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Sample records for included studies showed

  1. Retrospective cohort study shows that the risks for retinopathy of prematurity included birth age and weight, medical conditions and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliaa A; Gomaa, Nancy A S; Awadein, Ahmed R; Al-Hayouti, Huda H; Hegazy, Ahmed I

    2017-12-01

    This study described the characteristics and risk factors of neonates who developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe treatable ROP in two Egyptian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This retrospective cohort study comprised 108 preterm neonates who were screened for ROP after being admitted to the two NICUs run by Cairo University Hospital from June 2014 to May 2015. Patients were examined using digital fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed if ROP was detected. Retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 75 patients. Late-onset sepsis, ventilation and hypercapnia were independently associated with ROP. Patients who developed severe treatable ROP had a younger gestational age (GA) than patients who did not develop ROP or developed mild or moderate ROP (29 weeks, range 27-33 weeks versus 32 weeks, range 28-36 weeks, p = 0.002) and a lower birthweight (1200 g, range 980-1590 g versus 1460 g, range 770-2475 g, p = 0.029). The risk factors associated with severe treatable ROP included the duration of admission, the duration of incubator oxygen, late-onset sepsis, intraventricular haemorrhage, total parenteral nutrition and the duration of caffeine citrate therapy. This study showed that the risks for ROP were wide-ranging and included GA and weight, medical conditions and treatment. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Randall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%, including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9 and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG, all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8, but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.

  3. Children with developmental dyslexia showed greater sleep disturbances than controls, including problems initiating and maintaining sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, M; Esposito, M; Cortese, S; Laino, D; Verrotti, A

    2016-09-01

    Although there have been frequent clinical reports about sleep disturbances in children with learning disabilities, no data are available about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with developmental dyslexia (DD). This study evaluated sleep disturbances in children with DD referred to a hospital clinic and compared their scores with healthy controls. We consecutively enrolled 147 children (66% male) aged 10.26 ± 2.63 years who were referred by clinical paediatricians to the Clinic for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry at the Second University of Naples with DD and 766 children without DD (60% male) aged 10.49 ± 2.39 years recruited from schools in the same urban area. Sleep disturbances were assessed with the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), which was filled out by the children's main carers. Compared with the controls, the children with DD showed significantly higher rates of above threshold scores on the total SDSC score (p sleep (p sleep breathing disorders (p Sleep disorders were significantly more frequent in children with DD than in healthy controls. A possible relationship between dyslexia and sleep disorders may have relevant clinical implications. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Ability to show shame can include children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    Ability to show shame can include children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark. More children diagnosed with autism and ADHD have been included in primary school by law in Denmark over the last years (L379, 2012). In a new School reform (L406, 2014......) the children have to participate in physical activities at least 45 minutes each school day. Autism and ADHD are disabling conditions that affects social communication and interaction, and often also their motor skills and cognition (Harvey & Reid, 2003; Verret, 2010). Therefore these children can be challenge....... There will be used a process-oriented methodology (Baur & Ernst, 2011).The methods of the research are primarily based on qualitative methods: Analysis of the curriculum for PE from the Danish ministry of Education and political strategies of inclusion, field observations primarily in PE, interviews with the 11...

  5. Children with autism show reduced somatosensory response: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Elysa J; Khatibi, Kasra; Hill, Susanna S; Siegel, Bryna; Arroyo, Monica S; Dowling, Anne F; Neuhaus, John M; Sherr, Elliott H; Hinkley, Leighton N B; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2012-10-01

    The neural underpinnings of sensory processing differences in autism remain poorly understood. This prospective magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigates whether children with autism show atypical cortical activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in comparison with matched controls. Tactile stimuli were clearly detectable, and painless taps were applied to the distal phalanx of the second (D2) and third (D3) fingers of the right and left hands. Three tactile paradigms were administered: an oddball paradigm (standard taps to D3 at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 0.33 and deviant taps to D2 with ISI ranging from 1.32 s to 1.64 s); a slow-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the deviant taps in the oddball paradigm; and a fast-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the standard taps in the oddball. Study subjects were boys (age 7-11 years) with and without autism disorder. Sensory behavior was quantified using the Sensory Profile questionnaire. Boys with autism exhibited smaller amplitude left hemisphere S1 response to slow and deviant stimuli during the right-hand paradigms. In post-hoc analysis, tactile behavior directly correlated with the amplitude of cortical response. Consequently, the children were re-categorized by degree of parent-report tactile sensitivity. This regrouping created a more robust distinction between the groups with amplitude diminution in the left and right hemispheres and latency prolongation in the right hemisphere in the deviant and slow-rate paradigms for the affected children. This study suggests that children with autism have early differences in somatosensory processing, which likely influence later stages of cortical activity from integration to motor response. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Case Study Shows Disconnect on Civic Journalism's Role

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, M.; Harmsen, S.; Singer, J.; Ekdale, B.

    2017-01-01

    This in-depth case study examines attempts to transform a traditional newsroom to one oriented around civic journalism principles, offering a unique look at the resistance toward those principles even in a digital environment that facilitates new audience relationships. Civic journalism emphasizes understanding and addressing community concerns from a citizen perspective. This study finds that journalists still struggle to integrate citizens’ contributions into newsroom practice in meaningful...

  7. Oklahoma Cherokee formation study shows benefits of gas tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, B.J.; Cline, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    To no one's surprise, the administration's recently released energy initiative package does not advocate the use of tax incentives such as the Internal Revenue Code Sec. 29 (tight sand gas) credit that expired Dec. 31, 1992. This is unfortunate since tax credits do stimulate drilling, as the authors' recent study of Oklahoma's Pennsylvanian age Cherokee formation demonstrates. Within this 783,000 acre study area, more than 130 additional wells were drilled between 1991--92 because of tax credit incentives. And such tax credits also increase total federal tax revenues by causing wells to be drilled that would not have been drilled or accelerating the drilling of wells, thereby increasing taxable revenue. In short, tax credits create a win-win situation: they stimulate commerce, increase tax revenues, reduce the outflow of capital to foreign petroleum projects, and add to the nation's natural gas reserve, which is beneficial for national security, balance of payments, the environment, and gas market development. The paper discusses the study assumptions, study results, and the tax credit policy

  8. Large clinical study shows value of therapeutic touch program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newshan, Gayle; Schuller-Civitella, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Representing the largest published sample size of therapeutic touch (TT) outcomes to date, data from this continuous quality improvement (CQI) clinical study suggests that TT, when provided in the clinical setting, promotes comfort, calmness, and well-being among hospitalized patients. In addition, patients are highly satisfied with TT. The newly developed Patient Satisfaction Survey and TT Performance Improvement Tool provide an effective means by which to evaluate a TT program.

  9. REALITY SHOW AS A TYPE OF MEDIA DISCOURSE (A STUDY OF THE REALITY SHOW KEEPING UP WITH THE KARDASHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Ikalyuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on defining peculiarities of the US reality show as a type of media discourse. Based on a study of the reality show Keeping up with the Kardashians, an attempt has been made to determine intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors of creating an image of an ordinary American family in order to attract the public attention.

  10. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic

  11. Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements of the thyroid gland: report of three cases including one case with breast cancer history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Xi; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Johnstone, Marianne; Deng, Yuan; Ke, Yongqiang; Nunes, Quentin M; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yili; Zhang, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare malignant tumor of the thyroid or adjacent neck soft tissues, whose histogenesis is still debated. It may resemble other primary or metastatic poorly differentiated tumors histologically and the differential diagnosis is crucial for CASTLE has a better prognosis. However, CASTLE as a second primary tumor has not been reported in the literature. We report three cases of thyroid CASTLE, including a unique tumor following breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast invasive carcinoma. There were two female and one male. All three tumors were located in the right lobe of the thyroid, and one tumor showed extension into the surrounding soft tissue. Histologically, all tumors showed expansive growth and consisted of cords, nests or sheets of epithelial cells divided into irregularly shaped lobules by fibrous connective tissue with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Focal squamous differentiation resembling Hassall's corpuscles were observed. All cases stained positively for CD5, CD117, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin, P63, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Positive staining for Bcl-2 in two cases and chromogranin A in one case was noted. Ki-67 expression ranged from 15 to 25%. Thyroid transcription factor and CD3 were negative. There was no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease at following surgery. These features demonstrated CASTLE may arise from branchial pouch remnants, the thyroid solid cell nests. CASTLE is a rare entity, awareness of its occurrence as a second primary tumor is important to avoid overtreatment because it is associated with a favorable prognosis.

  12. A study of helicopter stability and control including blade dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A linearized model of rotorcraft dynamics has been developed through the use of symbolic automatic equation generating techniques. The dynamic model has been formulated in a unique way such that it can be used to analyze a variety of rotor/body coupling problems including a rotor mounted on a flexible shaft with a number of modes as well as free-flight stability and control characteristics. Direct comparison of the time response to longitudinal, lateral and directional control inputs at various trim conditions shows that the linear model yields good to very good correlation with flight test. In particular it is shown that a dynamic inflow model is essential to obtain good time response correlation, especially for the hover trim condition. It also is shown that the main rotor wake interaction with the tail rotor and fixed tail surfaces is a significant contributor to the response at translational flight trim conditions. A relatively simple model for the downwash and sidewash at the tail surfaces based on flat vortex wake theory is shown to produce good agreement. Then, the influence of rotor flap and lag dynamics on automatic control systems feedback gain limitations is investigated with the model. It is shown that the blade dynamics, especially lagging dynamics, can severly limit the useable values of the feedback gain for simple feedback control and that multivariable optimal control theory is a powerful tool to design high gain augmentation control system. The frequency-shaped optimal control design can offer much better flight dynamic characteristics and a stable margin for the feedback system without need to model the lagging dynamics.

  13. Study on 'Tannix' an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ''Tannix'' was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ''Tannix'' was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  14. Study on `Tannix` an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasuo [Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ``Tannix`` was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ``Tannix`` was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  15. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

    2006-01-01

    in humans and different animal species and which can be isolated from a number of environments including food, as a model organism to develop and implement a two-step statistical approach to the identification of phylogenetic clades that are significantly associated with different source populations......, including humans, animals, and food. If the null hypothesis that the genetic distances for isolates within and between source populations are identical can be rejected (SourceCluster test), then particular clades in the phylogenetic tree with significant overrepresentation of sequences from a given source......Stats test identified 10 clades with significant (P animal-, and food-associated clusters. Epidemiological and virulence phenotype data supported the fact that the source-associated clonal groups identified here...

  16. Peace psychology should include the study of peaceful individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden L

    2014-09-01

    The selection of topics for the special issue on peace psychology (October 2013) probably gave readers the impression that peace psychology should be defined as the study of conflict and peace at intergroup, societal, and global levels. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Two promising alkaline β-glucosidases isolated by functional metagenomics from agricultural soil, including one showing high tolerance towards harsh detergents, oxidants and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, Sophie; Stroobants, Aurore; Portetelle, Daniel; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2014-03-01

    New β-glucosidase activities were identified by screening metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA isolated from the topsoil of a winter wheat field. Two of the corresponding proteins, displaying an unusual preference for alkaline conditions, were selected for purification by Ni-NTA chromatography. AS-Esc6, a 762-amino-acid enzyme belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 3, proved to be a mesophilic aryl-β-glucosidase with maximal activity around pH 8 and 40 °C. A similar pH optimum was found for AS-Esc10, a 475-amino-acid GH1-family enzyme, but this enzyme remained significantly active across a wider pH range and was also markedly more stable than AS-Esc6 at pH greater than 10. AS-Esc10 was found to degrade cellobiose and diverse aryl glycosides, with an optimal temperature of 60 °C and good stability up to 50 °C. Unlike AS-Esc6, which showed a classically low inhibitory constant for glucose (14 mM), AS-Esc10 showed enhanced activity in the presence of molar concentrations of glucose. AS-Esc10 was highly tolerant to hydrogen peroxide and also to sodium dodecyl sulfate, this being indicative of kinetic stability. This unique combination of properties makes AS-Esc10 a particularly promising candidate whose potential in biotechnological applications is worth exploring further.

  18. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpeläinen, T.O.; Esko, T.; Mägi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T.; Feitosa, M.F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Locke, A.E.; Mathieson, I.; Scherag, A.; Vedantam, S.; Wood, A.R.; Liang, L.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorleifsson, G.; Dermitzakis, E.T.; Dimas, A.S.; Karpe, F.; Min, J.L.; Nicholson, G.; Clegg, D.J.; Person, T.; Krohn, J.P.; Bauer, S.; Buechler, C.; Eisinger, K.; Bonnefond, A.; Froguel, P.; Hottenga, J.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Waite, L.L.; Harris, T.B.; Smith, A.V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; McArdle, W.L.; Caulfield, M.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Grönberg, H.; Chen, Y.D.; Li, G.; Beckmann, J.S.; Johnson, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Teder-Laving, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Zhao, J.H.; Amin, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Kraja, A.T.; Province, M.A.; Cupples, L.A.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Kaprio, J.; Ripatti, S.; Surakka, I.; Collins, F.S.; Saramies, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jula, A.; Salomaa, V.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Loley, C.; Schunkert, H.; Lamina, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Albrecht, E.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Speliotes, E.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Järvelin, M.R.; Gyllensten, U.; Boomsma, D.I.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, J.F.; Chanock, S.J.; Farrall, M.; Goel, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Rivadeneira, F.; Estrada, K.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Hofman, A.; Zillikens, M.C.; den Heijer, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Maschio, A.; Hall, P.; Tyrer, J.; Teumer, A.; Völzke, H.; Kovacs, P.; Tönjes, A.; Mangino, M.; Spector, T.D.; Hayward, C.; Rudan, I.; Hall, A.S.; Samani, N.J.; Attwood, A.P.; Sambrook, J.G.; Hung, J.; Palmer, L.J.; Lokki, M.L.; Sinisalo, J.; Boucher, G.; Huikuri, H.V.; Lorentzon, M.; Ohlsson, C.; Eklund, N.; Eriksson, J.G.; Barlassina, C.; Rivolta, C.; Nolte, I.M.; Snieder, H.; van der Klauw, M.M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Shi, J.; Jacobs, K.B.; Wang, Z.; Bakker, S.J.; Mateo Leach, I.; Navis, G.; van der Harst, P.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Yang, J.; Chasman, D.I.; Ridker, P.M.; Rose, L.M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Raitakari, O.; Absher, D.; Iribarren, C.; Basart, H.; Hovingh, K.G.; Hyppönen, E.; Power, C.; Anderson, D.; Beilby, J.P.; Hui, J.; Jolley, J.; Sager, H.; Bornstein, S.R.; Schwarz, P.E.; Kristiansson, K.; Perola, M.; Lindström, J.; Swift, A.J.; Uusitupa, M.; Atalay, M.; Lakka, T.A.; Rauramaa, R.; Bolton, J.L.; Fowkes, G.; Fraser, R.M.; Price, J.F.; Fischer, K.; Krjuta Kov, K.; Metspalu, A.; Mihailov, E.; Langenberg, C.; Luan, J.; Ong, K.K.; Chines, P.S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemie, S.; Saaristo, T.E.; Edkins, S.; Franks, P.W.; Hallmans, G.; Shungin, D.; Morris, A.D.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Erbel, R.; Moebus, S.; Nöthen, M.M.; Pechlivanis, S.; Hveem, K.; Narisu, N.; Hamsten, A.; Humphries, S.E.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Tremoli, E.; Grallert, H.; Thorand, B.; Illig, T.; Koenig, W.; Müller-Nurasyid, M.; Peters, A.; Boehm, B.O.; Kleber, M.E.; März, W.; Winkelmann, B.R.; Kuusisto, J.; Laakso, M.; Arveiler, D.; Cesana, G.; Kuulasmaa, K.; Virtamo, J.; Yarnell, J.W.; Kuh, D; Wong, A.; Lind, L.; de Faire, U.; Gigante, B.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dedoussis, G.; Dimitriou, M.; Kolovou, G.; Kanoni, S.; Stirrups, K.; Bonnycastle, L.L.; Njolstad, I.; Wilsgaard, T.; Ganna, A.; Rehnberg, E.; Hingorani, A.D.; Kivimaki, M.; Kumari, M.; Assimes, T.L.; Barroso, I.; Boehnke, M.; Borecki, I.B.; Deloukas, P.; Fox, C.S.; Frayling, T.M.; Groop, L.C.; Haritunians, T.; Hunter, D.; Ingelsson, E.; Kaplan, R.; Mohlke, K.L.; O'Connell, J.R.; Schlessinger, D.; Strachan, D.P.; Stefansson, K.; van Duijn, C.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; McCarthy, M.I.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Qi, L.; Loos, R.J.; Lindgren, C.M.; North, K.E.; Heid, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  19. Young adolescents with autism show abnormal joint attention network: A gaze contingent fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oberwelland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral research has revealed deficits in the development of joint attention (JA as one of the earliest signs of autism. While the neural basis of JA has been studied predominantly in adults, we recently demonstrated a protracted development of the brain networks supporting JA in typically developing children and adolescents. The present eye-tracking/fMRI study now extends these findings to adolescents with autism. Our results show that in adolescents with autism JA is subserved by abnormal activation patterns in brain areas related to social cognition abnormalities which are at the core of ASD including the STS and TPJ, despite behavioral maturation with no behavioral differences. Furthermore, in the autism group we observed increased neural activity in a network of social and emotional processing areas during interactions with their mother. Moreover, data indicated that less severely affected individuals with autism showed higher frontal activation associated with self-initiated interactions. Taken together, this study provides first-time data of JA in children/adolescents with autism incorporating the interactive character of JA, its reciprocity and motivational aspects. The observed functional differences in adolescents ASD suggest that persistent developmental differences in the neural processes underlying JA contribute to social interaction difficulties in ASD.

  20. Boswellic acids and glucosamine show synergistic effect in preclinical anti-inflammatory study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surjeet; Khajuria, Anamika; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Khajuria, Ravi Kant; Singh, Jaswant; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2007-07-01

    The present study revealed the synergistic effect of boswellic acid mixture (BA) and glucosamine for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities in rats. Two studies were conducted, that is, acute anti-inflammatory by carrageenan edema and chronic anti-arthritic by Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis. Five groups of animals were included in each of the study: the vehicle control, positive control (ibuprofen 100mg/kg), boswellic acids (250 mg/kg), glucosamine (250 mg/kg) and a combination of boswellic acids (125 mg/kg) and glucosamine (125 mg/kg). BA when administered at 250 mg/kg in rats, carrageenan-induced paw edema and Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis were significantly inhibited. In comparison to boswellic acids, glucosamine when administered at 250 mg/kg showed a mild effect in carrageenan-induced edema and moderate inhibition of paw swelling against developing arthritis. Although the combination of boswellic acids and glucosamine did not affect the acute inflammation to a greater extent yet a significant anti-arthritic activity was observed in rats. In conclusion, a synergistic effect was observed in chronic inflammatory conditions when two chemical entities were administered in combination in preclinical study.

  1. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  2. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  3. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Nicole M; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M; Whitfield, John B

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993-1996 and 2002-2005 and from UK in 1991-1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10(-14) for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10(-6) > P > 5 × 10(-8)). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. New Study Shows 59 Percent of Americans Will Develop Kidney Disease in Their Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STUDY SHOWS 59 PERCENT OF AMERICANS WILL DEVELOP KIDNEY DISEASE IN THEIR LIFETIME National Kidney Foundation Recommends Annual ... 2013) – Nearly six of ten Americans will develop kidney disease in their lifetime, according to a new analysis ...

  5. Contesting the “nature” of conformity : what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Alexander; Reicher, Stephen David

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work inf...

  6. Executive functioning shows differential maturation from early to late adolescence: longitudinal findings from a TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelema, Sarai R; Harakeh, Zeena; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2014-03-01

    Maturation of executive functioning (EF) is topical, especially in relation to adolescence, yet longitudinal research covering early and late adolescence is lacking. This, however, is a prerequisite for drawing conclusions on normal cognitive development, and understanding deviant maturation. The aim of this study is to longitudinally investigate 6 subcomponents of EF in early (mean age 11) and late adolescence (mean age 19) and to investigate the influence of sex and socioeconomic status (SES). We used data of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). A number of 2,217 participants carried out tasks of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT), measuring Focused Attention, Inhibition, Sustained Attention, Speed of Processing, Working Memory, and Shift Attention. Linear growth model with individual varying times of observation showed significant slopes for all 6 measures. Sex differences were found for the majority of the measures, where boys showed more maturation. Maturation was influenced by SES for Sustained Attention and Inhibition. Results show that significant maturation takes place for all the measured subcomponents over adolescence. Overall, girls show better baseline performance and smaller maturational rates, suggesting more mature skills in early adolescence. Maturation is only influenced by SES for Sustained Attention and Inhibition. Findings underline that for making statements about EF maturation in adolescence, it is essential to look at subcomponents. Furthermore, sex differences are an important factor when investing (ab)normal maturation of EF. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Colorectal laterally spreading tumors show characteristic expression of cell polarity factors, including atypical protein kinase C λ/ι, E-cadherin, β-catenin and basement membrane component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yasushi; Nagashima, Yoji; Morioka, Kaori; Akimoto, Kazunori; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Goto, Ayumu; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Fujii, Shoichi; Kawamata, Mayumi; Takagawa, Ryo; Kunizaki, Chikara; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin; Shimada, Hiroshi; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shigeo; Endo, Itaru

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal flat-type tumors include laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) and flat depressed-type tumors. The former of which shows a predominant lateral spreading growth rather than an invasive growth. The present study examined the morphological characteristics of LSTs, in comparison with polypoid- or flat depressed-type tumors, along with the expression of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) λ/ι, a pivotal cell polarity regulator, and the hallmarks of cell polarity, as well as with type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. In total, 37 flat-type (24 LSTs and 13 flat depressed-type tumors) and 20 polypoid-type colorectal tumors were examined. The LSTs were classified as 15 LST adenoma (LST-A) and nine LST cancer in adenoma (LST-CA). An immunohistochemical examination was performed on aPKC λ/ι, type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. The LST-A and -CA showed a superficial replacing growth pattern, with expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin in the basolateral membrane and type IV collagen along the basement membrane. In addition, 86.6% of LST-A and 55.6% of LST-CA showed aPKC λ/ι expression of 1+ (weak to normal intensity staining in the cytoplasm compared with the normal epithelium). Furthermore, ~45% of the polypoid-type adenomas showed 2+ (moderate intensity staining in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus) and 66.7% of the polypoid-type cancer in adenoma were 3+ (strong intensity staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus). A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the expression of aPKC λ/ι and β-catenin (r=0.842; P<0.001), or type IV collagen (r=0.823; P<0.001). The LSTs showed a unique growth pattern, different from the expanding growth pattern presented by a polypoid tumor and invasive cancer. The growth characteristics of LST appear to be caused by adequate coexpression of β-catenin, type IV collagen and aPKC λ/ι.

  8. Contesting the “Nature” Of Conformity: What Milgram and Zimbardo's Studies Really Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S. Alexander; Reicher, Stephen. D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right. PMID:23185132

  9. Contesting the "Nature" Of Conformity: what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right.

  10. Contesting the "Nature" Of Conformity: what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Alexander Haslam

    Full Text Available Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right.

  11. Stigmatization of eating disorders: a controlled study of the effects of the television show Starved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterman, Shawn N; Klump, Kelly L

    2010-01-01

    Starved is a situational comedy ("sitcom") that depicted individuals with eating disorders that was feared to increase stigma. Our study directly examined this possibility by randomly assigning participants to watch Starved or The Comeback (a sitcom unrelated to eating disorders) and measuring eating disorder stigma/stereotypes before and after viewing. Participants who viewed Starved did not show increased levels of stigma, suggesting that short-term exposure to an extreme portrayal of eating disorder stereotypes may not increase stigma. Future research should examine prolonged exposure and other potential sources of these negative attitudes.

  12. Laboratory study of fungal bioreceptivity of different fractions of composite flooring tiles showing efflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaphy, Segula; Lavi, Ido; Sultz, Stephan; Zabari, Limor

    2014-06-01

    Fungi can grow in extreme habitats, such as natural stone and mineral building materials, sometimes causing deterioration. Efflorescence-concentrated salt deposits-results from water movement through building material; it can damage masonry materials and other bricks. Fungal isolate KUR1, capable of growth on, and dissolution of stone chips composing terrazzo-type floor tiles, was isolated from such tiles showing fiber-like crystalline efflorescence. The isolate's ribosomal DNA sequences were 100 % identical to those of Nigrospora sphaerica. The ability of KUR1 to colonize and degrade the different stone chips composing the tiles was studied in axenic culture experiments. When exposed to each of the different mineral chip types composed of dolomite, calcite, or calcite-apatite mineral in low-nutrition medium, the fungus showed selective nutrient consumption, and different growth and stone mineral dissolution rates. Micromorphological examination of the fungus-colonized chips by electron microscopy showed the production of a fungal biofilm with thin films around the hyphae on the surface of the examined chips and disintegration of the calcite-apatite fraction. More than 70 % dissolution of the introduced powdered (<1 mm particle size) mineral was obtained within 10 days of incubation for the soft calcite-apatite fraction.

  13. A multicenter study of using carbon nanoparticles to show sentinel lymph nodes in early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhangyuanzhu; Yu, Jiang; Deng, Zhenwei; Xue, Fangqing; Zheng, Yu; Chen, Feng; Shi, Hong; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jianping; Cai, Lisheng; Cai, Mingzhi; Xiang, Gao; Hong, Yunfeng; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Guoxin

    2016-04-01

    Lymph node metastasis occurs in approximately 10% of early gastric cancer. Preoperative or intra-operative identification of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer is crucial for surgical planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles to show sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in early gastric cancer. A multicenter study was performed between July 2012 and November 2014. Ninety-one patients with early gastric cancer identified by preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography were recruited. One milliliter carbon nanoparticles suspension, which is approved by Chinese Food and Drug Administration, was endoscopically injected into the submucosal layer at four points around the site of the primary tumor 6-12 h before surgery. Laparoscopic radical resection with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. SLNs were defined as nodes that were black-dyed by carbon nanoparticles in greater omentum and lesser omentum near gastric cancer. Lymph node status and SLNs accuracy were confirmed by pathological analysis. All patients had black-dyed SLNs lying in greater omentum and/or lesser omentum. SLNs were easily found under laparoscopy. The mean number of SLNs was 4 (range 1-9). Carbon nanoparticles were around cancer in specimen. After pathological analysis, 10 patients (10.99%) had lymph node metastasis in 91 patients with early gastric cancer. SLNs were positive in 9 cases and negative in 82 cases. In pathology, carbon nanoparticles were seen in lymphatic vessels, lymphoid sinus, and macrophages in SLNs. When SLNs were positive, cancer cells were seen in lymph nodes. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of black-dyed SLNs in early gastric cancers were 90, 100, and 98.9 %, respectively. No patient had any side effects of carbon nanoparticles in this study. It is feasible to use carbon nanoparticles to show SLNs in early gastric cancer. Carbon nanoparticles suspension is safe for submucosal injection.

  14. How does culture show? A case study of an international and interprofessional course in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, Majda; Rasmussen, Birgit H

    2009-09-01

    Research shows slow improvement of the care of dying persons and their significant others. One of the reasons for that is the lack of palliative care education as an integral part of health professionals' undergraduate education. The paper discusses an attempt to develop innovative forms of palliative care education: an international, interprofessional and IT-supported undergraduate course for Swedish and Slovenian students of nursing, medicine, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology and social work, which has been developed jointly by the two authors. One of the aims of the course has been to address differences in professional and national cultures relevant to quality in palliative care. The development and pilot implementation phases of the course were analysed qualitatively, using evaluation materials from students and teachers and from an external evaluation study. The results show that the interprofessional approach in the course enabled students to get to know other professions, as well as enabling them to work together as a team and resolve conflicts. Cultural differences between Sweden and Slovenia were not very pronounced, yet they came to the fore regarding teamwork and relationships between professions, as well as in respect of the "right thing" to do in relation to patient' problems.

  15. Bibliographic study showed improving statistical methodology of network meta-analyses published between 1999 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, Maria; Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Rios, Patricia; Vafaei, Afshin; Zarin, Wasifa; Giannatsi, Myrsini; Sullivan, Shannon; Tricco, Andrea C; Chaimani, Anna; Egger, Matthias; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-02-01

    To assess the characteristics and core statistical methodology specific to network meta-analyses (NMAs) in clinical research articles. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until April 14, 2015, for NMAs of randomized controlled trials including at least four different interventions. Two reviewers independently screened potential studies, whereas data abstraction was performed by a single reviewer and verified by a second. A total of 456 NMAs, which included a median (interquartile range) of 21 (13-40) studies and 7 (5-9) treatment nodes, were assessed. A total of 125 NMAs (27%) were star networks; this proportion declined from 100% in 2005 to 19% in 2015 (P = 0.01 by test of trend). An increasing number of NMAs discussed transitivity or inconsistency (0% in 2005, 86% in 2015, P < 0.01) and 150 (45%) used appropriate methods to test for inconsistency (14% in 2006, 74% in 2015, P < 0.01). Heterogeneity was explored in 256 NMAs (56%), with no change over time (P = 0.10). All pairwise effects were reported in 234 NMAs (51%), with some increase over time (P = 0.02). The hierarchy of treatments was presented in 195 NMAs (43%), the probability of being best was most commonly reported (137 NMAs, 70%), but use of surface under the cumulative ranking curves increased steeply (0% in 2005, 33% in 2015, P < 0.01). Many NMAs published in the medical literature have significant limitations in both the conduct and reporting of the statistical analysis and numerical results. The situation has, however, improved in recent years, in particular with respect to the evaluation of the underlying assumptions, but considerable room for further improvements remains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumption of peptide-included and free tryptophan induced by peroxyl radicals: A kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, E; López-Alarcón, C

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that tryptophan residues are efficiently oxidized by peroxyl radicals, generating kynurenine, and N-formyl kynurenine as well as hydroperoxide derivatives as products. In the present work we studied the kinetic of such reaction employing free and peptide-included tryptophan. Two azocompounds were used to produce peroxyl radicals: AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) and ABCVA (4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid)), which generate cationic and anionic peroxyl radicals, respectively. Tryptophan consumption was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the reactions were carried out in phosphate buffer (75mM, pH 7.4) at 45°C. Only a slight effect of the peroxyl radical charge was evidenced on the consumption of free tryptophan and the dipeptide Gly-Trp. Employing AAPH as peroxyl radical source, at low free tryptophan concentrations (1-10µM) near 0.3 mol of tryptophan were consumed per each mol of peroxyl radicals introduced into the system. However, at high free tryptophan concentrations (100µM-1mM) such stoichiometry increased in a tryptophan concentration-way. At 1mM three moles of tryptophan were consumed per mol of AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals, evidencing the presence of chain reactions. A similar behavior was observed when di and tri-peptides (Gly-Trp, Trp-Gly, Gly-Trp-Gly, Trp-Ala, Ala-Trp-Ala) were studied. Nonetheless, at low initial concentration (5µM), the initial consumption rate of tryptophan included in the peptides was two times higher than free tryptophan. In contrast, at high concentration (1mM) free and peptide-included tryptophan showed similar initial consumption rates. These results could be explained considering a disproportionation process of tryptophanyl radicals at low free tryptophan concentrations, a process that would be inhibited when tryptophan is included in peptides. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A Study of the Radiotherapy Techniques for the Breast Including Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyoung Keun; Shim, Su Jung; You, Sei Hwan; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Dae; Suh, Chang Ok [Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study was designed to determine the optimum radiotherapy technique for internal mammary node (IMN) irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. We selected ten cases of early stage partial mastectomy for plan comparison. Five of the patients were treated to the right-side breast and the rest of the patients were treated to the left-side breast. For each case, four different treatment plans were made to irradiate the entire breast, IMNs and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLs). The four planning techniques include a standard tangential field (STF), wide tangential field (WTF), partially wide tangential field (PWT) and a photon-electron mixed field (PEM). We prescribed a dose of 50.4 Gy to the SCL field at a 3 cm depth and isocenter of the breast field. The dose distribution showed clear characteristics depending on the technique used. All of the techniques covered the breast tissue well. IMN coverage was also good, except for the STF, which was not intended to cover IMNs. For the cases of the left-side breasts, the volume of the heart that received more than 30 Gy was larger (in order) for the WTF, PWT, PEM and STF. For radiation pneumonitis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the PWT showed the best results followed by the STF. Despite the variety of patient body shapes, the PWT technique showed the best results for coverage of IMNs and for reducing the lung and heart dose.

  18. A Study of the Radiotherapy Techniques for the Breast Including Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyoung Keun; Shim, Su Jung; You, Sei Hwan; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Dae; Suh, Chang Ok

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the optimum radiotherapy technique for internal mammary node (IMN) irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. We selected ten cases of early stage partial mastectomy for plan comparison. Five of the patients were treated to the right-side breast and the rest of the patients were treated to the left-side breast. For each case, four different treatment plans were made to irradiate the entire breast, IMNs and supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLs). The four planning techniques include a standard tangential field (STF), wide tangential field (WTF), partially wide tangential field (PWT) and a photon-electron mixed field (PEM). We prescribed a dose of 50.4 Gy to the SCL field at a 3 cm depth and isocenter of the breast field. The dose distribution showed clear characteristics depending on the technique used. All of the techniques covered the breast tissue well. IMN coverage was also good, except for the STF, which was not intended to cover IMNs. For the cases of the left-side breasts, the volume of the heart that received more than 30 Gy was larger (in order) for the WTF, PWT, PEM and STF. For radiation pneumonitis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the PWT showed the best results followed by the STF. Despite the variety of patient body shapes, the PWT technique showed the best results for coverage of IMNs and for reducing the lung and heart dose

  19. Material rhetoric: spreading stones and showing bones in the study of prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reybrouck, David; de Bont, Raf; Rock, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces the concept of material rhetoric to understand the promotional regimes in which material objects play an essential argumentative role. It analyzes the phenomenon by looking at two students of prehistory from nineteenth-century Belgium. In the study of human prehistory and evolution, material data are either fairly abundant stone tools or very scarce fossil bones. These two types of material data stand for two different strategies in material rhetoric. In this article, the first strategy is exemplified by Aimé Rutot, who gathered great masses of eoliths (crudely chipped stones which he believed to be prehistoric tools). The second strategy is typified by the example of Julien Fraipont, who based his scientific career on only two Neanderthal skeletons. Rutot sent his "artifacts" to a very wide audience, while Fraipont showed his skeletons to only a few selected scholars. Unlike Rutot, however, Fraipont was able to monitor his audience's interpretation of the finds by means of personal contacts. What an archaeologist gains in reach, he or she apparently loses in control. In this article we argue that only those scholars who find the right balance between the extremes of reach and control will prove to be successful.

  20. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  1. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  2. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  3. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  4. Watching a food-related television show and caloric intake. A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenlos, Jamie S; Wormuth, Bernadette M

    2013-02-01

    Television watching has been positively associated with overeating and obesity. How popular food-related television shows affects eating behavior has not been examined. An experimental study was conducted to examine how exposure to a food-related television program affects amount and type of food consumed in adults (N=80). Participants were randomized to watch a cooking or nature television program and were then presented with 800 total calories of chocolate covered candies, cheese curls, and carrots. Food was weighed before and after the ad libitum eating session to determine amount consumed. After controlling for dietary restraint, hunger and food preference, significantly more chocolate covered candies were consumed among individuals who watched the cooking program compared to the nature program. No significant differences between conditions were found for overall caloric intake or for cheese curl or carrot consumption. Findings suggest that watching food-related television programs may affect eating behavior and has implications for obesity prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RADON AND THORON MEASUREMENTS IN FOUR ROMANIAN SHOW CAVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghele, B D; Cucos, A; Papp, B; Dicu, T; Pressyanov, D; Dimitrov, D; Dimitrova, I; Constantin, S

    2017-11-01

    Measurements have been carried out using four types of passive detectors in four of the most popular show caves in Romania. Three types of detectors (RSKS, RadTrak and CD) were used for radon measurements and two (Raduet and CD) for thoron measurement. Activity concentrations in air were measured in the same locations for two seasons, autumn and winter. Measured values for the different caves varied between below detection limit (5 Bq m-3) and 4024 Bq m-3 for radon and from below 10 to 583 Bq m-3 for thoron. The results indicate a very good correlation between RSKS and RadTrak detectors (r = 0.96). The most significant difference between radon concentrations measured with different types of detectors (RSKS and CD) was higher than 150%. The study suggests that the activity concentration of radon in caves, measured using track detectors, could not be influenced by the type of detector used if the microclimate factor is acknowledged. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. [Histopathological characteristics of genital and breast cancer included in epidemiologic study cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Mioara; Azoicăi, Doina

    2009-01-01

    The correct management of genitals and breast cancers and the improving of the preventional and therapeutical successes ratio involve the knowledge of the histopathological features of these nosological entities which have different origins, different risk factors, different simptomatology and also different prognosis. The descriptive evaluation of the histopathological features of the genitals and breast cancers to women from North-Eastern region of Romania. We have been included in the study 96 women (age range 23-77 years, mean 54,49) diagnosed with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancer at the hospital admission, residency in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics within 23 months. The following main parameters were assessed: histological types, stage at diagnosis, Pap test. After data collection, these have been codified and included in a MS Excel Database, in order to be processed with SPSS 16 and EpiInfo 3.5.1. (2008) Softwares. The following cases' repartition on diagnostic types was observed: breast cancer (44 cases), cervical cancer (24 cases), endometrial cancer (16 cases) and ovarian cancer (12 cases). In our study, the most affected range of age was 40-69 years for breast cancer, 30-59 years for cervical cancer, over 6 years for endometrial cancer and 50-59 years for ovarian cancer. For the cervical neoplasia, 40% of analyzed cases were in incipient stages (in situ to IB stage lessions). More than 50% of breast cancer cases have been diagnosed in advances stages (IIB to IIIC stages). For the endometrium carcinoma, 45% of cases have been identified in incipient stages (in situ to IC). The ovarian neoplasia cases have been detected, most frequently, in advanced stages (III and IV). 25% of women which participated in our study had showed cervical changes. From a histopathological point of view, for cervical neoplasia, squamous carcinoma was the most frequent type (87%), for breast neoplasia--invasive ductal carcinoma (80

  7. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (pheadache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (pheadaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Characteristics and cardiovascular events in a general population included in the RICARTO (RIesgo CARdiovascular TOledo) study: Data from the first 1,500 individuals included in the study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roca, G C; Segura-Fragoso, A; Villarín-Castro, A; Alonso-Moreno, F J; Rodríguez-Padial, L; Rodríguez-García, M L; Fernández-Conde, J A; Rojas-Martelo, G A; Menchén-Herreros, A; Escobar-Cervantes, C; Fernández-Martín, J; Artigao-Rodenas, L M; Carbayo-Herencia, J A; Hernández-Moreno, J

    2017-08-28

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk (CVR) by investigating the prevalence of CVR factors (CVRF), target organ damage (TOD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general population of the health area of Toledo, Spain. Epidemiological and observational study that analysed a sample from the general population aged 18years or older, randomly selected from a database of health cards stratified by age and gender. Clinical history, physical examination, and complementary tests were performed. Total blood and serum samples were frozen at -85°C to evaluate genetic studies in the future. Standard statistical analysis was performed. CVR was assessed by the SCORE scale calibrated for the Spanish population, and the Framingham Heart Study scale. A total of 1,500 individuals (mean age 49.1±15.8years, 55.6% women) were included. Prevalences: dyslipidaemia 56.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 54.3-59.4), hypertension 33.0% (95%CI: 30.6-35.4), diabetes mellitus 8.6% (95%CI: 7.17-10.1), smoking 24.2% (95%CI; 122.0-26.4), obesity 25.3% (95%CI; 23.1-27.5), and sedentary life-style 39.4% (95%CI; 36.9-41.8). No CVRF was reported in 21.1% of cases, and 18.6% had 3-5 CVRF. TOD: electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, 4.3%, peripheral artery disease, 10.1% (Doppler ultrasound), and 15.3% (oscillometric device), microalbuminuria, 4.3%, sub-clinical renal disease, 3.2%, and nephropathy in 3.8% (CKD-EPI). At least one CVD was reported in 9.2% of cases. A low CVR (SCORE) was present in 44.6% of individuals. Dyslipidaemia was found in 60% of individuals, 40% had a sedentary life-style, 30% with hypertension, 20% smoked, 20% obesity, and almost 10% with diabetes. More than a half of individuals have a moderate-high-very high risk. The prevalence of TOD and CVD are significant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Should abdominal sequences be included in prostate cancer MR staging studies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, S.H., E-mail: sineadhmcevoy@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Lavelle, L.P.; Purcell, Y.M. [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Quinlan, D.M. [Department of Urology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Skehan, S.J.; Collins, C.D.; McMahon, C.J. [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • ESUR guideline that abdominal MR sequences are reserved for high-risk prostate cancer is tested. • Routine abdominal sequences are of low yield in prostate cancer MR staging. • Routine abdominal staging sequences frequently result in incidental findings. • Abdominal staging sequences should be reserved for high-risk prostate cancer cases. - Abstract: Objectives: Prostate cancer staging MR examinations commonly include abdominal sequences to assess for non-regional (common iliac or para-aortic) nodal metastasis. In our experience the diagnostic yield of this is limited, but incidental findings are frequent, often necessitating further investigations. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of abdominal sequences in routine prostate cancer MR staging studies. Methods: Findings on abdominal sequences of consecutive MRI prostate studies performed for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer between September 2011 and September 2013 were reviewed with respect to adenopathy and additional incidental findings. Results were correlated with Gleason grade and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in each case. Results: 355 MRI prostate examinations were reviewed. 4 (1.1%) showed enlarged non-regional lymph nodes. Incidental findings were found in 82(23.1%) cases, neccessitating further investigation in 45 (12.7%) cases. Enlarged non-regional nodes were associated with higher PSA level and Gleason grade (p = 0.007, p = 0.005 respectively). With a combined threshold of PSA > 20 ng/mL and/or Gleason grade ≥8 the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 100, 60, 3 and 100% respectively for predicting the presence of non-regional adenopathy. Conclusions: Routine abdominal sequences are of very low yield in routine prostate cancer MR staging, frequently resulting in incidental findings requiring further work-up and should be reserved for high-risk cases. Our experience supports the use of an abdominal staging sequence in high

  11. Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szycik, Gregor R; Mohammadi, Bahram; Hake, Maria; Kneer, Jonas; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Te Wildt, Bert T

    2017-06-01

    Playing violent video games have been linked to long-term emotional desensitization. We hypothesized that desensitization effects in excessive users of violent video games should lead to decreased brain activations to highly salient emotional pictures in emotional sensitivity brain regions. Twenty-eight male adult subjects showing excessive long-term use of violent video games and age and education matched control participants were examined in two experiments using standardized emotional pictures of positive, negative and neutral valence. No group differences were revealed even at reduced statistical thresholds which speaks against desensitization of emotion sensitive brain regions as a result of excessive use of violent video games.

  12. A case study of lightning attachment to flat ground showing multiple unconnected upward leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Krider, E. Philip; Olbinski, Mike; Holle, Ronald L.

    2018-04-01

    On 10 July 2015, a cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash that produced two ground terminations was photographed from inside the safety of a truck in southern New Mexico. An analysis of archived NLDN data verified that this was a two-stroke flash, and a close-up view of the first stroke shows that it also initiated at least 12 unconnected, upward leaders (or "streamers") near the ground termination. No unconnected upward leaders were seen near the second ground attachment. After combining an analysis of the photograph with information provided by the NLDN, we infer that the first stroke was of negative (normal) polarity, had modest peak current, and struck about 460 m (± 24%) from the camera. Attachment occurred when an upward-propagating positive leader reached an inferred height of about 21 m above local ground. The second stroke struck ground about 740 m from the camera, and the height of its attachment leader is estimated to be 15 m. The estimated lengths of the unconnected upward leaders in the two-dimensional (2-D) plane of the first stroke range from 2 to 8 m, and all appear to be located within 15 m (2-D) of the main ground termination, with 24% uncertainty. Many of the unconnected upward leaders (inferred to be positive) exhibit multiple upward branches, and most of those branches have upward-directed forks or splits at their ends. This is the first report showing such extensive branching for positive upward leaders in natural lightning strikes to ground. None of the upward leaders can be seen to emanate from the tops of tall, isolated, or pointed objects on the ground, but they likely begin on small plants and rocks, or flat ground. In terms of lightning safety, this photo demonstrates that numerous upward leaders can be produced near a lightning strike point and have the potential to damage or cause injury at more than one specific point on the ground.

  13. Memantine shows promise in reducing gambling severity and cognitive inflexibility in pathological gambling: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Potenza, Marc N; Kim, Suck Won

    2010-12-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is relatively common, pharmacotherapy research for PG is limited. Memantine, an N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antagonist, appears to reduce glutamate excitability and improve impulsive decision making, suggesting it may help individuals with PG. This study sought to examine the safety and efficacy of Memantine in PG. Twenty-nine subjects (18 females) with DSM-IV PG were enrolled in a 10-week open-label treatment study of memantine (dose ranging from 10 to 30 mg/day). Subjects were enrolled from January 2009 until April 2010. Change from baseline to study endpoint on the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling (PG-YBOCS) was the primary outcome measure. Subjects underwent pre- and post-treatment cognitive assessments using the stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the intra-dimensional/extra-dimensional (ID/ED) set shift task (assessing cognitive flexibility). Twenty-eight of the 29 subjects (96.6%) completed the 10-week study. PG-YBOCS scores decreased from a mean of 21.8 ± 4.3 at baseline to 8.9 ± 7.1 at study endpoint (p gambling per week and money spent gambling both decreased significantly (p medication was well-tolerated. Memantine treatment was associated with diminished gambling and improved cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest that pharmacological manipulation of the glutamate system may target both gambling and cognitive deficits in PG. Placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are warranted in order to confirm these preliminary findings in a controlled design.

  14. The eight-item modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey: psychometric evaluation showed excellent performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, André; Stuck, Andreas E.; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluation and validation of the psychometric properties of the eight-item modified Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (mMOS-SS). Study Design and Setting Secondary analyses of data from three populations: Boston breast cancer study (N = 660), Los Angeles breast cancer study (N = 864), and Medical Outcomes Study (N = 1,717). The psychometric evaluation of the eight-item mMOS-SS compared performance across populations and with the original 19-item Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SS). Internal reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and discriminant validity were evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha, principal factor analysis (PFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Spearman and Pearson correlation, t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Results mMOS-SS internal reliability was excellent in all three populations. PFA factor loadings were similar across populations; one factor >0.6, well-discriminated two factor (instrumental/emotional social support four items each) >0.5. CFA with a priori two-factor structure yielded consistently adequate model fit (root mean squared errors of approximation 0.054–0.074). mMOS-SS construct and discriminant validity were similar across populations and comparable to MOS-SS. Psychometric properties held when restricted to women aged ≥65 years. Conclusion The psychometric properties of the eight-item mMOS-SS were excellent and similar to those of the original 19-item instrument. Results support the use of briefer mMOS-SS instrument; better suited to multidimensional geriatric assessments and specifically in older women with breast cancer. PMID:22818947

  15. Study of medication-free children with Tourette syndrome do not show imaging abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Signe Søndergaard; Debes, Nanette Mol; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imaging studies of patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) across different cohorts have shown alterations in gray and white matter in areas associated with the cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) pathways; however, no consistent findings have subsequently established a clear...... indication of the pathophysiology of TS. METHODS: This study was designed to investigate changes in gray and white matter in medication-free children with TS in the CSTC areas. With MRI, 24 children with TS and 18 healthy controls were analyzed using three complementary methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION...

  16. Material Rhetoric: Spreading Stones and Showing Bones in the Study of Prehistory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reybrouck, D.; de Bont, R.; Rock, J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces

  17. New study shows normally helpful natural bacteria may also trigger lupus | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR scientists have discovered that a protein produced by bacteria that naturally inhabit our bodies may trigger the autoimmune disease lupus. The results of the study could unveil an entirely new set of drug targets for treating lupus and other autoimmune diseases. Read more…

  18. Affiliation, joint venture or PSO? Case studies show why provider strategies differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Joint venture, affiliation or PSO? Here are three case studies of providers who chose different paths under Medicare risk, plus some key questions you'll want to ask of your own provider organization. Learn from these examples so you'll make the best contracting decisions.

  19. New azole derivatives showing antimicrobial effects and their mechanism of antifungal activity by molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, İnci Selin; Saraç, Selma; Sari, Suat; Kart, Didem; Eşsiz Gökhan, Şebnem; Vural, İmran; Dalkara, Sevim

    2017-04-21

    Azole antifungals are potent inhibitors of fungal lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP51) and have been used for eradication of systemic candidiasis clinically. Herein we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of 1-phenyl/1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanol esters. Many of these derivatives showed fungal growth inhibition at very low concentrations. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 15 was 0.125 μg/mL against Candida albicans. Additionally, some of our compounds, such as 19 (MIC: 0.25 μg/mL), were potent against resistant C. glabrata, a fungal strain less susceptible to some first-line antifungal drugs. We confirmed their antifungal efficacy by antibiofilm test and their safety against human monocytes by cytotoxicity assay. To rationalize their mechanism of action, we performed computational analysis utilizing molecular docking and dynamics simulations on the C. albicans and C. glabrata CYP51 (CACYP51 and CGCYP51) homology models we built. Leu130 and T131 emerged as possible key residues for inhibition of CGCYP51 by 19. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Field study - Steinle Ranch, an intermediate depth oil field, shows significant benefit from bauxite proppants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlhaas, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Steinle Ranch field initially was developed in the mid-1970s. Wells were drilled, cased, perforated, and treated by chemical injection with lease-crude or condensate carriers to restore oil saturation to the formation, which is suspected to be hydrophobic. Stimulation by hydraulic fracturing of 4 wells was attempted from 1975 through 1977 with mixed results and no particular success. These treatments used sand and glass beads for proppant. A fifth hydraulic fracture treatment, in which sintered bauxite was used as the proppant was very successful. As a result, all wells in the field have been fractured. This program, in a mature field in late stages of depletion, at intermediate depth (10,600 ft), has been very successful; ca 940,000 bbl of additional reserves have resulted for a total cost of ca $2,000,000, a return on investment of 9.4:1. Comparing these reserves to estimated reserves if the wells had been propped with sand shows a 23:1 return by the incremental reserves on the incremental cost of the bauxite.

  1. Kemampuan Menulis Melalui Show Not Tell Dalam Pendekatan Quantum Learning (Studi pada Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Kartoharjo Madiun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Inderasari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research serves an analysis for depicting: 1 the writing skill onexperiences can be developed through quantum learning approach for thestudents of fifth grade, Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, Kartoharjo, Madiun, 2 theimpacts of the implementation of quantum learning approach for thestudents of fifth grade, Islamic State Elementary School, Kartoharjo,Municipality of Madiun, 3 the efforts of teachers in developing students’writing skill on experiences in learning Bahasa Indonesia. This researchmakes use of Classroom Action Research under the collaboration of theresearcher, the teachers and the students. The analysis brings aboutconclusions that quantum learning approach has a significant influence onthe development of students’ writing skill and learning activity for thestudents of fifth grade of State Elementary School 03 Kanigoro, Kartoharjo,Municipality of Madiun. The reflection through indicators shows that: 1students make development in their learning activity, 2 under quantumlearning approach, teachers are capable of generating students’ learningmotivation, 3 teachers are comfortable in implementing quantum learningapproach, 4 teachers are capable of managing the class well, and 5 studentsgrades up writing skill scores through report, by 65.2 in pretest, 71.9 in testand 75.6 in posttest in average.

  2. A morphometric CT study of Down's syndrome showing small posterior fossa and calcification of basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieshima, A.; Yoshino, K.; Takashima, S.; Takeshita, K.; Kisa, T.

    1984-01-01

    We report characteristic and morphometric changes of cranial computed tomography (CT) with increasing age in 56 patients with Down's syndrome aged from 0 month to 37 years. Patients were compared with 142 normal controls aged 0 to 59 years. Width of ventricles, Sylvian fissures, posterior fossa, pons and cisterna magna were measured on CT. The incidences of the cavum septi pellucidi, cavum vergae and cavum veli interpositi and high density in the basal ganglia were examined. There was high incidence (10.7%) of bilateral calcification of basal ganglia in Down's syndrome, although that of pineal body and choroid plexus calcification was similar in Down's syndrome and controls. Basal ganglia calcification is more frequently seen in young Down's syndrome and may be related to the premature aging characteristic of Down's syndrome. The CT in Down's syndrome showed relatively small posterior fossa, small cerebellum, small brain stem and relatively large Sylvian fissures in those under one year of age. There was a high frequency of midline cava and large cisterna magna. There were no significant atrophic changes on CT except after the fifth decade comparing with controls. (orig.)

  3. 'Show me the money': financial incentives increase chlamydia screening rates among tertiary students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Marian J; Schmidt, Matthias; Davis, Belinda K; Baynes, Anne M; O'Keefe, Elissa J; Bavinton, Tim P; McNiven, Michelle; Martin, Sarah J; Bowden, Francis J

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesise that text-messaging and financial incentives would increase tertiary student participation in chlamydia screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted over two phases on eight tertiary campuses during 2007. During Phase 1 (6 months) study activities were advertised through student organisations and media. Education and screening were offered during a range of student activities. During Phase 2 (4 days) education and screening were offered via text messages. Non-financial incentives were offered during Phase 1 and a $10 cash incentive was offered during Phase 2. Rates of specimens provided by students and the direct costs incurred during each phase were compared. 2786 students attended the 31 activities conducted in Phase 1. Of these, 627 students (22.5%) provided urine specimens for chlamydia testing. During Phase 2, the dissemination of 866 text messages resulted in urine specimens from 392 students (45.3%). Costs per test were AUD $175.11 in Phase 1 and AUD $27.13 in Phase 2. Compared with more labour intensive (and therefore more expensive) screening activities conducted over a 6-month period, offering a small financial incentive to tertiary students through text messaging over a 4-day period significantly increased participation in on-campus chlamydia screening. This model could readily be applied to other populations to increase participation in chlamydia screening.

  4. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Melia azedarach plants show tolerance properties to water shortage treatment: an ecophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Celeste; Azevedo, Carla; Costa, Maria; Pinto, Glória; Santos, Conceição

    2014-02-01

    Candidate species for reforestation of areas prone to drought must combine water stress (WS) tolerance and economic or medicinal interest. Melia azedarach produces high quality timber and has insecticidal and medicinal properties. However, the impact of WS on M. azedarach has not yet been studied. Two-month old M. azedarach plants were exposed to WS during 20 days. After this period, plant's growth, water potential, photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. WS did not affect plants' growth, but induced stomatal closure, reduced net CO₂ assimilation rate (A) and the intercellular CO₂ availability in mesophyll (C(i)). WS also reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII but not the pigment levels. WS up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes and stimulated the production of antioxidant metabolites, preventing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, despite some repression of photosynthetic parameters by WS, they did not compromise plant growth, and plants increased their antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that M. azedarach juvenile plants have the potential to acclimate to water shortage conditions, opening new perspectives to the use of this species in reforestation/afforestation programs of drought prone areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Feasibility Study on the Development of Index that Shows Social and Cultural Acceptance of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, SeongKyung; Choi, Seungho; Yoon, Hana; Song, Jiyeon

    2015-01-01

    In this context, it is necessary to manage and develop an index that can measure the level of public acceptance by establishing the terms of social/cultural public acceptance of nuclear power in a practical manner and by identifying influential factors of public acceptance. Developing an index itself is not intended to increase the public acceptance of nuclear power. This study intends to contribute to determining energy policy acceptable to the public by estimating the level of potential social conflicts related to nuclear power policies with eligible evaluation criteria on social/cultural acceptance and by reducing relevant social costs. Key conclusions and proposal of this research are as follows. First, the influential factors of acceptance are reliability of nuclear safety, risk perception of nuclear power and beneficial perception of nuclear power. Among them, reliability of nuclear safety appears to have the most influence. In addition, benefit perception of nuclear power at the social level is significantly higher than that at the individual level. However, in relation to risk perception, a gap between experts and the public is found as nuclear industry premises that accident does not occur while the public premises that accident may occur

  7. Large population study shows that adolescents with celiac disease have an increased risk of multiple autoimmune and nonautoimmune comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assa, Amit; Frenkel-Nir, Yael; Tzur, Dorit; Katz, Lior H; Shamir, Raanan

    2017-06-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a systemic disorder that is associated with various autoimmune disorders and a higher prevalence of other diagnoses and complications. This large, cross-sectional, population-based study investigated the associations between CD and various medical conditions during late adolescence. We included 2 001 353 Jewish Israeli adolescents who underwent a general health examination at a median age of 17.1 (16.9-17.4) years from 1988 to 2015. Comprehensive data regarding medical status were available for 1 588 041 (79%) subjects. A definite diagnosis of CD was based on accepted criteria. Covariate data included demographic measures and data on associated medical conditions. Overall, data on 7145 subjects with CD and 1 580 896 controls were analysed. Multivariate analyses showed that autoimmune diseases were significantly more common in subjects with CD, including insulin dependent diabetes, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.5, inflammatory bowel diseases (OR = 3.8), arthritis (OR = 2.4), thyroid diseases (OR = 1.8) and psoriatic skin disorders (OR = 1.6). Further associations included asthma (OR = 1.5), bile stones (OR = 3.6), migraine (OR = 2.3), anaemia (OR = 1.7) and menstrual abnormalities (OR = 1.5). Long bone fractures and axial fractures were no more common in adolescents with CD than controls. CD was already associated with multiple comorbidities by adolescence, and these were not limited to autoimmune disorders. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark

    2016-12-01

    People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.

  9. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  11. A pre-feasibility case study on integrated resource planning including renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Hakan Hocaoglu, M.; Konukman, Alp Er S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, economical and environmental constraints force governments and energy policy decision-makers to change the prominent characteristics of the electricity markets. Accordingly, depending on local conditions on the demand side, usage of integrated resource planning approaches in conjunction with renewable technologies has gained more importance. In this respect, an integrated resource planning option, which includes the design and optimization of grid-connected renewable energy plants, should be evaluated to facilitate a cost-effective and green solution to a sustainable future. In this paper, an integrated resource planning case is studied for an educational campus, located in Gebze, Turkey. It is found that for the considered campus, the integrated resource planning scenario that includes renewables as a supply-side option with existing time-of-use tariff may provide a cost-effective energy production, particularly for the high penetration level of the renewables. (author)

  12. THERMOHALINE INSTABILITIES INSIDE STARS: A SYNTHETIC STUDY INCLUDING EXTERNAL TURBULENCE AND RADIATIVE LEVITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauclair, Sylvie; Theado, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.vauclair@irap.omp.eu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP and CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2012-07-01

    We have derived a new expression for the thermohaline mixing coefficient in stars, including the effects of radiative levitation and external turbulence, by solving Boussinesq equations in a nearly incompressible stratified fluid with a linear approximation. It is well known that radiative levitation of individual elements can lead to their accumulation in specific stellar layers. In some cases, it can induce important effects on the stellar structure. Here we confirm that this accumulation is moderated by thermohaline convection due to the resulting inverse {mu}-gradient. The new coefficient that we have derived shows that the effect of radiative accelerations on the thermohaline instability itself is small. This effect must however be checked in all computations. We also confirm that the presence of large horizontal turbulence can reduce or even suppress the thermohaline convection. These results are important as they concern all the cases of heavy element accumulation in stars. Computations of radiative diffusion must be revisited to include thermohaline convection and its consequences. It may be one of the basic reasons for the fact that the observed abundances are always smaller than those predicted by pure atomic diffusion. In any case, these processes have to compete with rotation-induced mixing, but this competition is more complex than previously thought due to their mutual interaction.

  13. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  14. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  15. National data study showed that adolescents living in poorer households and with one parent were more likely to be bullied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, S B; Fransson, E; Modin, B; Östberg, V

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether sociodemographic household characteristics were associated with which Swedish adolescents were more likely to be bullied. The data were derived from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey and its child supplements from the survey years 2008-2011. The analyses included information on 3951 adolescents aged 10-18 years. Exposure to bullying was reported by adolescents, and information on sociodemographic household characteristics was reported by parents and obtained from official registers. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Adolescents were more likely to be bullied if they lived in households with no cash margin, defined as the ability to pay an unexpected bill of 8000 Swedish Kronor or about 800 Euros, and if they lived with just one custodial parent. In the unadjusted analyses, elevated risks were identified if adolescents lived in working class households and had unemployed and foreign-born parents. However, these associations were at least partly accounted for by other sociodemographic household characteristics, in particular the lack of a cash margin. This study showed that Swedish adolescents living in households with more limited financial resources had an increased risk of being bullied, supporting results from previous international research. ©2017 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for neuroticism and shows polygenic association with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Marleen H.M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppälä, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbara; Giegling, Ina; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heinonen, Kati; Henders, Anjali K.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Karlsson, Robert; Kemp, John P.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Latvala, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Magri, Chiara; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marten, Jonathan; Maschio, Andrea; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nauck, Matthias; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pettersson, Erik; Polasek, Ozren; Qian, Yong; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Pourcain, Beate St; Sutin, Angelina R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trochet, Holly; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Wouda, Jasper; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Scotland, Generation; Porteous, David; Minelli, Alessandra; Palmer, Abraham A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Metspalu, Andres; Kaprio, Jaakko; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Wilson, James F.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Bierut, Laura J.; Hettema, John M.; Grabe, Hans J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Evans, David M.; Schlessinger, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Terracciano, Antonio; McGue, Matt; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Neuroticism is a personality trait that is briefly defined by emotional instability. It is a robust genetic risk factor for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Hence, neuroticism is an important phenotype for psychiatric genetics. The Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) has created a resource for genome-wide association analyses of personality traits in over 63,000 participants (including MDD cases). Objective To identify genetic variants associated with neuroticism by performing a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results based on 1000Genomes imputation, to evaluate if common genetic variants as assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) explain variation in neuroticism by estimating SNP-based heritability, and to examine whether SNPs that predict neuroticism also predict MDD. Setting 30 cohorts with genome-wide genotype, personality and MDD data from the GPC. Participants The study included 63,661 participants from 29 discovery cohorts and 9,786 participants from a replication cohort. Participants came from Europe, the United States or Australia. Main outcome measure(s) Neuroticism scores harmonized across all cohorts by Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis, and clinically assessed MDD case-control status. Results A genome-wide significant SNP was found in the MAGI1 gene (rs35855737; P=9.26 × 10−9 in the discovery meta-analysis, and P=2.38 × 10−8 in the meta-analysis of all 30 cohorts). Common genetic variants explain 15% of the variance in neuroticism. Polygenic scores based on the meta-analysis of neuroticism in 27 of the discovery cohorts significantly predicted neuroticism in 2 independent cohorts. Importantly, polygenic scores also predicted MDD in these cohorts. Conclusions and relevance This study identifies a novel locus for neuroticism. The variant is located in a known gene that has been associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in previous studies. In addition, the study

  17. Neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreas: a clinicopathological study of nine cases including six insulinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaiem, F; Arfa, N; Ben Hassen, E; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S

    2014-06-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNET) are relatively uncommon, accounting for 1-2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. They are characterised by varying clinical presentation, tumour biology and prognosis. To provide an updated overview on clinicopathological features, treatment and outcome of pNET. In our retrospective study, we reviewed 9 cases of pNET that were diagnosed at the Pathology Department of Mongi Slim Hospital over an 11-year period (2003- 2013). Relevant clinical information and microscopic slides were available in all cases and were retrospectively reviewed. The latest WHO classification (2010) was adopted. Our study group included 3 men and 6 women (M/F ratio 0.5) with an age between 20 and 75 years (mean = 52 years). Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours ranged in size from 0.5 to 10 cm (mean 4 cm). The sites of pNET were the head of the pancreas (n = 4), the body of the pancreas (n = 3) and the tail of the pancreas (n = 2). Enucleation of the tumour was performed in five cases, Three patients underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, whereas only one patient had central pancreatectomy. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen coupled with immunohistochemical study established a diagnosis of pNET grade 1 (G1) in seven cases and grade 2 (G2) in two cases. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct tumour genetics, biology and clinicopathological features. Accurate clinical and pathologic diagnosis is an important first step in developing an appropriate management plan.

  18. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...... on spirometry embedded in “Check your health Prevention Program, CHPP” from 2015-16. CHPP is a house-hold cluster randomized controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30-49 year olds in a Danish municipality during the years 2012 through to 2017 (n= 26,216), carried out in collaboration between...

  19. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  20. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-01

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  1. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  2. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela; Granata, Claudio; Matranga, Domenica; Salerno, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest–abdomen–pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen–pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen–pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). • Radiation dose associated with multidetector CT (MDCT) is an important health issue. • This national survey assessed dose exposures of 5,668 patients undergoing MDCT. • Dose indices correlate with BMI, voltage, rotation time, pitch and tube current. • These results may contribute to an update of national diagnostic reference levels.

  3. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I.; Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  4. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Wendy L; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Chanock, Stephen J; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Gejman, Pablo V; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M; Price, Jackie F; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K; Chines, Peter S; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N A; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W G; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; North, Kari E; Heid, Iris M

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  5. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,72...

  6. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpelainen, T.O.; Esko, T.; Magi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T.; Feitosa, M.F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Locke, A.E.; Mathieson, I.; Scherag, A.; Vedantam, S.; Wood, A.R.; Liang, L.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorleifsson, G.; Dermitzakis, E.T.; Dimas, A.S.; Karpe, F.; Min, J.L.; Nicholson, G.; Clegg, D.J.; Person, T.; Krohn, J.P.; Bauer, S.; Buechler, C.; Eisinger, K.; Bonnefond, A.; Froguel, P.; Hottenga, J.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Waite, L.L.; Harris, T.B.; Smith, A.V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; McArdle, W.L.; Caulfield, M.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Gronberg, H.; Chen, Y.D.; Li, G.; Beckmann, J.S.; Johnson, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Teder-Laving, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Zhao, J.H.; Amin, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Kraja, A.T.; Province, M.A.; Cupples, L.A.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Kaprio, J.; Ripatti, S.; Surakka, I.; Collins, F.S.; Saramies, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jula, A.; Salomaa, V.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Loley, C.; Schunkert, H.; Lamina, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Albrecht, E.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A; Pramstaller, P.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Speliotes, E.K.; Penninx, B.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Gyllensten, U.; Boomsma, D.I.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, J.F.; Chanock, S.J.; Farrall, M.; Goel, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Rivadeneira, F.; Estrada, K.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Heijer, M. den; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  7. Including the online feedback site, Patient Opinion, in the nursing curriculum: Exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray; Young, Kim; Munro, James; Miller, Heather; Brelsford, Stephanie; Aronsson, Jennie; Goodman, Benny; Peters, Jane

    2017-10-01

    Globally, universities aim to involve people who use health services to enrich the nursing curriculum for students, but there can be barriers to this involvement. Many also want students to contribute to local communities. Online communication can help connect students to service users to achieve these aims. The online British patient feedback site, Patient Opinion, gathers comments from service users about services and encourages service responses to the comments. To explore the feasibility and acceptability of five ways of including Patient Opinion in the undergraduate nursing curriculum. Five case studies using mixed data collection methods. British University with nursing students across two campuses, accustomed to using webinars, video presentations and social media. Students from different years participated in the five approaches of making use of Patient Opinion in the curriculum; 18 students took part in an online forum to discuss Patient Opinion in the curriculum. We trialled timetabled webinars, video-linked lectures, optional enhanced access for self-study, optional audit of service user comments for two local hospitals, and optional Twitter and Tweetchat. Students discussed the aims and approaches in an online forum. Of the five approaches trialled, webinars seemed effective in ensuring that all nursing students engaged with the topic. Video-linked lectures provided an alternative when timetabling did not allow webinars, but were less interactive. The three optional approaches (Tweetchats, audit exercise, self-directed study) provided opportunities for some students to enhance their learning but students needed guidance. Sending a summary of student reviews of patients' feedback to local hospitals illustrated how students might be agents of change in local health services. Experience from these case studies suggests that webinars followed by use of Patient Opinion preparing for placements may be a sustainable way of embedding feedback sites in the

  8. [Baseline clinical characteristics and management of patients included in IBERICAN study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Escobar, C; Llisterri, J L; Rodríguez Roca, G; Badimón, J J; Vergara, J; Prieto, M Á; Serrano, A; Cinza, S; Murillo, C

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in Spain, as well as the quality of the follow-up in clinical practice. In this study the baseline data of the first interim analysis of IBERICAN are shown (n=830). IBERICAN is a multicenter, longitudinal and observational population-based study of patients daily attended in primary care setting according to clinical practice in Spain. Subjects between 18 and 85 years daily attended in primary care setting are being included consecutively. Treatment of patients will be performed according only to clinical criteria of investigators. Blood pressure control was defined according to 2013 European guidelines of hypertension; LDL-cholesterol control was defined according to 2012 European guidelines of cardiovascular prevention; diabetes control was defined as HbA1ccardiovascular risk factors with a poor control. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. White matter microstructural changes in adolescent anorexia nervosa including an exploratory longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488

  10. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  11. United Kingdom nationwide study of avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Palmer, N O A; Lowe, D; Randall, C

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to record all new patients who presented to departments of oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral and maxillofacial surgery, and to dental hospitals in the UK, with avascular necrosis of the jaws including bisphosphonate-related necrosis (BRONJ) over a 2-year period (1 June 2009-31 May 2011). They were eligible irrespective of age, cause, or coexisting conditions. Data on incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and coexisting conditions were collected. A total of 383 cases were registered: 369 were described as BRONJ, 5 as avascular necrosis, and 9 were unknown. Bisphosphonates had been given orally in 207 (56%), intravenously in 125 (34%), both orally and intravenously in 27 (7%), and was unknown in 9 (2%); one had been given denosumab. The main risk factor was dental extraction, and the mandible was commonly affected. The median duration of administration until onset of BRONJ was 3 years in those treated intravenously and 4 years in those treated orally. Levels of engagement with the study varied between regions, and extrapolation from the 2 most involved (Merseyside and Northern Ireland) found around 8.2-12.8 cases/million/year, which is 508-793 patients/year across the UK. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to estimate national rates of BRONJ. It confirms that the risk and incidence are low. With changes in trends for antiresorptive bone medication, and increasing numbers of elderly people, it would be useful to repeat the registration in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Links between life events, traumatism and dementia; an open study including 565 patients with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, E; Bouby-Serieys, V; Thomas, P; Clément, J-P

    2006-10-01

    Ageing is due to a progressive loss of the person's adaptation capability, whereas during this period environmental aggression increases. In the elderly, life events re-present a psychological traumatism that overwhelms the old person and related family, disrupting and fragilising homeostatic balance. A number of authors have suggested a possible link between life traumatisms and the dementia processes. The aim of this study is to reveal the presence of life traumatisms preceding the apparition of the dementia syndrome. This is a retrospective and comparative work based on the PIXEL study on complaints and demands from the principle informal caregivers of Alzheimer patients. It includes 565 patients presenting the criterion of dementia as defined by the DSM IV, and questionnaires filled out by the principle caregivers. One item of the questionnaire referred to life events which could have played a part in the development of the disorder. In a second stage, the reported events were classified into 4 distinct categories: loss, repeated or prolonged stress, psychotraumatism and depression-inducing events. The statistics were produced using SAS and Stat 10 software. Student's test, ANOVA and chi2-test were used. 372 caregivers answered the first item (65%); 76 of them believed there was no event while 296 related the disorder to one or several life events (79% of responders, 52% of the sample). These results confirm Persson and Clement's study which evidenced a higher frequency of stressing life events for subjects afflicted with dementia as compared with older people without any psychic disorder. Reported events and their respective frequency: spouse death (15.39%), parents' death (15%), familial difficulty (10.08%), anaesthesia (8.49%), child's death (4.42%), somatic disturbance (4%), depression (3.89%), retirement (3.89%), financial problems (2.65%), loneliness (2.65%), removal (1.76%), fall (1%), alcohol (0.8%), traumatism (0.53%), spouse care (0.35%), leaving for

  13. Configuration interaction studies on the spectroscopic properties of PbO including spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luo; Rui, Li; Zhiqiang, Gai; RuiBo, Ai; Hongmin, Zhang; Xiaomei, Zhang; Bing, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Lead oxide (PbO), which plays the key roles in a range of research fields, has received a great deal of attention. Owing to the large density of electronic states and heavy atom Pb including in PbO, the excited states of the molecule have not been well studied. In this work, high level multireference configuration interaction calculations on the low-lying states of PbO have been carried out by utilizing the relativistic effective core potential. The effects of the core-valence correlation correction, the Davidson modification, and the spin-orbital coupling on the electronic structure of the PbO molecule are estimated. The potential energy curves of 18 Λ-S states correlated to the lowest dissociation limit (Pb (3Pg) + O(3Pg)) are reported. The calculated spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states below 30000 cm-1, for instance, X1Σ+, 13Σ+, and 13Σ-, and their spin-orbit coupling interaction, are compared with the experimental results, and good agreements are derived. The dipole moments of the 18 Λ-S states are computed with the configuration interaction method, and the calculated dipole moments of X1Σ+ and 13Σ+ are consistent with the previous experimental results. The transition dipole moments from 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ to X1Σ+ and other singlet excited states are estimated. The radiative lifetime of several low-lying vibrational levels of 11Π, 21Π, and 21Σ+ states are evaluated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404180 and 11574114), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A2015010), the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. UNPYSCT-2015095), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150101003JC).

  14. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  15. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal......, and of the meaning that viewers take from the musical talent show genre....

  16. In-State and Interstate Associations Between Gun Shows and Firearm Deaths and Injuries: A Quasi-experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthay, Ellicott C; Galin, Jessica; Rudolph, Kara E; Farkas, Kriszta; Wintemute, Garen J; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-12-19

    Gun shows are an important source of firearms, but no adequately powered studies have examined whether they are associated with increases in firearm injuries. To determine whether gun shows are associated with short-term increases in local firearm injuries and whether this association differs by the state in which the gun show is held. Quasi-experimental. California. Persons in California within driving distance of gun shows. Gun shows in California and Nevada between 2005 and 2013 (n = 915 shows) and rates of firearm-related deaths, emergency department visits, and inpatient hospitalizations in California. Compared with the 2 weeks before, postshow firearm injury rates remained stable in regions near California gun shows but increased from 0.67 injuries (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.80 injuries) to 1.14 injuries (CI, 0.97 to 1.30 injuries) per 100 000 persons in regions near Nevada shows. After adjustment for seasonality and clustering, California shows were not associated with increases in local firearm injuries (rate ratio [RR], 0.99 [CI, 0.97 to 1.02]) but Nevada shows were associated with increased injuries in California (RR, 1.69 [CI, 1.16 to 2.45]). The pre-post difference was significantly higher for Nevada shows than California shows (ratio of RRs, 1.70 [CI, 1.17 to 2.47]). The Nevada association was driven by significant increases in firearm injuries from interpersonal violence (RR, 2.23 [CI, 1.01 to 4.89]) but corresponded to a small increase in absolute numbers. Nonfirearm injuries served as a negative control and were not associated with California or Nevada gun shows. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Firearm injuries were examined only in California, and gun show occurrence was not randomized. Gun shows in Nevada, but not California, were associated with local, short-term increases in firearm injuries in California. Differing associations for California versus Nevada gun shows may be due to California's stricter firearm regulations. National

  17. Nonrandomized studies are not always found even when selection criteria for health systems intervention reviews include them: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Mayhew, Alain; Scheel, Inger; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews within the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) can include both randomized and nonrandomized study designs. We explored how many EPOC reviews consider and identify nonrandomized studies, and whether the proportion of nonrandomized studies identified is linked to the review topic. We recorded the study designs considered in 65 EPOC reviews. For reviews that considered nonrandomized studies, we calculated the proportion of identified studies that were nonrandomized and explored whether there were differences in the proportion of nonrandomized studies according to the review topic. Fifty-one (78.5%) reviews considered nonrandomized studies. Forty-six of these reviews found nonrandomized studies, but the proportion varied a great deal (median, 33%; interquartile range, 25--50%). Reviews of health care delivery interventions had lower proportions of nonrandomized studies than those of financial and governance interventions. Most EPOC reviews consider nonrandomized studies, but the degree to which they find them varies. As nonrandomized studies are believed to be at higher risk of bias and their inclusion entails a considerable effort, review authors should consider whether the benefits justify the inclusion of these designs. Research should explore whether it is more useful to consider nonrandomized studies in reviews of some intervention types than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Including an Autistic Middle School Child in General Physical Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…

  19. Long-term integrated studies show complex and surprising effects of climate change in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Lindsey Rustad; Pamela H. Templer; John Campbell; Lynn M. Christenson; Nina K. Lany; Anne M. Socci; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur; Paul Schaberg; Geoffrey F. Wilson; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Christine L. Goodale; Mark B. Green; Steven P. Hamburg; Chris E. Johnson; Myron J. Mitchell; Jennifer L. Morse; Linda H. Pardo; Nicholas L. Rodenhouse

    2012-01-01

    Evaluations of the local effects of global change are often confounded by the interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors that overshadow the effects of climate changes on ecosystems. Long-term watershed and natural elevation gradient studies at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest and in the surrounding region show surprising results demonstrating the effects...

  20. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Resu...

  1. Current status of hyphenated mass spectrometry in studies of the metabolism of drugs of abuse, including doping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews scientific contributions on the identification and/or quantification of metabolites of drugs of abuse in in vitro assays or various body samples using hyphenated mass spectrometry. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approaches are considered and discussed if they have been reported in the last five years and are relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology or doping control. Workup and artifact formation are discussed, and typical examples of studies of the metabolism of designer drugs, doping agents, herbal drugs, and synthetic cannabinoids are provided. Procedures for quantifying metabolites in body samples for pharmacokinetic studies or in enzyme incubations for enzyme kinetic studies are also reviewed. In conclusion, the reviewed papers showed that both GC-MS and LC-MS still have important roles to play in research into the metabolism of drugs of abuse, including doping agents.

  2. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... television formats, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, Got Talent, X Factor and, more recently, Voice have sold to a large variety of countries. As an example, Idols alone has been adapted in over 40 territories, covering all...... of the communal viewing experience, real and imagined, national, sub-national and transnational; of identification, and of the meaning that viewers take from the musical talent show genre. (Part of the panel “Television across borders: The local-global nexus”)...

  3. Large-scale experimental studies show unexpected amino acid effects on protein expression and solubility in vivo in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The biochemical and physical factors controlling protein expression level and solubility in vivo remain incompletely characterized. To gain insight into the primary sequence features influencing these outcomes, we performed statistical analyses of results from the high-throughput protein-production pipeline of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium. Proteins expressed in E. coli and consistently purified were scored independently for expression and solubility levels. These parameters nonetheless show a very strong positive correlation. We used logistic regressions to determine whether they are systematically influenced by fractional amino acid composition or several bulk sequence parameters including hydrophobicity, sidechain entropy, electrostatic charge, and predicted backbone disorder. Decreasing hydrophobicity correlates with higher expression and solubility levels, but this correlation apparently derives solely from the beneficial effect of three charged amino acids, at least for bacterial proteins. In fact, the three most hydrophobic residues showed very different correlations with solubility level. Leu showed the strongest negative correlation among amino acids, while Ile showed a slightly positive correlation in most data segments. Several other amino acids also had unexpected effects. Notably, Arg correlated with decreased expression and, most surprisingly, solubility of bacterial proteins, an effect only partially attributable to rare codons. However, rare codons did significantly reduce expression despite use of a codon-enhanced strain. Additional analyses suggest that positively but not negatively charged amino acids may reduce translation efficiency in E. coli irrespective of codon usage. While some observed effects may reflect indirect evolutionary correlations, others may reflect basic physicochemical phenomena. We used these results to construct and validate predictors of expression and solubility levels and overall protein usability, and we

  4. Evidence Clearinghouses and Registries: Methods for Locating and Including Studies in Evidence Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lisa; LaSota, Robin; Yeide, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to report about study identification practices across evidence-based registries and clearinghouses in social policy fields, which serve as a resource for scientific, evidence-based decision-making about practices about desired outcomes in these social policy fields. The information retrieval procedures of the…

  5. Public Participation UK Case Studies -Schemes and Strategies including costs of partcipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarises the main issues arising from a review of approaches to engaging stakeholders in flood risk management undertaken as part of the ComCoast project. The UK Environment Agency selected a sample of six experiences for review from the east of England. The detailed case studies are

  6. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  7. Two phase formation of massive elliptical galaxies: study through cross-correlation including spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Soumita; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Area of study is the formation mechanism of the present-day population of elliptical galaxies, in the context of hierarchical cosmological models accompanied by accretion and minor mergers. The present work investigates the formation and evolution of several components of the nearby massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) through cross-correlation function (CCF), using the spatial parameters right ascension (RA) and declination (DEC), and the intrinsic parameters mass (M_{*}) and size. According to the astrophysical terminology, here these variables, namely mass, size, RA and DEC are termed as parameters, whereas the unknown constants involved in the kernel function are called hyperparameters. Throughout this paper, the parameter size is used to represent the effective radius (Re). Following Huang et al. (2013a), each nearby ETG is divided into three parts on the basis of its Re value. We study the CCF between each of these three components of nearby massive ETGs and the ETGs in the high redshift range, 0.5work (De et al. 2014) suggesting other possibilities for the formation of the outermost part. A probable cause of this improvement is the inclusion of the spatial effects in addition to the other parameters in the study.

  8. HRTEM study of α-AlMnSi crystals including non-crystallographic projection axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, G.L.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of α-AlMnSi is examined by atomic resolution high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and computer-based image matching techniques. Six distinct zone axes are examined; including both normal crystallographic and non-crystallographic zones axes of the structural motifs, which have m3-bar 5 icosahedral symmetry. The results provide a sound basis for understanding HRTEM images of the quasicrystalline alloy i-AlMnSi; thus it was examined to what extent the requirements for obtaining so-called structure images of complex alloy structures may be met experimentally and define when the images may be reliably interpreted on the basis of computer simulation and image-matching at about 0.17nm resolution. Most difficulty was experienced in obtaining the experimental images, especially for the non-crystallographic zones, which are very sensitive to slight changes in orientation off the desired zone axis or projection, the rate at which the crystal thickness is increasing (wedge-angle) and the orientation of the surfaces of the specimen. Surface amorphous layers due to oxidation and/or electron-induced irradiation damage also limit the efficiency of the HRTEM analysis. For the thin specimens used for HRTEM, both the electron diffraction patterns and the HRTEM images are characteristic of Im3-bar space group symmetry. It is suggested that this Im3-bar symmetry may be an example of a statistical symmetry, where the local symmetry is close to Pm3-bar but the average symmetry is Im3-bar. The transition from Pm3-bar to Im3-bar may be understood in terms of an analysis of small changes in the outer shells of the large icosahedral structural elements which are located at the corners and body-centers of the cubic unit cell. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  9. Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anshuman; Nizammuddin, Sheikh; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Singh, Sakshi; Prakash, Satya; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Rai, Niraj; Carlus, S Justin; Sudhakar, Digumarthi V S; Tripathi, Vishnu P; Möls, Märt; Kim-Howard, Xana; Dewangan, Hemlata; Mishra, Abhishek; Reddy, Alla G; Roy, Biswajit; Pandey, Krishna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Das, Pradeep; Nath, Swapan K; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2017-03-01

    Our understanding of the genetics of skin pigmentation has been largely skewed towards populations of European ancestry, imparting less attention to South Asian populations, who behold huge pigmentation diversity. Here, we investigate skin pigmentation variation in a cohort of 1,167 individuals in the Middle Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm the association of rs1426654 with skin pigmentation among South Asians, consistent with previous studies, and also show association for rs2470102 single nucleotide polymorphism. Our haplotype analyses further help us delineate the haplotype distribution across social categories and skin color. Taken together, our findings suggest that the social structure defined by the caste system in India has a profound influence on the skin pigmentation patterns of the subcontinent. In particular, social category and associated single nucleotide polymorphisms explain about 32% and 6.4%, respectively, of the total phenotypic variance. Phylogeography of the associated single nucleotide polymorphisms studied across 52 diverse populations of the Indian subcontinent shows wide presence of the derived alleles, although their frequencies vary across populations. Our results show that both polymorphisms (rs1426654 and rs2470102) play an important role in the skin pigmentation diversity of South Asians. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer-a comparative study including radical prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Liam; Papa, Nathan; Perera, Marlon; Katelaris, Nikolas; Weerakoon, Mahesha; Chin, Kwang; Harewood, Laurence; Bolton, Damien M; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic and staging ability of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) compared to radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens after dissemination of this technology to several centres. mpMRI is an evolving technique aiming to improve upon the diagnostic sensitivity of prostate biopsy for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Differences in interpretation, expertise and application of mpMRI are responsible for the range of reported results. This retrospective clinical study was conducted with consecutive patients through an electronic database of tertiary hospitals and adjacent private urology practices in Australia. Patients having undergone RP were assessed for the presence of a pre-operative mpMRI performed between 2013 and 2015 which was evaluated against the reference standard of the RP whole-mount specimen. MRI reports were evaluated using the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS). In our cohort of 152 patients, the sensitivity and specificity of mpMRI (PI-RADS ≥ 4) for prostate cancer (Gleason ≥ 4 + 3) detection were 83 and 47%, respectively. For the identification of extraprostatic disease, the sensitivity and specificity were 29 and 94%, respectively. These results represent a 'real-world' approach to mpMRI and appear comparable to other single-centre studies. MRI staging information should be interpreted in context with other risk factors for extraprostatic disease. mpMRI has a useful role as an adjunct for prostate cancer diagnosis and directing management towards improving patient outcomes.

  11. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comprehensive study in the inhibitory effect of berberine on gene transcription, including TATA box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yugang; Kheir, Michael M; Chai, Yushuang; Hu, Jun; Xing, Dongming; Lei, Fan; Du, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is an established natural DNA intercalator with numerous pharmacological functions. However, currently there are neither detailed reports concerning the distribution of this alkaloid in living cells nor reports concerning the relationship between BBR's association with DNA and the function of DNA. Here we report that the distribution of BBR within the nucleus can be observed 30 minutes after drug administration, and that the content of berberine in the nucleus peaks at around 4 µmol, which is twelve hours after drug administration. The spatial conformation of DNA and chromatin was altered immediately after their association with BBR. Moreover, this association can effectively suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems and cell-free systems. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated further that BBR can inhibit the association between the TATA binding protein (TBP) and the TATA box in the promoter, and this finding was also attained in living cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Based on results from this study, we hypothesize that berberine can suppress the transcription of DNA in living cell systems, especially suppressing the association between TBP and the TATA box by binding with DNA and, thus, inhibiting TATA box-dependent gene expression in a non-specific way. This novel study has significantly expanded the sphere of knowledge concerning berberine's pharmacological effects, beginning at its paramount initial interaction with the TATA box.

  13. Integrated wastewater management reporting at tourist areas for recycling purposes, including the case study of Hersonissos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borboudaki, K E; Paranychianakis, N V; Tsagarakis, K P

    2005-10-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities in tourist areas, in comparison to other municipal facilities, require specific configurations and additional management actions in order to achieve a reliable and cost-effective treatment. For example, the same facility operates during winter with minimum flows and in summer with peak flows. Moreover, careful effluent management is required to minimize environmental impact and health effects on tourists. In this study, effluent management data, including quantitative and qualitative effluent characteristics, reuse, and economic aspects of the Hersonissos Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) in Greece, are discussed. It has been designed to treat both municipal wastewater from the Hersonissos Municipality and septage from the wider area. Analysis of effluent quantitative data showed two flow peaks in the summer period and only one in winter. The WTP was found to provide a reliable level of treatment in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (95.9%), total suspended solids (97.2%), and total nitrogen (87.7%) removal, but increased numbers of fecal coliforms were measured at some peak flow periods, suggesting the need for additional management strategies. Effluent is reused mainly for agricultural irrigation; secondary uses include fire protection and landscape irrigation. Economic analysis showed that for each cubic meter treated, the total annual economic cost for treatment, filtration, and reuse infrastructure was 1.07 euro, 0.05 euro, and 0.08 euro, respectively.

  14. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  15. Immunization of cattle against Schistosome bovis (including pathophysiological studies on schistosome infection in bovines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.F.

    1978-12-01

    Bovine schistosomiasis caused by S. bovis constitutes a serious veterinary problem in the Sudan, yet very little is known about the epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunology of the disease. Over the past 5 years, work on these aspects has been conducted at Khartoum and several outlying areas of the White Nile Province in Sudan. In studies involving over 1,000 cattle, it was found that almost 100% of animals are infected by 2 years of age but that the prevalence falls to less than 60% over the following 7 years. There was also a marked reduction in the intensity of infection with increasing age, indicating the development of a high degree of acquired resistance. This was confirmed experimentally by challenging animals from an endemic area with massive numbers of cercariae. These animals completely resisted the challenge whereas animals never previously exposed either died or became moribund due to the severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea resulting from the passage of schistosome eggs through the gut wall. Attempts were made to vaccinate calves using irradiated organisms. These gave 70-80% protection against a challenge infection and this was sufficient to allow these animals to gain weight and remain clinically healthy. Animals not given the vaccine deteriorated. The efficacy of the vaccine was then tested under field conditions and found to give a high level of protection against S. bovis. These animals were also less susceptible to intercurrent infections

  16. Risk Factor Analysis for AKI Including Laboratory Indicators: a Nationwide Multicenter Study of Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Nie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Risk factor studies for acute kidney injury (AKI in China are lacking, especially those regarding non-traditional risk factors, such as laboratory indicators. Methods: All adult patients admitted to 38 tertiary and 22 secondary hospitals in China in any one month between July and December 2014 were surveyed. AKI patients were screened according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes’ definition of AKI. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for AKI, and Cox regression was used to analyze the risk of in-hospital mortality for AKI patients; additionally, a propensity score analysis was used to reconfirm the risk factors among laboratory indicators for mortality. Results: The morbidity of AKI was 0.97%. Independent risk factors for AKI were advancing age, male gender, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. All-cause mortality was 16.5%. The predictors of mortality in AKI patients were advancing age, tumor, higher uric acid level and increases in Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. The hazard ratio (HR for mortality with uric acid levels > 9.1 mg/dl compared with ≤ 5.2 mg/dl was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.58 for the AKI patients as a group, and was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.24 to 2.42 for a propensity score-matched set. Conclusion: In addition to traditional risk factors, uric acid level is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality after AKI.

  17. Noise exposure in movie theaters: a preliminary study of sound levels during the showing of 25 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawa, Anna; Sataloff, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The harmful effects of noise exposure during leisure-time activities are beginning to receive some scrutiny. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the noise levels during the showings of 25 different films. During each screening, various sound measurements were made with a dosimeter. The movies were classified on the basis of both their Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and their genre, and the size of the theater and the size of the audience were taken into consideration in the final analysis. Our findings suggest that the sound levels of many movies might be harmful to hearing, although we can draw no definitive conclusions. We did not discern any relationship between noise levels and either MPAA rating or genre. Further studies are recommended.

  18. Whole blood DNA aberrant methylation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma shows association with the course of the disease: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas Dauksa

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage in the progression of the disease, thus reducing the survival chances of the patients. Non-invasive early detection would greatly enhance therapy and survival rates. Toward this aim, we investigated in a pilot study the power of methylation changes in whole blood as predictive markers for the detection of pancreatic tumors. We investigated methylation levels at selected CpG sites in the CpG rich regions at the promoter regions of p16, RARbeta, TNFRSF10C, APC, ACIN1, DAPK1, 3OST2, BCL2 and CD44 in the blood of 30 pancreatic tumor patients and in the blood of 49 matching controls. In addition, we studied LINE-1 and Alu repeats using degenerate amplification approach as a surrogate marker for genome-wide methylation. The site-specific methylation measurements at selected CpG sites were done by the SIRPH method. Our results show that in the patient's blood, tumor suppressor genes were slightly but significantly higher methylated at several CpG sites, while repeats were slightly less methylated compared to control blood. This was found to be significantly associated with higher risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Additionally, high methylation levels at TNFRSCF10C were associated with positive perineural spread of tumor cells, while higher methylation levels of TNFRSF10C and ACIN1 were significantly associated with shorter survival. This pilot study shows that methylation changes in blood could provide a promising method for early detection of pancreatic tumors. However, larger studies must be carried out to explore the clinical usefulness of a whole blood methylation based test for non-invasive early detection of pancreatic tumors.

  19. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  20. Is Serum Hypovitaminosis D Associated with Chronic Widespread Pain Including Fibromyalgia? A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Hung, Chen-Yu; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a global musculoskeletal disorder leading to disability and a reduced quality of life. Low levels of serum vitamin D has long been proposed to be associated with CWP, but previous research remains inconclusive. To determine whether hypovitaminosis D was independently associated with CWP. Meta-analysis of observational study. Electronic databases were searched for studies published up to November 2014 comparing the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and serum vitamin D levels between participants with and without CWP. The crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of hypovitaminosis D with CWP were calculated. Subgroup analysis according to gender, threshold of hypovitaminosis, and definition of patients was performed, as well as meta-regression to test the linear relationship between crude ORs and the latitude of study locations. Twelve studies were included, comprising 1,854 patients with CWP. The patient group showed a significantly higher risk of hypovitaminosis D than the control group (crude OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.20-2.23). The association was slightly attenuated after adjusting confounders, with a pooled adjusted OR of 1.41 (95% CI, 1.00-2.00). There was an increase in ORs of hypovitaminosis D using a lower diagnostic value of serum vitamin D (8 and 10 ng/mL). The subgroup analysis according to gender and definition of CWP did not reveal significant between-group differences. The meta-regression showed no linear relationship between latitude and the crude ORs. There was a positive crude association between hypovitaminosis D and CWP, and the association was likely to remain after adjusting confounding factors. Use of a cut-off value of hypovitaminosis D (8-10 ng/mL) could better define the population with and without CWP. Further prospective follow-up studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between hypovitaminosis D and CWP.

  1. NMR-based metabolomics and breath studies show lipid and protein catabolism during low dose chronic T(1)AM treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, J A; Reiland, H; Butz, D E; Tonelli, M; Porter, W P; Zucchi, R; Scanlan, T S; Chiellini, G; Assadi-Porter, F M

    2013-12-01

    3-Iodothyronamine (T1 AM), an analog of thyroid hormone, is a recently discovered fast-acting endogenous metabolite. Single high-dose treatments of T1 AM have produced rapid short-term effects, including a reduction of body temperature, bradycardia, and hyperglycemia in mice. The effect of daily low doses of T1 AM (10 mg/kg) for 8 days on weight loss and metabolism in spontaneously overweight mice was monitored. The experiments were repeated twice (n = 4). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plasma and real-time analysis of exhaled (13) CO2 in breath by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) were used to detect T1 AM-induced lipolysis. CRDS detected increased lipolysis in breath shortly after T1 AM administration that was associated with a significant weight loss but independent of food consumption. NMR spectroscopy revealed alterations in key metabolites in serum: valine, glycine, and 3-hydroxybutyrate, suggesting that the subchronic effects of T1 AM include both lipolysis and protein breakdown. After discontinuation of T1 AM treatment, mice regained only 1.8% of the lost weight in the following 2 weeks, indicating lasting effects of T1 AM on weight maintenance. CRDS in combination with NMR and (13) C-metabolic tracing constitute a powerful method of investigation in obesity studies for identifying in vivo biochemical pathway shifts and unanticipated debilitating side effects. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas also show some malignant features: A clinicopathological study of a 15-year database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zitong; Sun, Guowen; Hu, Qingang; Chen, Fei; Wen, Shanhui

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the clinicopathological features of six cases of soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma and explore the role of increased aggressive biological behavior in the recurrences and treatment of this type of ameloblastomas. Material and Methods In this study, we retrospectively reviewed recurrent ameloblastomas during a 15-year period; six cases were diagnosed as soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma. The clinical, radiographic, cytological and immunohistochemical records of these six cases were investigated and analyzed. Results All the six soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas occurred after radical bone resection, and were located in the adjacent soft tissues around the osteotomy regions. In Case 4, the patient developed pulmonary metastasis, extensive skull-base infiltration and cytological malignancy after multiple recurrences and malignant transformation was diagnosed. In the other five cases, although there were no cytological signs are sufficient to justify an ameloblastoma as malignant, some malignant features were observed. In Case 1, the tumor showed moderate atypical hyperplasia and the Ki-67 staining percentage was 40% positive, which are strongly suggestive of potential malignance. In Case 5, the patient developed a second soft tissue recurrence in the parapharyngeal region and later died of tumor-related complications. All the remaining three patients showed cytology atypia of varying degrees and high expression of PCNA or Ki-67, which confirmed active cell proliferation. Conclusions Increased aggressiveness is an important factor of soft tissue recurrence. An intraoperative rapid pathological examination and more radical treatment are suggested for these cases. Key words: Ameloblastoma, soft tissue recurrence, aggressive biological behaviour. PMID:25662548

  3. Micromagnetic, rockmagnetic and mineralogical studies on Dacitic Pumice from the Pinatubo Eruption (1991, Phillipines) Showing self-reversed TRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, V.; Fehr, K. Th.

    Detailed micromagnetic, rockmagnetic and mineralogical investigations on dacitic pumice from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (1991, Phillipines) showing reversed NRM/TRM are presented. Two intergrown hemoilmenite-phases in chemically zoned particles were detected as being responsible: a rim-(or covering) phase consisting of a weak-ferromagnetic (disordered) hemoilmenite phase (low saturation magnetization but magnetically hard like hematite, FeTiO3 content 53-57 mol percent) and a core-phase consisting of a ferrimagnetic (ordered) hemoilmenite phase (high saturation magnetization but magnetically softer, constant FeTiO3 content ≈ 58 mol percent). Preliminary studies were carried out in order to elucidate the magnetic interactions (possibly exchange coupling) responsible for the self-reversal of the NRM/TRM. A preliminary and schematic model is presented which summarizes the main points of acquisition of a self-reversed TRM according to our results.

  4. Following Musical Shows: A Study with Focal Groups on Satisfaction of Musical Concerts Regular Visitors and Socialization between Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúmia Massa Garcia Pires

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to identify which attributes impact more significantly on the satisfaction of concerts’ regular visitors and socialization between them when inserted in these kinds of events. Thus, we used a qualitative methodology, performing focus groups. Among the main results of this study, we found, regarding satisfaction of concerts’ visitors, the attributes that most influence the public are related to services - especially for beverage supply, cleaning of bathrooms and lines formed inside the event - organization, show infrastructure and performance artists. Furthermore, considering the socialization of the visitors, we found that most respondents often go to concerts together with other people, but some did not exclude the possibility to attend the concerts alone when it comes to a familiar artist.

  5. Ethical Disputes and Public Service Televison. Case Study: Otvoreno Political Talk Show, Broadcasted on 21st of January, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Škaljac Narančić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ratings of the television programs as well as commercial effects become crucial measures of the media success and journalists’ efficiency neglecting minimal ethical standards. The profit maximisation logic and mere survival in times of the economic crisis also has the impact on preserving the sensitive ethical standards. In this respect, the television, as the most influential medium, especially public television, has the biggest responsibility. Violation of the ethical norms on public television means that it does not fulfil its key role – the role of public service. In important cases of the violation of ethical rules, the lack of clear responses of the regulators is the other side of the problem. The case study in this text shows us how easy it is to turn to the contempt of the professional journalistic standards and, consequently, ethical norms. This leads us to think how difficult is today to remain professional and ethical in times of the tangible commercialism and sensationalism.

  6. Complex mixtures of dissolved pesticides show potential aquatic toxicity in a synoptic study of Midwestern U.S. streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Norman, Julia E.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Shoda, Megan E.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Stone, Wesley W.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle L.

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic organisms in streams are exposed to pesticide mixtures that vary in composition over time in response to changes in flow conditions, pesticide inputs to the stream, and pesticide fate and degradation within the stream. To characterize mixtures of dissolved-phase pesticides and degradates in Midwestern streams, a synoptic study was conducted at 100 streams during May–August 2013. In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site. In a screening-level assessment using aquatic-life benchmarks and the Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI), potential effects on fish were unlikely in most streams. For invertebrates, potential chronic toxicity was predicted in 53% of streams, punctuated in 12% of streams by acutely toxic exposures. For aquatic plants, acute but likely reversible effects on biomass were predicted in 75% of streams, with potential longer-term effects on plant communities in 9% of streams. Relatively few pesticides in water—atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, imidacloprid, fipronil, organophosphate insecticides, and carbendazim—were predicted to be major contributors to potential toxicity. Agricultural streams had the highest potential for effects on plants, especially in May–June, corresponding to high spring-flush herbicide concentrations. Urban streams had higher detection frequencies and concentrations of insecticides and most fungicides than in agricultural streams, and higher potential for invertebrate toxicity, which peaked during July–August. Toxicity-screening predictions for invertebrates were supported by quantile regressions showing significant associations for the Benthic Invertebrate-PTI and imidacloprid concentrations with invertebrate community metrics for MSQA streams, and by mesocosm toxicity testing with imidacloprid showing effects on invertebrate communities at environmentally relevant concentrations. This study documents the most

  7. Numerical and experimental study of a radiotherapy treatment planning system including Monte Carlo calculations: heterogeneities and small beams applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Bouchra

    2009-09-01

    Improvements relative to the MC dose calculation speed have been made within the European project MAESTRO by the development of the fast MC code PENFAST and within the TELEDOS project by the parallelization of this code. This PhD work, based on these two projects, focuses on the evaluation of the technical and dosimetric performances of the MC code. These issues are crucial before the use of the MC code in clinical applications. First, variance reduction techniques included in the MC code as well as the parallelization of the calculation have been validated and evaluated in terms of gain in the computing time. The second part of this work has exposed a new, fast and accurate method to determine the initial energy spectrum of the accelerator. This spectrum is required for the MC dose calculation. Afterwards, dose calculations with the fast MC code PENFAST have been evaluated under metrological and clinical conditions. The results showed the ability of the MC code to quickly calculate an accurate dose in both photon and electron modes, even in electronic disequilibrium situations. However, this study revealed an uncertainty, in the TPS-MC, in the conversion of the CT image to voxelized geometry which is used for MC dose calculation. The quality of this voxelization may be improved through an artefacts correction software and by including additional materials in the database of the code. (author)

  8. A 1H NMR spectroscopic study on the tryptophan residues of lysozyme included by glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki; Kobayashi, Teruya; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Matsui, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Aso, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    A 1H NMR spectroscopic study showed that the side chains of Trp residues of chicken egg white lysozyme in an aqueous solution are included by Glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin (G1-β-CD). The 1H NMR signals due to Trp residues shifted with the addition of G1-β-CD. The addition of methyl α- D-glucopyranoside, which has no inclusion ability, gave different effect on the shift of 1H NMR signals. The 1H NMR signals due to Cys64 and Ile98 were also influenced to a considerable extent with the addition of G1-β-CD, suggesting that these hydrophobic amino acid residues are also included by the CD. The chemical shift values of 1H NMR signals, due to indole rings of tryptophan residues, changed more with the addition of G1-β-CD. The magnitudes of the chemical shift change were different depending on their locations in the protein. The chemical shift values of 1H NMR signals, due to those Trp residues in the active site of the lysozyme were smaller than those locating at relatively near the surface of the protein.

  9. Cefepime shows good efficacy and no antibiotic resistance in pneumonia caused by Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2016-03-23

    Many antibiotics have no effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes, which necessitates the prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that can lead to increased risk of antibiotic resistance. These pathogens constitute a further threat because they are also resistant to numerous beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as other antibiotic groups. This study retrospectively investigates antimicrobial resistance in hospitalized patients suffering from pneumonia triggered by Gram-negative Serratia marcescens or Proteus mirabilis. The demographic and clinical data analyzed in this study were obtained from the clinical databank of the HELIOS Clinic, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany, for inpatients presenting with pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens or P. mirabilis from 2004 to 2014. An antibiogram was conducted for the antibiotics utilized as part of the management of patients with pneumonia triggered by these two pathogens. Pneumonia was caused by Gram-negative bacteria in 115 patients during the study period from January 1, 2004, to August 12, 2014. Of these, 43 (37.4 %) hospitalized patients [26 males (60.5 %, 95 % CI 45.9 %-75.1 %) and 17 females (39.5 %, 95 % CI 24.9 %-54.1 %)] with mean age of 66.2 ± 13.4 years had pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens, while 20 (17.4 %) patients [14 males (70 %, 95 % CI 49.9 %-90.1 %) and 6 females (30 %, 95 % CI 9.9 %-50.1 %)] with a mean age of 64.6 ± 12.8 years had pneumonia caused by P. mirabilis. S. marcescens showed an increased antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (100 %), ampicillin-sulbactam (100 %), and cefuroxime (100 %). P. mirabilis had a high resistance to tetracycline (100 %) and ampicillin (55 %). S. marcescens (P marcescens and P. mirabilis were resistant to several commonly used antimicrobial agents, but showed no resistance to cefepime.

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Evidence from an updated meta-analysis including 35 studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haigang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR variants, C677T and A1298C, have been reported to be associated with decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. However, results derived from individually underpowered studies are conflicting. We carried out an updated meta-analysis on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and ALL risk. Methods Relevant publications were searched through PUBMED and EMBASE databases. The associations between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of ALL were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs. The heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential sources of heterogeneity. Results C677T polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (allele contrast: ORRE = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99. Subgroup analysis showed MTHFR C677T variant was associated with decreased susceptibility to ALL in children and Caucasians. Meta-regression showed the logOR for the association between T allele and ALL increased as sex ratio (M/F in the case group increased (P = 0.01. Regarding A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed (allele contrast: ORRE = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.91-1.11. There was no publication bias for C677T or A1298C polymorphism. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that the C677T polymorphism, not A1298C, in MTHFR gene is associated with a decreased risk of ALL, particularly among children and Caucasians subjects. Our findings suggest that the influence of the C677T polymorphism on ALL susceptibility is modified by sex ratio in cases (M/F. Since folate intake may be a possible confounding factor, including this factor in future prospective studies is warranted. Further meta-analysis studies should be at least stratified for folate levels and gender to give more powerful and informative results.

  11. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms and Risk of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Evidence from an updated meta-analysis including 35 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) variants, C677T and A1298C, have been reported to be associated with decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, results derived from individually underpowered studies are conflicting. We carried out an updated meta-analysis on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and ALL risk. Methods Relevant publications were searched through PUBMED and EMBASE databases. The associations between MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of ALL were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs). The heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential sources of heterogeneity. Results C677T polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (allele contrast: ORRE = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99). Subgroup analysis showed MTHFR C677T variant was associated with decreased susceptibility to ALL in children and Caucasians. Meta-regression showed the logOR for the association between T allele and ALL increased as sex ratio (M/F) in the case group increased (P = 0.01). Regarding A1298C polymorphism, no significant association was observed (allele contrast: ORRE = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.91-1.11). There was no publication bias for C677T or A1298C polymorphism. Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggests that the C677T polymorphism, not A1298C, in MTHFR gene is associated with a decreased risk of ALL, particularly among children and Caucasians subjects. Our findings suggest that the influence of the C677T polymorphism on ALL susceptibility is modified by sex ratio in cases (M/F). Since folate intake may be a possible confounding factor, including this factor in future prospective studies is warranted. Further meta-analysis studies should be at least stratified for folate levels and gender to give more powerful and informative results. PMID:22943282

  12. [Hernia recurrence long term follow-up after open procedures of abdominal wall plasty-prospective study including 142 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureşan, Mircea; Mureşan, Simona; Bara, Tivadar; Neagoe, Radu; Sala, Daniela; Suciu, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The incisional hernia continues to be a frequent complication of laparotomies. The purpose of study is the analysis of hernia disease relapse after one year after different open plasties methods of the abdominal wall. A prospective longitudinal study was performed that included 142 patients. An analysis was performed on the individual data, the level of obesity, intra-surgical variations in intra-abdominal pressure, the intensity of post-surgical pain, the post-surgical complications, and the types of plasties of abdominal wall, simple and with polypropylene mesh. The analysis of studied group showed a general rate of relapse of 16.9%, and within the 4 procedures, 40.74% in the case of simple plasties, of 16.07% after the only plasties, 6.97% after the retro-muscular plasties, and 6.25% after the full substitution of parietal defect. On analysing the collected, hernia relapse was statistically significantly related to the level of obesity, variations in intra-abdominal pressure, post-surgical pain, and the type of procedure performed. Hernia is a frequent complication of laparotomies. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of simple plasties. Among the mesh procedures, the onlay plasty showed a higher rate of relapse and post-surgical complications. Hernia relapse was more frequent in the case of variations of intra-abdominal pressure, and with increased post-surgical pain. The use of an echography examination may increase the accuracy of the presence of hernia disease. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical and biomarker changes in premanifest Huntington disease show trial feasibility: a decade of the PREDICT-HD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane S Paulsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing consensus that intervention and treatment of Huntington disease (HD should occur at the earliest stage possible. Various early-intervention methods for this fatal neurodegenerative disease have been identified, but preventive clinical trials for HD are limited by a lack of knowledge of the natural history of the disease and a dearth of appropriate outcome measures. Objectives of the current study are to document the natural history of premanifest HD progression in the largest cohort ever studied and to develop a battery of imaging and clinical markers of premanifest HD progression that can be used as outcome measures in preventive clinical trials. PREDICT-HD is a 32-site, international, observational study of premanifest HD, with annual examination of 1013 participants with premanifest HD and 301 gene-expansion negative controls between 2001 and 2012. Findings document 39 variables representing imaging, motor, cognitive, functional, and psychiatric domains, showing different rates of decline between premanifest Huntington disease and controls. Required sample size and models of premanifest HD are presented to inform future design of clinical and preclinical research. Preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD with participants who have a medium or high probability of motor onset are calculated to be as resource-effective as those conducted in diagnosed HD and could interrupt disease seven to twelve years earlier. Methods and measures for preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD more than a dozen years from motor onset are also feasible. These findings represent the most thorough documentation of a clinical battery for experimental therapeutics in stages of premanifest HD, the time period for which effective intervention may provide the most positive possible outcome for patients and their families affected by this devastating disease.

  14. Do early neural correlates of visual consciousness show the oblique effect? A binocular rivalry and event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Bradley N; Roeber, Urte; O'Shea, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, -45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings. Participants viewed rival gratings and pressed keys indicating which of the two gratings they perceived, was dominant. Next, we changed one of the gratings to match the grating shown to the other eye, yielding binocular fusion. Participants perceived the rivalry-to-fusion change to the dominant grating and not to the other, suppressed grating. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we found neural correlates of visual consciousness at the P1 for both sets of gratings, as well as at the P1-N1 for oblique gratings, and we found a neural correlate of the oblique effect at the N1, but only for perceived changes. These results show that the P1 is the earliest neural activity associated with visual consciousness and that visual consciousness might be necessary to elicit the oblique effect.

  15. Clinical and Biomarker Changes in Premanifest Huntington Disease Show Trial Feasibility: A Decade of the PREDICT-HD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S; Long, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Hans J; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Ross, Christopher A; Williams, Janet K; Nance, Martha A; Erwin, Cheryl J; Westervelt, Holly J; Harrington, Deborah L; Bockholt, H Jeremy; Zhang, Ying; McCusker, Elizabeth A; Chiu, Edmond M; Panegyres, Peter K

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that intervention and treatment of Huntington disease (HD) should occur at the earliest stage possible. Various early-intervention methods for this fatal neurodegenerative disease have been identified, but preventive clinical trials for HD are limited by a lack of knowledge of the natural history of the disease and a dearth of appropriate outcome measures. Objectives of the current study are to document the natural history of premanifest HD progression in the largest cohort ever studied and to develop a battery of imaging and clinical markers of premanifest HD progression that can be used as outcome measures in preventive clinical trials. Neurobiological predictors of Huntington's disease is a 32-site, international, observational study of premanifest HD, with annual examination of 1013 participants with premanifest HD and 301 gene-expansion negative controls between 2001 and 2012. Findings document 39 variables representing imaging, motor, cognitive, functional, and psychiatric domains, showing different rates of decline between premanifest HD and controls. Required sample size and models of premanifest HD are presented to inform future design of clinical and preclinical research. Preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD with participants who have a medium or high probability of motor onset are calculated to be as resource-effective as those conducted in diagnosed HD and could interrupt disease 7-12 years earlier. Methods and measures for preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD more than a dozen years from motor onset are also feasible. These findings represent the most thorough documentation of a clinical battery for experimental therapeutics in stages of premanifest HD, the time period for which effective intervention may provide the most positive possible outcome for patients and their families affected by this devastating disease.

  16. Follow-up study in local allergic rhinitis shows a consistent entity not evolving to systemic allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón, Carmen; Campo, Paloma; Zambonino, Maria Angeles; Blanca-Lopez, Natalia; Torres, Maria J; Melendez, Lidia; Herrera, Rocio; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Canto, Gabriela; Blanca, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is a common disease that affects 25.7% of the rhinitis population and more than 47% of patients previously diagnosed with nonallergic rhinitis. Whether LAR is the first step in the natural history of allergic rhinitis (AR) with systemic atopy or a consistent entity is unknown. The aim was to evaluate the natural history of a population with LAR of recent onset and the development of AR and asthma. A prospective 10-year follow-up study with initial cohorts of 194 patients with LAR of recent onset and 130 healthy controls is being undertaken. A clinical-demographic questionnaire, spirometry, skin prick test, and specific IgE to aeroallergens were done yearly. Nasal allergen provocation tests with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Alternaria alternata, Olea europea, and a mix of grass pollen were performed at baseline and after 5 years. At disease onset, most of the patients with LAR had moderate-to-severe persistent-perennial rhinitis; conjunctivitis and asthma were the main comorbidities (51.1% and 18.8%, respectively), and D pteronyssinus was the most relevant aeroallergen (51.1%). After 5 years of follow-up, a worsening of rhinitis was detected in 26.2%, with an increase in symptom persistence and severity, and new associations with conjunctivitis and asthma. Atopy was detected by skin prick test and/or serum specific-IgE in patients with LAR (6.81%) and in controls (4.5%). This study shows a similar rate of development of systemic atopy in LAR and controls, which suggests that LAR is an entity well differentiated from AR. To determine the natural course of LAR more precisely, this study is in progress to complete 10 years of follow-up. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do early neural correlates of visual consciousness show the oblique effect? A binocular rivalry and event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Urte; O’Shea, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, –45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings. Participants viewed rival gratings and pressed keys indicating which of the two gratings they perceived, was dominant. Next, we changed one of the gratings to match the grating shown to the other eye, yielding binocular fusion. Participants perceived the rivalry-to-fusion change to the dominant grating and not to the other, suppressed grating. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we found neural correlates of visual consciousness at the P1 for both sets of gratings, as well as at the P1-N1 for oblique gratings, and we found a neural correlate of the oblique effect at the N1, but only for perceived changes. These results show that the P1 is the earliest neural activity associated with visual consciousness and that visual consciousness might be necessary to elicit the oblique effect. PMID:29232704

  18. Delirium superimposed on dementia: a survey of delirium specialists shows a lack of consensus in clinical practice and research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sarah; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Davis, Daniel H J; Neufeld, Karin J; Kamholz, Barbara A; Trabucchi, Marco; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Morandi, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Despite advances in delirium knowledge and the publication of best practice guidelines, uncertainties exist regarding assessment of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (DSD). An international survey of delirium specialists was undertaken to evaluate current practice. Invitations to participate in an online survey were distributed by email among members of four international delirium associations with additional publication on their websites. The survey covered the assessment and diagnosis of DSD in clinical practice and research studies. Questions were structured around current practice and attitudes. The 205 responders were mostly confident that they could detect DSD with 60% rating their confidence at 7 or above on a likert scale of 0 (none) to 10 (excellent). Seventy-six percent felt that Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) was the most challenging dementia subtype in which to diagnose DSD. Several scales were used to assess for the presence of DSD including the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) (54%), DSM-5 criteria (25%) and CAM-ICU (15%). Responders stated that attention (71%), fluctuation in cognitive status (65%), and arousability (41%) were the most clinically useful features to assess when diagnosing DSD. Motor fluctuations were also deemed important but 61% had no specific test to monitor these. The largest survey of DSD practice to date demonstrates that despite good levels of confidence in recognizing DSD, there exists a lack of consensus concerning assessment and diagnosis globally. These findings suggest the need for the development of more research leading to precise diagnostic criteria and comprehensive guidelines regarding the assessment and diagnosis of DSD.

  19. Characterization of fibromyalgia symptoms in patients 55-95 years old: a longitudinal study showing symptom persistence with suboptimal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sandra A; Simpson, Rachel G; Lubahn, Cheri; Hu, Chengcheng; Belden, Christine M; Davis, Kathryn J; Nicholson, Lisa R; Long, Kathy E; Osredkar, Tracy; Lorton, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) has been understudied in the elderly population, a group with particular vulnerabilities to pain, reduced mobility, and sleep disruption. To characterize FM symptoms and treatments in a cohort of older subjects examined over time to determine the extent to which current, community-based treatment for older FM patients is in accord with published guidelines, and effective in reducing symptoms. A longitudinal, observational study of 51 subjects with FM (range 55-95 years) and 81 control subjects (58-95 years) performed at Banner Sun Health Research Institute in Sun City, AZ, USA. Serial history and examination data were obtained over a 6-year period. FM data included medical history, medications, physical examination, tender point examination, neuropsychological testing, sleep and pain ratings, the Physical Function Subscale of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and other standardized scales to evaluate depression and other psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive and functional impairment. Pain and stiffness that interfered with physical activity, sleep, and mood were reported by 80 % or more of subjects. Over time, pain involved an increasing number of body areas. Over half of subjects were treated with NSAIDs, one-quarter with opioids, and one-quarter with estrogen. Few were treated with dual-acting antidepressants or pregabalin. In this cohort of elders with suboptimally treated FM, substantial persistence of symptoms was seen over time. In general, recommended treatments were either not used or not tolerated. Age-appropriate treatments as well as education of primary care providers are needed to improve treatment of FM in the older population.

  20. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Tao, Yong; Luo, Qing; Zhong, Gemei; Romm, Jeff; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha

    2015-01-01

    In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT) methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness. We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC), and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data. Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method). Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water). Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, pwater (-0.45, pwater, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, pwater users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, pwater access and reduce HAP exposure in rural China.

  1. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Cohen

    Full Text Available In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness.We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC, and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data.Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method. Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water. Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001, followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001 and pots (-0.44, p<0.01. Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, p<0.001, followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, p<0.05 and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54-1.02, p = 0.06.As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in China, and the first to quantify the

  2. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Jodi; Choh, Vivian; Bharadwaj, Shrikant; Padmanabhan, Varuna; Modilevsky, Laura; Jovanovich, Elizabeth; Yeh, Brenda; Zhang, Zhan; Guan, Huanxian; Payne, W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2007-10-01

    Albinism is associated with a variety of ocular anomalies including refractive errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular development of an albino chick line. The ocular development of both albino and normally pigmented chicks was monitored using retinoscopy to measure refractive errors and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial ocular dimensions. Functional tests included an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm to assess visual acuity, and flash ERGs to assess retinal function. The underlying genetic abnormality was characterized using a gene microarray, PCR and a tyrosinase assay. The ultrastructure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. PCR confirmed that the genetic abnormality in this line is a deletion in exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase gene expression in isolated RPE cells was minimally detectable, and there was minimal enzyme activity in albino feather bulbs. The albino chicks had pink eyes and their eyes transilluminated, reflecting the lack of melanin in all ocular tissues. All three main components, anterior chamber, crystalline lens and vitreous chamber, showed axial expansion over time in both normal and albino animals, but the anterior chambers of albino chicks were consistently shallower than those of normal chicks, while in contrast, their vitreous chambers were longer. Albino chicks remained relatively myopic, with higher astigmatism than the normally pigmented chicks, even though both groups underwent developmental emmetropization. Albino chicks had reduced visual acuity yet the ERG a- and b-wave components had larger amplitudes and shorter than normal implicit times. Developmental emmetropization occurs in the albino chick but is impaired, likely because of functional abnormalities in the RPE and/or retina as well as optical factors. In very young chicks the underlying genetic mutation may also contribute to refractive error and eye shape abnormalities.

  3. Including sustainability issues in nurse education: A comparative study of first year student nurses' attitudes in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, Fabienne; Grose, Jane; Huss, Norma; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, Isabel M; Schweizer, Angélick

    2016-02-01

    Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited research on student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability and no comparison of attitudes towards sustainability and its inclusion in the nursing curriculum across Europe. This project aims to assess student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability, its relevance to nursing and its inclusion in the nursing curricula. 1. To assess base-line attitudes at the start of nursing and midwifery training; 2. To compare sustainability awareness between students participating in training in a number of European universities. A comparative survey design using the Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey (SANS_2) questionnaire. Nursing classes of Universities and Nursing Schools in four European countries were investigated using a questionnaire consisting of five sustainability-related items. 916 nursing students (UK: 450, Germany: 196, Spain: 124, Switzerland: 146). Standard descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to establish psychometric quality (Principal Components Analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlations) and compare student nurses from the four countries. The reliability of SANS_2 was good (Cronbach's alpha=.82) and the five items loaded on a single factor which explained 58% of variance. ANOVA of the SANS_2 total score showed significant differences between countries with German nursing students showing more sustainability awareness than students from the UK and Spain. SANS_2 is a reliable instrument to assess nursing students' sustainability awareness; there are significant differences in sustainability awareness of students of different European countries. Limitations of the study include non-random sampling, possible method effects and social desirability effects

  4. Mood Dimensions Show Distinct Within-Subject Associations With Non-exercise Activity in Adolescents: An Ambulatory Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena D. Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to preserve both physical and mental health. However, the physical activity levels of a large proportion of adolescents are insufficient. This is critical, since physical activity levels in youth have been shown to translate into adulthood. Whereas in adult populations, mood has been supposed to be one important psychological factor that drives physical activity in everyday life, this issue has been poorly studied in adolescent populations. Ambulatory Assessment is the state-of-the-art approach to investigate how mood and non-exercise activity fluctuate within persons in everyday life. Through assessments in real time and real life, this method provides ecological validity, bypassing several limitations of traditional assessment methods (e.g., recall biases. To investigate whether mood is associated with non-exercise activity in adolescents, we equipped a community-based sample comprising 113 participants, aged 12–17 years, with GPS-triggered e-diaries querying for valence, energetic arousal, and calmness, and with accelerometers continuously measuring physical activity in their everyday lives for 1 week. We excluded all acceleration data due to participants' exercise activities and thereafter we parameterized non-exercise activity as the mean value across 10-min intervals of movement acceleration intensity following each e-diary prompt. We used multilevel analyses to compute the effects of the mood dimensions on non-exercise activity within 10-min intervals directly following each e-diary prompt. Additionally, we conducted explorative analyses of the time course of the effects, i.e., on different timeframes of non-exercise activity up to 300 min following the mood assessment. The results showed that valence (p < 0.001 and energetic arousal (p < 0.001 were positively associated with non-exercise activity within the 10 min interval, whereas calmness (p < 0.001 was negatively associated with non-exercise activity

  5. Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Show Impaired Adaptation During Stress: An Executive Functioning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2018-04-01

    Evidence for problems in executive functioning (EF) in children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) is mixed and the impact stress may have on EF is understudied. Working memory, sustained attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility of boys with ODD/CD (n = 65) and non-clinical controls (n = 32) were examined under typical and stressful test conditions. Boys with ODD/CD showed impaired working memory under typical testing conditions, and impairments in working memory and sustained attention under stressful conditions. In contrast to controls, performance on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility and inhibition was less influenced by stress in boys with ODD/CD. These results suggest that boys with ODD/CD show impairments in adaptation to the environment whereas typically developing boys show adaptive changes in EF.

  6. Female emotional eaters show abnormalities in consummatory and anticipatory food reward: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that emotional eaters show greater neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake than nonemotional eaters and whether these differences are amplified during a negative versus neutral mood state. Female emotional eaters and nonemotional eaters (N = 21) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution while in a negative and neutral mood. Emotional eaters showed greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior cingulate (ACC) in response to anticipated receipt of milkshake and greater activation in the pallidum, thalamus, and ACC in response to receipt of milkshake during a negative relative to a neutral mood. In contrast, nonemotional eaters showed decreased activation in reward regions during a negative versus a neutral mood. Results suggest that emotional eating is related to increased anticipatory and consummatory food reward, but only during negative mood. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An observational study showed that explaining randomization using gambling-related metaphors and computer-agency descriptions impeded RCT recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Marcus; Elliott, Daisy; Conefrey, Carmel; Wade, Julia; Rooshenas, Leila; Wilson, Caroline; Beard, David; Blazeby, Jane M; Birtle, Alison; Halliday, Alison; Stein, Rob; Donovan, Jenny L

    2018-03-02

    To explore how the concept of randomisation is described by clinicians and understood by patients in randomised clinical trials (RCTs), and how it contributes to patient understanding and recruitment. Qualitative analysis of seventy-three audio recordings of recruitment consultations from five, multi-centre, UK based RCTs with identified or anticipated recruitment difficulties. One in ten appointments did not include any mention of randomisation. Most included a description of the method or process of allocation. Descriptions often drew on gambling-related metaphors or similies, or referred to allocation by a computer. Where reference was made to a computer, some patients assumed that they would receive the treatment that was 'best for them'. Descriptions of the rationale for randomisation were rarely present, and often only came about as a consequence of patients questioning the reason for a random allocation. The methods and processes of randomisation were usually described by recruiters, but often without clarity, which could lead to patient misunderstanding. The rationale for randomisation was rarely mentioned. Recruiters should avoid problematic gambling metaphors and illusions of agency in their explanations, and instead focus on clearer descriptions of the rationale and method of randomisation to ensure patients are better informed about randomisation and RCT participation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Clinical situation of the coronal part of the teeth including restorations types placed prior to endodontic treatment - a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekyatan, H; Willershausen, B; Kasaj, A; Briseño, B

    2005-10-18

    In the present retrospektive study the situation of the natural crown as well as the restoration types placed prior to endodontic treatment was examined. A total of 782 teeth from 545 patients (54.3% men; 45.7% women; mean age: 49.9 +/- 12.1 years) were investigated. In addition to the evaluation of the medical history of the patients, x-rays and a clinical investigation were carried out in order to assess the clinical condition of the crown as well as the restoration types. Of special interest were: carious lesions, composite fillings, amalgam, ceramic or gold crowns and/or bridge restorations. 305 of the examined teeth were located in the mandible and 477 in the maxilla. 26.3% of the teeth were anteriors, 31.2% were premolars and 42.5% were molars. 24.2% of the teeth were restored with metal ceramic crowns, 15.1% were restored with gold cast crowns or served as abutment teeth for bridgework; untreated caries was found in 21.1%, and composite fillings were found in 13.7% of the cases. 23.8% of the front teeth, 26.6% of the premolars and 22.6% of the molars showed a metal ceramic restoration. 21% of all carious defects were found in the maxilla as well as in the mandible. In addition to the high number of untreated carious lesions, the presence of metal ceramics restorations was significantly higher than other restorations types. Carious lesions are main aetiological factors for endodontic measures, but also ceramic restorations including premature contacts have to be considered as causal factors for pulpal irritations.

  9. A Case Study Showing How One Young Child Represented Issues Concerned with Attachment and Separation in Her Spontaneous Explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Cath

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a young child, demonstrating evidence of a connection between "enveloping" objects and understanding presence and absence of a temporary and permanent nature. The starting point for the researcher was: an interest in identifying schemas or repeated patterns in order to understand cognitive development and; a…

  10. Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.S. Ngwa; F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis); D.K. Houston (Denise); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn ); J. Luan; V. Mikkilä (Vera); F. Renström (Frida); E. Sonestedt (Emily); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); L. Qi (Lu); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.C. De Oliveira Otto (Marcia); E.J. Dhurandhar (Emily); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); I. Johansson (Ingegerd); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); K. Lohman (Kurt); A. Manichaikul (Ani); N.M. McKeown (Nicola ); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); A.B. Singleton (Andrew); K. Stirrups (Kathy); J. Viikari (Jorma); Z. Ye (Zheng); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); I.E. Barroso (Inês); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); A. Hofman (Albert); Y. Liu (YongMei); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K.E. North (Kari); M. Dimitriou (Maria); G. Hallmans (Göran); M. Kähönen (Mika); C. Langenberg (Claudia); J.M. Ordovas (Jose); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.B. Hu (Frank); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); O. Raitakari (Olli); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Johnson (Anthony); V. Emilsson (Valur); J.A. Schrack (Jennifer); R.D. Semba; D.S. Siscovick (David); D.K. Arnett (Donna); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P.W. Franks (Paul); S.B. Kritchevsky (Stephen); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M. Orho-Melander (Marju); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake.

  11. Study shows aspirin reduces the risk and recurrence of prostate cancer in African-American men | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American men who take a daily dose of aspirin experience a significantly lower risk of developing advanced prostate cancer – the aggressive and deadly form of the disease – than African-American men who do not regularly use aspirin, according to a study from the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis. Learn more...

  12. Prospective cohort study showing persistent HSV-2 shedding in women with genital herpes 2 years after acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Meena; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Barnum, Gail; Huang, Meei-Li Wu; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2017-11-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a prevalent infection with great variability in clinical and virological manifestations among individuals. This prospective cohort study aims to evaluate the natural history of HSV-2 reactivation in the genital area in the same group of women over time. Eighteen immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive women were evaluated for viral shedding for 70 consecutive days within a median of 8 months (range 1-24 months) of HSV-2 acquisition and again approximately 2.5 years later from the original study. Participants obtained daily swabs of genital secretions for HSV PCR and recorded genital symptoms. The viral shedding rate was 29% during the initial study and 19% in the follow-up study (32% reduction, P=0.019). Subclinical shedding rate also decreased from 24% to 13% (37% reduction, P=0.032), as did the rate of days with genital lesions from 22% to 15% (33% reduction, P=0.24). The mean copy number during viral shedding remained unchanged over time at 4.8 log 10 c/mL (SD=2.0 and 1.6 during each study, respectively, P=0.33). Women with high viral shedding rates in the past were likely to continue to have high shedding rates (r=0.63, P=0.005). Despite some reduction, high viral shedding rates persist in women with genital HSV-2 greater than 2 years after acquisition. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. A comprehensive data mining study shows that most nuclear receptors act as newly proposed homeostasis-associated molecular pattern receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luqiao; Nanayakkara, Gayani; Yang, Qian; Tan, Hongmei; Drummer, Charles; Sun, Yu; Shao, Ying; Fu, Hangfei; Cueto, Ramon; Shan, Huimin; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Li, Ya-Feng; Johnson, Candice; Yang, William Y; Yang, Fan; Xu, Yanjie; Xi, Hang; Liu, Weiqing; Yu, Jun; Choi, Eric T; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-24

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) can regulate gene expression; therefore, they are classified as transcription factors. Despite the extensive research carried out on NRs, still several issues including (1) the expression profile of NRs in human tissues, (2) how the NR expression is modulated during atherosclerosis and metabolic diseases, and (3) the overview of the role of NRs in inflammatory conditions are not fully understood. To determine whether and how the expression of NRs are regulated in physiological/pathological conditions, we took an experimental database analysis to determine expression of all 48 known NRs in 21 human and 17 murine tissues as well as in pathological conditions. We made the following significant findings: (1) NRs are differentially expressed in tissues, which may be under regulation by oxygen sensors, angiogenesis pathway, stem cell master regulators, inflammasomes, and tissue hypo-/hypermethylation indexes; (2) NR sequence mutations are associated with increased risks for development of cancers and metabolic, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases; (3) NRs have less tendency to be upregulated than downregulated in cancers, and autoimmune and metabolic diseases, which may be regulated by inflammation pathways and mitochondrial energy enzymes; and (4) the innate immune sensor inflammasome/caspase-1 pathway regulates the expression of most NRs. Based on our findings, we propose a new paradigm that most nuclear receptors are anti-inflammatory homeostasis-associated molecular pattern receptors (HAMPRs). Our results have provided a novel insight on NRs as therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases, inflammations, and malignancies.

  14. Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

  15. Commonly studied polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes show only minor effects on mortality and related risk factors in nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, Serena; Krabbe, Karen S; Thinggaard, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation is consistently associated with functional status, cognitive functioning, multimorbidity, and survival in oldest olds. If inflammation is either a cause or a consequence of age-related pathology, genetic determinants of late-life survival can reside in cytokine genes....... Additionally, associations were investigated between inflammatory markers and major predictors of mortality as cognitive and functional status. Modest sex-specific associations were found with survival, cognitive functioning, and handgrip strength. Evaluation of combined genotypes indicated that......, in nonagenarian men, the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory activity at IL18 and IL10 loci is protective against cognitive decline. In conclusion, in this large study with virtually complete follow-up, commonly studied polymorphisms in cytokine genes do not have a major impact on late-life survival...

  16. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  17. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  18. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  19. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  20. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  1. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

  2. Experiences of Students with Specific Learning Disorder (Including ADHD) in Online College Degree Programs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Seleta LeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in online degree programs is rapidly expanding due to the convenience and affordability offered to students and improvements in technology. The purpose of this hermeneutical phenomenological study was to understand the shared experiences of students with documented specific learning disorders (including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity…

  3. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Birth Cohort Analysis to Study Dog Walking in Adolescence Shows No Relationship with Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Ness, Andrew R.; Mattocks, Calum; Christley, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometers were recorded at age 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (ALSPAC, UK) birth cohort during the 2000s. Family pet ownership was collected retrospectively using a questionnaire at age 18 years, for the ages 7, 11, 13, and 15 years. In addition, approximate frequency per week of walks undertaken with dogs were also reported. Multilevel, multivariable modeling was used to investigate the relationship between dog ownership and dog walking status, and physical activity outcomes. There were a total of 4,373 complete data observations for use in 2,055 children. Reported participation in dog walking tended to increase during adolescence, as did dog ownership. The majority of who own dogs reported walking them either 2–6 times/week (range 39–46%) or never (range 27–37%). A small minority (7–8%) reported walking their dog every day. Most reported never walking any other dog either (94–87%). We found no evidence for an association between dog ownership or reported dog walking, and objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute, P = 0.3, or minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, P = 0.7) during adolescence. This study provides no evidence to support a relationship between adolescent dog ownership and physical activity, and demonstrates the importance of using objective activity measures and considering dog walking rather than just dog ownership. PMID:28560222

  5. A Birth Cohort Analysis to Study Dog Walking in Adolescence Shows No Relationship with Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carri Westgarth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometers were recorded at age 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC (ALSPAC, UK birth cohort during the 2000s. Family pet ownership was collected retrospectively using a questionnaire at age 18 years, for the ages 7, 11, 13, and 15 years. In addition, approximate frequency per week of walks undertaken with dogs were also reported. Multilevel, multivariable modeling was used to investigate the relationship between dog ownership and dog walking status, and physical activity outcomes. There were a total of 4,373 complete data observations for use in 2,055 children. Reported participation in dog walking tended to increase during adolescence, as did dog ownership. The majority of who own dogs reported walking them either 2–6 times/week (range 39–46% or never (range 27–37%. A small minority (7–8% reported walking their dog every day. Most reported never walking any other dog either (94–87%. We found no evidence for an association between dog ownership or reported dog walking, and objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute, P = 0.3, or minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, P = 0.7 during adolescence. This study provides no evidence to support a relationship between adolescent dog ownership and physical activity, and demonstrates the importance of using objective activity measures and considering dog walking rather than just dog ownership.

  6. Heart transplant centers with multidisciplinary team show a higher level of chronic illness management - Findings from the International BRIGHT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Baumgartner, Eva; Berben, Lut; Denhaerynck, Kris; Helmy, Remon; Schönfeld, Sandra; Berger, Gabriele; Vetter, Christine; Dobbels, Fabienne; Russell, Cynthia L; De Geest, Sabina

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) explore the proportion of HTx centers that have a multidisciplinary team and (2) assess the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of chronic illness management (CIM). The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recommends a multidisciplinary approach in heart transplant (HTx) follow-up care but little is known regarding the proportion of HTx centers that meet this recommendation and the impact on patient care. HTx centers with a multidisciplinary team may offer higher levels of CIM, a care model that has the potential to improve outcomes after HTx. We conducted a secondary analysis of the BRIGHT study, a cross-sectional study in 11 countries. Multidisciplinarity in the 36 HTx centers was assessed through HTx director reports and was defined as having a team that was composed of physician(s), nurse(s), and another healthcare professional (either a social worker, psychiatrist, psychologist, pharmacist, dietician, physical therapist, or occupational therapist). CIM was assessed with the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of CIM. Twenty-nine (80.6%) of the HTx centers had a multidisciplinary team. Furthermore, multidisciplinarity was significantly associated with higher levels of CIM (β = 5.2, P = 0.042). Majority of the HTx centers follows the ISHLT recommendation for a multidisciplinary approach. Multidisciplinarity was associated with CIM and point toward a structural factor that needs to be in place for moving toward CIM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical Preparation Showed Superior Shaping Ability than Manual Technique in Primary Molars - A Micro-Computed Tomography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, Lídia Regina da Costa; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Carvalho, Emily Eduardo da Silva; Consolaro, Alberto; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate canal preparation in primary molars with hand files, ProTaper Next and Self-Adjusting File (SAF) by 2D and 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Canals of 24 primary molars were prepared with hand files (HF), ProTaper Next (PTN) and SAF (n=8/group). The teeth were scanned before and after root canal preparation and the pre- and postoperative micro-CT images were reconstructed. Changes in 2D (area, perimeter, roundness, minor and major ...

  8. Nationwide study of headache pain in Italy shows that pain assessment is still inadequate in paediatric emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Franca; Piga, Simone; Zangardi, Tiziana; Messi, Gianni; Tomasello, Caterina; Pirozzi, Nicola; Cuttini, Marina

    2016-05-01

    Italian national guidelines on pain management were published in 2010, but there is little information on how effective pain management is in paediatric emergency care, with other countries reporting poor levels. Using headache as an indicator, we described pain assessment in Italian emergency departments and identified predictors of algometric scale use. All Italian paediatric and maternal and child hospitals participated, plus four general hospitals. Data on all children aged 4-14 years admitted during a one-month period with headache as their chief complaint were abstracted from clinical records. Multivariable analyses identified predictors of algometric assessment, taking into account the cluster study design. We studied 470 admissions. During triage, pain was assessed using a standardised scale (41.5%), informally (15.5%) or was not recorded (42.9%). Only 32.1% of the children received analgesia in the emergency department. The odds ratios for predictors of algometric assessment were non-Italian nationality (3.6), prehospital medication (1.8), admission to a research hospital (7.3) and a more favourable nurses-to-admissions ratio of 10.8 for the highest versus lowest tertile. Despite national guidelines, paediatric pain assessment in Italian emergency care was suboptimal. Hospital variables appeared to be stronger predictors of adequate assessment than patient characteristics. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  9. Mono- and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes showing efficient catechol oxidase activity: syntheses, characterization and spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Banerjee, Arpita; Mukherjee, Madhuparna; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Patra, Goutam Kumar; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

    2009-10-28

    Four side-off compartmental ligands L1-L4 [L1 = N,N'-ethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methyl-salicylaldimine), L2 = N,N'-1-methylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine), L3 = N,N'-1,1-dimethylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine) and L4= N,N'-cyclohexenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine)] having two binding sites, N2O2 and O4, have been chosen to synthesize mononuclear and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes with the aim to study their catecholase activity using 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) as substrate in the presence of molecular oxygen. In all cases only mononuclear manganese complexes (1-4) were obtained, with manganese coordination taking place at the N2O2 binding site only, irrespective of the amount of manganese salt used. All these complexes have been characterized by routine physico-chemical techniques. Complex MnL2Cl.4H2O (2) has further been structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal structure analysis. Four dinuclear manganese complexes, 5-8, were obtained after condensing the two pending formyl groups on each ligand (L1-L4) with aniline followed by reaction with MnCl2 to put the second Mn atom onto another N2O2 site. The catalytic activity of all complexes 1-8 has been investigated following the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) with molecular oxygen in two different solvents, methanol and acetonitrile. The study reveals that the catalytic activity is influenced by the solvent and to a significant extent by the backbone of the diamine and the behavior seems to be related mainly to steric rather than electronic factors. Experimental data suggest that a correlation, the lower the E(1/2) value the higher the catalytic activity, can be drawn between E(1/2) and Vmax of the complexes in a particular solvent. The EPR measurements suggest that the catalytic property of the complexes is related to the metal center(s) participation rather than to a radical mechanism.

  10. Ohio study shows that insurance coverage is critical for children with special health care needs as they transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, Anthony; Carle, Adam C

    2011-12-01

    Nearly 30 percent of young adults with special health care needs in Ohio lack health insurance, compared to 5 percent of the state's children with special health care needs. As children with such needs become too old for Medicaid or insurance through their parents' employer, they face great challenges in obtaining insurance. Lack of insurance is highly predictive of unmet needs, which in turn are predictive of costly hospital-based encounters. Young adults with special health care needs who are uninsured are more than twice as likely as their peers with insurance to forgo filling prescriptions and getting care and to have problems getting care. Even after insurance status is accounted for, young adults with special health care needs are more likely than children with such needs to not fill prescriptions because of cost and to delay or forgo needed care. This study demonstrates that continuous and adequate health insurance is vital to the continued well-being of children with special health care needs as they transition to young adulthood.

  11. A Pragmatic Study Shows Failure of Dental Composite Fillings Is Genetically Determined: A Contribution to the Discussion on Dental Amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Silva, Marília B; Souza, Kesia K A; Filho, Arnôldo V A; Rosenblatt, Aronita; Modesto, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Composite resins for posterior tooth restorations have become a viable alternative to dental amalgam. Failures sometimes cannot be easily explained, and we hypothesize that a genetic component may influence longevity of restorations. We aimed to determine if there is any evidence for a difference in the performance of amalgams versus composite resin in extensive posterior restorations. We also aimed to determine if risk factors such as age, sex, smoking tobacco, alcohol drinking, diabetes status, and periodontal health status may have a role in the failures of extensive anterior composite restorations. Finally, we investigated if genetic variation in matrix metalloproteinases that are present in the mineralized dentin is associated with failure of composite resin. The data used to perform this research were obtained from the Dental Registry and DNA Repository project after screening 4,856 patients. All restorations were evaluated at times of 1, 2, and 5 years after the restoration placement. 6,266 amalgam and 2,010 composite restorations were analyzed in a total of 807 patients in a period of approximately 10 years (period corresponding to the database existence). An additional 443 extensive direct composite resin restorations in anterior teeth were also studied. Failure rates of amalgam and composite restorations are similar, and by the end of 5 years, composites outperformed amalgams slightly. Failures of anterior composite restorations occurred more often in males who smoked tobacco ( p  = 0.05), despite a similar number of females and males that smoked tobacco in the sample (116 individuals smoked tobacco, 54 females and 62 males). Alcohol drinking increased failure rate within 2 years ( p  = 0.03). We found a statistically significant association between matrix metalloproteinase 2 rs9923304 and failure of composite restorations ( p  = 0.007). Composite resins can replace amalgam restorations. Smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol will

  12. A Pragmatic Study Shows Failure of Dental Composite Fillings Is Genetically Determined: A Contribution to the Discussion on Dental Amalgams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre R. Vieira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Composite resins for posterior tooth restorations have become a viable alternative to dental amalgam. Failures sometimes cannot be easily explained, and we hypothesize that a genetic component may influence longevity of restorations. We aimed to determine if there is any evidence for a difference in the performance of amalgams versus composite resin in extensive posterior restorations. We also aimed to determine if risk factors such as age, sex, smoking tobacco, alcohol drinking, diabetes status, and periodontal health status may have a role in the failures of extensive anterior composite restorations. Finally, we investigated if genetic variation in matrix metalloproteinases that are present in the mineralized dentin is associated with failure of composite resin. The data used to perform this research were obtained from the Dental Registry and DNA Repository project after screening 4,856 patients. All restorations were evaluated at times of 1, 2, and 5 years after the restoration placement. 6,266 amalgam and 2,010 composite restorations were analyzed in a total of 807 patients in a period of approximately 10 years (period corresponding to the database existence. An additional 443 extensive direct composite resin restorations in anterior teeth were also studied. Failure rates of amalgam and composite restorations are similar, and by the end of 5 years, composites outperformed amalgams slightly. Failures of anterior composite restorations occurred more often in males who smoked tobacco (p = 0.05, despite a similar number of females and males that smoked tobacco in the sample (116 individuals smoked tobacco, 54 females and 62 males. Alcohol drinking increased failure rate within 2 years (p = 0.03. We found a statistically significant association between matrix metalloproteinase 2 rs9923304 and failure of composite restorations (p = 0.007. Composite resins can replace amalgam restorations. Smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol

  13. A Literature Study on Usage of and Satisfaction Levels with Combined Treatment Including Oriental and Western Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Jung-Hun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to summarize and analyze the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine. Methods: We searched studies on the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine over the past 10 yrs (2001-2011 from 3 Korean databases (National Assembly Library, Research Information Service System, and National Discovery for Science Leaders. The reviewers also conducted a summarizing analysis by sampling the literature according to the type of study, study period, region, study subjects, sample size, type of sampling, research method, data analysis, study instruments, main results, etc. Results: When the main results of six studies on combined treatment usage and satisfaction levels were considered together, the most important decisive factor in determining the usage of combined treatment was the illness of the patient, followed by the patient’s occupation, sex, age, education, marital status, religion, treatment cost, and treatment results. In addition, the most important factor that determined satisfaction levels with combined treatment was age, followed by education, religion, income, health status, treatment procedures, staff attitude, and cleanliness. Conclusions: Elderly patients with musculoskeletal, cerebro-vascular, and circulatory system illnesses are more likely to prefer combined treatment over independent Oriental or Western treatment and are more likely to request specialized, adjusted medical care.

  14. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  15. “On Air”: Participation in an Online Radio Show to Foster Speaking Confidence. A Cooperative Learning-Based Strategies Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Consuelo Lemos Tello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The daily observation of class sessions has enabled me to recognize that students possess a feeling of self-distrust in oral activities. For this reason, I designed a study carried out with a group of twelve eighth graders. This article illustrates an action research project conducted to enhance students' confidence when speaking on an online radio show. The data were collected by using surveys applied to students, audio and video recordings and a teacher's journal. The data analysis procedures included a blend of inductive analysis, grounded theory and trend analysis. Results indicated that the research process prompted students' speaking confidence through the use of technology. The study was also an opportunity to improve the teacher's performance, and become a facilitator by steering a pedagogical intervention that allowed students to make decisions to overcome their lack of speaking confidence.

  16. Primary acquired spondylodiscitis shows a more severe course than spondylodiscitis following spine surgery: a single-center retrospective study of 159 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschugg, Anja; Lener, Sara; Hartmann, Sebastian; Rietzler, Andreas; Neururer, Sabrina; Thomé, Claudius

    2018-01-01

    Spondylodiscitis may arise primarily via hematogenous spread or direct inoculation of virulent organisms during spine surgery. To date, no comparative data investigating the differences between primary and postoperative spondylodiscitis is available. Thus, the purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate differences between these two etiologies. One hundred fifty-nine patients that were treated at our department were included in the retrospective analysis. The patients were categorized into two groups based on the etiology of spondylodiscitis: group NS, primary spondylodiscitis without prior spinal surgery; group S, spondylodiscitis following spinal surgery. Evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), laboratory values, clinical outcome, and operative or conservative management. Preoperative MRI showed higher rates of epidural and paraspinal abscess in patients with primary spondylodiscitis (p < 0.005). Vertebral bone destruction was more severe in group NS (p < 0.05). Survival rate in group S (98.2%) was higher than in group NS (87.5%, p = 0.024). The extent of the operative procedure in patients who were surgically treated (n = 116) differed between the two groups (p < 0.005). In conclusion, spondylodiscitis is a life-threatening and serious disease and requires long-term treatment. Primary spondylodiscitis is frequently associated with epidural and paraspinal abscess, vertebral bone destruction and has a higher mortality rate than postoperative spondylodiscitis. Therefore, primary spondylodiscitis shows a more severe course than spondylodiscitis following spine surgery.

  17. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Glenton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allowing a broader range of trained health workers to deliver services can be an important way of improving access to safe abortion care. However, the expansion of health worker roles may be challenging to implement. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the implementation of role expansion strategies for non-physician providers to include the delivery of abortion care. Methods We conducted a multi-country case study synthesis in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa and Uruguay, where the roles of non-physician providers have been formally expanded to include the provision of abortion care. We searched for documentation from each country related to non-physician providers, abortion care services and role expansion through general internet searches, Google Scholar and PubMed, and gathered feedback from 12 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis of the data, drawing on categories from the SURE Framework of factors affecting the implementation of policy options. Results Several factors appeared to affect the successful implementation of including non-physician providers to provide abortion care services. These included health workers’ knowledge about abortion legislation and services; and health workers’ willingness to provide abortion care. Health workers’ willingness appeared to be influenced by their personal views about abortion, the method of abortion and stage of pregnancy and their perceptions of their professional roles. While managers’ and co-workers’ attitudes towards the use of non-physician providers varied, the synthesis suggests that female clients focused less on the type of health worker and more on factors such as trust, privacy, cost, and closeness to home. Health systems factors also played a role, including workloads and incentives, training, supervision and support, supplies, referral systems, and monitoring and evaluation. Strategies used, with varying success, to address

  18. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Sorhaindo, Annik M; Ganatra, Bela; Lewin, Simon

    2017-09-21

    Allowing a broader range of trained health workers to deliver services can be an important way of improving access to safe abortion care. However, the expansion of health worker roles may be challenging to implement. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the implementation of role expansion strategies for non-physician providers to include the delivery of abortion care. We conducted a multi-country case study synthesis in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa and Uruguay, where the roles of non-physician providers have been formally expanded to include the provision of abortion care. We searched for documentation from each country related to non-physician providers, abortion care services and role expansion through general internet searches, Google Scholar and PubMed, and gathered feedback from 12 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis of the data, drawing on categories from the SURE Framework of factors affecting the implementation of policy options. Several factors appeared to affect the successful implementation of including non-physician providers to provide abortion care services. These included health workers' knowledge about abortion legislation and services; and health workers' willingness to provide abortion care. Health workers' willingness appeared to be influenced by their personal views about abortion, the method of abortion and stage of pregnancy and their perceptions of their professional roles. While managers' and co-workers' attitudes towards the use of non-physician providers varied, the synthesis suggests that female clients focused less on the type of health worker and more on factors such as trust, privacy, cost, and closeness to home. Health systems factors also played a role, including workloads and incentives, training, supervision and support, supplies, referral systems, and monitoring and evaluation. Strategies used, with varying success, to address some of these issues in the study countries included values

  19. Patient experienced continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system-a study including immigrants, refugees and ethnic danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Johansen, Katrine Schepelern; Kastrup, Marianne; Krasnik, Allan; Norredam, Marie

    2014-09-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes). Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups.

  20. Patient Experienced Continuity of Care in the Psychiatric Healthcare System—A Study Including Immigrants, Refugees and Ethnic Danes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasja Koitzsch Jensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate continuity of care in the psychiatric healthcare system from the perspective of patients, including vulnerable groups such as immigrants and refugees. Method: The study is based on 19 narrative interviews conducted with 15 patients with diverse migration backgrounds (immigrants, descendents, refugees, and ethnic Danes. Patients were recruited from a community psychiatric centre situated in an area with a high proportion of immigrants and refugees. Data were analysed through the lens of a theoretical framework of continuity of care in psychiatry, developed in 2004 by Joyce et al., which encompasses four domains: accessibility, individualised care, relationship base and service delivery. Results: Investigating continuity of care, we found issues of specific concern to immigrants and refugees, but also commonalities across the groups. For accessibility, areas pertinent to immigrants and refugees include lack of knowledge concerning mental illness and obligations towards children. In terms of individualised care, trauma, additional vulnerability, and taboo concerning mental illness were of specific concern. In the domain of service delivery, social services included assistance with immigration papers for immigrants and refugees. In the relationship base domain, no differences were identified. Implications for priority area: The treatment courses of patients in the psychiatric field are complex and diverse and the patient perspective of continuity of care provides important insight into the delivery of care. The study highlights the importance of person-centred care irrespective of migration background though it may be beneficial to have an awareness of areas that may be of more specific concern to immigrants and refugees. Conclusions: The study sheds light on concerns specific to immigrants and refugees in a framework of continuity of care, but also commonalities across the patient groups.

  1. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: an international methodological pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Honor; Költő, András; Reis, Marta; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Moreau, Nathalie; Burke, Lorraine; Cosma, Alina; Windlin, Béat; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-05

    This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people's sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania) with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95). The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ 2  = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117). Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data), understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures) and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the simplification has significantly reduced the proportion of missing data

  2. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC Study: an international methodological pilot investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honor Young

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people’s sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. Methods An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95. Results The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ2 = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117. Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. Conclusions These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data, understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the

  3. Combining Antidepressants in Acute Treatment of Depression: A Meta-Analysis of 38 Studies Including 4511 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssler, Jonathan; Bschor, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Combining antidepressants (ADs) for therapy of acute depression is frequently employed, but randomized studies have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at determining efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases were systematically searched through March 2014 for controlled studies comparing combinations of ADs with AD monotherapy in adult patients suffering from acute depression. The prespecified primary outcome was standardized mean difference (SMD), secondary outcomes were response, remission, and dropouts. Results: Among 8688 articles screened, 38 studies were eligible, including 4511 patients. Combination treatment was statistically, significantly superior to monotherapy (SMD 0.29; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.42). During monotherapy, slightly fewer patients dropped out due to adverse events (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.53). Studies were heterogeneous (I2 = 63%), and there was indication of moderate publication bias (fail-safe N for an effect of 0.1:44), but results remained robust across prespecified secondary outcomes and subgroups, including analyses restricted to randomized controlled trials and low risk of bias studies. Meta-regression revealed an association of SMD with difference in imipramine-equivalent dose. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors was superior to other combinations. Conclusion: Combining ADs seems to be superior to monotherapy with only slightly more patients dropping out. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors seems to be significantly more effective than other combinations. Overall, our search revealed a dearth of well-designed studies. PMID:27582451

  4. Combining Antidepressants in Acute Treatment of Depression: A Meta-Analysis of 38 Studies Including 4511 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssler, Jonathan; Bschor, Tom; Baethge, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Combining antidepressants (ADs) for therapy of acute depression is frequently employed, but randomized studies have yielded conflicting results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at determining efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases were systematically searched through March 2014 for controlled studies comparing combinations of ADs with AD monotherapy in adult patients suffering from acute depression. The prespecified primary outcome was standardized mean difference (SMD), secondary outcomes were response, remission, and dropouts. Among 8688 articles screened, 38 studies were eligible, including 4511 patients. Combination treatment was statistically, significantly superior to monotherapy (SMD 0.29; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.42). During monotherapy, slightly fewer patients dropped out due to adverse events (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.53). Studies were heterogeneous (I(2) = 63%), and there was indication of moderate publication bias (fail-safe N for an effect of 0.1:44), but results remained robust across prespecified secondary outcomes and subgroups, including analyses restricted to randomized controlled trials and low risk of bias studies. Meta-regression revealed an association of SMD with difference in imipramine-equivalent dose. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors was superior to other combinations. Combining ADs seems to be superior to monotherapy with only slightly more patients dropping out. Combining a reuptake inhibitor with an antagonist of presynaptic α2-autoreceptors seems to be significantly more effective than other combinations. Overall, our search revealed a dearth of well-designed studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  6. A comprehensive study including monitoring, assessment of health effects and development of a remediation method for chromium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Al Hossain, M M Aeorangajeb; Sudo, Makoto; Akhand, Anwarul Azim; Ahsan, Nazmul; Alim, Md Abdul; Khalequzzaman, Md; Iida, Machiko; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi

    2018-06-01

    Chromium (Cr) pollution caused by wastewater from tanneries is a worldwide environmental problem. To develop a countermeasure, we performed a comprehensive study using Hazaribagh, the tannery area in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, as a model. Our environmental monitoring indicated that the soluble form of Cr, but not barium or arsenic, in Buriganga River is derived from Hazaribagh. Our chemical analysis next showed that Cr, the primary pollutant in canal water at Hazaribagh, consisted of ≤0.7 μM hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)] and ≤1705 μM trivalent Cr [Cr(III)]. Our biological study then showed that coexposure to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) at possible ratios in canal water at Hazaribagh synergistically promotes transforming activity of human non-tumorigenic HaCaT keratinocytes with activated MEK/ERK and AKT. Our environmental engineering study finally indicated that a magnesium and iron-based hydrotalcite-like compound (MF-HT), our original depurative, can maximally adsorb 9.0 mg/g Cr(VI) and 1041 mg/g Cr(III). Our results suggested the importance of removal of Cr(III) as well as Cr(VI) by showing that Cr(III), which is generally recognized as a chemical with low toxicity, synergistically promoted carcinogenicity of a low level of Cr(VI). Therefore, we propose the use of our original high-efficient and low-cost depurative as a countermeasure to address the worldwide problem of environmental Cr pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungsook; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-Jung

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m(2)) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10(-7), rs1040675; 2.3 × 10(-6)) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10(-5), rs10786764; 6.57 × 10(-5)). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate.

  8. Systematic review with meta-analysis: faecal occult blood tests show lower colorectal cancer detection rates in the proximal colon in colonoscopy-verified diagnostic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, H W; Tsoi, K K F; Chan, J Y C; Wong, S H; Ching, J Y L; Wong, M C S; Wu, J C Y; Chan, F K L; Sung, J J Y; Ng, S C

    2016-04-01

    The performance of faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) to screen proximally located colorectal cancer (CRC) has produced inconsistent results. To assess in a meta-analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of FOBTs for relative detection of CRC according to anatomical location of CRC. Diagnostic studies including both symptomatic and asymptomatic cohorts assessing performance of FOBTs for CRC were searched from MEDINE and EMBASE. Primary outcome was accuracy of FOBTs according to the anatomical location of CRC. Bivariate random-effects model was used. Subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate test performance of guaiac-based FOBT (gFOBT) and immunochemical-based FOBT (iFOBT). Thirteen studies, with 17 cohorts, reporting performance of FOBT were included; a total of 26 342 patients (mean age 58.9 years; 58.1% male) underwent both colonoscopy and FOBT. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of FOBTs for CRC detection in the proximal colon were 71.2% (95% CI 61.3-79.4%), 93.6% (95% CI 90.7-95.7%), 11.1 (95% CI 7.8-15.8) and 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4) respectively. Corresponding findings for CRC detection in distal colon were 80.1% (95% CI 70.9-87.0%), 93.6% (95% CI 90.7-95.7%), 12.6 (95% CI 8.8-18.1) and 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.3). The area-under-curve for FOBT detection for proximal and distal CRC were 90% vs. 94% (P = 0.0143). Both gFOBT and iFOBT showed significantly lower sensitivity but comparable specificity for the detection of proximally located CRC compared with distal CRC. Faecal occult blood tests, both guaiac- and immunochemical-based, show better diagnostic performance for the relative detection of colorectal cancer in the distal colon than in the proximal bowel. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane index most primary studies but not abstracts included in orthopedic meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobogean, Gerard P; Verma, Ashim; Giustini, Dean; Slobogean, Bronwyn L; Mulpuri, Kishore

    2009-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that all primary studies used in orthopedic meta-analyses are indexed in MEDLINE or EMBASE. Using MEDLINE from 1995 to 2005, we retrieved all published meta-analyses of orthopedic surgical interventions. The primary studies in each meta-analysis were defined as the "gold standard" set. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for each primary study, and a recall rate was calculated. Secondary searches were performed using Web of Science (WoS), the Cochrane databases, and CINAHL. High recall rates were achieved searching MEDLINE (90%) and EMBASE (81%) for the gold standard set, and the combined search retrieved 91%. Titles not indexed by MEDLINE or EMBASE included 45 abstracts, eight journal articles, and three unpublished studies. Searching the Cochrane databases yielded 36 titles not in MEDLINE or EMBASE. Using all three databases produced 97% recall of the primary studies; WoS and CINAHL did not increase the recall rate. These results suggest that a very high percentage of primary research in orthopedics can be found using the major databases. Additional database searches are unlikely to increase the yield of published manuscripts; however, conference proceedings and journal supplements should still be searched to ensure that relevant remaining reports are identified.

  10. A clinical study of motor imagery BCI performance in stroke by including calibration data from passive movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Chua, Karen Sui Geok; Phua, Kok Soon; Wang, Chuanchu; Chin, Zheng Yang; Zhou, Longjiang; Tang, Ka Yin; Joseph, Gopal Joseph Ephraim; Kuah, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) data from performing motor imagery are usually used to calibrate a subject-specific model in Motor Imagery Brain-Computer Interface (MI-BCI). However, the performance of MI is not directly observable by another person. Studies that attempted to address this issue in order to improve subjects with low MI performance had shown that it is feasible to use calibration data from Passive Movement (PM) to detect MI in healthy subjects. This study investigates the feasibility of using calibration data from PM of stroke patients to detect MI. EEG data from 2 calibration runs of MI and PM by a robotic haptic knob, and 1 evaluation run of MI were collected in one session of recording from 34 hemiparetic stroke patients recruited in the clinical study. In each run, 40 trials of MI or PM and 40 trials of the background rest were collected. The off-line run-to-run transfer kappa values from the calibration runs of MI, PM, and combined MI and PM, to the evaluation run of MI were then evaluated and compared. The results showed that calibration using PM (0.392) yielded significantly lower kappa value than the calibration using MI (0.457, p=4.40e-14). The results may be due to a significant disparity between the EEG data from PM and MI in stroke subjects. Nevertheless, the results showed that the calibration using both MI and PM (0.506) yielded significantly higher kappa value than the calibration using MI (0.457, p=9.54e-14). Hence, the results of this study suggest a promising direction to combine calibration data from PM and MI to improve MI detection on stroke.

  11. Detailed NMR, including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and anticancer studies of compounds from the echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony D; Nielson, Jonathan L; Tapiolas, Dianne M; Motti, Cherie A; Ovenden, Simon P B; Kearns, Philip S; Liptrot, Catherine H

    2009-11-12

    From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara), Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl)-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1)], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3), 2-[(phenylacetyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (4), and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5) were isolated. Comparison of (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1) with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent (13)C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  12. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Liptrot

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara, Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1'-hydroxypropyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3, 2-[(phenylacetylamino]ethanesulfonic acid (4, and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5 were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1 with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5.

  13. A study on the quantitative evaluation for the software included in digital systems of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. K.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    In general, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) has been used as one of the most important methods to evaluate the safety of NPPs. The PSA, because most of NPPs have been installed and used analog I and C systems, has been performed based on the hardware perspectives. In addition, since the tendency to use digital I and C systems including software instead of analog I and C systems is increasing, the needs of quantitative evaluation methods so as to perform PSA are also increasing. Nevertheless, several reasons such as software did not aged and it is very perplexed to estimate software failure rate due to its non-linearity, make the performance of PSA difficult. In this study, in order to perform PSA including software more efficiently, test-based software reliability estimation methods are reviewed to suggest a preliminary procedure that can provide reasonable guidances to quantify software failure rate. In addition, requisite activities to enhance applicability of the suggested procedure are also discussed. 67 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  14. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  15. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  16. Electron spin resonance studies of radiation effects. Final report, 1964-1979 (including annual progress reports for 1978 and 1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, M.T.

    1979-07-01

    The discovery of new free radicals, largely in irradiated single crystals of nonmetallic solids, and the determination of the molecular and electronic structures of these paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, have been carried out using a wide variety of organic and inorganic materials. The mechanisms of production of radicals in solids, their motions, and their reactions have been investigated and some applicable general principles deduced. Emphasis has been on aliphatic free radicals from irradiated carboxylic acids and amides and their halogen-substituted derivatives, organometallic radicals and substituted cyclic hydrocarbon radicals; inorganic radicals studied include V centers, hypervalent radicals and electron adducts. Extensive investigations of paramagnetic transition metal complexes, particularly cyanides and fluorides, have been made. In all cases quantum mechanical calculations have been employed as far as possible in interpreting the data. An improved method for analyzing experimental ESR spectra of single crystals has been developed and a number of crystal structures have been determined to supplement the ESR studies. Applications of nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy to the study of structure and bonding in inorganic solids have been made and a method for using nuclear magnetic relaxation data for estimating quadrupole coupling constants in liquids has been developed.

  17. Types of coeliac trunk branching including accessory hepatic arteries: a new point of view based on cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olewnik, Łukasz; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Polguj, Michał; Waśniewska, Anna; Jankowski, Mateusz; Topol, Mirosław

    2017-06-14

    The coeliac trunk is major visceral branch of the abdominal aorta. Familiarity with anatomic variations of the coeliac trunk is relevant for planning radiological and surgical procedures. The aim of our research was determining variations of the coeliac trunk, including the occurrence of accessory hepatic arteries. 40 cadavers were studied. Six patterns of coeliac trunk branching were observed in this study. Accessory hepatic arteries were observed in seven specimens (17.5%). The most prevalent variation was normal trifurcation, accounting for 62.5% of cases. The rarest variation was absence of the coeliac trunk, with an incidence of 2.5%. In this variant the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, and the splenic artery branched directly off the abdominal aorta. The study material allowed to distinguish two coeliac tunk branching patterns which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported before. It was a type with four branches originating from the coeliac trunk: the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, the splenic artery, and right accessory hepatic artery. The other previously unreported pattern variant was also a coeliac trunk which gave off the coeliac trunk gave off three branches: the common hepatic artery, the splenic artery and right accessory hepatic artery. The average distance between the aortic hiatus and the coeliac trunk calculated for all the cadavers amounted to 54 mm (SD = 11.85 mm). The average distance between the coeliac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery was 11.1 mm (SD = 7.7 mm).

  18. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  19. Synthetic, 119Sn NMR spectroscopic, electrochemical, and reactivity study of organotin A3 corrolates including chiral and ferrocenyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Olga G; Kim, Byung-Kwon; Luu, Tuong Loan; Kwak, Juhyoun; Churchill, David G

    2013-02-18

    Various R/Ar-functionalized tin 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrolate derivatives are reported herein including the first ferrocenyltin corrolate species. The isopropyl, sec-butyl-, 2-methyl-n-butyl-, phenyl-, 2-thienyl-, and ferrocenyltin species have been prepared and characterized through (1)H, (13)C, and (119)Sn HMQC NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, UV-vis and photoluminescent spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry studies. J(C/H-Sn) NMR spectroscopic couplings and ring-current effects (upfield shifting) were determined for the R-Sn axial hydrogen and carbon atoms. This report adds to older conceptually similar reports, by, i.e., Janson et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1969, 91, 5210) and Walker et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc.1983, 105, 6923-6929), as discussed herein. Such NMR spectroscopic aspects are discussed for these model systems. Compound Sn-Ph bond cleavage was achieved by treatment with I(2).

  20. Brain CT scans and clinical study in very-low-birth-weight infants, including eight cases of cerebellar porencephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shime, Hideaki

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-nine brain CT scans taken in very-low-birth-weight infants ( < 1500 g) during the past three years were studied retrospectively. Eighty-nine cases of very-low-birth-weight infants were admitted to our premature nursery during the period from Jan. 1, 1982 to Dec. 31, 1984. We obtained brain CT scans in 59 of them, and studied them retrospectively. a) Normal CT in 25 cases, b) enlargement of the extracerebral space in 17, c) megacisterna magna in four, d) unilateral ventriculomegaly in six, e) hydrocephalus in seven, f) cerebral porencephaly in two, g) brain stem atrophy in seven, and h) low density area in the posterior fossa in eight, were observed. The clinical courses of patients a) to f) above were almost similar to those previously reported. g) brain stem atrophy was found on CT scans in seven cases. Five of them developed infantile spasms later. This suggests that one of the main sites of lesions in infantile spasms is the tegmentum of the brain stem. h) Low density area in the posterior fossa was found on CT in eight cases. Three of them showed cerebellar defective lesions on metrizamide CT or RI cisternography. Four of them showed no defective lesion in the posterior fossa on ultrasonography at the early neonatal stage. These lesions in the posterior fossa are believed to be cerebellar porencephaly, which occurred after birth. Seven cases of cerebellar porencephaly, except for one with SFD, had respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, such as neonatal asphyxia, RDS, PDA, and/or apnea. The cerebral lesions such as intracranial hemorrhage, hydrocephalus and cerebral porencephaly, which had been observed in all cases of cerebellar porencephaly, finally resulted in cerebral palsy, mental retardation and infantile spasms. (J.P.N.)

  1. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  2. Study on the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR including fluid-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, K.; Ito, T.; Fujita, K.; Kurihara, C.; Sawada, Y.; Sakurai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR with fluid-structure interaction. The reactor vessel has bottom support arrangement, the same core support system as Super-Phenix in France. Due to the bottom support arrangement, the level of core support is lower than that of the side support arrangement. So, in this reactor vessel, the displacement of the core top tends to increase because of the core's rocking. In this study, we investigated the vibration and seismic response characteristics of the reactor vessel. Therefore, the seismic experiments were carried out using one-eighth scale model and the seismic response including FSI and sloshing were investigated. From this study, the effect of liquid on the vibration characteristics and the seismic response characteristics of reactor vessel were clarified and sloshing characteristics were also clarified. It was confirmed that FEM analysis with FSI can reproduce the seismic behavior of the reactor vessel and is applicable to seismic design of the pool type LMFBR with bottom support arrangement. (author). 5 refs, 14 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Social exclusion predicts impaired self-regulation: a 2-year longitudinal panel study including the transition from preschool to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenseng, Frode; Belsky, Jay; Skalicka, Vera; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The need-to-belong theory stipulates that social exclusion (i.e., being rejected by peers) impairs the ability to self-regulate, and experimental studies with adults support this contention, at least on a short-term basis. Few studies have investigated whether social exclusion affects the development of self-regulation of children in a more enduring manner. By using data from a community sample of 762 children, we investigated reciprocal relations between social exclusion and self-regulation from age 4 to age 6. Social exclusion was reported by teachers, whereas self-regulation was reported by parents. Autoregressive latent cross-lagged analyses showed that social exclusion predicted impaired development of dispositional self-regulation and, reciprocally, that poor self-regulation predicted enhanced social exclusion. In other words, social exclusion undermines children's development of self-regulation, whereas poor self-regulation increases the likelihood of exclusion. Results illuminate the applied relevance of the need-to-belong theory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Phase 2 study of the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with refractory leukemias, including postmyeloproliferative neoplasm acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Verstovsek, Srdan; Estrov, Zeev; Burger, Jan; Cortes, Jorge; Bivins, Carol; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Borthakur, Gautam; George, Solly; Scherle, Peggy A; Newton, Robert C; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Ravandi, Farhad

    2012-05-17

    We conducted a phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemias. Patients with acceptable performance status (0-2), adequate organ function, and no active infection, received ruxolitinib 25 mg orally twice a day for 4 weeks (1 cycle). Response was assessed after every 2 cycles of treatment, and patients who completed 2 cycles were allowed to continue treatment until disease progression. Dose escalation to 50 mg twice daily was permitted in patients demonstrating a benefit. Thirty-eight patients, with a median age of 69 years (range, 45-88), were treated. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (range, 1-6). Twelve patients had JAK2V617F mutation. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-22). Three of 18 patients with postmyeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed a significant response; 2 achieved complete remission (CR) and one achieved a CR with insufficient recovery of blood counts (CRi). The responding patients with palpable spleens also had significant reductions in spleen size. Overall, ruxolitinib was very well tolerated with only 4 patients having grade 3 or higher toxicity. Ruxolitinib has modest antileukemic activity as a single agent, particularly in patients with post-MPN AML. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00674479.

  5. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  6. Developing the FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies: Classification and description of technology use (including ICT) in falls prevention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Elisabeth; Hawley-Hague, Helen; Vereijken, Beatrix; Clifford, Amanda; Guldemond, Nick; Pfeiffer, Klaus; Hall, Alex; Chesani, Federico; Mellone, Sabato; Bourke, Alan; Todd, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Recent Cochrane reviews on falls and fall prevention have shown that it is possible to prevent falls in older adults living in the community and in care facilities. Technologies aimed at fall detection, assessment, prediction and prevention are emerging, yet there has been no consistency in describing or reporting on interventions using technologies. With the growth of eHealth and data driven interventions, a common language and classification is required. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies was developed as a tool for those in the field of biomedical informatics to classify and characterise components of studies and interventions. The Taxonomy Development Group (TDG) comprised experts from across Europe. Through face-to-face meetings and contributions via email, five domains were developed, modified and agreed: Approach; Base; Components of outcome measures; Descriptors of technologies; and Evaluation. Each domain included sub-domains and categories with accompanying definitions. The classification system was tested against published papers and further amendments undertaken, including development of an online tool. Six papers were classified by the TDG with levels of consensus recorded. Testing the taxonomy with papers highlighted difficulties in definitions across international healthcare systems, together with differences of TDG members' backgrounds. Definitions were clarified and amended accordingly, but some difficulties remained. The taxonomy and manual were large documents leading to a lengthy classification process. The development of the online application enabled a much simpler classification process, as categories and definitions appeared only when relevant. Overall consensus for the classified papers was 70.66%. Consensus scores increased as modifications were made to the taxonomy. The FARSEEING Taxonomy of Technologies presents a common language, which should now be adopted in the field of biomedical informatics. In developing the taxonomy as an

  7. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  8. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microdeletions Including FMR1 in Three Female Patients with Intellectual Disability – Further Delineation of the Phenotype and Expression Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, A.M.; Wohlleber, E.; Engels, H.; Rødningen, O.K.; Ravn, K.; Heilmann, S.; Rehnitz, J.; Katzorke, N.; Kraus, C.; Blichfeldt, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Reutter, H.; Brockschmidt, F.F.; Kreiß-Nachtsheim, M.; Vogt, P.H.; Prescott, T.E.; Tümer, Z.; Lee, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common causes of intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), especially in males. It is caused most often by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions, and less frequently by point mutations and partial or full deletions of the FMR1 gene. The wide clinical spectrum of affected females partly depends on their X-inactivation status. Only few female ID/DD patients with microdeletions including FMR1 have been reported. We describe 3 female patients with 3.5-, 4.2- and 9.2-Mb de novo microdeletions in Xq27.3-q28 containing FMR1. X-inactivation was random in all patients, yet they presented with ID/DD as well as speech delay, macrocephaly and other features attributable to FXS. No signs of autism were present. Here, we further delineate the clinical spectrum of female patients with microdeletions. FMR1 expression studies gave no evidence for an absolute threshold below which signs of FXS present. Since FMR1 expression is known to be highly variable between unrelated females, and since FMR1 mRNA levels have been suggested to be more similar among family members, we further explored the possibility of an intrafamilial effect. Interestingly, FMR1 mRNA levels in all 3 patients were significantly lower than in their respective mothers, which was shown to be specific for patients with microdeletions containing FMR1. PMID:24715853

  10. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Tiwaa Marfo

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4-87 year-old. Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5-69 year-old; the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5-78 year-old. N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum, followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb, however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb, but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, not quantified and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified. Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified, and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb. Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb. The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5-57. Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

  11. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  12. Advanced theoretical and experimental studies in automatic control and information systems. [including mathematical programming and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.

  13. A belgian multicenter prospective observational cohort study shows safe and efficient use of a composite mesh with incorporated oxidized regenerated cellulose in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrevoet, F; Tollens, T; Berwouts, L; Bertrand, C; Muysoms, F; De Gols, J; Meir, E; De Backer, A

    2014-01-01

    A variety of anti-adhesive composite mesh products have become available to use inside the peritoneal cavity. However, reimbursement of these meshes by the Belgian Governemental Health Agency (RIZIV/INAMI) can only be obtained after conducting a prospective study with at least one year of clinical follow-up. This -Belgian multicentric cohort study evaluated the experience with the use of Proceed®-mesh in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. During a 25 month period 210 adult patients underwent a laparoscopic primary or incisional hernia repair using an intra-abdominal placement of Proceed®-mesh. According to RIZIV/INAMI criteria recurrence rate after 1 year was the primary objective, while postoperative morbidity, including seroma formation, wound and mesh infections, quality of life and recurrences after 2 years were evaluated as secondary endpoints (NCT00572962). In total 97 primary ventral and 103 incisional hernias were repaired, of which 28 (13%) were recurrent. There were no conversions to open repair, no enterotomies, no mesh infections and no mortality. One year cumulative follow-up showed 10 recurrences (n = 192, 5.2%) and chronic discomfort or pain in 4.7% of the patients. Quality of life could not be analyzed due to incomplete data set. More than 5 years after introduction of this mesh to the market, this prospective multicentric study documents a favorable experience with the Proceed mesh in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. However, it remains to be discussed whether reimbursement of these meshes in Belgium should be limited to the current strict criteria and therefore can only be obtained after at least 3-4 years of clinical data gathering and necessary follow-up. Copyright© Acta Chirurgica Belgica.

  14. Vegetation response to invasive Tamarix control in southwestern U.S. rivers: a collaborative study including 416 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A; Anderson, Robert M; Bay, Robin F; Bean, Daniel W; Bissonnete, Gabriel J; Bourgeois, Bérenger; Cooper, David J; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L; Makarick, Lori J; Ostoja, Steven M; Reynolds, Lindsay V; Robinson, W Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B

    2017-09-01

    Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil, and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. states. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments. Biocontrol by a defoliating beetle (treatment 1) reduced the abundance of Tamarix less than active removal by mechanically using hand and chain-saws (2), heavy machinery (3) or burning (4). Tamarix abundance also decreased with lower temperatures, higher precipitation, and follow-up treatments for Tamarix resprouting. Native cover generally increased over time in active Tamarix removal sites, however, the increases observed were small and was not consistently increased by active revegetation. Overall, native cover was correlated to permanent stream flow, lower grazing pressure, lower soil salinity and temperatures, and higher precipitation. Species diversity also increased where Tamarix was removed. However, Tamarix treatments, especially those generating the highest disturbance (burning and heavy machinery), also often promoted secondary invasions of exotic forbs. The abundance of hydrophytic species was much lower in treated than in reference sites, suggesting that management of southwestern U.S. rivers has focused too much on weed control, overlooking restoration of fluvial processes that provide habitat for hydrophytic and floodplain vegetation. These results can help inform future management of Tamarix-infested rivers to restore hydrogeomorphic processes, increase native biodiversity and reduce abundance of noxious species. © 2017 by the

  15. Morphological and allozyme studies of midwife toads (genus Alytes), including the description of two new taxa from Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; García-París, M.

    1995-01-01

    Allozyme variation in 31 to 50 presumptive loci of 12 populations of European midwife toads of the genus Alytes show appreciable genetic divergences (DiNe from 0.29 to 0.72) among four groups. These groups correspond to A. cisternasii Boscá, 1879, A. obstetricans (Laurenti, 1768), A. muletensis

  16. A Microarray Study of Carpet-Shell Clam (Ruditapes decussatus Shows Common and Organ-Specific Growth-Related Gene Expression Differences in Gills and Digestive Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Saavedra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate is one of the most important traits from the point of view of individual fitness and commercial production in mollusks, but its molecular and physiological basis is poorly known. We have studied differential gene expression related to differences in growth rate in adult individuals of the commercial marine clam Ruditapes decussatus. Gene expression in the gills and the digestive gland was analyzed in 5 fast-growing and five slow-growing animals by means of an oligonucleotide microarray containing 14,003 probes. A total of 356 differentially expressed genes (DEG were found. We tested the hypothesis that differential expression might be concentrated at the growth control gene core (GCGC, i.e., the set of genes that underlie the molecular mechanisms of genetic control of tissue and organ growth and body size, as demonstrated in model organisms. The GCGC includes the genes coding for enzymes of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (IIS, enzymes of four additional signaling pathways (Raf/Ras/Mapk, Jnk, TOR, and Hippo, and transcription factors acting at the end of those pathways. Only two out of 97 GCGC genes present in the microarray showed differential expression, indicating a very little contribution of GCGC genes to growth-related differential gene expression. Forty eight DEGs were shared by both organs, with gene ontology (GO annotations corresponding to transcription regulation, RNA splicing, sugar metabolism, protein catabolism, immunity, defense against pathogens, and fatty acid biosynthesis. GO term enrichment tests indicated that genes related to growth regulation, development and morphogenesis, extracellular matrix proteins, and proteolysis were overrepresented in the gills. In the digestive gland overrepresented GO terms referred to gene expression control through chromatin rearrangement, RAS-related small GTPases, glucolysis, and energy metabolism. These analyses suggest a relevant role of, among others

  17. Studies and analyses of the management of scientific research and development, including implementation and application at NASA centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Summary results obtained through the Program of Research on the Management of Research and Development (POMRAD) were presented. The nature of the overall program and the specific projects undertaken were described. Statistical data is also given concerning the papers, publications, people, and major program areas associated with the program. The actual list of papers, names of doctoral and masters theses, and other details of the program are included as appendices.

  18. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented.We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34, remitted depression (n = 25, acute depression (n = 21, and healthy controls (n = 64. Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI.ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F, hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D.The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  19. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  20. How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongling; Zeng, Lin; Fetters, Micheal D; Li, Nan; Tao, Liyuan; Shi, Yanyan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fengwei; Zhao, Yiming

    2017-09-18

    Despite varying degrees in research training, most academic clinicians are expected to conduct clinical research. The objective of this research was to understand how clinical researchers of different skill levels include variables in a case report form for their clinical research. The setting for this research was a major academic institution in Beijing, China. The target population was clinical researchers with three levels of experience, namely, limited clinical research experience, clinicians with rich clinical research experience and clinical research experts. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 13 individual interviews (face to face) and one group interview (n=4) with clinical researchers from June to September 2016. Based on maximum variation sampling to identify researchers with three levels of research experience: eight clinicians with limited clinical research experience, five clinicians with rich clinical research experience and four clinical research experts. These 17 researchers had diverse hospital-based medical specialties and or specialisation in clinical research. Our analysis yields a typology of three processes developing a case report form that varies according to research experience level. Novice clinician researchers often have an incomplete protocol or none at all, and conduct data collection and publication based on a general framework. Experienced clinician researchers include variables in the case report form based on previous experience with attention to including domains or items at risk for omission and by eliminating unnecessary variables. Expert researchers consider comprehensively in advance data collection and implementation needs and plan accordingly. These results illustrate increasing levels of sophistication in research planning that increase sophistication in selection for variables in the case report form. These findings suggest that novice and intermediate-level researchers could benefit by emulating the comprehensive

  1. A systematic study on Endotribelos Grodhaus (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Brazil including DNA barcoding to link males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Pepinelli, Mateus

    2015-03-18

    Six new species of Endotribelos from Brazil are described and illustrated as male, female, pupa and larva: E. bicolor sp. n., E. fulvidus sp. n., E. jaragua sp. n., E. jiboia sp. n., E. semibruneus sp. n. and E. sublettei sp. n. The female of E. calophylli Roque & Trivinho-Strixino and the larvae of four unknown morphotypes are also described. Keys including males and larvae of all known species of Endotribelos are provided. Adults' males and females from five species were linked using DNA Barcoding mtCOI sequences.

  2. Conceptual design studies of a V/STOL civil lift fan transport including effect of size and fan pressure ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of V/STOL Lift Fan Commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The remote lift fan configurations with a variation in fan pressure ratio from 1.2 to 1.5 were investigated. Also studied were variation in stage length from 200 nautical miles to 800 nautical miles and cruise Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.85. These results indicate a four engine configuration was feasible. The 95 PNdb noise footprint would be approximately 45 acres and the DOC's would be about 60% greater than conventional transports.

  3. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  4. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills? Results from a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim; Bohnstedt, Cathrine; Sønderskov, Claus; Østergaard, Doris; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2018-01-18

    Assessment of laypersons' Paediatric Basic Life Support (PBLS) skills is important to ensure acquisition of effective PBLS competencies. However limited evidence exists on which PBLS skills are essential for laypersons. The same challenges exist with respect to the assessment of foreign body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts suggested items to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. In the second round, the suggested items received comments from and were rated by 26 experts (93%) on a 5-point scale (1 = not relevant to 5 = essential). Revised items were anonymously presented in a third round for comments and 23 (82%) experts completed a re-rating. Items with a score above 3 by more than 80% of the experts in the third round were included in an assessment instrument. In the first round, 19 and 15 items were identified to assess PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The ratings and comments from the last two rounds resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify different stages of foreign body airway obstruction", "Identify consciousness", "Call for help", "Back blows", "Chest thrusts/abdominal thrusts according to age", "Identify loss of consciousness and change to CPR", "Assessment of breathing" and "Ventilation". For assessment of laypersons some PBLS and FBAOM skills described in guidelines are more important than others. Four out of nine of PBLS skills focus on airway and breathing skills, supporting the major importance of these skills for

  5. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wesley-Smith, J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available of Botany, Volume 115, Issue 6 pp. 991-1000. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo- exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum James Wesley-Smith1,2, Christina...

  6. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of people's consumption rates in 1981 and 1982, of fish and shellfish caught near the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site is described. Particular emphasis has been given to mollusc eaters and consumption rates of children because of the potentially higher radiation doses they may receive. Appropriate critical groups have been selected for dose assessment purposes using principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Methods for consideration of children in critical groups are suggested and a comparison of these methods using the present data shows similar results. Combination of seafood consumption pathways is also considered, and it is shown that a simple additive approach is not excessively conservative. (author)

  8. Physics Reality Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukhimova, Tatiana

    The attention span of K-12 students is very short; they are used to digesting information in short snippets through social media and TV. To get the students interested in physics, we created the Physics Reality Show: a series of staged short videos with duration no longer than a few minutes. Each video explains and illustrates one physics concept or law through a fast-paced sequence of physics demonstrations and experiments. The cast consists entirely of physics undergraduate students with artistic abilities and substantial experience in showing physics demonstrations at current outreach events run by the department: Physics Shows and Physics & Engineering Festival. Undergraduate students are of almost the same age as their high-school audience. They are in the best position to connect with kids and convey their fascination with physics. The PI and other faculty members who are involved in the outreach advise and coach the cast. They help students in staging the episodes and choosing the most exciting and relevant demonstrations. Supported by the APS mini-outreach Grant.

  9. Including Remote Participants and Artifacts: Visual, Audio, and Tactile Modalities in an Ethnographic Study of Globally Distributed Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Pederson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study how globally distributed Danish and Indian engineers co-construct and reconfigure a shared socio-technical collaborative place for global collaborative interaction: War Room meetings. We investigate the empirical case of War Room meetings based on three modalities in which ...

  10. Microdeletions including FMR1 in three female patients with intellectual disability - further delineation of the phenotype and expression studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, A M; Wohlleber, E; Engels, H

    2014-01-01

    in all patients, yet they presented with ID/DD as well as speech delay, macrocephaly and other features attributable to FXS. No signs of autism were present. Here, we further delineate the clinical spectrum of female patients with microdeletions. FMR1 expression studies gave no evidence for an absolute...

  11. Students’ Learning Experiences from Didactic Teaching Sessions Including Patient Case Examples as Either Text or Video: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Holdgaard, Martin Møller; Paltved, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore medical students' learning experiences from the didactic teaching formats using either text-based patient cases or video-based patient cases with similar content. The authors explored how the two different patient case formats influenced students' ...... unintended stigma and influence an authoritative approach in medical students towards managing patients in clinical psychiatry....

  12. Nine Loci for Ocular Axial Length Identified through Genome-wide Association Studies, Including Shared Loci with Refractive Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M. Kamran; Young, Terri L.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Vitart, Veronique; Macgregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; St Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mishra, Aniket; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Polasek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Amin, Najaf; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Wilson, James F.; Pennell, Craig E.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Tay, Wan-Ting; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chew, Merwyn; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Craig, Jamie E.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Chew, Emily Y.; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Wedenoja, Juho; Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Höhn, René; Mirshahi, Alireza; Zeller, Tanja; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl J.; Bettecken, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Pirastu, Mario; Portas, Laura; Nag, Abhishek; Williams, Katie M.; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Paterson, Andrew D.; Makela, Kari-Matti; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chen, Li Jia; Pang, Chi Pui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K. H.; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Foster, Paul J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Vithana, Eranga; Tai, E.-Shyong; Fan, Qiao; Xu, Liang; Campbell, Harry; Fleck, Brian; Rudan, Igor; Aung, Tin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Bencic, Goran; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Forward, Hannah; Pärssinen, Olavi; Mitchell, Paul; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hewitt, Alex W.; Williams, Cathy; Oostra, Ben A.; teo, Yik-Ying; Hammond, Christopher J.; Stambolian, Dwight; Mackey, David A.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Yamashiro, Kenji; Miyake, Masahiro; Delcourt, Cécile; Maubaret, Cecilia; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan M.; Davey-Smith, George; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Bailey Wilson, Joan E.; Lu, Yi; Jonas, Jost B.; Nangia, Vinay; Hayward, Caroline; Vatavuk, Zoran; Mohsen Hosseini, S.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Feng, Sheng; Klaver, Caroline C.; Wegner, Aharon; Ho, Daniel W. H.; Murgia, Federico; Biino, Genevra; Ang, Wei; Kamran Ikram, M.; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; D Paterson, Andrew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Kähönen, Mika; Reinhart, William; Belin, Michael W.; Schultze, Robert L.; Morason, Todd; Sugar, Alan; Mian, Shahzad; Soong, Hunson Kaz; Colby, Kathryn; Jurkunas, Ula; Yee, Richard; Vital, Mark; Alfonso, Eduardo; Karp, Carol; Lee, Yunhee; Yoo, Sonia; Hammersmith, Kristin; Cohen, Elisabeth; Laibson, Peter; Rapuano, Christopher; Ayres, Brandon; Croasdale, Christopher; Caudill, James; Patel, Sanjay; Baratz, Keith; Bourne, William; Maguire, Leo; Sugar, Joel; Tu, Elmer; Djalilian, Ali; Mootha, Vinod; McCulley, James; Bowman, Wayne; Cavanaugh, H. Dwight; Verity, Steven; Verdier, David; Renucci, Ann; Oliva, Matt; Rotkis, Walter; Hardten, David R.; Fahmy, Ahmad; Brown, Marlene; Reeves, Sherman; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Lindstrom, Richard; Hauswirth, Scott; Hamilton, Stephen; Lee, W. Barry; Price, Francis; Price, Marianne; Kelly, Kathleen; Peters, Faye; Shaughnessy, Michael; Steinemann, Thomas; Dupps, B. J.; Meisler, David M.; Mifflin, Mark; Olson, Randal; Aldave, Anthony; Holland, Gary; Mondino, Bartly J.; Rosenwasser, George; Gorovoy, Mark; Dunn, Steven P.; Heidemann, David G.; Terry, Mark; Shamie, Neda; Rosenfeld, Steven I.; Suedekum, Brandon; Hwang, David; Stone, Donald; Chodosh, James; Galentine, Paul G.; Bardenstein, David; Goddard, Katrina; Chin, Hemin; Mannis, Mark; Varma, Rohit; Borecki, Ingrid; Donnelly, Peter; Barroso, Ines; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Hellenthal, Garrett; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Pirinen, Matti; Pearson, Richard; Strange, Amy; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Hunt, Sarah E.; Edkins, Sarah; Gwilliam, Rhian; Blackburn, Hannah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Dronov, Serge; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Hammond, Naomi; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; McCann, Owen T.; Liddle, Jennifer; Potter, Simon C.; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Widaa, Sara; Whittaker, Pamela; Genuth, S.; Nathan, D. M.; Zinman, B.; Crofford, O.; Crandall, J.; Reid, M.; Brown-Friday, J.; Engel, S.; Sheindlin, J.; Martinez, H.; Shamoon, H.; Engel, H.; Phillips, M.; Gubitosi-Klug, R.; Mayer, L.; Pendegast, S.; Zegarra, H.; Miller, D.; Singerman, L.; Smith-Brewer, S.; Novak, M.; Quin, J.; Dahms, W.; Genuth, Saul; Palmert, M.; Brillon, D.; Lackaye, M. E.; Kiss, S.; Chan, R.; Reppucci, V.; Lee, T.; Heinemann, M.; Whitehouse, F.; Kruger, D.; Jones, J. K.; McLellan, M.; Carey, J. D.; Angus, E.; Thomas, A.; Galprin, A.; Bergenstal, R.; Johnson, M.; Spencer, M.; Morgan, K.; Etzwiler, D.; Kendall, D.; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Golden, E.; Jacobson, A.; Beaser, R.; Ganda, O.; Hamdy, O.; Wolpert, H.; Sharuk, G.; Arrigg, P.; Schlossman, D.; Rosenzwieg, J.; Rand, L.; Larkin, M.; Ong, M.; Godine, J.; Cagliero, E.; Lou, P.; Folino, K.; Fritz, S.; Crowell, S.; Hansen, K.; Gauthier-Kelly, C.; Service, J.; Ziegler, G.; Luttrell, L.; Caulder, S.; Lopes-Virella, M.; Colwell, J.; Soule, J.; Fernandes, J.; Hermayer, K.; Kwon, S.; Brabham, M.; Blevins, A.; Parker, J.; Lee, D.; Patel, N.; Pittman, C.; Lindsey, P.; Bracey, M.; Lee, K.; Nutaitis, M.; Farr, A.; Elsing, S.; Thompson, T.; Selby, J.; Lyons, T.; Yacoub-Wasef, S.; Szpiech, M.; Wood, D.; Mayfield, R.; Molitch, M.; Schaefer, B.; Jampol, L.; Lyon, A.; Gill, M.; Strugula, Z.; Kaminski, L.; Mirza, R.; Simjanoski, E.; Ryan, D.; Kolterman, O.; Lorenzi, G.; Goldbaum, M.; Sivitz, W.; Bayless, M.; Counts, D.; Johnsonbaugh, S.; Hebdon, M.; Salemi, P.; Liss, R.; Donner, T.; Gordon, J.; Hemady, R.; Kowarski, A.; Ostrowski, D.; Steidl, S.; Jones, B.; Herman, W. H.; Martin, C. L.; Pop-Busui, R.; Sarma, A.; Albers, J.; Feldman, E.; Kim, K.; Elner, S.; Comer, G.; Gardner, T.; Hackel, R.; Prusak, R.; Goings, L.; Smith, A.; Gothrup, J.; Titus, P.; Lee, J.; Brandle, M.; Prosser, L.; Greene, D. A.; Stevens, M. J.; Vine, A. K.; Bantle, J.; Wimmergren, N.; Cochrane, A.; Olsen, T.; Steuer, E.; Rath, P.; Rogness, B.; Hainsworth, D.; Goldstein, D.; Hitt, S.; Giangiacomo, J.; Schade, D. S.; Canady, J. L.; Chapin, J. E.; Ketai C, L. H.; Braunstein, S.; Bourne, P. A.; Schwartz, S.; Brucker, A.; Maschak-Carey, B. J.; Baker, L.; Orchard, T.; Silvers, N.; Ryan, C.; Songer, T.; Doft, B.; Olson, S.; Bergren, R. L.; Lobes, L.; Paczan Rath, P.; Becker, D.; Rubinstein, D.; Conrad, P. W.; Yalamanchi, S.; Drash, A.; Morrison, A.; Bernal, M. L.; Vaccaro-Kish, J.; Malone, J.; Pavan, P. R.; Grove, N.; Iyer, M. N.; Burrows, A. F.; Tanaka, E. A.; Gstalder, R.; Dagogo-Jack, S.; Wigley, C.; Ricks, H.; Kitabchi, A.; Murphy, M. B.; Moser, S.; Meyer, D.; Iannacone, A.; Chaum, E.; Yoser, S.; Bryer-Ash, M.; Schussler, S.; Lambeth, H.; Raskin, P.; Strowig, S.; Barnie, A.; Devenyi, R.; Mandelcorn, M.; Brent, M.; Rogers, S.; Gordon, A.; Palmer, J.; Catton, S.; Brunzell, J.; Wessells, H.; de Boer, I. H.; Hokanson, J.; Purnell, J.; Ginsberg, J.; Kinyoun, J.; Deeb, S.; Weiss, M.; Meekins, G.; Distad, J.; van Ottingham, L.; Dupre, J.; Harth, J.; Nicolle, D.; Driscoll, M.; Mahon, J.; Canny, C.; May, M.; Lipps, J.; Agarwal, A.; Adkins, T.; Survant, L.; Pate, R. L.; Munn, G. E.; Lorenz, R.; Feman, S.; White, N.; Levandoski, L.; Boniuk, I.; Grand, G.; Thomas, M.; Joseph, D. D.; Blinder, K.; Shah, G.; Burgess, I.; Santiago, J.; Tamborlane, W.; Gatcomb, P.; Stoessel, K.; Taylor, K.; Goldstein, J.; Novella, S.; Mojibian, H.; Cornfeld, D.; Lima, J.; Bluemke, D.; Turkbey, E.; van der Geest, R. J.; Liu, C.; Malayeri, A.; Jain, A.; Miao, C.; Chahal, H.; Jarboe, R.; Maynard, J.; Gaston, P.; Trail, R.; Lachin, J.; Cleary, P.; Backlund, J.; Sun, W.; Braffett, B.; Klumpp, K.; Chan, K.; Diminick, L.; Rosenberg, D.; Petty, B.; Determan, A.; Kenny, D.; Rutledge, B.; Younes, Naji; Dews, L.; Hawkins, M.; Cowie, C.; Fradkin, J.; Siebert, C.; Eastman, R.; Danis, R.; Gangaputra, S.; Neill, S.; Davis, M.; Hubbard, L.; Wabers, H.; Burger, M.; Dingledine, J.; Gama, V.; Sussman, R.; Steffes, M.; Bucksa, J.; Nowicki, M.; Chavers, B.; O'Leary, D.; Polak, J.; Harrington, A.; Funk, L.; Crow, R.; Gloeb, B.; Thomas, S.; O'Donnell, C.; Soliman, E.; Zhang, Z. M.; Prineas, R.; Campbell, C.; Sandstrom, D.; Williams, T.; Geckle, M.; Cupelli, E.; Thoma, F.; Burzuk, B.; Woodfill, T.; Low, P.; Sommer, C.; Nickander, K.; Budoff, M.; Detrano, R.; Wong, N.; Fox, M.; Kim, L.; Oudiz, R.; Weir, G.; Espeland, M.; Manolio, T.; Singer, D.; Stern, M.; Boulton, A. E.; Clark, C.; D'Agostino, R.; Garvey, W. T.; Lyons, T. J.; Jenkins, A.; Virella, G.; Jaffa, A.; Carter, Rickey; Lackland, D.; McGee, D.; Zheng, D.; Mayfield, R. K.; Boright, A.; Bull, S.; Sun, L.; Scherer, S.; Natarajan, R.; Miao, F.; Zhang, L.; Chen, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We

  13. Comparison of treatment effect estimates for pharmacological randomized controlled trials enrolling older adults only and those including adults: a meta-epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Seegers

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Older adults are underrepresented in clinical research. To assess therapeutic efficacy in older patients, some randomized controlled trials (RCTs include older adults only. OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment effects between RCTs including older adults only (elderly RCTs and RCTs including all adults (adult RCTs by a meta-epidemiological approach. METHODS: All systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2011 were screened. Eligible studies were meta-analyses of binary outcomes of pharmacologic treatment including at least one elderly RCT and at least one adult RCT. For each meta-analysis, we compared summary odds ratios for elderly RCTs and adult RCTs by calculating a ratio of odds ratios (ROR. A summary ROR was estimated across all meta-analyses. RESULTS: We selected 55 meta-analyses including 524 RCTs (17% elderly RCTs. The treatment effects differed beyond that expected by chance for 7 (13% meta-analyses, showing more favourable treatment effects in elderly RCTs in 5 cases and in adult RCTs in 2 cases. The summary ROR was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.77-1.08, p = 0.28, with substantial heterogeneity (I(2 = 51% and τ(2 = 0.14. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses by type-of-age RCT (elderly RCTs vs RCTs excluding older adults and vs RCTs of mixed-age adults, type of outcome (mortality or other and type of comparator (placebo or active drug yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of pharmacologic treatments did not significantly differ, on average, between RCTs including older adults only and RCTs of all adults. However, clinically important discrepancies may occur and should be considered when generalizing evidence from all adults to older adults.

  14. A prospective observational study of machine translation software to overcome the challenge of including ethnic diversity in healthcare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Crichton, Nicola; Moult, Beki; Gibson, Faith

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates whether machine translation could help with the challenge of enabling the inclusion of ethnic diversity in healthcare research. A two phase, prospective observational study. Two machine translators, Google Translate and Babylon 9, were tested. Translation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) from 24 languages into English and translation of an English information sheet into Spanish and Chinese were quality scored. Quality was assessed using the Translation Assessment Quality Tool. Only six of the 48 translations of the SDQ were rated as acceptable, all from Google Translate. The mean number of acceptably translated sentences was higher ( P  = 0·001) for Google Translate 17·1 (sd 7·2) than for Babylon 9 11 (sd 7·9). Translation by Google Translate was better for Spanish and Chinese, although no score was in the acceptable range. Machine translation is not currently sufficiently accurate without editing to provide translation of materials for use in healthcare research.

  15. Predictors of driving outcomes including both crash involvement and driving cessation in a prospective study of Japanese older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, Ritsu; Okamura, Kazuko; Kihira, Makoto; Nakano, Yukako; Fujita, Goro

    2017-09-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate predictors of future traffic crash involvement, taking into account bias in the handling of data for former drivers. The second aim was to compare characteristics of former drivers and crash-involved drivers in order to gain an understanding of appropriate driving cessation among older drivers. In all, 154 drivers aged 70 years or older participated in the baseline interview and the follow-up survey conducted two years later. In the baseline interview, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire, take the Useful Field of View test ® (UFOV), and complete the Mini-Mental State Examination. In the follow-up survey, participants were asked by mail or telephone whether they had stopped driving. Participants reporting that they still drove were invited to participate in a subsequent interview. Based on the information obtained in the follow-up survey, participants were classified as follows: driving cessation group (n=26); crash-involved group (n=18); and crash-free group (n=110). A multinomial logistic regression was then used to analyse the data. Contrary to the results of previous studies, we found older age to be associated with crash involvement but not with driving cessation. The cessation group had more decreased cognitive processing speed than the crash-involved and crash-free groups. Crash history was also predictive of crash involvement. Participants who were subject to license renewal between baseline and follow-up had a greater tendency to continue driving. Results suggested that age and crash history could potentially identify high-risk older drivers. The predictive power of cognitive processing speed is reduced under certain conditions. License-renewal procedures may induce Japanese older adults to continue driving. Future studies should use a large national sample to confirm the results of the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies of Bone Detritus of Pleistocene Mammals, Including the Earliest in Northern Eurasia Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Silaev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the preliminary results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of the primary and epigenetic properties of the bio-mineral and protein components in the fossil bone detritus as an example of first step of continued interdisciplinary research program. During the further implementation of this program, it is expected not only to solve a set of interrelated mineralogical, paleontological, paleoecological, paleoclimatic, and archaeological problems, but also to obtain new knowledge about the coevolution of organic, organo-mineral and inorganic substances in the geological history. The main objects of study are the fossil remains of the large Pleistocene mammals (mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, deer, elk, horses, bison, cave and brown bear found on the territory of the Pechora Urals (62-67 ° N , South Pri-Irtyshie in Western Siberia (57-58 ° N, and Northern Taymyr (75-77 ° N. The oldest bone of Homo sapiens (Ust-Ishim human found in Northern Eurasia and remains of medieval Tobol and Irtysh Turk will be investigated as well. The results of previous studies of skin and hair of biological material from today's wild fisheries (analogues Pleistocene mammals, wild and domestic animals are considered as the reliable prerequisites for planned isotopic and geochemical studies. Use of cutting-edge research techniques will allow determining the chemical composition of bones; the elemental composition of bone collagen and bone proteins; the degree of crystallinity of bone bioapatite, and phase composition of xenomineral impurities; the isotopic composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in bioapatite and collagen; the actual molecular and crystal structure of the protein biomineral, and bone substance; the concentration of trace elements; the conditions and duration of burial and reburial of bone detritus; bone collagen bacterial degradation at an early stage of fossilization. It is expected that the implementation of the proposed project

  17. A technical investigation of an oil painting on copper support, including a study on consolidants for treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Leonor Brito do Nascimento e

    2015-01-01

    Paper submitted to e-conservation Journal: Maria Leonor Oliveira, Leslie Carlyle, Sara Fragoso, Isabel Pombo Cardoso and João Coroado, “Investigations into paint delamination and consolidation of an oil painting on copper support”. This thesis is divided into two parts. Part 1 focuses on the technical study of an undated oil painting on copper. The painting, which depicts the Biblical scene ‘The Visitation’, arrived at the laboratory in poor condition, with severe active flaking which has ...

  18. Power flow modeling of Back-to-Back STATCOM: Comprehensive simulation studies including PV curves and PQ circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Vural

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Power flow study in a power network embedded with FACTS device requires effort in program coding. Moreover, Newton-Raphson method should be modified by embedding injected power components into the algorithm. In this study, we have proposed a method for modeling of one of the newest FACTS concepts in power flow study without program coding or modification of existing Newton-Raphson algorithm. Real and reactive power injections for each voltage source converter of Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator (BtB-STATCOM are PI regulated to their desired steady-state values. With this respect, reactive power injection of each voltage source converter as well as real power transfer among them can be assigned as control constraint. Operating losses are also taken into account in the proposed modeling approach. Furthermore, proposed model can be easily modified for the modeling of conventional STATCOM having only one voltage source converter or two STATCOMs operating independently. The proposed modeling approach is verified in PSCAD through a number of simulation scenarios in BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM embedded power systems, namely 1-Machine 4-Bus system and 3-Machine 7-Bus system. PV curves of local buses compensated by BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM are presented and compared. Steady-state performance of BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM is also compared in power flow handling.

  19. Experimental studies of ion flow near the sheath edge in multiple ion species plasma including argon, xenon and neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severn, Greg; Yip, Chi-Shung; Hershkowitz, Noah; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-05-01

    The Bohm sheath criterion was studied with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in three ion species plasmas using two tunable diode lasers. It was found in the first LIF studies of three ion species plasma (Yip et al 2016 Phys. Plasmas 23 050703) in which krypton was added to a mixture of argon and xenon plasma confined in a multidipole, dc hot filament discharge, that the addition of krypton served to turn off instability enhanced collisional friction (IEF) found in two ion species plasma (Yip et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas). In this study, neon, a less massive atomic gas than argon was added. Argon and xenon ion velocity distribution functions (IVDFs) were measured at the sheath-presheath boundary near a negatively biased boundary plate, and the Ne+ density was systematically increased. We found in both cases that once the added ion density significantly exceeded the density of the other two ions, IVDF measurements consistent with the absence of the instability were obtained, and the measured ion sheath edge speeds tended toward their individual Bohm velocities. For all other relative concentrations, the ions reached the sheath edge neither at their Bohm speeds nor the ion sound speed of the system, consistent, qualitatively, with the action of the IEF.

  20. Neutron Scattering Studies of Liquid on or Confined in Nano- and Mesoporous Carbons, Including Carbide-Derived Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, David J [ORNL

    2014-07-01

    This project involved the synthesis of microporous graphitic-carbon powders with subnanometer average pore size, and very narrow pore size distributions, and the use of these materials in experimental studies of pore-fluid structure and dynamics. Samples of carbide-derived carbon powder, synthesized by extraction of the metal cations from TiC by a high temperature chlorination process, followed by high temperature vacuum annealing, were prepared by Ranjan Dash and his associates at CRADA partner Y-Carbon, Inc. The resulting material had average pore sizes ranging from 5 to 8 . These powders were used in two experiments conducted by researchers involved in the Energy Frontier Research Center Directed by David J. Wesolowski at ORNL, the Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport (FIRST) Center. FIRST-funded researchers at Drexel University collaborated with scientists at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, to measure the expansion and contraction of the microporous carbon particles during charging and discharging of supercapactor electrodes composed of these particles (Hantell et al., 2011, Electrochemistry Communications, v. 13, pp. 1221-1224.) in an electrolyte composed of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate dissolved in acetonitrile. In the second experiment, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Drexel University conducted quasielastic neutron scattering studies of the diffusional dynamics of water imbibed into the micropores of the same material (Chathoth et al., 2011, EuroPhysics Journal, v. 95, pp. 56001/1-6). These studies helped to establish the role of pores approaching the size of the solvent and dissolved ions in altering diffusional dynamics, ion transport and physical response of conducting substrates to ion desolvation and entry into subnamometer pores.

  1. A comparative study of mouse embryo freeze-preservation including the examination of a thermoelectric freezing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Schmidt, P M; Wildt, D E

    1987-06-01

    In Study 1 over 2000 4- to 8-cell mouse embryos were randomly pooled and assigned to 1 of 12 treatment groups. A 2 X 2 X 3 factorial design was used to analyze two types of cryoprotectant/post-thaw (PT) dilutions (dimethyl sulfoxide [Me2SO]/stepwise dilution versus glycerol/sucrose dilution), two storage containers (glass ampoules versus plastic straws), and three cooling treatments. Two commercial, controlled-rate freezing machines were examined, employing either nitrogen gas (Planer) or thermoelectric (Glacier) cooling. Embryos were cooled slowly (0.5 degrees C/min) to -35 or -80 degrees C and then cooled rapidly by transfer into liquid nitrogen (LN2). Thawed embryos were cultured for 24 hr after which developmental stage, post-thaw survival (PTS), embryo degeneration rate (EDR), quality grade (QG), and fluorescein diacetate viability grade (VG) were assessed. Overall, PTS and EDR were similar (P greater than 0.05) among the three freezing unit/plunge temperature treatments. Cumulative results of container and cryoprotectant/PT dilution treatments consistently demonstrated greater PTS, QG, and VG ratings and lower EDR values when embryos were frozen in ampoules using glycerol/sucrose dilution. Embryos treated with Me2SO/stepwise dilution were particularly sensitive to freezing damage when stored in plastic straws and plunged into LN2 at -35 degrees C. Study 2 was directed at determining whether Study 1 methods for diluting Me2SO-protected embryos markedly affected PTS rates. Post-thaw culture percentages were no different (P greater than 0.05) for four- to eight-cell Me2SO-treated embryos frozen in ampoules (using the forced-LN2 device), thawed, and diluted either conventionally in reduced concentrations of Me2SO or in the sucrose treatment normally accorded glycerolated embryos.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Vulnerability assessment including tangible and intangible components in the index composition: An Amazon case study of flooding and flash flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Milena Marília Nogueira de; Szlafsztein, Claudio Fabian

    2018-02-27

    The vulnerability of cities and communities in the Amazon to flooding and flash flooding is increasing. The effects of extreme events on populations vary across landscapes, causing vulnerability to differ spatially. Traditional vulnerability studies in Brazil and across the world have used the vulnerability index for the country and, more recently, municipality scales. The vulnerability dimensions are exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. For each of these dimensions, there is a group of indicators that constitutes a vulnerability index using quantitative data. Several vulnerability assessments have used sensitivity and exposure analyses and, recently, adaptive capacity has been considered. The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analysis allows spatial regional modeling using quantitative vulnerability indicators. This paper presents a local-scale vulnerability assessment in an urban Amazonian area, Santarém City, using interdisciplinary methods. Data for exposure and sensitivity were gathered by remote sensing and census data, respectively. However, adaptive capacity refers to local capacities, whether infrastructural or not, and the latter were gathered by qualitative participatory methods. For the mixed data used to study adaptive capacity, we consider tangible components for countable infrastructure that can cope with hazards, and intangible components that reflect social activities based on risk perceptions and collective action. The results indicate that over 80% of the area is highly or moderately vulnerable to flooding and flash flooding. Exposure and adaptive capacity were determinants of the results. Lower values of adaptive capacity play a significant role in vulnerability enhancement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Including the people with disabilities at work: a case study of the job of bricklayer in civil construction in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B; Guimarães, B M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of the evaluation of the job of bricklayer in the construction industry to determine the profile of workers with disabilities who could perform this function and what adjustments are needed. The methods and techniques used in the field study were: direct observation of the activities and the environment, interviews with bricklayers on building sites, a video and photographic record of tasks being carried out to analyze the job of bricklayer, software resources were used. This study set out the disabilities most commonly caused by work accidents in the civil construction industry and simulated the conditions of the individuals to determine whether they could perform the activities of this function and what adaptations are needed. It was observed that workers with hearing impairments could perform activities without any change in the workplace and individuals who had had a leg or foot amputated need to use appropriate prostheses to perform the activities of the function. Thus, it was shown that the activity of professionals with experience in Ergonomics is essential since, by the activity of gathering data and analysing the physical, cognitive and organizational requirements of jobs and by collecting data on and analysing the functional capabilities of the worker with a disability, adaptations to jobs can be adequately defined.

  4. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trichoderma virens β-glucosidase I (BGLI) gene; expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including docking and molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Gammadde Hewa Ishan Maduka; Rathnayake, Pilimathalawe Panditharathna Attanayake Mudiyanselage Samith Indika; Chandrasekharan, Naduviladath Vishvanath; Weerasinghe, Mahindagoda Siril Samantha; Wijesundera, Ravindra Lakshman Chundananda; Wijesundera, Wijepurage Sandhya Sulochana

    2017-06-21

    Cellulose, a linear polymer of β 1-4, linked glucose, is the most abundant renewable fraction of plant biomass (lignocellulose). It is synergistically converted to glucose by endoglucanase (EG) cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and β-glucosidase (BGL) of the cellulase complex. BGL plays a major role in the conversion of randomly cleaved cellooligosaccharides into glucose. As it is well known, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can efficiently convert glucose into ethanol under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, S.cerevisiae was genetically modified with the objective of heterologous extracellular expression of the BGLI gene of Trichoderma virens making it capable of utilizing cellobiose to produce ethanol. The cDNA and a genomic sequence of the BGLI gene of Trichoderma virens was cloned in the yeast expression vector pGAPZα and separately transformed to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The size of the BGLI cDNA clone was 1363 bp and the genomic DNA clone contained an additional 76 bp single intron following the first exon. The gene was 90% similar to the DNA sequence and 99% similar to the deduced amino acid sequence of 1,4-β-D-glucosidase of T. atroviride (AC237343.1). The BGLI activity expressed by the recombinant genomic clone was 3.4 times greater (1.7 x 10 -3  IU ml -1 ) than that observed for the cDNA clone (5 x 10 -4  IU ml -1 ). Furthermore, the activity was similar to the activity of locally isolated Trichoderma virens (1.5 x 10 -3  IU ml -1 ). The estimated size of the protein was 52 kDA. In fermentation studies, the maximum ethanol production by the genomic and the cDNA clones were 0.36 g and 0.06 g /g of cellobiose respectively. Molecular docking results indicated that the bare protein and cellobiose-protein complex behave in a similar manner with considerable stability in aqueous medium. The deduced binding site and the binding affinity of the constructed homology model appeared to be reasonable. Moreover, it was identified that the five hydrogen bonds formed

  6. Technical Note: Monte Carlo study of106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic plaques including the106Rh gamma spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida-López, Marcelino; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    To assess the influence of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum on the Monte Carlo simulation of 106 Ru/ 106 Rh ophthalmic plaques, which has been neglected without a quantitative estimation in all previous publications. Simulations were run with the penelope 2014 Monte Carlo code for radiation transport. Depth-dose distributions in water were simulated for the plaque models CCA, CCC, CCX and CIA. In addition to the 106 Rh beta spectrum, all gamma components from the 106 Rh gamma spectrum were included in the simulations. Depth-dose curves were compared with those obtained without considering the 106 Rh gamma spectrum. Moreover, half-value (HVL) and tenth-value layers (TVL) were estimated for the 106 Rh gamma spectrum in water, PMMA, stainless steel and lead. Some practical radiation protection applications were discussed. Parallel computing was implemented to reduce computing time. The contribution of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum on the depth-dose curves is negligible at depths of clinical interest. The HVL and TVL of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum were found to be similar to those of 137 Cs. The air-kerma rate at 1 m for a CCA plaque in typical clinical conditions was about 0.4μGym2h-1, resulting in equivalent doses at that point elow 0.05 mSv during a treatment. The air-kerma rate would be underestimated by a factor of 5 if the 106 Rh gamma spectrum were not considered. Also, a freely available software tool was developed to ease parallelization of penelope 2014 simulations that use penmain as steering main program. The influence of the 106 Rh gamma spectrum is not relevant for clinical purposes, thus validating the common assumption from the literature. However, for simulations at large distances from the plaques, such as for radiation shielding assessment and estimation of dose to personnel, the gamma spectrum from 106 Rh must be taken into account to obtain accurate results. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. Techniques for managing behaviour in pediatric dentistry: comparative study of live modelling and tell-show-do based on children's heart rates during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat-McHayleh, Nada; Harfouche, Alice; Souaid, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Tell-show-do is the most popular technique for managing children"s behaviour in dentists" offices. Live modelling is used less frequently, despite the satisfactory results obtained in studies conducted during the 1980s. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of these 2 techniques on children"s heart rates during dental treatments, heart rate being the simplest biological parameter to measure and an increase in heart rate being the most common physiologic indicator of anxiety and fear. For this randomized, controlled, parallel-group single-centre clinical trial, children 5 to 9 years of age presenting for the first time to the Saint Joseph University dental care centre in Beirut, Lebanon, were divided into 3 groups: those in groups A and B were prepared for dental treatment by means of live modelling, the mother serving as the model for children in group A and the father as the model for children in group B. The children in group C were prepared by a pediatric dentist using the tell-show-do method. Each child"s heart rate was monitored during treatment, which consisted of an oral examination and cleaning. A total of 155 children met the study criteria and participated in the study. Children who received live modelling with the mother as model had lower heart rates than those who received live modelling with the father as model and those who were prepared by the tell-show-do method (p pediatric dentistry.

  8. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  9. Global Studies of the Sulfur Cycle Including the Influence of DMS and Fossil Fuel Sulfur on Climate and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Joyce E.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosols, wherein aerosol particles are thought to increase cloud droplet concentrations and cloud lifetime, is the most uncertain component of climate forcing over the past 100 years. Here, for the first time, we use a mechanistic treatment of droplet nucleation and a prognostic treatment of the number of cloud droplets to study the indirect aerosol effect from changes in carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. Cloud droplet nucleation is parameterized as a function of total aerosol number concentration, updraft velocity and a shape parameter, which takes into account the mechanism, of sulfate aerosol formation, while cloud droplet number depends on the nucleation as well as on droplet sinks. Whereas previous treatments have predicted annual average indirect effects between -1 and -2 W/sq m, we obtain an indirect aerosol effect between -0.14 W/sq m and -0.42 W/sq m in the global mean.

  10. Polyphasic taxonomic study of the genera Gordona and Tsukamurella including the description of Tsukamurella wratislaviensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, M; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, J; Thomas, E G; Mordarski, M; Ward, A C; James, A L

    1991-06-01

    Representatives of the genera Gordona and Tsukamurella together with related actinomycetes were the subject of chemotaxonomic, numerical taxonomic and DNA homology studies. In the numerical analysis the organisms were examined for 116 unit characters and the data sorted using the simple matching, Jaccard and pattern coefficients; clustering was achieved using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages algorithm. The numerical groupings were not affected by the statistics used or by test error, estimated at 1.9%. The numerical taxonomic data supported the integrity of the four validly described species of Gordona but indicated that the genus Tsukamurella might encompass a species in addition to Tsukamurella paurometabola. The putative new strains had chemical, enzymic, nutritional and tolerance properties consistent with their assignment to the genus Tsukamurella and formed a DNA homology group corresponding to the one formed by the Tsukamurella paurometabola strains. It is proposed that the new taxon be assigned to the genus Tsukamurella as Tsukamurella wratislaviensis.

  11. Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies: a case study for Birmingham, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornes John E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heatwaves present a significant health risk and the hazard is likely to escalate with the increased future temperatures presently predicted by climate change models. The impact of heatwaves is often felt strongest in towns and cities where populations are concentrated and where the climate is often unintentionally modified to produce an urban heat island effect; where urban areas can be significantly warmer than surrounding rural areas. The purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to integrate remotely sensed urban heat island data alongside commercial social segmentation data via a spatial risk assessment methodology in order to highlight potential heat health risk areas and build the foundations for a climate change risk assessment. This paper uses the city of Birmingham, UK as a case study area. Results When looking at vulnerable sections of the population, the analysis identifies a concentration of "very high" risk areas within the city centre, and a number of pockets of "high risk" areas scattered throughout the conurbation. Further analysis looks at household level data which yields a complicated picture with a considerable range of vulnerabilities at a neighbourhood scale. Conclusions The results illustrate that a concentration of "very high" risk people live within the urban heat island, and this should be taken into account by urban planners and city centre environmental managers when considering climate change adaptation strategies or heatwave alert schemes. The methodology has been designed to be transparent and to make use of powerful and readily available datasets so that it can be easily replicated in other urban areas.

  12. Tennessee Valley region study: potential year 2000 radiological dose to population resulting from nuclear facility operations. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A companion report, DOE/ET-0064/1, presents a geographic, cultural, and demographic profile of the Tennessee Valley Region study area. This report describes the calculations of radionuclide release and transport and of the resultant dose to the regional population, assuming a projected installed capacity of 220,000 MW in the year 2000, of which 144,000 MW would be nuclear. All elements of the fuel cycle were assumed to be in operation. The radiological dose was calculated as a one-year dose based on ingestion of 35 different food types as well as for nine non-food pathways, and was reported as dose to the total body and for six specific organs for each of four age groups (infant, child, teen, and adult). Results indicate that the average individual would receive an incremental dose of 7 x 10/sup -4/ millirems in the year 2000 from the operation of nuclear facilities within and adjacent to the region, five orders of magnitude smaller than the dose from naturally occurring radiation in the area. The major contributor to dose was found to be tritium, and the most significant pathways were immersion in air, inhalation of air, transpiration of tritium (absorption through the skin), and exposure radionuclide-containing soil. 60 references.

  13. Electronic structures and spectroscopic properties of CdI: MRCI+Q study including spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Shutao; Liu, Yadong; Yan, Bing

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium iodide (CdI), which is a candidate for laser material in chemical lasing, has attracted considerable scientific interest. While the complete picture for electronic structure of CdI is still unclear, particularly for the interactions of excited states. In this paper, high-level configuration interaction method is applied to compute the low-lying electronic states of the lowest two dissociation limits (Cd(1S) + I(2P) and Cd(3P) + I(2P)). To ensure the accuracy, the Davidson correction, core-valence electronic correlations and spin-orbit coupling effects are also taken into account. The potential energy curves of the 14 Λ-S states and 30 Ω states obtained from those Λ-S states are calculated. On the basis of the computed potential energy curves, the spectroscopic constants of bound and quasibound states are determined, most of which have not been reported in existing studies. The calculated values of spin-orbit coupling matrix elements demonstrate that the B2Σ+1/2 state imposes a strong perturbation on ν‧> 0 vibrational level of C2Π1/2, which can explain the weak spectral intensity of C2Π1/2-X2Σ+1/2 observed in previous experiment. The transition dipole moments as well as the lifetimes are evaluated to predict the transition properties of B2Σ+1/2, C2Π1/2 and 22Π3/2 states.

  14. Plasmonic modes in nanowire dimers: A study based on the hydrodynamic Drude model including nonlocal and nonlinear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeferdt, Matthias; Kiel, Thomas; Sproll, Tobias; Intravaia, Francesco; Busch, Kurt

    2018-02-01

    A combined analytical and numerical study of the modes in two distinct plasmonic nanowire systems is presented. The computations are based on a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain approach, and a fully nonlinear and nonlocal hydrodynamic Drude model for the metal is utilized. In the linear regime, these computations demonstrate the strong influence of nonlocality on the field distributions as well as on the scattering and absorption spectra. Based on these results, second-harmonic-generation efficiencies are computed over a frequency range that covers all relevant modes of the linear spectra. In order to interpret the physical mechanisms that lead to corresponding field distributions, the associated linear quasielectrostatic problem is solved analytically via conformal transformation techniques. This provides an intuitive classification of the linear excitations of the systems that is then applied to the full Maxwell case. Based on this classification, group theory facilitates the determination of the selection rules for the efficient excitation of modes in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. This leads to significantly enhanced second-harmonic generation via judiciously exploiting the system symmetries. These results regarding the mode structure and second-harmonic generation are of direct relevance to other nanoantenna systems.

  15. Theoretical study of the low-lying electronic states of magnesium sulfide cation including spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Wang, Ning; Li, Song; Chen, Shan-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Highly correlated ab initio calculations have been performed for an accurate determination of electronic structures and spectroscopic features for the low-lying electronic states of the MgS+ cation. The potential energy curves for the four Λ-S states correlating to the lowest dissociation asymptote are studied for the first time. Four Λ-S states split into nine Ω states through the spin-orbit coupling effect. Accurate spectroscopic constants are deduced for all bound states. The spin-orbit couplings and the transition dipole moments, as well as the PECs, are utilized to calculate Franck-Condon factors and radiative lifetimes of the vibrational levels. To verify our computational accuracy, analogous calculations for the ground state of MgS are also carried out, and our derived results are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. In addition, photoelectron spectrum of MgS has been simulated. The predictive results are anticipated to serve as guidelines for further researches such as assisting laboratorial detections and analyzing observed spectrum.

  16. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  17. BER-3.2 report: Methodology for justification and optimization of protective measures including a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Sinkko, K.; Walmod-Larsen, O.; Gjoerup, H.L.; Salo, A.

    1992-07-01

    This report is a part of the Nordic BER-3 project's work to propose and harmonize Nordic intervention levels for countermeasures in case of nuclear accidents. This report focuses on the methodology for justification and optimization of protective measures in case of a reactor accident situation with a large release of fission products to the environment. The down-wind situation is very complicated. The dose to the exposed society is almost unpredictable. The task of the radiation protection experts: To give advice to the decision makers on averted doses by the different actions at hand in the situation - is complicated. That of the decision makers is certainly more: On half of the society they represent, they must decide if they wish to follow the advices from their radiation protection experts or if they wish to add further arguments - economical or political (or personal) - into their considerations before their decisions are taken. Two analysis methods available for handling such situations: cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis are described in principle and are utilized in a case study: The impacts of a Chernobyl-like accident on the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea are analyzed with regard to the acute consequences. The use of the intervention principles found in international guidance (IAEA 91, ICRP 91), which can be summarized as the principles of justification, optimization and avoidance of unacceptable doses, are described. How to handle more intangible factors of a psychological or political character is indicated. (au) (6 tabs., 3 ills., 17 refs.)

  18. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: a multicenter study of 58 patients including NF1-associated gastric schwannoma and unusual morphologic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaimy, Abbas; Märkl, Bruno; Kitz, Julia; Wünsch, Peter H; Arnholdt, Hans; Füzesi, Laszlo; Hartmann, Arndt; Chetty, Runjan

    2010-04-01

    The frequency and morphological spectrum of gastrointestinal peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) from consecutive case material has not been studied in the c-KIT era. We reviewed all mesenchymal gastrointestinal (GI) lesions at our departments according to current diagnostic criteria. PNSTs formed the third commonest group of mesenchymal GI tumors with a lower frequency (schwannomas (n = 22) were the most common types of PNSTs encountered. Rare tumors included neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)-associated PNSTs (n = 5) and gastric perineurioma (n = 1). Thirteen schwannomas (including also some recent cases) were initially diagnosed as GIST, leiomyoma, or neurofibroma. Unusual histological variants included sigmoid GCT with prominent lipomatous component (n = 1), reticular-microcystic schwannoma of small (n = 1) and large (n = 1) bowel, NF1-associated gastric schwannoma (the first case to date), and psammomatous melanotic colonic schwannoma unrelated to Carney complex (n = 1). PNSTs coexisted with GIST in four patients (three had definite NF1). In conclusion, PNSTs of the GI tract are rare uniformly benign neoplasms that may show schwannian, perineurial, fibroblastic, or mixed differentiation. Most of them (92%) occurred sporadically unassociated with NF1 or NF2. Gastrointestinal PNSTs are still underrecognized by general pathologists. Awareness of their diverse morphology will help to avoid confusing them with smooth muscle neoplasms and GIST that they may closely mimic.

  19. Methodology for electrical studies in industrial networks including the study of electric arc; Metodologia para los estudios electricos en redes industriales incluyendo el estudio de arco electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasgado Casique, Jose Pepe; Silva Farias, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jrasgado@iie.org.mx; jlsilva@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents a methodology for conducting electrical studies in industrial networks. The methodology included the study of arc flash as a very important area of current basic electrical studies, such as power flow, short circuit and coordination. The aim of this study is to determine the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and flash protection boundary for personnel working with or near energized equipment, based on the IEEE Std 1584-2004 and NFPA-70E- 2004. Also included are criteria and recommendations to reduce incident energy level (cal/cm{sup 2}). At work we used a distribution network for industrial type test. The studies were carried out using a commercial program for the analysis of electrical networks. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para llevar a cabo los estudios electricos en redes industriales. En la metodologia se incluye al estudio de arco electrico como un area muy importante de los estudios electricos basicos actuales, como: flujos de potencia, cortocircuito y coordinacion de protecciones. El objetivo de dicho estudio es determinar el Equipo de Proteccion Personal (EPP) apropiado y los limites de proteccion para el personal que opera con o cerca de equipo energizado, con base en las normas IEEE Std. 1584-2004 y la NFPA-70E-2004. Ademas, se incluyen criterios y recomendaciones para disminuir el nivel de energia incidente (cal/cm{sup 2}). En el trabajo se utilizo una red de distribucion tipo industrial de prueba. Los estudios se llevaron a cabo utilizando un programa comercial para el analisis de redes electricas.

  20. Selected Theoretical Studies Group contributions to the 14th International Cosmic Ray conference. [including studies on galactic molecular hydrogen, interstellar reddening, and on the origin of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The galactic distribution of H2 was studied through gamma radiation and through X-ray, optical, and infrared absorption measurements from SAS-2 and other sources. A comparison of the latitude distribution of gamma-ray intensity with reddening data shows reddening data to give the best estimate of interstellar gas in the solar vicinity. The distribution of galactic cosmic ray nucleons was determined and appears to be identical to the supernova remnant distribution. Interactions between ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray nuclei and intergalactic photon radiation fields were calculated, using the Monte Carlo method.

  1. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyib Olaniyan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. Methods/design A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR. Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop. Discussion This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air

  2. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Röösli, Martin; Naidoo, Rajen; Baatjies, Roslynn; Künzil, Nino; Tsai, Ming; Davey, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Berman, Dilys; Parker, Bhawoodien; Leaner, Joy; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2017-09-16

    There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen) in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO) and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop). This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air pollutants on childhood respiratory health, with a specific focus on

  3. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris M Heid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2 in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345, including general population (GP studies, population-based studies with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP, and obesity studies (OB. We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213 combining the different study designs did not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27. The I(2 measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015 indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2 measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33 and an OR of 1.10 (p-value = 0.015. Regarding the five hypotheses, our data showed (a some difference between GP and HP studies (p-value = 0.012 and (b an association in extreme comparisons (BMI> or =32.5, 35.0, 37.5, 40.0 kg/m(2 versus BMI<25 kg/m(2 yielding ORs of 1.16, 1.18, 1.22, or 1.27 (p-values 0.001 to 0.003, which was also underscored by significantly increased CC-genotype frequencies across BMI categories (10.4% to 12.5%, p-value for trend = 0.0002. We did not find evidence for differential ORs (c among studies with higher than average obesity prevalence compared to lower, (d among studies with BMI assessment after the year 2000 compared to those before, or (e among studies from older populations compared to younger. Analysis of non-Caucasian adults (n = 4889 or children (n = 3243 yielded ORs of 1.01 (p-value = 0.94 or 1.15 (p-value = 0.22, respectively. There was no evidence for overall association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity. Our data suggested an association with extreme degrees of obesity, and consequently heterogeneous effects from different study designs may

  4. Histopathological studies show protective efficacy of Hippophae leaf extract against damage to jejunum in whole body 60Co-a-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manish; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ionizing radiation affect living tissue by causing majority of in vivo damage by free radical production. Earlier we reported that our preparation from Hippophae leaf offered survival benefit to >90% mice population which was whole body irradiated ( 60 Co-a-rays, 10 Gy). Objective: This study was planned to examine the protective effects of our drug (from Hippophae leaf) on ( 60 Co-a-ray induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in jejunum. Methods: Around 2 months old adult male Strain 'A' mice were irradiated (10 Gy). Drug was administered intraperitoneally (-30 mm.). Histological parameters were studied after staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Malondialdehyde formation (index of lipid peroxidation), alkaline phosphatase activity, and total thiol content were determined by biochemical techniques. The data was obtained at different time interval upto 30 days. Results: Biochemical studies showed that in comparison to the untreated controls, in the irradiated (10 Gy) mice, there was significant increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity and level of malondialdehyde whereas decrease in total thiol content within 2 days. Histological studies showed that whole body irradiation (10 Gy), damaged the jejunam crypt cells and decreased the villi height within 2 days. Intra-peritoneal administration of drug, 30 mm prior to irradiation, protected the crypt cells and villi height, countered the radiation induced increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and lipid peroxidation and values were comparable to the level of control in 30 days. Conclusions: These biochemical and histopathological studies suggested that our drug can offer effective radioprotection against the oxidative damage to jejunum in vivo. (author)

  5. Cerebellar nuclei neurons show only small excitatory responses to optogenetic olivary stimulation in transgenic mice: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo eLu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the olivary input to the cerebellar nuclei (CN we used optogenetic stimulation in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 in olivary neurons. We obtained in vivo extracellular Purkinje cell (PC and CN recordings in anesthetized mice while stimulating the contralateral inferior olive (IO with a blue laser (single pulse, 10 - 50 ms duration. Peri-stimulus histograms were constructed to show the spike rate changes after optical stimulation. Among 29 CN neurons recorded, 15 showed a decrease in spike rate of variable strength and duration, and only 1 showed a transient spiking response. These results suggest that direct olivary input to CN neurons is usually overridden by stronger Purkinje cell inhibition triggered by climbing fiber responses. To further investigate the direct input from the climbing fiber collaterals we also conducted whole cell recordings in brain slices, where we used local stimulation with blue light. Due to the expression of ChR2 in Purkinje cell axons as well as the IO in our transgenic line, strong inhibitory responses could be readily triggered with optical stimulation (13 of 15 neurons. After blocking this inhibition with GABAzine, only in 5 of 13 CN neurons weak excitatory responses were revealed. Therefore our in vitro results support the in vivo findings that the excitatory input to CN neurons from climbing fiber collaterals in adult mice is masked by the inhibition under normal conditions.

  6. Evaluating Learning and Attitudes on Tissue Engineering: A Study of Children Viewing Animated Digital Dome Shows Detailing the Biomedicine of Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna C.; Gonzalez, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art–science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show

  7. Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP Calculator Shows that Hiding Heritability Is Partially Due to Imperfect Genetic Correlations across Studies.

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    Ronald de Vlaming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale genome-wide association results are typically obtained from a fixed-effects meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from multiple studies spanning different regions and/or time periods. This approach averages the estimated effects of genetic variants across studies. In case genetic effects are heterogeneous across studies, the statistical power of a GWAS and the predictive accuracy of polygenic scores are attenuated, contributing to the so-called 'missing heritability'. Here, we describe the online Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP calculator (available at www.devlaming.eu which quantifies this attenuation based on a novel multi-study framework. By means of simulation studies, we show that under a wide range of genetic architectures, the statistical power and predictive accuracy provided by this calculator are accurate. We compare the predictions from the MetaGAP calculator with actual results obtained in the GWAS literature. Specifically, we use genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood to estimate the SNP heritability and cross-study genetic correlation of height, BMI, years of education, and self-rated health in three large samples. These estimates are used as input parameters for the MetaGAP calculator. Results from the calculator suggest that cross-study heterogeneity has led to attenuation of statistical power and predictive accuracy in recent large-scale GWAS efforts on these traits (e.g., for years of education, we estimate a relative loss of 51-62% in the number of genome-wide significant loci and a relative loss in polygenic score R2 of 36-38%. Hence, cross-study heterogeneity contributes to the missing heritability.

  8. Long-Time Exposure to Violent Video Games Does Not Show Desensitization on Empathy for Pain: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuemei; Pan, Wei; Li, Chao; Weng, Lei; Yao, Mengyun; Chen, Antao

    2017-01-01

    As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others’ pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs) could change players’ empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two groups of participants (18 in VVG group, VG; 17 in non-VVG group, NG) were screened from nearly 200 video game experience questionnaires. And then, the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were recorded when they were viewing painful and non-painful stimuli. The results showed that the perception of others’ pain were not significantly different in brain regions between groups, from which we could infer that the desensitization effect of VVGs was overrated. PMID:28512439

  9. Long-Time Exposure to Violent Video Games Does Not Show Desensitization on Empathy for Pain: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuemei; Pan, Wei; Li, Chao; Weng, Lei; Yao, Mengyun; Chen, Antao

    2017-01-01

    As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others' pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs) could change players' empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two groups of participants (18 in VVG group, VG; 17 in non-VVG group, NG) were screened from nearly 200 video game experience questionnaires. And then, the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were recorded when they were viewing painful and non-painful stimuli. The results showed that the perception of others' pain were not significantly different in brain regions between groups, from which we could infer that the desensitization effect of VVGs was overrated.

  10. Acne cosmetica revisited: a case-control study shows a dose-dependent inverse association between overall cosmetic use and post-adolescent acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Mann, Baldeep Kaur; Tiwary, Narendra K

    2013-01-01

    Case-control studies to support the concept of acne cosmetica are lacking. To examine the association of post-adolescent acne with the use of cosmetics and cosmetic procedures. 910 post-adolescent patients with acne and an equal number of matched controls were studied for exposure to cosmetics and cosmetic procedures. A cumulative cosmetic exposure index was stratified into four quarters of increasing exposure. Comparison of different cumulative exposure categories with the lowest exposure category (multivariate analysis, logistic regression) showed that the odds ratios, which were always cosmetic exposure increased [odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.679 (0.501-0.922), 0.355 (0.258-0.487), 0.307 (0.217-0.433)]. However, some individual cosmetics had odds ratios >1. Overall cosmetic use was negatively associated with post-adolescent acne. The term 'acne cosmetica' is appropriate in the sense that some cosmetics may cause acne.

  11. Long-Time Exposure to Violent Video Games Does Not Show Desensitization on Empathy for Pain: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others’ pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs could change players’ empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two groups of participants (18 in VVG group, VG; 17 in non-VVG group, NG were screened from nearly 200 video game experience questionnaires. And then, the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were recorded when they were viewing painful and non-painful stimuli. The results showed that the perception of others’ pain were not significantly different in brain regions between groups, from which we could infer that the desensitization effect of VVGs was overrated.

  12. Victims of rape show increased cortisol responses to trauma reminders: a study in individuals with war- and torture-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Hannah; Engler, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Adenauer, Hannah; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2012-02-01

    Studies investigating cortisol responses to trauma-related stressors in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded inconsistent results, demonstrating that cortisol responses were enhanced or unaffected when confronted with trauma reminders. This study investigated the effect of the type of trauma experienced on both salivary and plasma cortisol responses during confrontation with trauma-related material. Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without rape among the traumatic events experienced. Participants of both groups (raped vs. non-raped) fulfilled DSM-IV criteria of PTSD. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points during a standardized clinical interview: once before and twice after assessing individual traumatic experiences. Results show that groups did not differ in basal plasma and salivary cortisol levels. However, differential salivary cortisol responses were observed in PTSD patients who had been raped compared to those who had not been raped (prape (praped showed a significant cortisol increase when reminded of their traumatic events (p<.001). This effect was not found in plasma cortisol. Our results indicate that the type of traumatic stress experienced contributes to cortisol responses during the confrontation with trauma-related material. We hypothesize, that the nearness of the perpetrator during the traumatic event might shape later psychophysiological responding to trauma reminders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of SCORTEN on a cohort of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis included in the RegiSCAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekula, Peggy; Liss, Yvonne; Davidovici, Batya; Dunant, Ariane; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Kardaun, Sylvia; Naldi, Luigi; Schumacher, Martin; Mockenhaupt, Maja

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the severity-of-illness score called SCORTEN with respect to its predictive ability and by using data obtained in the RegiSCAR study, the most comprehensive European registry of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). For advanced comparisons, an auxiliary score (AS) was defined using data obtained in a previous study. Three hundred sixty-nine patients with SJS/TEN were included in RegiSCAR between 2003 and 2005. The data needed for calculation of SCORTEN were available for 45% of patients. The score revealed a moderate predictive ability with a slight underestimation of the total number of in-hospital deaths by 11%, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.75, and a Brier score of 0.14. Problems could be seen by analyzing subgroups such as patients with TEN. The AS was better calibrated but discriminated worse (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.72; Brier score: 0.14). With the help of a refined score derived from SCORTEN and AS, potential for a possible improvement could be demonstrated. The authors were able to show that the predictive ability of SCORTEN is acceptable. Although improvement might be possible, SCORTEN remains the tool of choice, whereas AS might be an alternative in retrospective settings with missing laboratory data.

  14. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  15. Show what you know and deal with stress yourself: a qualitative interview study of medical interns' perceptions of stress and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Räntzsch, Viktoria; de Vries, Remko; Houkes, Inge

    2014-05-17

    Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians' perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model explains stress as coming from a discrepancy between job demands, job control, and perceived work potential. Gendered differences in stress are reported, but not much is known about medical interns' perceptions of how gender plays in relation to stress. The aim of this study is to explore how medical interns experience and cope with stress, as well as how they reflect on the gendered aspects of stress. In order to do this, we have performed a qualitative study. In 2010-2011, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen medical interns across all three years of the Masters programme (6 male, 11 female) at a Dutch medical school. The interview guide is based on gender theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and empirical literature. Transcribed interviews have been analyzed thematically. First, stress mainly evolves from having to prove one's self and show off competencies and motivation ("Show What You Know…"). Second, interns seek own solutions for handling stress because it is not open for discussion (… "And Deal With Stress Yourself"). Patient encounters are a source of pride and satisfaction rather than a source of stress. But interns report having to present themselves as 'professional and self-confident', remaining silent about experiencing stress. Female students are perceived to have more stress and to study harder in order to live up to expectations. The implicit message interns hear is to remain silent about insecurities and stress, and, in particular, female students might face disadvantages. Students who feel less able to manifest the 'masculine protest' may benefit from a culture that embraces more collaborative styles, such as having open conversation

  16. FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI SIKAP AUDIENCE TERHADAP PRODUCT/BRAND PLACEMENT DALAM ACARA TV (STUDI KASUS INDONESIAN IDOL 2007 & MAMAMIA SHOW 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Julivan Rumambi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Product/brand placement is not such a new matter in the marketing world, including in Indonesia in the last few years. These practice have been conducted at 1920 by cigarette's company in USA, while on the success story can be found on E.T (Extra-Terrestrial: the movie by 1982 presenting Reese's Pieces candy. Product/brand placement can be found widely in various medium starting from movies, TV shows, comics, games, video clip, etc. Today, various TV shows like 'Akademi Fantasi Indosiar (AFI', 'Indonesian Idol', 'Mamamia Show', 'Kontes Dangdut Indonesia (KDI', 'Empat Mata', 'Katakan Cinta', 'I-Gosip' & 'Cek & Ricek' are popular to advertise and become alternative medium for product / brand placement. In order to make the right decisions by conducting product/brand placement especially in TV shows, the company should know & understand several factors that influence audience attitude towards product/brand placement. Based on article entitled 'audience attitude towards product placement in movies: a case from Turkey' as a referred journal, the result of the research conducted have been formed four factors influencing attitude of audience toward product/brand placement. The four factors are 'attention', 'acceptance', 'reference' and 'ethics & regulation' with total variance explained equal to 53,53%. By conducting principal component factor analysis for this research, there are five factors influencing audience attitude toward product/brand placement formed with the total variance explained equal to 63,823 %. Three among other formed factors have several similar variables with the factor in the referred journal, while the two other factors compiled with only two variable/statement item for each. The percentage of each factor were 'acceptance' (18,923%, ethics & regulation (14,978%, attention (13,844%, reference (9,139% and interest (6,939%. The result of this research tried to conclude and give some input related with the final result of the main

  17. Salivary cortisol differs with age and sex and shows inverse associations with WHR in Swedish women: a cross-sectional study

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    Lindblad Ulf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on cortisol have focused on smaller, selected samples. We therefore aimed to sex-specifically study the diurnal cortisol pattern and explore its association with abdominal obesity in a large unselected population. Methods In 2001–2004, 1811 men and women (30–75 years were randomly selected from the Vara population, south-western Sweden (81% participation rate. Of these, 1671 subjects with full information on basal morning and evening salivary cortisol and anthropometric measurements were included in this cross-sectional study. Differences between groups were examined by general linear model and by logistic and linear regression analyses. Results Morning and Δ-cortisol (morning – evening cortisol were significantly higher in women than men. In both genders older age was significantly associated with higher levels of all cortisol measures, however, most consistently with evening cortisol. In women only, age-adjusted means of WHR were significantly lower in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of morning cortisol (p = 0.036 and Δ-cortisol (p Conclusion In summary, our findings of generally higher cortisol levels in women than men of all ages are novel and the stronger results seen for Δ-cortisol as opposed to morning cortisol in the association with WHR emphasise the need of studying cortisol variation intra-individually. To our knowledge, the associations in this study have never before been investigated in such a large population sample of both men and women. Our results therefore offer important knowledge on the descriptive characteristics of cortisol in relation to age and gender, and on the impact that associations previously seen between cortisol and abdominal obesity in smaller, selected samples have on a population level.

  18. Hydrogen bonding motifs, spectral characterization, theoretical computations and anticancer studies on chloride salt of 6-mercaptopurine: An assembly of corrugated lamina shows enhanced solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2015-10-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (an anti cancer drug), is coming under the class II Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In order to enhance the solubility with retained physiochemical/pharmaceutical properties, the present work was attempted with its salt form. The single crystals of 6-mercaptopurinium chloride (6MPCl) were successfully grown by slow evaporation technique under ambient temperature. The X-ray diffraction study shows that the crystal packing is dominated by N-H⋯Cl classical hydrogen bonds leading to corrugated laminar network. The hydrogen bonds present in the lamina can be dismantled as three chain C21(6), C21(7) and C21(8) motifs running along ab-diagonal of the unit cell. These primary chain motifs are interlinked to each other forming ring R63(21) motifs. These chain and ring motifs are aggregated like a dendrimer structure leading to the above said corrugated lamina. This low dimensional molecular architecture differs from the ladder like arrays in pure drug though it possess lattice water molecule in lieu of the chloride anion in the present compound. Geometrical optimizations of 6MPCl were done by Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP function with two different basis sets. The optimized molecular geometries and computed vibrational spectra are compared with their experimental counterparts. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to interpret hyperconjugative interaction and Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT). The chemical hardness, electronegativity, chemical potential and electrophilicity index of 6MPCl were found along with the HOMO-LUMO plot. The lower band gap value obtained from the Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) analysis reiterates the pharmaceutical activity of the compound. The anticancer studies show that 6MPCl retains its activity against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Hence, this anticancer efficacy and improved solubility demands 6MPCl towards the further pharmaceutical applications.

  19. Assessment of five different guideline indication criteria for spirometry, including modified GOLD criteria, in order to detect COPD: data from 5,315 subjects in the PLATINO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R

    2014-10-30

    Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity.

  20. A 2-Year Field Study Shows Little Evidence That the Long-Term Planting of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Affects the Community Structure of Soil Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical ‘real world’ conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects–adverse or otherwise–on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. PMID:23613899

  1. A 2-year field study shows little evidence that the long-term planting of transgenic insect-resistant cotton affects the community structure of soil nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    Full Text Available Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010, we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages, collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical 'real world' conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects-adverse or otherwise-on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants.

  2. Swedish population-based study of pupils showed that foster children faced increased risks for ill health, negative lifestyles and school failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, Lisbet; Janson, Staffan; Svensson, Birgitta; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-10-01

    This population-based study explored whether foster children faced a higher risk of health problems than children of the same age who were not in foster care. Data for 13 739 pupils aged 10, 13 and 16 years were obtained from the Pupil Health Database in the county of Värmland, Sweden, for the school years 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. These included data on school performance, health, lifestyle and social relationships, based on children's interviews with school nurses. Of all the pupils, 171 (1.2%) were in foster care. Children in foster care were generally unhealthier than other children. Both girls and boys were at higher risk of chronic health problems, daily smoking, use of drugs and school failure. When the girls in foster care were compared to other girls, we found that they faced a higher risk of psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. This difference was not found for boys. Foster children were also more likely to express a more negative view on life. We confirmed earlier studies that children in foster care tended to have inferior health and well-being than other children. These findings emphasise that health, risky behaviour and school performance should be considered together when assessing foster children. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cross-sectional study showed psychosocial variables, gender and family involvement played an important role in an adolescent weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioste, Ana; Fonseca, Helena; Sousa, Pedro; Gaspar, Pedro; Machado, Maria do Céu

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the psychosocial gains perceived by overweight adolescents attending a 12-week weight management programme and to analyse gender-specific differences. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 70 overweight adolescents aged between 12 and 18 (52.9% girls), evaluated at baseline and at week 12 using anthropometric measurements and self-reported questionnaires. We analysed gender-specific differences related to body self-esteem, social life, relationships with their family, physical comfort, health responsibility, perceived benefits of the intervention, self-efficacy and adherence. We further investigated whether the variables at week 12 would predict changes in their body mass index. While weight had a greater impact on the body self-esteem of girls, both at baseline and week 12, boys reported higher self-efficacy and adherence as well as a greater perception of the benefits of the intervention at week 12. The body mass index change was positively associated with body self-esteem, relationships within the family and self-efficacy and adherence. Gender specifics and the role of psychosocial variables must be taken into account during weight management programmes for adolescents, and it is important to include the family throughout the entire process. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. X inactivation in Rett syndrome: A preliminary study showing partial preferential inactivation of paternal X with the M27{beta} probe

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    Camus, P.; Abbadi, N.; Gilgenkrantz, S. [Laboratoire de Genetique, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    1994-04-15

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a severe progressive neurological disorder occurring exclusively in females. Most cases are sporadic. The few familial cases (less than 1%) cannot be explained by a simple mode of inheritance. Several hypotheses have been proposed: X-linked male lethal mutation, maternal uniparental disomy, fresh mutation on the X chromosome, involvement of mitochondrial DNA and differential inactivation with metabolic interference of X-borne alleles. The authors have examined the pattern of X inactivation in 10 affected girls who were selected according to the clinical criteria previously described and accepted by the French Rett Scientific Committee. The X inactivation pattern was studied by analysis of methylation at the hypervariable locus DXS255 with the M27{beta} probe. The results show a more-or-less skewed inactivation of paternal X in 8 Rett females, and 2 cases of symmetrical inactivation. In control girls, inactivation was symmetrical cases and the maternal X has been preferentially inactivated in the other 2 cases. In no case was a total skewed inactivation observed. Though there was clear evidence for a preferential paternal X inactivation that was statistically significant further studies are necessary to establish a relationship between X inactivation pattern and Rett syndrome.

  5. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, P.; Sop, T. K.; Lykke, A. M.; Thiombiano, A.

    2015-05-01

    Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-sylvo-pastoral productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental design with three replicates per restoration technique. A total of 174 seedlings were planted in each study site. The results showed that the soil water content varied according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p < 0.00) as well as according to study site (df = 1; F = 74.48; p < 0.00). Soil water content was significantly lower in the Sahel than in the Sudanian zone. Seedling survival rate varied significantly according to technique used (df = 2; F = 8.91; p = 0.000) and study site (df = 1; F = 9.74; p = 0.003). Survival rate, diameter and seedling height were highest at the Sudanian site. At the Sahelian site, all seedlings died 2 years after establishment. These results suggest that J. curcas is unsuited to denuded land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that J. curcas may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.

  6. Dermoscopic patterns in patients with a clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis-results of a prospective study including data of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús-Silva, Miriam América; Fernández-Martínez, Ramón; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Onychomycosis is the most common nail disease, representing 50% of cases affecting the nail apparatus. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination along with the KOH exam of the nail and culture of the sample. However, not all dermatologists have access to a mycology lab. To determine the correlation between KOH examination and dermoscopic patterns in patients with clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis. A descriptive, open, observational, prospective, cross-sectional study of 178 patients with clinical suspicion of onychomycosis was conducted. All patients underwent clinical examination, dermoscopy with a DermLite PHOTO dermatoscope (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA), KOH assessment and culture analysis. The most frequent dermoscopic patterns were identified and their correlation with the clinical subtype of onychomycosis was analyzed. The study included 178 patients with clinical suspicion of onychomycosis. Of these, 155 (87.1%) had positive direct KOH examination for onychomycosis. Eighty-seven patients (56.13%) presented with clinical onychomycosis pattern of total dystrophic onychomycosis (TDO), 67 (43.23%) with distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO), 1 (0.65%) with trachyonychia). Dermoscopic patterns of onychomycosis showed the following frequencies: the spiked pattern was present in 22 patients (14.19%), longitudinal striae pattern in 51 patients (32.9%) and linear edge pattern in 21 patients (13.55%). We identified a pattern described as "distal irregular termination" in 41 patients with TDO and 26 with DLSO. This is the fist study conducted in a Mexican population that uses dermoscopy as a diagnostic tool along with the KOH examination for the diagnosis of onychomycosis. Dermoscopy may be used as an important diagnostic tool when evaluating nail disease. However, it should not be used as the only diagnostic criteria for onychomycosis.

  7. Lymphocyte subsets show different response patterns to in vivo bound natalizumab--a flow cytometric study on patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Harrer

    Full Text Available Natalizumab is an effective monoclonal antibody therapy for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS and interferes with immune cell migration into the central nervous system by blocking the α(4 subunit of very-late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4. Although well tolerated and very effective, some patients still suffer from relapses in spite of natalizumab therapy or from unwanted side effects like progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. In search of a routine-qualified biomarker on the effectiveness of natalizumab therapy we applied flow cytometry and analyzed natalizumab binding to α(4 and α(4 integrin surface levels on T-cells, B-cells, natural killer (NK cells, and NKT cells from 26 RRMS patients under up to 72 weeks of therapy. Four-weekly infusions of natalizumab resulted in a significant and sustained increase of lymphocyte-bound natalizumab (p<0.001 which was paralleled by a significant decrease in detectability of the α(4 integrin subunit on all lymphocyte subsets (p<0.001. We observed pronounced natalizumab accumulations on T and B cells at single measurements in all patients who reported clinical disease activity (n = 4. The natalizumab binding capacity of in vitro saturated lymphocytes collected during therapy was strongly diminished compared to treatment-naive cells indicating a therapy-induced reduction of α(4. Summing up, this pilot study shows that flow cytometry is a useful method to monitor natalizumab binding to lymphocytes from RRMS patients under therapy. Investigating natalizumab binding provides an opportunity to evaluate the molecular level of effectiveness of natalizumab therapy in individual patients. In combination with natalizumab saturation experiments, it possibly even provides a means of studying the feasability of patient-tailored infusion intervals. A routine-qualified biomarker on the basis of individual natalizumab saturation on lymphocyte subsets might be an effective tool to

  8. Young children with Down syndrome show normal development of circadian rhythms, but poor sleep efficiency: a cross-sectional study across the first 60 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fabian; Nyhuis, Casandra C; Anand, Payal; Demara, Bianca I; Ruby, Norman F; Spanò, Goffredina; Clark, Caron; Edgin, Jamie O

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate sleep consolidation and circadian activity rhythms in infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) under light and socially entrained conditions within a familiar setting. Given previous human and animal data suggesting intact circadian regulation of melatonin across the day and night, it was hypothesized that behavioral indices of circadian rhythmicity would likewise be intact in the sample with DS. A cross-sectional study of 66 infants and young children with DS, aged 5-67 months, and 43 typically developing age-matched controls. Sleep and measures of circadian robustness or timing were quantified using continuous in-home actigraphy recordings performed over seven days. Circadian robustness was quantified via time series analysis of rest-activity patterns. Phase markers of circadian timing were calculated alongside these values. Sleep efficiency was also estimated based on the actigraphy recordings. This study provided further evidence that general sleep quality is poor in infants and toddlers with DS, a population that has sleep apnea prevalence as high as 50% during the preschool years. Despite poor sleep quality, circadian rhythm and phase were preserved in children with DS and displayed similar developmental trajectories in cross-sectional comparisons with a typically developing (TD) cohort. In line with past work, lower sleep efficiency scores were quantified in the group with DS relative to TD children. Infants born with DS exhibited the worst sleep fragmentation; however, in both groups, sleep efficiency and consolidation increased across age. Three circadian phase markers showed that 35% of the recruitment sample with DS was phase-advanced to an earlier morning schedule, suggesting significant within-group variability in the timing of their daily activity rhythms. Circadian rhythms of wake and sleep are robust in children born with DS. The present results suggest that sleep fragmentation and any resultant cognitive deficits are likely not

  9. Randomised study showed that recorded maternal voices reduced pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, G; Cabano, R; Villa, G; Bigogno, A; Ardesi, M; Dioni, E

    2017-10-01

    Alleviating pain in neonates should be the goal of all caregivers. We evaluated whether recorded maternal voices were safe and effective in limiting pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit of an Italian children's hospital. This prospective, controlled study took place from December 2013 to December 2015. We enrolled 40 preterm infants, born at a 26-34 weeks of gestation, at a corrected gestational age 29-36 weeks and randomised them to listen or not listen to a recording of their mother's voice during a painful, routine heel lance for blood collection. Changes in the infants' Premature Infant Pain Profile, heart rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure during the procedure were compared by analysis of variance. Possible side effects, of apnoea, bradycardia, seizures and vomiting, were also recorded. Both groups showed a marked increase in PIPP scores and decrease in oxygen saturation during the procedure, but infants in the treatment group had significantly lower PIPP scores (p = 0.00002) and lower decreases in oxygen saturation (p = 0.0283). No significant side effects were observed. Using recorded maternal voices to limit pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures appeared safe and effective. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Only Three Fingers Write, but the Whole Brain Works†: A High-Density EEG Study Showing Advantages of Drawing Over Typing for Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey L. H. van der Meer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Are different parts of the brain active when we type on a keyboard as opposed to when we draw visual images on a tablet? Electroencephalogram (EEG was used in young adults to study brain electrical activity as they were typing or describing in words visually presented PictionaryTM words using a keyboard, or as they were drawing pictures of the same words on a tablet using a stylus. Analyses of temporal spectral evolution (time-dependent amplitude changes were performed on EEG data recorded with a 256-channel sensor array. We found that when drawing, brain areas in the parietal and occipital regions showed event related desynchronization activity in the theta/alpha range. Existing literature suggests that such oscillatory neuronal activity provides the brain with optimal conditions for learning. When describing the words using the keyboard, upper alpha/beta/gamma range activity in the central and frontal brain regions were observed, especially during the ideation phase. However, since this activity was highly synchronized, its relation to learning remains unclear. We concluded that because of the benefits for sensory-motor integration and learning, traditional handwritten notes are preferably combined with visualizations (e.g., small drawings, shapes, arrows, symbols to facilitate and optimize learning.

  11. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisdottir, B.E.; Knutsen, H.K.; Haugen, M.; Gjelstad, I.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Jenssen, M.T.S. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, D.G.; Thomassen, Y. [National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo (Norway); Alexander, J. [Office of the Director-General, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Meltzer, H.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Brantsæter, A.L., E-mail: Anne.Lise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B{sub ln} 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B{sub ln} 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different

  12. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgisdottir, B.E.; Knutsen, H.K.; Haugen, M.; Gjelstad, I.M.; Jenssen, M.T.S.; Ellingsen, D.G.; Thomassen, Y.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.; Brantsæter, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B ln 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B ln 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different elements • The

  13. Can consistent benchmarking within a standardized pain management concept decrease postoperative pain after total hip arthroplasty? A prospective cohort study including 367 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benditz A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Achim Benditz,1 Felix Greimel,1 Patrick Auer,2 Florian Zeman,3 Antje Göttermann,4 Joachim Grifka,1 Winfried Meissner,4 Frederik von Kunow1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, 2Clinic for anesthesia, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 3Centre for Clinical Studies, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, 4Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany Background: The number of total hip replacement surgeries has steadily increased over recent years. Reduction in postoperative pain increases patient satisfaction and enables better mobilization. Thus, pain management needs to be continuously improved. Problems are often caused not only by medical issues but also by organization and hospital structure. The present study shows how the quality of pain management can be increased by implementing a standardized pain concept and simple, consistent, benchmarking.Methods: All patients included in the study had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA. Outcome parameters were analyzed 24 hours after surgery by means of the questionnaires from the German-wide project “Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Management” (QUIPS. A pain nurse interviewed patients and continuously assessed outcome quality parameters. A multidisciplinary team of anesthetists, orthopedic surgeons, and nurses implemented a regular procedure of data analysis and internal benchmarking. The health care team was informed of any results, and suggested improvements. Every staff member involved in pain management participated in educational lessons, and a special pain nurse was trained in each ward.Results: From 2014 to 2015, 367 patients were included. The mean maximal pain score 24 hours after surgery was 4.0 (±3.0 on an 11-point numeric rating scale, and patient satisfaction was 9.0 (±1.2. Over time, the maximum pain score decreased (mean 3.0, ±2.0, whereas patient satisfaction

  14. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Chesney E; Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18-35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition-M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant's body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS' growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control.

  15. The use of toxicokinetics and exposure studies to show that carprofen in cattle tissue could lead to secondary toxicity and death in wild vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, V; Taggart, M A; Duncan, N; Wolter, K; Chipangura, J; Green, R E; Galligan, T H

    2018-01-01

    Veterinary medicines can be extremely damaging to the environment, as seen with the catastrophic declines in Gyps vulture in South Asia due to their secondary exposure to diclofenac in their primary food source. Not surprisingly, concern has been raised over other similar drugs. In this study, we evaluate the toxicity of carprofen to the Gyps vulture clade through plasma pharmacokinetics evaluations in Bos taurus cattle (their food source) and Gyps africanus (a validated model species); tissue residues in cattle; and the effect of carprofen as a secondary toxicant as both tissue-bound residue or pure drug at levels expected in cattle tissues. Carprofen residues were highest in cattle kidney (7.72 ± 2.38 mg/kg) and injection site muscle (289.05 ± 98.96 mg/kg of dimension of 5 × 5 × 5 cm). Vultures exposed to carprofen as residues in the kidney tissue or pure drug equivalents showed no toxic signs. When exposed to average injection site concentrations (64 mg/kg) one of two birds died with evidence of severe renal and liver damage. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed a prolonged drug half-life of 37.75 h in the dead bird as opposed to 13.99 ± 5.61 h from healthy birds dosed intravenously at 5 mg/kg. While carprofen may generally be harmless to Gyps vultures, its high levels at the injection site in treated cattle can result in lethal exposure in foraging vultures, due to relative small area of tissue it is found therein. We thus suggest that carprofen not be used in domesticated ungulates in areas where carcasses are accessible or provided to vultures at supplementary feeding sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Walking performance is positively correlated to calf muscle fiber size in peripheral artery disease subjects, but fibers show aberrant mitophagy: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah H; McDermott, Mary M; Sufit, Robert L; Kosmac, Kate; Bugg, Alex W; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tian, Lu; Zhao, Lihui; Gao, Ying; Kibbe, Melina R; Criqui, Michael H; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2016-09-29

    Patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) have decreased mobility, which is not fully explained by impaired blood supply to the lower limb. Additionally, reports are conflicted regarding fiber type distribution patterns in PAD, but agree that skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration is impaired. To test the hypothesis that reduced muscle fiber oxidative activity and type I distribution are negatively associated with walking performance in PAD, calf muscle biopsies from non-PAD (n = 7) and PAD participants (n = 26) were analyzed immunohistochemically for fiber type and size, oxidative activity, markers of autophagy, and capillary density. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. There was a wide range in fiber type distribution among subjects with PAD (9-81 % type I fibers) that did not correlate with walking performance. However, mean type I fiber size correlated with 4-min normal- and fastest-paced walk velocity (r = 0.4940, P = 0.010 and r = 0.4944, P = 0.010, respectively). Although intensity of succinate dehydrogenase activity staining was consistent with fiber type, up to 17 % of oxidative fibers were devoid of mitochondria in their cores, and the core showed accumulation of the autophagic marker, LC3, which did not completely co-localize with LAMP2, a lysosome marker. Calf muscle type I fiber size positively correlates with walking performance in PAD. Accumulation of LC3 and a lack of co-localization of LC3 with LAMP2 in the area depleted of mitochondria in PAD fibers suggests impaired clearance of damaged mitochondria, which may contribute to reduced muscle oxidative capacity. Further study is needed to determine whether defective mitophagy is associated with decline in function over time, and whether interventions aimed at preserving mitochondrial function and improving autophagy can improve walking performance in PAD.

  17. Empty polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) show slow radiographic fusion that reduces clinical improvement: results from the prospective multicenter "PIERCE-PEEK" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Olaf; Schomaker, Martin; Cabraja, Mario; Danne, Marco; Kombos, Theodoros; Hanna, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a well-established surgical treatment for radiculopathy and myelopathy. Previous studies showed that empty PEEK cages have lower radiographic fusion rates, but the clinical relevance remains unclear. This paper's aim is to provide high-quality evidence on the outcomes of ACDF with empty PEEK cages and on the relevance of radiographic fusion for clinical outcomes. This large prospective multicenter clinical trial performed single-level ACDF with empty PEEK cages on patients with cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. The main clinical outcomes were VAS (0-10) for pain and NDI (0-100) for functioning. Radiographic fusion was evaluated by two investigators for three different aspects. The median (range) improvement of the VAS pain score was: 3 (1-6) at 6 months, 3 (2-8) at 12 months, and 4 (2-8) at 18 months. The median (range) improvement of the NDI score was: 12 (2-34) at 6 months, 18 (4-46) at 12 months, and 22 (2-44) at 18 months. Complete radiographic fusion was reached by 126 patients (43%) at 6 months, 214 patients (73%) at 12 months, and 241 patients (83%) at 18 months. Radiographic fusion was a highly significant ( p  PEEK cages is slow and insufficient. Lack of complete radiographic fusion leads to less improvement of pain and disability. We recommend against using empty uncoated pure PEEK cages in ACDF. ISRCTN42774128. Retrospectively registered 14 April 2009.

  18. A cross-sectional study showing differences in the clinical diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease according to the experience of clinicians: implications for training and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Georgina C; Stewart, Catherine M W; Schoeman, Sarah A; Wilson, Janet D

    2014-09-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) generates diagnostic difficulty even for experienced doctors. Junior doctors and nurses also assess women with symptoms suggestive of PID. We aimed to determine if and how PID diagnoses vary between clinicians with different experience levels. Cross-sectional study conducted in U.K. sexual health clinic, nested within a Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoea diagnostic test accuracy study. Proportions and characteristics of women diagnosed clinically with PID by clinicians with varying experience were compared. Outcomes included demographics, presenting symptoms and signs and CT, and CT and/or gonococcal (GC) (CT/GC) positivity. In 3804 women assessed by 36 clinicians, rates of PID, CT and GC were 4.4%, 10.5%, and 2.5%, with no differences between experienced and inexperienced clinicians (p=0.84, p=0.13 and p=0.07, respectively). 63.7% of PID diagnosed by experienced clinicians met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) key clinical criteria versus 41.2% by inexperienced; experienced versus inexperienced OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.16 to 5.40). Proportions of CT (CT/GC)-positive PID increased with experience (5.9% (11.8%) to 31.9% (34.1%)); experienced versus inexperienced (OR 3.90; 95% CI 1.12 to 13.5). Percentages of women with CT (CT/GC) who were diagnosed with PID also rose with experience (2.2% (3.9%) to 14.2% (13.7%)), but CT prevalence in PID cases diagnosed by inexperienced clinicians (8.8%) was no greater than in all women they assessed (9.0%), suggesting poorer discriminative skills. Clinical diagnostic acumen for PID improves with experience. Inexperienced clinicians should focus on the presence of lower abdominal pain with pelvic tenderness and consider additional supportive symptoms, to improve specificity of their diagnoses. ISRCTN 42867448. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Haie-Meder, Christine; Petrič, Primož; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M.; Rai, Bhavana; Cooper, Rachel; Dörr, Wolfgang; Nout, Remi A.; Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.kirchheiner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Pötter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Haie-Meder, Christine [Department of Radiotherapy, Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Petrič, Primož [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Doha (Qatar); Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rai, Bhavana [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Cooper, Rachel [Leeds Cancer Centre, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dörr, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna and General Hospital of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars; Van Der Steen Banasik, Elzbieta; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dumas, Isabelle; and others

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials: In total, 744 patients at a median follow-up of 21 months were included. QoL was prospectively assessed using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life core module 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC cervical cancer module 24 (CX24) questionnaires at baseline, then every 3 months during the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results: General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired at baseline but improved during the first 6 months after treatment, to reach a level comparable to that of the reference population, whereas cognitive functioning remained impaired. Both social and role functioning showed the lowest scores at baseline but which increased after treatment to reach a plateau at 6 months and then declined slightly at 3 and 4 years. The overall symptom experience was elevated at baseline and decreased to a level within the range of that of the reference population. Similarly, tumor-related symptoms (eg, pain, appetite loss, and constipation), which were present before treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema and dyspnea). Conclusions: This longitudinal prospective QoL analysis showed that patients' general QoL and functioning were impaired before treatment compared to

  1. Does including informal care in economic evaluations matter? A systematic review of inclusion and impact of informal care in cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; Papenburg, Jocé; van Exel, Job

    2015-02-01

    Informal care makes an important contribution to societal welfare. However, it may involve substantial time costs and can have a considerable negative effect on the health and well-being of informal caregivers. These costs and effects of informal caregiving are often excluded in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions. The impact of this exclusion on the outcomes of these evaluations is largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations and the potential impact of the costs and effects of informal caregiving on cost-effectiveness outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to identify economic evaluations of interventions in four distinct disease areas where informal care is potentially important: Alzheimer's disease, metastatic colorectal cancer, Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. It was recorded how often economic evaluations included informal caregiving. Next, for the studies including informal care, the impact on cost-effectiveness outcomes was determined by removing informal care costs and effects of the cost-effectiveness calculations and recalculating the outcomes. The new cost-effectiveness outcomes were then compared with the original reported outcomes. The study identified 100 economic evaluations investigating interventions targeted at Alzheimer's disease (n = 25), metastatic colorectal cancer (n = 24), Parkinson's disease (n = 8) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 43). Twenty-three of these evaluations (23 %) included costs and/or effects of informal caregiving: 64 % of the Alzheimer's disease studies, 0 % of the metastatic colorectal cancer studies, 13 % of Parkinson's disease studies and 14 % of rheumatoid arthritis studies. When informal care was included, this mostly concerned time costs. Studies rarely included both costs and effects. The effect of including or excluding informal care costs or effects on cost-effectiveness outcomes in most studies was modest, but in some studies the

  2. Polysomy of chromosome 17 in breast cancer tumors showing an overexpression of ERBB2: a study of 175 cases using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salido, Marta; Solé, Francesc; Tusquets, Ignasi; Corominas, Josep M; Suarez, Marta; Espinet, Blanca; Corzo, Cristina; Bellet, Meritxell; Fabregat, Xavier; Serrano, Sergi

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common genetic aberrations associated with breast cancer is the amplification and overexpression of the ERBB2 proto-oncogene located at chromosome 17, bands q12-21. The amplification/overexpression occurs in 25 to 30% of all breast cancers. In breast cancer, aneusomy of chromosome 17, either monosomy or polysomy, is frequently observed by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The aim of this study was to discover whether or not numerical aberrations on chromosome 17 have a correlation to the amplification or overexpression of the ERBB2 gene and to analyze their clinical implications in subgroups showing 2+ or 3+ positive scores by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We used FISH on a series of 175 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas to detect ERBB2 amplification, using a dual-probe system for the simultaneous enumeration of the ERBB2 gene and the centromeric region of chromosome 17, as well as using IHC to detect overexpression. We analyzed clinical and pathological variables in a subgroup of patients with 2+ and 3+ IHC scores (147 patients), to describe any differences in clinicopathological characteristics between polysomic and non-polysomic cases with the use of the χ 2 test. We found 13% of cases presenting polysomy, and three cases presented monosomy 17 (2%). According to the status of the ERBB2 gene, instances of polysomy 17 were more frequently observed in non-amplified cases than in FISH-amplified cases, suggesting that the mechanism for ERBB2 amplification is independent of polysomy 17. Polysomy 17 was detected in patients with 2+ and 3+ IHC scores. We found that nodal involvement was more frequent in polysomic than in non-polysomic cases (P = 0.046). The determination of the copy number of chromosome 17 should be incorporated into the assesment of ERBB2 status. It might also be helpful to differentiate a subgroup of breast cancer patients with polysomy of chromosome 17 and overexpression of ERBB2

  3. A highly active nickel electrocatalyst shows excellent selectivity for CO2 reduction in acidic media? ?Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Including full experimental details, surface coverage measurements and supporting electrochemical measurements. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc03225c Click here for additional data file.

    OpenAIRE

    Neri, Gaia; Aldous, Iain M.; Walsh, James J.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cowan, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of selective electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction in water offers a sustainable route to carbon based fuels and feedstocks. However, molecular catalysts are typically studied in non-aqueous solvents, in part to avoid competitive H2 evolution. [Ni(cyclam)]2+ (1) is one of the few known electrocatalysts that operate in water and 30 years after its report its activity remains a rarely surpassed benchmark. Here we report that [Ni(cyclam-CO2H)]2+ (cyclam-CO2H = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclo...

  4. A Study of the Veterinary Medicine Graduates of the WICHE Student Exchange Programs Showing the Relation of That Group to the Total Veterinarian Manpower of the WICHE States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    The relation of veterinarian manpower of the WICHE (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education) states to the veterinary medicine graduates of the WICHE student exchange programs (SEP) is presented. The states included in the WICHE program are Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. Tables…

  5. Do the Images of Neuronal Pathways in the Human Central Nervous System Show Feed-back? A Comparative Study in Fifteen Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Pierre; Mouelhi, Lassaad; Kochkar, Momahed; Valanides, Nicos; Nisiforou, Olia; Thiaw, Seyni Mame; Ndiaye, Valdiodio; Jeanbart, Paula; Horvath, Daniel; Ferreira, Claudia; Carvalho, Graca S.

    2010-01-01

    In the human brain, the neuronal pathways are networks which support our learning, memory and thought, and which work with permanent feedback. However, only 19% of illustrations of these neuronal pathways, in the 55 analysed school textbooks coming from 15 countries, were showing feedbacks. The neuronal pathways related to movements were generally…

  6. A 10-Day Developmental Voyage: Converging Evidence from Three Studies Showing that Self-Esteem May Be Elevated and Maintained without Negative Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, S.; Hunter, J. A.; Hayhurst, J.; Boyes, M.; Thomson, R. L.; Clarke, H.; Grocott, A. M.; Stringer, M.; O'Brien, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that educational experiences in the context of the outdoors lead to elevated self-esteem. Although elevated self-esteem is widely assumed to promote beneficial outcomes, recent evidence suggests that elevated self-esteem may also facilitate a variety of negative outcomes (i.e., increased prejudice, aggression, drug and…

  7. Identification of two organic bands showing different chemical composition within the skeleton of Porites lutea: a confocal Raman microscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nehrke; M. Wall

    2012-01-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy mapping was used to investigate the organic matrix distribution within the skeleton of the coral Porites lutea. Two types of growth lines could be identified: one corresponds to the well-known incremental growth layers, whereas the second type of growth lines showed an elemental composition that differed from the incremental growth layers. The position and shape of the latter growth lines resemble either denticle finger-like structures (most likely traces of former s...

  8. Synthesis, Modelling, and Anticonvulsant Studies of New Quinazolines Showing Three Highly Active Compounds with Low Toxicity and High Affinity to the GABA-A Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Zayed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some novel fluorinated quinazolines (5a–j were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity and their neurotoxicity. Structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their infrared (IR, mass spectrometry (MS spectra, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, 13C-NMR, and elemental analysis (CHN. The anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by a subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ test and maximal electroshock (MES-induced seizure test, while neurotoxicity was evaluated by a rotorod test. The molecular docking was performed for all newly-synthesized compounds to assess their binding affinities to the GABA-A receptor in order to rationalize their anticonvulsant activities in a qualitative way. The data obtained from the molecular modeling was correlated with that obtained from the biological screening. These data showed considerable anticonvulsant activity for all newly-synthesized compounds. Compounds 5b, 5c, and 5d showed the highest binding affinities toward the GABA-A receptor, along with the highest anticonvulsant activities in experimental mice. These compounds also showed low neurotoxicity and low toxicity in the median lethal dose test compared to the reference drugs. A GABA enzymatic assay was performed for these highly active compounds to confirm the obtained results and explain the possible mechanism for anticonvulsant action. The most active compounds might be used as leads for future modification and optimization.

  9. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 18-20: Sound; Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics: First Law; and Kinetic Theory of Gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  10. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 21-23: Second Law and Entropy; Coulomb's Law and the Electric Field; and Flux and Gauss' Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  11. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 15-17: Gravitation; Simple Harmonic Motion; and Traveling Waves; plus a Partial Derivatives Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  12. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 11-14: Collisions; Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies; Rotational Dynamics; and Fluid Mechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 35-37: Reflection and Refraction; Electric Fields and Potentials from Continuous Charge Distributions; and Maxwell's Predictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  14. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 31-34: Inductance; Wave Properties of Light; Interference; and Introduction to Quantum Physics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is Part of a series of 41 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 Pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized courses in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  16. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 8-10: Conservation of Energy; Impulse and Momentum; and Rotational Motion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  17. Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP) Calculator Shows that Hiding Heritability Is Partially Due to Imperfect Genetic Correlations across Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vlaming, Ronald; Okbay, Aysu; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Uitterlinden, André G; van Rooij, Frank J A; Hofman, Albert; Groenen, Patrick J F; Thurik, A Roy; Koellinger, Philipp D

    Large-scale genome-wide association results are typically obtained from a fixed-effects meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from multiple studies spanning different regions and/or time periods. This approach averages the estimated effects of genetic variants across studies. In case genetic

  18. Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP) Calculator Shows that Hiding Heritability Is Partially Due to Imperfect Genetic Correlations across Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vlaming, Ronald; Okbay, Aysu; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Uitterlinden, André G; van Rooij, Frank J A; Hofman, Albert; Groenen, Patrick J F; Thurik, A Roy; Koellinger, Philipp D

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association results are typically obtained from a fixed-effects meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from multiple studies spanning different regions and/or time periods. This approach averages the estimated effects of genetic variants across studies. In case genetic

  19. Study of the physical properties of a mesogenic mixture showing induced smectic Ad phase by refractive index, density and x-ray diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P D; Prasad, A; Das, M K

    2009-01-01

    The binary mixture of 4-n-pentyl phenyl 4-n'-hexyloxy benzoate (ME6O.5) and p-cyanophenyl trans-4-pentyl cyclohexane carboxylate (CPPCC) shows the presence of an induced smectic A d phase in a certain concentration range 0.03 CPPCC d to nematic phase transition for mixtures with x>0.33, whereas there is a discontinuity in these values for mixtures with x d phase stabilizes the layers but increases the orientational free volume, consistent with the lower orientational order parameter.

  20. A palynological study of Polynesian and European effects on vegetation in Coromandel, New Zealand, showing the variability between four records from a single swamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrami, M.; Ogden, J.; Horrocks, M.; Deng, Y.; Shane, P.; Palmer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Seven cores were extracted from a river terrace swamp in the forested Kauaeranga valley, Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. High-resolution (c. 36-73 yr interval) pollen records were obtained from four of the cores and aged by radiocarbon dating and with stratigraphic reference to the 665 ± 15 14 C yr BP Kaharoa Tephra. The records span the last c. 1800 yr and show that the vegetation consisted of lowland podocarp-hardwood forest before deforestation by burning occurred. The pattern of deforestation at Kauaeranga, indicated by the abrupt dominance of Pteridium with concurrent increased charcoal, is typical of pollen records associated with early Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Peaks of Pteridium and charcoal were also found in sediments deposited after European settlement. Different cores show marked palynological and stratigraphic differences relative to the Kaharoa Tephra, most importantly with regard to the timing of deforestation. Deforestation occurred close to the Kaharoa, at a calculated age of c. 750 BP in one core but well above the Kaharoa (c. 480 BP) in another. The stratigraphic unconformities between cores are attributed to variable fluvial processes causing an uneven deposition of sediments within the swamp. (author). 32 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  1. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N.; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

  2. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George S; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R; Adkins, Joshua N; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

  3. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure

  4. Bevacizumab impairs oxidative energy metabolism and shows antitumoral effects in recurrent glioblastomas: a 31P/1H MRSI and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingen, Elke; Jurcoane, Alina; Bähr, Oliver; Rieger, Johannes; Magerkurth, Jörg; Anti, Sandra; Steinbach, Joachim P; Pilatus, Ulrich

    2011-12-01

    Bevacizumab shows unprecedented rates of response in recurrent glioblastomas (GBM), but the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. We employed in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether bevacizumab alters oxygen and energy metabolism and whether this effect has antitumoral activity in recurrent GBM. (31)P and (1)H MRSI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and high-resolution T2 and T2' mapping (indirect marker of oxygen extraction) were investigated in 16 patients with recurrent GBM at 3 Tesla before and 1.5-2 months after initiation of therapy with bevacizumab. Changes of metabolite concentrations and of the quantitative values in the tumor and normal appearing brain tissue were calculated. The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to evaluate differences for tumor/edema versus control as well as changes before versus after commencement of therapy. Survival analyses were performed for significant parameters. Tumor T2', pH, ADC, and T2 decreased significantly in patients responding to bevacizumab therapy (n = 10). Patients with at least 25% T2' decrease during treatment showed longer progression-free and overall survival durations. Levels of high-energy metabolites were lower at baseline; these persisted under therapy. Glycerophosphoethanolamine as catabolic phospholipid metabolite increased in responders. The MRSI data support the hypothesis that bevacizumab induces relative tumor hypoxia (T2' decrease) and affects energy homeostasis in recurrent GBM, suggesting that bevacizumab impairs vascular function. The antiangiogenic effect of bevacizumab is predictive of better outcome and seems to induce antitumoral activity in the responding GBMs.

  5. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hai-Xia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. Results The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. Conclusion The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of

  6. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Xia; Sun, Shi-Chun; Sundberg, Per; Ren, Wei-Cheng; Norenburg, Jon L

    2012-04-17

    The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of Bilateria and some lophotrochozoans suggests that the

  7. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  8. Protective factors in patients aged over 65 with stroke treated by physiotherapy, showing cognitive impairment, in the Valencia Community. Protection Study in Older People (EPACV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-Guillen Vicente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family function may have an influence on the mental health deterioration of the caregivers of dependent family members and it could have a varying importance on the care of dependents. Little attention has been paid to the preparation of minor stroke survivors for the recovery trajectory or the spouse for the caregiving role. Therefore, this study protocol intends to analyze the influence of family function on the protection of patients with stroke sequels needing physiotherapy in the family environment. Methods/Design This is an analytical observational design, prospective cohort study and using a qualitative methodology by means of data collected in the “interviews of life”. The study will be carried out by the Rehabilitation Service at Hospital of Elda in the Valencia Community. All patients that have been diagnosed with stroke and need physiotherapy treatment, having a dependency grade assigned and consent to participate in the study, will undergo a monitoring of one year in order to assess the predictive factors depending on the dependence of the people affected. Discussion Our research aims to analyze the perception of caregivers, their difficulties to work, and the influence of family function. Moreover, it aims to register the perception of the patients with stroke sequel over the care received and whether they feel protected in their family environment.

  9. AFM study shows prominent physical changes in elasticity and pericellular layer in human acute leukemic cells due to inadequate cell-cell communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, Nataliia V.; Patel, Sapan J.; Dokukin, Maxim E.; Clarkson, Bayard; Sokolov, Igor

    2016-12-01

    Biomechanical properties of single cells in vitro or ex vivo and their pericellular interfaces have recently attracted a lot of attention as a potential biophysical (and possibly prognostic) marker of various diseases and cell abnormalities. At the same time, the influence of the cell environment on the biomechanical properties of cells is not well studied. Here we use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that cell-cell communication can have a profound effect on both cell elasticity and its pericellular coat. A human pre-B p190BCR/ABL acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (ALL3) was used in this study. Assuming that cell-cell communication is inversely proportional to the distance between cells, we study ALL3 cells in vitro growing at different cell densities. ALL3 cells demonstrate a clear density dependent behavior. These cells grow very well if started at a relatively high cell density (HD, >2 × 105 cells ml-1) and are poised to grow at low cell density (LD, <1 × 104 cells ml-1). Here we observe ˜6× increase in the elastic (Young’s) modulus of the cell body and ˜3.6× decrease in the pericellular brush length of LD cells compared to HD ALL3 cells. The difference observed in the elastic modulus is much larger than typically reported for pathologically transformed cells. Thus, cell-cell communication must be taken into account when studying biomechanics of cells, in particular, correlating cell phenotype and its biophysical properties.

  10. Nationwide individual record linkage study showed poor agreement of causes of death and hospital diagnoses at individual level but reasonable agreement at population level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    Objectives: To investigate to what extent underlying and multiple causes of death represent end-of-life morbidity in individuals and at population level. Study Design and Setting: Cause of death and national hospital data were individually linked for all deaths at the age of 50-84 years, in 2005 in

  11. Prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in France, Germany, and the UK - a cross-sectional study including 4,270,142 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in general practices in France, Germany, and the UK. This study included all patients aged ≥18 years followed in 2016 in general practitioner practices in France, Germany and the UK. The primary outcome was the prevalence of patients receiving prescriptions for pain medications in France, Germany, and the UK in 2016. The following drugs were included in the analysis: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, non-steroids and analgesics including opioids, antimigraine preparations, and other analgesics and antipyretics. Demographic variables included age and gender. This study included 4,270,142 patients. The prevalences of pain medication prescriptions were 57.3% in France, 29.6% in Germany, and 21.7% in the UK. Although this prevalence generally remained consistent between age groups in France (54.3%-60.3%), it increased with age in Germany (18-30 years: 23.8%; >70 years: 35.8%) and in the UK (18-30 years: 9.3%; >70 years: 43.8%). Finally, the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in women than in men in all three countries. Paracetamol was prescribed to 82.3% and 60.1% of patients receiving pain medication in France and the UK, respectively, whereas ibuprofen was prescribed to 46.5% of individuals in Germany. The prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in France than in Germany and the UK. Further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the differences in the prescription patterns between these three European countries.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire: experimental study showed expert committee, not back-translation, added value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan; Osborne, Richard H; Elsworth, Gerald R; Beaton, Dorcas E; Guillemin, Francis

    2015-04-01

    To assess the contribution of back-translation and expert committee to the content and psychometric properties of a translated multidimensional questionnaire. Recommendations for questionnaire translation include back-translation and expert committee, but their contribution to measurement properties is unknown. Four English to French translations of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire were generated with and without committee or back-translation. Face validity, acceptability, and structural properties were compared after random assignment to people with rheumatoid arthritis (N = 1,168), chronic renal failure (N = 2,368), and diabetes (N = 538). For face validity, 15 bilingual people compared translations quality with the original. Psychometric properties were examined using confirmatory factor analysis (metric and scalar invariance) and item response theory. Qualitatively, there were five types of translation errors: style, intensity, frequency/time frame, breadth, and meaning. Bilingual assessors ranked best the translations with committee (P = 0.0026). All translations had good structural properties (root mean square error of approximation translations (ΔCFI ≤ 0.01) with metric invariance between translations and original (lowest ΔCFI = 0.022 between fully constrained models and models with free intercepts). Item characteristic curve analyses revealed no significant differences. This is the first experimental evidence that back-translation has moderate impact, whereas expert committee helps to ensure accurate content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF and fractional ALFF (fALFF to quantify spontaneous brain activity. The results showed there is no significant difference in ALFF, or fALFF, between violent video game group and the control part, indicating that long time exposure to violent video games won’t significantly influence spontaneous brain activity, especially the core brain regions such as execution control, moral judgment and short-term memory. This implies the adverse impact of violent video games is exaggerated.

  14. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Gao, Xuemei; Shi, Shuo; Liu, Fuqu; Li, Chao

    2017-01-01

    A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) to quantify spontaneous brain activity. The results showed there is no significant difference in ALFF, or fALFF, between violent video game group and the control part, indicating that long time exposure to violent video games won't significantly influence spontaneous brain activity, especially the core brain regions such as execution control, moral judgment and short-term memory. This implies the adverse impact of violent video games is exaggerated.

  15. Sharptooth catfish shows its metal: a case study of metal contamination at two impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo river system, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Antoinette; Marr, Sean M; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-02-01

    Clarias gariepinus is increasing in importance as a global aquaculture species with a 100 fold increase in production over the past decade but this species still remains one of the most important wild harvested freshwater food fish throughout rural Africa. However, this species has been shown to accumulate metals from contaminated inland waters. In this paper, the metal concentrations in muscle tissue of C. gariepinus from two main-stem impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo Basin, were measured and a desktop risk assessment based on the US-EPA methodology completed to evaluate whether long-term consumption of C. gariepinus from these impoundments may pose a health risk to rural communities. Our results show that metals are accumulating in the muscle tissue of C. gariepinus and have appeared to have increased in the last two decades. Risk assessment generated Hazard quotients (HQ) greater than 1 indicate that long term consumption of fish from these impoundments may cause adverse health impacts. We found that lead (HQ=9), antimony (HQ=14), cobalt (HQ=2) and chromium (HQ=1) at one impoundment and lead (HQ=2) at the other impoundment were above acceptable levels for weekly consumption of 150 g C. gariepinus muscle tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Gao, Xuemei; Shi, Shuo; Liu, Fuqu; Li, Chao

    2018-01-01

    A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) to quantify spontaneous brain activity. The results showed there is no significant difference in ALFF, or fALFF, between violent video game group and the control part, indicating that long time exposure to violent video games won’t significantly influence spontaneous brain activity, especially the core brain regions such as execution control, moral judgment and short-term memory. This implies the adverse impact of violent video games is exaggerated. PMID:29375416

  17. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Kristin; Barkmann, Claus; Klasen, Fionna; Bullinger, Monika; Glaeske, Gerd; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative ...

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. A Prospective Cohort Study on the Effect of a Balance Training Program, Including Calf Muscle Strengthening, in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Carol A; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2016-01-01

    Falls are the number 1 cause of injury, fractures, and death among the older population. In fact, one-third of adults older than 60 years will experience 1 or more falls annually. Factors including inactivity and decreased mobility are associated with overall declines in strength, balance, and functional mobility in older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a balance training program, including calf muscle strengthening, in community-dwelling older adults and to evaluate how calf muscle strength correlates with risk factors for falls. Community-dwelling older adults from a local senior center were invited to participate in a 5-week (10 sessions), 1-on-1, balance training program, which included calf muscle strengthening. All the participants were evaluated before and after the intervention. The outcome measures were static balance, unilateral heel-rise test, Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the 30-second Chair Stand Test (30-sCST), and the Activity Balance Confidence Scale. Twenty-eight participants (6 males and 22 females) mean (standard deviation) age of 78 years were included in the study and completed the baseline evaluation. Eight participants did not complete the study. Static balance with eyes closed, heel rise, TUG, 30-sCST, and the Activity Balance Confidence Scale improved significantly (P calf muscle strengthening performed twice a week for 5 weeks resulted in significant improvements in calf muscle strength, functional performance and balance, as well as a significant improvement in balance confidence. The results from this study identify the importance unilateral calf muscle strength has to falls risk among older adults.

  20. Study of Gaussian Doped Double Gate JunctionLess (GD-DG-JL) transistor including source drain depletion length: Model for sub-threshold behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Vandana; Kumar, Ayush; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, Mridula

    2018-01-01

    The sub-threshold model formulation of Gaussian Doped Double Gate JunctionLess (GD-DG-JL) FET including source/drain depletion length is reported in the present work under the assumption that the ungated regions are fully depleted. To provide deeper insight into the device performance, the impact of gaussian straggle, channel length, oxide and channel thickness and high-k gate dielectric has been studied using extensive TCAD device simulation.

  1. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: Individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hamajima, N; Hirose, K; Tajima, K; Rohan, T; Friedenreich, CM; Calle, EE; Gapstur, SM; Patel, AV; Coates, RJ; Liff, JM; Talamini, R; Chantarakul, N; Koetsawang, S; Rachawat, D; Marcou, Y

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. METHODS: Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone thera...

  2. Fast and slow readers of the Hebrew language show divergence in brain response ∼200 ms post stimulus: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    Higher N170 amplitudes to words and to faces were recently reported for faster readers of German. Since the shallow German orthography allows phonological recoding of single letters, the reported speed advantages might have their origin in especially well-developed visual processing skills of faster readers. In contrast to German, adult readers of Hebrew are forced to process letter chunks up to whole words. This dependence on more complex visual processing might have created ceiling effects for this skill. Therefore, the current study examined whether also in the deep Hebrew orthography visual processing skills as reflected by N170 amplitudes explain reading speed differences. Forty university students, native speakers of Hebrew without reading impairments, accomplished a lexical decision task (i.e., deciding whether a visually presented stimulus represents a real or a pseudo word) and a face decision task (i.e., deciding whether a face was presented complete or with missing facial features) while their electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 scalp positions. In both tasks stronger event related potentials (ERPs) were observed for faster readers in time windows at about 200 ms. Unlike in previous studies, ERP waveforms in relevant time windows did not correspond to N170 scalp topographies. The results support the notion of visual processing ability as an orthography independent marker of reading proficiency, which advances our understanding about regular and impaired reading development.

  3. Fast and slow readers of the Hebrew language show divergence in brain response ∼200 ms post stimulus: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Peter Korinth

    Full Text Available Higher N170 amplitudes to words and to faces were recently reported for faster readers of German. Since the shallow German orthography allows phonological recoding of single letters, the reported speed advantages might have their origin in especially well-developed visual processing skills of faster readers. In contrast to German, adult readers of Hebrew are forced to process letter chunks up to whole words. This dependence on more complex visual processing might have created ceiling effects for this skill. Therefore, the current study examined whether also in the deep Hebrew orthography visual processing skills as reflected by N170 amplitudes explain reading speed differences. Forty university students, native speakers of Hebrew without reading impairments, accomplished a lexical decision task (i.e., deciding whether a visually presented stimulus represents a real or a pseudo word and a face decision task (i.e., deciding whether a face was presented complete or with missing facial features while their electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 scalp positions. In both tasks stronger event related potentials (ERPs were observed for faster readers in time windows at about 200 ms. Unlike in previous studies, ERP waveforms in relevant time windows did not correspond to N170 scalp topographies. The results support the notion of visual processing ability as an orthography independent marker of reading proficiency, which advances our understanding about regular and impaired reading development.

  4. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  5. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heid, Iris M; Huth, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J F

    2009-01-01

    with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP), and obesity studies (OB). We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213) combining the different study designs did......The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345), including general population (GP) studies, population-based studies...... not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27). The I(2) measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015) indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2) measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33) and an OR of 1.10 (p...

  6. A randomized crossover clinical study showing that methylphenidate-SODAS improves attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Szobot

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (MPH-SODAS on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms in an outpatient sample of adolescents with ADHD and substance use disorders (SUD. Secondary goals were to evaluate the tolerability and impact on drug use of MPH-SODAS. This was a 6-week, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study assessing efficacy of escalated doses of MPH-SODAS on ADHD symptoms in 16 adolescents with ADHD/SUD. Participants were randomly allocated to either group A (weeks 1-3 on MPH-SODAS, weeks 4-6 on placebo or group B (reverse order. The primary outcome measures were the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale, version IV (SNAP-IV and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI. We also evaluated the adverse effects of MPH-SODAS using the Barkley Side Effect Rating Scale and subject reports of drug use during the study. The sample consisted of marijuana (N = 16; 100% and cocaine users (N = 7; 43.8%. Subjects had a significantly greater reduction in SNAP-IV and CGI scores (P < 0.001 for all analyses during MPH-SODAS treatment compared to placebo. No significant effects for period or sequence were found in analyses with the SNAP-IV and CGI scales. There was no significant effect on drug use. MPH-SODAS was well tolerated but was associated with more severe appetite reduction than placebo (P < 0.001. MPH-SODAS was more effective than placebo in reducing ADHD symptoms in a non-abstinent outpatient sample of adolescents with comorbid SUD. Randomized clinical trials, with larger samples and SUD intervention, are recommended.

  7. Seasonality shows evidence for polygenic architecture and genetic correlation with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder – a meta-analysis of genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Enda M; Raheja, Uttam; Stephens, Sarah H.; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Vaswani, Dipika; Nijjar, Gagan V.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Youssufi, Hassaan; Gehrman, Philip R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Wray, Naomi R; Nelson, Elliot C; Mitchell, Braxton D; Postolache, Teodor T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test common genetic variants for association with seasonality (seasonal changes in mood and behavior) and to investigate whether there are shared genetic risk factors between psychiatric disorders and seasonality. Methods A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Australian and Amish populations in whom the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) had been administered. The total sample size was 4,156 individuals. Genetic risk scores based on results from prior large GWAS studies of bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ) were calculated to test for overlap in risk between psychiatric disorders and seasonality. Results The most significant association was with rs11825064 (p = 1.7 × 10−6, β = 0.64, S.E = 0.13), an intergenic SNP found on chromosome 11. The evidence for overlap in risk factors was strongest for SCZ and seasonality, with the SCZ genetic profile scores explaining 3% of the variance in log-transformed GSS. BD genetic profile scores were also significantly associated with seasonality, although at much weaker levels, and no evidence for overlap in risk was detected between MDD and seasonality. Conclusions Common SNPs of very large effect likely do not exist for seasonality in the populations examined. As expected, there was overlapping genetic risk factors for BD (but not MDD) with seasonality. Unexpectedly, the risk for SCZ and seasonality had the largest overlap, an unprecedented finding that requires replication in other populations, and has potential clinical implications considering overlapping cognitive deficits in seasonal affective disorders and SCZ PMID:25562672

  8. A 38-year study on Trichinella spp. in wild boar (Sus scrofa) of Latvia shows a stable incidence with an increased parasite biomass in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjušina, Muza; Deksne, Gunita; Marucci, Gianluca; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Jahundoviča, Inese; Daukšte, Anžela; Zdankovska, Aleksandra; Bērziņa, Zanda; Esīte, Zanda; Bella, Antonino; Galati, Fabio; Krūmiņa, Angelika; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-03-01

    Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat of different animal species. The most common source of infection for humans is meat from pigs and wild boar (Sus scrofa). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the incidence of Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar hunted in Latvia over a 38 year interval (1976 to 2013). A total 120,609 wild boars were individually tested for Trichinella spp. by trichinoscopy and, in case of negativity, by artificial digestion of 25 g muscles, in the 1976-2005 period, and by artificial digestion of 25-50 g muscles in the 2006-2013 period. Trichinella spp. larvae were identified at the species level by multiplex PCR. In the study period, the overall prevalence of infected wild boar was 2.5%. Trichinella britovi was the predominant (90%) species. The incidence of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar exhibited two different trends. From 1976 to 1987, the incidence of infected/hunted wild boar increased from 0.23% to 2.56%, then it decreased to 0.19 in 1994. Thereafter, the incidence fluctuated between 0.05% and 0.37%. A statistically significant (P Latvia increased by 4.9 times and the hunting bag by 9.7 times, with a stable incidence of Trichinella spp. in the population. It follows that the biomass of Trichinella spp. larvae and of T. britovi, in particular, increased. The incidence trends of Trichinella spp. in wild boar could be related to the role played by the snow in reducing the thermal shock and muscle putrefaction which increases the survival of the larvae in muscle tissues of carrion in the 1976-1993 period; and, in the 1997-2013 period, to the increased biomass of Trichinella spp. due to the increased carnivore populations, which are the main reservoirs of these parasites.

  9. Hypogonadal obese men with and without diabetes mellitus type 2 lose weight and show improvement in cardiovascular risk factors when treated with testosterone: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Ahmad; Saad, Farid; Doros, Gheorghe; Gooren, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of obesity with diet and exercise may have short-term success but longer-term maintenance of weight loss is less successful. Obesity is associated with a reduction of serum testosterone, and, vice versa, a reduction in serum testosterone is associated with obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome. To investigate whether restoring serum testosterone to normal in hypo-gonadal obese men is beneficial with regard to weight loss and improvement of the metabolic syndrome. A prospective registry accumulated to 181 men over five years (mean serum testosterone 10.06±1.3 nmol/L (N>12.1), body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2. Of these men, 72 had diabetes mellitus type 2. All received parenteral testosterone undecanoate 1000 mg/12 weeks for up to five years. Waist circumference (cm) decreased from 111.2±7.54 to 100.46±7.1, weight (kg) from 114.71±11.59 to 93.2±8.49, BMI (kg/m2) from 36.72±3.72 to 30.2±2.59 (all variables statistically significant vs. baseline (pTestosterone treatment as assessed by hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and occurrence of prostate cancer was acceptably safe. Normalizing serum testosterone in obese hypogonadal men, also in those with diabetes type 2, improved their metabolic state. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. All rights reserved.

  10. A Pharmacogenetics Study in Mozambican Patients Treated with Nevirapine: Full Resequencing of TRAF3IP2 Gene Shows a Novel Association with SJS/TEN Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Ciccacci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Steven–Johnson Syndrome (SJS and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN are severe adverse drug reactions, characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosions of mucous membrane. SJS/TEN is one of the most serious adverse reactions to Nevirapine (NVP treatment, commonly used in developing countries as first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In the last years TRAF3IP2 gene variants had been described as associated with susceptibility to several diseases such as psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. We hypothesized that this gene, involved in immune response and in NF-κB activation, could also be implicated in the SJS/TEN susceptibility. We performed a full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene in a population of patients treated with NVP. Twenty-seven patients with NVP-induced SJS/TEN and 78 controls, all from Mozambique, were enrolled. We identified eight exonic and three intronic already described variants. The case/control association analysis highlighted an association between the rs76228616 SNP in exon 2 and the SJS/TEN susceptibility. In particular, the variant allele (C resulted significantly associated with a higher risk to develop SJS/TEN (p = 0.012 and OR = 3.65 (95% CI 1.33–10.01. A multivariate analysis by logistic regression confirmed its significant contribution (p = 0.027, OR = 4.39 (95% CI 1.19–16.23. In conclusion, our study suggests that a variant in TRAF3IP2 gene could be involved in susceptibility to SJS/TEN.

  11. A pharmacogenetics study in Mozambican patients treated with nevirapine: full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene shows a novel association with SJS/TEN susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccacci, Cinzia; Rufini, Sara; Mancinelli, Sandro; Buonomo, Ersilia; Giardina, Emiliano; Scarcella, Paola; Marazzi, Maria C; Novelli, Giuseppe; Palombi, Leonardo; Borgiani, Paola

    2015-03-12

    Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are severe adverse drug reactions, characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosions of mucous membrane. SJS/TEN is one of the most serious adverse reactions to Nevirapine (NVP) treatment, commonly used in developing countries as first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In the last years TRAF3IP2 gene variants had been described as associated with susceptibility to several diseases such as psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. We hypothesized that this gene, involved in immune response and in NF-κB activation, could also be implicated in the SJS/TEN susceptibility. We performed a full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene in a population of patients treated with NVP. Twenty-seven patients with NVP-induced SJS/TEN and 78 controls, all from Mozambique, were enrolled. We identified eight exonic and three intronic already described variants. The case/control association analysis highlighted an association between the rs76228616 SNP in exon 2 and the SJS/TEN susceptibility. In particular, the variant allele (C) resulted significantly associated with a higher risk to develop SJS/TEN (p = 0.012 and OR = 3.65 (95% CI 1.33-10.01)). A multivariate analysis by logistic regression confirmed its significant contribution (p = 0.027, OR = 4.39 (95% CI 1.19-16.23)). In conclusion, our study suggests that a variant in TRAF3IP2 gene could be involved in susceptibility to SJS/TEN.

  12. A prospective study of patients with brain MRI showing incidental t2 hyperintensities addressed as multiple sclerosis: a lot of work to do before treating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Christine; Cohen, Mikael; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Mondot, Lydiane; Chanalet, Stephane

    2014-12-01

    With the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and publications about radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS), a lot of patients are referred to multiple sclerosis (MS) tertiary centers to confirm diagnosis of RIS or MS when brain T2 abnormalities are identified, whatever their characteristics. We evaluate prospectively the occurrence of RIS or MS and sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of McDonald criteria in diagnosis for patients presenting with incidental brain MRI T2 lesions. The authors ran standardized procedures on 220 consecutive patients addressed by general practitioners or neurologists to confirm RIS or MS diagnosis on brain MRI and give a therapeutic advice. All patients underwent neurological tests, extensive blood screening, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, visual evoked potential (VEP) and follow-up MRI after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months to consider dissemination in time and space. Patient characteristics were: 165 women and 55 men, mean age: 42.7 years old (23-59). The major symptom motivating MRI was headaches (39%), sensitive atypical manifestations or pain (12%), mood disorders (10%), transient visual symptoms (9%), fatigue (8%), hormonal screening (6%), vertigo (6%), cranial trauma (5%), and dummy run for clinical study (5%). After a structured analysis of T2 lesions, the suspected diagnosis was: inflammatory disease 45%, vascular 33%, non-pathological 19%, genetic 2%, and metabolic 1%. Extensive screening confirmed the proposed diagnosis in 97% of cases. Among all the 220 proposed RIS patients, only 35.4% fulfilled the 2010 McDonald criteria, and 8% can be categorized as RIS. Dissemination in time criteria was present for 82.7% of MS patients and 36% of RIS patients but none of the vascular or non-pathological T2 abnormalities. Even if RIS was initially suspected on MRI, only a third of the patients had an inflammatory disease. Most of the patients had either non-specific T2 lesions or a non-inflammatory disease. Others

  13. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Pirie, K.

    2012-01-01

    by age at menopause were stronger for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease (p effects of menarche and menopause on breast cancer risk might not be acting merely by lengthening women's total number of reproductive......Background Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected...... women. Methods Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche...

  14. Why you need to include human factors in clinical and empirical studies of in vitro point of care devices? Review and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsci, Simone; Buckle, Peter; Hanna, George B

    2016-01-01

    Use of in-vitro point of care devices - intended as tests performed out of laboratories and near patient - is increasing in clinical environments. International standards indicate that interaction assessment should not end after the product release, yet human factors methods are frequently not included in clinical and empirical studies of these devices. Whilst the literature confirms some advantages of bed-side tests compared to those in laboratories there is a lack of knowledge of the risks associated with their use. This article provides a review of approaches applied by clinical researchers to model the use of in-vitro testing. Results suggest that only a few studies have explored human factor approaches. Furthermore, when researchers investigated people-device interaction these were predominantly limited to qualitative and not standardised approaches. The methodological failings and limitations of these studies, identified by us, demonstrate the growing need to integrate human factors methods in the medical field.

  15. Prevalence study and risk factor analysis of selected bacterial, protozoal and viral, including vector-borne, pathogens in cats from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Sarvani, Elpida; Knowles, Toby G; Mengi, Sena; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-03-13

    Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt). The population was tested for four FVBP including Bartonella henselae and Leishmania spp. using qPCR, while conventional PCR assays were used to detect Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Serological assays were performed to detect Leishmania infantum antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed to test associations and possible risk factors between variables and infectious agents. Ninety-six (55.2%) of the 174 cats were PCR-positive for at least one infectious agent. Forty-six cats (26.4%) were haemoplasma positive, including 13 (7.5%) for Mhf, 36 (20.7%) for CMhm and 12 (6.9%) for CMt. Sixty-six cats (37.9%) were positive for Hepatozoon spp., while 19 (10.9%) were positive for B. henselae, four (2.3%) for Leishmania spp. and one (0.6%) for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. Sequencing revealed the presence of Hepatozoon felis, L. infantum and Anaplasma platys. Of the 164 cats that underwent retroviral serology, 10 (6.1%) were FeLV-positive and 31 (18.9%) were FIV-positive, while L. infantum serology was positive in 7 (4.4%) of the 160 cats tested. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant associations for various infectious agents including L. infantum with each of Hepatozoon spp. and CMt

  16. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahagirdar Deepa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated stakeholder views on the accessibility and use of PROMs to develop suggestions for more inclusive practice. Methods Taking PROMs recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as an example, we conducted 8 interviews with people with low literacy skills and/or learning disabilities, and 4 focus groups with 20 health professionals and people with COPD. Discussions covered the format and delivery of PROMs using the EQ-5D and St George Respiratory Questionnaire as prompts. Thematic framework analysis focused on three main themes: Accessibility, Ease of Use, and Contextual factors. Results Accessibility included issues concerning the questionnaire format, and suggestions for improvement included larger font sizes and more white space. Ease of Use included discussion about PROMs’ administration. While health professionals suggested PROMs could be completed in waiting rooms, patients preferred settings with more privacy and where they could access help from people they know. Contextual Factors included other challenges and wider issues associated with completing PROMs. While health professionals highlighted difficulties created by the system in managing patients with low literacy/learning disabilities, patient participants stressed that understanding the purpose of PROMs was important to reduce intimidation. Conclusions Adjusting PROMs’ format, giving an explicit choice of where patients can complete them, and clearly conveying PROMs’ purpose and benefit to patients may help to prevent inequality when using PROMs in health services.

  17. Rationale, study protocol and the cluster randomization process in a controlled trial including 40,000 women investigating the effects of mindfetalness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rådestad, Ingela; Akselsson, Anna; Georgsson, Susanne; Lindgren, Helena; Pettersson, Karin; Steineck, Gunnar

    2016-12-01

    Shortening pre-hospital delay may decrease stillbirth rates and rates of babies born with a compromised health. Stillbirth may be preceded by a decrease in fetal movements. Mindfetalness has been developed as a response to the shortcomings of kick-counting for the monitoring of fetal movements by the pregnant woman. We do not know if practicing Mindfetalness may diminish pre-hospital delay. Nor do we know if practicing Mindfetalness may increase or decrease the percentage of women seeking health care for unfounded, from a medical perspective, worry for her fetus' well-being. This article describes the rationale, study protocol and the randomization process for a planned study randomly allocating 40,000 pregnant women to receive, or not receive, proactive information about practicing Mindfetalness. The unit of randomization is 63 antenatal clinics in the Stockholm area. Midwives in the antenatal clinics randomized to Mindfetalness will verbally inform about practicing Mindfetalness, hand out brochures (printed in seven languages) and inform about a website giving information about Mindfetalness. Routine care will continue in the control clinics. All information for the analyses, including the main endpoint of an Apgar score below 7 (e.g., 0-6 with stillbirth giving a score of 0), measured five minutes after birth, will be retrieved from population-based registers. We have randomized 33 antenatal clinics to Mindfetalness and 30 to routine care. In two clinics a pilot study has been performed. One of the clinics randomly allocated to inform about Mindfetalness will not do so (but will be included in the intention-to-treat analysis). In October 2016 we started to recruit women for the main study. The work up to now follows the outlined time schedule. We expect to present the first results concerning the effects of Mindfetalness during 2018. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  19. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsedek Irit

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136. Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88 with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training

  20. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Itshak; Elbar, Ori; Tsedek, Irit; Oddsson, Lars Ie

    2008-08-17

    Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136). The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65-88) with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training). Voluntary step reaction times and postural stability

  1. Adolescents' perceptions of flavored tobacco products, including E-cigarettes: A qualitative study to inform FDA tobacco education efforts through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, D R; Fiellin, L E; Pendergrass, T; Miller, Erica; Pentz, M A; Hieftje, K

    2018-07-01

    Flavored tobacco products have been shown to appeal to youth, however tobacco control strategies have traditionally not focused on these products. To inform the adaptation of an existing videogame to focus on the prevention of flavored tobacco product use, this study explored adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, and social norms surrounding these products, including flavored e-cigarettes. We conducted and analyzed transcripts from seven focus groups with 11-17-year-old adolescents (n = 33) from after-school programs in CT and CA in 2016. Participants discussed flavored tobacco product beliefs and experiences, and how these compared to traditional cigarettes. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed that participants could name flavors in tobacco products, even though few discussed first-hand experience with the products. Most groups perceived that flavored tobacco product and flavored e-cigarette use facilitated peer approval and acceptance. All groups discussed how youth could easily access flavored tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Flavoring was a salient aspect of e-cigarette advertisements; however the groups did not recall exposure to other types of flavored tobacco product counter-marketing. These data can help inform the development of tobacco control strategies, novel interventions (such as videogames), and future FDA efforts to prevent adolescent tobacco product use through education and risk communication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-03-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m(-)(2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also

  3. Study of direct Cp violation in B decay into vector mesons including rho zero-omega mixing in the framework of the LHCb experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimbault, C.

    2004-02-01

    ρ 0 - ω mixing effect on direct CP violation in B decay into vector mesons is one of the main studies of this work. The first part is dedicated to the calculation of the decay amplitudes of the channels B → Vρ 0 (ω) which have been represented by a model. We have used the helicity formalism. In such a way branching ratios and asymmetries depending on form factor models and other parameters are predicted. Direct CP violation appears at several levels: in branching ratios, in angular distributions and in differential asymmetry as a function of ρ 0 - ω mass. The dominance of the longitudinal polarization in the studied channels is confirmed by Babar and Belle experimental results. We calculated too the strong phase and the ratio of Penguin to Tree amplitudes for each channel. In a second part, was developed an analysis of the channel B 0 → K *0 ρ 0 (ω) in the framework of LHCb experiment. It will start in 2007 and is dedicated to b flavor study and CP violation. The realistic analysis which has been performed shows that this channel is not appropriate to observe ρ 0 - ω mixing effect on asymmetry in LHCb, while the ρ + ρ 0 (ω) channel, for which we have predicted a branching ratio value confirmed by Babar and Belle, is much more promising. (author)

  4. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A genome wide association study for backfat thickness in Italian Large White pigs highlights new regions affecting fat deposition including neuronal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontanesi Luca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass fatness is an important trait in most pig breeding programs. Following market requests, breeding plans for fresh pork consumption are usually designed to reduce carcass fat content and increase lean meat deposition. However, the Italian pig industry is mainly devoted to the production of Protected Designation of Origin dry cured hams: pigs are slaughtered at around 160 kg of live weight and the breeding goal aims at maintaining fat coverage, measured as backfat thickness to avoid excessive desiccation of the hams. This objective has shaped the genetic pool of Italian heavy pig breeds for a few decades. In this study we applied a selective genotyping approach within a population of ~ 12,000 performance tested Italian Large White pigs. Within this population, we selectively genotyped 304 pigs with extreme and divergent backfat thickness estimated breeding value by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and performed a genome wide association study to identify loci associated to this trait. Results We identified 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms with P≤5.0E-07 and additional 119 ones with 5.0E-07 Conclusions Further investigations are needed to evaluate the effects of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with backfat thickness on other traits as a pre-requisite for practical applications in breeding programs. Reported results could improve our understanding of the biology of fat metabolism and deposition that could also be relevant for other mammalian species including humans, confirming the role of neuronal genes on obesity.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL STROKE OR TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK, INCLUDED INTO THE LIS-2 REGISTER (LYUBERTSY STUDY OF MORTALITY IN PATIENTS AFTER STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To provide final data on the three-year period of the inclusion of patients; to give most accurate "portrait" of patients hospitalized with a brain stroke within the framework of the LIS-2 register (Lyubertsy study of mortality in patients after stroke.Material and methods. All patients (n=960 admitted to the Lyubertsy district hospital №2 with stroke for the period from 01.2009 to 12.2011 were included into the study.Results. Men accounted for 37.5%, women - 62.5%, mean age was 71.1±9.8 years. The history of hypertension was present in 833 patients (86.8%, atrial fibrillation in 252 (26.8% patients, 199 (20.7% patients had previously undergone stroke. In-hospital mortality was 21.6% (207 patients had died; mean age 72.9±9.8 years. Low frequency of the antihypertensive therapy (34.5%, lipid-lowering therapy (0.7%, antiplatelet agents (5.7%, anticoagulation therapy prescription in patients with atrial fibrillation was detected.Conclusion. Insufficient assignment of drugs with a proven effect on the prognosis in patients with risk factors prior to the development of the reference stroke draws attention. High incidence of recurrent strokes indicates an underactive secondary prevention.

  7. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games...

  8. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  9. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  10. A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Bacteraemia in Bangladeshi Children with Severe Malnutrition and Pneumonia Including an Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758

  11. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three 'all-comer' studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings. NCT02156401. Published by the

  12. Association of extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies including 43,407 individuals: The EPOCH-JAPAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Aya; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Watanabe, Makoto; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2018-02-08

    The effect of very high or extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well described. Although a few recent studies have reported the adverse effects of extremely high levels of HDL-C on CVD events, these did not show a statistically significant association between extremely high levels of HDL-C and cause-specific CVD mortality. In addition, Asian populations have not been studied. We examine the impact of extremely high levels of HDL-C on cause-specific CVD mortality using pooled data of Japanese cohort studies. We performed a large-scale pooled analysis of 9 Japanese cohorts including 43,407 participants aged 40-89 years, dividing the participants into 5 groups by HDL-C levels, including extremely high levels of HDL-C ≥2.33 mmol/L (≥90 mg/dL). We estimated the adjusted hazard ratio of each HDL-C category for all-cause death and cause-specific deaths compared with HDL-C 1.04-1.55 mmol/L (40-59 mg/dL) using a cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. During a 12.1-year follow-up, 4995 all-cause deaths and 1280 deaths due to overall CVD were identified. Extremely high levels of HDL-C were significantly associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic CVD mortality (hazard ratio = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-4.09 for total) and increased risk for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. In addition, the risk for extremely high HDL-C was more evident among current drinkers. We showed extremely high levels of HDL-C had an adverse effect on atherosclerotic CVD mortality in a pooled analysis of Japanese cohorts. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  14. Effectiveness of a structured motivational intervention including smoking cessation advice and spirometry information in the primary care setting: the ESPITAP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Lujan Francisco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Methods Design Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. Setting 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain. Subjects of study 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Intervention Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant, comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Measurements Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Main variables Smoking cessation at 12 months. Analysis Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Expected results Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the

  15. Ovarian cancers arising from endometriosis: a microenvironmental biomarker study including ER, HNF1ß, p53, PTEN, BAF250a, and COX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chiung-Ru; Hsu, Chih-Yi; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Li, Anna Fen-Yau

    2013-11-01

    The microenvironmental biomarkers of different subtypes of ovarian cancers arising from endometriosis have not been studied in Taiwan. Their expression can help in understanding the carcinogenic mechanism. Our study used immunohistochemistry to compare the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 beta (HNF1ß), p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), BAF250a, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) among 79 cases of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers, including 40 (50%) clear cell carcinomas (CCCs), 33 (41%) endometrioid (EM) adenocarcinomas, four (5%) serous carcinomas, one adenosquamous carcinoma, and one adenosarcoma. Positive stainings for ER, HNF1ß, p53, and COX-2 were identified in 34 (43%), 30 (38%), 10 (13%), and 44 (56%) cases. Loss of PTEN and BAF250a were noted in 29 (37%) and 37 (47%) cases. The expression of ER was reversely correlated with that of HNF1ß (rho = -0.417, p p53 (rho = 0.284, p = 0.011). ER positivity was commonly identified in EM adenocarcinomas (91%), and rarely in CCCs (8%) and serous carcinoma (0%; p carcinomas (50%), but less in EM adenocarcinoma (6%; p p53, COX-2, and PTEN, there was no difference between the invasive and precursor parts. Our results supported the suggestion that estrogen-dependent ovarian cancer arising from endometriosis is substantially more associated with EM adenocarcinoma than CCCs. The positive HNF1ß staining was a frequent finding in CCCs, but not in EM adenocarcinoma. The similar staining patterns of atypical endometriosis glandular cells with the invasive parts confirmed their precursor status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Birth weight and long-term overweight risk: systematic review and a meta-analysis including 643,902 persons from 66 studies and 26 countries globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schellong

    Full Text Available Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis.Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (p4,000 g was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.55-1.77. Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500-4,000 g as reference category (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.84, and OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.77, respectively. Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.43-2.67.Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy, might therefore be a promising strategy of genuine overweight prevention, globally.

  17. On the non-linear spectroscopy including saturated absorption and four-wave mixing in two and multi-level atoms: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M.; De Jager, G.; Nkosi, Z.; Wyngaard, A.; Govender, K.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we report on the study of two and multi-level atoms interacting with multiple laser beams. The semi-classical approach is used to describe the system in which the atoms are treated quantum mechanically via the density matrix operator, while the laser beams are treated classically using Maxwells equations. We present results of a two level atom interacting with single and multiple laser beams and demonstrate Rabi oscillations between the levels. The effects of laser modulation on the dynamics of the atom (atomic populations and coherences) are examined by solving the optical Bloch equations. Plots of the density matrix elements as a function of time are presented for various parameters such as laser intensity, detuning, modulation etc. In addition, phase-space plots and Fourier analysis of the density matrix elements are provided. The atomic polarization, estimated from the coherence terms of the density matrix elements, is used in the numerical solution of Maxwells equations to determine the behaviour of the laser beams as they propagate through the atomic ensemble. The effects of saturation and hole-burning are demonstrated in the case of two counter propagating beams with one being a strong beam and the other being very weak. The above work is extended to include four-wave mixing in four level atoms in a diamond configuration. Two co-propagating beams of different wavelengths drive the atoms from a ground state |1〉 to an excited state |3〉 via an intermediate state |2〉. The atoms then move back to the ground state via another intermediate state |4〉, resulting in the generation of two additional correlated photon beams. The characteristics of these additional photons are studied.

  18. Breast cancer detection using double reading of unenhanced MRI including T1-weighted, T2-weighted STIR, and diffusion-weighted imaging: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Rubina M; Verardi, Nicola; Cartia, Francesco; Carbonaro, Luca A; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of unenhanced MRI in detecting breast cancer and to assess the impact of double reading. A total of 116 breasts of 67 women who were 36-89 years old were studied at 1.5 T using an unenhanced protocol including axial T1-weighted gradient-echo, T2-weighted STIR, and echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Two blinded readers (R1 and R2) independently evaluated unenhanced images using the BIRADS scale. A combination of pathology and negative follow-up served as the reference standard. McNemar and kappa statistics were used. Per-breast cancer prevalence was 37 of 116 (32%): 30 of 37 (81%) invasive ductal carcinoma, five of 37 (13%) ductal carcinoma in situ, and two of 37 (6%) invasive lobular carcinoma. Per-breast sensitivity of unenhanced MRI was 29 of 37 (78%) for R1, 28 of 37 (76%) for R2, and 29 of 37 (78%) for double reading. Specificity was 71 of 79 (90%) for both R1 and R2 and 69 of 79 (87%) for double reading. Double reading did not provide a significant increase in sensitivity. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect (Cohen κ = 0.873). An unenhanced breast MRI protocol composed of T1-weighted gradient echo, T2-weighted STIR, and echo-planar DWI enabled breast cancer detection with sensitivity of 76-78% and specificity of 90% without a gain in sensitivity from double reading.

  19. Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the pH-Dependent Activation (Epoxidation) of Prodrug Treosulfan Including the Reaction Inhibition in a Borate Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Ratajczak, Whitney; Główka, Franciszek

    2017-07-01

    A prodrug treosulfan (T) undergoes a pH-dependent activation to epoxide derivatives. The process seems to involve an intramolecular Williamson reaction (IWR) but clear kinetic evidence is lacking. Moreover, a cis-diol system present in the T structure is expected to promote complexation with boric acid. As a result, the prodrug epoxidation would be inhibited; however, this phenomenon has not been investigated. In this article, the effect of pH on the kinetics of T conversion to its monoepoxide was studied from a mechanistic point of view. Also, the influence of boric acid on the reaction kinetics was examined. The rate constants observed for the activation of T (k obs ) in acetate, phosphate, and carbonate buffers satisfied the equation logk obs  = -7.48 + 0.96 pH. The reaction was inhibited in the excess of boric acid over T, and the k obs decreased with increasing borate buffer concentration. The experimental results were consistent with the inhibition model that included the formation of a tetrahedral, anionic T-boric acid monoester. To conclude, in nonborate buffers, the T activation to (2S,3S)-1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol 4-methanesulfonate follows IWR mechanism. A borate buffer changes the reaction kinetics and complicates kinetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia severity, Gross Motor, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification scales in childhood hyperkinetic movement disorders including cerebral palsy: a 'Rosetta Stone' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Markus C; Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Baker, Lesley; Lumsden, Daniel E; Hutton, Jane L; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M

    2016-02-01

    Hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMDs) can be assessed using impairment-based scales or functional classifications. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-movement (BFM-M) evaluates dystonia impairment, but may not reflect functional ability. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) are widely used in the literature on cerebral palsy to classify functional ability, but not in childhood movement disorders. We explore the concordance of these three functional scales in a large sample of paediatric HMDs and the impact of dystonia severity on these scales. Children with HMDs (n=161; median age 10y 3mo, range 2y 6mo-21y) were assessed using the BFM-M, GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS from 2007 to 2013. This cross-sectional study contrasts the information provided by these scales. All four scales were strongly associated (all Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rs >0.72, pdisorders including cerebral palsy can be effectively evaluated using these scales. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Including land cover change in analysis of greenness trends using all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images: A case study from Guangzhou, China (2000–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Fu, Yingchun; Woodcock, Curtis; Olofsson, Pontus; Vogelmann, James; Holden, Christopher; Wang, Min; Dai, Shu; Yu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing has proven a useful way of evaluating long-term trends in vegetation “greenness” through the use of vegetation indices like Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In particular, analyses of greenness trends have been performed for large areas (continents, for example) in an attempt to understand vegetation response to climate. These studies have been most often used coarse resolution sensors like Moderate Resolution Image Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). However, trends in greenness are also important at more local scales, particularly in and around cities as vegetation offers a variety of valuable ecosystem services ranging from minimizing air pollution to mitigating urban heat island effects. To explore the ability to monitor greenness trends in and around cities, this paper presents a new way for analyzing greenness trends based on all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images and applies it to Guangzhou, China. This method is capable of including the effects of land cover change in the evaluation of greenness trends by separating the effects of abrupt and gradual changes, and providing information on the timing of greenness trends.

  2. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris

    2016-07-05

    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer.

  3. Glycoprotein CD44 expression in normal, hyperplasic and neoplastic endometrium. An immunohistochemical study including correlations with p53, steroid receptor status and proliferative indices (PCNA, MIB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorianakou, N; Ioachim, E; Mitselou, A; Kitsou, E; Zagorianakou, P; Stefanaki, S; Makrydimas, G; Agnantis, N J

    2003-01-01

    We have studied by immunohistochemistry the presence and localization of CD44, estrogen and progesterone receptors, p53 and proliferative associated indices (MIB1, PCNA) in archival endometrial tissue, in order to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value as well as the possible correlations between them. We examined 186 samples of endometrial tissue (100 endometrial carcinomas of endometrioid type, 40 cases of hyperplasia and 46 of normal endometrium). Patient records were examined for FIGO stage, grade, and depth of myometrial invasion, histology, and lympho-vascular space invasion. Strong membranous immunostaining (> 10% of neoplastic cells) was observed in 45% of the carcinomas. A statistically significant correlation was found in the expression of protein in stromal cells, when compared with epithelial cells (p failed to show any statistical correlation with tumor grade or with vessel invasion. The expression of the protein was lower in FIGO Stage II compared with Stage I (p = 0.03). A positive relation of CD44 expression with progesterone receptor status (p = 0.02) was detected. CD44 expression was also positively associated with the proliferation associated with the proliferative index MIB1 (p = 0.001). CD44 is closely related to the secretory phase of the normal menstrual cycle and its expression is decreased in hyperplasia (simple or complex with or without atypia) and in cancer cases. These observations suggest that decreased CD44 expression might be functionally involved in the multiple mechanisms of the development and progression of endometrial lesions.

  4. Peripheral blood leucocytes show differential expression of tumour progression-related genes in colorectal cancer patients who have a postoperative intra-abdominal infection: a prospective matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, S; Mayol, X; Nonell, L; Salvans, S; Pascual, M; Pera, M

    2017-05-01

    Anastomotic leak is associated with higher rates of recurrence after surgery for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We hypothesized that the infection-induced inflammatory response may induce overexpression of tumour progression-related genes in immune cells. The aim was to investigate the effect of postoperative intra-abdominal infection on the gene expression patterns of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) after surgery for colorectal cancer. Prospective matched cohort study. Patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer were included. Patients who had anastomotic leak or intra-abdominal abscess were included in the infection group (n = 23) and matched with patients without complications for the control group (n = 23). PBL were isolated from postoperative blood samples. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarray. Patients in the infection group displayed 162 upregulated genes and 146 downregulated genes with respect to the control group. Upregulated genes included examples coding for secreted cytokines involved in tumour growth and invasion (S100P, HGF, MMP8, MMP9, PDGFC, IL1R2). Infection also upregulated some proangiogenic genes (CEP55, TRPS1) and downregulated some inhibitors of angiogenesis (MME, ALOX15, CXCL10). Finally, some inhibitors (HP, ORM1, OLFM4, IRAK3) and activators (GNLY, PRF1, FGFBP2) of antitumour immunity were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, suggesting that the inflammatory environment caused by a postoperative infection favours immune evasion mechanisms of the tumour. Analysis of PBL shows differential expression of certain tumour progression-related genes in colorectal cancer patients who have a postoperative intra-abdominal infection, which in turn may promote the growth of residual cancer cells to become recurrent tumours. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Shujun; Chen, Gongbo; Syberg, Kevin M; Xian, Hong; Wang, Si-Quan; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Mo; Liu, Kang-Kang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Guo, Yuming; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM 1 ), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), and ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 )). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00-1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08-1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02-1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12-1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stakeholders' perception on including broader economic impact of vaccines in economic evaluations in low and middle income countries: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Putten, Ingeborg M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Deogaonkar, Rohan; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond C W

    2015-04-10

    Current health economic evaluation guidelines mainly concentrate on immediate health gains and cost savings for the individual involved in the intervention. However, it has been argued that these guidelines are too narrow to capture the full impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries. The inclusion of broader economic impact of vaccines (BEIV) has therefore been proposed. Some examples of these are productivity-related gains, macro-economic impact, and different externalities. Despite their potency, the extent to which such benefits can and should be incorporated into economic evaluations of vaccination is still unclear. This mixed methods study aims to assess the relevance of BEIV to different stakeholders involved in the vaccine introduction decision making process. In this mixed method study an internet based survey was sent to attendees of the New and Underutilized Vaccines Initiative meeting in Montreux, Switzerland in 2011. Additionally, semi-structured interviews of 15 minutes each were conducted during the meeting. Study participants included decision makers, experts and funders of vaccines and immunization programs in low and middle income countries. Descriptive analysis of the survey, along with identification of common themes and factors extracted from the interviews and open survey questions was undertaken. Evidence on macro-economic impact, burden of disease and ecological effects were perceived as being most valuable towards aiding decision making for vaccine introduction by the 26 survey respondents. The 14 interviewees highlighted the importance of burden of disease and different types of indirect effects. Furthermore, some new interpretations of BEIVs were discussed, such as the potential negative impact of wastage during immunization programs and the idea of using vaccines as a platform for delivering other types of health interventions. Interviewees also highlighted the importance of using a broader perspective in connection to

  7. Effectiveness of a structured motivational intervention including smoking cessation advice and spirometry information in the primary care setting: the ESPITAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Lujan, Francisco; Piñol-Moreso, Josep L I; Martin-Vergara, Nuria; Basora-Gallisa, Josep; Pascual-Palacios, Irene; Sagarra-Alamo, Ramon; Llopis, Estefania Aparicio; Basora-Gallisa, Maria T; Pedret-Llaberia, Roser

    2011-11-11

    There is current controversy about the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions that are based on information obtained by spirometry. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness in the primary care setting of structured motivational intervention to achieve smoking cessation, compared with usual clinical practice. Multicentre randomized clinical trial with an intervention and a control group. 12 primary care centres in the province of Tarragona (Spain). 600 current smokers aged between 35 and 70 years with a cumulative habit of more than 10 packs of cigarettes per year, attended in primary care for any reason and who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria for the study, randomly assigned to structured intervention or standard clinical attention. Usual advice to quit smoking by a general practitioner as well as a 20-minute personalized visit to provide detailed information about spirometry results, during which FEV1, FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF measurements were discussed and interpreted in terms of theoretical values. Additional information included the lung age index (defined as the average age of a non-smoker with the same FEV1 as the study participant), comparing this with the chronological age to illustrate the pulmonary deterioration that results from smoking. Spirometry during the initial visit. Structured interview questionnaire administered at the primary care centre at the initial visit and at 12-month follow-up. Telephone follow-up interview at 6 months. At 12-month follow-up, expired CO was measured in patients who claimed to have quit smoking. Smoking cessation at 12 months. Data will be analyzed on the basis of "intention to treat" and the unit of analysis will be the individual smoker. Among active smokers treated in primary care we anticipate significantly higher smoking cessation in the intervention group than in the control group. Application of a motivational intervention based on structured information about spirometry results

  8. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  9. Relationship of Consumption of Meals Including Grain, Fish and Meat, and Vegetable Dishes to the Prevention of Nutrient Deficiency: The INTERMAP Toyama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshita, Katsushi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Naruse, Yuchi; Okuda, Nagako; Okayama, Akira; Stamler, Jeremiah; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    A Japanese-style diet consists of meals that include grain (shushoku), fish and meat (shusai), and vegetable dishes (fukusai). Little is known about the association of such meals (designated well-balanced meals hereafter) with nutrient intake. We therefore examined the frequency of well-balanced meals required to prevent nutrient deficiency. Participants were Japanese people, ages 40 to 59 y, from Toyama, recruited for INTERMAP, in an international population-based study. Each person provided 4 in-depth 24-h dietary recalls (149 men, 150 women). The prevalence of risk ratios of not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) was calculated. Well-balanced diets were assessed by the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. We counted the frequencies of meals in which participants consumed 1.0 or more servings of all 3 dishes categories. We divided the frequency of consumption of well-balanced meals into the following 4 groups: <1.00 time/d, 1.00-1.49 times/d, 1.50-1.74 times/d, and ≥1.75 times/d. Compared with participants in the highest frequency group for well-balanced meals, those who consumed well-balanced meals less than once a day had a higher risk of not meeting the adequate intake for potassium and the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin A. Those who consumed well-balanced meals on average less than 1.50 times per day had a higher risk of not meeting the recommended dietary allowance for calcium and vitamin C. Our results suggest that individuals should on average consume well-balanced meals more than 1.5 times per day to prevent calcium and vitamin C deficiencies.

  10. Return to work of cancer patients after a multidisciplinary intervention including occupational counselling and physical exercise in cancer patients: a prospective study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leensen, Monique C J; Groeneveld, Iris F; Heide, Iris van der; Rejda, Tomas; van Veldhoven, Peter L J; Berkel, Sietske van; Snoek, Aernout; Harten, Wim van; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; de Boer, Angela G E M

    2017-06-15

    To support return to work (RTW) among cancer patients, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was developed which combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme during chemotherapy. The aim was to investigate RTW rates of cancer patients and to evaluate changes in work-related quality of life and physical outcomes. Longitudinal prospective intervention study using a one-group design. Two hospitals in the Netherlands. Of the eligible patients, 56% participated; 93 patients with a primary diagnosis of cancer receiving chemotherapy and on sick leave were included. Patients completed questionnaires on RTW, the importance of work, work ability (WAI), RTW self-efficacy, fatigue (MFI), and quality of life (EORTC QLQ C-30) at baseline and 6, 12 and 18 months follow-up. Before and after the exercise programme 1-repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) were assessed. Six months after the start of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme that combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme, 59% of the cancer patients returned to work, 86% at 12 months and 83% at 18 months. In addition, significant improvements (pfatigue levels were significantly reduced. After completing the exercise programme, 1RM muscle strength was significantly increased but there was no improvement in VO 2 peak level. RTW rates of cancer patients were high after completion of the multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme. A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme which combines occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme is likely to result in RTW, reduced fatigue and increased importance of work, work ability, and quality of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions including face mask ventilation may reduce birth asphyxia related mortality in low-income countries: a prospective descriptive observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersdal, Hege Langli; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2012-07-01

    Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions within 60 s in apneic newborn infants is thought to be essential in preventing progression to circulatory collapse based on experimental cardio-respiratory responses to asphyxia. The objectives were to describe normal transitional respiratory adaption at birth and to assess the importance of initiating basic resuscitation within the first minutes after birth as it relates to neonatal outcome. This is an observational study of neonatal respiratory adaptation at birth in a rural hospital in Tanzania. Research assistants (n=14) monitored every newborn infant delivery and the response of birth attendants to a depressed baby. Time to initiation of spontaneous respirations or time to onset of breathing following stimulation/suctioning, or face mask ventilation (FMV) in apneic infants, and duration of FMV were recorded. 5845 infants were born; 5689 were liveborn, among these 4769(84%) initiated spontaneous respirations; 93% in ≤30 s and 99% in ≤60 s. Basic resuscitation (stimulation, suction, and/or FMV) was attempted in 920/5689(16.0%); of these 459(49.9%) received FMV. Outcomes included normal n=5613(96.0%), neonatal deaths n=56(1.0%), admitted neonatal area n=20(0.3%), and stillbirths n=156(2.7%). The risk for death or prolonged admission increases 16% for every 30 s delay in initiating FMV up to six minutes (p=0.045) and 6% for every minute of applied FMV (p=0.001). The majority of lifeless babies were in primary apnea and responded to stimulation/suctioning and/or FMV. Infants who required FMV were more likely to die particularly when ventilation was delayed or prolonged. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  13. Evaluation of octyl p-methoxycinnamate included in liposomes and cyclodextrins in anti-solar preparations: preparations, characterizations and in vitro penetration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Mariana Sato de Souza de Bustamante; Ozzetti, Rafael Antonio; Vergnanini, André Luiz; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia; Volpato, Nadia Maria; de Freitas, Zaida Maria Faria; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Awareness of the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation has led to the increasing use of sunscreens, thus, the development of safe and effective antisolar preparations is important. The inclusion of sunscreen molecules in different release systems, like liposomes (lipo) and cyclodextrins (CD) is therefore required. The in vivo sun protection factor (SPF), water resistance, and in vitro transdermal penetration test of octyl p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) in different dispersions, such as OMC encapsulated in liposomes (lipo/OMC), OMC encapsulated in β-cyclodextrins (β-CD/OMC), OMC encapsulated in both release systems (lipo/OMC and β-CD/OMC), and an OMC-free formulation were determined. Although the formulation containing only the lipo/OMC system revealed high value of in vivo SPF (11.0 ± 1.3) and water resistance (SPF = 10.3 ± 2.2), the formulation containing both release systems (lipo/OMC + β-cyclodextrin/OMC) showed the best result in the in vivo SPF test (11.6 ± 1.6). In the penetration test, the formulation containing the lipo/OMC system had better performance, since a high amount of OMC in the epidermis (18.04 ± 1.17 μg) and a low amount of OMC in the dermis (9.4 ± 2.36 μg) were observed. These results suggest that liposomes interact with the cells of the stratum corneum, promoting retention of OMC in this layer. According to our study, the lipo/OMC system is the most advantageous release system, due to its ability to both increase the amount of OMC in the epidermis and decrease the risk of percutaneous absorption.

  14. Structure-function studies of five natural, including catfish and dogfish, gonadotropin-releasing hormones and eight analogs on reproduction in Thai catfish (Clarias macrocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamvongchon, S; Rivier, J E; Sherwood, N M

    1992-11-20

    Five distinct forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and their analogs, six of which are newly designed, were used to study reproduction in Thai catfish, Clarias macrocephalus. Determination was made for the percentage of fish that ovulated within 16-18 h; the percentage of eggs fertilized; and the percentage of larva that hatched and survived for 7 days. The results show, firstly, that natural chicken GnRH-II, which is identical with catfish GnRH-II, was significantly more effective at a dose of 300 micrograms/kg than the control injection for the induction of ovulation. Dogfish GnRH at the same dose was also significantly more effective than the control, but was not significantly different from chicken (catfish) GnRH-II for ovulation induction. The novel catfish GnRH-I, mammalian GnRH and salmon GnRH were not effective at 100, 150 or 300 micrograms/kg in Thai catfish. Secondly, 5 of 8 analogs of GnRH at a dose of 20 micrograms/kg resulted in a significantly higher percentage of ovulating fish compared with the control fish. Among these five analogs, the most effective were the two analog forms of chicken GnRH-II (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt and D-Nal6,Pro9 NEt), followed by the salmon GnRH analog (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt), a dogfish GnRH analog (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt) and the mammalian GnRH analog (D-Ala6,Pro9 NEt). Not significantly different from the controls were the two catfish GnRH-I analogs and one of the dogfish (D-Nal6,Pro9 NEt) analogs. The six new analogs had not been previously tested in any animal. Thirdly, the number of fish ovulating was the same whether GnRH was administered in one or two injections.

  15. Birth Weight and Long-Term Overweight Risk: Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis Including 643,902 Persons from 66 Studies and 26 Countries Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (poverweight (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59–0.76). High birth weight (>4,000 g) was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.55–1.77). Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500–4,000 g) as reference category (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84, and OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45–1.77, respectively). Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.43–2.67). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy

  16. Rare CNVs in Suicide Attempt include Schizophrenia-Associated Loci and Neurodevelopmental Genes: A Pilot Genome-Wide and Family-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Sokolowski

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior (SB has a complex etiology involving genes and environment. One of the genetic components in SB could be copy number variations (CNVs, as CNVs are implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, a recently published genome-wide and case-control study did not observe any significant role of CNVs in SB. Here we complemented these initial observations by instead using a family-based trio-sample that is robust to control biases, having severe suicide attempt (SA in offspring as main outcome (n = 660 trios. We first tested for CNV associations on the genome-wide Illumina 1M SNP-array by using FBAT-CNV methodology, which allows for evaluating CNVs without reliance on CNV calling algorithms, analogous to a common SNP-based GWAS. We observed association of certain T-cell receptor markers, but this likely reflected inter-individual variation in somatic rearrangements rather than association with SA outcome. Next, we used the PennCNV software to call 385 putative rare (100 kb CNVs, observed in n = 225 SA offspring. Nine SA offspring had rare CNV calls in a set of previously schizophrenia-associated loci, indicating the importance of such CNVs in certain SA subjects. Several additional, very large (>1MB sized CNV calls in 15 other SA offspring also spanned pathogenic regions or other neural genes of interest. Overall, 45 SA had CNVs enriched for 65 medically relevant genes previously shown to be affected by CNVs, which were characterized by a neurodevelopmental biology. A neurodevelopmental implication was partly congruent with our previous SNP-based GWAS, but follow-up analysis here indicated that carriers of rare CNVs had a decreased burden of common SNP risk-alleles compared to non-carriers. In conclusion, while CNVs did not show genome-wide association by the FBAT-CNV methodology, our preliminary observations indicate rare pathogenic CNVs affecting neurodevelopmental functions in a subset of SA, who were distinct from SA having

  17. Rare CNVs in Suicide Attempt include Schizophrenia-Associated Loci and Neurodevelopmental Genes: A Pilot Genome-Wide and Family-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Marcus; Wasserman, Jerzy; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior (SB) has a complex etiology involving genes and environment. One of the genetic components in SB could be copy number variations (CNVs), as CNVs are implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, a recently published genome-wide and case-control study did not observe any significant role of CNVs in SB. Here we complemented these initial observations by instead using a family-based trio-sample that is robust to control biases, having severe suicide attempt (SA) in offspring as main outcome (n = 660 trios). We first tested for CNV associations on the genome-wide Illumina 1M SNP-array by using FBAT-CNV methodology, which allows for evaluating CNVs without reliance on CNV calling algorithms, analogous to a common SNP-based GWAS. We observed association of certain T-cell receptor markers, but this likely reflected inter-individual variation in somatic rearrangements rather than association with SA outcome. Next, we used the PennCNV software to call 385 putative rare (100 kb) CNVs, observed in n = 225 SA offspring. Nine SA offspring had rare CNV calls in a set of previously schizophrenia-associated loci, indicating the importance of such CNVs in certain SA subjects. Several additional, very large (>1MB) sized CNV calls in 15 other SA offspring also spanned pathogenic regions or other neural genes of interest. Overall, 45 SA had CNVs enriched for 65 medically relevant genes previously shown to be affected by CNVs, which were characterized by a neurodevelopmental biology. A neurodevelopmental implication was partly congruent with our previous SNP-based GWAS, but follow-up analysis here indicated that carriers of rare CNVs had a decreased burden of common SNP risk-alleles compared to non-carriers. In conclusion, while CNVs did not show genome-wide association by the FBAT-CNV methodology, our preliminary observations indicate rare pathogenic CNVs affecting neurodevelopmental functions in a subset of SA, who were distinct from SA having increased SNP

  18. The role of the intestinal microvasculature in inflammatory bowel disease: studies with a modified Caco-2 model including endothelial cells resembling the intestinal barrier in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Jennifer Y; Hermanns, Maria Iris; Cavelius, Christian; Kraegeloh, Annette; Jung, Thomas; Danzebrink, Rolf; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2016-01-01

    The microvascular endothelium of the gut barrier plays a crucial role during inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. We have modified a commonly used intestinal cell model based on the Caco-2 cells by adding microvascular endothelial cells (ISO-HAS-1). Transwell filters were used with intestinal barrier-forming Caco-2 cells on top and the ISO-HAS-1 on the bottom of the filter. The goal was to determine whether this coculture mimics the in vivo situation more closely, and whether the model is suitable to evaluate interactions of, for example, prospective nanosized drug vehicles or contrast agents with this coculture in a physiological and inflamed state as it would occur in inflammatory bowel disease. We monitored the inflammatory responsiveness of the cells (release of IL-8, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and soluble E-selectin) after exposure to inflammatory stimuli (lipopolysaccharide, TNF-α, INF-γ, IL1-β) and a nanoparticle (Ba/Gd: coprecipitated BaSO4 and Gd(OH)3), generally used as contrast agents. The barrier integrity of the coculture was evaluated via the determination of transepithelial electrical resistance and the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of NaFITC. The behavior of the coculture Caco-1/ISO-HAS-1 was compared to the respective monocultures Caco-2 and ISO-HAS-1. Based on transepithelial electrical resistance, the epithelial barrier integrity of the coculture remained stable during incubation with all stimuli, whereas the Papp decreased after exposure to the cytokine mixture (TNF-α, INF-γ, IL1-β, and Ba/Gd). Both the endothelial and epithelial monocultures showed a high inflammatory response in both the upper and lower transwell-compartments. However, in the coculture, inflammatory mediators were only detected on the epithelial side and not on the endothelial side. Thus in the coculture, based on the Papp, the epithelial barrier appears to prevent a potential inflammatory overreaction in the underlying endothelial cells

  19. Mineral resources of the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study Areas, including Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Emery County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Barton, H.W.; McCafferty, A.E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Koyuncu, H.; Lee, K.; Duval, J.S.; Munts, S.R.; Benjamin, D.A.; Close, T.J.; Lipton, D.A.; Neumann, T.R.; Willet, S.L.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum in the Muddy Creek, San Rafael Reef, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas. Other commodities evaluated include geothermal energy, gypsum, limestone, oil and gas, sand and gravel, sandstone, semiprecious gemstones, sulfur petrified wood, and tar sand

  20. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine failure associated with a triple mutant including kelch13 C580Y in Cambodia: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Michele D; Lin, Jessica T; Manning, Jessica E; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Somethy, Sok; Bun, Rathvicheth; Se, Youry; Chann, Soklyda; Ittiverakul, Mali; Sia-ngam, Piyaporn; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Arsanok, Montri; Buathong, Nillawan; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Gosi, Panita; Ta-aksorn, Winita; Chanarat, Nitima; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Kong, Nareth; Heng, Thay Kheang; Nou, Samon; Teja-isavadharm, Paktiya; Pichyangkul, Sathit; Phann, Sut Thang; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Juliano, Jonathan J; Meshnick, Steven R; Chour, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Lanteri, Charlotte A; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L

    2015-06-01

    propeller gene mutations associated with artemisinin resistance--a non-synonymous Cys580Tyr substitution in 70 (65%) of 107 participants, an Arg539Thr substitution in 33 (31%), and a wild-type parasite in four (4%). Unlike Arg539Thr, Cys580Tyr was accompanied by two other mutations associated with extended parasite clearance (MAL10:688956 and MAL13:1718319). This combination triple mutation was associated with a 5·4 times greater risk of treatment failure (hazard ratio 5·4 [95% CI 2·4-12]; p<0·0001) and higher piperaquine 50% inhibitory concentration (triple mutant 34 nM [28-41]; non-triple mutant 24 nM [1-27]; p=0·003) than other infections had. The drug was well tolerated, with gastrointestinal symptoms being the most common complaints. The dramatic decline in efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine compared with what was observed in a study at the same location in 2010 was strongly associated with a new triple mutation including the kelch13 Cys580Tyr substitution. 3 days of artemisinin as part of an artemisinin combination therapy regimen might be insufficient. Strict regulation and monitoring of antimalarial use, along with non-pharmacological approaches to malaria resistance containment, must be integral parts of the public health response to rapidly accelerating drug resistance in the region. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center/Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Military Infectious Disease Research Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene/Burroughs Wellcome Fund. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  2. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  3. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H. J.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; Backx, F. J. G.; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged >= 45 years. Methods Coronary

  4. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete’s Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H J; Doevendans, P. A F M; Backx, F. J G; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Methods Coronary artery

  5. Ant-egg cataract. A study of a family with dominantly inherited congenital (ant-egg) cataract, including a histological examination of the formed elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Steffen; Schrøder, H D

    1979-01-01

    A family with "ant-egg" cataract in three generations is described. The cataract is congenital, probably of autosomal dominant inheritance. Light microscopy of the ant-eggs showed that they are made up of a peripheral zone of lens material and a large almost homogenous centre. Element analysis by X...

  6. The Role of Counseling in an Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program: Counseling in a Work Oriented Setting (The Importance of Including Counseling Courses within the Curriculum of the Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program at the Community College Level).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Bruce

    This research had a two-fold purpose: (1) to assess the need for a labor studies program at the community college level; and (2) to consider the advisability of including within such a curriculum a cross-section of adult/family/worker-oriented counseling and guidance courses. The study employed a questionnaire completed by union delegates, which…

  7. Ultracold gas shows 'lopsided' properties

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Duke University researchers have created an ultracold gas that has the startling property of bursting outward in a preferred direction when released. According to the researchers, studying the properties of the "lopsided" gas will yield fundamental insights into how matter holds itself together at the subatomic level" (1 page).

  8. Prevention of diabetes in overweight/obese children through a family based intervention program including supervised exercise (PREDIKID project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2017-08-10

    The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.

  9. Studies on stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Colorado with eastern faunal affinities, including a new state record of the midwestern salmonfly, Pteronarcys pictetii hagen (Plecoptera: Pteronarcyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Hood, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Pteronarcys pictetii Hagen nymphs were collected and reared from the South Platte River at Julesburg in eastern Colorado. Including P. pictetii, eight species are now known from Colorado that exhibit eastern North American affinities, Paracapnia angulata Hanson, Taeniopteryx burksi Ricker and Ross, Taeniopteryx parvula Banks, Acroneuria abnormis (Newman), Perlesta decipiens (Walsh), Isoperla bilineata (Say), and Isoperla marlynia (Needham and Claassen). A brief discussion of the dispersal of these species into Colorado is presented.

  10. Defense Manpower Commission Staff Studies and Supporting Papers. Volume 2. The Total Force and Its Manpower Requirements Including Overviews of Each Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    III, DMC Filial Report.) E. MANPOWER BUDCETINC WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, by Audrey J. Page. (Related to Chapter III, DMC Final Report.) F...y *i E»V ■ X 1 m -10- Maneuver battalions (counting other non-dlvlslonal combat unlta of Amor and Infantry aa wall at thoaa Included In tht... Amor Schools, wiU continue In those "school troop" roles at Fort Banning and Fort Knox, respectively. Additionally, there are soae very serious

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of spouted beds, including in particular an experimental study on the void fraction of the dense phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eljas, Yves.

    1975-10-01

    The spouted bed is a gas-solid contact technique used to replace fluidisation when the solid particles are too large and too dense. Part one gives a bibliographical study on the aerodynamic aspect of spouted beds. Part two describes an experimental study of the void fraction distribution in a two-dimensional bed [fr

  12. Evaluation of SCORTEN on a Cohort of Patients With Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Included in the RegiSCAR Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekula, Peggy; Liss, Yvonne; Davidovici, Batya; Dunant, Ariane; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Kardaun, Sylvia; Naldi, Luigi; Schumacher, Martin; Mockenhaupt, Maja

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the severity-of-illness score called SCORTEN with respect to its predictive ability and by using data obtained in the RegiSCAR study, the most comprehensive European registry of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis

  13. Effect of including fitness testing in preventive health checks on cardiorespiratory fitness and motivation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høj, Kirsten; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Christensen, Bo; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2014-10-10

    Preventive health checks may identify individuals with an unhealthy lifestyle and motivate them to change behaviour. However, knowledge about the impact of the different components included in preventive health checks is deficient. The aim of this trial is to evaluate whether including cardiorespiratory fitness testing in preventive health checks 1) increases cardiorespiratory fitness level and motivation to change physical activity behaviour and 2) reduces physical inactivity prevalence and improves self-rated health compared with preventive health checks without fitness testing. An open-label, household-cluster, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design is used. The trial is embedded in a population-based health promotion program, "Check your Health Preventive Program", in which all 30-49 year-old citizens in a Danish municipality are offered a preventive health check. In each arm of the trial, 750 citizens will be recruited (1,500 in total). The primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed by submaximal cycle ergometer testing after one year. An intermediate outcome is the percentage of participants increasing motivation for physical activity behaviour change between baseline and two-weeks follow-up assessed using the Transtheoretical Model's stages of change. Secondary outcomes include changes from baseline to one-year follow-up in physical inactivity prevalence measured by a modified version of the questions developed by Saltin and Grimby, and in self-rated health measures using the Short-Form 12, Health Survey, version 2. This trial will contribute to a critical appraisal of the value of fitness testing as part of preventive health checks. The conduction in real-life community and general practice structures makes the trial findings applicable and transferable to other municipalities providing support to decision-makers in the development of approaches to increase levels of physical activity and improve health. Clinical

  14. Disposal project for LLW and VLLW generated from research facilities in Japan: A feasibility study for the near surface disposal of VLLW that includes uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Hasegawa, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakatani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion and future work: • JAEA plans trench disposal of U-bearing waste with less than 100 Bq/g. • Two safety measures of trench disposal of U-bearing waste have been discussed taking into account increasing radioactivity over a long period of time. 1. First is to carry out dose assessment of site use scenario by using a conservatively stylized condition. 2. Second is to control the average concentration of U in the trench facilities based on the concept of the existing exposure situation. • We are continuously developing the method for safety measures of near surface disposal of VLLW including U-bearing waste.

  15. Varicose veins show enhanced chemokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solá, L del Rio; Aceves, M; Dueñas, A I; González-Fajardo, J A; Vaquero, C; Crespo, M Sanchez; García-Rodríguez, C

    2009-11-01

    Leucocyte infiltration in the wall of varicose veins has been reported previously. This study was designed to investigate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in control and in patients with varicose veins and to test the effect of treating varicose vein patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on cytokine expression prior to removal of varices. Sections of vein were removed during operation from both patient groups, and ribonuclease protection assays (RPAs) were performed to assess the expression of chemokines. Group I included non-varicose saphenous veins from healthy patients undergoing amputation for trauma. Varicose veins were obtained from patients with primary varicose undergoing surgical treatment who received no drug (group II) or treatment with 300 mg day(-1) of ASA for 15 days before surgery (group III). Non-varicose veins constitutively expressed low levels of monocyte-chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA. Varicose veins had a distinct chemokine expression pattern, since significant up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8 and a marked expression of IP-10, RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta mRNA were detected. Removal of the endothelium did not alter this pattern. Varicose veins obtained from patients treated with ASA showed a consistent decrease in chemokine expression, although it did not reach statistical significance. Varicose veins showed increased expression of several chemokines compared to control veins. A non-significant reduction of activation was observed following treatment with ASA for 15 days.

  16. Whole-body-MR imaging including DWIBS in the work-up of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noij, Daniel P., E-mail: d.noij@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerhout, Els J., E-mail: e.boerhout@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pieters-van den Bos, Indra C., E-mail: i.pieters@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Comans, Emile F., E-mail: efi.comans@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oprea-Lager, Daniela, E-mail: d.oprea-lager@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reinhard, Rinze, E-mail: r.reinhard@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoekstra, Otto S., E-mail: os.hoekstra@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bree, Remco de, E-mail: r.debree@vumc.nl [Department Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graaf, Pim de, E-mail: p.degraaf@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Castelijns, Jonas A., E-mail: j.castelijns@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To assess the feasibility of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background-body-signal-suppression (DWIBS) for the evaluation of distant malignancies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and to compare WB-MRI findings with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) and chest-CT. Methods: Thirty-three patients with high risk for metastatic spread (26 males; range 48–79 years, mean age 63 ± 7.9 years (mean ± standard deviation) years) were prospectively included with a follow-up of six months. WB-MRI protocol included short-TI inversion recovery and T1-weighted sequences in the coronal plane and half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo T2 and contrast-enhanced-T1-weighted sequences in the axial plane. Axial DWIBS was reformatted in the coronal plane. Interobserver variability was assessed using weighted kappa and the proportion specific agreement (PA). Results: Two second primary tumors and one metastasis were detected on WB-MRI. WB-MRI yielded seven clinically indeterminate lesions which did not progress at follow-up. The metastasis and one second primary tumor were found when combining {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT and chest-CT findings. Interobserver variability for WB-MRI was κ = 0.91 with PA ranging from 0.82 to 1.00. For {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT κ could not be calculated due to a constant variable in the table and PA ranged from 0.40 to 0.99. Conclusions: Our WB-MRI protocol with DWIBS is feasible in the work-up of HNSCC patients for detection and characterization of distant pathology. WB-MRI can be complementary to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT, especially in the detection of non {sup 18}F-FDG avid second primary tumors.

  17. How hard can it be to include research evidence and evaluation in local health policy implementation? Results from a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Bridie Angela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an evidence-based approach is the ideal model for planning and delivering healthcare, barriers exist to using research evidence to implement and evaluate service change. This paper aims to inform policy implementation and evaluation by understanding the role of research evidence at the local level through implementation of a national chronic conditions management policy. Methods We conducted a national email survey of health service commissioners at the most devolved level of decision-making in Wales (Local Health Boards – LHBs followed by in-depth interviews with representatives of LHBs, purposively selecting five to reflect geographic and economic characteristics. Survey data were analysed descriptively; we used thematic analysis for interview data. Results All LHBs (n = 22 completed questionnaires. All reported they routinely assessed the research literature before implementing interventions, but free-text answers revealed wide variation in approach. Most commonly reported information sources included personal contacts, needs assessments, information or research databases. No consistent approach to evaluation was reported. Frequently reported challenges were: insufficient staff capacity (17/22; limited skills, cost, limited time, competing priorities (16/22; availability and quality of routine data (15/22. Respondents reported they would value central guidance on evaluation. Five interviews were held with managers from the five LHBs contacted. Service delivery decisions were informed by Welsh Government initiatives and priorities, budgets, perceived good practice, personal knowledge, and local needs, but did not include formal research evidence, they reported. Decision making was a collaborative process including clinical staff, patient representatives, and partner organization managers with varying levels of research experience. Robust evaluation data were required, but they were constrained by a lack of skills

  18. The association of the Clock 3111 T/C SNP with lipids and lipoproteins including small dense low-density lipoprotein: results from the Mima study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Kaoru

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clock molecule plays major roles in circadian rhythmicity and regulating lipid and glucose metabolism in peripheral organs. Disruption of the circadian rhythm can lead to cardiometabolic disorders. The existence of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL in the circulation, an abnormality of lipid metabolism, in part associated with lifestyle, is also one of risk parameters for cardiometabolic disorders. The 3111 T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the Clock gene has been reported to be associated with lifestyle including morning/evening preference. We investigated whether the Clock 3111 T/C SNP may affect lipids and lipoproteins including sdLDL. Methods In 365 community-dwelling subjects (170 men and 195 women, mean age 63 ± 14 years, the 3111 T/C SNP was genotyped using a fluorescent allele-specific DNA primer assay system. The levels of sdLDL were measured with the electrophoretic separation of lipoproteins employing the Lipoprint system. Results The frequency of the Clock 3111 C allele was 0.14. The area of sdLDL did not differ between the subjects with obesity and those without. In carriers of T/T homozygotes, the area of sdLDL was significantly higher compared with carriers of the C allele (T/C or C/C (1.7 ± 3.4 vs. 0.8 ± 1.9%; p Clock 3111 T/C SNP (β = -0.114, p Conclusion Our findings indicated that the Clock 3111 T/C SNP might be associated with the existence of sdLDL.

  19. The New version of Danish food composition database FRIDA including a case study on recipe calculation compared to a chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Knuthsen, Pia

    %). Correlations ranged from 0.49 for iron to 0.75 for energy. Bland-Altman plots showed larger differences for higher contents for thiamin and potassium. Results depended on the type of fast food. For burgers (n=36) there was no significant difference for any of the nutrients between the two methods. Meat....../French fry mix (n=16) had significant differences (Pfast food type with the largest difference between the two methods. Significance: Recipe calculation is a cost-effective alternative to chemical analysis in dietary assessment and nutrient labeling. But recipe...... and chemical analysis of fast food based on data from http://frida.fooddata.dk. Materials and methods: New fast food data in http://frida.fooddata.dk was based on 135 samples of ready to eat fast foods as burgers and sandwiches collected from fast food outlets, separated into their recipe components which were...

  20. Cooperation and Intertrade between Community Currencies : From Fundamentals to Rule-Making and Clearing Systems, including a Case Study of the Zurich Area, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Martignoni (Jens)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCooperation, interchange or intertrade of complementary currencies is not yet very common, perhaps of because the funding impulse of most complementary currencies does not cover the question of interchange and cooperation yet, or because theoretical aspects are not often studied. The

  1. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 27-30: Direct-Current Circuits; Magnetic Forces; Ampere's Law; and Faraday's Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules indlude study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  2. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayadhar Barik

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient′s treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.

  3. A double-blind, randomized trial, including frequent patient–physician contacts and Ramadan-focused advice, assessing vildagliptin and gliclazide in patients with type 2 diabetes fasting during Ramadan: the STEADFAST study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Mohamed; Abdallah, Khalifa; Schweizer, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background Several observational studies were conducted with vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) fasting during Ramadan, showing significantly lower incidences of hypoglycemia with vildagliptin versus sulfonylureas, including gliclazide. It was of interest to complement the existing real-life evidence with data from a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Clinical Trials Identifier NCT01758380. Methods This multiregional, double-blind study randomized 557 patients with T2DM (mean glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], 6.9%), previously treated with metformin and any sulfonylurea to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or gliclazide plus metformin. The study included four office visits (three pre-Ramadan) and multiple telephone contacts, as well as Ramadan-focused advice. Hypoglycemic events were assessed during Ramadan; HbA1c and weight were analyzed before and after Ramadan. Results The proportion of patients reporting confirmed (Ramadan was 3.0% with vildagliptin and 7.0% with gliclazide (P=0.039; one-sided test), and this was 6.0% and 8.7%, respectively, for any hypoglycemic events (P=0.173). The adjusted mean change pre- to post-Ramadan in HbA1c was 0.05%±0.04% with vildagliptin and −0.03%±0.04% with gliclazide, from baselines of 6.84% and 6.79%, respectively (P=0.165). In both groups, the adjusted mean decrease in weight was −1.1±0.2 kg (P=0.987). Overall safety was similar between the treatments. Conclusion In line with the results from previous observational studies, vildagliptin was shown in this interventional study to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with T2DM fasting during Ramadan, with a consistently low incidence of hypoglycemia across studies, accompanied by good glycemic and weight control. In contrast, gliclazide showed a lower incidence of hypoglycemia in the present interventional than the previous observational studies. This is suggested to be linked to the specific

  4. A double-blind, randomized trial, including frequent patient-physician contacts and Ramadan-focused advice, assessing vildagliptin and gliclazide in patients with type 2 diabetes fasting during Ramadan: the STEADFAST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Mohamed; Abdallah, Khalifa; Schweizer, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Several observational studies were conducted with vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) fasting during Ramadan, showing significantly lower incidences of hypoglycemia with vildagliptin versus sulfonylureas, including gliclazide. It was of interest to complement the existing real-life evidence with data from a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. NCT01758380. This multiregional, double-blind study randomized 557 patients with T2DM (mean glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], 6.9%), previously treated with metformin and any sulfonylurea to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or gliclazide plus metformin. The study included four office visits (three pre-Ramadan) and multiple telephone contacts, as well as Ramadan-focused advice. Hypoglycemic events were assessed during Ramadan; HbA(1c) and weight were analyzed before and after Ramadan. The proportion of patients reporting confirmed (Ramadan was 3.0% with vildagliptin and 7.0% with gliclazide (P=0.039; one-sided test), and this was 6.0% and 8.7%, respectively, for any hypoglycemic events (P=0.173). The adjusted mean change pre- to post-Ramadan in HbA(1c) was 0.05%±0.04% with vildagliptin and -0.03%±0.04% with gliclazide, from baselines of 6.84% and 6.79%, respectively (P=0.165). In both groups, the adjusted mean decrease in weight was -1.1±0.2 kg (P=0.987). Overall safety was similar between the treatments. In line with the results from previous observational studies, vildagliptin was shown in this interventional study to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with T2DM fasting during Ramadan, with a consistently low incidence of hypoglycemia across studies, accompanied by good glycemic and weight control. In contrast, gliclazide showed a lower incidence of hypoglycemia in the present interventional than the previous observational studies. This is suggested to be linked to the specific circumstances of this study, including frequent patient-physician contacts

  5. Understanding why cancer patients accept or turn down psycho-oncological support: a prospective observational study including patients' and clinicians' perspectives on communication about distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Diana; Tondorf, Theresa; Rothschild, Sacha; Koller, Michael T; Rochlitz, Christoph; Kiss, Alexander

    2017-05-30

    International standards prioritize introducing routine emotional distress screening in cancer care to accurately identify patients who most need psycho-oncological treatment, and ensure that patients can access appropriate supportive care. However, only a moderate proportion of distressed patients accepts referrals to or uses psycho-oncological support services. Predictors and barriers to psycho-oncological support service utilization are under-studied. We know little about how patients and oncologists perceive the discussions when oncologists assess psychosocial distress with a screening instrument. We aim to 1) assess the barriers and predictors of uptake of in-house psycho-oncological support along the distress screening pathway in cancer patients treated at a University Oncology Outpatient Clinic and, 2) determine how patients and clinicians perceive communication about psychosocial distress after screening with the Distress Thermometer. This is a quantitative prospective observational study with qualitative aspects. We will examine medical and demographic variables, cancer patient self-reports of various psychological measures, and aspects of the patient-clinician communication as variables that potentially predict uptake of psycho-oncological support service. We will also assess the patients' reasons for accepting or refusing psycho-oncological support services. We assess at three points in time, based on paper-and-pencil questionnaires and two patient interviews during the study period. We will monitor outcomes (psycho-oncology service uptake) four months after study entry. The study will improve our understanding of characteristics of patients who accept or refuse psycho-oncological support, and help us understand how patients' and oncologists perceive communication about psychosocial distress, and referral to a psycho-oncologist. We believe this is the first study to focus on factors that affect uptake or rejection of psycho-oncological support services

  6. Evolution of poor reporting and inadequate methods over time in 20 920 randomised controlled trials included in Cochrane reviews: research on research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechartres, Agnes; Trinquart, Ludovic; Atal, Ignacio; Moher, David; Dickersin, Kay; Boutron, Isabelle; Perrodeau, Elodie; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-06-08

    Objective  To examine how poor reporting and inadequate methods for key methodological features in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have changed over the past three decades. Design  Mapping of trials included in Cochrane reviews. Data sources  Data from RCTs included in all Cochrane reviews published between March 2011 and September 2014 reporting an evaluation of the Cochrane risk of bias items: sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. Data extraction  For each RCT, we extracted consensus on risk of bias made by the review authors and identified the primary reference to extract publication year and journal. We matched journal names with Journal Citation Reports to get 2014 impact factors. Main outcomes measures  We considered the proportions of trials rated by review authors at unclear and high risk of bias as surrogates for poor reporting and inadequate methods, respectively. Results  We analysed 20 920 RCTs (from 2001 reviews) published in 3136 journals. The proportion of trials with unclear risk of bias was 48.7% for sequence generation and 57.5% for allocation concealment; the proportion of those with high risk of bias was 4.0% and 7.2%, respectively. For blinding and incomplete outcome data, 30.6% and 24.7% of trials were at unclear risk and 33.1% and 17.1% were at high risk, respectively. Higher journal impact factor was associated with a lower proportion of trials at unclear or high risk of bias. The proportion of trials at unclear risk of bias decreased over time, especially for sequence generation, which fell from 69.1% in 1986-1990 to 31.2% in 2011-14 and for allocation concealment (70.1% to 44.6%). After excluding trials at unclear risk of bias, use of inadequate methods also decreased over time: from 14.8% to 4.6% for sequence generation and from 32.7% to 11.6% for allocation concealment. Conclusions  Poor reporting and inadequate methods have decreased over time, especially for sequence generation

  7. Comparison of 2 comprehensive Class II treatment protocols including the bonded Herbst and headgear appliances: a double-blind study of consecutively treated patients at puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Stahl, Franka

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the effects of 2 protocols for single-phase comprehensive treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion (bonded Herbst followed by fixed appliances [BH + FA] vs headgear followed by fixed appliances and Class II elastics [HG + FA]) at the pubertal growth spurt. Fifty-six Class II patients were enrolled in the trial and allocated by personal choice to 2 practices, where they underwent 1 of 2 treatment protocols (28 patients were treated consecutively with BH + FA, and 28 patients were treated consecutively with HG + FA). All patients started treatment at puberty (cervical stage [CS] 3 or CS 4) and completed treatment after puberty (CS 5 or CS 6). Lateral cephalograms were taken before therapy and 6 months after the end of comprehensive therapy, with an average interval of 28 months. Longitudinal observations of a matched group of 28 subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions were compared with the 2 treated groups. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc tests was used for statistical comparisons. Discriminant analysis was applied to identify preferential candidates for the BH + FA protocol on the basis of profile changes (advancement of the soft tissues of the chin). The success rate (full occlusal correction of the malocclusion after treatment) was 92.8% in both treatment groups. The BH + FA group showed a significant increase in mandibular protrusion. The increase in effective mandibular length (Co-Gn) was significantly greater in both treatment groups when compared with natural growth changes in the Class II controls. Significantly greater improvement in sagittal maxillomandibular relationships was found in the BH + FA group. Retrusion of maxillary incisors and mesial movement of mandibular molars were significant in the HG + FA group. The BH + FA group showed significantly greater forward movements of soft-tissue B-point and pogonion compared with both the HG + FA and the control groups. Two pretreatment

  8. First comparative study of primate morphological and molecular evolutionary rates including muscle data: implications for the tempo and mode of primate and human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Peng, Zuogang; Wood, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide the first report about the rates of muscle evolution derived from Bayesian and parsimony cladistic analyses of primate higher-level phylogeny, and compare these rates with published rates of molecular evolution. It is commonly accepted that there is a ‘general molecular slow-down of hominoids’, but interestingly the rates of muscle evolution in the nodes leading and within the hominoid clade are higher than those in the vast majority of other primate clades. The rate of muscle evolution at the node leading to Homo (1.77) is higher than that at the nodes leading to Pan (0.89) and particularly to Gorilla (0.28). Notably, the rates of muscle evolution at the major euarchontan and primate nodes are different, but within each major primate clade (Strepsirrhini, Platyrrhini, Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea) the rates at the various nodes, and particularly at the nodes leading to the higher groups (i.e. including more than one genera), are strikingly similar. We explore the implications of these new data for the tempo and mode of primate and human evolution. PMID:23320764

  9. Feasibility of including patients with migration background in a structured heart failure management programme: A prospective case-control study exemplarily on Turkish migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pfister

    Full Text Available Structured management programmes deliver optimized care in heart failure patients and improve outcome. We examined the feasibility of including patients with migration background speaking little or no German in a heart failure management programme.After adaption of script material and staff to Turkish language we aimed to recruit 300 Turkish and 300 German (control group patients within 18 months using the operational basis of a local heart failure management programme for screening, contact and inclusion. Of 488 and 1,055 eligible Turkish and German patients identified through screening, 165 Turkish (34% and 335 German (32% patients consented on participation (p = 0.46. General practitioners contributed significantly more of the Turkish (84% than of the German patients (16%, p<0.001. Contact attempts by programme staff were significantly less successful in Turkish (52% than in German patients (60%, p = 0.005 due to significantly higher rate of missing phone numbers (36% vs 25%, invalid address data (28% vs 7% and being unreachable by phone more frequently (39% vs 26%, all p<0.001. Consent rate was significantly higher in successfully contacted Turkish (63% compared to German patients (50%, p<0.001.The inclusion of Turkish minority patients into a heart failure management programme is feasible with higher consent rate than in Germans. However, effort is high due to inherent logistic adaptions and barriers in identification and contacting of patients.DRKS00007780.

  10. The choice of primary energy source including PV installation for providing electric energy to a public utility building - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Bartosz; Ćwiek, Barbara; Mróz, Tomasz M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents multicriteria decision aid analysis of the choice of PV installation providing electric energy to a public utility building. From the energy management point of view electricity obtained by solar radiation has become crucial renewable energy source. Application of PV installations may occur a profitable solution from energy, economic and ecologic point of view for both existing and newly erected buildings. Featured variants of PV installations have been assessed by multicriteria analysis based on ANP (Analytic Network Process) method. Technical, economical, energy and environmental criteria have been identified as main decision criteria. Defined set of decision criteria has an open character and can be modified in the dialog process between the decision-maker and the expert - in the present case, an expert in planning of development of energy supply systems. The proposed approach has been used to evaluate three variants of PV installation acceptable for existing educational building located in Poznań, Poland - the building of Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology. Multi-criteria analysis based on ANP method and the calculation software Super Decisions has proven to be an effective tool for energy planning, leading to the indication of the recommended variant of PV installation in existing and newly erected public buildings. Achieved results show prospects and possibilities of rational renewable energy usage as complex solution to public utility buildings.

  11. Pulmonary response to surface‐coated nanotitanium dioxide particles includes induction of acute phase response genes, inflammatory cascades, and changes in microRNAs: A toxicogenomic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halappanavar, Sabina; Jackson, Petra; Williams, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    in increased levels of mRNA for acute phase markers serum amyloid A‐1 (Saa1) and serum amyloid A‐3 (Saa3), several C‐X‐C and C‐C motif chemokines, and cytokine tumor necrosis factor genes. Protein analysis of Saa1 and 3 showed selective upregulation of Saa3 in lung tissues. Sixteen miRNAs were induced by more...... on pulmonary global messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse were characterized to provide insight into the molecular response. Female C57BL/6BomTac mice were exposed for 1 hr daily to 42.4 ± 2.9 (SEM) mg surface‐coated nanoTiO2/m3 for 11 consecutive days by inhalation and were sacrificed...... than 1.2‐fold (adjusted P‐value miR‐1, miR‐449a and revealed dramatic induction of miR‐135b (60‐fold). Thus, inhalation of surface‐coated nanoTiO2 results in changes in the expression of genes associated...

  12. Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancer, Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian; Beral, V.; Doll, R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptives were introduced almost 50 years ago, and over 100 million women currently use them. Oral contraceptives can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the eventual public-health effects of this reduction will depend on how long the protection lasts after use ceases. We...... aimed to assess these effects. METHODS: Individual data for 23,257 women with ovarian cancer (cases) and 87,303 without ovarian cancer (controls) from 45 epidemiological studies in 21 countries were checked and analysed centrally. The relative risk of ovarian cancer in relation to oral contraceptive use...... was estimated, stratifying by study, age, parity, and hysterectomy. FINDINGS: Overall 7308 (31%) cases and 32,717 (37%) controls had ever used oral contraceptives, for average durations among users of 4.4 and 5.0 years, respectively. The median year of cancer diagnosis was 1993, when cases were aged an average...

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Including Image Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study analyzed functioning and symptom scores for longitudinal quality of life (QoL) from patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy with image guided adaptive brachytherapy in the EMBRACE study. Methods and Materials In total, 744...... the first year, every 6 months in the second and third years, and finally yearly thereafter in patients with no evidence of disease. Outcomes were evaluated over time and compared to those from an age-matched female reference population. Results General QoL and emotional and social functioning were impaired...... treatment, decreased substantially at the first follow-up after treatment. Several treatment-related symptoms developed either immediately after and persisted over time (diarrhea, menopausal symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and sexual functioning problems) or developed gradually after treatment (lymphedema...

  14. The Molecular Targets of Selected Organophosphorus Compounds at Nicotinic, Muscarinic, GABA, and Glutamate Synapses: Acute and Chronic Studies Including Prophylactic and Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-28

    acetylcholine and batrachotoxin . J. Physiol. (Par1i) 79.338-343, 1984. 7. Hamill, O.P., Marty, A., Neher, E., Sakmann, B., and Sigworth, FJ. Improved...for patch clamp studies of chemosensitive-and voltage-sensitive ion channels: Actions of acetylcholine and batrachotoxin . J. Pbiol(Pr 79:338- 343...EU,. Ther., 22&-73-79, 1984. 53 ii 9. Hudson, CS., Deshpande, SS, and Albuquerque, E.X. Consequences of axonal transport blockade by batrachotoxin

  15. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs.

  17. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-03-03

    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system.

  18. Simulation study of GaAsP/Si tandem cells including the impact of threading dislocations on the luminescent coupling between the cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onno, Arthur; Harder, Nils-Peter; Oberbeck, Lars; Liu, Huiyun

    2016-03-01

    A model, derived from the detailed balance model from Shockley and Queisser, has been adapted to monolithically grown GaAsP/Si tandem dual junction solar cells. In this architecture, due to the difference of lattice parameters between the silicon bottom cell - acting as the substrate - and the GaAsP top cell, threading dislocations (TDs) arise at the IIIV/ Si interface and propagate in the top cell. These TDs act as non-radiative recombination centers, degrading the performances of the tandem cell. Our model takes into account the impact of TDs by integrating the NTT model developed by Yamaguchi et. al.. Two surface geometries have been investigated: flat and ideally textured. Finally the model considers the luminescent coupling (LC) between the cells due to reemitted photons from the top cell cascading to the bottom cell. Without dislocations, LC allows a greater flexibility in the cell design by rebalancing the currents between the two cells when the top cell presents a higher short-circuit current. However we show that, as the TD density (TDD) increases, nonradiative recombinations take over radiative recombinations in the top cell and the LC is quenched. As a result, nonoptimized tandem cells with higher short-circuit current in the top cell experience a very fast degradation of efficiency for TDDs over 104cm-2. On the other hand optimized cells with matching currents only experience a small efficiency drop for TDDs up to 105cm-2. High TDD cells therefore need to be current-matched for optimal performances as the flexibility due to LC is lost.

  19. Study of the extraction of uranium (VI) by bis-(di-n-butyl-phosphate) compounds including a polyheteroatomic chain from nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archelas, E.; Buono, G.; Waegell, B.

    1982-01-01

    Compounds 1 to 4 with two di-n-butylphosphate groups linked by a polyheteroatomic chain (BuO) 2 P(O)OCH 2 (CH 2 XCH 2 )sub(n)CH 2 OP(O)(OBu) 2 (1: n = 0; 2: n = 1, X = 0; 3: n = 2, X = 0; 4: n = 1, X = S) were prepared respectively by action of chlorodi-n-butylphosphate on ethyleneglycol, di and triethyleneglycol, and thiodiethyleneglycol under phase transfer conditions. The extraction of uranium (VI) from aqueous nitrate phase with these compounds, in toluene diluent, was studied. Distribution ratios with compounds 1 to 3 are somewhat greater than those obtained with tri-n-butylphosphate. Extraction studies reveal that polyoxygenated chain of these compounds takes part in U(VI) complexation. The general expression for the complexes is assumed to be UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 Lsub(m) in which L is extractant compound and m the number of molecules coordinated to uranyl cation. Extraction stoichiometry is dependent upon extractant compound and its concentration in organic phase. For the compounds 1 to 3, m = 1.5 when extractant concentration is higher than 0.1 M; m takes the different values 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 when extractant concentration is lower than 0.1 M. For the compound in which X is sulfur atom, m = 2.0 over all studied concentration range. It was found that in the solvent extraction of uranium (VI) with these compounds, di-n-butylphosphoric acid exhibits a synergistic effect increasing the distribution ratio of U(VI) by a factor of 100. (author)

  20. Determination of potassium in several plants and study of potassium transfer to different beverages, including tequila, by measurement of 40K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, J. M.; Muller, G.; Cabrera, L.; Martinez, T.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of 40K was used for determination of potassium concentrations in leaves of agave and maguey cactus leaves, and coffee beans of various origins. The procedure was also used to study potassium transfer to tequila (alcoholic drink made of agave cactus), and the cactus and coffee infusions using 40K as a natural radioactive tracer. Counting of 40K in Marinelli containers with the aid of a low background NaI(Ti) scintillation detection system for 12 24 hours was employed. The method appeared to be simple and suitable for determination of potassium concentrations in large samples, which eliminates homogeneity problems.

  1. Determination of potassium in several plants and study of potassium transfer to different beverages, including tequila, by measurement of 40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, J.M.; Muller, G.; Cabrera, L.; Martinez, T.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of 40 K was used for determination of potassium concentrations in leaves of agave and maguey cactus leaves, and coffee beans of various origins. The procedure was also used to study potassium transfer to tequila (alcoholic drink made of agave cactus), and the cactus and coffee infusions using 40 K as a natural radioactive tracer. Counting of 40 K in Marinelli containers with the aid of a low background NaI(Tl) scintillation detection system for 12-24 hours was employed. The method appeared to be simple and suitable for determination of potassium concentrations in large samples, which eliminates homogeneity problems. (author)

  2. Application of atomic mutations included in nuclear reactions, 40Ar(γ, p)39Cl(β decay)39Ar, to surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuma, Juzo

    1987-01-01

    It has been found that the nuclear transformation processes which are initiated by photonuclear reactions can be used for studying the adsorption and chemical reactions taking place on solid surfaces. Chemically reactive 39 Cl was produced by irradiating 40 Ar with high-energy bremsstrahlung, and its blow was directed onto several material surfaces. The amount of chlorine adsorption was ascertained by detecting its radioactivity. Desorption without heating the adsorber samples inevitably occurred owing to the nuclear decay of 39 Cl. The adsorption and desorption rates were compared for several elements. A fast growth of oxide islands on sample surfaces was observed during the adsorption-desorption process. (author)

  3. A protocol for ovulation delay in women who cannot use estrogen, including Jewish women with Niddah issues and a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehany, Benjamin S; Dahan, Michael H

    2017-11-01

    Orthodox Jewish women abstain from sexual intercourse from the commencement of menstruation until seven days after the end of menstrual bleeding at which point they can immerse themselves in a ritual bath and recommence relations. For women who ovulate prior to commencing intercourse this results in religious infertility. The traditional treatment for religious infertility is oral estrogens in the early follicular phase to delay ovulation. However, certain groups of women have contraindications to oral estrogens. In this group, no treatment options have existed until now. In this study we proposed a treatment protocol substituting the use of gonadotropin releasing hormone-antagonists in the early follicular phase for the oral estrogens. In a small pilot study, we demonstrate that these two protocols have similar outcomes in terms of ovulation delay (p = 1.0) and likelihood of ongoing pregnancy (p = 1.0). This protocol for ovulation delay also has applications in non-Jewish women who need to delay ovulation due to life constraints.

  4. Factors for incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy including drug refill and clinic visits among older adults living with human immunodeficiency virus - cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Abbie; Ford, Nathan; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-03-01

    To assess adherence outcomes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of recipients ≥50 years in Soweto, South Africa. This was a secondary data analysis for a cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in Soweto. Data on ART adherence and covariates were gathered through structured interviews with HIV 878 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations. PLHIV ≥50 years (n = 103) were more likely to miss clinic visits during the last six months than PLHIV aged 25-49 (OR 2.15; 95%CI 1.10-4.18). PLHIV ≥50 years with no or primary-level education were less likely to have missed a clinic visit during the last six months than PLHIV with secondary- or tertiary-level education in the same age category (OR 0.3; 95%CI 0.1-1.1), as were PLHIV who did not disclose their status (OR 0.2; 95%CI 0-1.1). There was no evidence of increased risk for non-adherence to ART pills and drug refill visits among older PLHIV. Missing a clinic visit was more common among older PLHIV who were more financially vulnerable. Further studies are needed to verify these findings and identify new risk factors associated with ART adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Reconstruction of orbital floor blow-out fractures with autogenous iliac crest bone: a retrospective study including maxillofacial and ophthalmology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, John Edward; Hartnett, Claire; Hickey-Dwyer, Marie; Kearns, Gerard J

    2015-03-01

    This is a 10-year retrospective study of patients with an isolated unilateral orbital floor fracture reconstructed with an autogenous iliac crest bone graft. The following inclusion criteria applied: isolated orbital floor fracture without involvement of the orbital rim or other craniofacial injuries, pre-/post-operative ophthalmological/orthoptic follow-up, pre-operative CT. Variables recorded were patient age and gender, aetiology of injury, time to surgery, follow-up period, surgical morbidity, diplopia pre- and post-operatively (Hess test), eyelid position, visual acuity, and the presence of en-/or exophthalmos (Hertel exophthalmometer). Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 29 years. The mean follow up period was 26 months. No patient experienced significant donor site morbidity. There were no episodes of post-operative infection or graft extrusion. Three patients had diplopia in extremes of vision post-operatively, but no interference with activities of daily living. One patient had post-operative enophthalmos. Isolated orbital blow-out fractures may be safely and predictably reconstructed using autogenous iliac crest bone. The rate of complications in the group of patients studied was low. The value of pre- and post-operative ophthalmology consultation cannot be underestimated, and should be considered the standard of care in all patients with orbitozygomatic fractures, in particular those with blow-out fractures. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Research report for fiscal 1998. Study of utilization of biomass including foods in energy industry; 1998 nendo shokubutsu nado no biomass no energy riyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Rice being produced as food is taken up out of various types of biomass, and a feasibility study from the viewpoints of technology and economy is conducted as to its use in the energy industry. The production of ethanol from rice, though it has no past record worth discussion, is similar to the production of ethanol from other biomass resources in terms of technology and economy. The problem is that the production cost of rice is far higher than those of other materials. It is expected, however, that there will a large-scale production cost reduction and an increase in the yield when novel cultivation techniques are introduced in the future. It is also expected that alcohol from rice will be sufficiently competitive with alcohol from molasses or the like when the exploitation of cellulose-family by-products such as husks becomes feasible. The study on this occasion deals solely with the effective use of farmland and the surplus rice. A confrontation between rice as a biomass resource and rice as a food has to be avoided as much as possible in the long term because it may cause a price rise and compromise the security of food supply. That is, in discussing this matter, it is mandatory to draw a very definite line between rice as a food and rice as an alcohol production material. (NEDO)

  7. Including climate variability in determination of the optimum rate of N fertilizer application using a crop model: A case study for rainfed corn in eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, M.; Pattey, E.; Jégo, G.; Geng, X.; Tremblay, N.; Didier, A.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying optimum nitrogen (N) application rate is essential for increasing agricultural production while limiting potential environmental contaminations caused by release of reactive N, especially for high demand N crops such as corn. The central question of N management is then how the optimum N rate is affected by climate variability for given soil. The experimental determination of optimum N rates involve the analyses of variance on the mean value of crop yield response to various N application rates used by factorial plot based experiments for a few years in several regions. This traditional approach has limitations to capture 1) the non-linear response of yield to N application rates due to large incremental N rates (often more than 40 kg N ha-1) and 2) the ecophysiological response of the crop to climate variability because of limited numbers of growing seasons considered. Modeling on the other hand, does not have such limitations and hence we use a crop model and propose a model-based methodology called Finding NEMO (N Ecophysiologically Modelled Optimum) to identify the optimum N rates for variable agro-climatic conditions and given soil properties. The performance of the methodology is illustrated using the STICS crop model adapted for rainfed corn in the Mixedwood Plains ecozone of eastern Canada (42.3oN 83oW-46.8oN 71oW) where more than 90% of Canadian corn is produced. The simulations were performed using small increment of preplant N application rate (10 kg N ha -1), long time series of daily climatic data (48 to 61 years) for 5 regions along the ecozone, and three contrasting soils per region. The results show that N recommendations should be region and soil specific. Soils with lower available water capacity required more N compared to soil with higher available water capacity. When N rates were at their ecophysiologically optimum level, 10 to 17 kg increase in dry yield could be achieved by adding 1 kg N. Expected yield also affected the optimum

  8. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos. 7: The Porcellanasteridae (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) including material collected at Great Meteor East, during Discovery cruise 156

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.

    1986-07-01

    The reproductive biology of Porcellanaster ceruleus, Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus is described. P. ceruleus was collected as part of the time series study in the rockall Trough, N.E. Atlantic. This species had a maximum size of 7.0mm arm radius although maximum size known is 36.0mm arm radius. Relatively few eggs are produced and in these samples grow to a maximum size of 230μm. There was no evidence of reproductive seasonality. In Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus the eggs grow to 600μm diameter. At this size the cytoplasm is reticulate and filled wi