsuo; Yan, Xing; Takei, Masanobu; Kosugiyama, Shinichi; Shiozawa, Shusaku

    2002-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been conducting the design study of an original design concept of gas turbine high temperature reactor, the GTHTR300 (Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300). The GTHTR300 is a greatly simplified HTGR-GT plant that leads to substantially reduced technical and cost requirements for earlier technology deployment. Also, it is expected to be an efficient and economically competitive reactor in 2010s due to newly proposed design features such as core design with two-year refueling interval, conventional steel material usage for a reactor pressure vessel, innovative plant flow scheme and horizontally installed gas turbine unit. This paper describes the original design features focusing on reactor core design, fuel design, in-core structure design and reactor pressure vessel design. In addition, a preliminary cost evaluation proved that the capital cost of the GTHTR300 is less than a target cost of 200 thousands Yen/kWe. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  17. Activating schoolyards: study design of a quasi-experimental schoolyard intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf; Troelsen, Jens; Toftager, Mette; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2015-05-31

    The aim of the Activating Schoolyards Study is to develop, implement, document and assess a comprehensive schoolyard intervention to promote physical activity (PA) during school recess for primary school children (grade 4-8). The intervention is designed to implement organizational and structural changes in the physical environment. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design using a mixed method approach including: 1) an exploratory study aimed at providing input for the developing process; 2) an evaluation of the effect of the interventions using a combination of accelerometer, GPS and GIS; 3) a process evaluation facilitating the intervention development process and identifying barriers and facilitators in the implementation process; 4) a post-intervention end-user evaluation aimed at exploring who uses the schoolyards and how the schoolyards are used. The seven project schools (cases) were selected by means of an open competition and the interventions were developed using a participatory bottom-up approach. The participatory approach and case selection strategy make the study design novel. The use of a mixed methods design including qualitative as well as quantitative methods can be seen as a strength, as the different types of data complement each other and results of one part of the study informed the following parts. A unique aspect of our study is the use of accelerometers in combination with GPS and GIS in the effect evaluation to objectively determine where and how active the students are in the schoolyard, before and after the intervention. This provides a type of data that, to our knowledge, has not been used before in schoolyard interventions. Exploring the change in behavior in relation to specific intervention elements in the schoolyard will lead to recommendations for schools undergoing schoolyard renovations at some point in the future.

  18. The German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Bärthlein, Barbara; Baid-Agrawal, Seema; Beck, Andreas; Busch, Martin; Eitner, Frank; Ekici, Arif B; Floege, Jürgen; Gefeller, Olaf; Haller, Hermann; Hilge, Robert; Hilgers, Karl F; Kielstein, Jan T; Krane, Vera; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian; Oefner, Peter; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Reis, André; Schmid, Matthias; Schaeffner, Elke; Schultheiss, Ulla T; Seuchter, Susanne A; Sitter, Thomas; Sommerer, Claudia; Walz, Gerd; Wanner, Christoph; Wolf, Gunter; Zeier, Martin; Titze, Stephanie

    2012-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global health problem. The conditions leading to CKD, the health impact of CKD and the prognosis differ markedly between affected individuals. In particular, renal failure and cardiovascular mortality are competing risks for CKD patients. Opportunities for targeted intervention are very limited so far and require an improved understanding of the natural course of CKD, of the risk factors associated with various clinical end points and co-morbidities as well as of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. The German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study is a prospective observational national cohort study. It aims to enrol a total of 5000 patients with CKD of various aetiologies, who are under nephrological care, and to follow them for up to 10 years. At the time of enrolment, male and female patients have an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-60 mL/min×1.73 m2 or overt proteinuria in the presence of an eGFR>60 mL/min×1.73 m2. Standardized collection of biomaterials, including DNA, serum, plasma and urine will allow identification and validation of biomarkers associated with CKD, CKD progression and related complications using hypothesis-driven and hypothesis-free approaches. Patient recruitment and follow-up is organized through a network of academic nephrology centres collaborating with practising nephrologists throughout the country. The GCKD study will establish one of the largest cohorts to date of CKD patients not requiring renal replacement therapy. Similarities in its design with other observational CKD studies, including cohorts that have already been established in the USA and Japan, will allow comparative and joint analyses to identify important ethnic and geographic differences and to enhance opportunities for identification of relevant risk factors and markers.

  19. Class 1 devices case studies in medical devices design

    CERN Document Server

    Ogrodnik, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The Case Studies in Medical Devices Design series consists of practical, applied case studies relating to medical device design in industry. These titles complement Ogrodnik's Medical Device Design and will assist engineers with applying the theory in practice. The case studies presented directly relate to Class I, Class IIa, Class IIb and Class III medical devices. Designers and companies who wish to extend their knowledge in a specific discipline related to their respective class of operation will find any or all of these titles a great addition to their library. Class 1 Devices is a companion text to Medical Devices Design: Innovation from Concept to Market. The intention of this book, and its sister books in the series, is to support the concepts presented in Medical Devices Design through case studies. In the context of this book the case studies consider Class I (EU) and 510(k) exempt (FDA) . This book covers classifications, the conceptual and embodiment phase, plus design from idea to PDS. These title...

  20. Block 2 SRM conceptual design studies. Volume 1, Book 1: Conceptual design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Williams, Neal; Miller, John; Ralston, Joe; Richardson, Jennifer; Moore, Walt; Doll, Dan; Maughan, Jeff; Hayes, Fred

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual design studies of a Block 2 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) require the elimination of asbestos-filled insulation and was open to alternate designs, such as case changes, different propellants, modified burn rate - to improve reliability and performance. Limitations were placed on SRM changes such that the outside geometry should not impact the physical interfaces with other Space Shuttle elements and should have minimum changes to the aerodynamic and dynamic characteristics of the Space Shuttle vehicle. Previous Space Shuttle SRM experience was assessed and new design concepts combined to define a valid approach to assured flight success and economic operation of the STS. Trade studies, preliminary designs, analyses, plans, and cost estimates are documented.

  1. Study for optimizing the design of optical temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panpan; Sun, Zhen; Shi, Ruixin; Liu, Guofeng; Fu, Zuoling; Wei, Yanling

    2017-12-01

    The correlations between temperature sensitivity (relative sensitivity Sr and absolute sensitivity Sa) and thermally coupled level gaps (ΔE) are vital but less-studied for potential applications in scientific research, industrial production, clinical medicine, and so on. We take YbPO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+) up-conversion phosphors as a case to study the relationships between temperature sensitivity (Sr, Sa) and ΔE. The results of various discussions, including the experimental data of temperature sensitivity based on YbPO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+) and theoretical derivation from original formulas, show that Sr and ΔE are linearly positive correlation, which is invalid for Sa. Noticeably, YbPO4:Tm3+ nanoparticles display intense near infrared red emission within the biological window, leading to great potential application in biological sensing and biological imaging. All the research studies would benefit the design of optical temperature sensing.

  2. ELMO Bumpy Torus Reactor and power plant: conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Dudziak, D.J.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A complete power plant design of a 1200-MWe ELMO Bumpy Torus Reactor (EBTR) is presented. An emphasis is placed on those features that are unique to the EBT confinement concept, with subsystems and balance-of-plant items that are more generic to magnetic fusion being adapted from past, more extensive tokamak reactor designs. Similar to the latter tokamak studies, this conceptual EBTR design also emphasizes the use of conventional or near state-of-the-art engineering technology and materials. An emphasis is also placed on system accessibility, reliability, and maintainability, as these crucial and desirable characteristics relate to the unique high-aspect-ratio configuration of EBTs. Equal and strong emphasis is given to physics, engineering/technology, and costing/economics components of this design effort. Parametric optimizations and sensitivity studies, using cost-of-electricity as an object function, are reported. Based on these results, the direction for future improvement on an already attractive reactor design is identified

  3. Fluid design studies of integrated modular engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfield, Bruce; Carek, Jerry

    1993-01-01

    A study was performed to develop a fluid system design and show the feasibility of constructing an integrated modular engine (IME) configuration, using an expander cycle engine. The primary design goal of the IME configuration was to improve the propulsion system reliability. The IME fluid system was designed as a single fault tolerant system, while minimizing the required fluid components. This study addresses the design of the high pressure manifolds, turbopumps and thrust chambers for the IME configuration. A physical layout drawing was made, which located each of the fluid system components, manifolds and thrust chambers. Finally, a comparison was made between the fluid system designs of an IME system and a non-network (clustered) engine system.

  4. Initial trade and design studies for the fusion engineering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), initiated a program of trade and design studies in October 1980 to support the selection of the FED concept. This document presents the results of these initial trade and design studies. Based on these results, a baseline configuration has been identified and the Design Center effort for the remainder of the fiscal year will be devoted to the development of a self-consistent FED design description

  5. Design and analysis study of a spacecraft optical transceiver package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed system level design of an Optical Transceiver Package (OPTRANSPAC) for a deep space vehicle whose mission is outer planet exploration is developed. In addition to the terminal design, this study provides estimates of the dynamic environments to be encountered by the transceiver throughout its mission life. Optical communication link analysis, optical thin lens design, electronic functional design and mechanical layout and packaging are employed in the terminal design. Results of the study describe an Optical Transceiver Package capable of communicating to an Earth Orbiting Relay Station at a distance of 10 Astronomical Units (AU) and data rates up to 100 KBPS. The transceiver is also capable of receiving 1 KBPS of command data from the Earth Relay. The physical dimensions of the terminal are contained within a 3.5' x 1.5' x 2.0' envelope and the transceiver weight and power are estimated at 52.2 Kg (115 pounds) and 57 watts, respectively.

  6. Initial trade and design studies for the fusion engineering device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), initiated a program of trade and design studies in October 1980 to support the selection of the FED concept. This document presents the results of these initial trade and design studies. Based on these results, a baseline configuration has been identified and the Design Center effort for the remainder of the fiscal year will be devoted to the development of a self-consistent FED design description.

  7. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions by desig......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...... by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  8. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 12: Plant design, CAES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Detailed designs were developed for the major components and systems of the CAES plant. These designs were based upon the preliminary economic and technical evaluations and alternative designs developed in Task 3C. The detailed project design drawings for the major plant systems and structures are presented. The site development report, updated cost estimate, cost/schedule risk study, reliability/availability, analysis, and recommendations for additional research and development are included.

  9. The Effects of Social Media on the Design of Fashion Design Students: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Derya; Kılınç, Nurgül

    2016-01-01

    Developments in information andinternet technologies have made people use social media more effectively whilecommunicating with each other. Social media areal sowidely used in Professionalmatters social media, being a source of inspiration for some designers, alsoprovide them with significant opportunitiest opresent their creation sandbecome visible. This study was conducted with the aim to reveal whether or notcircumstances of usage of social media by student saffect their designs. Thesample...

  10. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  11. New Office Technology: A Study on Curriculum Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Martin

    1989-01-01

    A study collected information about office automation trends, office personnel job profiles, and existing curricula. A curriculum conference was held to design and validate a modular curriculum for office automation. (SK)

  12. Scenario for concurrent conceptual assembly line design: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, F.; Ríos, J.; Menéndez, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    The decision to design and build a new aircraft is preceded by years of research and study. Different disciplines work together throughout the lifecycle to ensure not only a complete functional definition of the product, but also a complete industrialization, a marketing plan, a maintenance plan, etc. This case study focuses on the conceptual design phase. During this phase, the design solutions that will meet the functional and industrial requirements are defined, i.e.: the basic requirements of industrialization. During this phase, several alternatives are studied, and the most attractive in terms of performance and cost requirements is selected. As a result of the study of these alternatives, it is possible to define an early conceptual design of the assembly line and its basic parameters. The plant needs, long cycle jigs & tools or industrial means and human resources with the necessary skills can be determined in advance.

  13. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier

    2013-01-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  14. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS: objectives, design, methodology and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS. The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS.Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Amman (Jordan, Mosel (Iraq, Muscat (Oman, Tunisia (Tunisia and Kenitra (Morocco. Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits.Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will

  15. Core Design Studies for a 1000 MWth Advanced Burner Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.K.; Yang, W.S.; Grandy, C.; Hill, R.N. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the core design and performance characteristics of 1000 MWth Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) core concepts with a wide range of TRU conversion ratio. Using ternary metal alloy and mixed oxide fuels, reference core designs of a medium TRU conversion ratio of approx0.7 were developed by trade-off between burnup reactivity loss and TRU conversion ratio. Based on these reference core concepts, TRU burner cores with a wide range of TRU conversion ratio were developed by changing the intra-assembly design parameters and core configurations. Reactor performance characteristics were evaluated in detail, including equilibrium cycle core performances, reactivity feedback coefficients, and shutdown margins. The results showed that by employing different assembly designs, a wide range of TRU conversion ratios from approx0.2 to break-even can be achieved within the same core without introducing significant performance and safety penalties. (authors)

  16. Creativity in Advertising Design Education: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever thought about why qualities whose definitions are elusive, such as those of a sunset or a half-opened rose, affect us so powerfully? According to de Saussure (Course in general linguistics, 1983), the making of meanings is closely related to the production and interpretation of signs. All types of design, including advertising…

  17. How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongling; Zeng, Lin; Fetters, Micheal D; Li, Nan; Tao, Liyuan; Shi, Yanyan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fengwei; Zhao, Yiming

    2017-09-18

    Despite varying degrees in research training, most academic clinicians are expected to conduct clinical research. The objective of this research was to understand how clinical researchers of different skill levels include variables in a case report form for their clinical research. The setting for this research was a major academic institution in Beijing, China. The target population was clinical researchers with three levels of experience, namely, limited clinical research experience, clinicians with rich clinical research experience and clinical research experts. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 13 individual interviews (face to face) and one group interview (n=4) with clinical researchers from June to September 2016. Based on maximum variation sampling to identify researchers with three levels of research experience: eight clinicians with limited clinical research experience, five clinicians with rich clinical research experience and four clinical research experts. These 17 researchers had diverse hospital-based medical specialties and or specialisation in clinical research. Our analysis yields a typology of three processes developing a case report form that varies according to research experience level. Novice clinician researchers often have an incomplete protocol or none at all, and conduct data collection and publication based on a general framework. Experienced clinician researchers include variables in the case report form based on previous experience with attention to including domains or items at risk for omission and by eliminating unnecessary variables. Expert researchers consider comprehensively in advance data collection and implementation needs and plan accordingly. These results illustrate increasing levels of sophistication in research planning that increase sophistication in selection for variables in the case report form. These findings suggest that novice and intermediate-level researchers could benefit by emulating the comprehensive

  18. Aerocapture Design Study for a Titan Polar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Kirchman, F.; Esper, J.; Folta, D.; Mashiku, A.

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 a team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) studied the feasibility of using active aerocapture to reduce the chemical ΔV requirements for inserting a small scientific satellite into Titan polar orbit. The scientific goals of the mission would be multi-spectral imaging and active radar mapping of Titan's surface and subsurface. The study objectives were to: (i) identify and select from launch window opportunities and refine the trajectory to Titan; (ii) study the aerocapture flight path and refine the entry corridor; (iii) design a carrier spacecraft and systems architecture; (iv) develop a scientific and engineering plan for the orbital portion of the mission. Study results include: (i) a launch in October 2021 on an Atlas V vehicle, using gravity assists from Earth and Venus to arrive at Titan in January 2031; (ii) initial aerocapture via an 8-km wide entry corridor to reach an initial 350-6000 km orbit, followed by aerobraking to reach a 350-1500 km orbit, and a periapse raise maneuver to reach a final 1500 km circular orbit; (iii) a three-part spacecraft system consisting of a cruise stage, radiator module, and orbiter inside a heat shield; (iv) a 22-month mission including station keeping to prevent orbital decay due to Saturn perturbations, with 240 Gb of compressed data returned. High-level issues identified include: (i) downlink capability - realistic downlink rates preclude the desired multi- spectral, global coverage of Titan's surface; (ii) power - demise of the NASA ASRG (Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator) program, and limited availability at present of MMRTGs (Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generators) needed for competed outer planet missions; (iii) thermal - external radiators must be carried to remove 4 kW of waste heat from MMRTGs inside the aeroshell, requiring heat pipes that pass through the aeroshell lid, compromising shielding ability; (iv) optical navigation to reach the entry corridor; (v) the NASA requirement of continuous

  19. Theoretical Study of the Feasibility of Laser Cooling the24Mg35Cl Molecule Including Hyperfine Structure and Branching Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quan-Shun; Li, Shi-Chang; Yu, You; Gao, Tao

    2018-03-13

    The possibility of laser cooling the 24 Mg 35 Cl molecule is investigated using the electronic, rovibrational, and hyperfine structure. Twelve low-lying Λ-S electronic states of the 24 Mg 35 Cl molecule have been calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level of theory. The spin-orbit coupling effects are taken into account in the electronic structure calculations. Spectroscopic constants agree well with previously obtained theoretical and experimental values. On the basis of the potential energy curves and transition dipole moments, the highly diagonally distributed Franck-Condon factors for the A 2 Π → X 2 Σ + transition and short radiative lifetime of the A 2 Π state are determined. Then, employing a quantum effective Hamiltonian approach, we investigate the hyperfine manifolds of the X 2 Σ + state and obtain the zero-field hyperfine spectrum with the errors relative to the experimental data not exceeding 8-20 kHz. Finally, we design a laser cooling scheme with one cooling main laser beam and two repumping laser beams with modulated sidebands, which is sufficient for the implementation of efficient laser slowing and cooling of the 24 Mg 35 Cl molecule. Moreover, it is important to note that the dissociation energy (2.2593 eV) of the B 2 Σ + state is obtained for the first time at the multireference configuration interaction level. We hope that this can provide a helpful reference for experimental observation.

  20. A systematic study on Endotribelos Grodhaus (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Brazil including DNA barcoding to link males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Pepinelli, Mateus

    2015-03-18

    Six new species of Endotribelos from Brazil are described and illustrated as male, female, pupa and larva: E. bicolor sp. n., E. fulvidus sp. n., E. jaragua sp. n., E. jiboia sp. n., E. semibruneus sp. n. and E. sublettei sp. n. The female of E. calophylli Roque & Trivinho-Strixino and the larvae of four unknown morphotypes are also described. Keys including males and larvae of all known species of Endotribelos are provided. Adults' males and females from five species were linked using DNA Barcoding mtCOI sequences.

  1. Design vs. Content: A Study of Adolescent Girls' Website Design Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E.

    2004-01-01

    This study considered the utility of gender schema theory in examining girls' website design preferences. It built on a previous study which identified eight website evaluation criteria related to biological sex: collaboration, social connectivity, flexibility, motility, contextuality, personal identification, inclusion, and graphic/multimedia…

  2. A study on the development of an infographic designer questionnaire and designer opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments and changes in how learning is understood have not only changed learning environments, but also how educational materials are developed. Infographics, one of the materials that are becoming increasingly more popular in learning environments, have nowadays become quite commonplace. Demonstrating the understanding of those who design such instructional materials is important with respect to the organisation of learning processes. In this study, we devised a questionnaire that aims to demonstrate the understanding infographic designers have of infographic design. A total of 94 students from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education of the Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education took part in this study conducted during the fall semester of the 2013–2014 academic year. The participants were given a questionnaire consisting of 41 items that enquired about the readers’ views regarding infographic design. The collected data were assessed using Principal Component Analysis. Based on the analysis results, a questionnaire form consisting of 27 items and 8 factors (Understanding of Design, Design Process, Copyrights, Introduction, Readability, Sharing, References, Development was developed.

  3. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills? Results from a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim; Bohnstedt, Cathrine; Sønderskov, Claus; Østergaard, Doris; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2018-01-18

    Assessment of laypersons' Paediatric Basic Life Support (PBLS) skills is important to ensure acquisition of effective PBLS competencies. However limited evidence exists on which PBLS skills are essential for laypersons. The same challenges exist with respect to the assessment of foreign body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts suggested items to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. In the second round, the suggested items received comments from and were rated by 26 experts (93%) on a 5-point scale (1 = not relevant to 5 = essential). Revised items were anonymously presented in a third round for comments and 23 (82%) experts completed a re-rating. Items with a score above 3 by more than 80% of the experts in the third round were included in an assessment instrument. In the first round, 19 and 15 items were identified to assess PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The ratings and comments from the last two rounds resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify different stages of foreign body airway obstruction", "Identify consciousness", "Call for help", "Back blows", "Chest thrusts/abdominal thrusts according to age", "Identify loss of consciousness and change to CPR", "Assessment of breathing" and "Ventilation". For assessment of laypersons some PBLS and FBAOM skills described in guidelines are more important than others. Four out of nine of PBLS skills focus on airway and breathing skills, supporting the major importance of these skills for

  4. Designing a Gamified Online Course: A Preliminary Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Jeremiah Stanley

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory case study delves into the instructional design of a gamified online course. The study focuses on how the professor incorporated game elements into a graduate-level online course. Participants in the gamified course were pre- and in-service mathematics teachers. The qualitative case study used two sources of data, an interview…

  5. Conceptual design study on inertial confinement reactor ''SENRI-II''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ouura, H.

    1983-01-01

    Design features of a laser fusion reactor concept SENRI-II are reviewed and discussed. A conceptual design study of the ICF reactor SENRI-II (an advanced design of SENRI-I) has been carried out over 2 years in the Research Committee of ICF Reactors, Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. While the ICF reactor SENRI-I utilized a magnetic field to guide and control an inner liquid lithium flow, SENRI-II is designed to use porous metal as the liquid lithium flow guide. In the design of SENRI-II, a metal porous lithium blanket serves as the protection of a wall against fusion products and as wall per se. Because of the separation of these two functions, a high power density can be attained

  6. Magnetic field effects on humans: epidemiological study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, T.F.; Wong, P.; Yen, C.K.

    1978-10-01

    This report presents details of the study design and methods for a retrospective epidemiological study on the health effects, if any, of stationary and alternating magnetic fields produced by man-made devices such as cyclotrons, controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR), high voltage-high current transmission lines, magnetohydrodynamic devices (MHD), energy storage systems, and isotope separation facilities. The magnetic fields to which the workers can be exposed are as high as 10,000 gauss and the anticipated increase in magnetic fields associated with the environment and transmission lines near these devices is a few times the natural earth magnetic field. Thus the objectives include acquisition of low exposure data which can be used to evaluate any risks to the population incidentally exposed to environmental increases in magnetic fields, as well as an acquisition of high exposure data to be used in determining allowable exposure standards for the technical personnel working at CTR and MHD facilities. From the present status of knowledge on biological effects of magnetic fields, it is not possible to extrapolate or rationally conclude maximum permissible exposure levels for magnetic device workers and the population at large. There are no known previous studies of the effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields involving large samples and matched controls. Thus this human epidemiological study was commenced in 1977 in parallel with experimental studies on biological and medical effects of magnetic fields being conducted by Dr. T. Tenforde and co-workers at LBL, by investigators at Battelle Northwest, and smaller projects at a number of laboratories around the world. The data base for the exposed population is comprised of approximately 1,000 cyclotron and bubble chamber workers.

  7. Including Remote Participants and Artifacts: Visual, Audio, and Tactile Modalities in an Ethnographic Study of Globally Distributed Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Pederson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study how globally distributed Danish and Indian engineers co-construct and reconfigure a shared socio-technical collaborative place for global collaborative interaction: War Room meetings. We investigate the empirical case of War Room meetings based on three modalities in which ...

  8. Microdeletions including FMR1 in three female patients with intellectual disability - further delineation of the phenotype and expression studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, A M; Wohlleber, E; Engels, H

    2014-01-01

    in all patients, yet they presented with ID/DD as well as speech delay, macrocephaly and other features attributable to FXS. No signs of autism were present. Here, we further delineate the clinical spectrum of female patients with microdeletions. FMR1 expression studies gave no evidence for an absolute...

  9. Students’ Learning Experiences from Didactic Teaching Sessions Including Patient Case Examples as Either Text or Video: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Holdgaard, Martin Møller; Paltved, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore medical students' learning experiences from the didactic teaching formats using either text-based patient cases or video-based patient cases with similar content. The authors explored how the two different patient case formats influenced students' ...... unintended stigma and influence an authoritative approach in medical students towards managing patients in clinical psychiatry....

  10. Nine Loci for Ocular Axial Length Identified through Genome-wide Association Studies, Including Shared Loci with Refractive Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M. Kamran; Young, Terri L.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Vitart, Veronique; Macgregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; St Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mishra, Aniket; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Polasek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Amin, Najaf; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Wilson, James F.; Pennell, Craig E.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Tay, Wan-Ting; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chew, Merwyn; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Craig, Jamie E.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Chew, Emily Y.; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Wedenoja, Juho; Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Höhn, René; Mirshahi, Alireza; Zeller, Tanja; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl J.; Bettecken, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Pirastu, Mario; Portas, Laura; Nag, Abhishek; Williams, Katie M.; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Paterson, Andrew D.; Makela, Kari-Matti; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chen, Li Jia; Pang, Chi Pui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K. H.; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Foster, Paul J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Vithana, Eranga; Tai, E.-Shyong; Fan, Qiao; Xu, Liang; Campbell, Harry; Fleck, Brian; Rudan, Igor; Aung, Tin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Bencic, Goran; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Forward, Hannah; Pärssinen, Olavi; Mitchell, Paul; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hewitt, Alex W.; Williams, Cathy; Oostra, Ben A.; teo, Yik-Ying; Hammond, Christopher J.; Stambolian, Dwight; Mackey, David A.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Yamashiro, Kenji; Miyake, Masahiro; Delcourt, Cécile; Maubaret, Cecilia; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan M.; Davey-Smith, George; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Bailey Wilson, Joan E.; Lu, Yi; Jonas, Jost B.; Nangia, Vinay; Hayward, Caroline; Vatavuk, Zoran; Mohsen Hosseini, S.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Feng, Sheng; Klaver, Caroline C.; Wegner, Aharon; Ho, Daniel W. H.; Murgia, Federico; Biino, Genevra; Ang, Wei; Kamran Ikram, M.; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; D Paterson, Andrew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Kähönen, Mika; Reinhart, William; Belin, Michael W.; Schultze, Robert L.; Morason, Todd; Sugar, Alan; Mian, Shahzad; Soong, Hunson Kaz; Colby, Kathryn; Jurkunas, Ula; Yee, Richard; Vital, Mark; Alfonso, Eduardo; Karp, Carol; Lee, Yunhee; Yoo, Sonia; Hammersmith, Kristin; Cohen, Elisabeth; Laibson, Peter; Rapuano, Christopher; Ayres, Brandon; Croasdale, Christopher; Caudill, James; Patel, Sanjay; Baratz, Keith; Bourne, William; Maguire, Leo; Sugar, Joel; Tu, Elmer; Djalilian, Ali; Mootha, Vinod; McCulley, James; Bowman, Wayne; Cavanaugh, H. Dwight; Verity, Steven; Verdier, David; Renucci, Ann; Oliva, Matt; Rotkis, Walter; Hardten, David R.; Fahmy, Ahmad; Brown, Marlene; Reeves, Sherman; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Lindstrom, Richard; Hauswirth, Scott; Hamilton, Stephen; Lee, W. Barry; Price, Francis; Price, Marianne; Kelly, Kathleen; Peters, Faye; Shaughnessy, Michael; Steinemann, Thomas; Dupps, B. J.; Meisler, David M.; Mifflin, Mark; Olson, Randal; Aldave, Anthony; Holland, Gary; Mondino, Bartly J.; Rosenwasser, George; Gorovoy, Mark; Dunn, Steven P.; Heidemann, David G.; Terry, Mark; Shamie, Neda; Rosenfeld, Steven I.; Suedekum, Brandon; Hwang, David; Stone, Donald; Chodosh, James; Galentine, Paul G.; Bardenstein, David; Goddard, Katrina; Chin, Hemin; Mannis, Mark; Varma, Rohit; Borecki, Ingrid; Donnelly, Peter; Barroso, Ines; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Hellenthal, Garrett; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Pirinen, Matti; Pearson, Richard; Strange, Amy; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Hunt, Sarah E.; Edkins, Sarah; Gwilliam, Rhian; Blackburn, Hannah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Dronov, Serge; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Hammond, Naomi; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; McCann, Owen T.; Liddle, Jennifer; Potter, Simon C.; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Widaa, Sara; Whittaker, Pamela; Genuth, S.; Nathan, D. M.; Zinman, B.; Crofford, O.; Crandall, J.; Reid, M.; Brown-Friday, J.; Engel, S.; Sheindlin, J.; Martinez, H.; Shamoon, H.; Engel, H.; Phillips, M.; Gubitosi-Klug, R.; Mayer, L.; Pendegast, S.; Zegarra, H.; Miller, D.; Singerman, L.; Smith-Brewer, S.; Novak, M.; Quin, J.; Dahms, W.; Genuth, Saul; Palmert, M.; Brillon, D.; Lackaye, M. E.; Kiss, S.; Chan, R.; Reppucci, V.; Lee, T.; Heinemann, M.; Whitehouse, F.; Kruger, D.; Jones, J. K.; McLellan, M.; Carey, J. D.; Angus, E.; Thomas, A.; Galprin, A.; Bergenstal, R.; Johnson, M.; Spencer, M.; Morgan, K.; Etzwiler, D.; Kendall, D.; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Golden, E.; Jacobson, A.; Beaser, R.; Ganda, O.; Hamdy, O.; Wolpert, H.; Sharuk, G.; Arrigg, P.; Schlossman, D.; Rosenzwieg, J.; Rand, L.; Larkin, M.; Ong, M.; Godine, J.; Cagliero, E.; Lou, P.; Folino, K.; Fritz, S.; Crowell, S.; Hansen, K.; Gauthier-Kelly, C.; Service, J.; Ziegler, G.; Luttrell, L.; Caulder, S.; Lopes-Virella, M.; Colwell, J.; Soule, J.; Fernandes, J.; Hermayer, K.; Kwon, S.; Brabham, M.; Blevins, A.; Parker, J.; Lee, D.; Patel, N.; Pittman, C.; Lindsey, P.; Bracey, M.; Lee, K.; Nutaitis, M.; Farr, A.; Elsing, S.; Thompson, T.; Selby, J.; Lyons, T.; Yacoub-Wasef, S.; Szpiech, M.; Wood, D.; Mayfield, R.; Molitch, M.; Schaefer, B.; Jampol, L.; Lyon, A.; Gill, M.; Strugula, Z.; Kaminski, L.; Mirza, R.; Simjanoski, E.; Ryan, D.; Kolterman, O.; Lorenzi, G.; Goldbaum, M.; Sivitz, W.; Bayless, M.; Counts, D.; Johnsonbaugh, S.; Hebdon, M.; Salemi, P.; Liss, R.; Donner, T.; Gordon, J.; Hemady, R.; Kowarski, A.; Ostrowski, D.; Steidl, S.; Jones, B.; Herman, W. H.; Martin, C. L.; Pop-Busui, R.; Sarma, A.; Albers, J.; Feldman, E.; Kim, K.; Elner, S.; Comer, G.; Gardner, T.; Hackel, R.; Prusak, R.; Goings, L.; Smith, A.; Gothrup, J.; Titus, P.; Lee, J.; Brandle, M.; Prosser, L.; Greene, D. A.; Stevens, M. J.; Vine, A. K.; Bantle, J.; Wimmergren, N.; Cochrane, A.; Olsen, T.; Steuer, E.; Rath, P.; Rogness, B.; Hainsworth, D.; Goldstein, D.; Hitt, S.; Giangiacomo, J.; Schade, D. S.; Canady, J. L.; Chapin, J. E.; Ketai C, L. H.; Braunstein, S.; Bourne, P. A.; Schwartz, S.; Brucker, A.; Maschak-Carey, B. J.; Baker, L.; Orchard, T.; Silvers, N.; Ryan, C.; Songer, T.; Doft, B.; Olson, S.; Bergren, R. L.; Lobes, L.; Paczan Rath, P.; Becker, D.; Rubinstein, D.; Conrad, P. W.; Yalamanchi, S.; Drash, A.; Morrison, A.; Bernal, M. L.; Vaccaro-Kish, J.; Malone, J.; Pavan, P. R.; Grove, N.; Iyer, M. N.; Burrows, A. F.; Tanaka, E. A.; Gstalder, R.; Dagogo-Jack, S.; Wigley, C.; Ricks, H.; Kitabchi, A.; Murphy, M. B.; Moser, S.; Meyer, D.; Iannacone, A.; Chaum, E.; Yoser, S.; Bryer-Ash, M.; Schussler, S.; Lambeth, H.; Raskin, P.; Strowig, S.; Barnie, A.; Devenyi, R.; Mandelcorn, M.; Brent, M.; Rogers, S.; Gordon, A.; Palmer, J.; Catton, S.; Brunzell, J.; Wessells, H.; de Boer, I. H.; Hokanson, J.; Purnell, J.; Ginsberg, J.; Kinyoun, J.; Deeb, S.; Weiss, M.; Meekins, G.; Distad, J.; van Ottingham, L.; Dupre, J.; Harth, J.; Nicolle, D.; Driscoll, M.; Mahon, J.; Canny, C.; May, M.; Lipps, J.; Agarwal, A.; Adkins, T.; Survant, L.; Pate, R. L.; Munn, G. E.; Lorenz, R.; Feman, S.; White, N.; Levandoski, L.; Boniuk, I.; Grand, G.; Thomas, M.; Joseph, D. D.; Blinder, K.; Shah, G.; Burgess, I.; Santiago, J.; Tamborlane, W.; Gatcomb, P.; Stoessel, K.; Taylor, K.; Goldstein, J.; Novella, S.; Mojibian, H.; Cornfeld, D.; Lima, J.; Bluemke, D.; Turkbey, E.; van der Geest, R. J.; Liu, C.; Malayeri, A.; Jain, A.; Miao, C.; Chahal, H.; Jarboe, R.; Maynard, J.; Gaston, P.; Trail, R.; Lachin, J.; Cleary, P.; Backlund, J.; Sun, W.; Braffett, B.; Klumpp, K.; Chan, K.; Diminick, L.; Rosenberg, D.; Petty, B.; Determan, A.; Kenny, D.; Rutledge, B.; Younes, Naji; Dews, L.; Hawkins, M.; Cowie, C.; Fradkin, J.; Siebert, C.; Eastman, R.; Danis, R.; Gangaputra, S.; Neill, S.; Davis, M.; Hubbard, L.; Wabers, H.; Burger, M.; Dingledine, J.; Gama, V.; Sussman, R.; Steffes, M.; Bucksa, J.; Nowicki, M.; Chavers, B.; O'Leary, D.; Polak, J.; Harrington, A.; Funk, L.; Crow, R.; Gloeb, B.; Thomas, S.; O'Donnell, C.; Soliman, E.; Zhang, Z. M.; Prineas, R.; Campbell, C.; Sandstrom, D.; Williams, T.; Geckle, M.; Cupelli, E.; Thoma, F.; Burzuk, B.; Woodfill, T.; Low, P.; Sommer, C.; Nickander, K.; Budoff, M.; Detrano, R.; Wong, N.; Fox, M.; Kim, L.; Oudiz, R.; Weir, G.; Espeland, M.; Manolio, T.; Singer, D.; Stern, M.; Boulton, A. E.; Clark, C.; D'Agostino, R.; Garvey, W. T.; Lyons, T. J.; Jenkins, A.; Virella, G.; Jaffa, A.; Carter, Rickey; Lackland, D.; McGee, D.; Zheng, D.; Mayfield, R. K.; Boright, A.; Bull, S.; Sun, L.; Scherer, S.; Natarajan, R.; Miao, F.; Zhang, L.; Chen, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We

  11. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  12. Detailed NMR, including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and anticancer studies of compounds from the echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony D; Nielson, Jonathan L; Tapiolas, Dianne M; Motti, Cherie A; Ovenden, Simon P B; Kearns, Philip S; Liptrot, Catherine H

    2009-11-12

    From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara), Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl)-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1)], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3), 2-[(phenylacetyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (4), and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5) were isolated. Comparison of (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1) with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent (13)C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  13. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Liptrot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara, Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3, 2-[(phenylacetylamino]ethanesulfonic acid (4, and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5 were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1 with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  14. A prospective observational study of machine translation software to overcome the challenge of including ethnic diversity in healthcare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Crichton, Nicola; Moult, Beki; Gibson, Faith

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates whether machine translation could help with the challenge of enabling the inclusion of ethnic diversity in healthcare research. A two phase, prospective observational study. Two machine translators, Google Translate and Babylon 9, were tested. Translation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) from 24 languages into English and translation of an English information sheet into Spanish and Chinese were quality scored. Quality was assessed using the Translation Assessment Quality Tool. Only six of the 48 translations of the SDQ were rated as acceptable, all from Google Translate. The mean number of acceptably translated sentences was higher ( P  = 0·001) for Google Translate 17·1 (sd 7·2) than for Babylon 9 11 (sd 7·9). Translation by Google Translate was better for Spanish and Chinese, although no score was in the acceptable range. Machine translation is not currently sufficiently accurate without editing to provide translation of materials for use in healthcare research.

  15. Muon System Design Studies for Detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    van der Kraaij, E

    2011-01-01

    The two concepts for CLIC detectors inherited their design of the muon systems from the ILC community. In this note the outcome of a reevaluation of the design for the CLIC environment is presented. Based on a full detector simulation, the muon identification performance is analysed for different detector layouts and different cellsizes. As a result, nine layers are suggested for the muon systems of the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detectors, which are arranged in three groups of three layers. The cellsizes have been kept at 30×30 mm2. These layouts are used for the performance studies of the CLIC Conceptual Design Report (CDR).

  16. Sensitivity study of the monogroove with screen heat pipe design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Austin L.; Joyce, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The present sensitivity study of design variable effects on the performance of a monogroove-with-screen heat pipe obtains performance curves for maximum heat-transfer rates vs. operating temperatures by means of a computer code; performance projections for both 1-g and zero-g conditions are obtainable. The variables in question were liquid and vapor channel design, wall groove design, and the number of feed lines in the evaporator and condenser. The effect on performance of three different working fluids, namely ammonia, methanol, and water, were also determined. Greatest sensitivity was to changes in liquid and vapor channel diameters.

  17. Predictors of driving outcomes including both crash involvement and driving cessation in a prospective study of Japanese older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, Ritsu; Okamura, Kazuko; Kihira, Makoto; Nakano, Yukako; Fujita, Goro

    2017-09-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate predictors of future traffic crash involvement, taking into account bias in the handling of data for former drivers. The second aim was to compare characteristics of former drivers and crash-involved drivers in order to gain an understanding of appropriate driving cessation among older drivers. In all, 154 drivers aged 70 years or older participated in the baseline interview and the follow-up survey conducted two years later. In the baseline interview, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire, take the Useful Field of View test ® (UFOV), and complete the Mini-Mental State Examination. In the follow-up survey, participants were asked by mail or telephone whether they had stopped driving. Participants reporting that they still drove were invited to participate in a subsequent interview. Based on the information obtained in the follow-up survey, participants were classified as follows: driving cessation group (n=26); crash-involved group (n=18); and crash-free group (n=110). A multinomial logistic regression was then used to analyse the data. Contrary to the results of previous studies, we found older age to be associated with crash involvement but not with driving cessation. The cessation group had more decreased cognitive processing speed than the crash-involved and crash-free groups. Crash history was also predictive of crash involvement. Participants who were subject to license renewal between baseline and follow-up had a greater tendency to continue driving. Results suggested that age and crash history could potentially identify high-risk older drivers. The predictive power of cognitive processing speed is reduced under certain conditions. License-renewal procedures may induce Japanese older adults to continue driving. Future studies should use a large national sample to confirm the results of the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Bone Detritus of Pleistocene Mammals, Including the Earliest in Northern Eurasia Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Silaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the preliminary results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of the primary and epigenetic properties of the bio-mineral and protein components in the fossil bone detritus as an example of first step of continued interdisciplinary research program. During the further implementation of this program, it is expected not only to solve a set of interrelated mineralogical, paleontological, paleoecological, paleoclimatic, and archaeological problems, but also to obtain new knowledge about the coevolution of organic, organo-mineral and inorganic substances in the geological history. The main objects of study are the fossil remains of the large Pleistocene mammals (mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, deer, elk, horses, bison, cave and brown bear found on the territory of the Pechora Urals (62-67 ° N , South Pri-Irtyshie in Western Siberia (57-58 ° N, and Northern Taymyr (75-77 ° N. The oldest bone of Homo sapiens (Ust-Ishim human found in Northern Eurasia and remains of medieval Tobol and Irtysh Turk will be investigated as well. The results of previous studies of skin and hair of biological material from today's wild fisheries (analogues Pleistocene mammals, wild and domestic animals are considered as the reliable prerequisites for planned isotopic and geochemical studies. Use of cutting-edge research techniques will allow determining the chemical composition of bones; the elemental composition of bone collagen and bone proteins; the degree of crystallinity of bone bioapatite, and phase composition of xenomineral impurities; the isotopic composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in bioapatite and collagen; the actual molecular and crystal structure of the protein biomineral, and bone substance; the concentration of trace elements; the conditions and duration of burial and reburial of bone detritus; bone collagen bacterial degradation at an early stage of fossilization. It is expected that the implementation of the proposed project

  19. A technical investigation of an oil painting on copper support, including a study on consolidants for treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Leonor Brito do Nascimento e

    2015-01-01

    Paper submitted to e-conservation Journal: Maria Leonor Oliveira, Leslie Carlyle, Sara Fragoso, Isabel Pombo Cardoso and João Coroado, “Investigations into paint delamination and consolidation of an oil painting on copper support”. This thesis is divided into two parts. Part 1 focuses on the technical study of an undated oil painting on copper. The painting, which depicts the Biblical scene ‘The Visitation’, arrived at the laboratory in poor condition, with severe active flaking which has ...

  20. A clinical study of motor imagery BCI performance in stroke by including calibration data from passive movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Chua, Karen Sui Geok; Phua, Kok Soon; Wang, Chuanchu; Chin, Zheng Yang; Zhou, Longjiang; Tang, Ka Yin; Joseph, Gopal Joseph Ephraim; Kuah, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) data from performing motor imagery are usually used to calibrate a subject-specific model in Motor Imagery Brain-Computer Interface (MI-BCI). However, the performance of MI is not directly observable by another person. Studies that attempted to address this issue in order to improve subjects with low MI performance had shown that it is feasible to use calibration data from Passive Movement (PM) to detect MI in healthy subjects. This study investigates the feasibility of using calibration data from PM of stroke patients to detect MI. EEG data from 2 calibration runs of MI and PM by a robotic haptic knob, and 1 evaluation run of MI were collected in one session of recording from 34 hemiparetic stroke patients recruited in the clinical study. In each run, 40 trials of MI or PM and 40 trials of the background rest were collected. The off-line run-to-run transfer kappa values from the calibration runs of MI, PM, and combined MI and PM, to the evaluation run of MI were then evaluated and compared. The results showed that calibration using PM (0.392) yielded significantly lower kappa value than the calibration using MI (0.457, p=4.40e-14). The results may be due to a significant disparity between the EEG data from PM and MI in stroke subjects. Nevertheless, the results showed that the calibration using both MI and PM (0.506) yielded significantly higher kappa value than the calibration using MI (0.457, p=9.54e-14). Hence, the results of this study suggest a promising direction to combine calibration data from PM and MI to improve MI detection on stroke.

  1. Power flow modeling of Back-to-Back STATCOM: Comprehensive simulation studies including PV curves and PQ circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Vural

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Power flow study in a power network embedded with FACTS device requires effort in program coding. Moreover, Newton-Raphson method should be modified by embedding injected power components into the algorithm. In this study, we have proposed a method for modeling of one of the newest FACTS concepts in power flow study without program coding or modification of existing Newton-Raphson algorithm. Real and reactive power injections for each voltage source converter of Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator (BtB-STATCOM are PI regulated to their desired steady-state values. With this respect, reactive power injection of each voltage source converter as well as real power transfer among them can be assigned as control constraint. Operating losses are also taken into account in the proposed modeling approach. Furthermore, proposed model can be easily modified for the modeling of conventional STATCOM having only one voltage source converter or two STATCOMs operating independently. The proposed modeling approach is verified in PSCAD through a number of simulation scenarios in BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM embedded power systems, namely 1-Machine 4-Bus system and 3-Machine 7-Bus system. PV curves of local buses compensated by BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM are presented and compared. Steady-state performance of BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM is also compared in power flow handling.

  2. Experimental studies of ion flow near the sheath edge in multiple ion species plasma including argon, xenon and neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severn, Greg; Yip, Chi-Shung; Hershkowitz, Noah; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-05-01

    The Bohm sheath criterion was studied with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in three ion species plasmas using two tunable diode lasers. It was found in the first LIF studies of three ion species plasma (Yip et al 2016 Phys. Plasmas 23 050703) in which krypton was added to a mixture of argon and xenon plasma confined in a multidipole, dc hot filament discharge, that the addition of krypton served to turn off instability enhanced collisional friction (IEF) found in two ion species plasma (Yip et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas). In this study, neon, a less massive atomic gas than argon was added. Argon and xenon ion velocity distribution functions (IVDFs) were measured at the sheath-presheath boundary near a negatively biased boundary plate, and the Ne+ density was systematically increased. We found in both cases that once the added ion density significantly exceeded the density of the other two ions, IVDF measurements consistent with the absence of the instability were obtained, and the measured ion sheath edge speeds tended toward their individual Bohm velocities. For all other relative concentrations, the ions reached the sheath edge neither at their Bohm speeds nor the ion sound speed of the system, consistent, qualitatively, with the action of the IEF.

  3. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  4. Design element analysis on juice market Case study: Prigat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available : If at the beginning package was considered simply a package that contained a product, now due to the development and modernization of the trade, it is a very valuable component of the marketing policy, being a carrier of messages to the consumer. Classic design elements that are included in any packaging refer to shape, color and graphics. The Romanian Juices Market was marked by originality and innovation in terms of packaging design elements. Thus, from 1998 until now the following have appeared: the first wide mouth square bottle, the first sport opening head PET bottle for Prigat Active, the first opening gable top box produced in our country.

  5. Simulation Environment for Orion Launch Abort System Control Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, J. Dana; Jackson, E. Bruce; Christhilf, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The development and use of an interactive environment to perform control system design and analysis of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System is described. The environment, built using a commercial dynamic systems design package, includes use of an open-source configuration control software tool and a collaborative wiki to coordinate between the simulation developers, control law developers and users. A method for switching between multiple candidate control laws and vehicle configurations is described. Aerodynamic models, especially in a development program, change rapidly, so a means for automating the implementation of new aerodynamic models is described.

  6. Communicating Emotion through Haptic Design: A Study Using Physical Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Marie Kjær; Larsen, Anne Cathrine; Maier, Anja

    2014-01-01

    and prototypes of four ‘haptically enhanced’ (physical) keys were created. Types of keys selected include home, bicycle, hobby, and basement. An experiment with ten participants was conducted, using word association and a software to elicit product emotions (PrEmo). Results show a mapping between the designer......’s intent and the user’s inference. We conclude that it is thus viable to communicate emotions using haptic design. Moreover, we found that when using their sense of touch, participants’ previous positive or negative memories and experiences were projected onto the objects....

  7. Acting like a physicist: Student approach study to experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karelina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available National studies of science education have unanimously concluded that preparing our students for the demands of the 21st century workplace is one of the major goals. This paper describes a study of student activities in introductory college physics labs, which were designed to help students acquire abilities that are valuable in the workplace. In these labs [called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE labs], students design their own experiments. Our previous studies have shown that students in these labs acquire scientific abilities such as the ability to design an experiment to solve a problem, the ability to collect and analyze data, the ability to evaluate assumptions and uncertainties, and the ability to communicate. These studies mostly concentrated on analyzing students’ writing, evaluated by specially designed scientific ability rubrics. Recently, we started to study whether the ISLE labs make students not only write like scientists but also engage in discussions and act like scientists while doing the labs. For example, do students plan an experiment, validate assumptions, evaluate results, and revise the experiment if necessary? A brief report of some of our findings that came from monitoring students’ activity during ISLE and nondesign labs was presented in the Physics Education Research Conference Proceedings. We found differences in student behavior and discussions that indicated that ISLE labs do in fact encourage a scientistlike approach to experimental design and promote high-quality discussions. This paper presents a full description of the study.

  8. Conceptual design study for the demonstration reactor of JSFR. (3) Safety design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Akihiro; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Kubo, Shigenobu; Fujimura, Ken; Yamano, Hidemasa

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the result of conceptual safety design and evaluation for the demonstration plant of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR), which was preliminarily conducted for providing information necessary to decide the plant specification for further design study. The plant major specifications except for output power and safety design concept are almost the same as those of the commercial JSFR. A set of safety evaluation for typical design basis events (DBEs) is mainly focused here, which was conducted for the 750 MWe design. Safety analyses for DBEs evaluation were performed on the basis of conservative assumptions using a one-dimensional flow network code with point kinetics. For representative DBEs, transient over power type events and loss of flow type events were analyzed. The long-term loss-of-offsite power event was also calculated to evaluate the natural circulation decay heat removal system. All analytical results showed to meet tentative safety criteria, thus it was confirmed that the safety design concept of JSFR is feasible against DBEs. (author)

  9. Studying time to pregnancy by use of a retrospective design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Michael; Key, Jane; Best, Nicky

    2005-01-01

    Biologic fertility can be measured using time to pregnancy (TTP). Retrospective designs, although lacking detailed timed information about behavior and exposure, are useful since they have a well-defined target population, often have good response rates, and are simpler and less expensive...... at the beginning of unprotected intercourse. More complete inference is possible if the study design covers the whole population, not just those who achieve a pregnancy....

  10. Traditional Approach towards Contemporary Design: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sushama S. Dhepe; Dr. Sheeba Valsson

    2017-01-01

    Traditional architecture acts as a valuable source of inspiration for contemporary designs. The paper aims to analyse the link established between contemporary architecture that with the traditional architecture; as architecture and time are considered as two variables. The study investigates how traditional architecture has been integrated and manifested in contemporary architecture. The paper examines a contemporary house based on traditional design and a view into the past era. The attempt...

  11. Neutron Scattering Studies of Liquid on or Confined in Nano- and Mesoporous Carbons, Including Carbide-Derived Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, David J [ORNL

    2014-07-01

    This project involved the synthesis of microporous graphitic-carbon powders with subnanometer average pore size, and very narrow pore size distributions, and the use of these materials in experimental studies of pore-fluid structure and dynamics. Samples of carbide-derived carbon powder, synthesized by extraction of the metal cations from TiC by a high temperature chlorination process, followed by high temperature vacuum annealing, were prepared by Ranjan Dash and his associates at CRADA partner Y-Carbon, Inc. The resulting material had average pore sizes ranging from 5 to 8 . These powders were used in two experiments conducted by researchers involved in the Energy Frontier Research Center Directed by David J. Wesolowski at ORNL, the Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport (FIRST) Center. FIRST-funded researchers at Drexel University collaborated with scientists at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, to measure the expansion and contraction of the microporous carbon particles during charging and discharging of supercapactor electrodes composed of these particles (Hantell et al., 2011, Electrochemistry Communications, v. 13, pp. 1221-1224.) in an electrolyte composed of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate dissolved in acetonitrile. In the second experiment, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Drexel University conducted quasielastic neutron scattering studies of the diffusional dynamics of water imbibed into the micropores of the same material (Chathoth et al., 2011, EuroPhysics Journal, v. 95, pp. 56001/1-6). These studies helped to establish the role of pores approaching the size of the solvent and dissolved ions in altering diffusional dynamics, ion transport and physical response of conducting substrates to ion desolvation and entry into subnamometer pores.

  12. A comprehensive study including monitoring, assessment of health effects and development of a remediation method for chromium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Al Hossain, M M Aeorangajeb; Sudo, Makoto; Akhand, Anwarul Azim; Ahsan, Nazmul; Alim, Md Abdul; Khalequzzaman, Md; Iida, Machiko; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi

    2018-06-01

    Chromium (Cr) pollution caused by wastewater from tanneries is a worldwide environmental problem. To develop a countermeasure, we performed a comprehensive study using Hazaribagh, the tannery area in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, as a model. Our environmental monitoring indicated that the soluble form of Cr, but not barium or arsenic, in Buriganga River is derived from Hazaribagh. Our chemical analysis next showed that Cr, the primary pollutant in canal water at Hazaribagh, consisted of ≤0.7 μM hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)] and ≤1705 μM trivalent Cr [Cr(III)]. Our biological study then showed that coexposure to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) at possible ratios in canal water at Hazaribagh synergistically promotes transforming activity of human non-tumorigenic HaCaT keratinocytes with activated MEK/ERK and AKT. Our environmental engineering study finally indicated that a magnesium and iron-based hydrotalcite-like compound (MF-HT), our original depurative, can maximally adsorb 9.0 mg/g Cr(VI) and 1041 mg/g Cr(III). Our results suggested the importance of removal of Cr(III) as well as Cr(VI) by showing that Cr(III), which is generally recognized as a chemical with low toxicity, synergistically promoted carcinogenicity of a low level of Cr(VI). Therefore, we propose the use of our original high-efficient and low-cost depurative as a countermeasure to address the worldwide problem of environmental Cr pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 5 MW pulsed spallation neutron source, Preconceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report describes a self-consistent base line design for a 5 MW Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (PSNS). It is intended to establish feasibility of design and as a basis for further expanded and detailed studies. It may also serve as a basis for establishing project cost (30% accuracy) in order to intercompare competing designs for a PSNS not only on the basis of technical feasibility and technical merit but also on the basis of projected total cost. The accelerator design considered here is based on the objective of a pulsed neutron source obtained by means of a pulsed proton beam with average beam power of 5 MW, in {approx} 1 {mu}sec pulses, operating at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. Two target stations are incorporated in the basic facility: one for operation at 10 Hz for long-wavelength instruments, and one operating at 50 Hz for instruments utilizing thermal neutrons. The design approach for the proton accelerator is to use a low energy linear accelerator (at 0.6 GeV), operating at 60 Hz, in tandem with two fast cycling booster synchrotrons (at 3.6 GeV), operating at 30 Hz. It is assumed here that considerations of cost and overall system reliability may favor the present design approach over the alternative approach pursued elsewhere, whereby use is made of a high energy linear accelerator in conjunction with a dc accumulation ring. With the knowledge that this alternative design is under active development, it was deliberately decided to favor here the low energy linac-fast cycling booster approach. Clearly, the present design, as developed here, must be carried to the full conceptual design stage in order to facilitate a meaningful technology and cost comparison with alternative designs.

  14. Social exclusion predicts impaired self-regulation: a 2-year longitudinal panel study including the transition from preschool to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenseng, Frode; Belsky, Jay; Skalicka, Vera; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The need-to-belong theory stipulates that social exclusion (i.e., being rejected by peers) impairs the ability to self-regulate, and experimental studies with adults support this contention, at least on a short-term basis. Few studies have investigated whether social exclusion affects the development of self-regulation of children in a more enduring manner. By using data from a community sample of 762 children, we investigated reciprocal relations between social exclusion and self-regulation from age 4 to age 6. Social exclusion was reported by teachers, whereas self-regulation was reported by parents. Autoregressive latent cross-lagged analyses showed that social exclusion predicted impaired development of dispositional self-regulation and, reciprocally, that poor self-regulation predicted enhanced social exclusion. In other words, social exclusion undermines children's development of self-regulation, whereas poor self-regulation increases the likelihood of exclusion. Results illuminate the applied relevance of the need-to-belong theory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Vulnerability assessment including tangible and intangible components in the index composition: An Amazon case study of flooding and flash flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Milena Marília Nogueira de; Szlafsztein, Claudio Fabian

    2018-02-27

    The vulnerability of cities and communities in the Amazon to flooding and flash flooding is increasing. The effects of extreme events on populations vary across landscapes, causing vulnerability to differ spatially. Traditional vulnerability studies in Brazil and across the world have used the vulnerability index for the country and, more recently, municipality scales. The vulnerability dimensions are exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. For each of these dimensions, there is a group of indicators that constitutes a vulnerability index using quantitative data. Several vulnerability assessments have used sensitivity and exposure analyses and, recently, adaptive capacity has been considered. The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analysis allows spatial regional modeling using quantitative vulnerability indicators. This paper presents a local-scale vulnerability assessment in an urban Amazonian area, Santarém City, using interdisciplinary methods. Data for exposure and sensitivity were gathered by remote sensing and census data, respectively. However, adaptive capacity refers to local capacities, whether infrastructural or not, and the latter were gathered by qualitative participatory methods. For the mixed data used to study adaptive capacity, we consider tangible components for countable infrastructure that can cope with hazards, and intangible components that reflect social activities based on risk perceptions and collective action. The results indicate that over 80% of the area is highly or moderately vulnerable to flooding and flash flooding. Exposure and adaptive capacity were determinants of the results. Lower values of adaptive capacity play a significant role in vulnerability enhancement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Including the people with disabilities at work: a case study of the job of bricklayer in civil construction in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B; Guimarães, B M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of the evaluation of the job of bricklayer in the construction industry to determine the profile of workers with disabilities who could perform this function and what adjustments are needed. The methods and techniques used in the field study were: direct observation of the activities and the environment, interviews with bricklayers on building sites, a video and photographic record of tasks being carried out to analyze the job of bricklayer, software resources were used. This study set out the disabilities most commonly caused by work accidents in the civil construction industry and simulated the conditions of the individuals to determine whether they could perform the activities of this function and what adaptations are needed. It was observed that workers with hearing impairments could perform activities without any change in the workplace and individuals who had had a leg or foot amputated need to use appropriate prostheses to perform the activities of the function. Thus, it was shown that the activity of professionals with experience in Ergonomics is essential since, by the activity of gathering data and analysing the physical, cognitive and organizational requirements of jobs and by collecting data on and analysing the functional capabilities of the worker with a disability, adaptations to jobs can be adequately defined.

  17. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phase 2 study of the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with refractory leukemias, including postmyeloproliferative neoplasm acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Verstovsek, Srdan; Estrov, Zeev; Burger, Jan; Cortes, Jorge; Bivins, Carol; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Borthakur, Gautam; George, Solly; Scherle, Peggy A; Newton, Robert C; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Ravandi, Farhad

    2012-05-17

    We conducted a phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemias. Patients with acceptable performance status (0-2), adequate organ function, and no active infection, received ruxolitinib 25 mg orally twice a day for 4 weeks (1 cycle). Response was assessed after every 2 cycles of treatment, and patients who completed 2 cycles were allowed to continue treatment until disease progression. Dose escalation to 50 mg twice daily was permitted in patients demonstrating a benefit. Thirty-eight patients, with a median age of 69 years (range, 45-88), were treated. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (range, 1-6). Twelve patients had JAK2V617F mutation. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-22). Three of 18 patients with postmyeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed a significant response; 2 achieved complete remission (CR) and one achieved a CR with insufficient recovery of blood counts (CRi). The responding patients with palpable spleens also had significant reductions in spleen size. Overall, ruxolitinib was very well tolerated with only 4 patients having grade 3 or higher toxicity. Ruxolitinib has modest antileukemic activity as a single agent, particularly in patients with post-MPN AML. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00674479.

  19. Trichoderma virens β-glucosidase I (BGLI) gene; expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including docking and molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Gammadde Hewa Ishan Maduka; Rathnayake, Pilimathalawe Panditharathna Attanayake Mudiyanselage Samith Indika; Chandrasekharan, Naduviladath Vishvanath; Weerasinghe, Mahindagoda Siril Samantha; Wijesundera, Ravindra Lakshman Chundananda; Wijesundera, Wijepurage Sandhya Sulochana

    2017-06-21

    Cellulose, a linear polymer of β 1-4, linked glucose, is the most abundant renewable fraction of plant biomass (lignocellulose). It is synergistically converted to glucose by endoglucanase (EG) cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and β-glucosidase (BGL) of the cellulase complex. BGL plays a major role in the conversion of randomly cleaved cellooligosaccharides into glucose. As it is well known, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can efficiently convert glucose into ethanol under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, S.cerevisiae was genetically modified with the objective of heterologous extracellular expression of the BGLI gene of Trichoderma virens making it capable of utilizing cellobiose to produce ethanol. The cDNA and a genomic sequence of the BGLI gene of Trichoderma virens was cloned in the yeast expression vector pGAPZα and separately transformed to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The size of the BGLI cDNA clone was 1363 bp and the genomic DNA clone contained an additional 76 bp single intron following the first exon. The gene was 90% similar to the DNA sequence and 99% similar to the deduced amino acid sequence of 1,4-β-D-glucosidase of T. atroviride (AC237343.1). The BGLI activity expressed by the recombinant genomic clone was 3.4 times greater (1.7 x 10 -3  IU ml -1 ) than that observed for the cDNA clone (5 x 10 -4  IU ml -1 ). Furthermore, the activity was similar to the activity of locally isolated Trichoderma virens (1.5 x 10 -3  IU ml -1 ). The estimated size of the protein was 52 kDA. In fermentation studies, the maximum ethanol production by the genomic and the cDNA clones were 0.36 g and 0.06 g /g of cellobiose respectively. Molecular docking results indicated that the bare protein and cellobiose-protein complex behave in a similar manner with considerable stability in aqueous medium. The deduced binding site and the binding affinity of the constructed homology model appeared to be reasonable. Moreover, it was identified that the five hydrogen bonds formed

  20. Experimental study of the relative efficiency of nonlinear and restricted selection indices for ratios including quadratic and cubic terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Jorquera, M J

    1994-01-12

    A nonlinear selection index (NL) method was compared with restricted linear index (RI) using two experiments of upward selection for the weight/(lenght)(n) ratio in Tribolium castaneum. The first experiment was designed to increase pupal weight/(pupal length)(2) , while the second experiment was intended to improve larval weight/(larval length)(3) . Larval and pupal traits were measured at 14 and 21 days after adult emergence, respectively. There were four generations of selection in each of three replicates, the proportion selected being 20 %. The selection criterion in the NL lines was (m(1) + Ĝ(1) )/(m(2) + Ĝ(2) )(n) , where m(1) and m(2) are the population means for the numerator and denominator traits, Ĝ(1) and Ĝ(2) are the estimated additive genetic values, and n is 2 (experiment 1) or 3 (experiment 2). The restricted linear index used as the selection criterion in the RI lines was calculated to increase the numerator trait and hold the denominator constant. Responses observed for the ratios differed significantly between lines (P generaciones de selección en cada una de tres repeticiones, siendo la proporción seleccionada el 20 %. El criterio de selección en las líneas NL fue (m(1) +Ĝ(1) /(m(2) +Ĝ(2) )(n) , donde m(1) y m(2) son las medias para los caracteres numerador y denominador, Ĝ(1) y Ĝ(2) son los valores aditivos estimados, y n es 2 (experimento 1) o 3 (experimento 2). El índice con restricción usado como criterio de selección en las líneas RI fue calculado para incrementar el numerador y mantener constante el denominador. Las respuestas observadas para el cociente diferían significativamente entre líneas (P < .05) en ambos experimentos, teniendo mayor respuesta las líneas NL. En el experimento 1, la respuesta observada en el numerador fue significativa en la línea NL, mientras que fue positiva y significativa para ambos caracteres en la línea RI; las líneas diferían significativamente para longitud de pupa (P < .01). La